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Sample records for terms definition bulk

  1. Industry Terms and Definitions | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Terms and Definitions Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Industry Terms and Definitions Author Liberty Pioneer educational materials...

  2. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks by State Definitions Key Terms Definition Bulk Terminal A facility used primarily for the storage and/or marketing of petroleum products which has a total bulk storage capacity of 50,000 barrels or more and/or receives petroleum products by tanker, barge, or pipeline. Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate

  3. Definitions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Below are a few small business procurement definitions as stated by the Small Business Administration and the Federal Acquisition Regulation. Contact Small Business Office (505) ...

  4. EIAs Proposed Definitions for Natural Gas Liquids

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Definitions for Natural Gas Liquids 1 June 14, 2013 EIA's Proposed Definitions for Natural Gas Liquids Term Current Definition Proposed Definition Note Lease condensate Condensate ...

  5. Rotary bulk solids divider

    DOEpatents

    Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  6. ROTARY BULK SOLIDS DIVIDER

    DOEpatents

    Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer JR., Richard P.

    1992-03-03

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  7. Energy Intensity Indicators: Terminology and Definitions

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Intensity Indicators website uses the following terms with their associated definitions. The terms related to various definitions of energy are discussed first.

  8. Fiber Bulk Gaseous Carriers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Compressed natural gas Compressed hydrogen gas * Vehicle fuel cylinders Passenger cars Buses and Heavy-duty vehicles * Transport and storage cylinders Bulk hauling ...

  9. Hanford ETR Bulk Vitrification System - Demonstration Bulk Vitrification

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    System (DBVS) Review Report | Department of Energy Bulk Vitrification System - Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) Review Report Hanford ETR Bulk Vitrification System - Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) Review Report Full Document and Summary Versions are available for download Hanford ETR Bulk Vitrification System - Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) Review Report (509.84 KB) Summary - Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) for Low-Actvity Waste

  10. Large area bulk superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  11. Federal Bulk Transmission Regulatory Roadmapping | OpenEI Community

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Federal Bulk Transmission Regulatory Roadmapping Home > Features > Groups Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Content type Blog entry Discussion Document Event Poll...

  12. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    LNG Storage Additions & Withdrawals Definitions Key Terms Definition Liquefied Natural Gas Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to ...

  13. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Preliminary Crude Imports by Country of Origin Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A ... Imports Receipts of crude oil and petroleum products into the 50 States and the District ...

  14. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Underground Storage - All Operators Definitions Key Terms Definition AGA Eastern Consuming Region All States east of the Mississippi River less Mississippi and Alabama, plus Iowa,...

  15. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Futures Prices Definitions Key Terms Definition Contract 1 A futures contract specifying the earliest delivery date. Natural gas contracts expire three business days prior to the ...

  16. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    SciTech Connect

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony; Saldana, Christopher J.; Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John; Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  17. Explosive bulk charge

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  18. Bulk material handling system

    DOEpatents

    Kleysteuber, William K.; Mayercheck, William D.

    1979-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a bulk material handling system particularly adapted for underground mining and includes a monorail supported overhead and carrying a plurality of conveyors each having input and output end portions with the output end portion of a first of the conveyors positioned above an input end portion of a second of the conveyors, a device for imparting motion to the conveyors to move the material from the input end portions toward the output end portions thereof, a device for supporting at least one of the input and output end portions of the first and second conveyors from the monorail, and the supporting device including a plurality of trolleys rollingly supported by the monorail whereby the conveyors can be readily moved therealong.

  19. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Key Terms Definition API Gravity An arbitrary scale expressing the gravity or density of liquid petroleum products. The measuring scale is calibrated in terms of degrees...

  20. 2014 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints: Definitions...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Definitions and Assumptions A number of key terms are used to interpret the manufacturing energy and carbon footprints. The terms associated with the energy footprint analysis are ...

  1. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device Title: Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic ...

  2. Bulk Data Mover

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-03

    Bulk Data Mover (BDM) is a high-level data transfer management tool. BDM handles the issue of large variance in file sizes and a big portion of small files by managing the file transfers with optimized transfer queue and concurrency management algorithms. For example, climate simulation data sets are characterized by large volume of files with extreme variance in file sizes. The BDN achieves high performance using a variety of techniques, including multi-thraded concurrent transfer connections, data channel caching, load balancing over multiple transfer servers, and storage i/o pre-fetching. Logging information from the BDM is collected and analyzed to study the effectiveness of the transfer management algorithms. The BDM can accept a request composed of multiple files or an entire directory. The request also contains the target site and directory where the replicated files will reside. If a directory is provided at the source, then the BDM will replicate the structure of the source directory at the target site. The BDM is capable of transferring multiple files concurrently as well as using parallel TCP streams. The optimal level of concurrency or parallel streams depends on the bandwidth capacity of the storage systems at both ends of the transfer as well as achievable bandwidth of the wide-area network. Hardware req.-PC, MAC, Multi-platform & Workstation; Software req.: Compile/version-Java 1.50_x or ablove; Type of files: source code, executable modules, installation instructions other, user guide; URL: http://sdm.lbl.gov/bdm/

  3. Bulk Data Mover

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2011-01-03

    Bulk Data Mover (BDM) is a high-level data transfer management tool. BDM handles the issue of large variance in file sizes and a big portion of small files by managing the file transfers with optimized transfer queue and concurrency management algorithms. For example, climate simulation data sets are characterized by large volume of files with extreme variance in file sizes. The BDN achieves high performance using a variety of techniques, including multi-thraded concurrent transfer connections,more » data channel caching, load balancing over multiple transfer servers, and storage i/o pre-fetching. Logging information from the BDM is collected and analyzed to study the effectiveness of the transfer management algorithms. The BDM can accept a request composed of multiple files or an entire directory. The request also contains the target site and directory where the replicated files will reside. If a directory is provided at the source, then the BDM will replicate the structure of the source directory at the target site. The BDM is capable of transferring multiple files concurrently as well as using parallel TCP streams. The optimal level of concurrency or parallel streams depends on the bandwidth capacity of the storage systems at both ends of the transfer as well as achievable bandwidth of the wide-area network. Hardware req.-PC, MAC, Multi-platform & Workstation; Software req.: Compile/version-Java 1.50_x or ablove; Type of files: source code, executable modules, installation instructions other, user guide; URL: http://sdm.lbl.gov/bdm/« less

  4. A stereoscopic look into the bulk

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Czech, Bartlomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; Mosk, Benjamin; Sully, James

    2016-07-26

    Here, we present the foundation for a holographic dictionary with depth perception. The dictionary consists of natural CFT operators whose duals are simple, diffeomorphisminvariant bulk operators. The CFT operators of interest are the “OPE blocks,” contributions to the OPE from a single conformal family. In holographic theories, we show that the OPE blocks are dual at leading order in 1/N to integrals of effective bulk fields along geodesics or homogeneous minimal surfaces in anti-de Sitter space. One widely studied example of an OPE block is the modular Hamiltonian, which is dual to the fluctuation in the area of a minimalmore » surface. Thus, our operators pave the way for generalizing the Ryu-Takayanagi relation to other bulk fields. Although the OPE blocks are non-local operators in the CFT, they admit a simple geometric description as fields in kinematic space — the space of pairs of CFT points. We develop the tools for constructing local bulk operators in terms of these non-local objects. The OPE blocks also allow for conceptually clean and technically simple derivations of many results known in the literature, including linearized Einstein’s equations and the relation between conformal blocks and geodesic Witten diagrams.« less

  5. Genomic definition of species

    SciTech Connect

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.

    1991-07-01

    The subject of this paper is the definition of species based on the assumption that genome is the fundamental level for the origin and maintenance of biological diversity. For this view to be logically consistent it is necessary to assume the existence and operation of the new law which we call genome law. For this reason the genome law is included in the explanation of species phenomenon presented here even if its precise formulation and elaboration are left for the future. The intellectual underpinnings of this definition can be traced to Goldschmidt. We wish to explore some philosophical aspects of the definition of species in terms of the genome. The point of proposing the definition on these grounds is that any real advance in evolutionary theory has to be correct in both its philosophy and its science.

  6. RAPID/BulkTransmission | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    regulatory processes and requirements by searching our regulatory flowchart library. Learn more about bulk transmission. BulkTransCoverage.png Regulations and permitting...

  7. Bulk Electronic Structure of Quasicrystals (Journal Article)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bulk Electronic Structure of Quasicrystals Prev Next Title: Bulk Electronic Structure of Quasicrystals Authors: Nayak, J. ; Maniraj, M. ; Rai, Abhishek ; Singh, Sanjay ; ...

  8. Bulk Electronic Structure of Quasicrystals (Journal Article)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bulk Electronic Structure of Quasicrystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bulk Electronic Structure of Quasicrystals Authors: Nayak, J. ; Maniraj, M. ; Rai, Abhishek ; ...

  9. Template:Definition | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    and spins the blades of a turbine, which, when connected to a generator, generates electricity. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle List of existing terms:...

  10. 2010 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints: Definitions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints: Definitions and Assumptions This 13-page document defines key terms and details assumptions and references used in the Manufacturing ...

  11. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Key Terms Definition API Gravity An arbitrary scale expressing the gravity or density of ... propane, and butane; and many other products used for their energy or chemical content. ...

  12. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    arbitrary scale expressing the gravity or density of liquid petroleum products. ... For definitions of related energy terms, refer to the EIA Energy Glossary. Sources Energy ...

  13. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ... as base gasolines for other oxygenated blends (commonly referred to as the "Sun" waiver). ... For definitions of related energy terms, refer to the EIA Energy Glossary. Sources Energy ...

  14. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ... as base gasolines for other oxygenated blends (commonly referred to as the "Sun" waiver). ... For definitions of related energy terms, refer to the EIA Energy Glossary. Sources Crude ...

  15. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ... as base gasolines for other oxygenated blends (commonly referred to as the "Sun" waiver). ... For definitions of related energy terms, refer to the EIA Energy Glossary. Sources ...

  16. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Key Terms Definition Alaskan in Transit Alaskan crude oil stocks in transit by water ... content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with ...

  17. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Key Terms Definition Hydrogen The lightest of all gases, occurring chiefly in combination with oxygen in water; exists also in acids, bases, alcohols, petroleum, and other ...

  18. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Definitions and Assumptions...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Definitions and Assumptions A number of key terms are used to interpret the manufacturing energy and carbon footprints. The terms associated with the energy footprint analysis are ...

  19. Waste Form Qualification Compliance Strategy for Bulk Vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Bagaasen, Larry M.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Brouns, Thomas M.

    2005-01-03

    The Bulk Vitrification System is being pursued to assist in immobilizing the low-activity tank waste from the 53 million gallons of radioactive waste in the 177 underground storage tanks on the Hanford Site. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the bulk vitrification process, a research and development facility known as the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) is being built to demonstrate the technology. Specific performance requirements for the final packaged bulk vitrification waste form have been identified. In addition to the specific product-performance requirements, performance targets/goals have been identified that are necessary to qualify the waste form but do not lend themselves to specifications that are easily verified through short-term testing. Collectively, these form the product requirements for the DBVS. This waste-form qualification (WFQ) strategy document outlines the general strategies for achieving and demonstrating compliance with the BVS product requirements. The specific objectives of the WFQ activities are discussed, the bulk vitrification process and product control strategy is outlined, and the test strategy to meet the WFQ objectives is described. The DBVS product performance targets/goals and strategies to address those targets/goals are described. The DBVS product-performance requirements are compared to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant immobilized low-activity waste product specifications. The strategies for demonstrating compliance with the bulk vitrification product requirements are presented.

  20. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Coalbed Methane Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Coalbed Methane Methane is generated during coal formation and is contained in the coal microstructure. Typical recovery entails pumping water out of the coal to allow the gas to escape. Methane is the principal component of natural gas. Coalbed methane can be added to natural gas pipelines without any special treatment. For definitions of related energy terms, refer to the EIA Energy Glossary. Sources Energy Information Administration,

  1. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Shale Gas Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Shale Gas Natural gas produced from organic (black) shale formations. For definitions of related energy terms, refer to the EIA Energy Glossary. Sources Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas Explanatory Notes Shale Gas production data collected in conjunction with proved reserves data on Form EIA-23 are unofficial. Official Shale Gas production data from Form EIA-895 can be found in Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and

  2. Bulk Hauling Equipment for CHG

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    BULK HAULING EQUIPMENT FOR CHG Don Baldwin Director of Product Development - Hexagon Lincoln HEXAGON LINCOLN TITAN(tm) Module System Compressed Hydrogen Gas * Capacity 250 bar - 616 kg 350 bar - 809 kg 540 bar - 1155 kg * Gross Vehicle Weight (with prime mover) 250 bar - 28 450 kg 350 bar - 30 820 kg 540 bar - 39 440 kg * Purchase Cost 250 bar - $510,000 350 bar - $633,750 540 bar - $1,100,000 Compressed Natural Gas * Capacity (250 bar at 15 C) - 7412 kg * GVW (With prime mover) - 35 250 kg *

  3. Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    of preproduction high performance thermoelectric materials available for device ... More Documents & Publications Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power ...

  4. Bulk Tritium Shipping Package | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Package Bulk Tritium Shipping Package Presentation from the 32nd Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Germantown, Maryland on April 23-25, 2013. Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (2.77 MB) More Documents & Publications Bulk Tritium Shipping Package Overview and Status FAQS Reference Guide - NNSA Package Certification Engineer Managing Legacy Materials at WETF

  5. Glossary of Terms | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Glossary of Terms Glossary of Terms TERM DEFINITION ... and has the authority to enter into a Loan Guarantee ... not have a DUNS you can search for it or request one at ...

  6. Synthesis of bulk superhard semiconducting B-C material (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Synthesis of bulk superhard semiconducting B-C material Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthesis of bulk superhard semiconducting B-C material A bulk composite ...

  7. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Air Quality | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    BulkTransmissionAir Quality < RAPID | BulkTransmission Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission...

  8. Relative entropy equals bulk relative entropy

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Jafferis, Daniel L.; Lewkowycz, Aitor; Maldacena, Juan; Suh, S. Josephine

    2016-06-01

    We consider the gravity dual of the modular Hamiltonian associated to a general subregion of a boundary theory. We use it to argue that the relative entropy of nearby states is given by the relative entropy in the bulk, to leading order in the bulk gravitational coupling. We also argue that the boundary modular flow is dual to the bulk modular flow in the entanglement wedge, with implications for entanglement wedge reconstruction.

  9. Glossary of Transmission Grid Integration Terms | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    of Transmission Grid Integration Terms Abstract The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has produced an extensive list of terms and definitions related to...

  10. RAPID/Bulk Transmission | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Page Edit History RAPIDBulk Transmission < RAPID(Redirected from RAPIDOverviewBulkTransmission) Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT RAPIDBulkTransmission...

  11. Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    dense, consolidated, nanostructured thermoelectric material nemir.pdf (3.11 MB) More ... Correlation Between Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of Bulk High Performance ...

  12. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Multi-physics modeling of thermoelectric generators for waste ...

  13. Recent Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Reviews work in engineered thin-film nanoscale thermoelectric materials and nano-bulk ... More Documents & Publications Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 1 ...

  14. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    For definitions of related energy terms, refer to the EIA Energy Glossary. Sources 1973-1978: Federal Energy Administration, Form FEA-F701-M-0, "Transfer Pricing Report." ...

  15. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous alcohol (ethanol with less than 1% water) intended for gasoline blending as ...

  16. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Key Terms Definition Alaskan in Transit Alaskan crude oil stocks in transit by water ... Crude oil that is in-transit by water from Alaska, or that is stored on Federal leases or ...

  17. Definitions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Definitions Definitions Personal Property Definitions and Acronyms Definitions Acronyms Definitions The definition of personal property includes but it not limited to the following. Accountability - A property management function that involves maintaining an account or record of personal property and personal property transactions from receipt to final disposition. Accountable Personal Property -any property item having an original unit acquisition cost of $10,000 or more, or meeting the

  18. Organization of bulk power markets: A concept paper

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.; Stoft, S.

    1995-12-01

    The electricity industry in the US today is at a crossroads. The restructuring debate going on in most regions has made it clear that the traditional model of vertically integrated firms serving defined franchise areas and regulated by state commissions may not be the pattern for the future. The demands of large customers seeking direct access to power markets, the entry of new participants, and proposed reforms of the regulatory process all signify a momentum for fundamental change in the organization of the industry. This paper addresses electricity restructuring from the perspective of bulk power markets. The authors focus attention on the organization of electricity trade and the various ways it has been and might be conducted. Their approach concentrates on conceptual models and empirical case studies, not on specific proposals made by particular utilities or commissions. They review literature in economics and power system engineering that is relevant to the major questions. The objective is to provide conceptual background to industry participants, e.g. utility staff, regulatory staff, new entrants, who are working on specific proposals. While they formulate many questions, they do not provide definitive answers on most issues. They attempt to put the industry restructuring dialogue in a neutral setting, translating the language of economists for engineers and vice versa. Towards this end they begin with a review of the basic economic institutions in the US bulk power markets and a summary of the engineering practices that dominate trade today.

  19. Definition of Energy Efficiency

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Energy Users Energy Efficiency Page Energy Efficiency Definition Energy Efficiency: Definition Stairs) "Take the Stairs--Be More Energy Efficient" Person A interprets the sign as...

  20. bulk power system | OpenEI Community

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Dc(266) Contributor 31 October, 2014 - 10:58 What do you know about the grid? black out brown out bulk power system electricity grid future grid grid history security Smart Grid...

  1. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Transmission Siting & Interconnection...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    federal review). Bulk Transmission Transmission Siting & Interconnection in New Mexico New Mexico Statutes (N.M.S.) 62-9-1, 62-9-3(B), and 62-9-3.2 No Location Permit may be...

  2. Imprinting bulk amorphous alloy at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Song-Yi; Park, Eun-Soo; Ott, Ryan T.; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Huh, Moo-Young; Kim, Do-Hyang; Eckert, Jürgen; Lee, Min-Ha

    2015-11-13

    We present investigations on the plastic deformation behavior of a brittle bulk amorphous alloy by simple uniaxial compressive loading at room temperature. A patterning is possible by cold-plastic forming of the typically brittle Hf-based bulk amorphous alloy through controlling homogenous flow without the need for thermal energy or shaping at elevated temperatures. The experimental evidence suggests that there is an inconsistency between macroscopic plasticity and deformability of an amorphous alloy. Moreover, imprinting of specific geometrical features on Cu foil and Zr-based metallic glass is represented by using the patterned bulk amorphous alloy as a die. These results demonstrate the ability of amorphous alloys or metallic glasses to precisely replicate patterning features onto both conventional metals and the other amorphous alloys. In conclusion, our work presents an avenue for avoiding the embrittlement of amorphous alloys associated with thermoplastic forming and yields new insight the forming application of bulk amorphous alloys at room temperature without using heat treatment.

  3. Overview of Western's Interconnected Bulk Electric System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Western's Interconnected Bulk Electric System Western Area Power Admin. Objectives * Describe Western Area Power Administration Region and Facilities Overview * Explain Fundamentals of Electricity, Power Transformers and Transmission Lines * Discuss Overview of the Bulk Electric System (BES) * Objectives Review Western's Service Area Western marketing areas and offices 3 Wholesale Power Services * Markets 10,479 MW from 56 Federal hydropower projects owned by Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) , Army

  4. Category:ISGAN Definitions | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Shift Factor Definition:Load-Serving Entity Definition:Loading Monitor M Definition:Microgrid Controller Definition:Misoperation N Definition:Native Load Definition:Net Actual...

  5. 2014 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints: Definitions and Assumptions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Definitions and Assumptions A number of key terms are used to interpret the manufacturing energy and carbon footprints. The terms associated with the energy footprint analysis are defined below in alphabetical order. Key definitions and assumptions associated with the greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint analysis are shown on pages 12 and 13. Energy Footprint Analysis Definitions CHP/Cogeneration - The production of electrical energy and another form of useful energy (such as heat or steam) through

  6. ,"Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and ... "Date","U.S. Finished Motor Gasoline Stocks at Refineries, Bulk ...

  7. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Land Use | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    RAPIDBulkTransmissionLand Use < RAPID | BulkTransmission Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission...

  8. Regulatory Roadmap Workshop for Federal Bulk Transmission Regulations...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    for bulk transmission. Date: Tuesday, 29 July, 2014 - 09:30 - 15:30 Location: NREL Education Center Auditorium Golden, Colorado Groups: Federal Bulk Transmission Regulatory...

  9. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Water Use | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    RAPIDBulkTransmissionWater Use < RAPID | BulkTransmission Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission...

  10. RAPID/Overview/BulkTransmission/Siting/Colorado | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Colorado < RAPID | Overview | BulkTransmission | Siting(Redirected from RAPIDAtlasBulkTransmissionSitingColorado) Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT...

  11. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Exploration | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us RAPID Bulk Transmission ...

  12. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for ...

  13. RAPID/BulkTransmission/General Construction | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    RAPIDBulkTransmissionGeneral Construction < RAPID | BulkTransmission Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk...

  14. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles Molecular Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic ...

  15. Linux Kernel Co-Scheduling For Bulk Synchronous Parallel Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Linux Kernel Co-Scheduling For Bulk Synchronous Parallel Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Linux Kernel Co-Scheduling For Bulk Synchronous Parallel ...

  16. Stability analysis of 5D gravitational solutions with N bulk...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Stability analysis of 5D gravitational solutions with N bulk scalar fields Prev Next Title: Stability analysis of 5D gravitational solutions with N bulk scalar fields ...

  17. Material Profile Influences in Bulk-Heterojunctions (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Material Profile Influences in Bulk-Heterojunctions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Material Profile Influences in Bulk-Heterojunctions he morphology in mixed ...

  18. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    RAPIDBulkTransmissionPower Plant < RAPID | BulkTransmission Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk...

  19. Micro benchtop optics by bulk silicon micromachining

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Pocha, Michael D.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Deri, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics of bulk silicon and integrating the parallel etch planes of silicon with silicon wafer bonding and impurity doping, enables the fabrication of on-chip optics with in situ aligned etched grooves for optical fibers, micro-lenses, photodiodes, and laser diodes. Other optical components that can be microfabricated and integrated include semi-transparent beam splitters, micro-optical scanners, pinholes, optical gratings, micro-optical filters, etc. Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics thereof can be utilized to develop miniaturization of bio-instrumentation such as wavelength monitoring by fluorescence spectrometers, and other miniaturized optical systems such as Fabry-Perot interferometry for filtering of wavelengths, tunable cavity lasers, micro-holography modules, and wavelength splitters for optical communication systems.

  20. Bulk-memory processor for data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.O.; McMillan, D.E.; Sunier, J.W.; Meier, M.; Poore, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    To meet the diverse needs and data rate requirements at the Van de Graaff and Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facilities, a bulk memory system has been implemented which includes a fast and flexible processor. This bulk memory processor (BMP) utilizes bit slice and microcode techniques and features a 24 bit wide internal architecture allowing direct addressing of up to 16 megawords of memory and histogramming up to 16 million counts per channel without overflow. The BMP is interfaced to the MOSTEK MK 8000 bulk memory system and to the standard MODCOMP computer I/O bus. Coding for the BMP both at the microcode level and with macro instructions is supported. The generalized data acquisition system has been extended to support the BMP in a manner transparent to the user.

  1. Orchestrating Bulk Data Movement in Grid Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Vazhkudai, SS

    2005-01-25

    Data Grids provide a convenient environment for researchers to manage and access massively distributed bulk data by addressing several system and transfer challenges inherent to these environments. This work addresses issues involved in the efficient selection and access of replicated data in Grid environments in the context of the Globus Toolkit{trademark}, building middleware that (1) selects datasets in highly replicated environments, enabling efficient scheduling of data transfer requests; (2) predicts transfer times of bulk wide-area data transfers using extensive statistical analysis; and (3) co-allocates bulk data transfer requests, enabling parallel downloads from mirrored sites. These efforts have demonstrated a decentralized data scheduling architecture, a set of forecasting tools that predict bandwidth availability within 15% error and co-allocation architecture, and heuristics that expedites data downloads by up to 2 times.

  2. Imprinting bulk amorphous alloy at room temperature

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Kim, Song-Yi; Park, Eun-Soo; Ott, Ryan T.; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Huh, Moo-Young; Kim, Do-Hyang; Eckert, Jürgen; Lee, Min-Ha

    2015-11-13

    We present investigations on the plastic deformation behavior of a brittle bulk amorphous alloy by simple uniaxial compressive loading at room temperature. A patterning is possible by cold-plastic forming of the typically brittle Hf-based bulk amorphous alloy through controlling homogenous flow without the need for thermal energy or shaping at elevated temperatures. The experimental evidence suggests that there is an inconsistency between macroscopic plasticity and deformability of an amorphous alloy. Moreover, imprinting of specific geometrical features on Cu foil and Zr-based metallic glass is represented by using the patterned bulk amorphous alloy as a die. These results demonstrate the abilitymore » of amorphous alloys or metallic glasses to precisely replicate patterning features onto both conventional metals and the other amorphous alloys. In conclusion, our work presents an avenue for avoiding the embrittlement of amorphous alloys associated with thermoplastic forming and yields new insight the forming application of bulk amorphous alloys at room temperature without using heat treatment.« less

  3. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Prices Definitions Key Terms Definition Citygate A point or measuring station at which a distributing gas utility receives gas from a natural gas pipeline company or transmission system. Commercial Price The price of gas used by nonmanufacturing establishments or agencies primarily engaged in the sale of goods or services such as hotels, restaurants, wholesale and retail stores and other service enterprises; and gas used by local, State and Federal agencies engaged in nonmanufacturing

  4. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Distillate by End Use Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Sales for all other energy-consuming sectors not included elsewhere. Commercial An energy-consuming sector that consists of service-providing facilities and equipment of nonmanufacturing businesses; Federal, State, and local governments; and other private and public organizations, such as religious, social, or fraternal groups. The commercial sector includes institutional living quarters. Common uses of energy associated with this

  5. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Distillate by End Use Definitions Key Terms Definition Adjusted Sales Distillate fuel oil sales estimates have been adjusted at the PADD district level to equal published EIA volume estimates of petroleum products supplied in the U.S. marketplace. The kerosene and residual fuel oil sales estimates have been adjusted at the national level. The products supplied estimates can be found in the Petroleum Supply Annual for the appropriate year. In addition, electric power generation data and

  6. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Residual Fuel Oil by End Use Definitions Key Terms Definition Adjusted Sales Distillate fuel oil sales estimates have been adjusted at the PADD district level to equal published EIA volume estimates of petroleum products supplied in the U.S. marketplace. The kerosene and residual fuel oil sales estimates have been adjusted at the national level. The products supplied estimates can be found in the Petroleum Supply Annual for the appropriate year. In addition, electric power generation data and

  7. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Footage Drilled for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Wells Definitions Key Terms Definition Crude Oil A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include: Small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist in gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but are liquid at atmospheric pressure after being

  8. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Receipts by Pipeline, Tanker, and Barge Between PAD Districts Definitions Key Terms Definition Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The

  9. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Pipeline Between PADDs Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB) Motor gasoline blending components intended for blending with oxygenates to produce finished conventional motor gasoline. Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock.

  10. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Rail between PAD Districts Definitions Key Terms Definition Crude Oil A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include: Small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist in gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but are liquid at atmospheric pressure after being recovered from oil well

  11. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Rail Definitions Key Terms Definition Crude Oil A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include: Small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist in gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but are liquid at atmospheric pressure after being recovered from oil well (casinghead) gas in

  12. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Imports & Exports Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether),

  13. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Receipts of Crude Oil by Method of Transportation Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Crude Oil A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include: Small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist in gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but

  14. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Input Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Blending Plant A facility which has no refining capability but is either capable of producing finished motor gasoline through mechanical blending or blends oxygenates with motor gasoline. Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB) Motor gasoline blending components intended for blending with oxygenates to produce finished conventional motor gasoline. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous denatured aliphatic

  15. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Net Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock. Conventional Gasoline, Ed55 and Lower Finished conventional motor gasoline blended with a maximum of 55 volume percent denatured fuel ethanol. Conventional Gasoline, Greater than Ed55

  16. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Crude Stream Definitions Key Terms Definition Crude Oil A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include: Small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist in gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but are liquid at atmospheric pressure after being recovered from oil well (casinghead) gas

  17. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    No. 2 Distillate Prices by Sales Type, Selected States Definitions Key Terms Definition Commercial/Institutional An energy-consuming sector that consists of service-providing facilities and equipment of: businesses; Federal, State, and local governments; and other private and public organizations, such as religious, social, or fraternal groups. The commercial sector includes institutional living quarters. It also includes sewage treatment facilities. Common uses of energy associated with this

  18. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Area Definitions Key Terms Definition Crude Oil A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include: Small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist in gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but are liquid at atmospheric pressure after being recovered from oil well (casinghead) gas in

  19. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Crude Stream Definitions Key Terms Definition Crude Oil A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include: Small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist in gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but are liquid at atmospheric pressure after being recovered from oil well (casinghead) gas

  20. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Crude Oil Stocks at Tank Farms & Pipelines Definitions Key Terms Definition Crude Oil A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include: Small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist in gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but are liquid at atmospheric pressure after being

  1. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed Definitions Key Terms Definition British Thermal Unit (Btu) The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of liquid water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at the temperature at which water has its greatest density (approximately 39 degrees Fahrenheit). Delivered to Consumers (Heat Content) Heat content of residential, commercial, industrial, vehicle fuel and electric power deliveries to consumers. Electric Power (Heat Content) Heat content of

  2. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Number of Consumers Definitions Key Terms Definition Commercial Consumption Gas used by nonmanufacturing establishments or agencies primarily engaged in the sale of goods or services. Included are such establishments as hotels, restaurants, wholesale and retail stores and other service enterprises; gas used by local, State, and Federal agencies engaged in nonmanufacturing activities. Industrial Consumption Natural gas used for heat, power, or chemical feedstock by manufacturing establishments or

  3. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    State Shares of U.S. Deliveries Definitions Key Terms Definition Commercial Consumption Gas used by nonmanufacturing establishments or agencies primarily engaged in the sale of goods or services. Included are such establishments as hotels, restaurants, wholesale and retail stores and other service enterprises; gas used by local, State, and Federal agencies engaged in nonmanufacturing activities. Delivered (Gas) The physical transfer of natural, synthetic, and/or supplemental gas from facilities

  4. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Consumption by End Use Definitions Key Terms Definition Commercial Consumption Gas used by nonmanufacturing establishments or agencies primarily engaged in the sale of goods or services. Included are such establishments as hotels, restaurants, wholesale and retail stores and other service enterprises; gas used by local, State, and Federal agencies engaged in nonmanufacturing activities. Distribution Use Natural gas used as fuel in the respondent's operations. Electric Power Consumption Gas used

  5. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Associated-Dissolved Proved Reserves, Wet Definitions Key Terms Definition Acquisitions The volume of proved reserves gained by the purchase of an existing fields or properties, from the date of purchase or transfer. Adjustments The quantity which preserves an exact annual reserves balance within each State or State subdivision of the following form: Adjustments + Revision Increases - Revision Decreases - Sales + Acquisitions + Extensions + New Field Discoveries + New Reservoir Discoveries in

  6. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Definitions Key Terms Definition Acquisitions The volume of proved reserves gained by the purchase of an existing fields or properties, from the date of purchase or transfer. Adjustments The quantity which preserves an exact annual reserves balance within each State or State subdivision of the following form: Adjustments + Revision Increases - Revision Decreases - Sales + Acquisitions + Extensions + New Field Discoveries + New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields -

  7. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Definitions Key Terms Definition Acquisitions The volume of proved reserves gained by the purchase of an existing fields or properties, from the date of purchase or transfer. Adjustments The quantity which preserves an exact annual reserves balance within each State or State subdivision of the following form: Adjustments + Revision Increases - Revision Decreases - Sales + Acquisitions + Extensions + New Field Discoveries + New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields -

  8. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Reserves Definitions Key Terms Definition Crude Oil A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include: Small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist in gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but are liquid at atmospheric pressure after being

  9. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Drilling Activity Definitions Key Terms Definition Active Well Service Rig Count The number of rigs doing true workovers (where tubing is pulled from the well), or doing rod string and pump repair operations, and that are, on average, crewed and working every day of the month. Crude Oil A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Depending upon the

  10. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Definitions Key Terms Definition Acquisitions The volume of proved reserves gained by the purchase of an existing fields or properties, from the date of purchase or transfer. Adjustments The quantity which preserves an exact annual reserves balance within each State or State subdivision of the following form: Adjustments + Revision Increases - Revision Decreases - Sales + Acquisitions + Extensions + New Field Discoveries + New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields -

  11. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves Definitions Key Terms Definition Acquisitions The volume of proved reserves gained by the purchase of an existing fields or properties, from the date of purchase or transfer. Adjustments The quantity which preserves an exact annual reserves balance within each State or State subdivision of the following form: Adjustments + Revision Increases - Revision Decreases - Sales + Acquisitions + Extensions + New Field Discoveries + New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields

  12. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Nonassociated Proved Reserves, Wet Definitions Key Terms Definition Acquisitions The volume of proved reserves gained by the purchase of an existing fields or properties, from the date of purchase or transfer. Adjustments The quantity which preserves an exact annual reserves balance within each State or State subdivision of the following form: Adjustments + Revision Increases - Revision Decreases - Sales + Acquisitions + Extensions + New Field Discoveries + New Reservoir Discoveries in Old

  13. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Liquids Proved Reserves Definitions Key Terms Definition Acquisitions The volume of proved reserves gained by the purchase of an existing fields or properties, from the date of purchase or transfer. Adjustments The quantity which preserves an exact annual reserves balance within each State or State subdivision of the following form: Adjustments + Revision Increases - Revision Decreases - Sales + Acquisitions + Extensions + New Field Discoveries + New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields - Report

  14. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Plant Liquids Proved Reserves Definitions Key Terms Definition Natural Gas Liquids Those hydrocarbons in natural gas which are separated from the gas through the processes of absorption, condensation, adsorption, or other methods in gas processing or cycling plants. Generally such liquids consist of propane and heavier hydrocarbons and are commonly referred to as condensate, natural gasoline, or liquefied petroleum gases. Where hydrocarbon components lighter than propane are recovered as

  15. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Proved Nonproducing Reserves Definitions Key Terms Definition Associated Dissolved Gas The combined volume of natural gas which occurs in crude oil reservoirs either as free gas (associated) or as gas in solution with crude oil (dissolved). Crude Oil A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in the liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Crude oil may also include: Small amounts of hydrocarbons

  16. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Maximum U.S. Active Seismic Crew Counts Definitions Key Terms Definition Dimensions In two-dimensional (2D) reflection seismic surveying both the sound source and the sound detectors (numbering up to a hundred or more per shot) are moved along a straight line. The resultant product can be thought of as a vertical sonic cross-section of the subsurface beneath the survey line. It is constructed by summing many compressional (pressure) wave reflections from the various sound source and sound

  17. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Shale Gas Proved Reserves Definitions Key Terms Definition Acquisitions The volume of proved reserves gained by the purchase of an existing fields or properties, from the date of purchase or transfer. Adjustments The quantity which preserves an exact annual reserves balance within each State or State subdivision of the following form: Adjustments + Revision Increases - Revision Decreases - Sales + Acquisitions + Extensions + New Field Discoveries + New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields -

  18. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet Definitions Key Terms Definition Acquisitions The volume of proved reserves gained by the purchase of an existing fields or properties, from the date of purchase or transfer. Adjustments The quantity which preserves an exact annual reserves balance within each State or State subdivision of the following form: Adjustments + Revision Increases - Revision Decreases - Sales + Acquisitions + Extensions + New Field Discoveries + New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields

  19. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Average Depth of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Wells Definitions Key Terms Definition Crude Oil A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include: Small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist in gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but are liquid at atmospheric pressure after being

  20. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Exploratory and Development Wells Definitions Key Terms Definition Crude Oil A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include: Small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist in gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but are liquid at atmospheric pressure after being recovered from oil

  1. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Footage Drilled for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Wells Definitions Key Terms Definition Crude Oil A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include: Small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist in gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but are liquid at atmospheric pressure after being

  2. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Country Definitions Key Terms Definition Exports Natural Gas deliveries out of the Continental United States and Alaska to foreign countries. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure. Pipeline A continuous pipe conduit, complete with such equipment as valves, compressor stations, communications systems, and meters, for transporting natural and/or supplemental gas from one

  3. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Country Definitions Key Terms Definition Imports Natural Gas received in the Continental United States (including Alaska) from a foreign country. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure. Pipeline A continuous pipe conduit, complete with such equipment as valves, compressor stations, communications systems, and meters, for transporting natural and/or supplemental gas from one

  4. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    International & Interstate Movements by State Definitions Key Terms Definition Deliveries The physical transfer of natural, synthetic, and/or supplemental gas from facilities operated by the responding company to facilities operated by others or to consumers. Exports Natural Gas deliveries out of the Continental United States and Alaska to foreign countries. Imports Natural Gas received in the Continental United States (including Alaska) from a foreign country. Natural Gas A gaseous mixture

  5. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Point of Exit Definitions Key Terms Definition Exports Natural Gas deliveries out of the Continental United States and Alaska to foreign countries. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure. Pipeline A continuous pipe conduit, complete with such equipment as valves, compressor stations, communications systems, and meters, for transporting natural and/or supplemental gas from

  6. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Imports & Exports by State Definitions Key Terms Definition Exports Natural Gas deliveries out of the Continental United States and Alaska to foreign countries. Imports Natural Gas received in the Continental United States (including Alaska) from a foreign country. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure. Pipeline A continuous pipe conduit, complete with such equipment

  7. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Residential and Commercial Prices by Local Distributors & Marketers Definitions Key Terms Definition Commercial Price The price of gas used by nonmanufacturing establishments or agencies primarily engaged in the sale of goods or services such as hotels, restaurants, wholesale and retail stores and other service enterprises; and gas used by local, State and Federal agencies engaged in nonmanufacturing activities. Local Distribution Company (LDC) A legal entity engaged primarily in the retail

  8. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Crude Oil A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include: Small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist in gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but are liquid at atmospheric pressure after being recovered

  9. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Lease Condensate Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Lease Condensate A mixture consisting primarily of pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons which is recovered as a liquid from natural gas in lease separation facilities. This category excludes natural gas plant liquids, such as butane and propane, which are recovered at downstream natural gas processing plants or facilities. Production, Lease Condensate The volume of lease condensate produced during the report year. Lease condensate volumes

  10. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Natural Gas Liquids Those hydrocarbons in natural gas which are separated from the gas through the processes of absorption, condensation, adsorption, or other methods in gas processing or cycling plants. Generally such liquids consist of propane and heavier hydrocarbons and are commonly referred to as condensate, natural gasoline, or liquefied petroleum gases. Where hydrocarbon components lighter than propane are recovered as

  11. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Offshore Gross Withdrawals Definitions Key Terms Definition Gas Well A well completed for the production of natural gas from one or more gas zones or reservoirs. Such wells contain no completions for the production of crude oil. Gross Withdrawals Full well-stream volume, including all natural gas plant liquids and all nonhydrocarbon gases, but excluding lease condensate. Also includes amounts delivered as royalty payments or consumed in field operations. Offshore Located in either State or

  12. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Plant Processing Definitions Key Terms Definition Extraction Loss The reduction in volume of natural gas due to the removal of natural gas liquid constituents such as ethane, propane, and butane at natural gas processing plants. Natural Gas Processed Natural gas that has gone through a processing plant. Natural Gas Processing Plant A facility designed to recover natural gas liquids from a stream of natural gas which may or may not have passed through lease separators and/or field separation

  13. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Supplemental Supplies Definitions Key Terms Definition Biomass Gas A medium Btu gas containing methane and carbon dioxide, resulting from the action of microorganisms on organic materials such as a landfill. Blast-furnace Gas The waste combustible gas generated in a blast furnace when iron ore is being reduced with coke to metallic iron. It is commonly used as a fuel within steel works. British Thermal Unit (Btu) The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of liquid water

  14. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Wellhead Value & Marketed Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Marketed Production Gross withdrawals less gas used for repressuring, quantities vented and flared, and nonhydrocarbon gases removed in treating or processing operations. Includes all quantities of gas used in field and processing plant operations. Production The volume of natural gas withdrawn from reservoirs less (1) the volume returned to such reservoirs in cycling, repressuring of oil reservoirs, and conservation

  15. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Capacity Definitions Key Terms Definition Aquifer Storage Field A sub-surface facility for storing natural gas, consisting of water-bearing sands topped by an impermeable cap rock. Depleted Reservoir Storage Field A sub-surface natural geological reservoir, usually a depleted gas or oil field, used for storing natural gas. Natural Gas A gaseous mixture of hydrocarbon compounds, the primary one being methane. Salt Dome Storage Field (Salt Cavern) A storage facility that is a cavern hollowed out

  16. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Annual Supply & Disposition by State Definitions Key Terms Definition Balancing Item Represents the difference between the sum of the components of natural gas supply and the sum of the components of natural gas disposition. These differences maybe due to quantities lost or to the effects of data reporting problems. Reporting problems include differences due to the net result of conversions of flow data metered at varying temperature and pressure bases and converted to a standard temperature

  17. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    U.S. Monthly Supply & Disposition Definitions Key Terms Definition Balancing Item Represents the difference between the sum of the components of natural gas supply and the sum of the components of natural gas disposition. These differences maybe due to quantities lost or to the effects of data reporting problems. Reporting problems include differences due to the net result of conversions of flow data metered at varying temperature and pressure bases and converted to a standard temperature

  18. Category:Definitions | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Cooling Definition:Airborne Gravity Survey Definition:Algae Definition:Algae fuel Definition:Alternating current Definition:Alternative-fuel vehicle...

  19. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, legal representative, Carol

    2010-11-23

    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  20. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, Carol

    2010-06-08

    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  1. Modeling direct interband tunneling. I. Bulk semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Andrew; Chui, Chi On

    2014-08-07

    Interband tunneling is frequently studied using the semiclassical Kane model, despite uncertainty about its validity. Revisiting the physical basis of this formula, we find that it neglects coupling to other bands and underestimates transverse tunneling. As a result, significant errors can arise at low and high fields for small and large gap materials, respectively. We derive a simple multiband tunneling model to correct these defects analytically without arbitrary parameters. Through extensive comparison with band structure and quantum transport calculations for bulk InGaAs, InAs, and InSb, we probe the accuracy of the Kane and multiband formulas and establish the superiority of the latter. We also show that the nonlocal average electric field should be used when applying either of these models to nonuniform potentials. Our findings are important for efficient analysis and simulation of bulk semiconductor devices involving tunneling.

  2. MOSRC Field Definitions 01202016 MOSRC Field Definitions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    MOSRC Field Definitions 01202016 MOSRC Field Definitions 1/5 1/20/2016 Field Name Definition Prime Contract Procurement Instrument Identifier The unique Prime Contractor identifier as it is recorded on the original (or base) contract in FPDS-NG. This must be a valid DOE M&O PIID, as recorded in FPDS-NG. Prime Contract DUNS Number The Prime Contractor's Dun and Bradstreet Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) as it is recorded on the prime contract in FPDS-NG. Subcontract DUNS Number The

  3. Structural rejuvenation in bulk metallic glasses

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Tong, Yang; Iwashita, T.; Dmowski, Wojciech; Bei, Hongbin; Yokoyama, Y.; Egami, Takeshi

    2015-01-05

    Using high-energy X-ray diffraction we study structural changes in bulk metallic glasses after uniaxial compressive homogeneous deformation at temperatures slightly below the glass transition. We observe that deformation results in structural disordering corresponding to an increase in the fictive, or effective, temperature. However, the structural disordering saturates after yielding. Lastly, examination of the experimental structure and molecular dynamics simulation suggests that local changes in the atomic connectivity network are the main driving force of the structural rejuvenation.

  4. DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM (DBVS) EXTERNAL REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    HONEYMAN, J.O.

    2007-02-08

    The Hanford mission to retrieve and immobilize 53 million gallons of radioactive waste from 177 underground storage tanks will be accomplished using a combination of processing by the waste treatment plant currently under construction, and a supplemental treatment that would process low-activity waste. Under consideration for this treatment is bulk vitrification, a versatile joule-heated melter technology which could be deployed in the tank farms. The Department proposes to demonstrate this technology under a Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) permit issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology using both non-radioactive simulant and blends of actual tank waste. From the demonstration program, data would be obtained on cost and technical performance to enable a decision on the potential use of bulk vitrification as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford. An independent review by sixteen subject matter experts was conducted to assure that the technical basis of the demonstration facility design would be adequate to meet the objectives of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) program. This review explored all aspects of the program, including flowsheet chemistry, project risk, vitrification, equipment design and nuclear safety, and was carried out at a time when issues can be identified and corrected. This paper describes the mission need, review approach, technical recommendations and follow-on activities for the DBVS program.

  5. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOEpatents

    Knize, R.J.; Cecchi, J.L.

    1991-08-20

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen. 4 figures.

  6. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOEpatents

    Knize, Randall J. (Los Angeles, CA); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1990-01-01

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen.

  7. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOEpatents

    Knize, Randall J. (Los Angeles, CA); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1991-01-01

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen.

  8. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    API Gravity Definitions Key Terms Definition API Gravity An arbitrary scale expressing the gravity or density of liquid petroleum products. The measuring scale is calibrated in terms of degrees API; it is calculated as follows: Degrees API = (141.5 / (sp. gr. 60ºF / 60ºF)) - 131.5 The higher the API gravity, the lighter the compound. Light crudes generally exceed 38 degrees API and heavy crudes are commonly labeled as all crudes with an API gravity of 22 degrees or below. Intermediate crudes

  9. Active neutron multiplicity counting of bulk uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Ensslin, N.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.; Miller, M.C. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new nondestructive assay technique being developed to assay bulk uranium containing kilogram quantities of {sup 235}U. The new technique uses neutron multiplicity analysis of data collected with a coincidence counter outfitted with AmLi neutron sources. The authors have calculated the expected neutron multiplicity count rate and assay precision for this technique and will report on its expected performance as a function of detector design characteristics, {sup 235}U sample mass, AmLi source strength, and source-to-sample coupling.

  10. Improving the bulk data transfer experience

    SciTech Connect

    Guok, Chin; Guok, Chin; Lee, Jason R.; Berket, Karlo

    2008-05-07

    Scientific computations and collaborations increasingly rely on the network to provide high-speed data transfer, dissemination of results, access to instruments, support for computational steering, etc. The Energy Sciences Network is establishing a science data network to provide user driven bandwidth allocation. In a shared network environment, some reservations may not be granted due to the lack of available bandwidth on any single path. In many cases, the available bandwidth across multiple paths would be sufficient to grant the reservation. In this paper we investigate how to utilize the available bandwidth across multiple paths in the case of bulk data transfer.

  11. Towards bulk based preconditioning for quantum dotcomputations

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, Jack; Langou, Julien; Tomov, Stanimire; Channing,Andrew; Marques, Osni; Vomel, Christof; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2006-05-25

    This article describes how to accelerate the convergence of Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) type eigensolvers for the computation of several states around the band gap of colloidal quantum dots. Our new approach uses the Hamiltonian from the bulk materials constituent for the quantum dot to design an efficient preconditioner for the folded spectrum PCG method. The technique described shows promising results when applied to CdSe quantum dot model problems. We show a decrease in the number of iteration steps by at least a factor of 4 compared to the previously used diagonal preconditioner.

  12. Boundary Entropy Can Increase Under Bulk RG Flow (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Boundary Entropy Can Increase Under Bulk RG Flow Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Boundary Entropy Can Increase Under Bulk RG Flow The boundary entropy log(g) of a critical ...

  13. Boundary Entropy Can Increase Under Bulk RG Flow (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Boundary Entropy Can Increase Under Bulk RG Flow Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Boundary Entropy Can Increase Under Bulk RG Flow You are accessing a document from ...

  14. I. Definition and Scope

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    - Smart Grid RFI Page 2 November 1, 2010 I. Definition and Scope I.1. We invite comment however on whether this [Title XIII] is the best way to define the smart grid. What significant policy challenges are likely to remain unaddressed if we employ Title XIII's definition? If the definition is overly broad, what policy risks emerge as a result? * While Title XIII starts framing the necessary committee's and organizations needed to start outlining the Smart Grid discussion, it is lacking in the

  15. Standard Definitions of Building Geometry for Energy Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This document provides definitions and metrics of building geometry for use in building energy evaluation. Building geometry is an important input in the analysis process, yet there are no agreed-upon standard definitions of these terms for use in energy analysis. The metrics can be used for characterizing building geometry, for calculating energy performance metrics, and for conducting energy simulations.

  16. Definition of Radiation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of ...

  17. Negative ion extraction from hydrogen plasma bulk

    SciTech Connect

    Oudini, N.; Taccogna, F.; Minelli, P.

    2013-10-15

    A two-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision model has been developed and used to study low electronegative magnetized hydrogen plasma. A configuration characterized by four electrodes is used: the left electrode is biased at V{sub l} = −100 V, the right electrode is grounded, while the upper and lower transversal electrodes are biased at an intermediate voltage V{sub ud} between 0 and −100 V. A constant and homogeneous magnetic field is applied parallel to the lateral (left/right) electrodes. It is shown that in the magnetized case, the bulk plasma potential is close to the transversal electrodes bias inducing then a reversed sheath in front of the right electrode. The potential drop within the reversed sheath is controlled by the transversal electrodes bias allowing extraction of negative ions with a significant reduction of co-extracted electron current. Furthermore, introducing plasma electrodes, between the transversal electrodes and the right electrode, biased with a voltage just above the plasma bulk potential, increases the negative ion extracted current and decreases significantly the co-extracted electron current. The physical mechanism on basis of this phenomenon has been discussed.

  18. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials’ responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1–x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times duemore » to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. Lastly, this opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.« less

  19. Evaluation Ratings Definitions (Excluding Utilization of Small...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    (Excluding Utilization of Small Business) Rating Definition Note Exceptional ... Definitions (Utilization of Small Business) Rating Definition Note Exceptional ...

  20. Direct normal irradiance related definitions and applications: The circumsolar issue

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, P.; Espinar, B.; Geuder, N.; Gueymard, C.; Meyer, R.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Reinhardt, B.; Renne, D.; Segupta, M.; Wald, L.; Wilbert, S.

    2014-10-21

    The direct irradiance received on a plane normal to the sun, called direct normal irradiance (DNI), is of particular relevance to concentrated solar technologies, including concentrating solar thermal plants and concentrated photovoltaic systems. Following various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the DNI definition is related to the irradiance from a small solid angle of the sky, centered on the position of the sun. Half-angle apertures of pyrheliometers measuring DNI have varied over time, up to ≈10°. The current recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for this half-angle is 2.5°. Solar concentrating collectors have an angular acceptance function that can be significantly narrower, especially for technologies with high concentration ratios. The disagreement between the various interpretations of DNI, from the theoretical definition used in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modeling to practical definitions corresponding to specific measurements or conversion technologies is significant, especially in the presence of cirrus clouds or large concentration of aerosols. Under such sky conditions, the circumsolar radiation—i.e. the diffuse radiation coming from the vicinity of the sun—contributes significantly to the DNI ground measurement, although some concentrating collectors cannot utilize the bulk of it. These issues have been identified in the EU-funded projects MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate-Interim Implementation) and SFERA (Solar Facilities for the European Research Area), and have been discussed within a panel of international experts in the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) program of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Task 46 “Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting”. In accordance with these discussions, the terms of reference related to DNI are specified here. The important role of circumsolar radiation is evidenced

  1. Direct normal irradiance related definitions and applications: The circumsolar issue

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Blanc, P.; Espinar, B.; Geuder, N.; Gueymard, C.; Meyer, R.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Reinhardt, B.; Renne, D.; Segupta, M.; Wald, L.; et al

    2014-10-21

    The direct irradiance received on a plane normal to the sun, called direct normal irradiance (DNI), is of particular relevance to concentrated solar technologies, including concentrating solar thermal plants and concentrated photovoltaic systems. Following various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the DNI definition is related to the irradiance from a small solid angle of the sky, centered on the position of the sun. Half-angle apertures of pyrheliometers measuring DNI have varied over time, up to ≈10°. The current recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for this half-angle is 2.5°. Solar concentrating collectors have an angular acceptancemore » function that can be significantly narrower, especially for technologies with high concentration ratios. The disagreement between the various interpretations of DNI, from the theoretical definition used in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modeling to practical definitions corresponding to specific measurements or conversion technologies is significant, especially in the presence of cirrus clouds or large concentration of aerosols. Under such sky conditions, the circumsolar radiation—i.e. the diffuse radiation coming from the vicinity of the sun—contributes significantly to the DNI ground measurement, although some concentrating collectors cannot utilize the bulk of it. These issues have been identified in the EU-funded projects MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate-Interim Implementation) and SFERA (Solar Facilities for the European Research Area), and have been discussed within a panel of international experts in the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) program of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Task 46 “Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting”. In accordance with these discussions, the terms of reference related to DNI are specified here. The important role of circumsolar radiation is

  2. Alaska - AS 42.05.990 - Definitions | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Abstract This section provides definitions for terms pertaining to public utilities law. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2014 Legal Citation AS 42.05.990 DOI Not...

  3. Rotary adsorbers for continuous bulk separations

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Frederick S.

    2011-11-08

    A rotary adsorber for continuous bulk separations is disclosed. The rotary adsorber includes an adsorption zone in fluid communication with an influent adsorption fluid stream, and a desorption zone in fluid communication with a desorption fluid stream. The fluid streams may be gas streams or liquid streams. The rotary adsorber includes one or more adsorption blocks including adsorbent structure(s). The adsorbent structure adsorbs the target species that is to be separated from the influent fluid stream. The apparatus includes a rotary wheel for moving each adsorption block through the adsorption zone and the desorption zone. A desorption circuit passes an electrical current through the adsorbent structure in the desorption zone to desorb the species from the adsorbent structure. The adsorbent structure may include porous activated carbon fibers aligned with their longitudinal axis essentially parallel to the flow direction of the desorption fluid stream. The adsorbent structure may be an inherently electrically-conductive honeycomb structure.

  4. Bulk amorphous steels based on Fe alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lu, ZhaoPing; Liu, Chain T.

    2006-05-30

    A bulk amorphous alloy has the approximate composition: Fe.sub.(100-a-b-c-d-e)Y.sub.aMn.sub.bT.sub.cM.sub.dX.sub.e wherein: T includes at least one of the group consisting of: Ni, Cu, Cr and Co; M includes at least one of the group consisting of W, Mo, Nb, Ta, Al and Ti; X includes at least one of the group consisting of Co, Ni and Cr; a is an atomic percentage, and a<5; b is an atomic percentage, and b.ltoreq.25; c is an atomic percentage, and c.ltoreq.25; d is an atomic percentage, and d.ltoreq.25; and e is an atomic percentage, and 5.ltoreq.e.ltoreq.30.

  5. DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.

    2013-10-10

    A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussed as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2008-09-14

    A new radioactive shipping packaging for transporting bulk quantities of tritium, the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP), has been designed for the Department of Energy (DOE) as a replacement for a package designed in the early 1970s. This paper summarizes significant design features and describes how the design satisfies the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The BTSP design incorporates many improvements over its predecessor by implementing improved testing, handling, and maintenance capabilities, while improving manufacturability and incorporating new engineered materials. This paper also discusses the results from testing of the BTSP to 10 CFR 71 Normal Conditions of Transport and Hypothetical Accident Condition events. The programmatic need of the Department of Energy (DOE) to ship bulk quantities of tritium has been satisfied since the late 1970s by the UC-609 shipping package. The current Certificate of Conformance for the UC-609, USA/9932/B(U) (DOE), will expire in late 2011. Since the UC-609 was not designed to meet current regulatory requirements, it will not be recertified and thereby necessitates a replacement Type B shipping package for continued DOE tritium shipments in the future. A replacement tritium packaging called the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) is currently being designed and tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The BTSP consists of two primary assemblies, an outer Drum Assembly and an inner Containment Vessel Assembly (CV), both designed to mitigate damage and to protect the tritium contents from leaking during the regulatory Hypothetical Accident Condition (HAC) events and during Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT). During transport, the CV rests on a silicone pad within the Drum Liner and is covered with a thermal insulating disk within the insulated Drum Assembly. The BTSP packaging weighs approximately 500 lbs without contents and is 50

  7. Organic hybrid planar-nanocrystalline bulk heterojunctions

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Yang, Fan

    2011-03-01

    A photosensitive optoelectronic device having an improved hybrid planar bulk heterojunction includes a plurality of photoconductive materials disposed between the anode and the cathode. The photoconductive materials include a first continuous layer of donor material and a second continuous layer of acceptor material. A first network of donor material or materials extends from the first continuous layer toward the second continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of holes to the first continuous layer. A second network of acceptor material or materials extends from the second continuous layer toward the first continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of electrons to the second continuous layer. The first network and the second network are interlaced with each other. At least one other photoconductive material is interspersed between the interlaced networks. This other photoconductive material or materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor and acceptor materials.

  8. Organic hybrid planar-nanocrystalline bulk heterojunctions

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Yang, Fan

    2013-04-09

    A photosensitive optoelectronic device having an improved hybrid planar bulk heterojunction includes a plurality of photoconductive materials disposed between the anode and the cathode. The photoconductive materials include a first continuous layer of donor material and a second continuous layer of acceptor material. A first network of donor material or materials extends from the first continuous layer toward the second continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of holes to the first continuous layer. A second network of acceptor material or materials extends from the second continuous layer toward the first continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of electrons to the second continuous layer. The first network and the second network are interlaced with each other. At least one other photoconductive material is interspersed between the interlaced networks. This other photoconductive material or materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor and acceptor materials.

  9. Term Appointments

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A term appointment is a non-permanent time limited appointment for a period of more than 1 year but not more than 4 years. The appointment allows eiligibility for benefits and retirement coverage.

  10. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Plant Field Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Butylene (C4H8) An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from refinery processes. Ethane (C2H6) A normally gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of -127.48º F. It is extracted from natural gas and refinery gas streams. Field Production Represents crude oil production on leases, natural gas liquids production at natural gas processing

  11. Determination of Bulk Dimensional Variation in Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. James F. Cuttino Dr. Edward P. Morse

    2005-04-14

    The purpose of this work is to improve the efficiency of green sand foundries so that they may continue to compete as the most cost-effective method of fabrication while meeting tightening constraints on near-net shape manufacturing. In order to achieve this objective, the study is divided into two major components. The first component concentrated on identifying which processes control surface finish on the castings and which provide potential reductions in variations. The second component identified metrological methods that effectively discern between the geometry of bulk material versus surface finish in order to more accurately determine the quality of a part. The research resulted in the determination of an empirical relationship relating pouring parameters to dimensional variation, with an R2 value of greater than 0.79. A significant difference in variations obtained from vertical vs. horizontal molding machines was also noticed. When analyzed separately, however, the resulting empirical relationships for horizontal and vertical machines had reduced R2 values, probably due to the reduced data sets. Significant parameters when considering vertical and horizontal molding machines together included surface roughness, pattern type, iron type, pouring rate, copper content, amount of Western Bentonite, and permeability.

  12. Excitonic exchange splitting in bulk semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, H.; Wang, L.; Zunger, A.

    1999-02-01

    We present an approach to calculate the excitonic fine-structure splittings due to electron-hole short-range exchange interactions using the local-density approximation pseudopotential method, and apply it to bulk semiconductors CdSe, InP, GaAs, and InAs. Comparing with previous theoretical results, the current calculated splittings agree well with experiments. Furthermore, we provide an approximate relationship between the short-range exchange splitting and the exciton Bohr radius, which can be used to estimate the exchange splitting for other materials. The current calculation indicates that a commonly used formula for exchange splitting in quantum dot is not valid. Finally, we find a very large pressure dependence of the exchange splitting: a factor of 4.5 increase as the lattice constant changes by 3.5{percent}. This increase is mainly due to the decrease of the Bohr radius via the change of electron effective mass. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Thermodynamic properties of bulk and confined water

    SciTech Connect

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; Vasi, Sebastiano; Vasi, Cirino; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2014-11-14

    The thermodynamic response functions of water display anomalous behaviors. We study these anomalous behaviors in bulk and confined water. We use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to examine the configurational specific heat and the transport parameters in both the thermal stable and the metastable supercooled phases. The data we obtain suggest that there is a behavior common to both phases: that the dynamics of water exhibit two singular temperatures belonging to the supercooled and the stable phase, respectively. One is the dynamic fragile-to-strong crossover temperature (T{sub L} ? 225K). The second, T{sup *} ? 315 5K, is a special locus of the isothermal compressibility K{sub T}(T, P) and the thermal expansion coefficient ?{sub P}(T, P) in the PT plane. In the case of water confined inside a protein, we observe that these two temperatures mark, respectively, the onset of protein flexibility from its low temperature glass state (T{sub L}) and the onset of the unfolding process (T{sup *})

  14. Material Profile Influences in Bulk-Heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Roehling, John D.; Rochester, Christopher W.; Ro, Hyun W.; Wang, Peng; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Batenburg, Kees J.; Arslan, Ilke; Delongchamp, Dean M.; Moule, Adam J.

    2014-10-01

    he morphology in mixed bulk-heterojunction films are compared using three different quantitative measurement techniques. We compare the vertical composition changes using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron tomography and neutron and x-ray reflectometry. The three measurement techniques yield qualita-tively comparable vertical concentration measurements. The presence of a metal cathode during thermal annealing is observed to alter the fullerene concentration throughout the thickness of the film for all measurements. However, the abso-lute vertical concentration of fullerene is quantitatively different for the three measurements. The origin of the quantitative measurement differences is discussed. The authors thank Luna Innovations, Inc. for donating the endohedral fullerenes used in this study and Plextronics for the P3HT. They are gratefully thank the National Science Foundation Energy for Sustainability Program, Award No. 0933435. This work benefited from the use of the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Los Alamos National Laboratory under DOE Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. This research was also supported in part by Laboratory Directed Research & Development program at PNNL. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-76RL01830.

  15. The Best of Both Worlds: Bulk Diamond Properties Realized at the Nanoscale

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource The Best of Both Worlds: Bulk Diamond Properties Realized at the Nanoscale Friday, August 9, 2013 - 10:30am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Abraham Wolcott, Department of Chemistry, Columbia University High-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) nanodiamonds with nitrogen vacancy centers represent a unique class of fluorophores due to their long-lived electron spin properties, all-carbon matrix, and long-term photostability. While this class

  16. Solution Package Scope Definition

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Solution Package Scope Definition REPORT-72, Salt Waste (SP 72) Rev 1 Developed By: CCP ... A revision to this report may be required if the scope of the remediation activities ...

  17. ARM - Campaign Instrument - ec-convair580-bulk

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsec-convair580-bulk Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Environment Canada Convair 580 Bulk Parameters (EC-CONVAIR580-BULK) Instrument Categories Aerosols, Airborne Observations, Cloud Properties Campaigns Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) [ Download Data ] North Slope Alaska, 2008.04.01 - 2008.04.30 Primary Measurements Taken The following measurements are those considered

  18. Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Efficiency Thermoelectric Materials |

    Office of Science (SC)

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Efficiency Thermoelectric Materials Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights Highlight Archives News & Events Publications History Contact BES Home 04.27.12 Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Efficiency Thermoelectric Materials Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Scientific Achievement A newly synthesized bulk thermoelectric material that contains nanocrystals

  19. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Hawaii | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    information about BulkTransmission in Hawaii. Use the Edit with form button to editupdate. Planning Organizations not provided Hawaii Owners not provided Current Projects not...

  20. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Alaska | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    information about BulkTransmission in Alaska. Use the Edit with form button to editupdate. Planning Organizations not provided Alaska Owners not provided Current Projects not...

  1. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Texas | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    information about BulkTransmission in Texas. Use the Edit with form button to editupdate. Planning Organizations not provided Texas Owners not provided Current Projects not...

  2. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Environment | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Policy Act (HEPA) Hawaii Department of Health Office of Environmental Quality Control Bulk Transmission Environment in Idaho Varies by local municipality Varies by...

  3. Economic manufacturing of bulk metallic glass compositions by microalloying

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.

    2003-05-13

    A method of making a bulk metallic glass composition includes the steps of:a. providing a starting material suitable for making a bulk metallic glass composition, for example, BAM-11; b. adding at least one impurity-mitigating dopant, for example, Pb, Si, B, Sn, P, to the starting material to form a doped starting material; and c. converting the doped starting material to a bulk metallic glass composition so that the impurity-mitigating dopant reacts with impurities in the starting material to neutralize deleterious effects of the impurities on the formation of the bulk metallic glass composition.

  4. Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrate

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project is producing high-efficiency semipolar light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on low-defect bulk gallium nitride (GaN) substrates.

  5. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Site Considerations | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    and comparison for Bulk Transmission Site Considerations across various states. To learn more detailed information about Site Considerations in a state, click on the...

  6. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Federal | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us Regulatory Information Overviews Search for other...

  7. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Land Access | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    RAPIDBulkTransmissionLand Access < RAPID | BulkTransmission(Redirected from RAPIDBulkTransmissionLeasing) Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting...

  8. RAPID/BulkTransmission/About | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Current Topics in Bulk Transmission West-Wide Energy Corridor Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement The West-Wide Energy Corridor Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement...

  9. Enhancing covalent mechanochemistry in bulk polymers using electrospun...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Enhancing covalent mechanochemistry in bulk polymers using electrospun ABA triblock copolymers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enhancing covalent mechanochemistry in ...

  10. Investigation of Interfacial and Bulk Dissociation of HBr, HCl...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Investigation of Interfacial and Bulk Dissociation of HBr, HCl, and HNO3 Using Density Functional Theory-Based Molecular Dynamics Simulations Citation Details In-Document Search...

  11. Category:Bulk Transmission Regulatory Roadmap Sections | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Login | Sign Up Search Category Edit History Category:Bulk Transmission Regulatory Roadmap Sections Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png Looking for the RAPIDRoadmap?...

  12. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Colorado | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including in Colorado. In addition, WECC provides...

  13. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Idaho | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including in Idaho. In addition, WECC provides an...

  14. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Washington | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including in Washington. In addition, WECC provides...

  15. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Nevada | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including in Nevada. WECC also provides an...

  16. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Arizona | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including Arizona. WECC also provides an...

  17. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Oregon | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including Oregon. WECC also provides an environment...

  18. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles and Classical Reactive Molecular Dynamics Authors: Ong, M T ; Verners, O ; Draeger, E ...

  19. Overview of Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    modules, energy-autarkic sensors, and thermoelectric metrology. konig.pdf (5.11 MB) More ... Bulk Materials and Device Development Thermoelectric Activities of European Community ...

  20. High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents high heat flux thermoelectric module design for cooling using a novel V-shaped shunt configuration with bulk TE elements achieving high area packing fractions

  1. Recent Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials at RTI

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Reviews work in engineered thin-film nanoscale thermoelectric materials and nano-bulk materials with high ZT undertaken by RTI in collaboration with its research partners

  2. Strategies for High Thermoelectric zT in Bulk Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Zintl principle in chemistry, complex electronic band structures, and incorporation of nanometer sized particles were used to explore, optimize and improve bulk thermoelectric materials

  3. Ensuring a Reliable Bulk Electric System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC): Ensuring a Reliable Bulk Electric System Cooling Tower Report, October 2008 Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western...

  4. Bulk Vitrification Castable Refractory Block Protection Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Beck, Andrew E.; Brouns, Thomas M.; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Elliott, Michael L.; Matyas, Josef; Minister, Kevin BC; Schweiger, Michael J.; Strachan, Denis M.; Tinsley, Bronnie P.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

    2005-05-01

    Bulk vitrification (BV) was selected for a pilot-scale test and demonstration facility for supplemental treatment to accelerate the cleanup of low-activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford U.S. DOE Site. During engineering-scale (ES) tests, a small fraction of radioactive Tc (and Re, its nonradioactive surrogate) were transferred out of the LAW glass feed and molten LAW glass, and deposited on the surface and within the pores of the castable refractory block (CRB). Laboratory experiments were undertaken to understand the mechanisms of the transport Tc/Re into the CRB during vitrification and to evaluate various means of CRB protection against the deposition of leachable Tc/Re. The tests used Re as a chemical surrogate for Tc. The tests with the baseline CRB showed that the molten LAW penetrates into CRB pores before it converts to glass, leaving deposits of sulfates and chlorides when the nitrate components decompose. Na2O from the LAW reacts with the CRB to create a durable glass phase that may contain Tc/Re. Limited data from a single CRB sample taken from an ES experiment indicate that, while a fraction of Tc/Re is present in the CRB in a readily leachable form, most of the Tc/Re deposited in the refractory is retained in the form of a durable glass phase. In addition, the molten salts from the LAW, mainly sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates, begin to evaporate from BV feeds at temperatures below 800 C and condense on solid surfaces at temperatures below 530 C. Three approaches aimed at reducing or preventing the deposition of soluble Tc/Re within the CRB were proposed: metal lining, sealing the CRB surface with a glaze, and lining the CRB with ceramic tiles. Metal liners were deemed unsuitable because evaluations showed that they can cause unacceptable distortions of the electric field in the BV system. Sodium silicate and a low-alkali borosilicate glaze were selected for testing. The glazes slowed down molten salt condensate penetration, but did little to reduce the

  5. Silicon bulk micromachined hybrid dimensional artifact.

    SciTech Connect

    Claudet, Andre A.; Tran, Hy D.; Bauer, Todd Marks; Shilling, Katherine Meghan; Oliver, Andrew David

    2010-03-01

    A mesoscale dimensional artifact based on silicon bulk micromachining fabrication has been developed and manufactured with the intention of evaluating the artifact both on a high precision coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and video-probe based measuring systems. This hybrid artifact has features that can be located by both a touch probe and a video probe system with a k=2 uncertainty of 0.4 {micro}m, more than twice as good as a glass reference artifact. We also present evidence that this uncertainty could be lowered to as little as 50 nm (k=2). While video-probe based systems are commonly used to inspect mesoscale mechanical components, a video-probe system's certified accuracy is generally much worse than its repeatability. To solve this problem, an artifact has been developed which can be calibrated using a commercially available high-accuracy tactile system and then be used to calibrate typical production vision-based measurement systems. This allows for error mapping to a higher degree of accuracy than is possible with a glass reference artifact. Details of the designed features and manufacturing process of the hybrid dimensional artifact are given and a comparison of the designed features to the measured features of the manufactured artifact is presented and discussed. Measurement results from vision and touch probe systems are compared and evaluated to determine the capability of the manufactured artifact to serve as a calibration tool for video-probe systems. An uncertainty analysis for calibration of the artifact using a CMM is presented.

  6. A-1 APPENDIX A DEFINITION OF TERMS AND ACRONYMS Acronyms

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    FDC Functional Design Criteria FFTF Fast Flux Test Facility FFS Focused Feasibility ... ISS Interim Safe Storage (of the reactors) ISV In-situ Vitrification LDR Land ...

  7. A-1 APPENDIX A DEFINITION OF TERMS AND ACRONYMS Acronyms

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    of radioactive materials; each radionuclide has a characteristic constant half-life. Halogenated Hydrocarbons: Organic compounds containing atoms such as chlorine, fluorine,...

  8. Bulk Hauling Equipment for CHG | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Bulk Hauling Equipment for CHG Bulk Hauling Equipment for CHG This presentation by Don Baldwin of Hexagon Composites was given at the DOE Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Workshop in March 2013. csd_workshop_8_baldwin.pdf (1.2 MB) More Documents & Publications Tank Manufacturing, Testing, Deployment and Field Performance Hydrogen Delivery Roadmap US DRIVE Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team Roadmap

  9. Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Menchhofer, Paul A.; Montgomery, Frederick C.; Baker, Frederick S.

    2011-11-08

    Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

  10. Dark Matter and a Definite Non-Definite

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment, a particle detector located aboard the International Space Station and funded in part by the Energy Department, recently reported a potential signal, a definite non-definite, of mysterious dark matter.

  11. FOIA Frequently Requested Documents: Definitized Subcontract...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Definitized Subcontract No. ZDO-2-30628-09 FOIA Frequently Requested Documents: Definitized Subcontract No. ZDO-2-30628-09 FOIA Frequently Requested Documents: Definitized ...

  12. Bulk Energy Storage Webinar Rescheduled for February 9, 2012 | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy Bulk Energy Storage Webinar Rescheduled for February 9, 2012 Bulk Energy Storage Webinar Rescheduled for February 9, 2012 February 1, 2012 - 12:48pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Iowa Stored Energy Park (ISEP) are conducting a free, 1-hour webinar, Lessons from Iowa: The Economic, Market, and Organizational Issues in Making Bulk Energy Storage Work, on Thursday, February 9, 2012 at 1 p.m. ET. Presenters include Dr. Imre Gyuk of DOE's Office of Electricity

  13. Project Definition Rating Index Workbook

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Project Definition Rating Index (PDRI) Workbook is a tool that was developed to support DOE G-413.3-12A, U. S. Department of Energy Project Definition Rating Index Guide for Traditional Nuclear...

  14. Pairing in bulk nuclear matter beyond BCS

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, D.; Dickhoff, W. H.; Dussan, H.; Witte, S. J.; Rios, A.; Polls, A.

    2014-10-15

    The influence of short-range correlations on the spectral distribution of neutrons is incorporated in the solution of the gap equation for the {sup 3}P{sub 2}−{sup 3}F{sub 2} coupled channel in pure neutron matter. This effect is studied for different realistic interactions including one based on chiral perturbation theory. The gap in this channel vanishes at all relevant densities due to the treatment of these correlations. We also consider the effect of long-range correlations by including polarization terms in addition to the bare interaction which allow the neutrons to exchange density and spin fluctuations governed by the strength of Landau parameters allowed to have reasonable values consistent with the available literature. Preliminary results indicate that reasonable values of these parameters do not generate a gap in the {sup 3}P{sub 2}−{sup 3}F{sub 2} coupled channel either for all three realistic interactions although the pairing interaction becomes slightly more attractive.

  15. Interplay of topological surface and bulk electronic states in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Interplay of topological surface and bulk electronic states in Bi2Se3 Authors: Romanowich, Megan ; Lee, Mal-Soon ; Chung, Duck-Young ; Mahanti, S. D. ; Kanatzidis, Mercouri ...

  16. Bulk viscosity of anisotropically expanding hot QCD plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Vinod

    2011-11-01

    The bulk viscosity, {zeta} and its ratio with the shear viscosity, {zeta}/{eta} have been studied in an anisotropically expanding pure glue plasma in the presence of turbulent color fields. It has been shown that the anisotropy in the momentum distribution function of gluons, which has been determined from a linearized transport equation eventually leads to the bulk viscosity. For the isotropic (equilibrium) state, a recently proposed quasiparticle model of pure SU(3) lattice QCD equation of state has been employed where the interactions are encoded in the effective fugacity. It has been argued that the interactions present in the equation of state, significantly contribute to the bulk viscosity. Its ratio with the shear viscosity is significant even at 1.5T{sub c}. Thus, one needs to take in account the effects of the bulk viscosity while studying the hydrodynamic expansion of quark-gluon plasma in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider.

  17. Active hopper for promoting flow of bulk granular or powdered...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Active hopper for promoting flow of bulk granular or powdered ... An apparatus that promotes the flow of materials has a body having an inner shape for ...

  18. Development of a Wet Logistics System for Bulk Corn Stover

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    a Wet Logistics System for Bulk Corn Stover March 25, 2015 Lynn M. Wendt, William A. Smith, Austin Murphy, and Ian J. Bonner Idaho National Laboratory This presentation does not ...

  19. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery | Department of Energy High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ace082_caylor_2012_o.pdf (866.98 KB) More Documents & Publications Nanostructured High

  20. Compositional ordering and stability in nanostructured, bulk thermoelectric alloys.

    SciTech Connect

    Hekmaty, Michelle A.; Faleev, S.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Leonard, F.; Lensch-Falk, J.; Sharma, Peter Anand; Sugar, J. D.

    2009-09-01

    Thermoelectric materials have many applications in the conversion of thermal energy to electrical power and in solid-state cooling. One route to improving thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency in bulk material is to embed nanoscale inclusions. This report summarize key results from a recently completed LDRD project exploring the science underpinning the formation and stability of nanostructures in bulk thermoelectric and the quantitative relationships between such structures and thermoelectric properties.

  1. Tunable Quantum Dot Solids: Impact of Interparticle Interactions on Bulk

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Properties (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Tunable Quantum Dot Solids: Impact of Interparticle Interactions on Bulk Properties Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Tunable Quantum Dot Solids: Impact of Interparticle Interactions on Bulk Properties QD-solids comprising self-assembled semiconductor nanocrystals such as CdSe are currently under investigation for use in a wide array of applications including light emitting diodes, solar cells, field effect transistors, photodetectors,

  2. CMI Unique Facility: Bulk Combinatoric Materials Synthesis Facility |

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Critical Materials Institute Bulk Combinatoric Materials Synthesis Facility The Bulk Combinatoric Materials Synthesis Facility is one of more than a dozen unique facilities developed by the Critical Materials Institute, an Energy Innovation Hub of the U.S. Department of Energy. Combinatoric studies of materials involve the creation of samples with varying composition, allowing the researcher to find the optimum combination of elements to produce a desired set of properties. The method has

  3. Soot Nanostructure: Definition, Quantification, and Implications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Soot Nanostructure: Definition, Quantification, and Implications Soot Nanostructure: Definition, Quantification, and Implications 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) ...

  4. Biomass Scenario Model Scenario Library: Definitions, Construction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Definitions, Construction, and Description Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Biomass Scenario Model Scenario Library: Definitions, Construction, and Description ...

  5. Information systems definition architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Calapristi, A.J.

    1996-06-20

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Information Systems Definition architecture evaluated information Management (IM) processes in several key organizations. The intent of the study is to identify improvements in TWRS IM processes that will enable better support to the TWRS mission, and accommodate changes in TWRS business environment. The ultimate goals of the study are to reduce IM costs, Manage the configuration of TWRS IM elements, and improve IM-related process performance.

  6. Notes and Definitions

    Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report

    Notes and Definitions This report tracks U.S. natural gas inventories held in underground storage facilities. The weekly stocks generally are the volumes of working gas as of the report date. The "net change" in reported stock levels reflects all events affecting working gas in storage, including injections, withdrawals, and reclassifications between base and working gas. The "implied flow" estimate represents movements of working natural gas into or out of underground

  7. Kaluza-Klein masses of bulk fields with general boundary conditions in AdS{sub 5} space

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Sanghyeon; Park, Seong Chan; Song, Jeonghyeon

    2005-05-15

    Recently bulk Randall-Sundrum theories with the gauge group SU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xU(1){sub B-L} have drawn a lot of interest as an alternative to the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism. These models are in better agreement with electroweak precision data since custodial isospin symmetry on the IR-brane is protected by the extended bulk gauge symmetry. We comprehensively study, in the S{sup 1}/Z{sub 2}xZ{sub 2}{sup '} orbifold, the bulk gauge and fermion fields with the general boundary conditions as well as the bulk and localized mass terms. Master equations to determine the Kaluza-Klein (KK) mass spectra are derived without any approximation, which is an important basic step for various phenomenologies at high energy colliders. The correspondence between orbifold boundary conditions and localized mass terms is demonstrated not only in the gauge sector but also in the fermion sector. As the localized mass increases, the first KK fermion mass is shown to decrease while the first KK gauge boson mass is shown to increase. The degree of gauge coupling universality violation is computed to be small in most parameter space, and its correlation with the mass difference between the top quark and light quark KK mode is also studied.

  8. Bulk Nanostructured FCC Steels With Enhanced Radiation Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xinghang; Hartwig, K. Ted; Allen, Todd; Yang, Yong

    2012-10-27

    The objective of this project is to increase radiation tolerance in austenitic steels through optimization of grain size and grain boundary (GB) characteristics. The focus will be on nanocrystalline austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni alloys with an fcc crystal structure. The long-term goal is to design and develop bulk nanostructured austenitic steels with enhanced void swelling resistance and substantial ductility, and to enhance their creep resistance at elevated temperatures via GB engineering. The combination of grain refinement and grain boundary engineering approaches allows us to tailor the material strength, ductility, and resistance to swelling by 1) changing the sink strength for point defects, 2) by increasing the nucleation barriers for bubble formation at GBs, and 3) by changing the precipitate distributions at boundaries. Compared to ferritic/martensitic steels, austenitic stainless steels (SS) possess good creep and fatigue resistance at elevated temperatures, and better toughness at low temperature. However, a major disadvantage of austenitic SS is that they are vulnerable to significant void swelling in nuclear reactors, especially at the temperatures and doses anticipated in the Advanced Burner Reactor. The lack of resistance to void swelling in austenitic alloys led to the switch to ferritic/martensitic steels as the preferred material for the fast reactor cladding application. Recently a type of austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS, was developed at ORNL, and is expected to show enhanced void swelling resistance through the trapping of point defects at nanometersized carbides. Reducing the grain size and increasing the fraction of low energy grain boundaries should reduce the available radiation-produced point defects (due to the increased sink area of the grain boundaries), should make bubble nucleation at the boundaries less likely (by reducing the fraction of high-energy boundaries), and improve the strength and ductility under radiation by producing a higher

  9. Glossary of Terms & Acronyms | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Earned Value Management » Glossary of Terms & Acronyms Glossary of Terms & Acronyms Below is the Project Management & Oversight Assesment Glossary of Terms & Acronyms: Term Acronym Definition Architect/ Engineer A/E or A-E Firm or organization that designs buildings, structures, systems, etc. A professional organization providing architectural and engineering services including research, planning, development, design, construction, alteration, or repair of real property;

  10. Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation Print Wednesday,...

  11. "Plastic" Solar Cells: Self-Assembly of Bulk HeterojunctionNano...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-Assembly of Bulk Heterojunction Nano-Materials by Spontaneous Phase Separation ... self-assembly of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) nano-materials by spontaneous phase separation. ...

  12. Preparation of bulk superhard B-C-N nanocomposite compact

    DOEpatents

    Zhao, Yusheng; He, Duanwei

    2011-05-10

    Bulk, superhard, B--C--N nanocomposite compacts were prepared by ball milling a mixture of graphite and hexagonal boron nitride, encapsulating the ball-milled mixture at a pressure in a range of from about 15 GPa to about 25 GPa, and sintering the pressurized encapsulated ball-milled mixture at a temperature in a range of from about 1800-2500 K. The product bulk, superhard, nanocomposite compacts were well sintered compacts with nanocrystalline grains of at least one high-pressure phase of B--C--N surrounded by amorphous diamond-like carbon grain boundaries. The bulk compacts had a measured Vicker's hardness in a range of from about 41 GPa to about 68 GPa.

  13. Palladium diffusion into bulk copper via the (100) surface.

    SciTech Connect

    Bussmann, Ezra; Pohl, Karsten; Sun, Jiebing; Kellogg, Gary Lee

    2009-01-01

    Using low-energy electron microscopy, we measure the diffusion of Pd into bulk Cu at the Cu(100) surface. Interdiffusion is tracked by measuring the dissolution of the Cu(100)-c(2 x 2)-Pd surface alloy during annealing (T > 240 C). The activation barrier for Pd diffusion from the surface alloy into the bulk is determined to be (1.8 {+-} 0.6) eV. During annealing, we observe the growth of a new layer of Cu near step edges. Under this new Cu layer, dilute Pd remaining near the surface develops a layered structure similar to the Cu{sub 3}Pd L 1{sub 2} bulk alloy phase.

  14. Properties of Bulk Sintered Silver As a Function of Porosity

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Vuono, Daniel J; Wang, Hsin; Ferber, Mattison K; Liang, Zhenxian

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes a study where various properties of bulk-sintered silver were investigated over a range of porosity. This work was conducted within the National Transportation Research Center's Power Device Packaging project that is part of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program. Sintered silver, as an interconnect material in power electronics, inherently has porosity in its produced structure because of the way it is made. Therefore, interest existed in this study to examine if that porosity affected electrical properties, thermal properties, and mechanical properties because any dependencies could affect the intended function (e.g., thermal transfer, mechanical stress relief, etc.) or reliability of that interconnect layer and alter how its performance is modeled. Disks of bulk-sintered silver were fabricated using different starting silver pastes and different sintering conditions to promote different amounts of porosity. Test coupons were harvested out of the disks to measure electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress. The authors fully recognize that the microstructure of processed bulk silver coupons may indeed not be identical to the microstructure produced in thin (20-50 microns) layers of sintered silver. However, measuring these same properties with such a thin actual structure is very difficult, requires very specialized specimen preparation and unique testing instrumentation, is expensive, and has experimental shortfalls of its own, so the authors concluded that the herein measured responses using processed bulk sintered silver coupons would be sufficient to determine acceptable values of those properties. Almost all the investigated properties of bulk sintered silver changed with porosity content within a range of 3-38% porosity. Electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity, thermal

  15. Brane gravity, massless bulk scalar, and self-tuning of the cosmological constant

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jihn E.; Kyae, Bumseok; Shafi, Qaisar

    2004-09-15

    We show that a self-tuning mechanism of the cosmological constant could work in 5D noncompact space-time with a Z{sub 2} symmetry in the presence of a massless scalar field. The standard model matter fields live only on the 4D brane. The change of vacuum energy on the brane (brane cosmological constant) by, for instance, electroweak and QCD phase transitions, just gives rise to dynamical shifts of the profiles of the background metric and the scalar field in the extra dimension, keeping 4D space-time flat without any fine-tuning. To avoid naked singularities in the bulk, the brane cosmological constant should be negative. We introduce an additional brane-localized 4D Einstein-Hilbert term so as to provide the observed 4D gravity with the noncompact extra dimension. With a general form of the brane-localized gravity term allowed by the symmetries, the low energy Einstein gravity is successfully reproduced on the brane at long distances. We show this phenomenon explicitly for the case of vanishing bulk cosmological constant.

  16. Synthesis of bulk superhard semiconducting B-C material

    SciTech Connect

    Solozhenko, Vladimir L.; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia A.; Dubrovinsky, Leonid S.

    2004-08-30

    A bulk composite superhard material was synthesized from graphitelike BC{sub 3} at 20 GPa and 2300 K using a multianvil press. The material consists of intergrown boron carbide B{sub 4}C and B-doped diamond with 1.8 at.%B. The material exhibits semiconducting behavior and extreme hardness comparable with that of single-crystal diamond.

  17. Permanent magnet with MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Ishihara, Atsushi; Tomita, Masaru; Kishio, Kohji

    2014-07-21

    Superconductors with persistent zero-resistance currents serve as permanent magnets for high-field applications requiring a strong and stable magnetic field, such as magnetic resonance imaging. The recent global helium shortage has quickened research into high-temperature superconductors (HTSs)—materials that can be used without conventional liquid-helium cooling to 4.2 K. Herein, we demonstrate that 40-K-class metallic HTS magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) makes an excellent permanent bulk magnet, maintaining 3 T at 20 K for 1 week with an extremely high stability (<0.1 ppm/h). The magnetic field trapped in this magnet is uniformly distributed, as for single-crystalline neodymium-iron-boron. Magnetic hysteresis loop of the MgB{sub 2} permanent bulk magnet was determined. Because MgB{sub 2} is a simple-binary-line compound that does not contain rare-earth metals, polycrystalline bulk material can be industrially fabricated at low cost and with high yield to serve as strong magnets that are compatible with conventional compact cryocoolers, making MgB{sub 2} bulks promising for the next generation of Tesla-class permanent-magnet applications.

  18. Corporate Performance Measures Definitions

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plutonium Metal or Oxide packaged for long-term storage (number of containers): Certified DOE storage/treatment/disposal (STD) 3013 containers (or equivalent) of plutonium metal or oxide packaged...

  19. C.R.S. 37-90.5-103 Geothermal Resources Definitions | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: C.R.S. 37-90.5-103 Geothermal Resources DefinitionsLegal Abstract Colorado statute that defines terms...

  20. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-09-29

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW Immobilization facility or other

  1. Category:Smart Grid Definitions | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Grant Program M Definition:Meter Data Analysis System Definition:Microgrid Controller M cont. Definition:Mode Meter R Definition:Remote Fault Indicators...

  2. Sociocultural definitions of risk

    SciTech Connect

    Rayner, S.

    1990-10-01

    Public constituencies frequently are criticized by technical experts as being irrational in response to low-probability risks. This presentation argued that most people are concerned with a variety of risk attributes other than probability and that is rather irrational to exclude these from the definition and analysis of technological risk. Risk communication, which is at the heart of the right-to-know concept, is described as the creation of shared meaning rather than the mere transmission of information. A case study of utilities, public utility commissions, and public interest groups illustrates how the diversity of institutional cultures in modern society leads to problems for the creation of shared meanings in establishing trust, distributing liability, and obtaining consent to risk. This holistic approach to risk analysis is most appropriate under conditions of high uncertainty and/or decision stakes. 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  3. DOE Acquisition and Project Management (APM) Glossary of Terms Handbook FINAL VERSION 9-30-2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    ACQUISITION AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT GLOSSARY OF TERMS HANDBOOK This handbook provides definitions of acquisition and project management terms commonly used in DOE projects to ensure consistent use of terms in DOE project documents and discussions. DOE APM Glossary of Terms Handbook – Final, September 2014

  4. Geothermal Resource Exploration And Definition | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Definition Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book: Geothermal Resource Exploration And Definition Abstract No abstract prepared. Authors Jay S....

  5. Analysis of 1w Bulk Laser Damage in KDP

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, D A; Carr, C W

    2011-04-11

    The influence of laser parameters on laser-induced damage in the bulk of KDP is difficult to determine because the damage manifests as discrete sites a few microns in diameter distributed throughout a relatively large volume of material. Here, they present a method to directly measure the size and location of many thousands of such sites and correlate them to the laser conditions which produced them. This technique is used to characterize the effects of pulse duration on damage initiated by 1053 nm light in the bulk of KDP crystals. They find that the density of damage sites produced by 1053 nm light is less sensitive to pulse duration than was previously reported for 526 nm and 351 nm light. In addition, the effect of pulse duration on the size of the damage sites produced appears insensitive to wavelength.

  6. Method of fabricating an optoelectronic device having a bulk heterojunction

    DOEpatents

    Shtein, Max (Ann Arbor, MI); Yang, Fan (Princeton, NJ); Forrest, Stephen R. (Princeton, NJ)

    2008-10-14

    A method of fabricating an optoelectronic device comprises: depositing a first layer having protrusions over a first electrode, in which the first layer comprises a first organic small molecule material; depositing a second layer on the first layer such that the second layer is in physical contact with the first layer; in which the smallest lateral dimension of the protrusions are between 1 to 5 times the exciton diffusion length of the first organic small molecule material; and depositing a second electrode over the second layer to form the optoelectronic device. A method of fabricating an organic optoelectronic device having a bulk heterojunction is also provided and comprises: depositing a first layer with protrusions over an electrode by organic vapor phase deposition; depositing a second layer on the first layer where the interface of the first and second layers forms a bulk heterojunction; and depositing another electrode over the second layer.

  7. Strength and flexibility of bulk high-{Tc} superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Goretta, K.C.; Jiang, M.; Kupperman, D.S.; Lanagan, M.T.; Singh, J.P.; Vasanthamohan, N.; Hinks, D.G.; Mitchell, J.F.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.

    1996-08-01

    Strength, fracture toughness, and elastic modulus data have been gathered for bulk high-temperature superconductors, commercial 99.9% Ag, and a 1.2 at.% Mg/Ag alloy. These data have been used to calculate fracture strains for bulk conductors. The calculations indicate that the superconducting cores of clad tapes should begin to fracture at strains below 0.2%. In addition, residual strains in Ag-clad (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} tapes have been measured by neutron diffraction. An explanation is offered for why many tapes appear to be able to tolerate large strains before exhibiting a reduction in current transport.

  8. Bulk Fuel Procurement Process & Alternative Drop-in Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    WARFIGHTER FOCUSED, GLOBALLY RESPONSIVE SUPPLY CHAIN LEADERSHIP 1 DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY AMERICA'S COMBAT SUPPORT LOGISTICS AGENCY WARFIGHTER SUPPORT ENHANCEMENT STEWARDSHIP EXCELLENCE WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT Industry Roundtable USDA/DOE/DON/DOT-FAA Advanced Drop-In Biofuels Initiative Bulk Fuel Procurement Process & Alternative Drop-in Fuel Jeanne Binder DLA Energy 18 May 2012 WARFIGHTER FOCUSED, GLOBALLY RESPONSIVE SUPPLY CHAIN LEADERSHIP 2 WARFIGHTER FOCUSED, GLOBALLY RESPONSIVE SUPPLY

  9. Plasma Incinerator System for the Reduction and Processing of Bulk

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Plasma Incinerator System for the Reduction and Processing of Bulk Materials This is a high-temperature plasma device, coupled to an engineered (temperature resistant) chamber for the purpose of reducing waste and other materials. the device enhances the efficient for mass reduction. In operation there are no moving parts. Mass reduction is realized, resulting from localized heat, within the process chamber. No.: M-910 Inventor(s): Charles A Gentile

  10. Evolution of bulk strain solitons in cylindrical inhomogeneous shells

    SciTech Connect

    Shvartz, A. Samsonov, A.; Dreiden, G.; Semenova, I.

    2015-10-28

    Bulk strain solitary waves in nonlinearly elastic thin-walled cylindrical shells with variable geometrical and physical parameters are studied, and equation for the longitudinal strain component with the variable coefficients is derived. A conservative finite difference scheme is proposed, and the results of numerical simulation of the strain soliton evolution in a shell with the abrupt variations of cross section and physical properties of the material are presented.

  11. Factors influencing photocurrent generation in organic bulk heterojunction

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    solar cells: interfacial energetics and blend microstructure | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Factors influencing photocurrent generation in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells: interfacial energetics and blend microstructure April 29, 2009 at 3pm/36-428 Jenny Nelson Department of Physics Imperial College London jenny-nelson_000 abstract: The efficiency of photocurrent generation in conjugated polymer:small molecule blend solar is strongly influenced both by the energy level alignment

  12. Bulk ion heating with ICRF waves in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Mantsinen, M. J.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, V. V.; Kappatou, A.; McDermott, R. M.; Odstrčil, T.; Tardini, G.; Bernert, M.; Dux, R.; Maraschek, M.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Ryter, F.; Stober, J.; Nocente, M.; Hellsten, T.; Mantica, P.; Tardocchi, M.; Nielsen, S. K.; Rasmussen, J.; Stejner, M.; and others

    2015-12-10

    Heating with ICRF waves is a well-established method on present-day tokamaks and one of the heating systems foreseen for ITER. However, further work is still needed to test and optimize its performance in fusion devices with metallic high-Z plasma facing components (PFCs) in preparation of ITER and DEMO operation. This is of particular importance for the bulk ion heating capabilities of ICRF waves. Efficient bulk ion heating with the standard ITER ICRF scheme, i.e. the second harmonic heating of tritium with or without {sup 3}He minority, was demonstrated in experiments carried out in deuterium-tritium plasmas on JET and TFTR and is confirmed by ICRF modelling. This paper focuses on recent experiments with {sup 3}He minority heating for bulk ion heating on the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak with ITER-relevant all-tungsten PFCs. An increase of 80% in the central ion temperature T{sub i} from 3 to 5.5 keV was achieved when 3 MW of ICRF power tuned to the central {sup 3}He ion cyclotron resonance was added to 4.5 MW of deuterium NBI. The radial gradient of the T{sub i} profile reached locally values up to about 50 keV/m and the normalized logarithmic ion temperature gradients R/LT{sub i} of about 20, which are unusually large for AUG plasmas. The large changes in the T{sub i} profiles were accompanied by significant changes in measured plasma toroidal rotation, plasma impurity profiles and MHD activity, which indicate concomitant changes in plasma properties with the application of ICRF waves. When the {sup 3}He concentration was increased above the optimum range for bulk ion heating, a weaker peaking of the ion temperature profile was observed, in line with theoretical expectations.

  13. High-Quality, Low-Cost Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    High-Quality, Low- Cost Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrates Electrochemical Solution Growth: A Scalable Semiconductor Manufacturing Process The ever-growing demand in the past decade for more energy effcient solid-state lighting and electrical power conversion is leading to a higher demand for wide bandgap semiconductor-based devices, such as gallium nitride (GaN), over traditional silicon (Si)-based devices. High cost and limited availability, how- ever, have hindered the adoption of GaN substrates

  14. Dynamics of dendritic polymers in the bulk and under confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Chrissopoulou, K.; Fotiadou, S.; Androulaki, K.; Anastasiadis, S. H.; Tanis, I.; Karatasos, K.; Prevosto, D.; Labardi, M.; Frick, B.

    2014-05-15

    The structure and dynamics of a hyperbranched polyesteramide (Hybrane S 1200) polymer and its nanocomposites with natural montmorillonite (Na{sup +}-MMT) are investigated by XRD, DSC, QENS, DS and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation. In bulk, the energy-resolved elastically scattered intensity from the polymer exhibits two relaxation steps, one attributed to sub-T{sub g} motions and one observed at temperatures above the glass transition, T{sub g}. The QENS spectra measured over the complete temperature range are consistent with the elastic measurements and can be correlated to the results emerging from the detailed description afforded by the atomistic simulations, which predict the existence of three relaxation processes. Moreover, dielectric spectroscopy shows the sub- T{sub g} beta process as well as the segmental relaxation. For the nanocomposites, XRD reveals an intercalated structure for all hybrids with distinct interlayer distances due to polymer chains residing within the galleries of the Na{sup +}-MMT. The polymer chains confined within the galleries show similarities in the behavior with that of the polymer in the bulk for temperatures below the bulk polymer T{sub g}, whereas they exhibit frozen dynamics under confinement at temperatures higher than that.

  15. Nanostructured Bulk Thermoelectric Generator for Efficient Power Harvesting for Self-powered Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanliang; Butt, Darryl; Agarwal, Vivek

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology research project is to develop high-efficiency and reliable thermoelectric generators for self-powered wireless sensors nodes utilizing thermal energy from nuclear plant or fuel cycle. The power harvesting technology has crosscutting significance to address critical technology gaps in monitoring nuclear plants and fuel cycle. The outcomes of the project will lead to significant advancement in sensors and instrumentation technology, reducing cost, improving monitoring reliability and therefore enhancing safety. The self-powered wireless sensor networks could support the long-term safe and economical operation of all the reactor designs and fuel cycle concepts, as well as spent fuel storage and many other nuclear science and engineering applications. The research is based on recent breakthroughs in high-performance nanostructured bulk (nanobulk) thermoelectric materials that enable high-efficiency direct heat-to-electricity conversion over a wide temperature range. The nanobulk thermoelectric materials that the research team at Boise State University and University of Houston has developed yield up to a 50% increase in the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, compared with state-of-the-art bulk counterparts. This report focuses on the selection of optimal thermoelectric materials for this project. The team has performed extensive study on two thermoelectric materials systems, i.e. the half-Heusler materials, and the Bismuth-Telluride materials. The report contains our recent research results on the fabrication, characterization and thermoelectric property measurements of these two materials.

  16. Project Definition Rating Index (PDRI)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) Project Definition Rating Index (EM-PDRI) is a modification of a commercially developed planning tool that has been tested by an EM team specifically for...

  17. Deformation-induced spatiotemporal fluctuation, evolution and localization of strain fields in a bulk metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yuan; Bei, Hongbin; Wang, Yanli; Lu, Zhaoping; George, Easo P.; Gao, Yanfei

    2015-05-16

    Deformation behavior and local strain evolutions upon loading and unloading of a bulk metallic glass (BMG) were systematically investigated by in situ digital image correlation (DIC). Distinct fluctuations and irreversible local strains were observed before the onset of macroscopic yielding. Statistical analysis shows that these fluctuations might be related to intrinsic structural heterogeneities, and that the evolution history and characteristics of local strain fields play an important role in the subsequent initiation of shear bands. Effects of sample size, pre-strain, and loading conditions were systematically analyzed in terms of the probability distributions of the resulting local strain fields. It is found that a higher degree of local shear strain heterogeneity corresponds to a more ductile stressestrain curve. Implications of these findings are discussed for the design of new materials.

  18. Deformation-induced spatiotemporal fluctuation, evolution and localization of strain fields in a bulk metallic glass

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Wu, Yuan; Bei, Hongbin; Wang, Yanli; Lu, Zhaoping; George, Easo P.; Gao, Yanfei

    2015-05-16

    Deformation behavior and local strain evolutions upon loading and unloading of a bulk metallic glass (BMG) were systematically investigated by in situ digital image correlation (DIC). Distinct fluctuations and irreversible local strains were observed before the onset of macroscopic yielding. Statistical analysis shows that these fluctuations might be related to intrinsic structural heterogeneities, and that the evolution history and characteristics of local strain fields play an important role in the subsequent initiation of shear bands. Effects of sample size, pre-strain, and loading conditions were systematically analyzed in terms of the probability distributions of the resulting local strain fields. It ismore » found that a higher degree of local shear strain heterogeneity corresponds to a more ductile stressestrain curve. Implications of these findings are discussed for the design of new materials.« less

  19. Change of variables as a method to study general ?-models: Bulk universality

    SciTech Connect

    Shcherbina, M.

    2014-04-15

    We consider ? matrix models with real analytic potentials. Assuming that the corresponding equilibrium density ? has a one-interval support (without loss of generality ? = [?2, 2]), we study the transformation of the correlation functions after the change of variables ?{sub i} ? ?(?{sub i}) with ?(?) chosen from the equation ?{sup ?}(?)?(?(?)) = ?{sub sc}(?), where ?{sub sc}(?) is the standard semicircle density. This gives us the deformed ?-model which has an additional interaction term. Standard transformation with the Gaussian integral allows us to show that the deformed ?-model may be reduced to the standard Gaussian ?-model with a small perturbation n{sup ?1}h(?). This reduces most of the problems of local and global regimes for ?-models to the corresponding problems for the Gaussian ?-model with a small perturbation. In the present paper, we prove the bulk universality of local eigenvalue statistics for both one-cut and multi-cut cases.

  20. Recent progress in the morphology of bulk heterojunction photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Michael A.; Su, Gregory M.; Chabinyc, Michael L.

    2011-10-06

    A review of current research in the characterization of the morphology of semiconducting polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions (BHJs) is presented. BHJs are complex blends of polymers and fullerenes with nanostructures that are highly dependent on materials, processing conditions, and post-treatments to films. Recent work on the study of the morphology of BHJs is surveyed. Emphasis is placed on emerging work on BHJs of poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, PCBM, along with BHJs of donoracceptor polymers that have high power conversion efficiency.

  1. Neutron interaction and their transport with bulk materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rani, Esther Kalpana; Radhika, K.

    2015-05-15

    In the current paper an attempt was made to study and provide fundamental information about neutron interactions that are important to nuclear material measurements. The application of this study is explained about macroscopic interactions with bulk compound materials through a program in DEV C++ language which is done by enabling interaction of neutrons in nature. The output of the entire process depends upon the random number (i.e., incident neutron number), thickness of the material and mean free path as input parameters. Further the current study emphasizes on the usage of materials in shielding.

  2. Multifunctional bulk plasma source based on discharge with electron injection

    SciTech Connect

    Klimov, A. S.; Medovnik, A. V.; Tyunkov, A. V.; Savkin, K. P.; Shandrikov, M. V.; Vizir, A. V.

    2013-01-15

    A bulk plasma source, based on a high-current dc glow discharge with electron injection, is described. Electron injection and some special design features of the plasma arc emitter provide a plasma source with very long periods between maintenance down-times and a long overall lifetime. The source uses a sectioned sputter-electrode array with six individual sputter targets, each of which can be independently biased. This discharge assembly configuration provides multifunctional operation, including plasma generation from different gases (argon, nitrogen, oxygen, acetylene) and deposition of composite metal nitride and oxide coatings.

  3. Evidence for the Bulk Nature of Self-Assembled Monolayer Surface...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evidence for the Bulk Nature of Self-Assembled Monolayer Surface of Fluorinated Alkyl ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evidence for the Bulk Nature of Self-Assembled ...

  4. Comment on ""bulk-plasmon contribution to the work function of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Comment on ""bulk-plasmon contribution to the work function of metals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comment on ""bulk-plasmon contribution to the work function of...

  5. Development of a Bulk-Format System to Harvest, Handle, Store...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    a Bulk-Format System to Harvest, Handle, Store, and Deliver High-Tonnage generaprojectabstract1.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of a Bulk-Format System to Harvest,...

  6. File:08COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:08COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Size of this preview: 463 599...

  7. Strategies for High Thermoelectric zT in Bulk Materials | Department...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    explore, optimize and improve bulk thermoelectric materials snyder.pdf (8.19 MB) More Documents & Publications Strategies for High Thermoelectric zT in Bulk Materials Glass-like ...

  8. High-Impact, Low-Frequency Risk to the North American Bulk Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    High-Impact, Low-Frequency Risk to the North American Bulk Power System (June 2010) High-Impact, Low-Frequency Risk to the North American Bulk Power System (June 2010) A ...

  9. Radiological consequences of ship collisions that might occur in U.S. Ports during the shipment of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel to the United States in break-bulk freighters

    SciTech Connect

    Sprung, J.L.; Bespalko, S.J.; Massey, C.D.; Yoshimura, R.; Johnson, J.D.; Reardon, P.C.; Ebert, M.W.; Gallagher D.W.

    1996-08-01

    Accident source terms, source term probabilities, consequences, and risks are developed for ship collisions that might occur in U.S. ports during the shipment of spent fuel from foreign research reactors to the United States in break-bulk freighters.

  10. Method of fabricating an optoelectronic device having a bulk heterojunction

    DOEpatents

    Shtein, Max (Princeton, NJ); Yang, Fan (Princeton, NJ); Forrest, Stephen R. (Princeton, NJ)

    2008-09-02

    A method of fabricating an organic optoelectronic device having a bulk heterojunction comprises the steps of: depositing a first layer over a first electrode by organic vapor phase deposition, wherein the first layer comprises a first organic small molecule material; depositing a second layer on the first layer such that the second layer is in physical contact with the first layer, wherein the interface of the second layer on the first layer forms a bulk heterojunction; and depositing a second electrode over the second layer to form the optoelectronic device. In another embodiment, a first layer having protrusions is deposited over the first electrode, wherein the first layer comprises a first organic small molecule material. For example, when the first layer is an electron donor layer, the first electrode is an anode, the second layer is an electron acceptor layer, and the second electrode is a cathode. As a further example, when the first layer is an electron acceptor layer, the first electrode is a cathode, the second layer is an electron donor layer, and the second electrode is an anode.

  11. Powder metallurgy processing and deformation characteristics of bulk multimodal nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Farbaniec, L.; Dirras, G.; Krawczynska, A.; Mompiou, F.; Couque, H.; Naimi, F.; Bernard, F.; Tingaud, D.

    2014-08-15

    Spark plasma sintering was used to process bulk nickel samples from a blend of three powder types. The resulting multimodal microstructure was made of coarse (average size ? 135 ?m) spherical microcrystalline entities (the core) surrounded by a fine-grained matrix (average grain size ? 1.5 ?m) or a thick rim (the shell) distinguishable from the matrix. Tensile tests revealed yield strength of ? 470 MPa that was accompanied by limited ductility (? 2.8% plastic strain). Microstructure observation after testing showed debonding at interfaces between the matrix and the coarse entities, but in many instances, shallow dimples within the rim were observed indicating local ductile events in the shell. Dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries and twinning at crack tip were the main deformation mechanisms taking place within the fine-grained matrix as revealed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Estimation of the stress from loop's curvature and dislocation pile-up indicates that dislocation emission from grain boundaries and grain boundary overcoming largely contributes to the flow stress. - Highlights: Bulk multi-modal Ni was processed by SPS from a powder blend. Ultrafine-grained matrix or rim observed around spherical microcrystalline entities Yield strength (470 MPa) and ductility (2.8% plastic strain) were measured. Debonding was found at the matrix/microcrystalline entity interfaces. In-situ TEM showed twinning, dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries.

  12. Control Center and Data Management Improvements Modernize Bulk...

    Energy Saver

    ... and address future smart grid requirements, including advancements in software, hardware, and "big data" analytics. GSOC expects to implement near- and long-term enhancements. ...

  13. Glossary of CERCLA, RCRA and TSCA related terms and acronyms. Environmental Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This glossary contains CERCLA, RCRA and TSCA related terms that are most often encountered in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Emergency Preparedness activities. Detailed definitions are included for key terms. The CERCLA definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended and related federal rulemakings. The RCRA definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and related federal rulemakings. The TSCA definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Toxic Substances and Control Act (TSCA) and related federal rulemakings. Definitions related to TSCA are limited to those sections in the statute and regulations concerning PCBs and asbestos.Other sources for definitions include additional federal rulemakings, assorted guidance documents prepared by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), guidance and informational documents prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE), and DOE Orders. The source of each term is noted beside the term. Terms presented in this document reflect revised and new definitions published before July 1, 1993.

  14. Corrosion of Metal Inclusions In Bulk Vitrification Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Strachan, Denis M.; Josephson, Gary B.

    2006-07-31

    The primary purpose of the work reported here is to analyze the potential effect of the release of technetium (Tc) from metal inclusions in bulk vitrification waste packages once they are placed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). As part of the strategy for immobilizing waste from the underground tanks at Hanford, selected wastes will be immobilized using bulk vitrification. During analyses of the glass produced in engineering-scale tests, metal inclusions were found in the glass product. This report contains the results from experiments designed to quantify the corrosion rates of metal inclusions found in the glass product from AMEC Test ES-32B and simulations designed to compare the rate of Tc release from the metal inclusions to the release of Tc from glass produced with the bulk vitrification process. In the simulations, the Tc in the metal inclusions was assumed to be released congruently during metal corrosion as soluble TcO4-. The experimental results and modeling calculations show that the metal corrosion rate will, under all conceivable conditions at the IDF, be dominated by the presence of the passivating layer and corrosion products on the metal particles. As a result, the release of Tc from the metal particles at the surfaces of fractures in the glass releases at a rate similar to the Tc present as a soluble salt. The release of the remaining Tc in the metal is controlled by the dissolution of the glass matrix. To summarize, the release of 99Tc from the BV glass within precipitated Fe is directly proportional to the diameter of the Fe particles and to the amount of precipitated Fe. However, the main contribution to the Tc release from the iron particles is over the same time period as the release of the soluble Tc salt. For the base case used in this study (0.48 mass% of 0.5 mm diameter metal particles homogeneously distributed in the BV glass), the release of 99Tc from the metal is approximately the same as the release from 0.3 mass% soluble Tc

  15. Characterization and assessment of novel bulk storage technologies : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, Georgianne; Tong, Nellie; Fioravanti, Richard; Gordon, Paul; Markel, Larry; Agrawal, Poonum; Nourai, Ali

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the results of a high-level study to assess the technological readiness and technical and economic feasibility of 17 novel bulk energy storage technologies. The novel technologies assessed were variations of either pumped storage hydropower (PSH) or compressed air energy storage (CAES). The report also identifies major technological gaps and barriers to the commercialization of each technology. Recommendations as to where future R&D efforts for the various technologies are also provided based on each technology's technological readiness and the expected time to commercialization (short, medium, or long term). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned this assessment of novel concepts in large-scale energy storage to aid in future program planning of its Energy Storage Program. The intent of the study is to determine if any new but still unproven bulk energy storage concepts merit government support to investigate their technical and economic feasibility or to speed their commercialization. The study focuses on compressed air energy storage (CAES) and pumped storage hydropower (PSH). It identifies relevant applications for bulk storage, defines the associated technical requirements, characterizes and assesses the feasibility of the proposed new concepts to address these requirements, identifies gaps and barriers, and recommends the type of government support and research and development (R&D) needed to accelerate the commercialization of these technologies.

  16. EIA Open Data - Bulk - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Bulk download facility The bulk download facility provides the entire contents of each major API data set in a single ZIP file. A small JSON formatted manifest file lists the bulk files and the update date of each file. The manifest is generally updated daily and can be downloaded from http://api.eia.gov/bulk/manifest.txt. The manifest contains information about the bulk files, including all required common core attributes: identifier data_set last_updated modified category_id title description

  17. Interaction of graphene quantum dots with bulk semiconductor surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Mohapatra, P. K.; Singh, B. P.; Kushavah, Dushyant; Mohapatra, J.

    2015-05-15

    Highly luminescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are synthesized through thermolysis of glucose. The average lateral size of the synthesized GQDs is found to be ∼5 nm. The occurrence of D and G band at 1345 and 1580 cm{sup −1} in Raman spectrum confirms the presence of graphene layers. GQDs are mostly consisting of 3 to 4 graphene layers as confirmed from the AFM measurements. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement shows a distinct broadening of the spectrum when GQDs are on the semiconducting bulk surface compared to GQDs in water. The time resolved PL measurement shows a significant shortening in PL lifetime due to the substrate interaction on GQDs compared to the GQDs in solution phase.

  18. Bulk Properties of Nuclear Matter From Excitations of Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Shlomo, Shalom

    2007-10-26

    We consider the predictive power of Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation in determining properties of finite nuclei and thereby in extracting bulk properties of infinite nuclear matter (NM) by extrapolation. In particular, we review the current status of determining the value of NM incompressibility coefficient K, considering the most sensitive method of analyzing the recent accurate experimental data on excitation strengths of compression modes of nuclei within microscopic relativistic and non-relativistic theoretical models. We discuss the consequences of common violations of self-consistency in HF based random-phase-approximation calculations of strength functions and present results of highly accurate calculations of centroid energies and excitation cross sections of giant resonances. Explanations (resolutions) of long standing discrepancies in the value of K are presented.

  19. Coherent rho 0 photoproduction in bulk matter at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Couderc, Elsa; Klein, Spencer

    2009-01-09

    The momentum transfer {Delta}k required for a photon to scatter from a target and emerge as a {rho}{sup 0} decreases as the photon energy k rises. For k > 3 x 10{sup 14} eV, {Delta}k is small enough that the interaction cannot be localized to a single nucleus. At still higher energies, photons may coherently scatter elastically from bulk matter and emerge as a {rho}{sup 0}, in a manner akin to kaon regeneration. Constructive interference from the different nuclei coherently raises the cross section and the interaction probability rises linearly with energy. At energies above 10{sup 23} eV, coherent conversion is the dominant process; photons interact predominantly as {rho}{sup 0}. We compute the coherent scattering probabilities in slabs of lead, water and rock, and discuss the implications of the increased hadronic interaction probabilities for photons on ultra-high energy shower development.

  20. Methods of synthesizing hydroxyapatite powders and bulk materials

    DOEpatents

    Luo, Ping

    1999-01-12

    Methods are provided for producing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules of less than 8 .mu.m by a spray-drying process. Solid or hollow spheres or doughnuts can be formed by controlling the volume fraction and viscosity of the slurry as well as the spray-drying conditions. Methods of providing for homogenous cellular structure hydroxyapatite granules are also provided. Pores or channels or varying size and number can be formed by varying the temperature at which a hydroxyapatite slurry formed in basic, saturated ammonium hydroxide is spray-dried. Methods of providing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules in ammonium hydroxide are also provided. The hydroxyapatite granules and bulk materials formed by these methods are also provided.

  1. Methods of synthesizing hydroxyapatite powders and bulk materials

    DOEpatents

    Luo, P.

    1999-01-12

    Methods are provided for producing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules of less than 8 {micro}m by a spray-drying process. Solid or hollow spheres or doughnuts can be formed by controlling the volume fraction and viscosity of the slurry as well as the spray-drying conditions. Methods of providing for homogeneous cellular structure hydroxyapatite granules are also provided. Pores or channels or varying size and number can be formed by varying the temperature at which a hydroxyapatite slurry formed in basic, saturated ammonium hydroxide is spray-dried. Methods of providing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules in ammonium hydroxide are also provided. The hydroxyapatite granules and bulk materials formed by these methods are also provided. 26 figs.

  2. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J.

    2010-06-02

    The Bulk Tritium Shipping Package was designed by Savannah River National Laboratory. This package will be used to transport tritium. As part of the requirements for certification, the package must be shown to meet the scenarios of the Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) defined in Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 Part 71 (10CFR71). The conditions include a sequential 30-foot drop event, 30-foot dynamic crush event, and a 40-inch puncture event. Finite Element analyses were performed to support and expand upon prototype testing. Cases similar to the tests were evaluated. Additional temperatures and orientations were also examined to determine their impact on the results. The peak stress on the package was shown to be acceptable. In addition, the strain on the outer drum as well as the inner containment boundary was shown to be acceptable. In conjunction with the prototype tests, the package was shown to meet its confinement requirements.

  3. Structural origin of bulk molecular hydrogen in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Pohl, R.O.; Crandall, R.S.

    1999-07-01

    The elastic anomaly observed previously at the triple point of bulk molecular hydrogen in hydrogenated amorphous silicon films prepared by hot-wire chemical-vapor deposition has also been observed in deuterated films at the triple point of D{sub 2}. The origin of this anomaly has now been traced to bubbles formed at the crystalline-amorphous interface. An upper limit of the pressure in these bubbles at their formation temperature, 440 C, has been estimated to be 11 MPa, and is suggested to be a measure of the bonding strength between film and substrate at that temperature. Bubble formation after heat treatment at 400 C has also been observed in films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition. The internal friction anomalies resemble those observed previously in cold-worked hydrogenated iron where they have been interpreted through plastic deformation of solid hydrogen in voids.

  4. Radiative cooling of bulk silicon by incoherent light pump

    SciTech Connect

    Malyutenko, V. K. Bogatyrenko, V. V.; Malyutenko, O. Yu.

    2013-12-23

    In contrast to radiative cooling by light up conversion caused exclusively by a low-entropy laser pump and employing thermally assisted fluorescence/luminescence as a power out, we demonstrate light down conversion cooling by incoherent pumps, 0.47–0.94 μm light emitting diodes, and employing thermal emission (TE) as a power out. We demonstrate ≤3.5 K bulk cooling of Si at 450 K because overall energy of multiple below bandgap TE photons exceeds the energy of a single above bandgap pump photon. We show that using large entropy TE as power out helps avoid careful tuning of an incoherent pump wavelength and cool indirect-bandgap semiconductors.

  5. Solution-Processed Squaraine Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Guodan; Wang, Siyi; Renshaw, Kyle; Thompson, Mark E.; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2010-04-01

    The donor, 2,4-bis[4-(N,N-diisobutylamino)-2,6-dihydroxyphenyl] squaraine (SQ) is used with the acceptor, [6,6]-phenyl C70 butyric acid methyl ester (PC70 BM) to result in efficient, solution-processed, small-molecule bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells. The distribution of the donor nanoparticles in the acceptor matrix as a function of relative concentrations results in a trade-off between exciton dissociation and hole mobility (and hence, cell series resistance). A bulk heterojunction solar cell consisting of an active region with a component ratio of SQ to PC70 BM of 1:6 has a power conversion efficiency of 2.7 ± 0.1% with a 8.85 ± 0.22 mA/cm2 short-circuit current density and an open-circuit voltage of 0.89 ± 0.01 V obtained under simulated 1 sun (100 mW/cm2) air mass 1.5 global (AM1.5 G) solar illumination. This is a decrease from 3.3 ± 0.3% at 0.2 sun intensity, and is less than that of a control planar heterojunction SQ/C60 cell with 4.1 ± 0.2% at 1 sun, suggesting that the nanoparticle morphology introduces internal resistance into the solution-based thin film. The nanomorphology and hole mobility in the films is strongly dependent on the SQ-to-PC{sub 70}BM ratio, increasing by greater than 2 orders of magnitude as the ratio increases from 28% to 100% SQ.

  6. Solution-Processed Squaraine Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Guodan; Wang, Siyi; Renshaw, Kyle; Thompson, Mark E.; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2010-04-01

    The donor, 2,4-bis[4-(N,N-diisobutylamino)-2,6-dihydroxyphenyl] squaraine (SQ) is used with the acceptor, [6,6]-phenyl C70 butyric acid methyl ester (PC70 BM) to result in efficient, solution-processed, small-molecule bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells. The distribution of the donor nanoparticles in the acceptor matrix as a function of relative concentrations results in a trade-off between exciton dissociation and hole mobility (and hence, cell series resistance). A bulk heterojunction solar cell consisting of an active region with a component ratio of SQ to PC70 BM of 1:6 has a power conversion efficiency of 2.7 ± 0.1% with a 8.85 ± 0.22 mA/cm2 short-circuit current density and an open-circuit voltage of 0.89 ± 0.01 V obtained under simulated 1 sun (100 mW/cm2) air mass 1.5 global (AM1.5 G) solar illumination. This is a decrease from 3.3 ± 0.3% at 0.2 sun intensity, and is less than that of a control planar heterojunction SQ/C60 cell with 4.1 ± 0.2% at 1 sun, suggesting that the nanoparticle morphology introduces internal resistance into the solution-based thin film. The nanomorphology and hole mobility in the films is strongly dependent on the SQ-to-PC70 BM ratio, increasing by greater than 2 orders of magnitude as the ratio increases from 28% to 100% SQ.

  7. GENERAL TERMS & CONDITIONS

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ......... 3 1.12 PAYMENT ......in delivery schedule obligations. 1.12 PAYMENT Unless otherwise provided, terms of ...

  8. Definition of GPRA08 benefits metrics

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Background information for the FY 2007 GPRA methodology review on the definitions of GPRA08 benefits metrics.

  9. Tuned critical avalanche scaling in bulk metallic glasses

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Antonaglia, James; Xie, Xie; Schwarz, Gregory; Wraith, Matthew; Qiao, Junwei; Zhang, Yong; Liaw, Peter K.; Uhl, Jonathan T.; Dahmen, Karin A.

    2014-03-17

    In this study, ingots of the bulk metallic glass (BMG), Zr64.13Cu15.75Ni10.12Al10 in atomic percent (at. %), are compressed at slow strain rates. The deformation behavior is characterized by discrete, jerky stress-drop bursts (serrations). Here we present a quantitative theory for the serration behavior of BMGs, which is a critical issue for the understanding of the deformation characteristics of BMGs. The mean-field interaction model predicts the scaling behavior of the distribution, D(S), of avalanche sizes, S, in the experiments. D(S) follows a power law multiplied by an exponentially-decaying scaling function. The size of the largest observed avalanche depends on experimental tuning-parameters,more » such as either imposed strain rate or stress. Similar to crystalline materials, the plasticity of BMGs reflects tuned criticality showing remarkable quantitative agreement with the slip statistics of slowly-compressed nanocrystals. The results imply that material-evaluation methods based on slip statistics apply to both crystalline and BMG materials.« less

  10. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of bulk dysprosium chromite

    SciTech Connect

    McDannald, A.; Institute of Material Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 ; Kuna, L.; Jain, M.; Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269

    2013-09-21

    In this work, a polycrystalline bulk DyCrO{sub 3} sample was prepared by a solution route and the structural and magnetic properties were investigated. The phase purity and ionic valence state of the DyCrO{sub 3} sample were determined by x-ray diffraction/Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The AC and DC magnetization measurements revealed the onset of antiferromagnetic order at 146 K with an effective moment of 8.88 μ{sub B}. Isothermal magnetization measurements of this material are presented for the first time, showing a peak in the coercive field at 80 K that is explained by the competition between the paramagnetic Dy{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} sublattices. DyCrO{sub 3} was found to display a large magnetocaloric effect (8.4 J/kg K) and relative cooling power (217 J/kg) at 4 T applied field, which renders DyCrO{sub 3} useful for magnetic refrigeration between 5 K and 30 K.

  11. High-entropy bulk metallic glasses as promising magnetic refrigerants

    SciTech Connect

    Huo, Juntao; Huo, Lishan; Li, Jiawei; Men, He; Wang, Xinmin; Chang, Chuntao E-mail: jqwang@nimte.ac.cn; Wang, Jun-Qiang E-mail: jqwang@nimte.ac.cn; Li, Run-Wei; Inoue, Akihisa

    2015-02-21

    In this paper, the Ho{sub 20}Er{sub 20}Co{sub 20}Al{sub 20}RE{sub 20} (RE = Gd, Dy, and Tm) high-entropy bulk metallic glasses (HE-BMGs) with good magnetocaloric properties are fabricated successfully. The HE-BMGs exhibit a second-order magnetic phase transition. The peak of magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub M}{sup pk}) and refrigerant capacity (RC) reaches 15.0 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} and 627 J kg{sup −1} at 5 T, respectively, which is larger than most rare earth based BMGs. The heterogeneous nature of glasses also contributes to the large ΔS{sub M}{sup pk} and RC. In addition, the magnetic ordering temperature, ΔS{sub M}{sup pk} and RC can be widely tuned by alloying different rare earth elements. These results suggest that the HE-BMGs are promising magnetic refrigerant at low temperatures.

  12. International Round-Robin Testing of Bulk Thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D; Bottner, Harold; Konig, Jan; Chen, Lidong; Bai, Shengqiang; Tritt, Terry M.; Mayolett, Alex; Smith, Charlene; Harris, Fred; Sharp, Jeff; Lo, Jason; Keinke, Holger; Kiss, Laszlo I.

    2011-11-01

    Two international round-robin studies were conducted on transport properties measurements of bulk thermoelectric materials. The study discovered current measurement problems. In order to get ZT of a material four separate transport measurements must be taken. The round-robin study showed that among the four properties Seebeck coefficient is the one can be measured consistently. Electrical resistivity has +4-9% scatter. Thermal diffusivity has similar +5-10% scatter. The reliability of the above three properties can be improved by standardizing test procedures and enforcing system calibrations. The worst problem was found in specific heat measurements using DSC. The probability of making measurement error is great due to the fact three separate runs must be taken to determine Cp and the baseline shift is always an issue for commercial DSC. It is suggest the Dulong Petit limit be always used as a guide line for Cp. Procedures have been developed to eliminate operator and system errors. The IEA-AMT annex is developing standard procedures for transport properties testing.

  13. Bulk Fuel Procurement Process & Alternative Drop-in Fuel | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Bulk Fuel Procurement Process & Alternative Drop-in Fuel Bulk Fuel Procurement Process & Alternative Drop-in Fuel Jeanne Binder, DLA Energy, presentation on Bulk Fuel Procurement Process & Alternative Drop-in Fuel at the Advanced Biofuels Industry Roundtable. 7_binder_roundtable.pdf (1.17 MB) More Documents & Publications DLA Energy: Your Supplemental Energy Contracting Venue Advanced Drop-In Biofuels Initiative Agenda FUPWG Spring 2015 Agenda and Presentations

  14. The Role of Surface Chemistry and Bulk Properties on the Cycling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    The Role of Surface Chemistry and Bulk Properties on the Cycling and Rate Capability of Lithium Positive Electrode Materials The Role of Surface Chemistry on the Cycling and ...

  15. Electron-induced single event upsets in 28 nm and 45 nm bulk...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with previous work in which SRAMs were irradiated with low energy muons and protons. ... bulk SRAMs. Similarly, for the Jovian environment, the electron-induced upset rate is ...

  16. Bulk and shear viscosities of the two-dimensional electron liquid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bulk and shear viscosities of the two-dimensional electron liquid in a doped graphene ... electron liquid in a doped graphene sheet Authors: Principi, Alessandro ; ...

  17. HIGH-QUALITY, LOW-COST BULK GALLIUM NITRIDE SUBSTRATES GROWN...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    by 60%, and energy for information technology infrastructure power delivery by 20%. High-Quality, Low-Cost Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrates (1009.69 KB) More Documents & ...

  18. Image-based Stokes flow modeling in bulk proppant packs and propped...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Image-based Stokes flow modeling in bulk proppant packs and propped fractures under high loading stresses Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly ...

  19. Unpaired Majorana modes in Josephson-Junction Arrays with gapless bulk excitations

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Pino, M.; Tsvelik, A.; Ioffe, L. B.

    2015-11-06

    In this study, the search for Majorana bound states in solid-state physics has been limited to materials that display a gap in their bulk spectrum. We show that such unpaired states appear in certain quasi-one-dimensional Josephson-junction arrays with gapless bulk excitations. The bulk modes mediate a coupling between Majorana bound states via the Ruderman-Kittel-Yosida-Kasuya mechanism. As a consequence, the lowest energy doublet acquires a finite energy difference. For a realistic set of parameters this energy splitting remains much smaller than the energy of the bulk eigenstates even for short chains of length L~10.

  20. Raman vibrational spectra of bulk to monolayer Re S 2 with lower...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Raman vibrational spectra of bulk to monolayer Re S 2 with lower symmetry Authors: Feng, Yanqing ; Zhou, Wei ; Wang, Yaojia ; Zhou, Jian ; Liu, Erfu ; Fu, Yajun ; Ni, ...

  1. Stormwater/washwater treatment at petroleum bulk transfer facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Chilcote, D.D.

    1995-12-31

    Aerated bioreactors that incorporate submerged, stationary, fixed-film biological treatment technology are ideal systems for treating stormwater/washwater flows containing biodegradable petroleum hydrocarbons. They present a small footprint. are resistant to shock loads, require minimal operator attention, generate a minimal amount of sloughed biomass, and are inexpensive to operate. The characteristics of the bioreactor include multiple cells to maximize performance. The multiple-cell configuration produces dispersed plug-flow hydraulics which, for first-order biodegradation kinetics, significantly improves the effluent quality over that produced from a single cell with the same total volume. Positive-displacement blowers are used to provide aeration via a fine-bubble, self-cleaning diffuser assembly located at the base of each cell. The cells are filled with structured PVC packing which provides 30 sq.ft. of surface area per cubic foot of reactor volume (95% void space). Microorganisms attach to this plastic surface and provide the biofilm for treatment. This arrangement allows a high concentration of microorganisms to exist in the reactor, which minimizes reactor volume. Nutrients in the form of a simple liquid fertilizer solution are mixed with the influence to provide appropriate levels of nitrogen and phosphorus for microbial metabolism. A case study from a petroleum bulk transfer facility shows the effectiveness of this technology for treating stormwater and washwater containing a variety of petroleum hydrocarbons. Removal efficiencies for the gasoline range of organics typically exceeded 99 percent. A typical capital cost for the full-scale treatment system was $73,000, with operating costs estimated at $0.85/1000 gallons treated.

  2. Passivation dynamics in the anisotropic deposition and stripping of bulk magnesium electrodes during electrochemical cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, David J.; Malone, Marvin A.; Haasch, Richard T.; Meng, Yifei; Vieker, Henning; Hahn, Nathan; Golzhauser, Armin; Zuo, Jian-Min; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Gewirth, Andrew A.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.

    2015-08-10

    Rechargeable magnesium (Mg) batteries show promise for use as a next generation technology for high-density energy storage, though little is known about the Mg anode solid electrolyte interphase and its implications for the performance and durability of a Mg-based battery. We explore in this report passivation effects engendered during the electrochemical cycling of a bulk Mg anode, characterizing their influences during metal deposition and dissolution in a simple, nonaqueous, Grignard electrolyte solution (ethylmagnesium bromide, EtMgBr, in tetrahydrofuran). Scanning electron microscopy images of Mg foil working electrodes after electrochemical polarization to dissolution potentials show the formation of corrosion pits. The pit densities so evidenced are markedly potential-dependent. When the Mg working electrode is cycled both potentiostatically and galvanostatically in EtMgBr these pits, formed due to passive layer breakdown, act as the foci for subsequent electrochemical activity. Detailed microscopy, diffraction, and spectroscopic data show that further passivation and corrosion results in the anisotropic stripping of the Mg {0001} plane, leaving thin oxide-comprising passivated side wall structures that demark the {0001} fiber texture of the etched Mg grains. Upon long-term cycling, oxide side walls formed due to the pronounced crystallographic anisotropy of the anodic stripping processes, leading to complex overlay anisotropic, columnar structures, exceeding 50 μm in height. Finally, the passive responses mediating the growth of these structures appear to be an intrinsic feature of the electrochemical growth and dissolution of Mg using this electrolyte.

  3. Passivation dynamics in the anisotropic deposition and stripping of bulk magnesium electrodes during electrochemical cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, David J.; Malone, Marvin A.; Haasch, Richard T.; Meng, Yifei; Vieker, Henning; Hahn, Nathan; Golzhauser, Armin; Zuo, Jian-Min; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Gewirth, Andrew A.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.

    2015-08-10

    Rechargeable magnesium (Mg) batteries show promise for use as a next generation technology for high-density energy storage, though little is known about the Mg anode solid electrolyte interphase and its implications for the performance and durability of a Mg-based battery. We explore in this report passivation effects engendered during the electrochemical cycling of a bulk Mg anode, characterizing their influences during metal deposition and dissolution in a simple, nonaqueous, Grignard electrolyte solution (ethylmagnesium bromide, EtMgBr, in tetrahydrofuran). Scanning electron microscopy images of Mg foil working electrodes after electrochemical polarization to dissolution potentials show the formation of corrosion pits. The pit densities so evidenced are markedly potential-dependent. When the Mg working electrode is cycled both potentiostatically and galvanostatically in EtMgBr these pits, formed due to passive layer breakdown, act as the foci for subsequent electrochemical activity. Detailed microscopy, diffraction, and spectroscopic data show that further passivation and corrosion results in the anisotropic stripping of the Mg {0001} plane, leaving thin oxide-comprising passivated side wall structures that demark the {0001} fiber texture of the etched Mg grains. Upon long-term cycling, oxide side walls formed due to the pronounced crystallographic anisotropy of the anodic stripping processes, leading to complex overlay anisotropic, columnar structures, exceeding 50 ?m in height. Finally, the passive responses mediating the growth of these structures appear to be an intrinsic feature of the electrochemical growth and dissolution of Mg using this electrolyte.

  4. Definitions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    has one ACH, it means that all of the air in the house will be replaced in one hour. air pollution See pollutant. airshed A geographically isolated volume of air, usually...

  5. Satellite power system concept development and evaluation program system definition technical assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The results of the system definition studies conducted by NASA as a part of the Department of Energy/National Aeronautics and Space Administration SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program are summarized. The purpose of the system definition efforts was to identify and define candidate SPS concepts and to evaluate the concepts in terms of technical and cost factors. Although the system definition efforts consisted primarily of evaluation and assessment of alternative technical approaches, a reference system was also defined to facilitate economic, environmental, and societal assessments by the Department of Energy. This reference system was designed to deliver 5 GW of electrical power to the utility grid. Topics covered include system definition; energy conversion and power management; power transmission and reception; structures, controls, and materials; construction and operations; and space transportation.

  6. Mechanical properties of bulk and nanoscale TiO[subscript 2] phases

    SciTech Connect

    Swamy, V.; Holbig, E.; Dubrovinksy, L.S.; Prakapenka, V.; Muddle, B.C.

    2008-09-11

    The mechanical properties of bulk and nanoscale TiO{sub 2} phases are examined with a view to assess the available bulk modulus and hardness data, and to understand the size-dependent behaviors. The bulk modulus values of thermodynamically stable bulk TiO{sub 2} phases show a general correlation with Ti-O coordination number. As with the cotunnite-structured (OII) phase, it is likely that the seven-coordinated OI and eight-coordinated fluorite forms of TiO{sub 2} are ultrahard substances. Of the nanoscale phases investigated thus far, nanocrystalline anatase displays the strongest size dependence of bulk modulus values, with possible stiffening behavior effected by incipient grain boundary amorphization under pressure. Nanocrystalline rutile and baddeleyite phases do not show appreciable size dependence in their compression behaviors.

  7. Definition and Policy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Definition and Policy Definition and Policy Definition Environmental justice is the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people-regardless of race, ethnicity, income, or education level-in environmental decision making. Environmental justice programs promote the protection of human health and the environment, empowerment via public participation, and the dissemination of relevant information to inform and educate affected communities. DOE environmental justice programs are designed

  8. Terms and Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Terms and Conditions Network R&D Software-Defined Networking (SDN) Experimental Network Testbeds 100G SDN Testbed Testbed Description Proposal Process Terms and Conditions Dark Fiber Testbed Test Circuit Service Testbed Results Current Testbed Research Previous Testbed Research Performance (perfSONAR) Software & Tools Development Data for Researchers Partnerships Publications Workshops Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside US) 1 800-333-7638 (Inside US) 1 510-486-7600

  9. Terms and Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Tennessee

    Terms and Conditions Terms and Conditions As a premier national research and development laboratory, LANL seeks to do business with qualified companies that offer value and high quality products and services. Contact Small Business Office (505) 667-4419 Email Use information below as guideline to doing business An "Appendix SFA-1" contains FAR and DEAR Clauses that are incorporated by reference into a particular subcontract. "Exhibit A General Conditions" are the

  10. Cal. PRC Section 21065 - Environmental Quality Definitions |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: Cal. PRC Section 21065 - Environmental Quality DefinitionsLegal Abstract Contains...

  11. Zero Energy Building Policies and Definitions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... to balance site energy usage with PV - Calculated with national average conversion factors * Recognizes that the focus of ZEB definitions is on the building, not the energy ...

  12. Nonlinear optical properties of bulk cuprous oxide using single beam Z-scan at 790 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Serna, J.; Rueda, E.; García, H.

    2014-11-10

    The two-photon absorption (TPA) coefficient β and the nonlinear index of refraction n{sub 2} for bulk cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) direct gap semiconductor single crystal have been measured by using a balance-detection Z-scan single beam technique, with an excellent signal to noise ratio. Both coefficients were measured at 790 nm using a 65 fs laser pulse at a repetition rate of 90.9 MHz, generated by a Ti:Sapphire laser oscillator. The experimental values for β were explained by using a model that includes allowed-allowed, forbidden-allowed, and forbidden-forbidden transitions. It was found that the forbidden-forbidden transition is the dominant mechanism, which is consistent with the band structure of Cu{sub 2}O. The low value for β found in bulk, as compared with respect to thin film, is explained in terms of the structural change in thin films that result in opposite parities of the conduction and valence band. The n{sub 2} is also theoretically calculated by using the TPA dispersion curve and the Kramers-Kronig relations for nonlinear optics.

  13. Thermal annealing study on P3HT: PCBM based bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using impedance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gollu, Sankara Rao; Sharma, Ramakant G, Srinivas Gupta, Dipti

    2014-10-15

    Recently, Thermal annealing is an important process for bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ OSCs) to improve the device efficiency and performance of the organic solar cells. Here in, we have examined the changes in the efficiency and morphology of P3HT: PCBM film according to the thermal annealing temperature to find the changes during the annealing process by measuring the optical absorption, atomic force microscope and X-ray diffraction. We also investigated the effect of different annealing process conditions (without, pre- and post-annealing) on the device performance of the inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells consist the structure of ITO/ ZnO / P3HT: PCBM / MoO{sub 3}/ Al by measuring AC impedance characteristics. Particularly, the power conversion efficiency (PCE), crystalline nature of the polymer, light absorption and the surface smoothness of P3HT: PCBM films are significantly improved after the annealing process. These results indicated the improvement in terms of PCE, interface smoothness between the P3HT: PCBM and MoO{sub 3} layers of the post annealed device originated from the decrease of series resistance between P3HT: PCBM layer and Al electrodes, which could be due to decrease in the effective life time of charge carriers.

  14. Thermodynamics of fission products in dispersion fuel designs - first principles modeling of defect behavior in bulk and at interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiang-yand; Uberuaga, Blas P; Nerikar, Pankaj; Sickafus, Kurt E; Stanek, Chris R

    2009-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of fission product (Xe, Sr, and Cs) incorporation and segregation in alkaline earth metal oxides, HfO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} oxides, and the MgO/(U, Hf, Ce)O{sub 2} interfaces have been carried out. In the case of UO{sub 2}, the calculations were performed using spin polarization and with a Hubbard U term characterizing the on-sit Coulomb repulsion between the localized 5f electrons. The fission product solution energies in bulk UO{sub 2{+-}x} have been calculated as a function of non-stoichiometry x, and were compared to that in MgO. These calculations demonstrate that the fission product incorporation energies in MgO are higher than in HfO{sub 2}. However, this trend is reversed or reduced for alkaline earth oxides with larger cation sizes. The solution energies of fission products in MgO are substantially higher than in UO{sub 2{+-}x}, except for the case of Sr in the hypostoichiometric case. Due to size effects, the thermodynamic driving force of segregation for Xe and Cs from bulk MgO to the MgO/fluorite interface is strong. However, this driving force is relatively weak for Sr.

  15. Bulk and surface controlled diffusion of fission gas atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Anders D.

    2012-08-09

    Fission gas retention and release impact nuclear fuel performance by, e.g., causing fuel swelling leading to mechanical interaction with the clad, increasing the plenum pressure and reducing the gap thermal conductivity. All of these processes are important to understand in order to optimize operating conditions of nuclear reactors and to simulate accident scenarios. Most fission gases have low solubility in the fuel matrix, which is especially pronounced for large fission gas atoms such as Xe and Kr, and as a result there is a significant driving force for segregation of gas atoms to extended defects such as grain boundaries or dislocations and subsequently for nucleation of gas bubbles at these sinks. Several empirical or semi-empirical models have been developed for fission gas release in nuclear fuels, e.g. [1-6]. One of the most commonly used models in fuel performance codes was published by Massih and Forsberg [3,4,6]. This model is similar to the early Booth model [1] in that it applies an equivalent sphere to separate bulk UO{sub 2} from grain boundaries represented by the sphere circumference. Compared to the Booth model, it also captures trapping at grain boundaries, fission gas resolution and it describes release from the boundary by applying timedependent boundary conditions to the circumference. In this work we focus on the step where fission gas atoms diffuse from the grain interior to the grain boundaries. The original Massih-Forsberg model describes this process by applying an effective diffusivity divided into three temperature regimes. In this report we present results from density functional theory calculations (DFT) that are relevant for the high (D{sub 3}) and intermediate (D{sub 2}) temperature diffusivities of fission gases. The results are validated by making a quantitative comparison to Turnbull's [8-10] and Matzke's data [12]. For the intrinsic or high temperature regime we report activation energies for both Xe and Kr diffusion in UO

  16. Towards risk-based management of critical infrastructures : enabling insights and analysis methodologies from a focused study of the bulk power grid.

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Bryan T.; LaViolette, Randall A.; Cook, Benjamin Koger

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes research on a holistic analysis framework to assess and manage risks in complex infrastructures, with a specific focus on the bulk electric power grid (grid). A comprehensive model of the grid is described that can approximate the coupled dynamics of its physical, control, and market components. New realism is achieved in a power simulator extended to include relevant control features such as relays. The simulator was applied to understand failure mechanisms in the grid. Results suggest that the implementation of simple controls might significantly alter the distribution of cascade failures in power systems. The absence of cascade failures in our results raises questions about the underlying failure mechanisms responsible for widespread outages, and specifically whether these outages are due to a system effect or large-scale component degradation. Finally, a new agent-based market model for bilateral trades in the short-term bulk power market is presented and compared against industry observations.

  17. Selective observation of photo-induced electric fields inside different material components in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiangyu; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2014-01-06

    By using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement at two laser wavelengths of 1000 nm and 860 nm, we investigated carrier behavior inside the pentacene and C{sub 60} component of co-deposited pentacene:C{sub 60} bulk-heterojunctions (BHJs) organic solar cells (OSCs). The EFISHG experiments verified the presence of two carrier paths for electrons and holes in BHJs OSCs. That is, two kinds of electric fields pointing in opposite directions are identified as a result of the selectively probing of SHG activation from C{sub 60} and pentacene. Also, under open-circuit conditions, the transient process of the establishment of open-circuit voltage inside the co-deposited layer has been directly probed, in terms of photovoltaic effect. The EFISHG provides an additional promising method to study carrier path of electrons and holes as well as dissociation of excitons in BHJ OSCs.

  18. Fusion Simulation Program Definition. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, John R.

    2012-09-05

    We have completed our contributions to the Fusion Simulation Program Definition Project. Our contributions were in the overall planning with concentration in the definition of the area of Software Integration and Support. We contributed to the planning of multiple meetings, and we contributed to multiple planning documents.

  19. Observation of surface to bulk interatomic Auger decay from Ta(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, E. ); Bartynski, R.A. ); Weinert, M. ); Hulbert, S.L.; Johnson, E.D.; Garrett, R.F. )

    1990-06-15

    Core-valence-valence ({ital CVV}) Auger spectra from Ta(100) taken in coincidence with bulk and surface-shifted 4{ital f}{sub 7/2} core-level emission are presented. These data are compared with self-convolutions of calculations of the {ital d}-band densities of states for the surface and subsurface layers of a nine-layer slab. Agreement of the bulk spectrum with the calculation is good; agreement for the surface spectrum is very poor. These data are explained by proposing an interatomic surface to bulk Auger decay mode for the surface core hole that is competitive with the conventional {ital CVV} decay process.

  20. Chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of LaFeCoSi alloy: Surface and bulk properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lollobrigida, V.; Basso, V.; Kuepferling, M.; Coïsson, M.; Olivetti, E. S.; Celegato, F.; Borgatti, F.; Torelli, P.; Panaccione, G.; Tortora, L.; Stefani, G.; Offi, F.

    2014-05-28

    We investigate the chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of the magnetocaloric LaFeCoSi compound with bulk and surface sensitive techniques. We put in evidence that the surface retains a soft ferromagnetic behavior at temperatures higher than the Curie temperature of the bulk due to the presence of Fe clusters at the surface only. This peculiar magnetic surface effect is attributed to the exchange interaction between the ferromagnetic Fe clusters located at the surface and the bulk magnetocaloric alloy, and it is used here to monitor the magnetic properties of the alloy itself.

  1. Bulk superhard B-C-N nanocomposite compact and method for preparing thereof

    DOEpatents

    Zhao, Yusheng; He, Duanwei

    2004-07-06

    Bulk, superhard, B-C-N nanocomposite compact and method for preparing thereof. The bulk, superhard, nanocomposite compact is a well-sintered compact and includes nanocrystalline grains of at least one high-pressure phase of B-C-N surrounded by amorphous diamond-like carbon grain boundaries. The bulk compact has a Vicker's hardness of about 41-68 GPa. It is prepared by ball milling a mixture of graphite and hexagonal boron nitride, encapsulating the ball-milled mixture, and sintering the encapsulated ball-milled mixture at a pressure of about 5-25 GPa and at a temperature of about 1000-2500 K.

  2. Radius stabilization and dark matter with a bulk Higgs in warped extra dimension

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Ahmed, A.; Grzadkowski, B.; Gunion, J. F.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we employ an SU(2) bulk Higgs doublet as the stabilization field in the RandallSundrum model with appropriate bulk and brane-localized potentials. The gauge hierarchy problem can be solved for an exponentially IR-localized Higgs background field with mild values of fundamental parameters of the 5D theory. We consider an IRUVIR background geometry with the 5D SM fields in the bulk such that all the fields have even and odd towers of KK-modes. The zero-mode 4D effective theory contains all the SM fields plus a stable scalar, which serves as a dark matter candidate.

  3. Radius stabilization and dark matter with a bulk Higgs in warped extra dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, A.; Grzadkowski, B.; Gunion, J. F.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we employ an SU(2) bulk Higgs doublet as the stabilization field in the Randall–Sundrum model with appropriate bulk and brane-localized potentials. The gauge hierarchy problem can be solved for an exponentially IR-localized Higgs background field with mild values of fundamental parameters of the 5D theory. We consider an IR–UV–IR background geometry with the 5D SM fields in the bulk such that all the fields have even and odd towers of KK-modes. The zero-mode 4D effective theory contains all the SM fields plus a stable scalar, which serves as a dark matter candidate.

  4. Laboratory Testing of Bulk Vitrified Low-Activity Waste Forms to Support the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B. Peter; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Reed, Lunde R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2006-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to document the results from laboratory testing of the bulk vitri-fied (BV) waste form that was conducted in support of the 2005 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). Laboratory testing provides a majority of the key input data re-quired to assess the long-term performance of the BV waste package with the STORM code. Test data from three principal methods, as described by McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a), are dis-cussed in this testing report including the single-pass flow-through test (SPFT) and product con-sistency test (PCT). Each of these test methods focuses on different aspects of the glass corrosion process. See McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a) for additional details regarding these test methods and their use in evaluating long-term glass performance. In addition to evaluating the long-term glass performance, this report discusses the results and methods used to provided a recommended best estimate of the soluble fraction of 99Tc that can be leached from the engineer-ing-scale BV waste package. These laboratory tests are part of a continuum of testing that is aimed at improving the performance of the BV waste package.

  5. Laboratory Testing of Bulk Vitrified Low-Activity Waste Forms to Support the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B. Peter; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Reed, Lunde R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2005-03-31

    The purpose of this report is to document the results from laboratory testing of the bulk vitri-fied (BV) waste form that was conducted in support of the 2005 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). Laboratory testing provides a majority of the key input data re-quired to assess the long-term performance of the BV waste package with the STORM code. Test data from three principal methods, as described by McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a), are dis-cussed in this testing report including the single-pass flow-through test (SPFT) and product con-sistency test (PCT). Each of these test methods focuses on different aspects of the glass corrosion process. See McGrail et al. (2000a; 2003a) for additional details regarding these test methods and their use in evaluating long-term glass performance. In addition to evaluating the long-term glass performance, this report discusses the results and methods used to provided a recommended best estimate of the soluble fraction of 99Tc that can be leached from the engineer-ing-scale BV waste package. These laboratory tests are part of a continuum of testing that is aimed at improving the performance of the BV waste package.

  6. Passivation dynamics in the anisotropic deposition and stripping of bulk magnesium electrodes during electrochemical cycling

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Wetzel, David J.; Malone, Marvin A.; Haasch, Richard T.; Meng, Yifei; Vieker, Henning; Hahn, Nathan; Golzhauser, Armin; Zuo, Jian-Min; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Gewirth, Andrew A.; et al

    2015-08-10

    Rechargeable magnesium (Mg) batteries show promise for use as a next generation technology for high-density energy storage, though little is known about the Mg anode solid electrolyte interphase and its implications for the performance and durability of a Mg-based battery. We explore in this report passivation effects engendered during the electrochemical cycling of a bulk Mg anode, characterizing their influences during metal deposition and dissolution in a simple, nonaqueous, Grignard electrolyte solution (ethylmagnesium bromide, EtMgBr, in tetrahydrofuran). Scanning electron microscopy images of Mg foil working electrodes after electrochemical polarization to dissolution potentials show the formation of corrosion pits. The pitmore » densities so evidenced are markedly potential-dependent. When the Mg working electrode is cycled both potentiostatically and galvanostatically in EtMgBr these pits, formed due to passive layer breakdown, act as the foci for subsequent electrochemical activity. Detailed microscopy, diffraction, and spectroscopic data show that further passivation and corrosion results in the anisotropic stripping of the Mg {0001} plane, leaving thin oxide-comprising passivated side wall structures that demark the {0001} fiber texture of the etched Mg grains. Upon long-term cycling, oxide side walls formed due to the pronounced crystallographic anisotropy of the anodic stripping processes, leading to complex overlay anisotropic, columnar structures, exceeding 50 μm in height. Finally, the passive responses mediating the growth of these structures appear to be an intrinsic feature of the electrochemical growth and dissolution of Mg using this electrolyte.« less

  7. Title 40 CFR 230 Definitions - Clean Water Act | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    RegulationRegulation: Title 40 CFR 230 Definitions - Clean Water ActLegal Abstract Sets forth regulatory definitions under the Clean Water Act including the definition of waters of...

  8. HIGH-QUALITY, LOW-COST BULK GALLIUM NITRIDE SUBSTRATES GROWN BY THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOLUTION GROWTH METHOD

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    To develop ESG into a viable bulk growth process for GaN that is more scalable to large-area wafer manufacturing and able to produce cost-effective, high-quality bulk GaN substrates.

  9. Melting of “non-magic” argon clusters and extrapolation to the bulk limit

    SciTech Connect

    Senn, Florian Wiebke, Jonas; Schumann, Ole; Gohr, Sebastian; Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Pahl, Elke

    2014-01-28

    The melting of argon clusters Ar{sub N} is investigated by applying a parallel-tempering Monte Carlo algorithm for all cluster sizes in the range from 55 to 309 atoms. Extrapolation to the bulk gives a melting temperature of 85.9 K in good agreement with the previous value of 88.9 K using only Mackay icosahedral clusters for the extrapolation [E. Pahl, F. Calvo, L. Koči, and P. Schwerdtfeger, “Accurate melting temperatures for neon and argon from ab initio Monte Carlo simulations,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 47, 8207 (2008)]. Our results for argon demonstrate that for the extrapolation to the bulk one does not have to restrict to magic number cluster sizes in order to obtain good estimates for the bulk melting temperature. However, the extrapolation to the bulk remains a problem, especially for the systematic selection of suitable cluster sizes.

  10. Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (PUC) offers rebates of 30% of the installed cost of qualifying new residential bulk-fed, wood-pellet central heating boilers or furnaces. The maximum...

  11. Bulk glass formation in the Pd{endash}Ni{endash}P system

    SciTech Connect

    He, Y.; Schwarz, R.B.; Archuleta, J.I. [Center for Materials Science, MS K-765, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Center for Materials Science, MS K-765, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Bulk amorphous Pd{endash}Ni{endash}P rods with diameters ranging from 10 to 25 mm were prepared by a fluxing technique over a wide composition range. For most bulk glassy alloys studied, the difference between the glass transition temperature and the crystallization temperature, {ital T}{sub {ital x}}{minus}{ital T}{sub {ital g}}, is larger than 90 K. Of all the alloy compositions examined, Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} has the highest glass formability, and 300-g bulk amorphous cylinders, 25 mm in diameter and 50 mm in length, were easily and repeatedly formed. This size, however, is not an upper limit. The elastic properties of these bulk amorphous alloys were determined by a resonant ultrasound spectroscopy technique.

  12. All bulk and boundary unitary cubic curvature theories in three dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Guellue, Ibrahim; Sisman, Tahsin Cagri; Tekin, Bayram

    2011-01-15

    We construct all the bulk and boundary unitary cubic curvature parity invariant gravity theories in three dimensions in (anti)-de Sitter spaces. For bulk unitarity, our construction is based on the principle that the free theory of the cubic curvature theory reduces to one of the three known unitary theories which are the cosmological Einstein-Hilbert theory, the quadratic theory of the scalar curvature, or the new massive gravity (NMG). Bulk and boundary unitarity in NMG is in conflict; therefore, cubic theories that are unitary both in the bulk and on the boundary have free theories that reduce to the other two alternatives. We also study the unitarity of the Born-Infeld extensions of NMG to all orders in curvature.

  13. The Role of Surface Chemistry and Bulk Properties on the Cycling...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    More Documents & Publications The Role of Surface Chemistry and Bulk Properties on the ... Energy Storage R&D The Role of Surface Chemistry on the Cycling and Rate Capability of ...

  14. Bulk elastic waves with unidirectional backscattering-immune topological states in a time-dependent superlattice

    SciTech Connect

    Swinteck, N. Matsuo, S.; Runge, K.; Lucas, P.; Deymier, P. A.; Vasseur, J. O.

    2015-08-14

    Recent progress in electronic and electromagnetic topological insulators has led to the demonstration of one way propagation of electron and photon edge states and the possibility of immunity to backscattering by edge defects. Unfortunately, such topologically protected propagation of waves in the bulk of a material has not been observed. We show, in the case of sound/elastic waves, that bulk waves with unidirectional backscattering-immune topological states can be observed in a time-dependent elastic superlattice. The superlattice is realized via spatial and temporal modulation of the stiffness of an elastic material. Bulk elastic waves in this superlattice are supported by a manifold in momentum space with the topology of a single twist Möbius strip. Our results demonstrate the possibility of attaining one way transport and immunity to scattering of bulk elastic waves.

  15. A new class of high ZT doped bulk nanothermoelectrics through bottom-up synthesis

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reports on synthesis of large quantities of p- and n-type nanocrystals then sintered into bulk samples with high power factors and low thermal conductivity through impurity doping and nanostructuring

  16. Correlation Between Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of Bulk High Performance Materials for Energy Conversion

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rapid solidified precursor converted into crystalline bulks under pressure produced thermoelectric materials of nano-sized grains with strongly coupled grain boundaries, achieving reduced lattice thermal conductivity and increased power factor

  17. The effect of confinement on the crystalline microstructure of polymer: fullerene bulk heterojunctions

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Ashraf, A.; Dissanayake, D. M. N. M.; Eisaman, M. D.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the effect of confinement on the coherence length and the crystalline microstructure of the polymer component of polymer: fullerene bulk heterojunction thin films using grazing incidence wide angle x-ray scattering. We find that the polymer crystallite size decreases and the alignment of the molecules along the surface normal increases, as the thin-film thickness is reduced from 920nm to < 20nm and approaches the thin-film confinement regime. Furthermore, we find that the polymer crystallite size near the surface (air interface) is lower than the crystallite size in the bulk or the bottom (substrate interface) of bulk heterojunction films thickermore » than the confinement regime. Variation in polymer crystallite size can cause changes in charge carrier mobility and recombination rates, which in turn affect the performance of bulk heterojunction thin film devices such as photovoltaics and photodetectors« less

  18. The effect of confinement on the crystalline microstructure of polymer: fullerene bulk heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, A.; Dissanayake, D. M. N. M.; Eisaman, M. D.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the effect of confinement on the coherence length and the crystalline microstructure of the polymer component of polymer: fullerene bulk heterojunction thin films using grazing incidence wide angle x-ray scattering. We find that the polymer crystallite size decreases and the alignment of the molecules along the surface normal increases, as the thin-film thickness is reduced from 920nm to < 20nm and approaches the thin-film confinement regime. Furthermore, we find that the polymer crystallite size near the surface (air interface) is lower than the crystallite size in the bulk or the bottom (substrate interface) of bulk heterojunction films thicker than the confinement regime. Variation in polymer crystallite size can cause changes in charge carrier mobility and recombination rates, which in turn affect the performance of bulk heterojunction thin film devices such as photovoltaics and photodetectors

  19. April 5 PSERC Webinar: Seamless Bulk Electric Grid Management: A Platform

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    for Designing the Next Generation EMS | Department of Energy 5 PSERC Webinar: Seamless Bulk Electric Grid Management: A Platform for Designing the Next Generation EMS April 5 PSERC Webinar: Seamless Bulk Electric Grid Management: A Platform for Designing the Next Generation EMS March 21, 2016 - 1:27pm Addthis The DOE-funded Power Systems Engineering Research Center (PSERC) is offering a free public webinar that will address the feasibility of a flexible platform that is needed when designing

  20. Surface magnetism of Gd(0001): Evidence of ferromagnetic coupling to bulk

    SciTech Connect

    Mulhollan, G.A.; Garrison, K.; Erskine, J.L. )

    1992-11-30

    Previous polarized electron experiments and recent {ital ab} {ital initio} calculations suggest that the surface layer magnetic moments of Gd(0001) are antiferromagnetically coupled to the bulk magnetic moments. Spin-polarized photoemission data are presented which show that the spin polarization of the magnetic surface state and the surface 4{ital f} states of Gd(0001) are coupled ferromagnetically to the bulk magnetic moment.

  1. System Definition and Analysis: Power Plant Design and Layout...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    System Definition and Analysis: Power Plant Design and Layout Citation Details In-Document Search Title: System Definition and Analysis: Power Plant Design and Layout You are ...

  2. Solution Package Scope Definition, Report 72, Salt Waste (SP...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Solution Package Scope Definition, Report 72, Salt Waste (SP 72) Solution Package Scope Definition, Report 72, Salt Waste (SP 72) This document was used to determine facts and ...

  3. Title 30 USC 1001 Geothermal Resources Definitions | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    DefinitionsLegal Abstract Section 1001 - Definitions under Title 30: Mineral Lands and Mining, Chapter 23: Geothermal Resources of the United States Code, last amended August 8,...

  4. Thermal Conductivity Measurements of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials (Prop. 2004-067)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D; Sharp, J

    2006-01-01

    Thermal conductivity is an important material property of the bulk thermoelectrics. To improve ZT a reduced thermal conductivity is always desired. However, there is no standard material for thermoelectrics and the test results, even on the same material, often show significant scatter. The scatter in thermal conductivity made reported ZT values uncertain and sometime unrepeatable. One of the reasons for the uncertainty is due to the microstructure differences resulting from sintering, heat treatment and other processing parameters. They selected commonly used bulk thermoelectric materials and conducted thermal conductivity measurements using the laser flash diffusivity and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) systems. Thermal conductivity was measured as a function of temperature of temperature from room temperature to 500 K and back to room temperature. The effect of thermal cycling on the bulk thermoelectric was studied. Comnbined with measurements on electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient, they show the use of a ZT map in selecting thermoelectrics. The commercial bulk material showed very good consistency and reliability compared to other bulk materials. The goal is to develop a thermal transport properties database for the bulk thermoelectrics and make the information available to the research community and industry.

  5. FOIA Frequently Requested Documents: Definitized Subcontract No.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ZDO-2-30628-09 | Department of Energy Definitized Subcontract No. ZDO-2-30628-09 FOIA Frequently Requested Documents: Definitized Subcontract No. ZDO-2-30628-09 FOIA Frequently Requested Documents: Definitized Subcontract No. ZDO-2-30628-09. Subcontract between Midwest Research Institute National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Evergreen Solar, Inc. Part 1 of 11 (9.85 MB) Part 2 of 11 (9.9 MB) Part 3 of 11 (9.86 MB) Part 4 of 11 (9.92 MB) Part 5 of 11 (9.89 MB) Part 6 of 11 (9.89 MB) Part 7

  6. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    March 2015 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Highlights North Sea Brent crude oil ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook March 2015 2 ...

  7. DOE Seeks Comment on Definition of Showerhead

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published in the Federal Register an interpretive rule that sets out the Department's views on the definition of "showerhead" in 10 CFR 430.2. The...

  8. Definition of a 'Zero Net Energy' Community

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, N.; Van Geet, O.; Pless, S.

    2009-11-01

    This document provides a definition for a net zero-energy community. A community that offsets all of its energy use from renewables available within the community's built environment.

  9. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Regional Definitions

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Definitions Map About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Regional Definitions The regions defined in the above map are based upon the 10 Federal Regions of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The State groupings are as follows: Northeast Region - Federal Region 1: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. Federal Region 2: New Jersey, and New York. Federal Region 3:Delaware, District of

  10. Paramagnetism, superparamagnetism, and spin-glass behavior in bulk amorphous Pd{endash}Ni{endash}Fe{endash}P alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, T.D.; Schwarz, R.B.; Thompson, J.D. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Mail Stop G755, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Materials Science and Technology Division, Mail Stop G755, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1999-04-01

    We have investigated the magnetic properties of bulk amorphous Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40{minus}x}Fe{sub x}P{sub 20} (x=0{endash}17.5) alloys. For Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} (x=0), the magnetic susceptibility consists of temperature-independent and Curie{endash}Weiss-type terms. Alloys with x{ge}5 are paramagnetic at high temperatures. With decreasing temperature, the amorphous alloys become superparamagnetic. At even lower temperatures, and under a weak applied magnetic field, these alloys are spin glasses, as evidenced by static and dynamic magnetic measurements. The spin-freezing temperature increases with increasing iron content and this is attributed to the role of the Ruderman{endash}Kittel{endash}Kasuya{endash}Yosida interaction in creating the spin-glass state. The occurrence of a reentrant spin-glass behavior on cooling (superparamagnetism-to-ferromagnetism-to-spin-glass transition) is also observed for x=17.5 at a field {ge}50 Oe. An unexpected result is that the ferromagnetic state in the present bulk metallic glasses is {ital field induced}. Evidence for the field-induced ferromagnetic-like order is obtained from (a) straight regions in the susceptibility versus temperature curves measured at various fields, (b) an Arrott plot, and (c) time-independent magnetization. With increasing applied field, the spin-freezing temperature decreases and the Curie temperature increases, broadening the temperature range of the field-induced ferromagnetic-like state. The temporal decay of the thermoremanent magnetization in the amorphous alloy with x=17.5 is slower than that in typical crystalline spin glasses. The spin-freezing temperature of the amorphous alloy with x=17.5 decreases approximately logarithmically with applied field, which differs from the prediction of N{acute e}el{close_quote}s model for spin glasses. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Definitions and Assumptions, October 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Definitions of parameters and table of assumptions for the Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint

  12. Evaluation of bulk paint worker exposure to solvents at household hazardous waste collection events

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, M.

    1995-09-01

    In fiscal year 93/94, over 250 governmental agencies were involved in the collection of household hazardous wastes in the State of California. During that time, over 3,237,000 lbs. of oil based paint were collected in 9,640 drums. Most of this was in lab pack drums, which can only hold up to 20 one gallon cans. Cost for disposal of such drums is approximately $1000. In contrast, during the same year, 1,228,000 lbs. of flammable liquid were collected in 2,098 drums in bulk form. Incineration of bulked flammable liquids is approximately $135 per drum. Clearly, it is most cost effective to bulk flammable liquids at household hazardous waste events. Currently, this is the procedure used at most Temporary Household Hazardous Waste Collection Facilities (THHWCFs). THHWCFs are regulated by the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) under the new Permit-by Rule Regulations. These regulations specify certain requirements regarding traffic flow, emergency response notifications and prevention of exposure to the public. The regulations require that THHWCF operators bulk wastes only when the public is not present. [22 CCR, section 67450.4 (e) (2) (A)].Santa Clara County Environmental Health Department sponsors local THHWCF`s and does it`s own bulking. In order to save time and money, a variance from the regulation was requested and an employee monitoring program was initiated to determine actual exposure to workers. Results are presented.

  13. Standard Terms and Conditions | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Standard Terms and Conditions Documents related to NREL's standard terms and conditions for subcontracts or purchase orders are available below. Standard Terms and Conditions - Appendix B Appendix B-1 (07/11/14) Standard Terms and Conditions for (1) Cost Sharing, (2) Cost Reimbursement, and (3) Cost Plus Fixed Fee. Appendix B-2 (07/11/14) Standard Terms and Conditions for Fixed-Price or Fixed Unit-Price Level of Effort Research and Development Subcontracts for (1) Commercial Concerns, (2)

  14. Characterization of Contact and Bulk Thermal Resistance of Laminations for Electric Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Cousineau, Emily; Bennion, Kevin; Devoto, Douglas; Naramanchi, Sreekant

    2015-07-06

    Thermal management for electric motors is important as the automotive industry continues to transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. The transition to more electrically dominant propulsion systems leads to higher-power duty cycles for electric-drive systems. Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. As thermal management improves, there will be a direct trade-off among motor performance, efficiency, cost, and the sizing of electric motors to operate within the thermal constraints. During the development of thermal finite element analysis models and computational fluid dynamics models for electric motors, it was found that there was a lack of open literature detailing the thermal properties of key materials common in electric motors that are significant in terms of heat removal. The lack of available literature, coupled with the strong interest from industry in the passive-stack thermal measurement results, led to experiments to characterize the thermal contact resistance between motor laminations. We examined four lamination materials, including the commonly used 26 gauge and 29 gauge M19 materials, the HF10 and Arnon 7 materials. These latter two materials are thinner and reduce eddy currents responsible for core losses. We measured the thermal conductivity of the lamination materials and the thermal contact resistance between laminations in a stack, as well as investigated factors affecting contact resistance between laminations such as the contact pressure and surface finish. Lamination property data will be provided and we also develop a model to estimate the through-stack thermal conductivity for materials beyond those that were directly tested in this work. For example, at a clamping pressure of 138 kPa, the 29 gauge M19 material has a through-stack thermal conductivity of 1.68 W/m-K, and the contact resistance between laminations was measured to be 193 mm^2-K/W. The measured bulk

  15. Distillate Fuel Oil Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Product: Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Conventional Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Propane/Propylene Period-Units: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources &

  16. Three-dimensional microstructural characterization of bulk plutonium and uranium metals using focused ion beam technique

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Chung, Brandon W.; Erler, Robert G.; Teslich, Nick E.

    2016-03-03

    Nuclear forensics requires accurate quantification of discriminating microstructural characteristics of the bulk nuclear material to identify its process history and provenance. Conventional metallographic preparation techniques for bulk plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) metals are limited to providing information in two-dimension (2D) and do not allow for obtaining depth profile of the material. In this contribution, use of dual-beam focused ion-beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) to investigate the internal microstructure of bulk Pu and U metals is demonstrated. Our results demonstrate that the dual-beam methodology optimally elucidate microstructural features without preparation artifacts, and the three-dimensional (3D) characterization of inner microstructures can revealmore » salient microstructural features that cannot be observed from conventional metallographic techniques. As a result, examples are shown to demonstrate the benefit of FIB-SEM in improving microstructural characterization of microscopic inclusions, particularly with respect to nuclear forensics.« less

  17. Electronic, transport, and optical properties of bulk and mono-layer PdSe{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jifeng; Shi, Hongliang; Siegrist, Theo; Singh, David J.

    2015-10-12

    The electronic and optical properties of bulk and monolayer PdSe{sub 2} are investigated using first-principles calculations. Using the modified Becke-Johnson potential, we find semiconductor behavior for both bulk and monolayer PdSe{sub 2} with indirect gap values of 0.03 eV for bulk and 1.43 eV for monolayer, respectively. Our sheet optical conductivity results support this observation and show similar anisotropic feature in the 2D plane. We further study the thermoelectric properties of the 2D PdSe{sub 2} using Blotzmann transport model and find interestingly high Seebeck coefficients (>200 μV/K) for both p- and n-type up to high doping level (∼2 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2}) with an anisotropic character in an electrical conductivity suggesting better thermoelectric performance along y direction in the plane.

  18. Electronic, transport, and optical properties of bulk and mono-layer PdSe2

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Sun, Jifeng; Shi, Hongliang; Siegrist, Theo; Singh, David J.

    2015-10-13

    In this study, the electronic and optical properties of bulk and monolayer PdSe2 are investigated using firstprinciples calculations. Using the modified Becke-Johnson potential, we find semiconductor behavior for both bulk and monolayer PdSe2 with indirect gap values of 0.03 eV for bulk and 1.43 eV for monolayer, respectively. Our sheet optical conductivity results support this observation and show similar anisotropic feature in the 2D plane. We further study the thermoelectric properties of the 2D PdSe2 using Blotzmann transport model and find interestingly high Seebeck coefficients (>200 μV/K) for both p- and n-type up to high doping level (–2 x 1013more » cm2) with an anisotropic character in an electrical conductivity suggesting better thermoelectric performance along y direction in the plane.V« less

  19. Simultaneous measurement of the surface and bulk magnetization in thin magnetic films

    SciTech Connect

    Teplin, Charles W.; Rogers, Charles T.

    2001-06-01

    We describe an apparatus for the simultaneous measurement of the transverse and longitudinal linear magneto-optic Kerr effects and the transverse second-harmonic magneto-optic Kerr effect. We have used this system to study low frequency bulk and surface magnetization loops, and high frequency response to 100 ps impulse fields for 70 nm thick Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} films. Magnetization loops show that the surface and bulk magnetization fields in these films respond essentially identically to external fields. Similarly, the dynamic response of the films to 100 ps magnetic field impulses also shows simultaneous rotation of the surface and bulk magnetization. Finally, we use the system to produce 8 {mu}m resolution (at the diffraction limit for our ellipsometric optical geometry) images of the magnetization spatial and temporal response. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  20. Linking structure to fragility in bulk metallic glass-forming liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Shuai E-mail: m.stolpe@mx.uni-saarland.de; Stolpe, Moritz E-mail: m.stolpe@mx.uni-saarland.de; Gross, Oliver; Gallino, Isabella; Hembree, William; Busch, Ralf; Evenson, Zach; Bednarcik, Jozef; Kruzic, Jamie J.

    2015-05-04

    Using in-situ synchrotron X-ray scattering, we show that the structural evolution of various bulk metallic glass-forming liquids can be quantitatively connected to their viscosity behavior in the supercooled liquid near T{sub g}. The structural signature of fragility is identified as the temperature dependence of local dilatation on distinct key atomic length scales. A more fragile behavior results from a more pronounced thermally induced dilatation of the structure on a length scale of about 3 to 4 atomic diameters, coupled with shallower temperature dependence of structural changes in the nearest neighbor environment. These findings shed light on the structural origin of viscous slowdown during undercooling of bulk metallic glass-forming liquids and demonstrate the promise of predicting the properties of bulk metallic glasses from the atomic scale structure.

  1. High-Impact, Low-Frequency Risk to the North American Bulk Power System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    (June 2010) | Department of Energy High-Impact, Low-Frequency Risk to the North American Bulk Power System (June 2010) High-Impact, Low-Frequency Risk to the North American Bulk Power System (June 2010) A Jointly-Commissioned Summary Report of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation and the U.S. Department of Energy's November 2009 Workshop. The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) partnered in July of 2009 on an effort to

  2. Bulk single crystal ternary substrates for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Charache, G.W.; Baldasaro, P.F.; Nichols, G.J.

    1998-06-23

    A thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device and a method for making the device are disclosed. The device includes a substrate formed from a bulk single crystal material having a bandgap (E{sub g}) of 0.4 eV < E{sub g} < 0.7 eV and an emitter fabricated on the substrate formed from one of a p-type or an n-type material. Another thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device includes a host substrate formed from a bulk single crystal material and lattice-matched ternary or quaternary III-V semiconductor active layers. 12 figs.

  3. Understanding Bulk Power Reliability: The Importance of Good Data and A Critical Review of Existing Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Emily; Eto, Joseph H.; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi

    2011-10-19

    Bulk power system reliability is of critical importance to the electricity sector. Complete and accurate information on events affecting the bulk power system is essential for assessing trends and efforts to maintain or improve reliability. Yet, current sources of this information were not designed with these uses in mind. They were designed, instead, to support real-time emergency notification to industry and government first-responders. This paper reviews information currently collected by both industry and government sources for this purpose and assesses factors that might affect their usefulness in supporting the academic literature that has relied upon them to draw conclusions about the reliability of the US electric power system.

  4. Bulk single crystal ternary substrates for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Charache, Greg W.; Baldasaro, Paul F.; Nichols, Greg J.

    1998-01-01

    A thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device and a method for making the device. The device includes a substrate formed from a bulk single crystal material having a bandgap (E.sub.g) of 0.4 eVbulk single crystal material and lattice-matched ternary or quaternary III-V semiconductor active layers.

  5. Biomass Scenario Model Scenario Library: Definitions, Construction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  6. Long-Term Stewardship Study

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this Long-term Stewardship Study (“Study” or “Final Study”) to comply with the terms of a settlement agreement between DOE, the Natural Resources Defense...

  7. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    This edition of the Short-Term Energy Outlook is the first to include forecasts ... to an average of 2.72gal in 2016. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term ...

  8. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    5 1 October 2015 Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook (STEO) Highlights EIA ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook ...

  9. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    4 1 October 2014 Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook (STEO) Highlights EIA ... than last winter (see EIA Short-Term Energy Outlook and Winter Fuels Outlook ...

  10. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    1 December 2014 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Highlights North Sea Brent crude oil ... winter are expected to help lessen U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term ...

  11. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    June 2014 1 June 2014 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Highlights North Sea Brent ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook June 2014 2 Global ...

  12. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    April 2015 1 April 2015 Short-Term Energy and Summer Fuels Outlook (STEO) ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy and Summer Fuels Outlook April ...

  13. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    3 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook April 2003 Overview World Oil Markets. Crude oil prices fell ... Sources: History: EIA; Projections: Short-Term Energy Outlook, April 2003. 0 10 20 30 40 ...

  14. Loan Terms | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Terms Loan Terms The following terms are important to understand and use confidently as you discuss, negotiate, and finalize details of the clean energy loan product with the selected financial institution partners. You will need to negotiate loan origination procedures, interest rates, loan tenors, underwriting guidelines, and other terms outlined below. Eligible Borrowers: Eligible borrowers must be defined. Eligible Projects: Eligible project types and measures must be defined. Loan

  15. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Reports and Publications

    2016-01-01

    Short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections through 2015 for the United States and international oil forecasts.

  16. Method of aeration disinfecting and drying grain in bulk and pretreating seeds and a transverse blow silo grain dryer therefor

    DOEpatents

    Danchenko, Vitaliy G.; Noyes, Ronald T.; Potapovych, Larysa P.

    2012-02-28

    Aeration drying and disinfecting grain crops in bulk and pretreating seeds includes passing through a bulk of grain crops and seeds disinfecting and drying agents including an ozone and air mixture and surrounding air, subdividing the disinfecting and drying agents into a plurality of streams spaced from one another in a vertical direction, and passing the streams at different heights through levels located at corresponding heights of the bulk of grain crops and seeds transversely in a substantially horizontal direction.

  17. Electronegativity calculation of bulk modulus and band gap of ternary ZnO-based alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Keyan; Kang, Congying [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Xue, Dongfeng, E-mail: dongfeng@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-10-15

    In this work, the bulk moduli and band gaps of M{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O (M = Be, Mg, Ca, Cd) alloys in the whole composition range were quantitatively calculated by using the electronegativity-related models for bulk modulus and band gap, respectively. We found that the change trends of bulk modulus and band gap with an increase of M concentration x are same for Be{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O and Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O, while the change trends are reverse for Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O and Ca{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O. It was revealed that the bulk modulus is related to the valence electron density of atoms whereas the band gap is strongly influenced by the detailed chemical bonding behaviors of constituent atoms. The current work provides us a useful guide to compositionally design advanced alloy materials with both good mechanical and optoelectronic properties.

  18. BULK VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    ARD KE

    2011-04-11

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper is intended to provide the reader with general understanding of Bulk Vitrification and how it might be applied to immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste.

  19. The transfer between electron bulk kinetic energy and thermal energy in collisionless magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, San; Lu, Quanming; Huang, Can; Wang, Shui

    2013-06-15

    By performing two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate the transfer between electron bulk kinetic and electron thermal energy in collisionless magnetic reconnection. In the vicinity of the X line, the electron bulk kinetic energy density is much larger than the electron thermal energy density. The evolution of the electron bulk kinetic energy is mainly determined by the work done by the electric field force and electron pressure gradient force. The work done by the electron gradient pressure force in the vicinity of the X line is changed to the electron enthalpy flux. In the magnetic island, the electron enthalpy flux is transferred to the electron thermal energy due to the compressibility of the plasma in the magnetic island. The compression of the plasma in the magnetic island is the consequence of the electromagnetic force acting on the plasma as the magnetic field lines release their tension after being reconnected. Therefore, we can observe that in the magnetic island the electron thermal energy density is much larger than the electron bulk kinetic energy density.

  20. Attrition resistant bulk iron catalysts and processes for preparing and using same

    DOEpatents

    Jothimurugesan, Kandaswamy; Goodwin, Jr., James G.; Gangwal, Santosh K.

    2007-08-21

    An attrition resistant precipitated bulk iron catalyst is prepared from iron oxide precursor and a binder by spray drying. The catalysts are preferably used in carbon monoxide hydrogenation processes such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. These catalysts are suitable for use in fluidized-bed reactors, transport reactors and, especially, slurry bubble column reactors.

  1. Bulk and Surface Molecular Orientation Distribution in Injection-molded Liquid Crystalline Polymers: Experiment and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.; Burghardt, W; Bubeck, R; Burgard, S; Fischer, D

    2010-01-01

    Bulk and surface distributions of molecular orientation in injection-molded plaques of thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers (TLCPs) have been studied using a combination of techniques, coordinated with process simulations using the Larson-Doi 'polydomain' model. Wide-angle X-ray scattering was used to map out the bulk orientation distribution. Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) were utilized to probe the molecular orientation states to within about {approx}5 {micro}m and {approx}2 nm, respectively, of the sample surface. These noninvasive, surface-sensitive techniques yield reasonable self-consistency, providing complementary validation of the robustness of these methods. An analogy between Larson-Doi and fiber orientation models has allowed the first simulations of TLCP injection molding. The simulations capture many fine details in the bulk orientation distribution across the sample plaque. Direct simulation of surface orientation at the level probed by FTIR-ATR and NEXAFS was not possible due to the limited spatial resolution of the simulations. However, simulation results extracted from the shear-dominant skin region are found to provide a qualitatively accurate indicator of surface orientation. Finally, simulations capture the relation between bulk and surface orientation states across the different regions of the sample plaque.

  2. Higher-dimensional bulk wormholes and their manifestations in brane worlds

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigo, Enrico

    2006-11-15

    There is nothing to prevent a higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter bulk spacetime from containing various other branes in addition to hosting our universe, presumed to be a positive-tension 3-brane. In particular, it could contain closed, microscopic branes that form the boundary surfaces of void bubbles and thus violate the null energy condition in the bulk. The possible existence of such micro branes can be investigated by considering the properties of the ground state of a pseudo-Wheeler-DeWitt equation describing brane quantum dynamics in minisuperspace. If they exist, a concentration of these micro branes could act as a fluid of exotic matter able to support macroscopic wormholes connecting otherwise-distant regions of the bulk. Were the brane constituting our universe to expand into a region of the bulk containing such higher-dimensional macroscopic wormholes, they would likely manifest themselves in our brane as wormholes of normal dimensionality, whose spontaneous appearance and general dynamics would seem inexplicably peculiar. This encounter could also result in the formation of baby universes of a particular type.

  3. Decoupling Bulk and Surface Contributions in Water- Splitting Photocatalysts by In Situ Ultrafast Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Appavoo, Kannatassen; Mingzhao, Liu; Black, Charles T.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.

    2015-05-10

    By performing ultrafast emission spectroscopy in an operating, bias-controlled photoelectrochemical cell, we distinguish between bulk (charge transport) and surface (chemical reaction) recombination processes in a nanostructured photocatalyst and correlate its electronic properties directly with its incident-photon-to-current efficiency.

  4. Guided evolution of bulk metallic glass nanostructures: A platform for designing three-dimensional electrocatalytic surfaces

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Doubek, Gustavo; Sekol, Ryan C.; Li, Jinyang; Ryu, Won -Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S.; Nejati, Siamak; Moy, Eric; Reid, Candy; Carmo, Marcelo; Linardi, Marcelo; et al

    2015-12-22

    Precise control over catalyst surface composition and structure is necessary to improve the function of electrochemical systems. To that end, bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloys with atomically dispersed elements provide a highly processable, nanoscale platform for electrocatalysis and surface modification. Here we report on nanostructures of Pt-based BMGs that are modified with various subtractive and additive processes to improve their electrochemical performance.

  5. Silicon surface and bulk defect passivation by low temperature PECVD oxides and nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Rohatgi, A.; Ruby, D.

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of PECVD passivation of surface and bulk defects in Si, as well as phosphorous diffused emitters, Is investigated and quantified. Significant hydrogen incorporation coupled with high positive charge density in the PECVD SiN layer is found to play an important role in bulk and surface passivation. It is shown that photo-assisted anneal in a forming gas ambient after PECVD depositions significantly improves the passivation of emitter and bulk defects. PECVD passivation of phosphorous doped emitters and boron doped bare Si surfaces is found to be a strong function of doping concentration. Surface recombination velocity of less than 200 cm/s for 0.2 Ohm-cm and less than 1 cm/s for high resistivity substrates ({approximately} Ohm-cm) were achieved. PECVD passivation improved bulk lifetime in the range of 30% to 70% in multicrystalline Si materials. However, the degree of the passivation was found to be highly material specific. Depending upon the passivation scheme, emitter saturation current density (J{sub oe}) can be reduced by a factor of 3 to 9. Finally, the stability of PECVD oxide/nitride passivation under prolonged UV exposure is established.

  6. WHAT GOVERNS THE BULK VELOCITY OF THE JET COMPONENTS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    SciTech Connect

    Chai Bo; Cao Xinwu; Gu Minfeng E-mail: cxw@shao.ac.cn

    2012-11-10

    We use a sample of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with measured black hole masses to explore the jet formation mechanisms in these sources. Based on Koenigl's inhomogeneous jet model, the jet parameters, such as the bulk motion Lorentz factor, magnetic field strength, and electron density in the jet, can be estimated with the very long baseline interferometry and X-ray data.. We find a significant correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample, while no significant correlation is present between the bulk Lorentz factor and the Eddington ratio. The massive black holes will be spun up through accretion, as the black holes acquire mass and angular momentum simultaneously through accretion. Recent investigation indeed suggested that most supermassive black holes in elliptical galaxies have on average higher spins than the black holes in spiral galaxies, where random, small accretion episodes (e.g., tidally disrupted stars, accretion of molecular clouds) might have played a more important role. If this is true, then the correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components found in this work implies that the motion velocity of the jet components is probably governed by the black hole spin. No correlation is found between the magnetic field strength at 10R {sub S} (R {sub S} = 2GM/c {sup 2} is the Schwarzschild radius) in the jets and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample. This is consistent with the black hole spin scenario, i.e., the faster moving jets are magnetically accelerated by the magnetic fields threading the horizon of more rapidly rotating black holes. The results imply that the Blandford-Znajek mechanism may dominate over the Blandford-Payne mechanism for the jet acceleration, at least in these radio-loud AGNs.

  7. Study on effect of annealing conditions on structural, magnetic and superconducting properties of MgB{sub 2} bulk samples

    SciTech Connect

    Phaneendra, Konduru Asokan, K. Kanjilal, D.; Awana, V. P. S.; Sastry, S. Sreehari

    2014-04-24

    Effect of annealing conditions on structural, magnetic and superconducting properties of Magnesium Diboride (MgB{sub 2}) bulk superconductor samples prepared by solid state route method are compared. The samples are made by taking Magnesium and Boron powders in stoichiometric ratio, grounded well and pelletized at pressure of about 10Tonnes. These pellets are annealed in both Argon and vacuum environment separately up to 800°c for two hours. Both the samples show clear superconducting transition at Tc ∼ 38 k. This is further conformed by AC/DC magnetization (M-T), Resistivity [ρ (T, H)] measurements under magnetic field up to 14 Tesla as well. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction of both samples conformed the MgB{sub 2} phase formation with P6/mmm space group symmetry. Scanning Electron Microscopy images of the surface revile more agglomeration of grains in case of Argon annealed samples. This result in more critical current density (J{sub c}) of Argon annealed samples than vacuum annealed one calculated from Bean's critical state model. This high Jc is explained in terms of more inter grain connectivity for Argon annealed sample than vacuum annealed sample.

  8. UC 54-2 - Definitions | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    2 - Definitions Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: UC 54-2 - DefinitionsLegal Abstract This section provides...

  9. 49 A.R.S. 201: Definitions | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: 49 A.R.S. 201: DefinitionsLegal Abstract This section contains definitions that relate to water...

  10. Montana MCA 77-4-102, Geothermal Resource Definitions | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: Montana MCA 77-4-102, Geothermal Resource DefinitionsLegal Abstract Definitions for...

  11. MCA 22-3-421 - Montana Antiquities Definitions | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: MCA 22-3-421 - Montana Antiquities DefinitionsLegal Abstract This is the definitions section for...

  12. Former Worker Program Surveillance Case Definitions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Surveillance Case Definitions Former Worker Program Surveillance Case Definitions February 2011 The surveillance case definitions were developed by a group of occupational medicine physicians that make up the FWP medical task group, to define the occupational medical conditions commonly discovered during the FWP medical screening exam to ensure consistency when reporting such conditions to DOE. Former Worker Program Surveillance Case Definitions (27.08 KB) More Documents & Publications

  13. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Definitions and Assumptions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Definitions and Assumptions, October 2012 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint ... More Documents & Publications Understanding Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints, ...

  14. 2010 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints: Definitions and Assumptions

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This 13-page document provides definitions and assumptions used in the Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints (MECS 2010)

  15. SECURITY CORE FUNCTION AND DEFINITION REPORT | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    SECURITY CORE FUNCTION AND DEFINITION REPORT SECURITY CORE FUNCTION AND DEFINITION REPORT The first phase of the Lemnos Interoperable Security Program shall lay the foundation for future work by providing a guiding example of the vocabulary, metrics, interoperability requirements and interoperability assurance methodologies used to create interoperable network security products. From a requirements definition perspective, this translates to: SECURITY CORE FUNCTION AND DEFINITION REPORT (762.57

  16. Key Terms | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Key Terms Key Terms Three Door Keys data-key-571156_960_720.png Key Terms Low Vision: non-correctable reduced vision Blindness: lack of visual perception Hearing Impairment: full or partial decrease in the ability to detect or understand sounds Physical Impairment: a physical condition that permanently prevents normal body movement or control Cognitive Disabilities: difficulty with one or more types of mental tasks

  17. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    This increased use of natural gas for electricity generation primarily reflects sustained low prices for the fuel. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy ...

  18. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook June 2015 2 * The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) forecasts warmer summer temperatures ...

  19. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook September 2015 2 Global Petroleum and Other Liquids Global liquids production continues to outpace consumption, ...

  20. CALCULATION OF DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM MELTER INLEAKAGE AND OFF-GAS GENERATION RATE

    SciTech Connect

    MAY TH

    2008-04-16

    The River Protection Project (RPP) mission is to safely store, retrieve, treat, immobilize, and dispose of the Hanford Site tank waste. The Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) is a research and development project whose objective is to demonstrate the suitability of Bulk Vitrification treatment technology waste form for disposing of low-activity waste from the Tank Farms. The objective of this calculation is to determine the DBVS melter inleakage and off-gas generation rate based on full scale testing data from 38D. This calculation estimates the DBVS melter in leakage and gas generation rate based on test data. Inleakage is estimated before the melt was initiated, at one point during the melt, and at the end of the melt. Maximum gas generation rate is also estimated.

  1. Surface and bulk modified high capacity layered oxide cathodes with low irreversible capacity loss

    DOEpatents

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Wu, Yan

    2010-03-16

    The present invention includes compositions, surface and bulk modifications, and methods of making of (1-x)Li[Li.sub.1/3Mn.sub.2/3]O.sub.2.xLi[Mn.sub.0.5-yNi.sub.0.5-yCo.sub.2- y]O.sub.2 cathode materials having an O3 crystal structure with a x value between 0 and 1 and y value between 0 and 0.5, reducing the irreversible capacity loss in the first cycle by surface modification with oxides and bulk modification with cationic and anionic substitutions, and increasing the reversible capacity to close to the theoretical value of insertion/extraction of one lithium per transition metal ion (250-300 mAh/g).

  2. Noncentrosymmetric salt inclusion oxides: Role of salt lattices and counter ions in bulk polarity

    SciTech Connect

    West, J. Palmer; Hwu, Shiou-Jyh

    2012-11-15

    The synthesis and structural features of a newly emerged class of salt-inclusion solids (SISs) are reviewed. The descriptive chemistry with respect to the role of ionic salt and its correlation with bulk noncentrosymmetricity and polarity of the covalent oxide lattice in question is discussed by means of structure analysis. These unprecedented discoveries have opened doors to novel materials synthesis via the utilities of salt-inclusion chemistry (SIC) that are otherwise known as the molten-salt approach. The result of these investigations prove that the bulk acentricity, or cancellation of which, can be accounted for from the perspective of ionic and/or salt lattices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis and structure of newly emerged salt-inclusion solids are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salt lattice and its symmetry correlation with polar framework are discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preservation of acentricity is accounted for from the perspective of ionic and salt lattices.

  3. Controls and incentives: A framework for the utilization of bulk wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    This paper examines the economic, legal and environmental parameters within which the utilization of bulk wastes takes place. Using the example of construction and demolition (C and D) wastes in a number of European countries the paper demonstrates that the amounts of waste reutilized and the uses to which those wastes are put are dependent on both regulatory conditions and the level of economic incentives available. The effective regulation of waste is regarded as essential in minimizing the level of C and D which are lost to the reutilization stream. The taxation of raw materials for construction will also be addressed in determining the contribution that this might make to the reutilization of bulk wastes.

  4. High-Performance All Air-Processed Polymer-Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Black, C.T.; Nam, C.-Y.; Su, D.

    2009-10-23

    High photovoltaic device performance is demonstrated in ambient-air-processed bulk heterojunction solar cells having an active blend layer of organic poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), with power conversion efficiencies as high as 4.1%, which is comparable to state-of-the-art bulk heterojunction devices fabricated in air-free environments. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy is combined with detailed analysis of electronic carrier transport in order to quantitatively understand the effects of oxygen exposure and different thermal treatments on electronic conduction through the highly nanostructured active blend network. Improvement in photovoltaic device performance by suitable post-fabrication thermal processing results from the reduced oxygen charge trap density in the active blend layer and is consistent with a corresponding slight increase in thickness of an {approx}4 nm aluminum oxide hole-blocking layer present at the electron-collecting contact interface.

  5. Intense femtosecond photoexcitation of bulk and monolayer MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Paradisanos, I.; Fotakis, C.; Kymakis, E.; Kioseoglou, G.; Stratakis, E.

    2014-07-28

    The effect of femtosecond laser irradiation on bulk and single-layer MoS{sub 2} on silicon oxide is studied. Optical, field emission scanning electron microscopy and Raman microscopy were used to quantify the damage. The intensity of A{sub 1g} and E{sub 2g}{sup 1} vibrational modes was recorded as a function of the number of irradiation pulses. The observed behavior was attributed to laser-induced bond breaking and subsequent atoms removal due to electronic excitations. The single-pulse optical damage threshold was determined for the monolayer and bulk under 800 nm and 1030 nm pulsed laser irradiation, and the role of two-photon versus one photon absorption effects is discussed.

  6. Summary - Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) for Low-Actvity Waste at Hanford

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DBVS ETR Report Date: September 2006 ETR-3 United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) for Low Activity Waste (LAW) at Hanford Why DOE-EM Did This Review The Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with the safe retrieval, treatment and disposal of 53 million gallons of Hanford radioactive waste. The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being designed to treat and vitrify the High Level

  7. Method of altering the effective bulk density of solid material and the resulting product

    DOEpatents

    Kool, Lawrence B.; Nolen, Robert L.; Solomon, David E.

    1983-01-01

    A method of adjustably tailoring the effective bulk density of a solid material in which a mixture comprising the solid material, a film-forming polymer and a volatile solvent are sprayed into a drying chamber such that the solvent evaporates and the polymer dries into hollow shells having the solid material captured within the shell walls. Shell density may be varied as a function of solid/polymer concentration, droplet size and drying temperature.

  8. Increase of bulk optical damage threshold fluences of KDP crystals by laser irradiation and heat treatment

    DOEpatents

    Swain, J.E.; Stokowski, S.E.; Milam, D.; Kennedy, G.C.; Rainer, F.

    1982-07-07

    The bulk optical damage threshold fluence of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals is increased by irradiating the crystals with laser pulses of duration 1 to 20 nanoseconds of increasing fluence, below the optical damage threshold fluence for untreated crystals, or by baking the crystals for times of the order of 24 hours at temperatures of 110 to 165/sup 0/C, or by a combination of laser irradiation and baking.

  9. Evaluation of Exothermic Reactions from Bulk-Vitrification Melter Feeds Containing Cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Bos, Stanley J.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Berry, Pam

    2007-06-25

    PNNL has demonstrated that cellulose effectively reduces the amount of molten ionic salt during Bulk Vitrification of simulated Hanford Low Level Waste (LLW). To address concerns about the potential reactivity of cellulose-LLW, PNNL used thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, and accelerating rate calorimetry to determine in these preliminary studies that these mixtures will support a self-sustaining reaction if heated to 110C at adiabatic conditions. Additional testing is recommended.

  10. Effect of Viscosity on the Microformability of Bulk Amorphous Alloy in Supercooled Liquid Region

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng Ming; Zhang Shihong; Wang Ruixue

    2010-06-15

    Previously published results have shown that viscosity greatly influences on the deformation behavior of the bulk amorphous alloy in supercooled liquid region during microforming process. And viscosity is proved to be a component of the evaluation index which indicating microformability. Based on the fluid flow theory and assumptions, bulk amorphous alloy can be regarded as the viscous materials with a certain viscosity. It is helpful to understand how the viscosity plays an important role in viscous materials with various viscosities by numerical simulation on the process. Analysis is carried out by linear state equation in FEM with other three materials, water, lubricant oil and polymer melt, whose viscosities are different obviously. The depths of the materials flow into the U-shaped groove during the microimprinting process are compared in this paper. The result shows that the deformation is quite different when surface tension effect is not considered in the case. With the lowest viscosity, water can reach the bottom of micro groove in a very short time. Lubricant oil and polymer melt slower than it. Moreover bulk amorphous alloys in supercooled liquid state just flow into the groove slightly. Among the alloys of different systems including Pd-, Mg- and Zr-based alloy, Pd-based alloy ranks largest in the depth. Mg-based alloy is the second. And Zr-based alloy is the third. Further more the rank order of the viscosities of the alloys is Pd-, Mg- and Zr-based. It agrees well with the results of calculation. Therefore viscosity plays an important role in the microforming of the bulk amorphous alloy in the supercooled liquid state.

  11. Impact of Improved Solar Forecasts on Bulk Power System Operations in ISO-NE (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; Florita, A.; Hodge, B.M.

    2014-11-01

    The diurnal nature of solar power is made uncertain by variable cloud cover and the influence of atmospheric conditions on irradiance scattering processes. Its forecasting has become increasingly important to the unit commitment and dispatch process for efficient scheduling of generators in power system operations. This presentation is an overview of a study that examines the value of improved solar forecasts on Bulk Power System Operations.

  12. "Plastic" Solar Cells: Self-Assembly of Bulk Heterojunction

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Nano-Materials by Spontaneous Phase Separation | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics "Plastic" Solar Cells: Self-Assembly of Bulk Heterojunction Nano-Materials by Spontaneous Phase Separation October 20, 2009 at 3pm/36-428 Alan Heeger Department of Chemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara heeger abstract: Solar cells - Power from the Sun - can provide and must provide - a significant contribution to our future energy needs. The challenge is clear; we must create the

  13. Dark spatial solitons in bulk azo-dye-doped polymer using photoinduced molecular reorientation

    SciTech Connect

    Bian Shaoping; Kuzyk, Mark G.

    2004-08-16

    We report the generation of dark spatial solitons in bulk Disperse Red 1 doped poly(methyl methacrylate) using photoinduced reorientation of azo-dye molecules. Planar solitions are formed when illuminated with a continuous-wave laser at intensities of the order of hundreds of miliwatts per square centimeter. The width of the soliton saturates to a minimum value at high intensity; and when the width of the initial dark notch is reduced, the equilibrium minimum width is unchanged.

  14. Effect of mechanical strain on electronic properties of bulk MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Sandeep Kumar, Jagdish Sastri, O. S. K. S.

    2015-05-15

    Ab-initio density functional theory based calculations of electronic properties of bulk and monolayer Molybdenum di-Sulfide (MoS{sub 2}) have been performed using all electron Full Potential Linearised Augmentad Plane Wave (FPLAPW) method using Elk code. We have used Generalised Gradient Approximation (GGA) for exchange and correlation functionals and performed calculaitons of Lattice parameters, Density Of States (DOS) and Band Structure (BS). Band structure calculations revealed that bulk MoS{sub 2} has indirect band gap of 0.97 eV and mono-layer MoS{sub 2} has direct band gap which has increased to 1.71 eV. These are in better agreement with experimental values as compared with the other calculations using pseudo-potential code. The effect of mechanical strain on the electronic properties of bulk MoS{sub 2} has also been studied. For the different values of compressive strain (varying from 2% to 8% in steps of 2%) along the c-axis, the corresponding DOS and BS are obtained. We observed that the band gap decreases by about 15% for every 2% increase in strain along the c-axis.

  15. Molecular helices as electron acceptors in high-performance bulk heterojunction solar cells

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Yu M. Zhong; Nam, Chang -Yong; Trinh, M. Tuan; Chen, Rongsheng; Purdum, Geoffrey E.; Khlyabich, Petr P.; Sezen, Melda; Oh, Seokjoon; Zhu, Haiming; Fowler, Brandon; et al

    2015-09-18

    Despite numerous organic semiconducting materials synthesized for organic photovoltaics in the past decade, fullerenes are widely used as electron acceptors in highly efficient bulk-heterojunction solar cells. None of the non-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells have achieved efficiencies as high as fullerene-based solar cells. Design principles for fullerene-free acceptors remain unclear in the field. Here we report examples of helical molecular semiconductors as electron acceptors that are on par with fullerene derivatives in efficient solar cells. We achieved an 8.3% power conversion efficiency in a solar cell, which is a record high for non-fullerene bulk heterojunctions. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy revealedmore » both electron and hole transfer processes at the donor–acceptor interfaces. Atomic force microscopy reveals a mesh-like network of acceptors with pores that are tens of nanometres in diameter for efficient exciton separation and charge transport. As a result, this study describes a new motif for designing highly efficient acceptors for organic solar cells.« less

  16. A Bulk Superconducting Magnetic System for the CLAS12 Target at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Statera, Marco; Contalbrigo, Marco; Ciullo, Giuseppe; Lenisa, Paulo; Lowry, Michael M.; Sandorfi, Andrew M.

    2015-06-01

    A feasibility study of a bulk magnetic system for the target of an experiment to measure the transverse spin effects in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) at 11 GeV with a transversely polarized target using the CLAS12 detector is presented. An experiment has been approved with the highest priority rating to study spin azimuthal asymmetries in SIDIS using 11-GeV polarized electron beams from the upgraded CEBAF facility and the CLAS12 detector equipped with a transversely polarized target. The transverse target in CLAS12 requires the shielding of a volume inside the longitudinal field of the main solenoid. In the shielded region, a transverse target magnet can operate; for the proposed magnetic configuration, the main solenoid maximum magnetic induction is 2 T. A bulk MgB2 cylinder cooled in liquid helium is proposed both to shield the longitudinal field of the main solenoid and to provide a transverse field induction up to 1.2 T for the hydrogen deuteride ice (HD-ice) target. The installation and magnetization procedure will be described. The magnetization procedure has to be compatible with the polarization and installation procedure of the HD-ice target. The design of a test bench to measure the transverse magnetization of a MgB2 bulk cylinder cooled by a coldhead is presented together with the scheduled measurements.

  17. Molecular helices as electron acceptors in high-performance bulk heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu M. Zhong; Nam, Chang -Yong; Trinh, M. Tuan; Chen, Rongsheng; Purdum, Geoffrey E.; Khlyabich, Petr P.; Sezen, Melda; Oh, Seokjoon; Zhu, Haiming; Fowler, Brandon; Zhang, Boyuan; Wang, Wei; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Black, Charles T.; Steigerwald, Michael L.; Loo, Yueh -Lin; Ng, Fay; Zhu, X. -Y.; Nuckolls, Colin

    2015-09-18

    Despite numerous organic semiconducting materials synthesized for organic photovoltaics in the past decade, fullerenes are widely used as electron acceptors in highly efficient bulk-heterojunction solar cells. None of the non-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells have achieved efficiencies as high as fullerene-based solar cells. Design principles for fullerene-free acceptors remain unclear in the field. Here we report examples of helical molecular semiconductors as electron acceptors that are on par with fullerene derivatives in efficient solar cells. We achieved an 8.3% power conversion efficiency in a solar cell, which is a record high for non-fullerene bulk heterojunctions. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy revealed both electron and hole transfer processes at the donor–acceptor interfaces. Atomic force microscopy reveals a mesh-like network of acceptors with pores that are tens of nanometres in diameter for efficient exciton separation and charge transport. As a result, this study describes a new motif for designing highly efficient acceptors for organic solar cells.

  18. Surface and bulk crystallization of amorphous solid water films: Confirmation of “top-down” crystallization

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Yuan, Chunqing; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

    2016-01-11

    Here, the crystallization kinetics of nanoscale amorphous solid water (ASW) films are investigated using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). TPD measurements are used to probe surface crystallization and RAIRS measurements are used to probe bulk crystallization. Isothermal TPD results show that surface crystallization is independent of the film thickness (from 100 to 1000 ML). Conversely, the RAIRS measurements show that the bulk crystallization time increases linearly with increasing film thickness. These results suggest that nucleation and crystallization begin at the ASW/vacuum interface and then the crystallization growth front propagates linearly into the bulk. This mechanism wasmore » confirmed by selective placement of an isotopic layer (5% D2O in H2O) at various positions in an ASW (H2O) film. In this case, the closer the isotopic layer was to the vacuum interface, the earlier the isotopic layer crystallized. These experiments provide direct evidence to confirm that ASW crystallization in vacuum proceeds by a “top-down” crystallization mechanism.« less

  19. A Phenomenological Model of Bulk Force in a Li-Ion Battery Pack and Its Application to State of Charge Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, S; Kim, Y; Siegel, JB; Samad, NA; Stefanopoulou, AG

    2014-09-19

    A phenomenological model of the bulk force exerted by a lithium ion cell during various charge, discharge, and temperature operating conditions is developed. The measured and modeled force resembles the carbon expansion behavior associated with the phase changes during intercalation, as there are ranges of state of charge (SOC) with a gradual force increase and ranges of SOC with very small change in force. The model includes the influence of temperature on the observed force capturing the underlying thermal expansion phenomena. Moreover the model is capable of describing the changes in force during thermal transients, when internal battery heating due to high C-rates or rapid changes in the ambient temperature, which create a mismatch in the temperature of the cell and the holding fixture. It is finally shown that the bulk force model can be very useful for a more accurate and robust SOC estimation based on fusing information from voltage and force (or pressure) measurements. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives 4.0 License (CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is not changed in any way and is properly cited. For permission for commercial reuse, please email oa@electrochem.org. All rights reserved.

  20. Margin of Safety Definition and Examples Used in Safety Basis Documents and the USQ Process

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, R. A.

    2013-10-03

    The Nuclear Safety Management final rule, 10 CFR 830, provides an undefined term, margin of safety (MOS). Safe harbors listed in 10 CFR 830, Table 2, such as DOE-STD-3009 use but do not define the term. This lack of definition has created the need for the definition. This paper provides a definition of MOS and documents examples of MOS as applied in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) approved safety basis for an existing nuclear facility. If we understand what MOS looks like regarding Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) parameters, then it helps us compare against other parameters that do not involve a MOS. This paper also documents parameters that are not MOS. These criteria could be used to determine if an MOS exists in safety basis documents. This paper helps DOE, including the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and its contractors responsible for the safety basis improve safety basis documents and the unreviewed safety question (USQ) process with respect to MOS.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING USING LOCATION SPECIFIC AIR MONITORING IN BULK HANDLING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, L.; Hanks, D.; Degange, J.; Brant, H.; Hall, G.; Cable-Dunlap, P.; Anderson, B.

    2011-06-07

    Since the introduction of safeguards strengthening measures approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors (1992-1997), international nuclear safeguards inspectors have been able to utilize environmental sampling (ES) (e.g. deposited particulates, air, water, vegetation, sediments, soil and biota) in their safeguarding approaches at bulk uranium/plutonium handling facilities. Enhancements of environmental sampling techniques used by the IAEA in drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear materials or activities will soon be able to take advantage of a recent step change improvement in the gathering and analysis of air samples at these facilities. Location specific air monitoring feasibility tests have been performed with excellent results in determining attribute and isotopic composition of chemical elements present in an actual test-bed sample. Isotopic analysis of collected particles from an Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) collection, was performed with the standard bulk sampling protocol used throughout the IAEA network of analytical laboratories (NWAL). The results yielded bulk isotopic values expected for the operations. Advanced designs of air monitoring instruments such as the ACE may be used in gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEP) to detect the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) or enrichments not declared by a State. Researchers at Savannah River National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing the next generation of ES equipment for air grab and constant samples that could become an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. Location specific air monitoring to be used to establish a baseline environmental signature of a particular facility employed for comparison of consistencies in declared operations will be described in this paper. Implementation of air monitoring will be contrasted against the use of smear ES

  2. Risk Group and Biosafety Level Definitions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Group and Biosafety Level Definitions European Economic Community (DIRECTIVE 93/88/EEC, Oct. 1993) (1) Group 1 biological agent means one that is unlikely to cause human disease; (2) Group 2 biological agent means one that can cause human disease and might be a hazard to workers; it is unlikely to spread to the community; there is usually effective prophylaxis or treatment available; (3) Group 3 biological agent means one that can cause severe human disease and present a serious hazard to

  3. A Common Definition for Zero Energy Buildings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Common Definition for Zero Energy Buildings September 2015 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy by The National Institute of Building Sciences NREL Research Support Facility, photo credit: Bill Gillies, NREL (This page intentionally left blank) Acknowledgements The Project Team would like to thank the Subject Matter Experts who were interviewed during the research phase of the project, as well as the Stakeholders who provided comments during the evaluation phase of the project. They all

  4. Definition and documentation of engineering processes

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, G.W.

    1997-11-01

    This tutorial is an extract of a two-day workshop developed under the auspices of the Quality Engineering Department at Sandia National Laboratories. The presentation starts with basic definitions and addresses why processes should be defined and documented. It covers three primary topics: (1) process considerations and rationale, (2) approach to defining and documenting engineering processes, and (3) an IDEFO model of the process for defining engineering processes.

  5. On variational definition of quantum entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Belavkin, Roman V.

    2015-01-13

    Entropy of distribution P can be defined in at least three different ways: 1) as the expectation of the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence of P from elementary δ-measures (in this case, it is interpreted as expected surprise); 2) as a negative KL-divergence of some reference measure ν from the probability measure P; 3) as the supremum of Shannon’s mutual information taken over all channels such that P is the output probability, in which case it is dual of some transportation problem. In classical (i.e. commutative) probability, all three definitions lead to the same quantity, providing only different interpretations of entropy. In non-commutative (i.e. quantum) probability, however, these definitions are not equivalent. In particular, the third definition, where the supremum is taken over all entanglements of two quantum systems with P being the output state, leads to the quantity that can be twice the von Neumann entropy. It was proposed originally by V. Belavkin and Ohya [1] and called the proper quantum entropy, because it allows one to define quantum conditional entropy that is always non-negative. Here we extend these ideas to define also quantum counterpart of proper cross-entropy and cross-information. We also show inequality for the values of classical and quantum information.

  6. Low-resistivity bulk silicon prepared by hot-pressing boron- and phosphorus-hyperdoped silicon nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Luan, Qingbin; Ni, Zhenyi; Zhu, Tiejun; Yang, Deren; Pi, Xiaodong; Koura, Setsuko

    2014-12-15

    Technologically important low-resistivity bulk Si has been usually produced by the traditional Czochralski growth method. We now explore a novel method to obtain low-resistivity bulk Si by hot-pressing B- and P-hyperdoped Si nanocrystals (NCs). In this work bulk Si with the resistivity as low as ∼ 0.8 (40) mΩ•cm has been produced by hot pressing P (B)-hyperdoped Si NCs. The dopant type is found to make a difference for the sintering of Si NCs during the hot pressing. Bulk Si hot-pressed from P-hyperdoped Si NCs is more compact than that hot-pressed from B-hyperdoped Si NCs when the hot-pressing temperature is the same. This leads to the fact that P is more effectively activated to produce free carriers than B in the hot-pressed bulk Si. Compared with the dopant concentration, the hot-pressing temperature more significantly affects the structural and electrical properties of hot-pressed bulk Si. With the increase of the hot-pressing temperature the density of hot-pressed bulk Si increases. The highest carrier concentration (lowest resistivity) of bulk Si hot-pressed from B- or P-hyperdoped Si NCs is obtained at the highest hot-pressing temperature of 1050 °C. The mobility of carriers in the hot-pressed bulk Si is low (≤  ∼ 30 cm{sup -2}V{sup -1}s{sup -1}) mainly due to the scattering of carriers induced by structural defects such as pores.

  7. Long vs. short-term energy storage:sensitivity analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Inc., Menlo Park, CA); Hassenzahl, William V. (,Advanced Energy Analysis, Piedmont, CA)

    2007-07-01

    This report extends earlier work to characterize long-duration and short-duration energy storage technologies, primarily on the basis of life-cycle cost, and to investigate sensitivities to various input assumptions. Another technology--asymmetric lead-carbon capacitors--has also been added. Energy storage technologies are examined for three application categories--bulk energy storage, distributed generation, and power quality--with significant variations in discharge time and storage capacity. Sensitivity analyses include cost of electricity and natural gas, and system life, which impacts replacement costs and capital carrying charges. Results are presented in terms of annual cost, $/kW-yr. A major variable affecting system cost is hours of storage available for discharge.

  8. Ultraviolet laser-induced poling inhibition produces bulk domains in MgO-doped lithium niobate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Boes, Andreas, E-mail: s3363819@student.rmit.edu.au; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Sivan, Vijay; Mitchell, Arnan [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); ARC Center for Ultra-high Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); Yudistira, Didit [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); Wade, Scott [Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Mailis, Sakellaris [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Soergel, Elisabeth [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Wegelerstr. 8, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-09-01

    We report the realization of high-resolution bulk domains achieved using a shallow, structured, domain inverted surface template obtained by UV laser-induced poling inhibition in MgO-doped lithium niobate. The quality of the obtained bulk domains is compared to those of the template and their application for second harmonic generation is demonstrated. The present method enables domain structures with a period length as small as 3??m to be achieved. Furthermore, we propose a potential physical mechanism that leads to the transformation of the surface template into bulk domains.

  9. Long-Term Surveillance Plan...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Albuquerque, New Mexico TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 PURPOSE AND SCOPE 2.0 FINAL SITE CONDITIONS ... of 25 5202009 1:38 PM 1. 0 PURPOSE AND SCOPE This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) ...

  10. Energy Exchange Terms and Conditions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    We will be requesting that participants acknowledge that they have read these terms and conditions at the time of registration (also included in the online registration form) and at the time of printing their badges on-site.

  11. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    will average 4.77MMBtu in 2014 and 4.50MMBtu in 2015. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook July 2014 2 Global Petroleum and Other Liquids EIA ...

  12. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Global oil inventory builds in the third quarter U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook November 2015 2 of 2015 averaged 1.6 million bd, down from 2.0 ...

  13. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    EIA projects end-of-October stocks will be 3,919 Bcf, 121 Bcf (3.2%) more than the five-year average. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook July 2015 2 ...

  14. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook August 2016 2 Global Petroleum and Other Liquid Fuels EIA estimates that global petroleum and other liquid fuels ...

  15. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    ... U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook August 2014 2 Global Petroleum and Other Liquids EIA's world oil balance is virtually unchanged from last month's ...

  16. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    (833Q) Short-Term Energy Outlook iuarterly Projections August 1983 Energy Information Administration Washington, D.C. 20585 t rt jrt- .ort- iort- iort- iort- nort- lort- '.ort- ...

  17. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects that the Brent crude oil spot ... in 2013 and 3.95 per MMBtu in 2014. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term ...

  18. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    ... in 2017, compared with an average of 2.63MMBtu in 2015. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook June 2016 2 Global Petroleum and Other Liquid Fuels EIA ...

  19. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    0.4 million bd lower, respectively, than in July's STEO. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook August 2015 2 Natural gas working inventories were ...

  20. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    ... EIA expects the Henry Hub natural gas spot price to average 3.34million British U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook February 2015 2 thermal units ...

  1. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    3.68 per MMBtu in 2013 and 3.84 per MMBtu in 2014. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook November 2013 2 Global Crude Oil and Liquid Fuels ...

  2. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    This would be the second-highest injection season on record. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook May 2015 2 Low natural gas prices in recent ...

  3. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    ... in 2017, compared with an average of 2.63MMBtu in 2015. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook May 2016 2 Global Petroleum and Other Liquid Fuels EIA ...

  4. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    3.69 per MMBtu in 2013 and 3.78 per MMBtu in 2014. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook December 2013 2 Global Crude Oil and Liquid Fuels Total ...

  5. Materials Analysis of CED Nb Films Being Coated on Bulk Nb Single Cell SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin; Reece, Charles; Palczewski, Ari; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Krishnan, Mahadevan; James, Colt; Irfan, Irfan

    2013-09-01

    This study is an on-going research on depositing a Nb film on the internal wall of bulk Nb single cell SRF cavities, via a cathodic arc Nb plasma ions source, an coaxial energetic condensation (CED) facility at AASC company. The motivation is to firstly create a homoepitaxy-like Nb/Nb film in a scale of a ~1.5GHz RF single cell cavity. Next, through SRF measurement and materials analysis, it might reveal the baseline properties of the CED-type homoepitaxy Nb films. Literally, a top-surface layer of Nb films which sustains SRF function, always grows up in homo-epitaxy mode, on top of a Nb nucleation layer. Homo-epitaxy growth of Nb must be the final stage (a crystal thickening process) of any coatings of Nb film on alternative cavity structure materials. Such knowledge of Nb-Nb homo-epitaxy is useful to create future realistic SRF cavity film coatings, such as hetero-epitaxy Nb/Cu Films, or template-layer-mitigated Nb films. One large-grain, and three fine grain bulk Nb cavities were coated. They went through cryogenic RF measurement. Preliminary results show that the Q0 of a Nb film could be as same as the pre-coated bulk Nb surface (which received a chemically-buffered polishing plus a light electro-polishing); but quality factor of two tested cavities dropped quickly. We are investigating if the severe Q-slope is caused by hydrogen incorporation before deposition, or is determined by some structural defects during Nb film growth.

  6. Bulk Vitrification Performance Enhancement: Refractory Lining Protection Against Molten Salt Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Evans, Michael B.; Smith, Benjamin T.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Matyas, Josef; Buchmiller, William C.; Gallegos, Autumn B.; Fluegel, Alexander

    2007-08-06

    Bulk vitrification (BV) is a process that heats a feed material that consists of glass-forming solids and dried low-activity waste (LAW) in a disposable refractory-lined metal box using electrical power supplied through carbon electrodes. The feed is heated to the point that the LAW decomposes and combines with the solids to generate a vitreous waste form. This study supports the BV design and operations by exploring various methods aimed at reducing the quantities of soluble Tc in the castable refractory block portion of the refractory lining, which limits the effectiveness of the final waste form.

  7. The use of bulk states to accelerate the band edge statecalculation of a semiconductor quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Vomel, Christof; Tomov, Stanimire Z.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Marques,Osni A.; Dongarra, Jack J.

    2006-05-10

    We present a new technique to accelerate the convergence of the folded spectrum method in empirical pseudopotential band edge state calculations for colloidal quantum dots. We use bulk band states of the materials constituent of the quantum dot to construct initial vectors and a preconditioner. We apply these to accelerate the convergence of the folded spectrum method for the interior states at the top of the valence and the bottom of the conduction band. For large CdSe quantum dots, the number of iteration steps until convergence decreases by about a factor of 4 compared to previous calculations.

  8. Analysis of Soluble Re Concentrations in Refractory from Bulk Vitrification Full-Scale Test 38B

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, Scott K.; Pierce, Eric M.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2006-06-30

    The capacity of the waste treatment plant (WTP) being built at the Hanford Site is not sufficient to process all of the tank waste accumulated from more than 40 years of nuclear materials production. Bulk vitrification can accelerate tank waste treatment by providing some supplemental low-activity waste (LAW) treatment capacity. Bulk vitrification combines LAW and glass-forming chemicals in a large metal container and melts the contents using electrical resistance heating. A castable refractory block (CRB) is used along with sand to insulate the container from the heat generated while melting the contents into a glass waste form. This report describes engineering-scale (ES) and full-scale (FS) tests that have been conducted. Several ES tests showed that a small fraction of soluble Tc moves in the CRB and results in a groundwater peak different than WTP glass. The total soluble Tc-99 fraction in the FS CRB is expected to be different than that determined in the ES tests, but until FS test results are available, the best-estimate soluble Tc-99 fraction from the ES tests has been used as a conservative estimate. The first FS test results are from cold simulant tests that have been spiked with Re. An estimated scale-up factor extrapolates the Tc-99 data collected at the ES to the FS bulk vitrification waste package. Test FS-38A tested the refractory design and did not have a Re spike. Samples were taken and analyzed to help determine Re CRB background concentrations using a Re-spiked, six-tank composite simulant mixed with soil and glass formers to produce the waste feed. Although this feed is not physically the same as the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System feed , the chemical make-up is the same. Extensive sampling of the CRB was planned, but difficulties with the test prevented completion of a full box. An abbreviated plan is described that looks at duplicate samples taken from refractory archive sections, a lower wall sample, and two base samples to gain early

  9. Radiation detector using a bulk high T[sub c] superconductor

    DOEpatents

    Artuso, J.F.; Franks, L.A.; Hull, K.L.; Symko, O.G.

    1993-12-07

    A radiation detector is provided, wherein a bulk high T[sub c] superconducting sample is placed in a magnetic field and maintained at a superconducting temperature. Photons of incident radiation will cause localized heating in superconducting loops of the sample destroying trapped flux and redistributing the fluxons, and reducing the critical current of the loops. Subsequent cooling of the sample in the magnetic field will cause trapped flux redistributed Abrikosov fluxons and trapped Josephson fluxons. The destruction and trapping of the fluxons causes changes in the magnetization of the sample inducing currents in opposite directions in a pickup coil which is coupled by an input coil to an rf SQUID. 4 figures.

  10. Ionic charge transport between blockages: Sodium cation conduction in freshly excised bulk brain tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Emin, David; Akhtari, Massoud; Ellingson, B. M.; Mathern, G. W.

    2015-08-15

    We analyze the transient-dc and frequency-dependent electrical conductivities between blocking electrodes. We extend this analysis to measurements of ions’ transport in freshly excised bulk samples of human brain tissue whose complex cellular structure produces blockages. The associated ionic charge-carrier density and diffusivity are consistent with local values for sodium cations determined non-invasively in brain tissue by MRI (NMR) and diffusion-MRI (spin-echo NMR). The characteristic separation between blockages, about 450 microns, is very much shorter than that found for sodium-doped gel proxies for brain tissue, >1 cm.

  11. The nature of the interlayer interaction in bulk and few-layer phosphorus

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Shulenburger, Luke; Baczewski, A. D.; Zhu, Z.; Guan, J.; Tomanek, David

    2015-11-02

    Sensitive dependence of the electronic structure on the number of layers in few-layer phosphorene raises a question about the true nature of the interlayer interaction in so-called van der Waals (vdW) solids . We performed quantum Monte Carlo calculations and found that the interlayer interaction in bulk black phosphorus and related few-layer phosphorene is associated with a significant charge redistribution that is incompatible with purely dispersive forces and not captured by density functional theory calculations with different vdW corrected functionals. Lastly, these findings confirm the necessity of more sophisticated treatment of nonlocal electron correlation in total energy calculations.

  12. Development of an optical current transducer with a bulk type Faraday sensor for metering

    SciTech Connect

    Katsukawa, H.; Ishikawa, H.; Okajima, H.; Cease, T.W.

    1996-04-01

    An optical current transducer (OCT) with a bulk type Faraday sensor demonstrated 0.3% class accuracy for metering. The Faraday sensor had Bi{sub 12}SiO{sub 20} (BSO) single crystals with right and left optical rotatory power to cancel out temperature dependency. A prototype 161 kV OCT installed in a TVA substation verified 0.3% class performance. The OCT had the Faraday sensor, a gapped magnetic iron core, a 1.6 m optical insulator, and an optical interface.

  13. Ultrafast magneto-photocurrents in GaAs: Separation of surface and bulk contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Christian B. Priyadarshi, Shekhar; Bieler, Mark; Tarasenko, Sergey A.

    2015-04-06

    We induce ultrafast magneto-photocurrents in a GaAs crystal employing interband excitation with femtosecond laser pulses at room temperature and non-invasively separate surface and bulk contributions to the overall current response. The separation between the different symmetry contributions is achieved by measuring the simultaneously emitted terahertz radiation for different sample orientations. Excitation intensity and photon energy dependences of the magneto-photocurrents for linearly and circularly polarized excitations reveal an involvement of different microscopic origins, one of which is the inverse spin Hall effect. Our experiments are important for a better understanding of the complex momentum-space carrier dynamics in magnetic fields.

  14. Extremely high Q-factor mechanical modes in quartz bulk acoustic wave resonators at millikelvin temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Goryachev, M.; Creedon, D. L.; Ivanov, E. N.; Tobar, M. E.; Galliou, S.; Bourquin, R.

    2014-12-04

    We demonstrate that Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) quartz resonator cooled down to millikelvin temperatures are excellent building blocks for hybrid quantum systems with extremely long coherence times. Two overtones of the longitudinal mode at frequencies of 15.6 and 65.4 MHz demonstrate a maximum f.Q product of 7.8×10{sup 16} Hz. With this result, the Q-factor in such devices near the quantum ground state can be four orders of magnitude better than previously attained in other mechanical systems. Tested quartz resonators possess the ultra low acoustic losses crucial for electromagnetic cooling to the phonon ground state.

  15. Bulk and mechanical properties of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from boreholes UE25 NRG-4 and -5: Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, P.J.; Noel, J.S.; Martin, R.J. [New England Research, Inc., White River Junction, VT (United States); Price, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Experimental results are presented for bulk and mechanical properties measurements on specimens of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from boreholes UE25 NRG-4 and -5, at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Measurements have been performed on three thermal/mechanical units, PTn, TSwl, and TSw2. On each specimen the following bulk properties have been reported: dry bulk density, saturated bulk density, average grain density, and porosity. Unconfined compression to failure, confined compression to failure, and indirect tensile strength tests were performed on selected specimens recovered from the boreholes. In addition, compressional and shear wave velocities were measured on specimens designated for unconfined compression and confined compression experiments. Measurements were conducted at room temperature on nominally water-saturated specimens. The nominal rate for the fracture experiments was 10{sup -5}s{sup -1}.

  16. Solution-Derived Bi(ZnTi)O3 - BaTiO3 Thin Films with Bulk-like...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Solution-Derived Bi(ZnTi)O3 - BaTiO3 Thin Films with Bulk-like Permittivity. Abstract not provided. Authors: Meyer, Kelsey Elizabeth ; Kotula, Paul Gabriel ; Brennecka, ...

  17. Properties of nitrogen implanted and electron beam annealed bulk ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.; Carder, D. A.; Markwitz, A.; Reeves, R. J.

    2010-05-15

    The optical properties of bulk ZnO ion implanted with nitrogen ions, at an energy of 23 keV have been studied as a function of implantation fluence and electron beam (EB) annealing conditions. Nuclear reaction analysis and Raman results have revealed the implanted N concentration and its structural changes with respect to various nitrogen ion fluences. The optical properties of nitrogen implanted bulk ZnO were investigated by low temperature photoluminescence measurements. An enhanced peak at 3.235 eV has been attributed to donor-accepter pair (DAP) emission involving the implanted N acceptor in ZnO. The emission near 3.3085 eV is attributed to a free electron to acceptor transition. We also report a broad band emission feature at {approx}3.09 eV in the nitrogen implanted with 1-2x10{sup 15} ions cm{sup -2} and EB annealed at 800-900 deg. C. This is assigned to a thermally activated nitrogen acceptor transition as it is unique only to nitrogen implanted samples. An ionization energy of 377 meV indicates that this line may correspond to a significantly less shallow acceptor level. In addition an increase in the intensity and dominance of this DAP line in nitrogen implanted samples over the other acceptor transitions was observed with increasing annealing time and temperatures. It is shown that EB annealing offers a method of enhanced nitrogen activation when compared to a more conventional furnace approach.

  18. In situ current voltage measurements for optimization of a novel fullerene acceptor in bulk heterojunction photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Shuttle, Christopher G.; Treat, Neil D.; Fan, Jian; Varotto, Alessandro; Hawker, Craig J.; Wudl, Fred; Chabinyc, Michael L.

    2011-10-31

    The evaluation of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of new materials for organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaics is difficult due to the large number of processing parameters possible. An efficient procedure to determine the optimum conditions for thermal treatment of polymer-based bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices using in situ current-voltage measurements is presented. The performance of a new fullerene derivative, 1,9-dihydro-64,65-dihexyloxy-1,9-(methano[1,2] benzomethano)fullerene[60], in BHJ photovolatics with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was evaluated using this methodology. The device characteristics of BHJs obtained from the in situ method were found to be in good agreement with those from BHJs annealed using a conventional process. This fullerene has similar performance to 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl-[6,6]-methano fullerene in BHJs with P3HT after thermal annealing. For devices with thickness of 70 nm, the short circuit current was 6.24 mA/cm with a fill factor of 0.53 and open circuit voltage of 0.65 V. The changes in the current-voltage measurements during thermal annealing suggest that the ordering process in P3HT dominates the improvement in power conversion efficiency.

  19. Bulk crystal growth of antimonide based III-V compounds for thermophotovoltaics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, P.S.; Ostrogorsky, A.G.; Gutmann, R.J.

    1998-10-01

    In this paper, the bulk growth of crack-free GaInSb and single phase GaInAsSb alloys are presented. A new class of III-V quasi-binary [A{sub III}B{sub V}]{sub 12{minus}x}[C{sub III}D{sub V}]{sub x} semiconductor alloys has been synthesized and bulk crystals grown from the melt for the first time. The present investigation is focused on the quasi-binary alloy (GaSb){sub 1{minus}x}(InAs){sub x} (0 < x < 0.05) due to its importance for thermophotovoltaic applications. The structural properties of this melt-grown quasi-binary alloy are found to be significantly different from the conventional quaternary compound Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1{minus}y} with composition x = y. Synthesis and growth procedures are discussed. For the growth of ternary alloys, it was demonstrated that forced convection or mixing in the melt during directional solidification of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}Sb (0 < x < 0.1) significantly reduces cracks in the crystals.

  20. Preparation of extrusions of bulk mixed oxide compounds with high macroporosity and mechanical strength

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Jothimurugesan, Kandaswami

    1990-01-01

    A simple and effective method for producing bulk single and mixed oxide absorbents and catalysts is disclosed. The method yields bulk single oxide and mixed oxide absorbent and catalyst materials which combine a high macroporosity with relatively high surface area and good mechanical strength. The materials are prepared in a pellet form using as starting compounds, calcined powders of the desired composition and physical properties these powders are crushed to broad particle size distribution, and, optionally may be combined with an inorganic clay binder. The necessary amount of water is added to form a paste which is extruded, dried and heat treated to yield and desired extrudate strength. The physical properties of the extruded materials (density, macroporosity and surface area) are substantially the same as the constituent powder is the temperature of the heat treatment of the extrudates is approximately the same as the calcination temperature of the powder. If the former is substantially higher than the latter, the surface area decreases, but the macroporosity of the extrusions remains essentially constant.

  1. Bulk scalar emission from a rotating black hole pierced by a tense brane

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Nozawa, Masato; Takamizu, Yu-ichi

    2008-02-15

    We study the emission of scalar fields into the bulk from a six-dimensional rotating black hole pierced by a 3-brane. We determine the angular eigenvalues in the presence of finite brane tension by using the continued fraction method. The radial equation is integrated numerically, giving the absorption probability (graybody factor) in a wider frequency range than in the preexisting literature. We then compute the power and angular momentum emission spectra for different values of the rotation parameter and brane tension, and compare their relative behavior in detail. As is expected from the earlier result for a nonrotating black hole, the finite brane tension suppresses the emission rates. As the rotation parameter increases, the power spectra are reduced at low frequencies due to the smaller Hawking temperature and are enhanced at high frequencies due to superradiance. The angular momentum spectra are enhanced over the whole frequency range as the rotation parameter increases. The spectra and the amounts of energy and angular momentum radiated away into the bulk are thus determined by the interplay of these effects.

  2. Microyielding of core-shell crystal dendrites in a bulk-metallic-glass matrix composite

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Huang, E. -Wen; Qiao, Junwei; Winiarski, Bartlomiej; Lee, Wen -Jay; Scheel, Mario; Chuang, Chih -Pin; Liaw, Peter K.; Lo, Yu -Chieh; Zhang, Yong; Di Michiel, Marco

    2014-03-18

    In-situ synchrotron x-ray experiments have been used to follow the evolution of the diffraction peaks for crystalline dendrites embedded in a bulk metallic glass matrix subjected to a compressive loading-unloading cycle. We observe irreversible diffraction-peak splitting even though the load does not go beyond half of the bulk yield strength. The chemical analysis coupled with the transmission electron microscopy mapping suggests that the observed peak splitting originates from the chemical heterogeneity between the core (major peak) and the stiffer shell (minor peak) of the dendrites. A molecular dynamics model has been developed to compare the hkl-dependent microyielding of the bulkmore » metallic-glass matrix composite. As a result, the complementary diffraction measurements and the simulation results suggest that the interfaces between the amorphous matrix and the (211) crystalline planes relax under prolonged load that causes a delay in the reload curve which ultimately catches up with the original path.« less

  3. Differentiation of surface and bulk conductivities in topological insulator via four-probe spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xiaoguang; McGuire, Michael A.; Chen, Yong P.; Li, An -Ping; Durand, Corentin; Hus, Saban M.; Ma, Chuanxu; Hu, Yang; Cao, Helin; Miotkowski, Ireneusz

    2016-03-08

    Topological insulators, with characteristic topological surface states, have emerged as a new state of matter with rich potentials for both fundamental physics and device applications. However, the experimental detection of the surface transport has been hampered by the unavoidable extrinsic conductivity associated with the bulk crystals. Here we show that a four-probe transport spectroscopy in a multi-probe scanning tunneling microscopy system can be used to differentiate conductivities from the surface states and the coexisting bulk states in topological insulators. We derive a scaling relation of measured resistance with respect to varying inter-probe spacing for two interconnected conduction channels, which allowsmore » quantitative determination of conductivities from both channels. Using this method, we demonstrate the separation of 2D and 3D conduction in topological insulators by comparing the conductance scaling of Bi2Se3, Bi2Te2Se, and Sb-doped Bi2Se3 with that of a pure 2D conductance of graphene on SiC substrate. We also report the 2D conductance enhancement due to the surface doping effect in topological insulators. This technique can be applied to reveal 2D to 3D crossover of conductance in other complex systems.« less

  4. Achieving large linear elasticity and high strength in bulk nanocompsite via synergistic effect

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Guo, Fangmin; Liu, Yinong; Shi, Xiaobin; Jiang, Daqiang; Brown, Dennis E.; Ren, Yang

    2015-03-09

    Elastic strain in bulk metallic materials is usually limited to only a fraction of 1%. Developing bulk metallic materials showing large linear elasticity and high strength has proven to be difficult. Here, based on the synergistic effect between nanowires and orientated martensite NiTi shape memory alloy, we developed an in-situ Nb nanowires -orientated martensitic NiTi matrix composite showing an ultra-large linear elastic strain of 4% and an ultrahigh yield strength of 1.8 GPa. This material also has a high mechanical energy storage efficiency of 96% and a high energy storage density of 36 J/cm³ that is almost one order of larger than that of spring steel. It is demonstrated that the synergistic effect allows the exceptional mechanical properties of nanowires to be harvested at macro scale and the mechanical properties of matrix to be greatly improved, resulting in these superior properties. This study provides new avenues for developing advanced composites with superior properties by using effective synergistic effect between components.

  5. Achieving large linear elasticity and high strength in bulk nanocompsite via synergistic effect

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Guo, Fangmin; Liu, Yinong; Shi, Xiaobin; Jiang, Daqiang; Brown, Dennis E.; Ren, Yang

    2015-03-09

    Elastic strain in bulk metallic materials is usually limited to only a fraction of 1%. Developing bulk metallic materials showing large linear elasticity and high strength has proven to be difficult. Here, based on the synergistic effect between nanowires and orientated martensite NiTi shape memory alloy, we developed an in-situ Nb nanowires -orientated martensitic NiTi matrix composite showing an ultra-large linear elastic strain of 4% and an ultrahigh yield strength of 1.8 GPa. This material also has a high mechanical energy storage efficiency of 96% and a high energy storage density of 36 J/cm³ that is almost one order ofmore » larger than that of spring steel. It is demonstrated that the synergistic effect allows the exceptional mechanical properties of nanowires to be harvested at macro scale and the mechanical properties of matrix to be greatly improved, resulting in these superior properties. This study provides new avenues for developing advanced composites with superior properties by using effective synergistic effect between components.« less

  6. Bulk Metallic Glass-like Scattering Signal in Small Metallic Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Doan-Nguyen, VVT; Kimber, SAJ; Pontoni, D; Hickey, DR; Diroll, BT; Yang, XH; Miglierini, M; Murray, CB; Billinge, SJL

    2014-06-01

    The atomic structure of Ni-Pd nanoparticles has been studied using atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of X-ray total scattering data and with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Larger nanoparticles have PDFs corresponding to the bulk face-centered cubic packing. However, the smallest nanoparticles have PDFs that strongly resemble those obtained from bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). In fact, by simply scaling the distance axis by the mean metallic radius, the curves may be collapsed onto each other and onto the PDF from a metallic glass sample. In common with a wide range of BMG materials, the intermediate range order may be fit with a damped single-frequency sine wave. When viewed in high-resolution TEM, these nanoparticles exhibit atomic fringes typical of those seen in small metallic clusters with icosahedral or decahedral order. These two seemingly contradictory results are reconciled by calculating the PDFs of models of icosahedra that would be consistent with the fringes seen in TEM. These model PDFs resemble the measured ones when significant atom-position disorder is introduced, drawing together the two diverse fields of metallic nanoparticles and BMGs and supporting the view that BMGs may contain significant icosahedral or decahedral order.

  7. A Common Definition for Zero Energy Buildings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    A Common Definition for Zero Energy Buildings A Common Definition for Zero Energy Buildings Thousands of project teams throughout the country seek to push the envelope and develop zero energy buildings. Generally speaking, a zero energy building produces enough renewable energy to meet its own annual energy consumption requirements, thereby reducing the use of non-renewable energy in the building sector. This definition also applies to campuses, portfolios, and communities. In addition to

  8. Definition | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Definition User Facilities User Facilities Home User Facilities at a Glance User Resources User Statistics Policies and Processes Definition Designation Process Official List of SC User Facilities User Statistics Collection Practices Frequently Asked Questions User Facility Science Highlights User Facility News Contact Information Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5430 Policies and Processes Definition Print Text Size: A A A

  9. California PRC Section 21065.5, Definitions for Geothermal Exploratory...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    21065.5, Definitions for Geothermal Exploratory Project Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: California PRC...

  10. Hawaii Revised Statute 523A-2, Definition of Mineral Resources...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Not provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Hawaii Revised Statute 523A-2, Definition of Mineral Resources Citation...

  11. Nevada NRS 704.860, Utility Facility Definition | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Not provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Nevada NRS 704.860, Utility Facility Definition Citation Nevada NRS...

  12. Texas TNRC 141.003, Definitions for Geothermal Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    ResourcesLegal Abstract Definitions for Geothermal Resources effective September 1, 1977, last amended 1979. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 1979 Legal Citation Not...

  13. California PRC 25120, Definition for Thermal Powerplant | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    of "Thermal powerplant" as provided in Chapter 2 (Definitions) of Division 15 - Energy Conservation and Development of the California Public Resources Code: "'Thermal...

  14. A Common Definition for Zero Energy Buildings | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    meet its own annual energy consumption requirements, thereby reducing the use of non-renewable energy in the building sector. This definition also applies to campuses, portfolios,...

  15. Oregon - ORS 439.300 - Definitions | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Oregon, 2014 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Oregon - ORS 439.300 - Definitions Citation Oregon. 2014. Oregon - ORS...

  16. Topology-based Feature Definition and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Gunther H.; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Gyulassy, Attila; Pascucci, Valerio

    2010-12-10

    Defining high-level features, detecting them, tracking them and deriving quantities based on them is an integral aspect of modern data analysis and visualization. In combustion simulations, for example, burning regions, which are characterized by high fuel-consumption, are a possible feature of interest. Detecting these regions makes it possible to derive statistics about their size and track them over time. However, features of interest in scientific simulations are extremely varied, making it challenging to develop cross-domain feature definitions. Topology-based techniques offer an extremely flexible means for general feature definitions and have proven useful in a variety of scientific domains. This paper will provide a brief introduction into topological structures like the contour tree and Morse-Smale complex and show how to apply them to define features in different science domains such as combustion. The overall goal is to provide an overview of these powerful techniques and start a discussion how these techniques can aid in the analysis of astrophysical simulations.

  17. Scaling trends in SET pulse widths in Sub-100 nm bulk CMOS processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimham, Balaji; Ahlbin, Jonathan R.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Gadlage, Matthew J.; Massengill, Lloyd W.; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Reed, Robert A.; Bhuva, Bharat L.

    2010-07-01

    Digital single-event transient (SET) measurements in a bulk 65-nm process are compared to transients measured in 130-nm and 90-nm processes. The measured SET widths are shorter in a 65-nm test circuit than SETs measured in similar 90-nm and 130-nm circuits, but, when the factors affecting the SET width measurements (in particular pulse broadening and the parasitic bipolar effect) are considered, the actual SET width trends are found to be more complex. The differences in the SET widths between test circuits can be attributed in part to differences in n-well contact area. These results help explain some of the inconsistencies in SET measurements presented by various researchers over the past few years.

  18. Numerical design of SiC bulk crystal growth for electronic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wejrzanowski, T.; Grybczuk, M.; Kurzydlowski, K. J.; Tymicki, E.

    2014-10-06

    Presented study concerns numerical simulation of Physical Vapor Transport (PVT) growth of bulk Silicon Carbide (SiC) crystals. Silicon Carbide is a wide band gap semiconductor, with numerous applications due to its unique properties. Wider application of SiC is limited by high price and insufficient quality of the product. Those problems can be overcame by optimizing SiC production methods. Experimental optimization of SiC production is expensive because it is time consuming and requires large amounts of energy. Numerical modeling allows to learn more about conditions inside the reactor and helps to optimize the process at much lower cost. In this study several simulations of processes with different reactor geometries were presented along with discussion of reactor geometry influence on obtained monocrystal shape and size.

  19. Method of synthesizing bulk transition metal carbide, nitride and phosphide catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jae Soon; Armstrong, Beth L; Schwartz, Viviane

    2015-04-21

    A method for synthesizing catalyst beads of bulk transmission metal carbides, nitrides and phosphides is provided. The method includes providing an aqueous suspension of transition metal oxide particles in a gel forming base, dropping the suspension into an aqueous solution to form a gel bead matrix, heating the bead to remove the binder, and carburizing, nitriding or phosphiding the bead to form a transition metal carbide, nitride, or phosphide catalyst bead. The method can be tuned for control of porosity, mechanical strength, and dopant content of the beads. The produced catalyst beads are catalytically active, mechanically robust, and suitable for packed-bed reactor applications. The produced catalyst beads are suitable for biomass conversion, petrochemistry, petroleum refining, electrocatalysis, and other applications.

  20. Magneto-elastic coupling in bulk and nanoscale MnO

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Qi; Baker, Sheila N; Christianson, Andrew D; Musfeldt, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Phonons are exquisitely sensitive to finite length scale effects because they are intimately connected to charge, structure, and magnetism, and a quantitative analysis of their behavior can reveal microscopic aspects of spin-lattice interaction. To investigate these effects in a model correlated oxide, we measured the infrared vibrational properties of nanoscale MnO and compared the results to those of a single crystal. A charge and bonding analysis reveals that Born effective charge, local effective charge, total polarizability, and the force constant are overall lower in the nanoparticles compared to the bulk. Several of these quantities split through the Neel transition due to magnetoelastic interactions. We find that the spin-lattice coupling drops from {approx}7 cm{sup -1} in the single crystal to <1 cm{sup -1} in the nanoparticles. These results are important for understanding finite length scale effects in simple binary oxides and the more complicated functional oxides that emanate from this parent compound.

  1. Effects of Magnetic Nanoparticles and External Magnetostatic Field on the Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kai; Yi, Chao; Liu, Chang; Hu, Xiaowen; Chuang, Steven; Gong, Xiong

    2015-03-18

    The price of energy to separate tightly bound electron-hole pair (or charge-transfer state) and extract freely movable charges from low-mobility materials represents fundamental losses for many low-cost photovoltaic devices. In bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs), approximately 50% of the total efficiency lost among all energy loss pathways is due to the photogenerated charge carrier recombination within PSCs and low charge carrier mobility of disordered organic materials. To address these issues, we introduce magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and orientate these MNPS within BHJ composite by an external magnetostatic field. Over 50% enhanced efficiency was observed from BHJ PSCs incorporated with MNPs and an external magnetostatic field alignment when compared to the control BHJ PSCs. The optimization of BHJ thin film morphology, suppression of charge carrier recombination, and enhancement in charge carrier collection result in a greatly increased short-circuit current density and fill factor, as a result, enhanced power conversion efficiency.

  2. H-point exciton transitions in bulk MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Saigal, Nihit; Ghosh, Sandip

    2015-05-04

    Reflectance and photoreflectance spectrum of bulk MoS{sub 2} around its direct bandgap energy have been measured at 12?K. Apart from spectral features due to the A and B ground state exciton transitions at the K-point of the Brillouin zone, one observes additional features at nearby energies. Through lineshape analysis the character of two prominent additional features are shown to be quite different from that of A and B. By comparing with reported electronic band structure calculations, these two additional features are identified as ground state exciton transitions at the H-point of the Brillouin zone involving two spin-orbit split valance bands. The excitonic energy gap at the H-point is 1.965?eV with a valance bands splitting of 185?meV. While at the K-point, the corresponding values are 1.920?eV and 205?meV, respectively.

  3. Changing Trends in the Bulk Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications

    2005-01-01

    Compared with the experience of the 1990s, rising energy prices in recent years have led to questions about expectations of growth in industrial output, particularly in energy-intensive industries. Given the higher price trends, a review of expected growth trends in selected industries was undertaken as part of the production of Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO). In addition, projections for the industrial value of shipments, which were based on the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system in AEO2004, are based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) in AEO2005. The change in industrial classification leads to lower historical growth rates for many industrial sectors. The impacts of these two changes are highlighted in this section for two of the largest energy-consuming industries in the U.S. industrial sector-bulk chemicals and pulp and paper.

  4. Unique properties of CuZrAl bulk metallic glasses induced by microalloying

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, B.; Bai, H. Y.; Wang, W. H.

    2011-12-15

    We studied the glass forming abilities (GFA), mechanical, and physical properties of (CuZr){sub 92.5}Al{sub 7}X{sub 0.5} (X = La, Sm, Ce, Gd, Ho, Y, and Co) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). We find that the GFA, mechanical, and physical properties can be markedly changed and modulated by the minor rare earth addition. The Kondo screening effect is found to exist in (CuZr){sub 92.5}Al{sub 7}Ce{sub 0.5} BMG at low temperatures and the Schottky effect exists in all the rare earth element doped BMGs. Our results indicate that the minor addition is an effective way for modulating and getting desirable properties of the BMGs. The mechanisms of the effects of the addition are discussed. The results have implications for the exploration of metallic glasses and for improving the mechanical and low temperature physical properties of BMGs.

  5. THE IMPACT OF PARTIAL CRYSTALLIZATION ON THE PERMEATION PROPERTIES BULK AMORPHOUS GLASS HYDROGEN SEPARATION MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, K; Paul Korinko, P; Thad Adams, T; Elise Fox, E; Arthur Jurgensen, A

    2008-11-25

    It is recognized that hydrogen separation membranes are a key component of the emerging hydrogen economy. A potentially exciting material for membrane separations are bulk metallic glass materials due to their low cost, high elastic toughness and resistance to hydrogen 'embrittlement' as compared to crystalline Pd-based membrane systems. However, at elevated temperatures and extended operation times structural changes including partial crystallinity may appear in these amorphous metallic systems. A systematic evaluation of the impact of partial crystallinity/devitrification on the diffusion and solubility behavior in multi-component Metallic Glass materials would provide great insight into the potential of these materials for hydrogen applications. This study will report on the development of time and temperature crystallization mapping and their use for interpretation of 'in-situ' hydrogen permeation at elevated temperatures.

  6. Bulk viscosity in a hyperonic star and r-mode instability

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, T. K.; Mishra, H.; Sreekanth, V.

    2010-08-15

    We consider a rotating neutron star with the presence of hyperons in its core. We use an equation of state in an effective chiral model within the relativistic mean-field approximation. We calculate the hyperonic bulk viscosity coefficient caused by nonleptonic weak interactions. By estimating the damping time scales of the dissipative processes, we investigate its role in the suppression of gravitationally driven instabilities in the r mode. We observe that r-mode instability remains very significant for hyperon core temperatures of around 10{sup 8} K, which results in a comparatively larger instability window. We find that such instability can reduce the angular velocity of the rapidly rotating star considerably up to {approx}0.04{Omega}{sub K}, with {Omega}{sub K} as the Keplerian angular velocity.

  7. Radiation detector using a bulk high T.sub.c superconductor

    DOEpatents

    Artuso, Joseph F. (Santa Barbara, CA); Franks, Larry A. (Santa Barbara, CA); Hull, Kenneth L. (Ventura, CA); Symko, Orest G. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1993-01-01

    A radiation detector (10) is provided, wherein a bulk high T.sub.c superconducting sample (11) is placed in a magnetic field and maintained at a superconducting temperature. Photons of incident radiation will cause localized heating in superconducting loops of the sample destroying trapped flux and redistributing the fluxons, and reducing the critical current of the loops. Subsequent cooling of the sample in the magnetic field will cause trapped flux redistributed Abrikosov fluxons and trapped Josephson fluxons. The destruction and trapping of the fluxons causes changes in the magnetization of the sample inducing currents in opposite directions in a pickup coil (12) which is coupled by an input coil (15) to an rf SQUID (16).

  8. Further development and testing of a second-order bulk boundary layer model. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Krasner, R.D.

    1993-05-03

    A one-layer bulk boundary layer model is developed. The model predicts the mixed layer values of the potential temperature, mixing ratio, and u- and v-momentum. The model also predicts the depth of the boundary layer and the vertically integrated turbulence kinetic energy (TKE). The TKE is determined using a second-order closure that relates the rate of dissipation to the TKE. The fractional area covered by rising motion sigma and the entrainment rate (E) are diagnostically determined. The model is used to study the clear convective boundary layer (CBL) using data from the Wangara, Australia boundary layer experiment. The Wangara data is also used as an observation base to validate model results. A further study is accomplished by simulating the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over an ocean surface. This study is designed to find the steady-state solutions of the prognostic variable.

  9. Fabrication of triangular nanobeam waveguide networks in bulk diamond using single-crystal silicon hard masks

    SciTech Connect

    Bayn, I.; Mouradian, S.; Li, L.; Goldstein, J. A.; Schröder, T.; Zheng, J.; Chen, E. H.; Gaathon, O.; Englund, Dirk; Lu, M.; Stein, A.; Ruggiero, C. A.; Salzman, J.; Kalish, R.

    2014-11-24

    A scalable approach for integrated photonic networks in single-crystal diamond using triangular etching of bulk samples is presented. We describe designs of high quality factor (Q = 2.51 × 10{sup 6}) photonic crystal cavities with low mode volume (V{sub m} = 1.062 × (λ/n){sup 3}), which are connected via waveguides supported by suspension structures with predicted transmission loss of only 0.05 dB. We demonstrate the fabrication of these structures using transferred single-crystal silicon hard masks and angular dry etching, yielding photonic crystal cavities in the visible spectrum with measured quality factors in excess of Q = 3 × 10{sup 3}.

  10. Study of microstructure and electrical properties of bulk YBCO prepared by melt textured growth technique

    SciTech Connect

    Gonal, M. R.; Krishnan, Madangopal; Tewari, R.; Tyagi, A. K.; Gyore, A.; Vajda, I.

    2015-06-24

    Bulk YBCO components were prepared using Melt Texture Growth (MTG) technique. Components were fabricated using MTG by addition of Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} (Y211) and Ag to YBCO, which leads to improved grain size without affecting superconducting properties. Green compacts prepared by cold isostatic pressing were pre-sintered at 930°C before subjecting melt texturing. Cooling rates lower than 1 °C.h{sup −1} was used, in between (peritectic) temperature of about 995 and 1025°C, to obtain large grained components. Microstructure studies in details were carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA), Orientation Imaging Microscope (OIM) and TEM correlated with electrical properties like Critical current density (J{sub c})

  11. Atomic-Level Sculpting of Crystalline Oxides: Toward Bulk Nanofabrication with Single Atomic Plane Precision

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse, Stephen; He, Qian; Lupini, Andrew R.; Leonard, Donovan N.; Oxley, Mark P.; Ovchinnikov, Oleg; Unocic, Raymond R.; Tselev, Alexander; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Borisevich, Albina Y.

    2015-10-19

    We demonstrate atomic-level sculpting of 3D crystalline oxide nanostructures from metastable amorphous layer in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Strontium titanate nanostructures grow epitaxially from the crystalline substrate following the beam path. This method can be used for fabricating crystalline structures as small as 1-2 nm and the process can be observed in situ with atomic resolution. We further demonstrate fabrication of arbitrary shape structures via control of the position and scan speed of the electron beam. Combined with broad availability of the atomic resolved electron microscopy platforms, these observations suggest the feasibility of large scale implementation of bulk atomic-level fabrication as a new enabling tool of nanoscience and technology, providing a bottom-up, atomic-level complement to 3D printing.

  12. In situ neutron scattering study of nanostructured PbTe-PbS bulk thermoelectric material

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Fei; Schmidt, Robert D; Case, Eldon D; An, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructures play an important role in thermoelectric materials. Their thermal stability, such as phase change and evolution at elevated temperatures, is thus of great interest to the thermoelectric community. In this study, in situ neutron diffraction was used to examine the phase evolution of nanostructured bulk PbTe-PbS materials fabricated using hot pressing and pulsed electrical current sintering (PECS). The PbS second phase was observed in all samples in the as-pressed condition. The temperature dependent lattice parameter and phase composition data show an initial formation of PbS precipitates followed by a redissolution during heating. The redissolution process started around 570 600 K, and completed at approximately 780 K. During cooling, the PECS sample followed a reversible curve while the heating/cooling behavior of the hot pressed sample was irreversible.

  13. Visualization of Hierarchical Nanodomains in Polymer/Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Jianguo; Miller, Dean J.; Chen, Wei; Xu, Tao; Yu, L; Darling, Seth B.; Zaluzec, Nestor J.

    2014-10-01

    raditional electron microscopy techniques such as bright-field imaging provide poor contrast for organic films and identification of structures in amorphous material can be problematic, particularly in high- performance organic solar cells. By combining energy-filtered corrected transmission electron microscopy, together with electron energy loss and X-ray energy-dispersive hyperspectral imaging, we have imaged PTB7/ PC61BM blended polymer optical photovoltaic films, and were able to identify domains ranging in size from several hundred nanometers to several nanometers in extent. This work verifies that microstructural domains exist in bulk heterojunctions in PTB7/PC61BM polymeric solar cells at multiple length scales and expands our understanding of optimal device performance providing insight for the design of even higher performance cells.

  14. Short time proton dynamics in bulk ice and in porous anode solid oxide fuel cell materials

    SciTech Connect

    Basoli, Francesco; Senesi, Roberto; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Licoccia, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen reduction and incorporation into solid electrolytes and the reverse reaction of oxygen evolution play a cru-cial role in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) applications. However a detailed un derstanding of the kinetics of the cor-responding reactions, i.e. on reaction mechanisms, rate limiting steps, reaction paths, electrocatalytic role of materials, is still missing. These include a thorough characterization of the binding potentials experienced by protons in the lattice. We report results of Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) measurements of the vibrational state of the protons in Ni- YSZ highly porous composites (75% to 90% ), a ceramic-metal material showing a high electrical conductivity and ther mal stability, which is known to be most effectively used as anodes for solid ox ide fuel cells. The results are compared with INS and Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) experiments on the proton binding states in bulk ice.

  15. Estimation of thickness, complex bulk permittivity and surface conductivity using interdigital dielectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zaretsky, M.C.; Li, P.; Melcher, J.R. . Lab. for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems)

    1989-12-01

    Based on theoretical techniques for deducing continuum parameters from the gain-phase response of interdigital electrodes, experiments are described that demonstrate the use of 50 {mu}m or 1 mm wavelength interdigitated electrodes for the absolute measurement of (1) the thickness and voidage of a layer formed by the sedimentation of 41 {mu}m particles in transformer oil (2) the thickness and high frequency bulk permittivity of plasma deposited bromobenzene and vacuum deposited parylene, the former {ital in-situ} (3) the complex permittivity of transformer oil without and with a parylene passivation layer to prevent the adsorption of water (4) the dispersion of oil impregnated paper having a finite thickness and (5) the surface conductivity due to adsorption of water on a silicon dioxide substrate. The frequency range for (3--5) is 0.005 Hz to 10 kHz. Difficulties, apparently due to charging effects on the integrated circuitry, are discussed.

  16. Method of casting articles of a bulk-solidifying amorphous alloy

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Xianghong; Johnson, William L.; Peker, Atakan

    1998-01-01

    A casting charge of a bulk-solidifying amorphous alloy is cast into a mold from a temperature greater than its crystallized melting temperature, and permitted to solidify to form an article. The oxygen content of the casting charge is limited to an operable level, as excessively high oxygen contents produce premature crystallization during the casting operation. During melting, the casting charge is preferably heated to a temperature above a threshold temperature to eliminate heterogeneous crystallization nucleation sites within the casting charge. The casting charge may be cast from above the threshold temperature, or it may be cooled to the casting temperature of more than the crystallized melting point but not more than the threshold temperature, optionally held at this temperature for a period of time, and thereafter cast.

  17. Method of casting articles of a bulk-solidifying amorphous alloy

    DOEpatents

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.; Peker, A.

    1998-08-25

    A casting charge of a bulk-solidifying amorphous alloy is cast into a mold from a temperature greater than its crystallized melting temperature, and permitted to solidify to form an article. The oxygen content of the casting charge is limited to an operable level, as excessively high oxygen contents produce premature crystallization during the casting operation. During melting, the casting charge is preferably heated to a temperature above a threshold temperature to eliminate heterogeneous crystallization nucleation sites within the casting charge. The casting charge may be cast from above the threshold temperature, or it may be cooled to the casting temperature of more than the crystallized melting point but not more than the threshold temperature, optionally held at this temperature for a period of time, and thereafter cast. 8 figs.

  18. Excitonic enhancement of nonradiative energy transfer to bulk silicon with the hybridization of cascaded quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Yeltik, Aydan; Guzelturk, Burak; Akhavan, Shahab; Ludwig Hernandez-Martinez, Pedro; Volkan Demir, Hilmi

    2013-12-23

    We report enhanced sensitization of silicon through nonradiative energy transfer (NRET) of the excitons in an energy-gradient structure composed of a cascaded bilayer of green- and red-emitting CdTe quantum dots (QDs) on bulk silicon. Here NRET dynamics were systematically investigated comparatively for the cascaded energy-gradient and mono-dispersed QD structures at room temperature. We show experimentally that NRET from the QD layer into silicon is enhanced by 40% in the case of an energy-gradient cascaded structure as compared to the mono-dispersed structures, which is in agreement with the theoretical analysis based on the excited state population-depopulation dynamics of the QDs.

  19. Combustion of Bulk 84% Fe/16% KCIO{sub 4} heat powder

    SciTech Connect

    Nissen, M.; Guidotti, R.A.; Berry, B.

    1996-05-01

    Fe/KClO{sub 4} pyrotechnic mixtures are used in thermal batteries to provide the heat necessary to bring the battery stack to operating temperatures of 550 to 600 C. This heat source is normally used as discs pressed from bulk powder. To evaluate the consequences associated with unexpected ignition of large amounts of heat powder, combustion of 84% Fe/16% KClO{sub 4} heat powders was conducted for various scenarios under controlled conditions and the response documented. Increasing amounts of heat powder--up to 8 lbs--were ignited in both unconfined and confined (sealed) containers in a remote area. The containers were thermocoupled and the resulting burning filmed with a standard video camera, high-speed (1,000 frames/s) film and video cameras, and an infrared video camera. A 20- minute video of the burning under the various conditions is presented.

  20. Fast ion generation and bulk plasma heating with three-ion ICRF scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Kazakov, Ye. O. Van Eester, D.; Ongena, J.; Lerche, E.; Messiaen, A.

    2015-12-10

    Launching electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is an efficient method of plasma heating, actively employed in most of fusion machines. ICRF has a number of important supplementary applications, including the generation of high-energy ions. In this paper, we discuss a new set of three-ion ICRF scenarios and the prospect of their use as a dedicated tool for fast ion generation in tokamaks and stellarators. A distinct feature of these scenarios is a strong absorption efficiency possible at very low concentrations of resonant minority ions (∼ 1% or even below). Such concentration levels are typical for impurities contaminating fusion plasmas. An alternative ICRF scenario for maximizing the efficiency of bulk D-T ion heating is suggested for JET and ITER tokamaks, which is based on three-ion ICRF heating of intrinsic Beryllium impurities.