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Sample records for riverside cement power

  1. EIS-0449: Solar Millennium Blythe Solar Power Project in Riverside...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    9: Solar Millennium Blythe Solar Power Project in Riverside County, CA EIS-0449: Solar Millennium Blythe Solar Power Project in Riverside County, CA December 10, 2010 EIS-0449: ...

  2. EIS-0449: Solar Millennium Blythe Solar Power Project in Riverside County,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    CA | Department of Energy 9: Solar Millennium Blythe Solar Power Project in Riverside County, CA EIS-0449: Solar Millennium Blythe Solar Power Project in Riverside County, CA December 10, 2010 EIS-0449: Notice of Adoption of the Final Environmental Impact Statement Blythe Solar Power Project December 10, 2010 EIS-0449: Final Environmental Impact Statement Blythe Solar Power Project

  3. Map of Cement Site

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    cement

  4. Riverside County- Sustainable Building Policy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In February 2009, the County of Riverside Board of Supervisors adopted Policy Number H-29, creating the Sustainable Building Policy. The Policy requires that all new county building projects...

  5. Riverside Public Utilities- Energy Efficiency Construction Incentive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Riverside Public Utilities' (RPU) Commercial New Construction Incentives are designed to encourage owners/developers to invest in energy efficient designs in new construction, building expansion...

  6. Riverside Public Utilities - Residential PV Incentive Program...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Riverside Public Utilities Website http:www.riversideca.govutilitiesresi-pv-incentive.asp State California Program Type Rebate Program Rebate Amount 0.50 per watt...

  7. Riverside Electric Cooperative | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Electric Cooperative Jump to: navigation, search Name: Riverside Electric Cooperative Place: Idaho Phone Number: 208-436-3855 Website: riversideelectric.net Outage Hotline:...

  8. Riverside Inn Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Inn Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Riverside Inn Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Riverside Inn Sector...

  9. EIS-0448: First Solar Desert Sunlight Project in Riverside County...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    8: First Solar Desert Sunlight Project in Riverside County, CA EIS-0448: First Solar Desert Sunlight Project in Riverside County, CA June 24, 2011 EIS-0448: Final Environmental ...

  10. Riverside, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Riverside is a city in Montgomery County, Ohio. It falls under Ohio's 3rd congressional district and Ohio's 8th...

  11. EIS-0455: Genesis Solar Energy Project in Riverside County, CA...

    Energy Savers

    5: Genesis Solar Energy Project in Riverside County, CA EIS-0455: Genesis Solar Energy Project in Riverside County, CA December 17, 2010 EIS-0455: Notice of Adoption of an ...

  12. Western Riverside Council of Governments - Large Commercial PACE...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    State California Program Type PACE Financing Summary Western Riverside Council of Governments (WRCOG) is offering business owners in WRCOG participating...

  13. EIS-0439: Rice Solar Energy Project in Riverside County, CA ...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    March 29, 2010 EIS-0439: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement Proposed Construction and Operation of the Rice Solar Energy Project, Riverside County, CA ...

  14. Clean Cities: Western Riverside County Clean Cities coalition

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    region of Riverside County. Designated: October 24, 1997 Alternative Fueling Stations: Natural Gas: 5 Electric: 34 Propane: 6 Petroleum and GHG Savings* Total Gallons Saved Total...

  15. Riverside Public Utilities- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Riverside Public Utilities (RPU) offers a wide variety of rebates to commercial customers who wish to increase the efficiency of eligible facilities. 

  16. Riverside Public Utilities- Energy Efficiency Technology Grant Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Riverside Public Utilities (RPU) offers two Energy Technology Grant Programs to help foster the development of innovative solutions to energy problems. The Custom Energy Technology Grant is...

  17. Riverside, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Riverside, New York: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 40.8981458, -72.6565084 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingse...

  18. Riverside Public Utilities- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Riverside Public Utilities offers incentives for residential customers to upgrade the efficiency of a variety of equipment within eligible homes. In order to receive rebates, all equipment...

  19. Portland cement for SO.sub.2 control in coal-fired power plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer

    1985-01-01

    There is described a method of removing oxides of sulfur from the emissions of fossil fuel combustion by injecting portland cement into the boiler with the fuel, the combustion air, or downstream with the combustion gases. There is also described the cement products that result from this method.

  20. Portland cement for SO/sub 2/ control in coal-fired power plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.

    1984-10-17

    A method is described for removing oxides of sulfur from the emissions of fossil fuel combustion by injecting portland cement into the boiler with the fuel, the combustion air, or downstream with the combustion gases. The cement products that result from this method is also described. 1 tab.

  1. EIS-0455: Genesis Solar Energy Project in Riverside County, CA | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy 5: Genesis Solar Energy Project in Riverside County, CA EIS-0455: Genesis Solar Energy Project in Riverside County, CA December 17, 2010 EIS-0455: Notice of Adoption of an Environmental Impact Statement Genesis Solar Energy Project, Riverside County, CA August 27, 2010 EIS-0455: Final Environmental Impact Statement Genesis Solar Energy Project, Riverside County, CA September 1, 2011 EIS-0455: Record of Decision Genesis Solar Energy Project, Riverside County, California

  2. EIS-0439: Rice Solar Energy Project in Riverside County, CA | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy 9: Rice Solar Energy Project in Riverside County, CA EIS-0439: Rice Solar Energy Project in Riverside County, CA March 29, 2010 EIS-0439: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement Proposed Construction and Operation of the Rice Solar Energy Project, Riverside County, CA October 22, 2010 EIS-0439: EPA Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement Rice Solar Energy Project, Riverside County, California October 22, 2010 EIS-0439: Draft

  3. Leach studies on cement-solidified ion exchange resins from decontamination processes at operating nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W.; Morcos, N.

    1992-08-01

    The effects of varying pH and leachant compositions on the physical stability and leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents were determined for cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from two operating commercial light water reactors. Small scale waste-form specimens were collected during waste solidifications performed at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit 1 and at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Station. The collected specimens were leach tested, and their compressive strength was measured in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form`` (Revision 1), from the Low-Level Waste Management Branch. Leachates from these studies were analyzed for radionuclides, selected transition metals, and chelating agents to assess the leachability of these waste form constituents. Leachants used for the study were deionized water, simulated seawater, and groundwater compositions similar to those found at Barnwell, South Carolina and Hanford, Washington. Results of this study indicate that initial leachant pH does not affect leachate pH or releases from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms. However, differences in leachant composition and the presence of chelating agents may affect the releases of radionuclides and chelating agents. In addition, results from this study indicate that the cumulative releases of radionuclides and chelating agents observed for forms that disintegrated were similar to those for forms that maintained their general physical integrity.

  4. Leach studies on cement-solidified ion exchange resins from decontamination processes at operating nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W.; Morcos, N.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of varying pH and leachant compositions on the physical stability and leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents were determined for cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from two operating commercial light water reactors. Small scale waste-form specimens were collected during waste solidifications performed at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit 1 and at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Station. The collected specimens were leach tested, and their compressive strength was measured in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Technical Position on Waste Form'' (Revision 1), from the Low-Level Waste Management Branch. Leachates from these studies were analyzed for radionuclides, selected transition metals, and chelating agents to assess the leachability of these waste form constituents. Leachants used for the study were deionized water, simulated seawater, and groundwater compositions similar to those found at Barnwell, South Carolina and Hanford, Washington. Results of this study indicate that initial leachant pH does not affect leachate pH or releases from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms. However, differences in leachant composition and the presence of chelating agents may affect the releases of radionuclides and chelating agents. In addition, results from this study indicate that the cumulative releases of radionuclides and chelating agents observed for forms that disintegrated were similar to those for forms that maintained their general physical integrity.

  5. California City Implements Solar-Powered Trash Compactors

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This summer, Riverside, Calif., is harnessing the power of the sun in an effort aimed at slashing waste, costs and greenhouse gases.

  6. Western Riverside Council of Governments- Home Energy Renovation Opportunity (HERO) Financing Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Western Riverside Council of Governments (WRCOG) is offering homeowners in WRCOG participating jurisdictions an opportunity to finance energy and water efficiency projects in their homes. The Home...

  7. Thermodynamics and cement science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damidot, D.; Lothenbach, B.; Herfort, D.; Glasser, F.P.

    2011-07-15

    Thermodynamics applied to cement science has proved to be very valuable. One of the most striking findings has been the extent to which the hydrate phases, with one conspicuous exception, achieve equilibrium. The important exception is the persistence of amorphous C-S-H which is metastable with respect to crystalline calcium silicate hydrates. Nevertheless C-S-H can be included in the scope of calculations. As a consequence, from comparison of calculation and experiment, it appears that kinetics is not necessarily an insuperable barrier to engineering the phase composition of a hydrated Portland cement. Also the sensitivity of the mineralogy of the AFm and AFt phase compositions to the presence of calcite and to temperature has been reported. This knowledge gives a powerful incentive to develop links between the mineralogy and engineering properties of hydrated cement paste and, of course, anticipates improvements in its performance leading to decreasing the environmental impacts of cement production.

  8. Method of the cementing of material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konovalov, Y.G.; Shutov, G.M.; Khanenya, G.P.; Dyatko, E.K.; Buben, K.K.

    1990-10-30

    Invention relates to woodworking industry and concerns method of cementing of materials of foam plastic with duralumin, glued plywood, etc. Known methods of cementing of materials by effect of electromagnetic field of superhigh frequencies are unproductive and do not make it possible to cement parts on the plane. Target of invention - acceleration of process of cementing of planar, including of complex configuration, parts and assemblies from wood, foam plastic, duralumin, glued plywood and other materials. For this material is cemented under the effect of directed electromagnetic field of superhigh frequency in the range 01-50 GHz, the specific power of 0.5-15 W/cm3.

  9. EIS-0448: First Solar Desert Sunlight Project in Riverside County, CA |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 8: First Solar Desert Sunlight Project in Riverside County, CA EIS-0448: First Solar Desert Sunlight Project in Riverside County, CA June 24, 2011 EIS-0448: Final Environmental Impact Statement Desert Sunlight Solar Farm Project, California June 24, 2011 EIS-0448: Notice of Adoption of an Environmental Impact Statement First Solar Desert Sunlight Solar Farm Project October 6, 2011 EIS-0448: Record of Decision Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to First Solar, Inc., for the

  10. Juchen Guo > Asst. Professor - UC Riverside > Center Alumni > The Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Center at Cornell Juchen Guo Asst. Professor - UC Riverside juchen.guo@ucr.edu Juchen received his B.S. degree in 1999 from Zhejiang University, and his Ph.D. degree in Chemical Engineering in 2007 from the University of Maryland. Before joining Prof. Archer's group in Nov. 2011, he worked as an Assistant Research Scientist at the University of Maryland. He is now an assistant professor at UC Riverside in the department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering

  11. Effect of pH on the release of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resins collected from operating nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W. )

    1991-06-01

    Data are presented on the physical stability and leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from two operating commercial light water reactors. Small-scale waste--form specimens collected during solidifications performed at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit 1 and at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Station were leach-tested and subjected to compressive strength testing in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Technical Position on Waste Form'' (Revision 1). Samples of untreated resin waste collected from each solidification vessel before the solidification process were analyzed for concentrations of radionuclides, selected transition metals, and chelating agents to determine the quantities of these chemicals in the waste-form specimens. The chelating agents included oxalic, citric, and picolinic acids. In order to determine the effect of leachant chemical composition and pH on the stability and leachability of the waste forms, waste-form specimens were leached in various leachants. Results of this study indicate that differences in pH do not affect releases from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms, but that differences in leachant chemistry and the presence of chelating agents may affect the releases of radionuclides and chelating agents. Also, this study indicates that the cumulative releases of radionuclides and chelating agents are similar for waste- form specimens that decomposed and those that retained their general physical form. 36 refs., 60 figs., 28 tabs.

  12. Release of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination low-level radioactive waste collected from the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akers, D.W.; Kraft, N.C.; Mandler, J.W.

    1994-03-01

    As part of a study being performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), small-scale waste-form specimens were collected during a low oxidation-state transition-metal ion (LOMI)-nitric permanganate (NP)-LOMI solidification performed in October 1989 at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 3. The purpose of this program was to evaluate the performance of cement-solidified decontamination waste to meet the low-level waste stability requirements defined in the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1. The samples were acquired and tested because little data have been obtained on the physical stability of actual cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms and on the leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents from those waste forms. The Peach Bottom waste-form specimens were subjected to compressive strength, immersion, and leach testing in accordance with the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1. Results of this study indicate that the specimens withstood the compression tests (>500 psi) before and after immersion testing and leaching, and that the leachability indexes for all radionuclides, including {sup 14}C, {sup 99}{Tc}, and {sup 129}I, are well above the leachability index requirement of 6.0, required by the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1.

  13. Zinc electrode with cement additive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charkey, Allen

    1982-06-01

    A zinc electrode having a cement additive, preferably, Portland Cement, distributed in the zinc active material.

  14. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred Sabins

    2002-07-30

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems, including foamed and sodium silicate slurries. During this project quarter, a comparison study of the three cement systems examined the effect that cement drillout has on the three cement systems. Testing to determine the effect of pressure cycling on the shear bond properties of the cement systems was also conducted. This report discusses testing that was performed to analyze the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries.

  15. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred Sabins

    2003-10-31

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra- lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report discusses testing that was performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries.

  16. MECS 2006- Cement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Cement (NAICS 327310) Sector with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

  17. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred Sabins

    2002-10-31

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems, including foamed and sodium silicate slurries. During this project quarter, a comparison study of the three cement systems examined the effect that cement drillout has on the three cement systems. Testing to determine the effect of pressure cycling on the shear bond properties of the cement systems was also conducted. This report discusses testing that will be performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries, as well as the results of Field Tests 1 and 2.

  18. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred Sabins

    2001-07-18

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Issues, Task 2: Review Russian Ultra-Lightweight Cement Literature, Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements, and Task 8: Develop Field ULHS Cement Blending and Mixing Techniques. Results reported this quarter include: preliminary findings from a literature review focusing on problems associated with ultra-lightweight cements; summary of pertinent information from Russian ultra-lightweight cement literature review; laboratory tests comparing ULHS slurries to foamed slurries and sodium silicate slurries for two different applications; and initial laboratory studies with ULHS in preparation for a field job.

  19. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred Sabins

    2002-04-29

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems, including foamed and sodium silicate slurries. During this project quarter, comparison studies of the three cement systems examined several properties: tensile strength, Young's modulus, and shear bond. Testing to determine the effect of temperature cycling on the shear bond properties of the cement systems was also conducted. In addition, the stress-strain behavior of the cement types was studied. This report discusses a software program that is being developed to help design ULHS cements and foamed cements.

  20. EIS-0439: Rice Solar Energy Project, Riverside County, California

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This environmental review was prepared by DOE’s Western Area Power Administration with the Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Land Management (BLM) as a cooperating agency. This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of the Rice Solar Energy Project, a 150-megawatt solar concentrating electric powerplant proposed to be constructed on private land in the Sonoran Desert. DOE’s Western Area Power Administration actions under this proposal include building and operating a new substation to interconnect the solar project to Western’s transmission system. DOE may also use this EIS as part of its decision whether to issue a Federal loan guarantee to support the proposal. BLM’s actions under this proposal includes amending California Desert Conservation Area Plan to designate a new corridor for a 161-kV transmission line, which would facilitate the development of solar energy on private lands.

  1. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred Sabins

    2001-01-15

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweigh cement using ultralight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Problems, Task 2: Review Russian Ultra-Lightweight Cement Literature, and Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements. Results reported this quarter include a review and summary surface pipe and intermediate casing cementing conditions historically encountered in the US and establishment of average design conditions for ULHS cements. Russian literature concerning development and use of ultra-lightweight cements employing either nitrogen or ULHS was reviewed, and a summary is presented. Quality control testing of materials used to formulate ULHS cements in the laboratory was conducted to establish baseline material performance standards. A testing protocol was developed employing standard procedures as well as procedures tailored to evaluate ULHS. This protocol is presented and discussed. finally, results of initial testing of ULHS cements is presented along with analysis to establish cement performance design criteria to be used during the remainder of the project.

  2. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred Sabins

    2003-01-31

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report discusses testing that was performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries. DOE joined the Materials Management Service (MMS)-sponsored joint industry project ''Long-Term Integrity of Deepwater Cement under Stress/Compaction Conditions.'' Results of the project contained in two progress reports are also presented in this report.

  3. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred Sabins

    2004-01-30

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report discusses testing that was performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries.

  4. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred Sabins

    2002-01-23

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems: foamed and sodium silicate slurries. Comparison studies of the three cement systems examined several properties: tensile strength, Young's modulus, water permeability, and shear bond. Testing was also done to determine the effect that temperature cycling has on the shear bond properties of the cement systems. In addition, analysis was carried out to examine alkali silica reactivity of slurries containing ULHS. Data is also presented from a study investigating the effects of mixing and pump circulation on breakage of ULHS. Information is also presented about the field application of ULHS in cementing a 7-in. intermediate casing in south Texas.

  5. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred Sabins

    2003-07-31

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report discusses testing that was performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries. Laboratory testing during the eleventh quarter focused on evaluation of the alkali-silica reaction of eight different cement compositions, four of which contain ULHS. This report provides a progress summary of ASR testing. The original laboratory procedure for measuring set cement expansion resulted in unacceptable erosion of the test specimens. In subsequent tests, a different expansion procedure was implemented and an alternate curing method for cements formulated with TXI Lightweight cement was employed to prevent sample failure caused by thermal shock. The results obtained with the modified procedure showed improvement over data obtained with the original procedure, but data for some compositions were still questionable. Additional modification of test procedures for compositions containing TXI Lightweight cement were implemented and testing is ongoing.

  6. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred Sabins

    2001-10-23

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses tasks performed in the fourth quarter as well as the other three quarters of the past year. The subjects that were covered in previous reports and that are also discussed in this report include: Analysis of field laboratory data of active cement applications from three oil-well service companies; Preliminary findings from a literature review focusing on problems associated with ultra-lightweight cements; Summary of pertinent information from Russian ultra-lightweight cement literature review; and Comparison of compressive strengths of ULHS systems using ultrasonic and crush methods Results reported from the fourth quarter include laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems--foamed and sodium silicate slurries. These comparison studies were completed for two different densities (10.0 and 11.5 lb/gal) and three different field application scenarios. Additional testing included the mechanical properties of ULHS systems and other lightweight systems. Studies were also performed to examine the effect that circulation by centrifugal pump during mixing has on breakage of ULHS.

  7. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred Sabins

    2003-06-16

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report discusses testing that was performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries. Laboratory testing during the tenth quarter focused on evaluation of the alkali-silica reaction of eight different cement compositions, four of which contain ULHS. The original laboratory procedure for measuring set cement expansion resulted in test specimen erosion that was unacceptable. A different expansion procedure is being evaluated. This report provides a progress summary of ASR testing. The testing program initiated in November produced questionable initial results so the procedure was modified slightly and the testing was reinitiated. The results obtained with the modified procedure showed improvement over data obtained with the original procedure, but questionable data were obtained from several of the compositions. Additional modification of test procedures for compositions containing TXI Lightweight cement are being implemented and testing is ongoing.

  8. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1989-01-01

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed.

  9. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-10-03

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  10. Compression and immersion tests and leaching of radionuclides, stable metals, and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination waste collected from nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akers, D.W.; Kraft, N.C.; Mandler, J.W.

    1994-06-01

    A study was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate structural stability and leachability of radionuclides, stable metals, and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from seven commercial boiling water reactors and one pressurized water reactor. The decontamination methods used at the reactors were the Can-Decon, AP/Citrox, Dow NS-1, and LOMI processes. Samples of untreated resin waste and solidified waste forms were subjected to immersion and compressive strength testing. Some waste-form samples were leach-tested using simulated groundwaters and simulated seawater for comparison with the deionized water tests that are normally performed to assess waste-form leachability. This report presents the results of these tests and assesses the effects of the various decontamination methods, waste form formulations, leachant chemical compositions, and pH of the leachant on the structural stability and leachability of the waste forms. Results indicate that releases from intact and degraded waste forms are similar and that the behavior of some radionuclides such as {sup 55}Fe, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 99}Tc were similar. In addition, the leachability indexes are greater than 6.0, which meets the requirement in the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1.

  11. Cement (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Cement (2010 MECS) Cement (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Cement Sector (NAICS 327310) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014 View footprints for other sectors here. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Cement (126.44 KB) More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Cement Glass and Glass Products (2010 MECS) Textiles

  12. US cement industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nisbet, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the cement and concrete industry, and provides data on energy use and carbon dioxide emissions. The potential impact of an energy tax on the industry is briefly assessed. Opportunities identified for reducing carbon dioxide emissions include improved energy efficiency, alternative fuels, and alternative materials. The key factor in determining CO{sub 2} emissions is the level of domestic production. The projected improvement in energy efficiency and the relatively slow growth in domestic shipments indicate that CO{sub 2} emissions in 2000 should be about 5% above the 1990 target. However, due to the cyclical nature of cement demand, emissions will probably be above target levels during peak demand and below target levels during demand troughs. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Cement Bond Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    casing and cement and between cement and borehole wall. Most cement-bond logs are a measurement only of the amplitude of the early arriving casing signal. Although a small...

  14. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved

  15. Gujarat Ambuja Cements Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Gujarat Ambuja Cements Limited Place: Mumbai, India Zip: 400 021 Sector: Biomass Product: Indian cement company. the company...

  16. Cement Creek Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Cement Creek Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Cement Creek Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Cement...

  17. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Stringfellow Superfund Site in Riverside, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosey, G.; Van Geet, O.

    2010-12-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a photovoltaics (PV) system on the Stringfellow Superfund Site in Riverside, California. The site was assessed for possible PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.13/kWh and incentives offered by Southern California Edison under the California Solar Initiative. According to the assessment, a government-owned, ground-mounted PV system represents a technically and economically feasible option. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system.

  18. Westinghouse Cementation Facility of Solid Waste Treatment System - 13503

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, Torsten; Aign, Joerg

    2013-07-01

    During NPP operation, several waste streams are generated, caused by different technical and physical processes. Besides others, liquid waste represents one of the major types of waste. Depending on national regulation for storage and disposal of radioactive waste, solidification can be one specific requirement. To accommodate the global request for waste treatment systems Westinghouse developed several specific treatment processes for the different types of waste. In the period of 2006 to 2008 Westinghouse awarded several contracts for the design and delivery of waste treatment systems related to the latest CPR-1000 nuclear power plants. One of these contracts contains the delivery of four Cementation Facilities for waste treatment, s.c. 'Follow on Cementations' dedicated to three locations, HongYanHe, NingDe and YangJiang, of new CPR-1000 nuclear power stations in the People's Republic of China. Previously, Westinghouse delivered a similar cementation facility to the CPR-1000 plant LingAo II, in Daya Bay, PR China. This plant already passed the hot functioning tests successfully in June 2012 and is now ready and released for regular operation. The 'Follow on plants' are designed to package three 'typical' kind of radioactive waste: evaporator concentrates, spent resins and filter cartridges. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the Westinghouse experience to design and execution of cementation facilities. (authors)

  19. ADVANCED CEMENTS FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Using the conventional well cements consisting of the calcium silicate hydrates (CaO-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) and calcium aluminum silicate hydrates (CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) for the integrity of geothermal wells, the serious concern confronting the cementing industries was their poor performance in mechanically supporting the metallic well casing pipes and in mitigating the pipe's corrosion in very harsh geothermal reservoirs. These difficulties are particularly acute in two geological regions: One is the deep hot downhole area ({approx} 1700 m depth at temperatures of {approx} 320 C) that contains hyper saline water with high concentrations of CO{sub 2} (> 40,000 ppm) in conjunction with {approx} 100 ppm H{sub 2}S at a mild acid of pH {approx} 5.0; the other is the upper well region between the well's surface and {approx} 1000 m depth at temperatures up to 200 C. The specific environment of the latter region is characterized by highly concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (pH < 1.5) brine containing at least 5000 ppm CO{sub 2}. When these conventional cements are emplaced in these harsh environments, their major shortcoming is their susceptibility to reactions with hot CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}SO4, thereby causing their deterioration brought about by CO{sub 2}-catalyzed carbonation and acid-initiated erosion. Such degradation not only reduced rapidly the strength of cements, lowering the mechanical support of casing pipes, but also increased the extent of permeability of the brine through the cement layer, promoting the rate of the pipe's corrosion. Severely carbonated and acid eroded cements often impaired the integrity of a well in less than one year; in the worst cases, casings have collapsed within three months, leading to the need for costly and time-consuming repairs or redrilling operations. These were the reasons why the geothermal well drilling and cementing industries were concerned about using conventional well cements, and further

  20. Wellbore cement fracture evolution at the cement–basalt caprock interface during geologic carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Kabilan, Senthil; Carson, James P.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Um, Wooyong; Martin, Paul F.; Dahl, Michael E.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Varga, Tamas; Stephens, Sean A.; Arey, Bruce W.; Carroll, KC; Bonneville, Alain; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2014-08-01

    Composite Portland cement-basalt caprock cores with fractures, as well as neat Portland cement columns, were prepared to understand the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores with defects during geologic carbon sequestration. The samples were reacted with CO2-saturated groundwater at 50 ºC and 10 MPa for 3 months under static conditions, while one cement-basalt core was subjected to mechanical stress at 2.7 MPa before the CO2 reaction. Micro-XRD and SEM-EDS data collected along the cement-basalt interface after 3-month reaction with CO2-saturated groundwater indicate that carbonation of cement matrix was extensive with the precipitation of calcite, aragonite, and vaterite, whereas the alteration of basalt caprock was minor. X-ray microtomography (XMT) provided three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the opening and interconnection of cement fractures due to mechanical stress. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling further revealed that this stress led to the increase in fluid flow and hence permeability. After the CO2-reaction, XMT images displayed that calcium carbonate precipitation occurred extensively within the fractures in the cement matrix, but only partially along the fracture located at the cement-basalt interface. The 3-D visualization and CFD modeling also showed that the precipitation of calcium carbonate within the cement fractures after the CO2-reaction resulted in the disconnection of cement fractures and permeability decrease. The permeability calculated based on CFD modeling was in agreement with the experimentally determined permeability. This study demonstrates that XMT imaging coupled with CFD modeling represent a powerful tool to visualize and quantify fracture evolution and permeability change in geologic materials and to predict their behavior during geologic carbon sequestration or hydraulic fracturing for shale gas production and enhanced geothermal systems.

  1. Process for cementing geothermal wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eilers, Louis H.

    1985-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of coal-filled furfuryl alcohol, furfural, and/or a low molecular weight mono- or copolymer thereof containing, preferably, a catalytic amount of a soluble acid catalyst is used to cement a casing in a geothermal well.

  2. High Temperature Cements | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    gles":,"locations":"text":"Cement for...

  3. Squeeze cement method using coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Underdown, D.R.; Ashford, J.D.; Harrison, T.W.; Eastlack, J.K.; Blount, C.G.; Herring, G.D.

    1986-12-09

    A method is described of squeeze cementing a well wherein the well has a casing throughout the wellbore, casing cement between the casing and the wellbore of the well, perforations through the casing and the casing cement to establish fluid communication between the interior of the casing and a formation adjacent the perforations, channels in the casing cement in fluid communication with at least some of the perforations, a well tubing string in the casing extending from the surface to the proximity of the perforations, and a packer means for sealing between the tubing and the casing above the perforations. The method consists of: isolating the casing adjacent the perforations; lowering a coiled tubing down the well tubing string to a point adjacent the perforations; flowing uncontaminated squeeze cement through the coiled tubing and through the perforations into the channels; flowing a cement contaminating liquid down the coiled tubing to mix with the squeeze cement remaining in the casing; allowing the uncontaminated squeeze cement in the channels to harden; and removing the contaminated squeeze cement from the casing through the coiled tubing.

  4. INFORMAL REPORT PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE OF CEMENT- BASED GROUTS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Cement Ground Heat Exchanger Grouts, ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 105, Part 1,446-450, ... Cement Ground Heat Exchanger Grouts, ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 105, Part 1,446-450, ...

  5. Wellbore Integrity Assurance with NETL's Safe Cementing Research

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact Us Wellbore cement integrity is paramount to safe, successful oil and natural gas drilling. Cement acts as the primary barrier between the wellbore and the environment....

  6. Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well ...

  7. BEST-Cement for China | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    BEST-Cement for China Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: BEST-Cement AgencyCompany Organization: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Partner: Energy...

  8. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.

    1993-09-21

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120 C to about 300 C to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate. 10 figures.

  9. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120.degree. C. to about 300.degree. C. to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate.

  10. Frontiers of Plant Cell Biology: Signals and Pathways, System-Based Approaches 22nd Symposium in Plant Biology (University of California-Riverside)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minorsky, Peter V.

    2003-06-01

    The symposium ''Frontiers of Plant Cell Biology: Signals and Pathways, Systems-Based Approaches'' was held January 15-18, 2003 at the Riverside Convention Center in Riverside, California. The host organization for the symposium was the Center for Plant Cell Biology (CEPCEB) at the University of California, Riverside (UCR). The meeting, focusing on systems-based approaches to plant cell biology research, was the first of this kind in the field of plant biology. The speakers and nearly 100 posters placed emphasis on recent developments in plant cellular biology and molecular genetics, particularly those employing emerging genomic tools, thereby sharing the most current knowledge in the field and stimulating future advances. In attendance were many well-established scientists and young investigators who approach plant cell biology from different but complementary conceptual and technical perspectives. Indeed, many disciplines are converging in the field of cell biology, producing synergies that will enable plant scientists to determine the function of gene products in the context of living cells in whole organisms. New, cross-disciplinary collaborations, as well as the involvement of computer scientists and chemists in plant biology research, are likely additional outcomes of the symposium. The program included 39 invited session speakers and workshop/panel speakers. Sessions were convened on the following themes: Cell-Cell Communication; Protein Trafficking; Cell Surface, Extracellular Matrix and Cell Wall; Signal Transduction; Signal Transduction and Proteosome; and Systems-Based Approaches to Plant Cell Biology. Workshops on Chemical Genetics and Visual Microscopy were also presented. Abstracts from each of the speaker presentations, as well as the posters presented at the meeting were published in a program booklet given to the 239 faculty members, researchers, postdoctoral scientists and graduate students in attendance. The booklet thus serves as a reference for

  11. CONTENTS NETL Boasts State-of-the- Art Capabilities for Cement

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Primary Cementing ......17 Nano Impregnated Cement ... 18 CONTACTS Roy ... Nano Impregnated Cement Honolulu-based Oceanit Laboratories Inc., supported by DOE ...

  12. Computational fluid dynamics improves liner cementing operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, N.A.; Archer, G.L. ); Seymour, D.A. )

    1994-09-26

    The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), an analytical tool for studying fluid mechanics, helped plan the successful cementing of a critical liner in a North Sea extended reach well. The results from CFD analysis increased the confidence in the primary cementing of the liner. CFD modeling was used to quantify the effects of increasing the displacement rate and of rotating the liner on the mud flow distribution in the annulus around the liner.

  13. Analysis of CCRL proficiency cements 151 and 152 using the Virtual Cement and Concrete Testing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullard, Jeffrey W. . E-mail: jeffrey.bullard@nist.gov; Stutzman, Paul E.

    2006-08-15

    To test the ability of the Virtual Cement and Concrete Testing Laboratory (VCCTL) software to predict cement hydration properties, characterization of mineralogy and phase distribution is necessary. Compositional and textural characteristics of Cement and Concrete Reference Laboratory (CCRL) cements 151 and 152 were determined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis followed by computer modeling of hydration properties. The general procedure to evaluate a cement is as follows: (1) two-dimensional SEM backscattered electron and X-ray microanalysis images of the cement are obtained, along with a measured particle size distribution (PSD); (2) based on analysis of these images and the measured PSD, three-dimensional microstructures of various water-to-cement ratios are created and hydrated using VCCTL, and (3) the model predictions for degree of hydration under saturated conditions, heat of hydration (ASTM C186), setting time (ASTM C191), and strength development of mortar cubes (ASTM C109) are compared to experimental measurements either performed at NIST or at the participating CCRL proficiency sample evaluation laboratories. For both cements, generally good agreement is observed between the model predictions and the experimental data.

  14. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schindler, Anton K; Duke, Steve R; Burch, Thomas E; Davis, Edward W; Zee, Ralph H; Bransby, David I; Hopkins, Carla; Thompson, Rutherford L; Duan, Jingran; Venkatasubramanian, Vignesh; Stephen, Giles

    2012-06-30

    The production of cement involves a combination of numerous raw materials, strictly monitored system processes, and temperatures on the order of 1500 °C. Immense quantities of fuel are required for the production of cement. Traditionally, energy from fossil fuels was solely relied upon for the production of cement. The overarching project objective is to evaluate the use of alternative fuels to lessen the dependence on non-renewable resources to produce portland cement. The key objective of using alternative fuels is to continue to produce high-quality cement while decreasing the use of non-renewable fuels and minimizing the impact on the environment. Burn characteristics and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated with a laboratory burn simulator under conditions that mimic those in the preheater where the fuels are brought into a cement plant. A drop-tube furnace and visualization method were developed that show potential for evaluating time- and space-resolved temperature distributions for fuel solid particles and liquid droplets undergoing combustion in various combustion atmospheres. Downdraft gasification has been explored as a means to extract chemical energy from poultry litter while limiting the throughput of potentially deleterious components with regards to use in firing a cement kiln. Results have shown that the clinkering is temperature independent, at least within the controllable temperature range. Limestone also had only a slight effect on the fusion when used to coat the pellets. However, limestone addition did display some promise in regards to chlorine capture, as ash analyses showed chlorine concentrations of more than four times greater in the limestone infused ash as compared to raw poultry litter. A reliable and convenient sampling procedure was developed to estimate the combustion quality of broiler litter that is the best compromise between convenience and reliability by means of statistical analysis. Multi-day trial burns were conducted

  15. Development of an Improved Cement for Geothermal Wells

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Develop a novel, zeolite-containing lightweight, high temperature, high pressure geothermal cement, which will provide operators with an easy to use, flexible cementing system that saves time and simplifies logistics.

  16. High temperature expanding cement composition and use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Erik B.; Eilers, Louis H.

    1982-01-01

    A hydratable cement composition useful for preparing a pectolite-containing expanding cement at temperatures above about 150.degree. C. comprising a water soluble sodium salt of a weak acid, a 0.1 molar aqueous solution of which salt has a pH of between about 7.5 and about 11.5, a calcium source, and a silicon source, where the atomic ratio of sodium to calcium to silicon ranges from about 0.3:0.6:1 to about 0.03:1:1; aqueous slurries prepared therefrom and the use of such slurries for plugging subterranean cavities at a temperature of at least about 150.degree. C. The invention composition is useful for preparing a pectolite-containing expansive cement having about 0.2 to about 2 percent expansion, by volume, when cured at at least 150.degree. C.

  17. Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  18. Wellbore Cement: Research That Begins Where the Sidewalk Ends

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    As we meander down the sidewalk, how many of us give more than a passing thought to the cement underfoot? Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory think about deteriorating cement a lot, with an aim to preserving its character and protecting the environment. But they’re not looking at sidewalks. Their focus is wellbore cement, the cement encasing pipes that bring oil and gas up to the surface.

  19. Development of an Improved Cement for Geothermal Wells

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of an Improved Cement for Geothermal Wells presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  20. Coal fly ash: the most powerful tool for sustainability of the concrete industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, P.K.

    2008-07-01

    In the last 15 years the global cement industry has almost doubled its annual rate of direct emissions of carbon dioxide. These can be cut back by reducing global concrete consumption, reducing the volume of cement paste in mixtures and reducing the proportion of portland clinker in cement. It has recently been proved that use of high volumes of coal fly ash can produce low cost, durable, sustainable cement and concrete mixtures that would reduce the carbon footprint of both the cement and the power generation industries. 2 photos.

  1. Development of an Improved Cement for Geothermal Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trabits, George

    2015-04-20

    After an oil, gas, or geothermal production well has been drilled, the well must be stabilized with a casing (sections of steel pipe that are joined together) in order to prevent the walls of the well from collapsing. The gap between the casing and the walls of the well is filled with cement, which locks the casing into place. The casing and cementing of geothermal wells is complicated by the harsh conditions of high temperature, high pressure, and a chemical environment (brines with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and sulfuric acid) that degrades conventional Portland cement. During the 1990s and early 2000s, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) provided support for the development of fly-ash-modified calcium aluminate phosphate (CaP) cement, which offers improved resistance to degradation compared with conventional cement. However, the use of CaP cements involves some operational constraints that can increase the cost and complexity of well cementing. In some cases, CaP cements are incompatible with chemical additives that are commonly used to adjust cement setting time. Care must also be taken to ensure that CaP cements do not become contaminated with leftover conventional cement in pumping equipment used in conventional well cementing. With assistance from GTO, Trabits Group, LLC has developed a zeolite-containing cement that performs well in harsh geothermal conditions (thermal stability at temperatures of up to 300°C and resistance to carbonation) and is easy to use (can be easily adjusted with additives and eliminates the need to “sterilize” pumping equipment as with CaP cements). This combination of properties reduces the complexity/cost of well cementing, which will help enable the widespread development of geothermal energy in the United States.

  2. How gelation affects oil well cements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kieffer, J.; Rae, P.

    1987-05-01

    One of the most common problems seen in the oil industry is that of cement gelation. Gelation can be defined as a premature viscosification or a gel-strength buildup of the cement slurry. This can have important consequences in field operations and may be so severe as to cause job failure. One of the principal difficulties encountered in dealing with cement gelation is the unpredictable nature of the phenomenon and the fact that it may manifest itself under a variety of field conditions. Thus, it may occur immediately after mixing or during the displacement when the slurry has reached circulating temperature; it occasionally is seen only during shutdowns, when the slurry is in static condition, but may appear during pumping when the slurry is under continual shear. The fact that the physico-chemical bases of gelation are complex probably accounts for the broad spectrum of conditions under which gelation can occur. Factors involved include the chemical composition of the cement powder itself, its fineness, its microstructure, the mixwater quality, the types (if any) of additive used, the rate of heat flux into the slurry as well as the final temperature to which the slurry is exposed.

  3. Cementation and solidification of Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J.A.; Semones, G.B.

    1994-04-01

    Cementation studies on various aqueous waste streams at Rocky Flats have shown this technology to be effective for immobilizing the RCRA constituents in the waste. Cementation is also being evaluated for encapsulation of incinerator ash. Experiments will initially evaluate a surrogate ash waste using a Taguchi experimental design to optimize the cement formulation and waste loading levels for this application. Variables of waste loading, fly ash additions, water/cement ratio, and cement type will be tested at three levels each during the course of this work. Tests will finally be conducted on actual waste using the optimized cement formulation developed from this testing. This progression of tests will evaluate the effectiveness of cement encapsulation for this waste stream without generating any additional wastes.

  4. Effect of different water levels on the properties of HSR Class G cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bensted, J. . Sunbury Research Centre)

    1994-01-01

    HSR (high sulfate-resistant) Class G cement is the most widely utilized oilwell cement in the Eastern Hemisphere. Changes in water level corresponding to small changes in slurry density have a substantial effect upon the physical cementing properties of HSR Class G oilwell cement under comparable conditions. The implications of this for practical oilwell cement slurry formulations for downhole usage are discussed.

  5. Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-11-30

    The Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project was a technical success and demonstrated the following: CKD can be used successfully as the sole reagent for removing SO2 from cement kiln flue gas, with removal efficiencies of 90 percent or greater; Removal efficiencies for HCl and VOCs were approximately 98 percent and 70 percent, respectively; Particulate emissions were low, in the range of 0.005 to 0.007 grains/standard cubic foot; The treated CKD sorbent can be recycled to the kiln after its potassium content has been reduced in the scrubber, thereby avoiding the need for landfilling; The process can yield fertilizer-grade K2SO4, a saleable by-product; and Waste heat in the flue gas can provide the energy required for evaporation and crystallization in the by-product recovery operation. The demonstration program established the feasibility of using the Recovery Scrubber{trademark} for desulfurization of flue gas from cement kilns, with generally favorable economics, assuming tipping fees are available for disposal of ash from biomass combustion. The process appears to be suitable for commercial use on any type of cement kiln. EPA has ruled that CKD is a nonhazardous waste, provided the facility meets Performance Standards for the Management of CKD (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1999d). Therefore, regulatory drivers for the technology focus more on reduction of air pollutants and pollution prevention, rather than on treating CKD as a hazardous waste. Application of the Recovery Scrubbe{trademark} concept to other waste-disposal operations, where pollution and waste reductions are needed, appears promising.

  6. Effective Permeability Change in Wellbore Cement with Carbon Dioxide Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Martin, Paul F.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2011-11-01

    Portland cement, a common sealing material for wellbores for geological carbon sequestration was reacted with CO{sub 2} in supercritical, gaseous, and aqueous phases at various pressure and temperature conditions to simulate cement-CO{sub 2} reaction along the wellbore from carbon injection depth to the near-surface. Hydrated Portland cement columns (14 mm diameter x 90 mm length; water-to-cement ratio = 0.33) including additives such as steel coupons and Wallula basalt fragments were reacted with CO{sub 2} in the wet supercritical (the top half) and dissolved (the bottom half) phases under carbon sequestration condition with high pressure (10 MPa) and temperature (50 C) for 5 months, while small-sized hydrated Portland cement columns (7 mm diameter x 20 mm length; water-to-cement ratio = 0.38) were reacted with CO{sub 2} in dissolved phase at high pressure (10 MPa) and temperature (50 C) for 1 month or with wet CO{sub 2} in gaseous phase at low pressure (0.2 MPa) and temperature (20 C) for 3 months. XMT images reveal that the cement reacted with CO{sub 2} saturated groundwater had degradation depth of {approx}1 mm for 1 month and {approx}3.5 mm for 5 month, whereas the degradation was minor with cement exposure to supercritical CO{sub 2}. SEM-EDS analysis showed that the carbonated cement was comprised of three distinct zones; the innermost less degraded zone with Ca atom % > C atom %, the inner degraded zone with Ca atom % {approx} C atom % due to precipitation of calcite, the outer degraded zone with C atom % > Ca atom % due to dissolution of calcite and C-S-H, as well as adsorption of carbon to cement matrix. The outer degraded zone of carbonated cement was porous and fractured because of dissolution-dominated reaction by carbonic acid exposure, which resulted in the increase in BJH pore volume and BET surface area. In contrast, cement-wet CO{sub 2}(g) reaction at low P (0.2 MPa)-T (20 C) conditions for 1 to 3 months was dominated by precipitation of micron

  7. Lehigh Southwest Cement Company: Compressed Air System Improvement Saves Energy at a Lehigh Southwest Cement Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01

    In 2001, Lehigh Southwest Cement Company improved the compressed air system at its cement plant in Tehachapi, California. Consequently, the system was able to operate more efficiently with less compressor capacity and at a lower system pressure. The project yielded total annual savings of 895,000 kWh and $199,000. The initial project cost was $417,000, but Southern California Edison provided a $90,000 incentive payment to reduce the cost to $327,000. Simple payback was about 20 months.

  8. Imaging Wellbore Cement Degradation by Carbon Dioxide under Geologic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Imaging Wellbore Cement Degradation by Carbon Dioxide under Geologic Sequestration Conditions Using X-ray Computed Microtomography Citation Details In-Document ...

  9. Stabilizing coal-water mixtures with portland cement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer; Krishna, Coimbatore R.

    1986-01-01

    Coal-water mixes stabilized by the addition of portland cement which may additionally contain retarding carbohydrates, or borax are described.

  10. Dynamic Evolution of Cement Composition and Transport Properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbon Sequestration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dynamic Evolution of Cement Composition and Transport Properties under Conditions Relevant to Geological Carbon ...

  11. Corrosion-resistant Foamed Cements for Carbon Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Gill, S.; Pyatina, T., Muraca, A.; Keese, R.; Khan, A.; Bour, D.

    2012-12-01

    The cementitious material consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate designed as an alternative thermal-shock resistant cement for the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) wells was treated with cocamidopropyl dimethylamine oxide-based compound as foaming agent (FA) to prepare numerous air bubble-dispersed low density cement slurries of and #61603;1.3 g/cm3. Then, the foamed slurry was modified with acrylic emulsion (AE) as corrosion inhibitor. We detailed the positive effects of the acrylic polymer (AP) in this emulsion on the five different properties of the foamed cement: 1) The hydrothermal stability of the AP in 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cements; 2) the hydrolysis-hydration reactions of the slurry at 85 and #61616;C; 3) the composition of crystalline phases assembled and the microstructure developed in autoclaved cements; 4) the mechanical behaviors of the autoclaved cements; and, 5) the corrosion mitigation of carbon steel (CS) by the polymer. For the first property, the hydrothermal-catalyzed acid-base interactions between the AP and cement resulted in Ca-or Na-complexed carboxylate derivatives, which led to the improvement of thermal stability of the AP. This interaction also stimulated the cement hydration reactions, enhancing the total heat evolved during cement’s curing. Addition of AP did not alter any of the crystalline phase compositions responsible for the strength of the cement. Furthermore, the AP-modified cement developed the porous microstructure with numerous defect-free cavities of disconnected voids. These effects together contributed to the improvement of compressive-strength and –toughness of the cured cement. AP modification of the cement also offered an improved protection of CS against brine-caused corrosion. There were three major factors governing the corrosion protection: 1) Reducing the extents of infiltration and transportation of corrosive electrolytes through the cement layer deposited on the underlying CS

  12. Stabilizing coal-water mixtures with Portland cement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Krishna, C.R.

    1984-10-17

    Coal-water mixes stabilized by the addition of Portland cement which may additionally contain retarding carbohydrates, or borax are described. 1 tab.

  13. Investigation of Possible Wellbore Cement Failures During Hydraulic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Investigation of Possible Wellbore Cement Failures During Hydraulic Fracturing Operations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Investigation of Possible ...

  14. Change in pore structure and composition of hardened cement paste...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    To investigate the alteration associated with dissolution, dissolution tests of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) hydrates were performed. Through observation of the samples after ...

  15. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-X-2015_Field-Generated Foamed Cement...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The initial field-generated foamed cement testing revealed the structure of the ... The heterogeneous structure suggests the motion of the foamed cement slurry within the vessels ...

  16. Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Fuqiu , Zhou; Huawen, Xiong; Xuemin, Zeng; Lan, Wang

    2008-07-30

    The Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool (BEST) Cement is a process-based tool based on commercially available efficiency technologies used anywhere in the world applicable to the cement industry. This version has been designed for use in China. No actual cement facility with every single efficiency measure included in the benchmark will likely exist; however, the benchmark sets a reasonable standard by which to compare for plants striving to be the best. The energy consumption of the benchmark facility differs due to differences in processing at a given cement facility. The tool accounts for most of these variables and allows the user to adapt the model to operational variables specific for his/her cement facility. Figure 1 shows the boundaries included in a plant modeled by BEST Cement. In order to model the benchmark, i.e., the most energy efficient cement facility, so that it represents a facility similar to the user's cement facility, the user is first required to input production variables in the input sheet (see Section 6 for more information on how to input variables). These variables allow the tool to estimate a benchmark facility that is similar to the user's cement plant, giving a better picture of the potential for that particular facility, rather than benchmarking against a generic one. The input variables required include the following: (1) the amount of raw materials used in tonnes per year (limestone, gypsum, clay minerals, iron ore, blast furnace slag, fly ash, slag from other industries, natural pozzolans, limestone powder (used post-clinker stage), municipal wastes and others); the amount of raw materials that are preblended (prehomogenized and proportioned) and crushed (in tonnes per year); (2) the amount of additives that are dried and ground (in tonnes per year); (3) the production of clinker (in tonnes per year) from each kiln by kiln type; (4) the amount of raw materials, coal and clinker that is ground by mill type (in tonnes per year); (5

  17. Magnesium phosphate glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Kukacka, Lawrence E.

    1984-03-13

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate exhibiting rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  18. Magnesium-phosphate-glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-09-23

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate, exhibits rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  19. Use of hazardous waste in cement kilns backed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krieger, J.

    1993-07-19

    Cement kiln operators who are making use of hazardous waste as a partial substitute for fossil fuel now have a better engineering foundation for determining what is going on in the kilns and how to optimize their operations. A just-released study by a scientific advisory board of experts commissioned by the Cement Kiln Recycling Coalition (CKRC) in Washington, DC, has provided an in-depth look, at such operations and finds the practice to be a fundamentally sound' technology. Long residence times and high temperatures in cement kilns maximize the combustion efficiency for waste-derived fuels, according to the study report. The scientific advisory board notes that all organic compounds can be destroyed in a kiln at 99.9999% efficiency. Also, the behavior of metals in cement kilns can be readily measured, predicted, and controlled. Cement kilns are extremely efficient in reducing metals emissions.

  20. Global warming impact on the cement and aggregates industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidovits, J. . Geopolymer Inst.)

    1994-06-01

    CO[sub 2] related energy taxes are focusing essentially on fuel consumption, not on actual CO[sub 2] emission measured at the chimneys. Ordinary Portland cement, used in the aggregates and industries, results from the calcination of limestone and silica. The production of 1 ton of cement directly generates 0.55 tons of chemical-CO[sub 2] and requires the combustion of carbon-fuel to yield an additional 0.40 tons of CO[sub 2]. The 1987 1 billion metric tons world production of cement accounted for 1 billion metric tons of CO[sub 2], i.e., 5% of the 1987 world CO[sub 2] emission. A world-wide freeze of CO[sub 2] emission at the 1990 level as recommended by international institutions, is incompatible with the extremely high cement development needs of less industrialized countries. Present cement production growth ranges from 5% to 16% and suggests that in 25 years from now, world cement CO[sub 2] emissions could equal 3,500 million tons. Eco-taxes when applied would have a spectacular impact on traditional Portland cement based aggregates industries. Taxation based only on fuel consumption would lead to a cement price increase of 20%, whereas taxation based on actual CO[sub 2] emission would multiply cement price by 1.5 to 2. A 25--30% minor reduction of CO[sub 2] emissions may be achieved through the blending of Portland cement with replacement materials such as coal-fly ash and iron blast furnace slag.

  1. Odor investigation of a Portland cement plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pleus, R.C. [Intertox, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The main concern expressed by Smithville residents is whether the odors they were smelling during odor events were due to chemicals that could cause adverse health effects. Odors were allegedly emanating from the town`s Portland cement plant. The purpose of the study was to measure the ambient air for 20 reduced sulfur, 50 volatile organic compounds, and air samples for olfactometric analysis. Carbonyl sulfide was found to be at a concentration that could create a sense of odor and irritation. This sense of irritation may be due to a physiological response by the central nervous system, and is not associated with any known adverse effects. This physiological response could account for some or all of the irritation experienced by residents during odor events. Comparing chemical concentrations that were detected in air samples to standard and recognized guidelines for acceptable exposure, all measured concentrations were found to be well below the acceptable criteria. From these data the authors conclude that no acute or chronic adverse health effects are expected at the concentrations of the chemicals detected downwind of the cement plant, either routinely or during odor events.

  2. Incinerators and cement kilns face off

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, I.

    1994-04-01

    For the past few years, US incinerators have been at odds with thermal waste processors such as cement kilns. Originally, there was enough room in the industrial waste treatment market for both types of treatment. As waste generators turned to pollution prevention and onsite treatment, however, the volume of waste decreased and its composition changed. Now, each sees the other crowding it out of a tightening market, and the fight between them is growing increasingly bitter. At the center of this battle are the products of alternative thermal processes--for cement kilns, the dust formed after processing, and for other processes, a variety of materials, many of which can be used for construction. Currently, these materials are exempted from regulation under the US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). In addition, the alternative processes offer generators a significant cost advantage over incineration. The question that US regulators are now grappling with is whether these materials are safe enough to justify this preferential treatment. So far, the answer seems to be a qualified yes. The paper discusses these issues.

  3. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn

    2008-01-31

    This report provides information on the energy savings, costs, and carbon dioxide emissions reductions associated with implementation of a number of technologies and measures applicable to the cement industry. The technologies and measures include both state-of-the-art measures that are currently in use in cement enterprises worldwide as well as advanced measures that are either only in limited use or are near commercialization. This report focuses mainly on retrofit measures using commercially available technologies, but many of these technologies are applicable for new plants as well. Where possible, for each technology or measure, costs and energy savings per tonne of cement produced are estimated and then carbon dioxide emissions reductions are calculated based on the fuels used at the process step to which the technology or measure is applied. The analysis of cement kiln energy-efficiency opportunities is divided into technologies and measures that are applicable to the different stages of production and various kiln types used in China: raw materials (and fuel) preparation; clinker making (applicable to all kilns, rotary kilns only, vertical shaft kilns only); and finish grinding; as well as plant wide measures and product and feedstock changes that will reduce energy consumption for clinker making. Table 1 lists all measures in this report by process to which they apply, including plant wide measures and product or feedstock changes. Tables 2 through 8 provide the following information for each technology: fuel and electricity savings per tonne of cement; annual operating and capital costs per tonne of cement or estimated payback period; and, carbon dioxide emissions reductions for each measure applied to the production of cement. This information was originally collected for a report on the U.S. cement industry (Worrell and Galitsky, 2004) and a report on opportunities for China's cement kilns (Price and Galitsky, in press). The information provided in this

  4. Strength recovery of cement composites in steam and carbonate environments

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Tom Butcher

    2016-04-28

    The data include compressive strength and Young's Modulus recoveries in steam and carbonate environments at 270degC for four chemically different cement composites after imposed controlled damaged.

  5. Mechanical and acoustic properties of weakly cemented granular rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakagawa, S.; Myer, L.R.

    2001-05-09

    This paper presents the results of laboratory measurements on the mechanical and acoustic properties of weakly cemented granular rock. Artificial rock samples were fabricated by cementing sand and glass beads with sodium silicate binder. During uniaxial compression tests, the rock samples showed stress-strain behavior which was more similar to that of soils than competent rocks, exhibiting large permanent deformations with frictional slip. The mechanical behavior of the samples approached that of competent rocks as the amount of binder was increased. For very weak samples, acoustic waves propagating in these rocks showed very low velocities of less than 1000 m/sec for compressional waves. A borehole made within this weakly cemented rock exhibited a unique mode of failure that is called ''anti-KI mode fracture'' in this paper. The effect of cementation, grain type, and boundary conditions on this mode of failure was also examined experimentally.

  6. Transcending Portland Cement with 100 percent fly ash concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, D.; Akin, M.; Stephens, J.; Cuelh, E.

    2009-07-01

    The use of concrete, made with 100% fly ash and no Portland cement, in buildings at the Transportation Institute in Bozeman, MT, USA, is described. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Geochemical and Geomechanical Effects on Wellbore Cement Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Kabilan, Senthil; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-12-31

    Experimental studies were conducted using batch reactors, X-ray microtomograpy (XMT), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to determine changes in cement fracture surfaces, fluid flow pathways, and permeability with geochemical and geomechanical processes. Composite Portland cement-basalt caprock core with artificial fractures was prepared and reacted with CO2-saturated groundwater at 50°C and 10 MPa for 3 to 3.5 months under static conditions to understand the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores containing defects. Cement-basalt interface samples were subjected to mechanical stress at 2.7 MPa before the CO2 reaction. XMT provided three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the opening and interconnection of cement fractures due to mechanical stress. After the CO2 reaction, XMT images revealed that calcium carbonate precipitation occurred extensively within the fractures in the cement matrix, but only partially along fractures located at the cement-basalt interface. The permeability calculated based on CFD simulation was in agreement with the experimentally measured permeability. The experimental results imply that the wellbore cement with fractures is likely to be healed during exposure to CO2-saturated groundwater under static conditions, whereas fractures along the cement-caprock interface are still likely to remain vulnerable to the leakage of CO2. CFD simulation for the flow of different fluids (CO2-saturated brine and supercritical CO2) using a pressure difference of 20 kPa and 200 kPa along ~2 cm-long cement fractures showed that a pressure gradient increase resulted in an increase of CO2 fluids flux by a factor of only ~3-9 because the friction of CO2 fluids on cement fracture surfaces increased with higher flow rate as well. At the same pressure gradient, the simulated flow rate was higher for supercritical CO2 than CO2-saturated brine by a factor of only ~2-3, because the viscosity of supercritical CO2 is much

  8. Geochemical and Geomechanical Effects on Wellbore Cement Fractures

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Kabilan, Senthil; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-12-31

    Experimental studies were conducted using batch reactors, X-ray microtomograpy (XMT), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to determine changes in cement fracture surfaces, fluid flow pathways, and permeability with geochemical and geomechanical processes. Composite Portland cement-basalt caprock core with artificial fractures was prepared and reacted with CO2-saturated groundwater at 50°C and 10 MPa for 3 to 3.5 months under static conditions to understand the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores containing defects. Cement-basalt interface samples were subjected to mechanical stress at 2.7 MPa before the CO2 reaction. XMT provided three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the opening and interconnectionmore » of cement fractures due to mechanical stress. After the CO2 reaction, XMT images revealed that calcium carbonate precipitation occurred extensively within the fractures in the cement matrix, but only partially along fractures located at the cement-basalt interface. The permeability calculated based on CFD simulation was in agreement with the experimentally measured permeability. The experimental results imply that the wellbore cement with fractures is likely to be healed during exposure to CO2-saturated groundwater under static conditions, whereas fractures along the cement-caprock interface are still likely to remain vulnerable to the leakage of CO2. CFD simulation for the flow of different fluids (CO2-saturated brine and supercritical CO2) using a pressure difference of 20 kPa and 200 kPa along ~2 cm-long cement fractures showed that a pressure gradient increase resulted in an increase of CO2 fluids flux by a factor of only ~3-9 because the friction of CO2 fluids on cement fracture surfaces increased with higher flow rate as well. At the same pressure gradient, the simulated flow rate was higher for supercritical CO2 than CO2-saturated brine by a factor of only ~2-3, because the viscosity of supercritical CO2 is

  9. Evaluation of steel furnace slags as cement additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuefekci, M.; Demirbas, A.; Genc, H.

    1997-11-01

    Chemical and physical properties and strength development have been studied for six granulated steel furnace slags from the normal steelmaking process. This paper reports results of research performed to develop cement mixture proportions using these slags. The influence of slag proportions, specific surface, and water demand on compressive strength and bulk density of cement blends are presented in this paper. The different test results, which were compared with the Turkish Standards, in general, were found to be within the limits.

  10. Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites Project Officer: Dan King/Greg Stillman Total budget: $300 K April 24 , 2013 Principal Investigator: Dr. Toshifumi Sugama Co-PI; Dr. Tatiana Pyatina Presenter Name: Dr. Toshifumi Sugama This presentation does not contain any proprietary confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Microstructure developed in conventional foamed (left) and corrosion- resistant foamed cements (right) 2 | US DOE Geothermal Office

  11. Waste tires as auxiliary fuel for cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, J.

    1987-01-01

    The subject I have been asked to speak about is the utilization of scrap tires as an auxiliary fuel for cement kilns. My experience with scrap tires began five years ago when we performed a technical and economic evaluation for tire pyrolysis. I work for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory which is supported by the Department of Energy. My interest in scrap tires continued; in 1984 the Department of Energy and the Portland Cement Association jointly sponsored a conference on the utilization of scrap tires in cement kilns. Most of my remarks today are based upon that conference along with some current information in the US. Mr. Sladek requested that I speak on the combustion process, the progress to date, and the factors that impede or encourage implementation of using scrap tires in cement kilns. For discussion purposes it would help if we had a common understanding of the cement manufacturing process. Cement is made by heating a mixture of finely ground limestone and silica from clay or sand to about 1450/degree/C in a large rotating kiln. The heat causes the limestone to decarbonate and subsequently react with the silica to form calcium silicates. 5 figs.

  12. Properties and hydration of blended cements with steelmaking slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kourounis, S.; Tsivilis, S. . E-mail: stsiv@central.ntua.gr; Tsakiridis, P.E.; Papadimitriou, G.D.; Tsibouki, Z.

    2007-06-15

    The present research study investigates the properties and hydration of blended cements with steelmaking slag, a by-product of the conversion process of iron to steel. For this purpose, a reference sample and three cements containing up to 45% w/w steel slag were tested. The steel slag fraction used was the '0-5 mm', due to its high content in calcium silicate phases. Initial and final setting time, standard consistency, flow of normal mortar, autoclave expansion and compressive strength at 2, 7, 28 and 90 days were measured. The hydrated products were identified by X-ray diffraction while the non-evaporable water was determined by TGA. The microstructure of the hardened cement pastes and their morphological characteristics were examined by scanning electron microscopy. It is concluded that slag can be used in the production of composite cements of the strength classes 42.5 and 32.5 of EN 197-1. In addition, the slag cements present satisfactory physical properties. The steel slag slows down the hydration of the blended cements, due to the morphology of contained C{sub 2}S and its low content in calcium silicates.

  13. History and some potentials of oil shale cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knutson, C.F.; Smith, R.P.; Russell, B.F. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of oil shale as a cement component is discussed. It was investigated in America and Europe during World War I. Additional development occurred in Western Europe, Russia, and China during the 1920s and 1930s. World War II provided further development incentives and a relatively mature technology was in place in Germany, Russia, and China prior to 1980. The utilization of oil shale in cement has taken a number of different paths. One approach has been to utilize the energy in the oil shale as the principal source for the cement plant and to use the combusted shale as a minor constituent of the plant's cement product. A second approach has been to use the combusted shale as a class C or cementitious fly-ash component in portland cement concrete. Other approaches utilizing eastern oil shale have been to use the combusted oil shale with additives as a specialty cement, or to cocombust the oil shale with coal and utilize the sulfur-rich combustion product.

  14. Cement paste prior to setting: A rheological approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellotto, Maurizio

    2013-10-15

    The evolution of cement paste during the dormant period is analyzed via small amplitude oscillation rheological measurements. Cement paste, from the very first moments after mixing cement and water, shows the formation of an elastic gel whose strength is rapidly increasing over time. Up to the onset of Portlandite precipitation G?(t) increases by more than 2 orders of magnitude and in the acceleratory period G?(t) continues steadily to increase. A microstructural modification is likely to occur between the dormant and the acceleratory period. At low deformations in the linearity domain the storage modulus G?(?) exhibits a negligible frequency dependence. At higher deformations cement paste shows a yield stress which increases on increasing paste concentration. The presence of superplasticizers decreases the yield stress and increases the gelation threshold of the paste. Above the gelation threshold the evolution of cement paste with superplasticizers follows similar trends to the neat paste. -- Highlights: The gelation of cement paste during the dormant period is analyzed via rheometry. The observed evolution is proposed to be related to the pore structure refinement. Similarities are observed with colloidal gels and colloidal glasses.

  15. Potential for energy conservation in the cement industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett-Price, B.A.

    1985-02-01

    This report assesses the potential for energy conservation in the cement industry. Energy consumption per ton of cement decreased 20% between 1972 and 1982. During this same period, the cement industry became heavily dependent on coal and coke as its primary fuel source. Although the energy consumed per ton of cement has declined markedly in the past ten years, the industry still uses more than three and a half times the fuel that is theoretically required to produce a ton of clinker. Improving kiln thermal efficiency offers the greatest opportunity for saving fuel. Improving the efficiency of finish grinding offers the greatest potential for reducing electricity use. Technologies are currently available to the cement industry to reduce its average fuel consumption per ton by product by as much as 40% and its electricity consumption per ton by about 10%. The major impediment to adopting these technologies is the cement industry's lack of capital as a result of low or no profits in recent years.

  16. Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns. Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Zhou, Nan; Thekdi, Arvind; Lan, Wang

    2011-07-01

    The study documented in this report was initiated in order to conduct an energy assessment and to identify the relationship between combustion issues and emissions from cement kilns. A new suspension preheater/precalciner (NSP) rotary cement kiln at one cement manufacturing facility (referred to as Shui Ni 1 in this report) and a vertical shaft kiln (VSK) at another cement manufacturing facility (referred to as Shui Ni 2 in this report), which are both in Shandong Province, were selected to conduct the energy and emission assessments through collection of data. Based on analysis of the data collected during this assessment, several actions are suggested that could lead to reduction in coal use and reduction in emission of gaseous pollutants from the system.

  17. 10 Questions with Well-Bore Cement Researcher Dr. Barbara Kutchko |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy with Well-Bore Cement Researcher Dr. Barbara Kutchko 10 Questions with Well-Bore Cement Researcher Dr. Barbara Kutchko March 31, 2015 - 2:53pm Addthis Barbara Kutchko, a well-bore cement researcher, studies the make-up and properties of cement used in oil and gas drilling. | Photo courtesy of the National Energy Technology Lab (NETL). Barbara Kutchko, a well-bore cement researcher, studies the make-up and properties of cement used in oil and gas drilling. | Photo

  18. LL/ILW: Post-Qualification of Old Waste through Non-Destructive Extraction of Barrels from Cement Shields - 13535

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oehmigen, Steffen; Ambos, Frank

    2013-07-01

    Currently there is a large number of radioactive waste drums entombed in cement shields at German nuclear power plants. These concrete containers used in the past for the waste are not approved for the final repository. Compliance with current acceptance criteria of the final repository has to be proven by qualification measures on the waste. To meet these criteria, a new declaration and new packing is necessary. A simple non-destructive extraction of about 2000 drums from their concrete shields is not possible. So different methods were tested to find a way of non-destructive extraction of old waste drums from cement shields and therefore reduce the final repository volume and final repository costs by using a container accepted and approved for Konrad. The main objective was to build a mobile system to offer this service to nuclear plant stations. (authors)

  19. The use of scrap tires in rotary cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumenthal, M.

    1996-12-31

    The use of scrap tires as a supplemental fuel in the United States Portland cement industry has increased significantly in the past six years. In 1990, there were two kilns using tire-derived fuel (TDF), today 30 kilns use TDF. The outlook for continued and expanded use of TDF in the U.S. cement industry should be considered favorable, with 15 kilns conducting tests to determine TDF`s applicability or in the permitting process. The Council`s estimates are that by the end of 1996, the cement industry could be consuming some 75-100 million of the 253 million annually generated scrap tires in the United States. This level of TDF usage will make the cement industry the largest market segments for scrap tires in the United States. While the long-term outlook is at present positive, there are a series of factors that have, and will likely continue to adversely impact the near-term usage of TDF. These issues, as well as the factors that are likely to positively impact the cement kiln TDF market are the subject of this presentation.

  20. Recommended guidelines for solid fuel use in cement plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, G.L.; Jayaraman, H.; Tseng, H.

    2007-07-01

    Pulverized solid fuel use at cement plants in North America is universal and includes bituminous and sub-bituminous coal, petroleum coke, and any combination of these materials. Provided are guidelines for the safe use of pulverized solid fuel systems in cement plants, including discussion of the National Fire Protection Association and FM Global fire and explosion prevention standards. Addressed are fire and explosion hazards related to solid fuel use in the cement industry, fuel handling and fuel system descriptions, engineering design theory, kiln system operations, electrical equipment, instrumentation and safety interlock issues, maintenance and training, and a brief review of code issues. New technology on fire and explosion prevention including deflagration venting is also presented.

  1. Hydration of Portland cement with additions of calcium sulfoaluminates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Saout, Gwenn; Lothenbach, Barbara; Hori, Akihiro; Higuchi, Takayuki; Winnefeld, Frank

    2013-01-15

    The effect of mineral additions based on calcium aluminates on the hydration mechanism of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was investigated using isothermal calorimetry, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and pore solution analysis. Results show that the addition of a calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA) to the OPC does not affect the hydration mechanism of alite but controls the aluminate dissolution. In the second blend investigated, a rapid setting cement, the amorphous calcium aluminate reacts very fast to ettringite. The release of aluminum ions strongly retards the hydration of alite but the C-S-H has a similar composition as in OPC with no additional Al to Si substitution. As in CSA-OPC, the aluminate hydration is controlled by the availability of sulfates. The coupling of thermodynamic modeling with the kinetic equations predicts the amount of hydrates and pore solution compositions as a function of time and validates the model in these systems.

  2. Cement-aggregate compatibility and structure property relationships including modelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, H.M.; Xi, Y.

    1993-07-15

    The role of aggregate, and its interface with cement paste, is discussed with a view toward establishing models that relate structure to properties. Both short (nm) and long (mm) range structure must be considered. The short range structure of the interface depends not only on the physical distribution of the various phases, but also on moisture content and reactivity of aggregate. Changes that occur on drying, i.e. shrinkage, may alter the structure which, in turn, feeds back to alter further drying and shrinkage. The interaction is dynamic, even without further hydration of cement paste, and the dynamic characteristic must be considered in order to fully understand and model its contribution to properties. Microstructure and properties are two subjects which have been pursued somewhat separately. This review discusses both disciplines with a view toward finding common research goals in the future. Finally, comment is made on possible chemical reactions which may occur between aggregate and cement paste.

  3. A comparison of normal and worst case cement plant emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodford, J.; Gossman, D.; Johnson, N.

    1996-12-31

    Lone Star Industries, Inc. in Cape Girardeau, Missouri conducted a trial burn in October, 1995. Two metals emissions test days were conducted. One of the test days was a worst case metals spiking day and one of the test days was a normal emissions day. This paper examines and compares the emissions from these two test days. Much has been made of metals emissions from hazardous waste burning cement kilns, but for the most part, this has been due to the worst case metals emissions data that became available from the 1992 BIF compliance testing performed and reported by 24 cement plants. By comparison, very little data exists on normal cement kiln emissions. This paper provides one comparison.

  4. Degree of dispersion of latex particles in cement paste, as assessed by electrical resistivity measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, X.; Chung, D.D.L.

    1996-12-31

    The degree of dispersion of latex particles in latex-modified cement paste was assessed by measurement of the volume electrical resistivity and modeling this resistivity in terms of latex and cement phases that are partly in series and partly in parallel. The assessment was best at low values of the latex-cement ratio; it underestimated the degree of latex dispersion when the latex/cement ratio was high, especially > 0.2.

  5. Temperature influence on water transport in hardened cement pastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drouet, Emeline; Poyet, Stéphane; Torrenti, Jean-Michel

    2015-10-15

    Describing water transport in concrete is an important issue for the durability assessment of radioactive waste management reinforced concrete structures. Due to the waste thermal output such structures would be submitted to moderate temperatures (up to 80 °C). We have then studied the influence of temperature on water transport within hardened cement pastes of four different formulations. Using a simplified approach (describing only the permeation of liquid water) we characterized the properties needed to describe water transport (up to 80 °C) using dedicated experiments. For each hardened cement paste the results are presented and discussed.

  6. Lehigh Southwest Cement Company: Compressed Air System Improvement Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-10-01

    In 2001, Lehigh Southwest Cement Company improved the compressed air system at its cement plant in Tehachapi, California. Consequently, the system was able to operate more efficiently with less compressor capacity and at a lower system pressure. The project yielded total annual savings of 895,000 kWh and $199,000. The initial project cost was $417,000, but Southern California Edison provided a $90,000 incentive payment to reduce the cost to $327,000. Simple payback was about 20 months.

  7. Chromium stabilization chemistry of paint removal wastes in Portland cement and blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boy, J.H.; Race, T.D.; Reinbold, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    The use of cement based systems for solidification and stabilization of hazardous wastes has been proposed. The stabilization of Cr contaminated paint removal wastes in ordinary Portland cement and in a Portland cement and blast furnace slag matrix was investigated. A loading by volume of 75% waste and 25% cement (or cement + slag) was used. The expression of pore solution was utilized to determine the chemical environment encountered by the waste species in the cement matrix. The highly alkaline conditions of ordinary Portland cement determined the stability of the metal species, with Cr being highly soluble. The replacement of 25% of the Portland cement by blast furnace slag was found to decrease the [OH-] of the pore solution resulting in a decrease of the Cr concentration. For cement wastes forms hydrated for 28 days, the Cr concentration decreased in the expressed pore solution. During the TCLP tests the cement waste form and extraction solution were found to react, changing the chemistry of the extraction solution. The expression of pore solution was found to give a direct measure of the chemistry of the waste species in the cement matrix. This avoids the reaction of the TCLP extraction solution with the cement matrix which changes the solubility of the hazardous metals. 15 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. New pulsating casing collar to improve cementing quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, P.; He, K.; Wu, J.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the design and test results of a new pulsating casing collar which improves cementing quality. The new pulsating casing collar (PCC) is designed according to the Helmholtz oscillator to generate a pulsating jet flow by self-excitation in the cementing process. By placing this new pulsating casing collar at the bottom of casing string, the generated pulsating jet flow transmits vibrating pressure waves up through the annulus and helps remove drilling mud in the annulus. It can therefore improve cementing quality, especially when eccentric annulus exists due to casing eccentricity where the mud is difficult to remove. The new pulsating casing collar consists of a top nozzle, a resonant chamber, and a bottom nozzle. It can be manufactured easily and is easy to use in the field. It has been tested in Jianghan oil-field, P.R. China. The field-test results support the theoretical analysis and laboratory test, and the cementing quality is shown greatly improved by using the new pulsating casing collar.

  9. Experimental study of the relationship between formation factor, porosity, and cementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harig, M.D.; Chaney, R.C.

    1999-07-01

    Cemented granular soils are classified based on the size and distribution of the individual grains and qualitatively on the basis of cementation. To uniquely classify these types of soils, information about the fabric (pore geometry and/or level of cementation) of the specimen needs to be quantified. Electrical resistivity, or its reciprocal, conductivity, methods have been extensively used both in situ and in the laboratory to provide a means for determining a variety of soil index, structural, erosional, and cyclic properties. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between formation factor (F), porosity (n), and cementation factor (m) of remolded sand-cement specimens. This relationship is shown to provide a mechanism for estimating the level of cementation in undisturbed specimens. The formation factor is the ratio of the electrical resistivity of the sand-water-cement mixture to that of the interstitial water.

  10. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response in the California Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank; Faulkner, David; McKane, Aimee

    2010-12-22

    This study examines the characteristics of cement plants and their ability to shed or shift load to participate in demand response (DR). Relevant factors investigated include the various equipment and processes used to make cement, the operational limitations cement plants are subject to, and the quantities and sources of energy used in the cement-making process. Opportunities for energy efficiency improvements are also reviewed. The results suggest that cement plants are good candidates for DR participation. The cement industry consumes over 400 trillion Btu of energy annually in the United States, and consumes over 150 MW of electricity in California alone. The chemical reactions required to make cement occur only in the cement kiln, and intermediate products are routinely stored between processing stages without negative effects. Cement plants also operate continuously for months at a time between shutdowns, allowing flexibility in operational scheduling. In addition, several examples of cement plants altering their electricity consumption based on utility incentives are discussed. Further study is needed to determine the practical potential for automated demand response (Auto-DR) and to investigate the magnitude and shape of achievable sheds and shifts.

  11. Effect of large additions of Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, to cement raw meal on the composition and the properties of the clinker and the cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murat, M.; Sorrentino, F.

    1996-03-01

    The utilization of hydraulic binders to solidify and to stabilize industrial wastes and municipal garbage is presently recognized as one of the solutions to the problem of environment protection. Te addition of important quantities of Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn to raw meals of Portland and calcium aluminate cement modifies the mineralogical composition and the properties of the final cement. Portland cement can absorb a large amount of Cd and Zn. This absorption leads to an increase of setting time and a decrease of strengths of the cement. It also can trap chromium with a short setting time and high strengths. Calcium aluminate cements easily trap Cd and Cr with a delayed setting and good strength but also Pb with normal setting time and strengths. Large quantities of zinc oxide have a deleterious effect on calcium aluminate strengths.

  12. Rheology of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Cement-Based Mortar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banfill, Phillip F. G.; Starrs, Gerry; McCarter, W. John [School of the Built Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-07

    Carbon fibre reinforced cement based materials (CFRCs) offer the possibility of fabricating 'smart' electrically conductive materials. Rheology of the fresh mix is crucial to satisfactory moulding and fresh CFRC conforms to the Bingham model with slight structural breakdown. Both yield stress and plastic viscosity increase with increasing fibre length and volume concentration. Using a modified Viskomat NT, the concentration dependence of CFRC rheology up to 1.5% fibre volume is reported.

  13. Hard x-ray nanotomography of amorphous aluminosilicate cements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Provis, J. L.; Rose, V.; Winarski, R. P.; van Deventer, J. S. J.

    2011-08-01

    Nanotomographic reconstruction of a sample of low-CO{sub 2} 'geopolymer' cement provides the first three-dimensional view of the pore structure of the aluminosilicate geopolymer gel, as well as evidence for direct binding of geopolymer gel onto unreacted fly ash precursor particles. This is central to understanding and optimizing the durability of concretes made using this new class of binder, and demonstrates the value of nanotomography in providing a three-dimensional view of nanoporous inorganic materials.

  14. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Lu, Hongyou; Wang, Lan

    2009-10-01

    China's cement industry, which produced 1,388 million metric tons (Mt) of cement in 2008, accounts for almost half of the world's total cement production. Nearly 40% of China's cement production is from relatively obsolete vertical shaft kiln (VSK) cement plants, with the remainder from more modern rotary kiln cement plants, including plants equipped with new suspension pre-heater and pre-calciner (NSP) kilns. Shandong Province is the largest cement-producing Province in China, producing 10% of China's total cement output in 2008. This report documents an analysis of the potential to improve the energy efficiency of NSP kiln cement plants in Shandong Province. Sixteen NSP kiln cement plants were surveyed regarding their cement production, energy consumption, and current adoption of 34 energy-efficient technologies and measures. Plant energy use was compared to both domestic (Chinese) and international best practice using the Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for Cement (BEST-Cement). This benchmarking exercise indicated an average technical potential primary energy savings of 12% would be possible if the surveyed plants operated at domestic best practice levels in terms of energy use per ton of cement produced. Average technical potential primary energy savings of 23% would be realized if the plants operated at international best practice levels. Energy conservation supply curves for both fuel and electricity savings were then constructed for the 16 surveyed plants. Using the bottom-up electricity conservation supply curve model, the cost-effective electricity efficiency potential for the studied cement plants in 2008 is estimated to be 373 gigawatt hours (GWh), which accounts for 16% of total electricity use in the 16 surveyed cement plants in 2008. Total technical electricity-saving potential is 915 GWh, which accounts for 40% of total electricity use in the studied plants in 2008. The fuel conservation supply curve model shows the total technical fuel

  15. Corrosion of aluminium metal in OPC- and CAC-based cement matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, Hajime; Swift, Paul; Utton, Claire; Carro-Mateo, Beatriz; Collier, Nick; Milestone, Neil

    2013-08-15

    Corrosion of aluminium metal in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) based pastes produces hydrogen gas and expansive reaction products causing problems for the encapsulation of aluminium containing nuclear wastes. Although corrosion of aluminium in cements has been long known, the extent of aluminium corrosion in the cement matrices and effects of such reaction on the cement phases are not well established. The present study investigates the corrosion reaction of aluminium in OPC, OPC-blast furnace slag (BFS) and calcium aluminate cement (CAC) based systems. The total amount of aluminium able to corrode in an OPC and 4:1 BFS:OPC system was determined, and the correlation between the amount of calcium hydroxide in the system and the reaction of aluminium obtained. It was also shown that a CAC-based system could offer a potential matrix to incorporate aluminium metal with a further reduction of pH by introduction of phosphate, producing a calcium phosphate cement.

  16. Application of resistivity monitoring to evaluate cement grouting effect in earth filled dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jin-Mo; Yoon, Wang-Jung

    2015-03-10

    In this paper, we applied electrical resistivity monitoring method to evaluate the cement grouting effect. There are a lot of ways to evaluate cement grouting effect. In order to do this evaluation in a great safety, high efficiency, and lower cost, resistivity monitoring is found to be the most appropriate technique. In this paper we have selected a dam site from Korea to acquire resistivity monitoring data and compare the results of inversion to estimate the cement grouting effect.

  17. Elastic Moduli of Cemented Sphere Packs (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Elastic Moduli of Cemented Sphere Packs Citation Details In-Document ... Publication Date: 1999-07-01 OSTI Identifier: 850264 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  18. DOE Foamed-Cement Research Is Changing Industry | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Foamed-Cement Research Is Changing Industry DOE Foamed-Cement Research Is Changing Industry July 18, 2016 - 11:48am Addthis 3-D renderings (A and B) and scanning electron image of foamed cement. 3-D renderings (A and B) and scanning electron image of foamed cement. The Energy Department's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is playing a key role in updating a 25-year-old testing standard that helps ensure quality, reduce cost, decrease waste, and support safer oil and gas operations

  19. Bell Canyon Test (BCT) cement grout development report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulick, C.W. Jr.; Boa, J.A. Jr.; Buck, A.D.

    1980-12-01

    Development of the cement grout for the Bell Canyon Test was accomplished at the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES), Vicksburg, Mississippi. Initial development work centered on a saltwater grout with Class H cement, fly ash, and an expansive additive. Testing of the saltwater grout showed suitable properties except for the interface between anhydrite rock and grout in small core samples. Higher than expected permeability occurred at the interface because of space between the grout and the anhydrite; the space was produced as a result of allowing the specimens to dry. A change to freshwater grout and proper care to prevent the specimens from drying alleviated this condition. The BCT-1FF freshwater grout mixture was used in both the plug ONE and ONEX field grouting operations. Testing of the development grout mixtures was also done at Dowell, Pennsylvania State University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Results of the testing and evaluation by the four laboratories are included in the report. Field batching, mixing, and placement of the grout at the plug locations for both plug ONE and ONEX were satisfactory with adequate quality control. The freshwater grout mixture maintained adequate flow characteristics for pumpability for 3 1/2 h during each of the two field operations. Physical property and expansivity data for the field samples through 90 days' age are in general agreement with laboratory development data. A large number of samples were obtained for inclusion in the long-term durability studies and the geochemical programs. The high-density, low water-cement ratio expansive grout (BCT-1FF) is considered to be an excellent candidate for plugging boreholes at most locations (except through halite sections).

  20. New subsea wiper plugs hold down deepwater cementing costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stringer, R.; Sonnefeld, A.; Minge, J.

    1997-02-01

    British Petroleum Exploration (BPX) achieved top-quality cementing performance at significantly lower costs in a deepwater area 45 miles offshore Louisiana by using a new method of launching subsea wiper plugs. The method is based on a newly designed subsea casing wiper plug release system, which uses up to three solid wiper plugs loaded in a basket and released by individual darts launched from a surface tool. This design has eliminated the problems sometimes associated with the latching, unlatching and sealing of conventional subsea casing wiper plugs.

  1. The effect of cure conditions on the stability of cement waste forms after immersion in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siskind, B.; Adams, J.W.; Clinton, J.H.; Piciulo, P.L.; McDaniel, K.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the effects of curing conditions on the stability of cement-solidified ion-exchange resins after immersion in water. The test specimens consisted of partially depleted mixed-bed bead resins solidified in one of three vendor-supplied Portland I cement formulations, in a reference cement formulation, or in a gypsum-based binder formulation. We cured samples prepared using each formulation in sealed containers for periods of 7, 14, or 28 days as well as in air or with an accelerated heat cure prior to 90-day immersion in water. Two cement formulations exhibited apparent Portland-cement-like behavior, i.e., compressive strength increased or stabilized with increasing cure time. Two cement formulations exhibited behavior apparently unlike that of Portland cement, i.e., compressive strength decreased with increasing cure time. Such non-Portland-cement-like behavior is correlated with higher waste loadings. The gypsum-based formulation exhibited approximately constant compressive strength with cure time. Accelerated heat cures may not give compressive strengths representative of real-time cures. Some physical deterioration (cracking, spalling) of the waste form occurs during immersion.

  2. Rigless multizone recompletion using a cement packer placed with coiled tubing: A case history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowak, T.W.; Patout, T.S.

    1997-12-01

    Cement packers have been used for some time when reserve estimates have not justified the cost of major rig remedial work. They typically provide a means of zonal isolation of the last reserves in an existing wellbore. The success of these operations has historically been low. This is predominantly because of poor cement bonding in the annulus between the tubing and production casing. Because of the minimal amount of equipment on location and lack of upfront design work involved, most cement packers are doomed to failure before they are even placed. Cement packers have been placed using a large number of methods. In the Ship Shoal 181 field, Well B-4 would not economically justify a major rig workover, even though there were several uphole gas sands capable of producing in this well. With proper upfront planning and design, it would be economical; however, all these reserves could be produced in a through-tubing process using a cement packer. This case history presents a refined look at existing technology involving placement of a cement packer and reviews problems common to cement-packer completions, including a case history. Solutions are also discussed for successfully completing and recovering reserves from not one but several remaining gas intervals. This paper reviews the design considerations and precautions, along with the production results and economics, for placing what is believed to be the largest cement packer placed through coiled tubing.

  3. Study on modification of the high-strength slag cement material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Fusheng . E-mail: fusheng429@163.com; Sun Ruilian; Cui Yingjing

    2005-07-01

    The influence of the slag powder's fineness, the amounts of activator, type and contents of modification addition on the dry-shrinkage and strength of the high-strength slag cement material was investigated. The experimental data showed that adding 9% Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} activator and 10% Portland cement (PC) made the ratios of drying-shrinkage of high-strength slag cement material similar to the ratios of Portland cement and the compressive strengths as higher. The main hydration products are calcium alumina-silicate gels and a little CH; the gel ratio of CaO/SiO{sub 2} is close to 1 and includes a little Na{sub 2}O and MgO for high-strength slag cement material, as shown by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDXA)

  4. Apparatus and method for measuring the expansion properties of a cement composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spangle, Lloyd B.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed which is useful for measuring the expansion properties of semi-solid materials which expand to a solid phase, upon curing, such as cement compositions. The apparatus includes a sleeve, preferably cylindrical, which has a vertical slit on one side, to allow the sleeve to expand. Mounted on the outside of the sleeve are several sets of pins, consisting of two pins each. The two pins in each set are located on opposite sides of the slit. In the test procedure, the sleeve is filled with wet cement, which is then cured to a solid. As the cement cures it causes the sleeve to expand. The actual expansion of the sleeve represents an expansion factor for the cement. This factor is calculated by measuring the distance across the pins of each set, when the sleeve is empty, and again after the cured cement expands the sleeve.

  5. Application of 'Six Sigma{sup TM}' and 'Design of Experiment' for Cementation - Recipe Development for Evaporator Concentrate for NPP Ling AO, Phase II (China) - 12555

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fehrmann, Henning [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH (Germany); Perdue, Robert [Westinghouse Electric Company (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Cementation of radioactive waste is a common technology. The waste is mixed with cement and water and forms a stable, solid block. The physical properties like compression strength or low leach ability depends strongly on the cement recipe. Due to the fact that this waste cement mixture has to fulfill special requirements, a recipe development is necessary. The Six Sigma{sup TM}' DMAIC methodology, together with the Design of experiment (DoE) approach, was employed to optimize the process of a recipe development for cementation at the Ling Ao nuclear power plant (NPP) in China. The DMAIC offers a structured, systematical and traceable process to derive test parameters. The DoE test plans and statistical analysis is efficient regarding the amount of test runs and the benefit gain by getting a transfer function. A transfer function enables simulation which is useful to optimize the later process and being responsive to changes. The DoE method was successfully applied for developing a cementation recipe for both evaporator concentrate and resin waste in the plant. The key input parameters were determined, evaluated and the control of these parameters were included into the design. The applied Six Sigma{sup TM} tools can help to organize the thinking during the engineering process. Data are organized and clearly presented. Various variables can be limited to the most important ones. The Six Sigma{sup TM} tools help to make the thinking and decision process trace able. The tools can help to make data driven decisions (e.g. C and E Matrix). But the tools are not the only golden way. Results from scoring tools like the C and E Matrix need close review before using them. The DoE is an effective tool for generating test plans. DoE can be used with a small number of tests runs, but gives a valuable result from an engineering perspective in terms of a transfer function. The DoE prediction results, however, are only valid in the tested area. So a careful selection of input

  6. Dynamic Evolution of Cement Composition and Transport Properties under Conditions Relevant to Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunet, Jean-Patrick Leopold; Li, Li; Karpyn, Zuleima T.; Strazisar, Brian; Bromhal Grant

    2013-08-01

    Assessing the possibility of CO{sub 2} leakage is one of the major challenges for geological carbon sequestration. Injected CO{sub 2} can react with wellbore cement, which can potentially change cement composition and transport properties. In this work, we develop a reactive transport model based on experimental observations to understand and predict the property evolution of cement in direct contact with CO{sub 2}-saturated brine under diffusion-controlled conditions. The model reproduced the observed zones of portlandite depletion and calcite formation. Cement alteration is initially fast and slows down at later times. This work also quantified the role of initial cement properties, in particular the ratio of the initial portlandite content to porosity (defined here as ?), in determining the evolution of cement properties. Portlandite-rich cement with large ? values results in a localized sharp reactive diffusive front characterized by calcite precipitation, leading to significant porosity reduction, which eventually clogs the pore space and prevents further acid penetration. Severe degradation occurs at the cementbrine interface with large ? values. This alteration increases effective permeability by orders of magnitude for fluids that preferentially flow through the degraded zone. The significant porosity decrease in the calcite zone also leads to orders of magnitude decrease in effective permeability, where fluids flow through the low-permeability calcite zone. The developed reactive transport model provides a valuable tool to link cementCO{sub 2} reactions with the evolution of porosity and permeability. It can be used to quantify and predict long-term wellbore cement behavior and can facilitate the risk assessment associated with geological CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  7. Synthesis of belite cement clinker of high hydraulic reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kacimi, Larbi Simon-Masseron, Angelique Salem, Souria Ghomari, Abdelhamid Derriche, Zoubir

    2009-07-15

    This study is concerned with the increase of the cooling rate of belite clinker, by using the water quenching for the chemical stabilization of reactive belite, which improves the hydraulic properties of this clinker. The addition of adequate mineralizers, as NaF and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, contributes to the improvement of the clinker properties obtained at low burning temperature. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and optical microscopy were used to determine the chemical and mineralogical compositions of this clinker. The samples were analyzed by means of a scanning electronic microscope connected with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer to detect the composition of the belite phase and its morphology. Physical and mechanical properties of this clinker cement were determined. The results show that the belite clinker obtained at 1150 {sup o}C, with lime saturation factor 0.67, is characterized by a great hydraulic reactivity, similar to that of the ordinary alite clinker. The addition of 2% of NaF and the water quenching improved the chemical, mineralogical and structural properties, while improving the cement hydraulic properties.

  8. Leachability of decontamination reagents from cement waste forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piciulo, P.L.; Davis, M.S.; Adams, J.W.

    1984-11-26

    Brookhaven National Laboratory, in order to provide technical information needed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to evaluate the adequacy of near-surface disposal of decontamination wstes, has begun to study the leachability of organic reagents from solidified simulated decontamination wastes. Laboratory-scale cement waste forms containing EDTA, picolinic acid or simulated LOMI decontamination reagent were leach tested. Samples containing an organic reagent on either mixed bed ion-exchange resins or anion exchange resins were tested. A fixed interval leach procedure was used, as well as the standard procedure ANS 16.1. The leachability indices measured for the release of the acid from resin/cement composites are: 10.1 for EDTA on mixed bed resins; 9.1 for picolinic acid on mixed bed resins; 9.2 for picolinic acid on anion exchange resins; 8.8 for picolinic acid in forms containing simulated low oxidation metallic ion (LOMI) reagent on mixed bed resins and 8.7 for picolinic acid in forms containing simulated LOMI reagent on anion exchange resins. The leachability indices measured varied with leach time and the data indicate that the release mechanism may not be simply diffusion controlled. 5 references, 2 tables.

  9. Hydration studies of calcium sulfoaluminate cements blended with fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garca-Mat, M.; De la Torre, A.G.; Len-Reina, L.; Aranda, M.A.G.; CELLS-Alba synchrotron, Carretera BP 1413, Km. 3.3, E-08290 Cerdanyola, Barcelona ; Santacruz, I.

    2013-12-15

    The main objective of this work is to study the hydration and properties of calcium sulfoaluminate cement pastes blended with fly ash (FA) and the corresponding mortars at different hydration ages. Laboratory X-ray powder diffraction, rheological studies, thermal analysis, porosimetry and compressive strength measurements were performed. The analysis of the diffraction data by Rietveld method allowed quantifying crystalline phases and overall amorphous contents. The studied parameters were: i) FA content, 0, 15 and 30 wt.%; and ii) water addition, water-to-CSA mass ratio (w/CSA = 0.50 and 0.65), and water-to-binder mass ratio (w/b = 0.50). Finally, compressive strengths after 6 months of 0 and 15 wt.% FA [w/CSA = 0.50] mortars were similar: 73 2 and 72 3 MPa, respectively. This is justified by the filler effect of the FA as no strong evidences of reactivity of FA with CSA were observed. These results support the partial substitution of CSA cements with FA with the economic and environmental benefits.

  10. Evaluation of cement kiln laboratories testing hazardous waste derived fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, R.E.

    1998-12-31

    Cement kiln operators wishing to burn hazardous waste derived fuels in their kilns must submit applications for Resource Conservation Recovery Act permits. One component of each permit application is a site-specific Waste Analysis Plan. These Plans describe the facilities` sampling and analysis procedures for hazardous waste derived fuels prior to receipt and burn. The Environmental Protection Agency has conducted on-site evaluations of several cement kiln facilities that were under consideration for Resource Conservation Recovery Act permits. The purpose of these evaluations was to determine if the on-site sampling and laboratory operations at each facility complied with their site-specific Waste Analysis Plans. These evaluations covered sampling, laboratory, and recordkeeping procedures. Although all the evaluated facilities were generally competent, the results of those evaluations revealed opportunities for improvement at each facility. Many findings were noted for more than one facility. This paper will discuss these findings, particularly those shared by several facilities (specific facilities will not be identified). Among the findings to be discussed are the ways that oxygen bombs were scrubbed and rinsed, the analytical quality control used, Burn Tank sampling, and the analysis of pH in hazardous waste derived fuels.

  11. Table 2. Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Sandy","Coal","Kentucky Power Co",1060 9,"Riverside Generating LLC","Natural gas","Riverside Generating Co LLC",825 10,"J K Smith","Natural gas","East Kentucky Power Coop, Inc",784

  12. High energy physics at UC Riverside

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-01

    This report discusses progress made for the following two tasks: experimental high energy physics, Task A, and theoretical high energy physics, Task B. Task A1 covers hadron collider physics. Information for Task A1 includes: personnel/talks/publications; D0: proton-antiproton interactions at 2 TeV; SDC: proton-proton interactions at 40 TeV; computing facilities; equipment needs; and budget notes. The physics program of Task A2 has been the systematic study of leptons and hadrons. Information covered for Task A2 includes: personnel/talks/publications; OPAL at LEP; OPAL at LEP200; CMS at LHC; the RD5 experiment; LSND at LAMPF; and budget notes. The research activities of the Theory Group are briefly discussed and a list of completed or published papers for this period is given.

  13. Riverside Technologies Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Zip: 92131 Region: Southern CA Area Product: Uses scrap tires as the raw material in the production of SynBlack oil, gas, and steel Website: www.rtiworldwide.com Coordinates:...

  14. Riverside County, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Desert Hot Springs, California East Blythe, California East Hemet, California Glen Avon, California Hemet, California Highgrove, California Home Gardens, California Homeland,...

  15. Riverside Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    105C378.15 K 221 F 680.67 R 1 USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: 1 km 1 USGS Mean Capacity: 8 MW 1 Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and...

  16. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Riverside County | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    One of the steps toward this brighter future involves building plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging infrastructure. A grant award in 2012 resulted in seven PEV charging stations ...

  17. Carbon dioxide capture from a cement manufacturing process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blount, Gerald C.; Falta, Ronald W.; Siddall, Alvin A.

    2011-07-12

    A process of manufacturing cement clinker is provided in which a clean supply of CO.sub.2 gas may be captured. The process also involves using an open loop conversion of CaO/MgO from a calciner to capture CO.sub.2 from combustion flue gases thereby forming CaCO.sub.3/CaMg(CO.sub.3).sub.2. The CaCO.sub.3/CaMg(CO.sub.3).sub.2 is then returned to the calciner where CO.sub.2 gas is evolved. The evolved CO.sub.2 gas, along with other evolved CO.sub.2 gases from the calciner are removed from the calciner. The reactants (CaO/MgO) are feed to a high temperature calciner for control of the clinker production composition.

  18. Improved method and composition for immobilization of waste in cement-based material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallent, O.K.; Dodson, K.E.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1987-10-01

    A composition and method for fixation or immobilization of aqueous hazardous waste material in cement-based materials (grout) is disclosed. The amount of drainable water in the cured grout is reduced by the addition of an ionic aluminum compound to either the waste material or the mixture of waste material and dry-solid cement- based material. This reduction in drainable water in the cured grout obviates the need for large, expensive amounts of gelling clays in grout materials and also results in improved consistency and properties of these cement-based waste disposal materials.

  19. Testing of thermally enhanced cement ground heat exchanger grouts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kavanaugh, S.P.; Allan, M.L.

    1999-07-01

    Optimal performance of closed-loop, ground-source heat pumps (ground-coupled heat pumps) is dependent upon the thermal properties of the backfill in the annual region between the ground heat exchanger (GHEX) tubes and the outer bore wall. Equally important is the protection of groundwater aquifers from contaminants that may flow from the surface of other aquifers through poorly sealed boreholes. Conventional cement and bentonite-based grouts have relatively low thermal conductivities. Loop requirements often increase beyond the allotted budget in applications where regulatory bodies require the entire heat exchanger length to be grouted. This paper reports on the results of four mixes of thermally enhanced cementitious grouts. Four grouts were evaluated in a test stand to minimize the impact of external factors typically present in field tests. The test stand accepts up to 6 in. (15 cm) ground heat exchangers in a 10 ft (3 m) test section. Controlled testing is performed in either the cooling mode (loop above 85 F [29 C]) or heating mode (loop at 32 F [0 C]), and the temperature of the outer bore wall is held constant with a groundwater source. Results indicate cement grouts that are enhanced with low-cost additives have thermal conductivities three to four times as large as conventional high-solids bentonite grouts. This would result in reduced heat exchanger lengths compared to those grouted with bentonite. There appears to be no measurable increase in overall borehole resistance due to separation of the colder tubes from the grout in the heating mode. This discussion does not include pumpability, permeability, and material handling issues, which must be thoroughly investigated before any grout can be recommended for use.

  20. Experimental study of potential wellbore cement carbonation by various phases of carbon dioxide during geologic carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong

    2013-08-16

    Hydrated Portland cement was reacted with carbon dioxide (CO2) in supercritical, gaseous, and aqueous phases to understand the potential cement alteration processes along the length of a wellbore, extending from deep CO2 storage reservoir to the shallow subsurface during geologic carbon sequestration. The 3-D X-ray microtomography (XMT) images displayed that the cement alteration was significantly more extensive by CO2-saturated synthetic groundwater than dry or wet supercritical CO2 at high P (10 MPa)-T (50C) conditions. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analysis also exhibited a systematic Ca depletion and C enrichment in cement matrix exposed to CO2-saturated groundwater. Integrated XMT, XRD, and SEM-EDS analyses identified the formation of extensive carbonated zone filled with CaCO3(s), as well as the porous degradation front and the outermost silica-rich zone in cement after exposure to CO2-saturated groundwater. The cement alteration by CO2-saturated groundwater for 2-8 months overall decreased the porosity from 31% to 22% and the permeability by an order of magnitude. Cement alteration by dry or wet supercritical CO2 was slow and minor compared to CO2-saturated groundwater. A thin single carbonation zone was formed in cement after exposure to wet supercritical CO2 for 8 months or dry supercritical CO2 for 15 months. Extensive calcite coating was formed on the outside surface of a cement sample after exposure to wet gaseous CO2 for 1-3 months. The chemical-physical characterization of hydrated Portland cement after exposure to various phases of carbon dioxide indicates that the extent of cement carbonation can be significantly heterogeneous depending on CO2 phase present in the wellbore environment. Both experimental and geochemical modeling results suggest that wellbore cement exposure to supercritical, gaseous, and aqueous phases of CO2 during geologic carbon sequestration is unlikely to damage the wellbore

  1. Determination of Diffusion Profiles in Altered Wellbore Cement Using X-ray Computed Tomography Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Harris E.; Walsh, Stuart D. C.; DuFrane, Wyatt L.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2014-06-17

    The development of accurate, predictive models for use in determining wellbore integrity requires detailed information about the chemical and mechanical changes occurring in hardened Portland cements. X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) provides a method that can nondestructively probe these changes in three dimensions. Here, we describe a method for extracting subvoxel mineralogical and chemical information from synchrotron XRCT images by combining advanced image segmentation with geochemical models of cement alteration. The method relies on determining effective linear activity coefficients (ELAC) for the white light source to generate calibration curves that relate the image grayscales to material composition. The resulting data set supports the modeling of cement alteration by CO2-rich brine with discrete increases in calcium concentration at reaction boundaries. The results of these XRCT analyses can be used to further improve coupled geochemical and mechanical models of cement alteration in the wellbore environment.

  2. The role of calcium ions and lignosulphonate plasticiser in the hydration of cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grierson, L.H.; Knight, J.C.; Maharaj, R

    2005-04-01

    Experiments involving equilibrium dialysis, conductivity, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) have been carried out to investigate the role of calcium ions and polymeric plasticisers in cement/admixture hydration. Results from a study of lignosulphonic acid, sodium salt, acetate as a plasticiser shows that a plasticiser has dual role; one mainly as a kinetic inhibitor (poison) in cement hydration mechanism and the other as a dispersant. Evidence of a weak Ca{sup 2+} binding to lignosulphonate sulphonic moieties was found at low ionic strengths of 0.1 M using ITC. No evidence of formal Ca{sup 2+} binding to lignosulphonate sulphonic acid moieties was found using equilibrium dialysis at higher ionic strength of 1 M (ionic strengths of 0.4 M are typically found in Portland cement pore solution), as is often suggested in cement/admixture literature.

  3. Trends in characteristics of hazardous waste-derived fuel burned for energy recovery in cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, M.G.; Campbell, C.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Cement Kiln Recycling Coalition (CKRC) is a national trade association representing virtually all the U.S. cement companies involved in the use of waste-derived fuel in the cement manufacturing process as well as those companies involved in the collection, processing, managing, and marketing of such fuel. CKRC, in conjunction with the National Association of Chemical Recyclers (NACR), completed several data collection activities over the past two years to provide the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other interested parties with industry-wide trend analyses. The analyses evaluated the content of specific metals in waste fuels utilized by cement kilns, average Btu value of substitute fuels used by kilns, and provides insight into the trends of these properties. With the exception of the data collected by NACR, the study did not evaluate materials sent to hazardous waste incinerators or materials that are combusted at {open_quotes}on-site{close_quotes} facilities.

  4. Fan System Optimization Improves Production and Saves Energy at Ash Grove Cement Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-05-01

    This case study describes an optimization project implemented on a fan system at Ash Grove Cement Company, which led to annual energy and maintenance savings of $16,000 and 175,000 kilowatt-hours (kWh).

  5. New technologies address the problem areas of coiled-tubing cementing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, R.B. )

    1992-05-01

    Coiled-tubing cementing has been practiced successfully on the Alaskan North Slope for several years. This paper discusses the special problems faced when this technology was applied to offshore U.S. gulf coast operations. The innovative solutions and procedures developed to improve the economic and technical success of coiled-tubing cementing are also discussed. Comparative laboratory and computer studies, as well as field case histories, will be presented to show the economic merit of this technology.

  6. Improved coiled-tubing squeeze-cementing techniques at Prudhoe Bay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hornbrook, P.R.; Mason, C.M. )

    1991-04-01

    This paper presents major changes in coiled-tubing squeeze-cementing techniques used in the Prudhoe Bay Unit Western Operating Area (PBUWOA). Changes include introduction of a polymer diluent to replace borax contamination, increased differential pressures placed on squeeze and coil, reduced cement volumes, and incorporation of an inflow test and resqueeze procedure. These changes resulted in increased squeeze effectiveness by reducing equipment and engineering time requirements and by shortening well shut-in time after the workover.

  7. The use of Devonian oil shales in the production of portland cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, C.W.; Lamont, W.E.; Daniel, J.

    1991-12-31

    The Lafarge Corporation operates a cement plant at Alpena, Michigan in which Antrim shale, a Devonian oil shale, is used as part of the raw material mix. Using this precedent the authors examine the conditions and extent to which spent shale might be utilized in cement production. They conclude that the potential is limited in size and location but could provide substantial benefit to an oil shale operation meeting these criteria.

  8. The use of Devonian oil shales in the production of portland cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, C.W.; Lamont, W.E. ); Daniel, J. )

    1991-01-01

    The Lafarge Corporation operates a cement plant at Alpena, Michigan in which Antrim shale, a Devonian oil shale, is used as part of the raw material mix. Using this precedent the authors examine the conditions and extent to which spent shale might be utilized in cement production. They conclude that the potential is limited in size and location but could provide substantial benefit to an oil shale operation meeting these criteria.

  9. Water Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary PowerEnergy Conversion EfficiencyWater Power Water Power Tara Camacho-Lopez 2016-06-01T22:32:54+00:00 Enabling a successful water power industry. Hydropower ...

  10. New high temperature cementing materials for geothermal wells: stability and properties. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, D.M.; White, E.L.; Langton, C.A.; Grutzeck, M.W.

    1980-07-01

    Potential high-temperature cements have been formulated and evaluated in terms of their properties for geothermal well cementing. Phase formation and compatibility in two major compositional regions were investigated in the temperature region between 200 and 400/sup 0/C and pressures up to 69 MPa (10,000 psi). These were followed by an evaluation of properties of the cements formed. One area in the system Ca0-Mg0-Si0/sub 2/-H/sub 2/0 centered around the xonotlite-chrysotile join while the other area of interest centered around the anorthite composition in the system Ca0-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-SiO/sub 2/-H/sub 2/O. After numerous exploratory studies, the magnesia-containing mixtures were prepared by mixing a Class J cement with various sources of magnesia such as calcined chrysotile, or magnesium oxide. Calcium oxide and silica fine quartz powder were also added to adjust the compositions. The aluminous system cements were formulated from high-alumina cements which were mixed with various silica sources.

  11. Percutaneous Extraction of Cement Leakage After Vertebroplasty Under CT and Fluoroscopy Guidance: A New Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amoretti, Nicolas Huwart, Laurent

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: We report a new minimally invasive technique of extraction of cement leakage following percutaneous vertebroplasty in adults. Methods: Seven adult patients (five women, two men; mean age: 81 years) treated for vertebral compression fractures by percutaneous vertebroplasty had cement leakage into perivertebral soft tissues along the needle route. Immediately after vertebroplasty, the procedure of extraction was performed under computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopy guidance: a Chiba needle was first inserted using the same route as the vertebroplasty until contact was obtained with the cement fragment. This needle was then used as a guide for an 11-gauge Trocar t'am (Thiebaud, France). After needle withdrawal, a 13-gauge endoscopy clamp was inserted through the cannula to extract the cement fragments. The whole procedure was performed under local anesthesia. Results: In each patient, all cement fragments were withdrawn within 10 min, without complication. Conclusions: This report suggests that this CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous technique of extraction could reduce the rate of cement leakage-related complications.

  12. Literature survey on cements for remediation of deformed casing in geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allan, M.L.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.

    1998-12-31

    Brookhaven National Laboratory was requested to conduct a literature survey for the best available cement to use in the proposed casing patch as part of the Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO) project on remediation of deformed casings. A total of 50 wells have been identified with deformed production casing in Unocal`s portion of The Geysers geothermal field. A procedure to address the casing deformation and avoid abandonment of these wells has been developed as described in the Geysers Deformed Casing Remediation Proposal. The proposed remediation procedure involves isolation of the zone of interest with an inflatable packer, milling the deformed casing and cementing a 7 inch diameter liner to extend approximately 100 ft above and 100 ft below the milled zone. During the milling operation it is possible that the original cement and surrounding formation may slough away. In order to specify a suitable cement formulation for the casing patch it is first necessary to identify and understand the deformation mechanism/s operating in The Geysers field. Subsequently, the required cement mechanical properties to withstand further deformation of the repaired system must be defined. From this information it can be determined whether available cement formulations meet these requirements. In addition to The Geysers, other geothermal fields are at possible risk of casing deformation due to subsidence, seismic activity, lateral and vertical formation movement or other processes. Therefore, the proposed remediation procedure may have applications in other fields.

  13. Permeability of consolidated incinerator facility wastes stabilized with portland cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, B.W.

    2000-04-19

    The Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) burns low-level radioactive wastes and mixed wastes as a method of treatment and volume reduction. The CIF generates secondary waste, which consists of ash and offgas scrubber solution. Currently the ash is stabilized/solidified in the Ashcrete process. The scrubber solution (blowdown) is sent to the SRS Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) for treatment as wastewater. In the past, the scrubber solution was also stabilized/solidified in the Ashcrete process as blowcrete, and will continue to be treated this way for listed waste burns and scrubber solutions that do not meet the ETF Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The disposal plan for Ashcrete and special case blowcrete is to bury these containerized waste forms in shallow unlined trenches in E-Area. The WAC for intimately mixed, cement-based wasteforms intended for direct disposal specifies limits on compressive strength and permeability. Simulated waste and actual CIF ash and scrubber solution were mixed in the laboratory and cast into wasteforms for testing. Test results and related waste disposal consequences are given in this report.

  14. Production of cements from Illinois coal ash. Technical report, September 1, 1995--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, J.C.; Bhatty, J.I.; Mishulovich, A.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this program is to convert Illinois coal combustion residues, such as fly ash, bottom ash, and boiler slag, into novel cementitious materials for use in the construction industry. Currently only about 30% of the 5 million tons of these coal combustion residues generated in Illinois each year are utilized, mainly as aggregate. These residues are composed largely Of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, and CaO, which are also the major components of cement. The process being developed in this program will use the residues directly in the manufacture of cement products. Therefore, a much larger amount of residues can be utilized. To achieve the above objective, in the first phase (current year) samples of coal combustion residues will be blended and mixed, as needed, with a lime or cement kiln dust (CKD) to adjust the CaO composition. Six mixtures will be melted in a laboratory-scale furnace at CTL. The resulting products will then be tested for cementitious properties. Two preliminary blends have been tested. One blend used fly ash with limestone, while the other used fly ash with CKD. Each blend was melted and then quenched, and the resulting product samples were ground to a specific surface area similar to portland cement. Cementitious properties of these product samples were evaluated by compression testing of 1-inch cube specimens. The specimens were formed out of cement paste where a certain percentage of the cement paste is displaced by one of the sample products. The specimens were cured for 24 hours at 55{degrees}C and 100% relative humidity. The specimens made with the product samples obtained 84 and 89% of the strength of a pure portland cement control cube. For comparison, similar (pozzolanic) materials in standard concrete practice are required to have a compressive strength of at least 75% of that of the control.

  15. Evaluation of cement production using a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLallo, M.; Eshbach, R.

    1994-01-01

    There are several primary conclusions which can be reached and used to define research required in establishing the feasibility of using PFBC-derived materials as cement feedstock. 1. With appropriate blending almost any material containing the required cement-making materials can be utilized to manufacture cement. However, extensive blending with multiple materials or the use of ash in relatively small quantities would compromise the worth of this concept. 2. The composition of a potential feedstock must be considered not only with respect to the presence of required materials, but just as significantly, with respect to the presence and concentration of known deleterious materials. 3. The processing costs for rendering the feedstock into an acceptable composition and the energy costs associated with both processing and burning must be considered. It should be noted that the cost of energy to produce cement, expressed as a percentage of the price of the product is higher than for any other major industrial product. Energy consumption is, therefore, a major issue. 4. The need for conformance to environmental regulations has a profound effect on the cement industry since waste materials can neither be discharged to the atmosphere or be shipped to a landfill. 5. Fifth, the need for achieving uniformity in the composition of the cement is critical to controlling its quality. Unfortunately, certain materials in very small concentrations have the capability to affect the rate and extent to which the cementitious compound in portland cement are able to form. Particularly critical are variations in the ash, the sulfur content of the coal or the amount and composition of the stack dust returned to the kiln.

  16. Cementation and solidification of miscellaneous mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J.A.; Semones, G.B.

    1995-02-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site produces a variety of wastes which are amenable to micro-encapsulation in cement Portland cement is an inexpensive and readily available material for this application. The Waste Projects (WP) group at Rocky Flats evaluated cementation to determine its effectiveness in encapsulating several wastes. These included waste analytical laboratory solutions, incinerator ash, hydroxide precipitation sludge, and an acidic solution from the Delphi process (a chemical oxidation technology being evaluated as an alternative to incineration). WP prepared surrogate wastes and conducted designed experiments to optimize the cement formulation for the waste streams. These experiments used a Taguchi or factorial experimental design, interactions between the variables were also considered in the testing. Surrogate waste samples were spiked with various levels of each of six Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed metals (Cd, Cr, Ba, Pb, Ni, and Ag), cemented using the optimized formulation, and analyzed for leach resistance using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The metal spike levels chosen were based on characterization data, and also based on an estimate of the highest levels of contaminants suspected in the waste. This paper includes laboratory test results for each waste studied. These include qualitative observations as well as quantitative data from TCLP analyses and environmental cycling studies. The results from these experiments show that cement stabilization of the different wastes can produce final waste forms which meet the current RCRA Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) requirements. Formulations that resulted in LDR compliant waste forms are provided. The volume increases associated with cementation are also lower than anticipated. Future work will include verification studies with actual mixed radioactive waste as well as additional formulation development studies on other waste streams.

  17. Perovskite Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Perovskite Power 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:October 2015 past issues All Issues submit Perovskite Power A breakthrough in the production of...

  18. Water Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Power Sandia's 117-scale WEC device with being tested in the maneuvering and ... EC, News, Renewable Energy, Water Power Sandia National Laboratories Uses Its Wave Energy ...

  19. {sup 1}H NMR relaxometry as an indicator of setting and water depletion during cement hydration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Biyun; Faure, Paméla; Thiéry, Mickaël; Baroghel-Bouny, Véronique

    2013-03-15

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry has been used to detect setting and microstructure evolution during cement hydration. NMR measurements were performed since casting, during setting and until hardening (from 0 to 3 days). The mobility of water molecules was assessed by an analysis focused on the diagram of longitudinal relaxation time T{sub 1} generated by an Inversion Recovery sequence. The initial stiffening of the solid network was identified by an analysis of the relaxation rate 1/T{sub 1}. The kinetics of water depletion was investigated by using a simple one-pulse acquisition sequence. In parallel, conventional techniques (Vicat needle and temperature monitoring), as well as numerical simulations of hydration, were used to complement and validate these NMR results. Cement pastes and mortars with different water-to-cement ratios made of grey or white OPCs were tested. Furthermore, the effects of the addition of sand, super-plasticizer and silica fume on the hydration kinetics were investigated.

  20. Hydration mechanisms of ternary Portland cements containing limestone powder and fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Weerdt, K.; Haha, M. Ben; Le Saout, G.; Kjellsen, K.O.; Justnes, H.; Lothenbach, B.

    2011-03-15

    The effect of minor additions of limestone powder on the properties of fly ash blended cements was investigated in this study using isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetry (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, and pore solution analysis. The presence of limestone powder led to the formation of hemi- and monocarbonate and to a stabilisation of ettringite compared to the limestone-free cements, where a part of the ettringite converted to monosulphate. Thus, the presence of 5% of limestone led to an increase of the volume of the hydrates, as visible in the increase in chemical shrinkage, and an increase in compressive strength. This effect was amplified for the fly ash/limestone blended cements due to the additional alumina provided by the fly ash reaction.

  1. The necessity for a practical approach to address organic emissions from cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yonley, C.; Schreiber, B.; Kellerman, S.; Kellett, C.

    1998-12-31

    There is an inherent difficulty in monitoring organic emissions from hazardous waste combustion in the cement process. Data gathered by the EPA and the industry indicate that organic emissions at the main stack of cement kilns are principally from process characteristics and/or the desorption of organic constituents contained in the raw materials. Organic emissions are primarily based on the facility design and origin of the raw materials. One would generally conclude that organic emissions from fuels are essentially non-existent. To understand alternatives for monitoring organic emissions, this paper reviews some of the historical background behind the issue and reviews trends of characteristic organic emissions data. Based on this discussion and review, some approaches are presented to address organic emissions testing and monitoring when utilizing hazardous waste fuel in a cement kiln.

  2. Inorganic Corrosion-Inhibitive Pigments for High-Temperature Alkali-activated Well Casing Foam Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T.; Pyatina, T.

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluates inorganic pigments for improving carbon steel (CS) brine-corrosion protection by the sodium metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate cement/Fly Ash blend at 300°C. Calcium borosilicate (CBS) and zinc phosphate, significantly improved CS corrosion-protection by decreasing cement’s permeability for corrosive ions and inhibiting anodic corrosion. An amorphous Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O phase tightly attached to CS surface formed at 300oC in CBS-modified cement pore solution. The corrosion rate of the CS covered with this phase was nearly 4-fold lower than in the case of nonmodified cement pore solution where the major phase formed on the surface of CS was crystalline analcime.

  3. Inorganic Corrosion-Inhibitive Pigments for High-Temperature Alkali-activated Well Casing Foam Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T.; Pyatina, T.

    2014-11-14

    This study evaluates inorganic pigments for improving carbon steel (CS) brine-corrosion protection by the sodium metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate cement/Fly Ash blend at 300°C. Calcium borosilicate (CBS) and zinc phosphate, significantly improved CS corrosion-protection by decreasing cement’s permeability for corrosive ions and inhibiting anodic corrosion. An amorphous Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O phase tightly attached to CS surface formed at 300oC in CBS-modified cement pore solution. The corrosion rate of the CS covered with this phase was nearly 4-fold lower than in the case of nonmodified cement pore solution where the major phase formed on the surface of CS was crystalline analcime.

  4. Concentrating Solar Power: Power Towers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This video provides an overview of the principles, applications, and benefits of generating electricity using power towers, a concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. A brief animation explains...

  5. Individual and combined effects of chloride, sulfate, and magnesium ions on hydrated Portland-cement paste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poole, T.S.; Wakeley, L.D.; Young, C.L.

    1994-03-01

    Ground water with a high concentration of magnesium ion is known to cause deterioration to portland cement concretes. A proposed mechanism for this deterioration process published previously involves an approximate 1:1 replacement of Ca ions by Mg ions in the crystalline phases of hydrated cement. The current study was undertaken to determine which ions, among magnesium, chloride, and sulfate, cause deterioration; whether their deleterious action is individual or interdependent; and to relate this mechanism of deterioration to the outlook for a 100-yr service life of concretes used in mass placements at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Loss of Ca ion by cement pastes was found to be strongly related to the concentration of Mg ion in simulated ground-water solutions in which the paste samples were aged. This was true of both salt- containing and conventional cement pastes. No other ion in the solutions exerted a strong effect on Ca loss. Ca ion left first from calcium hydroxide in the pastes, depleting all calcium hydroxide by 60 days. Some calcium silicate hydrate remained even after 90 days in the solutions with the highest concentration of Mg ion, while the paste samples deteriorated noticeably. The results indicated a mechanism that involves dissolution of Ca phases and transport of Ca ions to the surface of the sample, followed by formation of Mg-bearing phases at this reaction surface rather than directly by substitution within the microstructure of hydrated cement. Given that calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate are the principal strength-giving phases of hydrated cement, this mechanism indicates the likelihood of significant loss of integrity of a concrete exposed to Mg-bearing ground water at the WIPP. The rate of deterioration ultimately will depend on Mg-ion concentration, the microstructure materials of the concrete exposed to that groundwater, and the availability of brine.

  6. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Mix Design Strategies Mix Component 67M Cementitious (lbyd 3 ) Cement Type II 617 Fly Ash, Class F 459 Total Powder 1076 Water (lbyd 3 ) 343 wcm 0.319 Coarse Aggregates (lbyd...

  7. ASSESSMENT OF TECHNETIUM LEACHABILITY IN CEMENT STABILIZED BASIN 43 GROUNDWATER BRINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COOKE GA; DUNCAN JB; LOCKREM LL

    2008-09-30

    This report is an initial report on the laboratory effort executed under RPP-PLAN-33338, Test Plan for the Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This report delineates preliminary data obtained under subcontract 21065, release 30, from the RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences. The report is predicated on CLS RPT-816, Draft Report: Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This document will be revised on receipt of the final RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences report, which will contain data subjected to quality control and quality assurance criteria.

  8. Policy Options for Encouraging Energy Efficiency Best Practices in Shandong Province's Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Lu, Hongyou; Sambeek, Emiel van; Yowargana, Ping; Shuang, Liu; Kejun, Jiang

    2012-07-12

    This research intends to explore possible design options for a sectoral approach in the cement sector in Shandong Province and to consider its respective advantages and disadvantages for future application. An effort has been made in this research to gather and analyze data that will provide a transparent and robust basis for development of a Business-As-Usual (BAU) scenario, maximum technology potential scenario, and ultimately a sector crediting baseline. Surveys among cement companies and discussions with stakeholders were also conducted in order to better understand the industry and local needs related to the sectoral approach.

  9. Soil stabilization and pavement recycling with self-cementing coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-01-15

    This manual provides design information for self-cementing coal fly ash as the sole stabilizing agent for a wide range of engineering applications. As in any process, the application of sound engineering practices, appropriate testing, and evaluation of fly ash quality and characteristics will lend themselves to successful projects using the guidelines in this manual. Topics discussed include: self-cementing coal fly ash characteristics; laboratory mix design; stabilization of clay soils; stabilisation of granular materials; construction considerations; high sulfate ash; environmental considerations for fly ash stabilization; design considerations; state specification/guidelines/standards; and a sample of a typical stabilization specification.

  10. CSER 00-001 Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for Cementation Operations at the PFP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOBBIN, K.D.

    2000-04-18

    Glovebox HA-20MB is located in Room 235B of the 234-5Z Building at the Plutonium Finishing Plant. This enclosure contains mixers, mixer bowls, a crusher unit, an isolated inoperable conveyor unit, plutonium residue feed cans, cemented cans, and a feedwater container. Plutonium residue, not conducive to other forms of stabilization, is prepared for storage and ultimate disposal by cementation. The feed residue material cans can have plutonium contents of only a few grams or up to 200 grams. This evaluation accommodates this wide range of container fissile concentrations.

  11. A Signal-Inducing Bone Cement for Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Spinal Surgery Based on Hydroxyapatite and Polymethylmethacrylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wichlas, Florian, E-mail: florian.wichlas@charite.de; Seebauer, Christian J.; Schilling, Rene [University Charite, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery (Germany); Rump, Jens [University Charite, Department of Radiology (Germany); Chopra, Sascha S. [University Charite, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery (Germany); Walter, Thula; Teichgraeber, Ulf K. M. [University Charite, Department of Radiology (Germany); Bail, Hermann J. [University Charite, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a signal-inducing bone cement for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided cementoplasty of the spine. This MRI cement would allow precise and controlled injection of cement into pathologic lesions of the bone. We mixed conventional polymethylmethacrylate bone cement (PMMA; 5 ml methylmethacrylate and 12 g polymethylmethacrylate) with hydroxyapatite (HA) bone substitute (2-4 ml) and a gadolinium-based contrast agent (CA; 0-60 {mu}l). The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of different CA doses was measured in an open 1.0-Tesla scanner for fast T1W Turbo-Spin-Echo (TSE) and T1W TSE pulse sequences to determine the highest signal. We simulated MRI-guided cementoplasty in cadaveric spines. Compressive strength of the cements was tested. The highest CNR was (1) 87.3 (SD 2.9) in fast T1W TSE for cements with 4 {mu}l CA/ml HA (4 ml) and (2) 60.8 (SD 2.4) in T1W TSE for cements with 1 {mu}l CA/ml HA (4 ml). MRI-guided cementoplasty in cadaveric spine was feasible. Compressive strength decreased with increasing amounts of HA from 46.7 MPa (2 ml HA) to 28.0 MPa (4 ml HA). An MRI-compatible cement based on PMMA, HA, and CA is feasible and clearly visible on MRI images. MRI-guided spinal cementoplasty using this cement would permit direct visualization of the cement, the pathologic process, and the anatomical surroundings.

  12. Recovery Act Production of Algal BioCrude Oil from Cement Plant Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Weber; Norman Whitton

    2010-09-30

    The consortium, led by Sunrise Ridge Algae Inc, completed financial, legal, siting, engineering and environmental permitting preparations for a proposed demonstration project that would capture stack gas from an operating cement plant and convert the carbon dioxide to beneficial use as a liquid crude petroleum substitute and a coal substitute, using algae grown in a closed system, then harvested and converted using catalyzed pyrolysis.

  13. Systematic approach for the design of pumpable cement-based grouts for immobilization of hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sams, T.L.; Gilliam, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    Cement-based grouts have been proven to be an economical and environmentally acceptable means of waste disposal. Costs can be reduced if the grout is pumped to the disposal site. This paper presents a systematic approach to guide the development of pumpable grouts. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Cement paste surface roughness analysis using coherence scanning interferometry and confocal microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apedo, K.L.; Munzer, C.; He, H.; Montgomery, P.; Serres, N.; Fond, C.; Feugeas, F.

    2015-02-15

    Scanning electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy have been used for several decades to better understand the microstructure of cementitious materials. Very limited work has been performed to date to study the roughness of cementitious materials by optical microscopy such as coherence scanning interferometry (CSI) and chromatic confocal sensing (CCS). The objective of this paper is to better understand how CSI can be used as a tool to analyze surface roughness and topography of cement pastes. Observations from a series of images acquired using this technique on both polished and unpolished samples are described. The results from CSI are compared with those from a STIL confocal microscopy technique (SCM). Comparison between both optical techniques demonstrates the ability of CSI to measure both polished and unpolished cement pastes. - Highlights: • Coherence scanning interferometry (CSI) was used to analyze cement paste surfaces. • The results from the CSI were compared with those from a confocal microscopy. • 3D roughness parameters were obtained using the window resizing method. • Polished and unpolished cement pastes were studied.

  15. Improved microstructure of cement-based composites through the addition of rock wool particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Wei-Ting; Cheng, An; Huang, Ran; Zou, Si-Yu

    2013-10-15

    Rock wool is an inorganic fibrous substance produced by steam blasting and cooling molten glass. As with other industrial by-products, rock wool particles can be used as cementitious materials or ultra fine fillers in cement-based composites. This study investigated the microstructure of mortar specimens produced with cement-based composites that include various forms of rock wool particles. It conducted compressive strength testing, rapid chloride penetration tests, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and scanning electronic microscopy to evaluate the macro- and micro-properties of the cement-based composites. Test results indicate that inclusion of rock wool particles in composites improved compressive strength and reduced chloride ion penetration at the age of 91 days due to the reduction of calcium hydroxide content. Microscopic analysis confirms that the use of rock wool particles contributed to the formation of a denser, more compact microstructure within the hardened paste. In addition, X-ray diffraction analysis shows few changes in formation of pozzolanic reaction products and no new hydrations are formed with incorporating rock wool particles. - Highlights: We report the microstructural characterization of cement-based composites. Different mixes produced with various rock wool particles have been tested. The influence of different mixes on macro and micro properties has been discussed. The macro properties are included compressive strength and permeability. XRD and SEM observations confirm the pozzolanic reaction in the resulting pastes.

  16. LITERATURE SURVEY ON CEMENTS FOR REMEDIATION OF DEFORMED CASING IN GEOTHERMAL WELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALLAN,M.L.; PHILIPPACOPOULOS,A.J.

    1998-11-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory was requested to conduct a literature survey for the best available cement to use in the proposed casing patch as part of the Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO) project on remediation of deformed casings. A total of 50 wells has been identified with deformed production casing in Unocal's portion of The Geysers geothermal field. Reduced internal diameter and casing doglegs result in lost production and the possible need for abandonment. The cause of the deformations is believed to be formation movement along fault planes and/or along weaker layers or interfaces between high impedance contrast media. Apparently, it is unclear whether shear or axial compression is the dominant failure mechanism. A procedure to address the casing deformation and avoid abandonment of these wells has been developed as described in the Geysers Deformed Casing Remediation Proposal. The proposed remediation procedure involves isolation of the zone of interest with an inflatable packer, milling the deformed casing and cementing a 7 inch diameter liner to extend approximately 100 ft above and 100 ft below the milled zone. During the milling operation it is possible that the original cement and surrounding formation may slough away. In order to specify a suitable cement formulation for the casing patch it is first necessary to identify and understand the deformation mechanism/s operating in The Geysers field. Subsequently, the required cement mechanical properties to withstand further deformation of the repaired system must be defined. From this information it can be determined whether available cement formulations meet these requirements. In addition to The Geysers, other geothermal fields are at possible risk of casing deformation due to subsidence, seismic activity, lateral and vertical formation movement or other processes. Therefore, the proposed remediation procedure may have applications in other fields. The literature survey focused on published

  17. Stationary Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  18. Power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Hamilton, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  19. Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Lin, Elina

    2012-04-06

    Globally, the cement industry accounts for approximately 5 percent of current anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. World cement demand and production are increasing significantly, leading to an increase in this industry's absolute energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} emission-reduction technologies and their deployment in the market will be key for the cement industry's mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report is an initial effort to compile available information on process description, energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for emerging technologies to reduce the cement industry's energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies for the cement industry that have already been commercialized, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This report consolidates available information on nineteen emerging technologies for the cement industry, with the goal of providing engineers, researchers, investors, cement companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured database of information on these technologies.

  20. Determining the slag fraction, water/binder ratio and degree of hydration in hardened cement pastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yio, M.H.N. Phelan, J.C.; Wong, H.S.; Buenfeld, N.R.

    2014-02-15

    A method for determining the original mix composition of hardened slag-blended cement-based materials based on analysis of backscattered electron images combined with loss on ignition measurements is presented. The method does not require comparison to reference standards or prior knowledge of the composition of the binders used. Therefore, it is well-suited for application to real structures. The method is also able to calculate the degrees of reaction of slag and cement. Results obtained from an experimental study involving sixty samples with a wide range of water/binder (w/b) ratios (0.30 to 0.50), slag/binder ratios (0 to 0.6) and curing ages (3 days to 1 year) show that the method is very promising. The mean absolute errors for the estimated slag, water and cement contents (kg/m{sup 3}), w/b and s/b ratios were 9.1%, 1.5%, 2.5%, 4.7% and 8.7%, respectively. 91% of the estimated w/b ratios were within 0.036 of the actual values. -- Highlights: •A new method for estimating w/b ratio and slag content in cement pastes is proposed. •The method is also able to calculate the degrees of reaction of slag and cement. •Reference standards or prior knowledge of the binder composition are not required. •The method was tested on samples with varying w/b ratios and slag content.

  1. Groundwater flow, late cementation, and petroleum accumulation the Permian Lyons Sandstone, Denver basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, M.K.; Bethke, C.M. )

    1994-02-01

    The gray diagenetic facies of the Permian Lyons Sandstone, associated with all known petroleum accumulations in the formation, formed late in the history of the Denver basin as an alteration product of the formation's red facies. The red facies that makes up most of the sandstone contains iron oxide coating, quartz overgrowths and calcite cements. The gray facies, which occurs locally in the deep basin, is distinguished by pore-filling dolomite and anhydrite cements and by a lack of iron oxide and calcite. The dolomite and anhydrite cements overlie bitumen that was deposited by migrating oil, and hence formed after oil was first generated in the basin, late in the Cretaceous or early in the Tertiary. The isotopic composition of oxygen in the dolomite ranges to such light values that the cement must have formed deep in the basin in the presence of meteoric water. The gray facies likely formed in a regime of groundwater flow resulting from Laramide uplift of the Front Range during the Tertiary. In our model, saline groundwater flowed eastward through the Pennsylvanian Fountain Formation and then upwelled along the basin axis, where is discharged into the Lyons Sandstone. The saline water mixed with more dilute groundwater in the Lyons, driving a reaction that dissolved calcite and, by a common-ion effect, precipitated dolomite and anhydrite. The facies' gray color resulted from reduction of ferric oxide in the presence of migrating oil or the Fountain brine. Underlying source beds by this time had begun to generate petroleum, which migrated by buoyancy into the Lyons. The association of the gray facies with petroleum accumulations can be explained if the Fountain brines discharged across aquitards along the same fractures that transmitted oil. As petroleum accumulated in the Lyons, the newly formed cements prevented continued migration, as is observed in shallower strata, by sealing oil into the reservoirs from which it is produced today. 77 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. WATER POWER SOLAR POWER WIND POWER

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    get curren WATER POWER SOLAR POWER WIND POWER Be part of the Clean Energy Generation! YOUR HOUSE BIOMASS ENERGY GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Clean energy can come from the sun. 2 The energy in wind can make electricity. We can make energy with moving water. Bioenergy comes from plants we can turn into fuel. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass We can use energy from the earth to heat and cool our homes. Check out these cool websites to learn more about clean energy! Energy Information Administration

  3. Solar Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Power Solar Power Project Opportunities Abound in the Region The WIPP site is receives abundant solar energy with 6-7 kWh/sq meter power production potential As the accompanying map of New Mexico shows, the WIPP site enjoys abundant year-round sunshine. With an average solar power production potential of 6-7 kWh/sq meter per day, one exciting project being studied for location at WIPP is a 30-50 MW Solar Power Tower: The American Solar Energy Society (ASES) is is a national trade

  4. Wind Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Power As the accompanying map of New Mexico shows, the best wind power generation potential near WIPP is along the Delaware Mountain ridge line of the southern Guadalupe Mountains, about 50-60 miles southwest. The numeric grid values indicate wind potential, with a range from 1 (poor) to 7 (superb). Just inside Texas in the southern Guadalupe Mountains, the Delaware Mountain Wind Power Facility in Culbertson County, Texas currently generates over 30 MW, and could be expanded to a 250 MW

  5. Water Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  6. Power LCAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drennen, Thomas

    2012-08-15

    POWER LCAT is a software tool used to compare elements of efficiency, cost, and environmental effects between different sources of energy.

  7. Power LCAT

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Drennen, Thomas

    2014-06-27

    POWER LCAT is a software tool used to compare elements of efficiency, cost, and environmental effects between different sources of energy.

  8. Use of X-ray diffraction to quantify amorphous supplementary cementitious materials in anhydrous and hydrated blended cements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snellings, R.; Salze, A.; Scrivener, K.L.

    2014-10-15

    The content of individual amorphous supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) in anhydrous and hydrated blended cements was quantified by the PONKCS [1] X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The analytical precision and accuracy of the method were assessed through comparison to a series of mixes of known phase composition and of increasing complexity. A 2σ precision smaller than 2–3 wt.% and an accuracy better than 2 wt.% were achieved for SCMs in mixes with quartz, anhydrous Portland cement, and hydrated Portland cement. The extent of reaction of SCMs in hydrating binders measured by XRD was 1) internally consistent as confirmed through the standard addition method and 2) showed a linear correlation to the cumulative heat release as measured independently by isothermal conduction calorimetry. The advantages, limitations and applicability of the method are discussed with reference to existing methods that measure the degree of reaction of SCMs in blended cements.

  9. Assessing the effect of cement-steel interface on well casing corrosion in aqueous CO2 environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jiabin; Carey, James W; Zhang, Jinsuo

    2010-01-01

    CO{sub 2} leakage is a critical safety concern for geologic storage. In wellbore environments, important leakage paths include the rock-cement and cement-casing interfaces. If the cement-casing interface is filled with escaping CO{sub 2}, the well casing directly contacts the CO{sub 2}. This can cause severe corrosion in the presence of water. This paper studies the effect of steel-cement interface gaps, ranging from 1 mm to 0 um, on casing corrosion. Corrosion kinetics were measured employing electrochemical techniques including linear polarization resistance, open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the corrosion of steel is not significant where the gap between steel and cement is small ({le} 100 {micro}m). Corrosion rates are controlled by the diffusion of corrosive species (H{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and H{sup +}) along the interface. In contrast, steel corrosion is severe in a broad gap where the corrosion process is limited only by the reaction kinetics of steel and corrosive species. The threshold leading to severe corrosion in terms of the cement-steel interface size (100 {micro}m) was determined. Our research clarifies a corrosion scenario at the cement-steel interface. Casing steel corrosion is initiated when attacked by corrosive species at the cement-steel interface. For relatively tight interfaces, this results in a slow thinning of the casing and expansion of the interface width. If the gap increases beyond the critical threshold size, the corrosion rate increases significantly, and a potentially damaging cycle of corrosion and interface expansion is developed.

  10. A literature review of mixed waste components: Sensitivities and effects upon solidification/stabilization in cement-based matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattus, C.H.; Gilliam, T.M.

    1994-03-01

    The US DOE Oak Ridge Field Office has signed a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) regarding Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) mixed wastes subject to the land disposal restriction (LDR) provisions of the Resource conservation and Recovery Act. The LDR FFCA establishes an aggressive schedule for conducting treatability studies and developing treatment methods for those ORR mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes listed in Appendix B to the Agreement. A development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation program has been initiated to provide those efforts necessary to identify treatment methods for all of the wastes that meet Appendix B criteria. The program has assembled project teams to address treatment development needs in a variety of areas, including that of final waste forms (i.e., stabilization/solidification processes). A literature research has been performed, with the objective of determining waste characterization needs to support cement-based waste-form development. The goal was to determine which waste species are problematic in terms of consistent production of an acceptable cement-based waste form and at what concentrations these species become intolerable. The report discusses the following: hydration mechanisms of Portland cement; mechanisms of retardation and acceleration of cement set-factors affecting the durability of waste forms; regulatory limits as they apply to mixed wastes; review of inorganic species that interfere with the development of cement-based waste forms; review of radioactive species that can be immobilized in cement-based waste forms; and review of organic species that may interfere with various waste-form properties.

  11. Nano-chemo-mechanical signature of conventional oil-well cement systems: Effects of elevated temperature and curing time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krakowiak, Konrad J.; Thomas, Jeffrey J.; Musso, Simone; James, Simon; Akono, Ange-Therese; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2015-01-15

    With ever more challenging (T,p) environments for cementing applications in oil and gas wells, there is a need to identify the fundamental mechanisms of fracture resistant oil well cements. We report results from a multi-technique investigation of behavior and properties of API class G cement and silica-enriched cement systems subjected to hydrothermal curing from 30 °C to 200 °C; including electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry analysis, electron microscopy, neutron scattering (SANS), and fracture scratch testing. The results provide a new insight into the link between system chemistry, micro-texture and micro-fracture toughness. We suggest that the strong correlation found between chemically modulated specific surface and fracture resistance can explain the drop in fracture properties of neat oil-well cements at elevated temperatures; the fracture property enhancement in silica-rich cement systems, between 110° and 175 °C; and the drop in fracture properties of such systems through prolonged curing over 1 year at 200 °C.

  12. Research on the chemical mechanism in the polyacrylate latex modified cement system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Min; Wang, Rumin; Zheng, Shuirong; Farhan, Shameel; Yao, Hao; Jiang, Hao

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, the chemical mechanism in the polyacrylate latex modified cement system was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and compact pH meter. All results have shown that the chemical reactions in the polyacrylate modified system can be divided into three stages. The hydration reactions of cement can produce large amounts of Ca(OH){sub 2} (calcium hydroxide) and lead the whole system to be alkali-rich and exothermic at the first stage. Subsequently, this environment can do great contributions to the hydrolysis of ester groups in the polyacrylate chains, resulting in the formation of carboxyl groups at the second stage. At the third stage, the final crosslinked network structure of the product was obtained by the reaction between the carboxyl groups in the polyacrylate latex chains and Ca(OH){sub 2}.

  13. Plant-Wide Energy Efficiency Assessment at the Arizona Portland Cement Plant in Rillito, Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen J. Coppinger, P.E.; Bruce Colburn, Ph.D., P.E., CEM

    2007-05-17

    A Department of Energy Plant-wide Assessment was undertaken by Arizona Portland Cement (APC) beginning in May 2005. The assessment was performed at APC’s cement production facility in Rillito, Arizona. The assessment included a compressed air evaluation along with a detailed process audit of plant operations and equipment. The purpose of this Energy Survey was to identify a series of energy cost savings opportunities at the Plant, and provide preliminary cost and savings estimates for the work. The assessment was successful in identifying projects that could provide annual savings of over $2.7 million at an estimated capital cost of $4.3 million. If implemented, these projects could amount to a savings of over 4.9 million kWh/yr and 384,420 MMBtu/year.

  14. Pore size distribution, strength, and microstructure of portland cement paste containing metal hydroxide waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majid, Z.A.; Mahmud, H.; Shaaban, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    Stabilization/solidification of hazardous wastes is used to convert hazardous metal hydroxide waste sludge into a solid mass with better handling properties. This study investigated the pore size development of ordinary portland cement pastes containing metal hydroxide waste sludge and rice husk ash using mercury intrusion porosimetry. The effects of acre and the addition of rice husk ash on pore size development and strength were studied. It was found that the pore structures of mixes changed significantly with curing acre. The pore size shifted from 1,204 to 324 {angstrom} for 3-day old cement paste, and from 956 to 263 {angstrom} for a 7-day old sample. A reduction in pore size distribution for different curing ages was also observed in the other mixtures. From this limited study, no conclusion could be made as to any correlation between strength development and porosity. 10 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  16. Incorporation of trace elements in Portland cement clinker: Thresholds limits for Cu, Ni, Sn or Zn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gineys, N.; Aouad, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Damidot, D.

    2011-11-15

    This paper aims at defining precisely, the threshold limits for several trace elements (Cu, Ni, Sn or Zn) which correspond to the maximum amount that could be incorporated into a standard clinker whilst reaching the limit of solid solution of its four major phases (C{sub 3}S, C{sub 2}S, C{sub 3}A and C{sub 4}AF). These threshold limits were investigated through laboratory synthesised clinkers that were mainly studied by X-ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The reference clinker was close to a typical Portland clinker (65% C{sub 3}S, 18% C{sub 2}S, 8% C{sub 3}A and 8% C{sub 4}AF). The threshold limits for Cu, Ni, Zn and Sn are quite high with respect to the current contents in clinker and were respectively equal to 0.35, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 wt.%. It appeared that beyond the defined threshold limits, trace elements had different behaviours. Ni was associated with Mg as a magnesium nickel oxide (MgNiO{sub 2}) and Sn reacted with lime to form a calcium stannate (Ca{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}). Cu changed the crystallisation process and affected therefore the formation of C{sub 3}S. Indeed a high content of Cu in clinker led to the decomposition of C{sub 3}S into C{sub 2}S and of free lime. Zn, in turn, affected the formation of C{sub 3}A. Ca{sub 6}Zn{sub 3}Al{sub 4}O{sub 15} was formed whilst a tremendous reduction of C{sub 3}A content was identified. The reactivity of cements made with the clinkers at the threshold limits was followed by calorimetry and compressive strength measurements on cement paste. The results revealed that the doped cements were at least as reactive as the reference cement.

  17. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-003-2012_Cementing Research Needs_20121207.docx

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Assessment of Research Needs Related to Improving Primary Cement Isolation of Formations in Deep Offshore Wells 7 December 2012 Office of Fossil Energy NETL-TRS-3-2012 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or

  18. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-2-2013_Foamed Cement_20140124.docx

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Computed Tomography and Statistical Analysis of Bubble Size Distributions in Atmospheric-Generated Foamed Cement 9 August 2013 Office of Fossil Energy NETL-TRS-2-2013 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or

  19. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-2-2014_Addendum 1 to Foamed Cement_20140623.docx

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Addendum 1 to Computed Tomography and Statistical Analysis of Bubble Size Distributions in Atmospheric-Generated Foamed Cement 6 March 2014 Office of Fossil Energy NETL-TRS-2-2014 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy,

  20. Defense waste salt disposal at the Savannah River Plant. [Cement-based waste form, saltstone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C A; Dukes, M D

    1984-01-01

    A cement-based waste form, saltstone, has been designed for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste. The disposal process includes emplacing the saltstone in engineered trenches above the water table but below grade at SRP. Design of the waste form and disposal system limits the concentration of salts and radionuclides in the groundwater so that EPA drinking water standards will not be exceeded at the perimeter of the disposal site. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  1. Influence of reservoir stress path on deformation and permeability of weakly cemented sandstone reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruistuen, H.; Teufel, L.W.; Rhett, D.

    1996-12-31

    The influence of production-induced changes in reservoir stress state on compressibility and permeability of weakly cemented sandstones has been analyzed. Laboratory experiments simulating reservoir depletion have been conducted for the full range of stress paths that a reservoir may follow. Samples were loaded by reducing the pore pressure and controlling the confining pressure according to the desired stress path from initial reservoir conditions. The results show that compressibility of weakly cemented sandstones are stress path dependent. Compressibilities measured under uniaxial strain conditions, or a stress path with a K value lower than the one associated with uniaxial strain, are more than twice the corresponding value found under hydrostatic loading conditions. In contrast, matrix permeability measured in the maximum stress direction show no significant stress path dependence. Independently of stress path, the observed permeability reductions fall within the general trend expected for a sedimentary rock of relatively high initial permeability. A significant permeability decrease was only observed as the shear stress exceeded the yield limit of the rock, probably due to both mobilization of fine arains and an increase in tortuosity due to collapse of pore space. Results of this study suggest that stress path dependent properties of weakly cemented sandstones is a consequence of the heterogeneous nature of the sedimentary rock. Material properties are affected by grain-scale inelastic deformation processes and the pattern of these deformation processes is primarily controlled by reservoir stress path.

  2. Comparison of composition and texture of calcite-cemented concretions and host sandstones, northern Apennines, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cibin, U. . Dept. de Scienze Geologiche); Cavazza, W. . Dept de Scienze Mineralogiche); Fontana, D. . Inst. di Geologia); Milliken, K.L.; McBride, E.F. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-09-01

    Compositional and textural characteristics of 13 calcite-cemented concretions are compared with those in adjacent but essentially uncemented host sandstones to test the belief that concretions better preserve original detrital compositions than do host rocks. Sandstones sampled are from five upper Eocene to Pliocene clastic units deposited in a piggy-back setting and from one Miocene unit in the foreland basin of the northern Apennines. The authors' data indicate that calcite-cemented concretions do not necessarily preserve unstable grains more readily than host sandstones, especially if cementation occurs late in the burial history of the sandstones. In the examined formations the main factors controlling the capability of concretions to preserve unstable framework grains seem to be (1) the types of unstable grains, (2) their susceptibility to dissolution by interstitial fluids or replacement by calcite, (3) burial depth and temperature during and after concretion development, and (4) time. Correct provenance reconstructions of sandstone units containing concretions must be preceded by assessment of any diagenetic alteration affecting the framework grains of both concretions and host rocks.

  3. Influence of the composition of cement kiln dust on its interaction with fly ash and slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaunsali, Piyush; Peethamparan, Sulapha

    2013-12-15

    Cement kiln dust (CKD), a by-product of the cement industry, contains significant amounts of alkali, free lime, chloride and sulfate. Wide variation reported in the chemical composition of CKDs limits their potential application as a sustainable binder component in concrete. In the current study, the performance of two different CKDs as components in a novel binder is evaluated. Several binders are developed by blending CKDs with fly ash or slag. Binders with 70% CKD were prepared at a water-to-binder ratio of 0.4, and heat-cured at 75 °C to accelerate the strength development. The hydration progress was monitored using X-ray diffraction, and morphological examination was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Ettringite and calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C-A-S-H) were identified as the main hydration products in the hardened binder system. Strength development of CKD-based binder was found to be significantly influenced by its free lime and sulfate contents. -- Highlights: •Interaction of cement kiln dust with fly ash and slag was explored. •CKD with higher free lime and sulfate content increased the strength of binder. •C-S-H like reaction gel with fibrillar morphology is observed in CKD-based binders.

  4. Time-variability of NO{sub x} emissions from Portland cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, L.J. Jr.; May, M.S. III [PSM International, Dallas, TX (United States)] [PSM International, Dallas, TX (United States); Johnson, D.E. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Statistics] [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Statistics; MacMann, R.S. [Penta Engineering, St. Louis, MO (United States)] [Penta Engineering, St. Louis, MO (United States); Woodward, W.A. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Statistics] [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Statistics

    1999-03-01

    Due to the presence of autocorrelation between sequentially measured nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) concentrations in stack gas from portland cement kilns, the determination of the average emission rates and the uncertainty of the average has been improperly calculated by the industry and regulatory agencies. Documentation of permit compliance, establishment of permit levels, and the development and testing of control techniques for reducing NO{sub x} emissions at specific cement plants requires accurate and precise statistical estimates of parameters such as means, standard deviations, and variances. Usual statistical formulas such as for the variance of the sample mean only apply if sequential measurements of NO{sub x} emissions are independent. Significant autocorrelation of NO{sub x} emission measurements revealed that NO{sub x} concentration values measured by continuous emission monitors are not independent but can be represented by an autoregressive, moving average time series. Three orders of time-variability of NO{sub x} emission rates were determined from examination of continuous emission measurements from several cement kilns.

  5. New coiled-tubing cementing techniques at Prudhoe developed to withstand higher differential pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krause, R.E.; Reem, D.C. )

    1993-11-01

    The successful hydraulic fracturing program at Prudhoe Bay would not have been possible without an effective coiled-tubing-unit (CTU) cement-squeeze program. Many fracture stimulation candidates were wells that have been squeezed previously. Therefore, squeezed perforations were exposed to higher differential pressures during fracturing operations than normally were seen at Prudhoe. At the outset of the fracture stimulation program in 1990, squeeze perforations failed when subjected to fracture job pressures. It quickly became clear that more aggressive CTU squeeze techniques resulting in stronger squeezed perforations would be necessary if the Prudhoe fracture program were to achieve its goals. Arco Alaska Inc. implemented a more aggressive CTU squeeze program in the Eastern Operating Area (EOA) in mid-1990. This paper documents the results of the new squeeze program, in which increased surface coiled-tubing squeeze pressures from 1,500 to 3,500 psi for 1 hour were used. More resilient, acid-resistant latex cement also became the standard in late 1990 for squeeze cementing. Implementation of this program has resulted in a squeeze success rate approaching 90%.

  6. Cement waste-form development for ion-exchange resins at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veazey, G.W.; Ames, R.L.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the development of a cement waste form to stabilize ion-exchange resins at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). These resins have an elevated potential for ignition due to inadequate wetness and contact with nitrates. The work focused on the preparation and performance evaluation of several Portland cement/resin formulations. The performance standards were chosen to address Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and Environmental Protection Agency Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements, compatibility with Rocky Flats equipment, and throughput efficiency. The work was performed with surrogate gel-type Dowex cation- and anion-exchange resins chosen to be representative of the resin inventory at RFETS. Work was initiated with nonactinide resins to establish formulation ranges that would meet performance standards. Results were then verified and refined with actinide-containing resins. The final recommended formulation that passed all performance standards was determined to be a cement/water/resin (C/W/R) wt % ratio of 63/27/10 at a pH of 9 to 12. The recommendations include the acceptable compositional ranges for each component of the C/W/R ratio. Also included in this report are a recommended procedure, an equipment list, and observations/suggestions for implementation at RFETS. In addition, information is included that explains why denitration of the resin is unnecessary for stabilizing its ignitability potential.

  7. Re-use of drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) sludge: Characterization and technological behaviour of cement mortars with atomized sludge additions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Husillos Rodriguez, N.; Martinez Ramirez, S.; Blanco Varela, M.T.; Guillem, M.; Puig, J.; Larrotcha, E.; Flores, J.

    2010-05-15

    This paper aims to characterize spray-dried DWTP sludge and evaluate its possible use as an addition for the cement industry. It describes the physical, chemical and micro-structural characterization of the sludge as well as the effect of its addition to Portland cements on the hydration, water demand, setting and mechanical strength of standardized mortars. Spray drying DWTP sludge generates a readily handled powdery material whose particle size is similar to those of Portland cement. The atomized sludge contains 12-14% organic matter (mainly fatty acids), while its main mineral constituents are muscovite, quartz, calcite, dolomite and seraphinite (or clinoclor). Its amorphous material content is 35%. The mortars were made with type CEM I Portland cement mixed with 10 to 30% atomized sludge exhibited lower mechanical strength than the control cement and a decline in slump. Setting was also altered in the blended cements with respect to the control.

  8. Production of cements from Illinois coal ash. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, J.C.; Bhatty, J.L.; Mishulovich, A.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this program is to convert Illinois coal combustion residues, such as fly ash, bottom ash, and boiler slag, into novel cementitious materials for use in the construction industry. These residues are composed largely of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, and CaO, which are also the major components of cement. Since the residues are used as an integral component of the cement and not just as additives to concrete, larger amounts of the residues can be utilized. The process uses submerged combustion to melt blends of coal combustion residues with lime, clay, and/or sand. The submerged combustion melter utilizes natural gas-oxidant firing directly into a molten bath to provide efficient melting of mineral-like materials. Use of this melter for cement production has many advantages over rotary kilns including very little, if any, grinding of the feed material, very low emissions, and compact size. During the first year of the program, samples of coal combustion residues were blended and mixed, as needed; with lime, clay, and/or sand to adjust the composition. Six mixtures, three with fly ash and three with bottom ash, were melted in a laboratory-scale furnace. The resultant products were used in mortar cubes and bars which were subjected to ASTM standard tests of cementitious properties. In the hydraulic activity test, mortar cubes were found to have a strength comparable to standard mortar cements. In the compressive strength test, mortar cubes were found to have strengths that exceeded ASTM blended cement performance specifications. In the ASR expansion test, mortar bars were subjected to alkali-silica reaction-induced expansion, which is a problem for siliceous aggregate-based concretes that are exposed to moisture. The mortar bars made with the products inhibited 85 to 97% of this expansion. These results show that residue-based products have an excellent potential as ASR-preventing additions in concretes.

  9. solar power

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    9%2A en Solar power purchase for DOE laboratories http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasessolarpower

  10. Water Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ...016-03-01T17:12:00+00:00 March 1st, 2016|News, News & Events, Water Power, Workshops|0 Comments Read More Wave energy distribution example Permalink Gallery Sandia releases 2nd ...

  11. Process Flow Chart for Immobilizing of Radioactive High Concentration Sodium Hydroxide Product from the Sodium Processing Facility at the BN-350 Nuclear power plant in Aktau, Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkitbayev, M.; Omarova, K.; Tolebayev, T.; Galkin, A.; Bachilova, N.; Blynskiy, A.; Maev, V.; Wells, D.; Herrick, A.; Michelbacher, J.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the results of a joint research investigations carried out by the group of Kazakhstan, British and American specialists in development of a new material for immobilization of radioactive 35% sodium hydroxide solutions from the sodium coolant processing facility of the BN-350 nuclear power plant. The resulting solid matrix product, termed geo-cement stone, is capable of isolating long lived radionuclides from the environment. The physico-mechanical properties of geo-cement stone have been investigated and the flow chart for its production verified in a full scale experiments. (author)

  12. Power combiner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Mobius; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2006-09-05

    A power combiner for the combining of symmetric and asymmetric traveling wave energy comprises a feed waveguide having an input port and a launching port, a reflector for reflecting launched wave energy, and a final waveguide for the collection and transport of launched wave energy. The power combiner has a launching port for symmetrical waves which comprises a cylindrical section coaxial to the feed waveguide, and a launching port for asymmetric waves which comprises a sawtooth rotated about a central axis.

  13. Power inverters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David H.; Korich, Mark D.; Smith, Gregory S.

    2011-11-15

    Power inverters include a frame and a power module. The frame has a sidewall including an opening and defining a fluid passageway. The power module is coupled to the frame over the opening and includes a substrate, die, and an encasement. The substrate includes a first side, a second side, a center, an outer periphery, and an outer edge, and the first side of the substrate comprises a first outer layer including a metal material. The die are positioned in the substrate center and are coupled to the substrate first side. The encasement is molded over the outer periphery on the substrate first side, the substrate second side, and the substrate outer edge and around the die. The encasement, coupled to the substrate, forms a seal with the metal material. The second side of the substrate is positioned to directly contact a fluid flowing through the fluid passageway.

  14. Cleco Power- Power Miser New Home Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Louisiana's Cleco Power offers energy efficiency incentives to eligible customers. Cleco Power offers a rate discount for residential customers building homes that meet the Power Miser Program...

  15. Fusion Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Power www.pppl.gov FACT SHEET FUSION POWER Check us out on YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/ppplab Find us on Facebook. http://www.facebook.com/PPPLab Follow us on Twitter. @PPPLab Access our RSS feed @PPPLab Deuterium Electron Proton Hydrogen Tritium Neutron For centuries, the way in which the sun and stars produce their energy remained a mystery to man. During the twentieth century, scientists discovered that they produce their energy by the fusion process. E=mc 2 , Albert Einstein's familiar

  16. Effect of MgO Additive on Volumetric Expansion of Self-Degradable Cements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Warren, J.; Butcher, T.

    2011-09-30

    We identified hard-burned magnesium oxide (MgO) as a suitable expansive additive for improving the plugging performance of self-degradable, temporary sodium silicate-activated slag/Class C fly ash (SSASC) blend cement sealers into rock fractures in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGSs). MgO extended the volumetric expansion of sealers during their exposure to a hydrothermal environment at 200 C under pressures, ranging from 300 to 1500 psi. A great expansion ratc of 19.3% was observed by adding 3.0 wt% MgO under 300 psi pressure, thus promising to plug thoroughly inner fracture. When the pressure was increased from 300 psi to 1500 psi, the expansion rate of cement markedly reduced, corresponding to the formaLion of crack-free specimens and the improvement of compressive strength. However, with 3.0 wt% MgO, the specimens still engendered the generation of numerous visual cracks, although they were prepared under a high pressure of 1500 psi. The effective content of MgO in minimizing and eliminating the generation of cracks was 2.0 wt%, which provided a moderate expansion of {ge} 0.5%. The compressive strength of 2.0 wt% MgO specimens made under a pressure of 300 psi rose {approx} 1.7-fold to 4816 psi with an increasing pressure to 1500 psi. The in-situ growth of brucite crystal formed by the hydrothermal hydration of MgO was responsive for such an expansion of the SSASC cement; meanwhile. two crystalline hydrothermal reaction products, 1.1 nm tobermorite and calcium silicate hydrated, contributed to the development of the sealer's compressive strength. Thus, the increasing pressure seems to suppress and control a growth rate of brucite crystal in response to a lower extension of expansion. Furthermore, all MgO-conlaining SSASC sealers possessed the water-catalyzed self-degradable properties.

  17. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Liu, Z.; Guan, D.; Wei, W.; Davis, S.; Ciais, P.; Bai, J; Peng, S.; Zhang, Q.; Hubacek, K.; Marland, Gregg; et al

    2015-08-19

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption andmore » clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000–2012 than the value reported by China’s national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China’s cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China’s cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China’s emissions in 2000–2013 may be larger than China’s estimated total forest sink in 1990–2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China’s land carbon sink in 2000–2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).« less

  18. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Z.; Guan, D.; Wei, W.; Davis, S.; Ciais, P.; Bai, J; Peng, S.; Zhang, Q.; Hubacek, K.; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert Joseph; Crawford-Brown, D.; Lin, J.; Zhao, H.; Hong, C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Feng, K.; Peters, Glen P.; Xi, F.; Liu, J.; Li, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zeng, Ning; He, K.

    2015-08-19

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000–2012 than the value reported by China’s national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China’s cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China’s cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China’s emissions in 2000–2013 may be larger than China’s estimated total forest sink in 1990–2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China’s land carbon sink in 2000–2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).

  19. Compilation of RCRA closure plan conditions applicable to boilers and industrial furnaces at cement plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond, A.N.

    1998-12-31

    A prudent approach to closure plan development will assist preparers of closure plans to ensure that a cement kiln BIF unit and associated Resources conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) units are effectively closed in a manner that minimizes potential threats to human health and the environment, as well as facilitating closure in an economical and timely manner. Cement kilns burning hazardous waste-derived-fuel (HWDF) must comply with the general facility standards of Subpart G Closure and Post-Closure requirements of 40 CFR parts 264 or 265 in addition to the RCRA Part b permitting requirements of 40 CFR parts 270.13 and 270.22 (e) and (f). As a result, approved closure plans for BIF facilities (or individual BIF units) will contain general and site-specific permit conditions that will mandate numerous closure activities be conducted to successfully implement the partial or final closure of a permitted or interim status BIF unit or facility. Currently, a scarce amount of published information is available to the cement industry in the form of agency guidance documents that would assist facilities with BIF unit closures. A review of seven approved or implemented closure plans revealed significant differences between plans approved recently versus a few years ago as well as observed differences in acceptable closure criteria between EPA regions and various states agencies. The intent of this paper is to first familiarize readers with general closure plan requirements, followed by a detailed discussion of closure requirements that are pertinent to BIF unit facilities. Comparisons are presented to provide an overview of typical components of BIF unit closure plans.

  20. Star Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  1. Star Power

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-11-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  2. Sulfur polymer cement as a low-level waste glass matrix encapsulant. Part 1: Thermal processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sliva, P.; Peng, Y.B.; Bunnell, L.R.; Peeler, D.K.; Feng, X.; Martin, P.; Turner, P.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a candidate material to encapsulate low-level waste (LLW) glass. Molten SPC will be poured into a LLW glass cullet-filled canister, surrounding the glass to act as an additional barrier to groundwater intrusion. This paper covers the first part of a study performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory concerned with the fundamental aspects of embedding LLW glass in SPC. Part one is a study of the SPC itself. Variations in SPC properties are discussed, especially in relation to long-term stability and controlling crystallization in a cooling canister.

  3. Radiolytic gas generation from cement-based waste hosts for DOE low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dole, L.R.; Friedman, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    Using cement-based immobilization binders with simulated radioactive waste containing sulfate, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, and fluoride anions, the gamma- and alpha-radiolytic gas generation factors (G/sub t/, molecules/100 eV) and gas compositions were measured on specimens of cured grouts. These tests studied the effects of; (1) waste composition; (2) the sample surface-to-volume ratio; (3) the waste slurry particle size; and (4) the water content of the waste host formula. The radiolysis test vessels were designed to minimize the ''dead'' volume and to simulate the configuration of waste packages.

  4. Controlling the set of carbon-fiber embedded cement with electric current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattus, Alfred J.

    2004-06-15

    A method for promoting cement or concrete set on demand for concrete that has been chemically retarded by adding carbon fiber to the concrete, which enables it to become electrically conductive, sodium tartrate retardant, and copper sulfate which forms a copper tartrate complex in alkaline concrete mixes. Using electricity, the concrete mix anodically converts the retarding tartrate to an insoluble polyester polymer. The carbon fibers act as a continuous anode surface with a counter electrode wire embedded in the mix. Upon energizing, the retarding effect of tartrate is defeated by formation of the polyester polymer through condensation esterification thereby allowing the normal set to proceed unimpeded.

  5. Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laili, Zalina; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Wahab, Mohd Abdul

    2015-04-29

    Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material i.e. biochar is described in this paper. Different percentage of biochar (0%, 5%, 8%, 11%, 14% and 18%) was investigated in this study. The characteristics such as compressive strength and leaching behavior were examined in order to evaluate the performance of solidified radioactive waste resins. The results showed that the amount of biochar affect the compressive strength of the solidified resins. Based on the data obtained for the leaching experiments performed, only one formulation showed the leached of Cs-134 from the solidified radioactive waste resins.

  6. Phased-Resolved Strain Measuremetns in Hydrated Ordinary Portland Cement Using Synchrotron x-Rays (Prop. 2003-033)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BIernacki, Joseph J.; Watkins, Thomas R; Parnham, C. J.; Hubbard, Camden R; Bai, J.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray diffraction methods developed for the determination of residual stress states in crystalline materials have been applied to study residual strains and strains because of mechanical loading of ordinary portland cement paste. Synchrotron X-rays were used to make in situ measurements of interplanar spacings in the calcium hydroxide (CH) phase of hydrated neat portland cement under uniaxial compression. The results indicate that strains on the order of 1/100 000 can be resolved providing an essentially new technique by which to measure the phase-resolved meso-scale mechanical behavior of cement under different loading conditions. Evaluation of these strain data in view of published elastic parameters for CH suggests that the CH carries a large fraction of the applied stress and that plastic interactions with the matrix are notable.

  7. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Cement Industry in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, William; Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant; Xu, Tengfang

    2012-06-15

    China’s annual cement production (i.e., 1,868 Mt) in 2010 accounted for nearly half of the world’s annual cement production in the same year. We identified and analyzed 23 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the cement industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model, the cumulative cost-effective electricity savings potential for the Chinese cement industry for 2010-2030 is estimated to be 251 TWh, and the total technical electricity saving potential is 279 TWh. The CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 144 Mt CO2 and the CO2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 161 Mt CO2. The fuel CSC model for the cement industry suggests cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 4,326 PJ which is equivalent to the total technical potential with associated CO2 emission reductions of 406 Mt CO2. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. We also developed a scenario in which instead of only implementing the international technologies in 2010-2030, we implement both international and Chinese domestic technologies during the analysis period and calculate the saving and cost of conserved energy accordingly. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Chinese cement industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost.

  8. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity seems to have stabilized with the gains. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Most recently, there is a slight increase in the use of waste fuels, including tires. Between 1970 and 1999, primary physical energy intensity for cement production dropped 1 percent/year from 7.3 MBtu/short ton to 5.3 MBtu/short ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and raw material calcination dropped 16 percent, from 609 lb. C/ton of cement (0.31 tC/tonne) to 510 lb. C/ton cement (0.26 tC/tonne). Despite the historic progress, there is ample room for energy efficiency improvement. The relatively high share of wet-process plants (25 percent of clinker production in 1999 in the U.S.) suggests the existence of a considerable potential, when compared to other industrialized countries. We examined over 40 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. The report describes the measures and experiences of cement plants around the wold with these practices and technologies. Substantial potential for energy efficiency improvement exists in the cement industry and in individual plants. A portion of this potential will be achieved as part of (natural) modernization and expansion of existing facilities, as well as construction of new plants in particular regions. Still, a relatively large potential for improved energy management practices exists.

  9. Loan Guarantee Recipient Awarded Top Renewable Plant | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The latest is Desert Sunlight, a 550-megawatt (MW) photovoltaic (PV) solar power plant located in Riverside County, California, that was issued partial loan guarantees totaling ...

  10. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-06-10

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  11. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  12. Power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, Edward J.; Leeman, James E.; MacDougall, Hugh R.; Marron, John J.; Smith, Calvin C.

    1976-01-01

    An electric power supply employs a striking means to initiate ferroelectric elements which provide electrical energy output which subsequently initiates an explosive charge which initiates a second ferroelectric current generator to deliver current to the coil of a magnetic field current generator, creating a magnetic field around the coil. Continued detonation effects compression of the magnetic field and subsequent generation and delivery of a large output current to appropriate output loads.

  13. Permeameter studies of water flow through cement and clay borehole seals in granite, basalt and tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    South, D.L.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1986-10-01

    Boreholes near a repository must be sealed to prevent rapid migration of radionuclide-contaminated water to the accessible environment. The objective of this research is to assess the performance of borehole seals under laboratory conditions, particularly with regard to varying stress fields. Flow through a sealed borehole is compared with flow through intact rock. Cement or bentonite seals have been tested in granite, basalt, and welded tuff. The main conclusion is that under laboratory conditions, existing commercial materials can form high quality seals. Triaxial stress changes about a borehole do not significantly affect seal performance if the rock is stiffer than the seal. Temperature but especially moisture variations (drying) significantly degrade the quality of cement seals. Performance partially recovers upon resaturation. A skillfully sealed borehole may be as impermeable as the host rock. Analysis of the influence of relative seal-rock permeabilities shows that a plug with permeability one order of magnitude greater than that of the rock results in a flow increase through the hole and surrounding rock of only 1-1/2 times compared to the undisturbed rock. Since a borehole is only a small part of the total rock mass, the total effect is even less pronounced. The simplest and most effective way to decrease flow through a rock-seal system is to increase the seal length, assuming it can be guaranteed that no dominant by-pass flowpath through the rock exists.

  14. Hydration of a low-alkali CEM III/B-SiO{sub 2} cement (LAC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lothenbach, Barbara; Le Saout, Gwenn; Ben Haha, Mohsen; Figi, Renato; Wieland, Erich

    2012-02-15

    The hydration of a low-alkali cement based on CEM III/B blended with 10 wt.% of nanosilica has been studied. The nanosilica reacted within the first days and 90% of the slag reacted within 3.5 years. C-S-H (Ca/Si {approx} 1.2, Al/Si {approx} 0.12), calcite, hydrotalcite, ettringite and possibly straetlingite were the main hydrates. The pore water composition revealed ten times lower alkali concentrations than in Portland cements. Reducing conditions (HS{sup -}) and a pH value of 12.2 were observed. Between 1 month and 3.5 years of hydration more hydrates were formed due to the ongoing slag reaction but no significant differences in the composition of the pore solution or solid phase assemblage were observed. On the basis of thermodynamic calculations it is predicted that siliceous hydrogarnet could form in the long-term and, in the presence of siliceous hydrogarnet, also thaumasite. Nevertheless, even after 3.5 year hydration, neither siliceous hydrogarnet nor thaumasite have been observed.

  15. Formation of magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) cement pastes using sodium hexametaphosphate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Tingting; Vandeperre, Luc J.; Cheeseman, Christopher R.

    2014-11-15

    Magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) gel is formed by the reaction of brucite with amorphous silica during sulphate attack in concrete and M-S-H is therefore regarded as having limited cementing properties. The aim of this work was to form M-S-H pastes, characterise the hydration reactions and assess the resulting properties. It is shown that M-S-H pastes can be prepared by reacting magnesium oxide (MgO) and silica fume (SF) at low water to solid ratio using sodium hexametaphosphate (NaHMP) as a dispersant. Characterisation of the hydration reactions by x-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis shows that brucite and M-S-H gel are formed and that for samples containing 60 wt.% SF and 40 wt.% MgO all of the brucites react with SF to form M-S-H gel. These M-S-H cement pastes were found to have compressive strengths in excess of 70 MPa.

  16. Silicon Valley Power and Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority Win...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Silicon Valley Power and Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority Win 2014 Public Power Wind Awards Silicon Valley Power and Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority Win 2014 Public Power Wind ...

  17. Intrinsic differences in atomic ordering of calcium (alumino)silicate hydrates in conventional and alkali-activated cements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Claire E.; Daemen, Luke L.; Hartl, Monika; Page, Katharine

    2015-01-15

    The atomic structures of calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H) and calcium (–sodium) aluminosilicate hydrate (C–(N)–A–S–H) gels, and their presence in conventional and blended cement systems, have been the topic of significant debate over recent decades. Previous investigations have revealed that synthetic C–S–H gel is nanocrystalline and due to the chemical similarities between ordinary Portland cement (OPC)-based systems and low-CO{sub 2} alkali-activated slags, researchers have inferred that the atomic ordering in alkali-activated slag is the same as in OPC–slag cements. Here, X-ray total scattering is used to determine the local bonding environment and nanostructure of C(–A)–S–H gels present in hydrated tricalcium silicate (C{sub 3}S), blended C{sub 3}S–slag and alkali-activated slag, revealing the large intrinsic differences in the extent of nanoscale ordering between C–S–H derived from C{sub 3}S and alkali-activated slag systems, which may have a significant influence on thermodynamic stability, and material properties at higher length scales, including long term durability of alkali-activated cements.

  18. BLENDED CALCIUM ALUMINATE-CALCIUM SULFATE CEMENT-BASED GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-03-10

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout which has a pH greater than 12.4. In addition, blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement compositions can be formulated such that the primary cementitious phase is a stable crystalline material. A less alkaline material (pH {<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts [Wiersma, 2009a and b, Wiersma, 2010, and Serrato and Langton, 2010]. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere [Griffin, 2010, Stefanko, 2009 and Wiersma, 2009 and 2010, Bobbitt, 2010, respectively]. Radiolysis calculations are also provided in a separate document [Reyes-Jimenez, 2010].

  19. Development programs in the United States of America for the application of cement-based grouts in radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dole, L.R.; Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews seven cement-based waste form development programs at six of the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. These sites have developed a variety of processes that range from producing 25 mm (1 in.) diameter pellets in a glove box to producing 240 m (800 ft.) diameter grout sheets within the bedding planes of a deep shale formation. These successful applications of cement-based waste forms to the many radioactive waste streams from nuclear facilities bear witness to the flexibility and reliability of this class of materials. This paper also discusses the major issues regarding the application of cement-based waste forms to radioactive waste management problems. These issues are (1) leachability, (2) radiation stability, (3) thermal stability, (4) phase complexity of the matrix, and (5) effects of the waste stream composition. A cursory review of current research in each of these areas is given This paper also discusses future trends in cement-based waste form development and applications. 31 references, 11 figures.

  20. Reproductive and developmental health risk from dioxin-like compounds: Insignificant risk from cement kilns burning waste-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, L.C.; Pedelty, J.F.

    1994-12-31

    Cement kilns burning waste-derived fuels emit low levels of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans and little or no PCB`s. Concern about possible effects on reproduction and development has prompted an evaluation of the research literature especially with regard to the reproductive and developmental effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In sufficient doses, dioxins, furans, and PCB can cause adverse health effects in some animals or humans. Calculated doses of TCDD-EQ (dioxin equivalents) are dependent on many assumptions, but where human effects have been demonstrated, doses were 100--1,000 times higher than the usual background environmental doses. This would include those environmental doses that would be received by the most-exposed individual living near cement kilns burning WDF. There is evidence to suggest that PCB`s have had an adverse impact on some wildlife although there is no evidence that these PCB`s are associated with cement kiln emissions. There is no evidence to suggest that dioxins, at environmental levels or associated with emissions from WDF-burning cement kilns, have caused adverse effects in either wildlife or humans. 63 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. CEMEX: Cement Manufacturer Saves 2.1 Million kWh Annually with a Motor Retrofit Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-11-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how the CEMEX cement manufacturing plant in Davenport, California, saves 2 million kWh and $168,000 in energy costs annually by replacing 13 worn-out motors with new energy-efficient ones.

  2. CEMEX: Cement Manufacturer Saves 2.1 Million kWh Annually with a Motor Retrofit Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how the CEMEX cement manufacturing plant in Davenport, California, saves 2 million kWh and $168,000 in energy costs annually by replacing 13 worn-out motors with new energy-efficient ones.

  3. City of Riverside, California (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes This...

  4. Western Riverside Council of Governments - Home Energy Renovation...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    assessments on their property taxes. In most cases the property tax assessment will stay with the property if it is sold, though the buyer's lender may impose restrictions on...

  5. Power optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apollonov, V V

    2014-02-28

    By using the theory we developed in the early 1970s, a broad range of phenomena is considered for an optical surface of a solid body that is exposed to radiation arbitrarily varying in time and producing temperature fields, thermoelastic stresses and thermal deformations on the surface layer. The examination is based on the relations (which are similar to Duhamel's integral formula from the theory of heat conduction) between the quantities characterising the thermal stress state in any nonstationary regimes of energy input into a solid. A peculiar feature of the analysis of the thermal stress state in this case consists in the fact that this relation comprises time as a parameter, which in turn is a consequence of incoherence of the quasi-stationary problem of thermoelasticity. This phenomenon is particularly important for the optics of high-power, high-pulse repetition rate lasers, which are being actively developed. In the review, we have recently published in Laser Physics, the thermal stress state of a solid is analysed. In this state, time is treated as an independent variable used in differentiation. Such an approach greatly reduces the applicability of the method. The review published contains data on the use of capillary porous structures made of various materials with different degrees of the surface development. Moreover, such structures can be efficiently employed to increase the heat exchange at a temperature below the boiling point of the coolant. In the present review we discuss the dependences of the limiting laser intensities on the duration of a pulse or a pulse train, corresponding to the three stages of the state of the reflecting surface and leading to unacceptable elastic deformations of the surface, to the plastic yield of the material accompanied by the formation of residual stresses and to the melting of the surface layer. We also analyse the problem of heat exchange in the surface layer with a liquid metal coolant pumped through it. The

  6. POWER REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zinn, W.H.

    1958-07-01

    A fast nuclear reactor system ls described for producing power and radioactive isotopes. The reactor core is of the heterogeneous, fluid sealed type comprised of vertically arranged elongated tubular fuel elements having vertical coolant passages. The active portion is surrounded by a neutron reflector and a shield. The system includes pumps and heat exchangers for the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The core, primary coolant pump and primary heat exchanger are disposed within an irapenforate tank which is filled with the primary coolant, in this case a liquid metal such as Na or NaK, to completely submerge these elements. The tank is completely surrounded by a thick walled concrete shield. This reactor system utilizes enriched uranium or plutonium as the fissionable material, uranium or thorium as a diluent and thorium or uranium containing less than 0 7% of the U/sup 235/ isotope as a fertile material.

  7. Power oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gitsevich, Aleksandr

    2001-01-01

    An oscillator includes an amplifier having an input and an output, and an impedance transformation network connected between the input of the amplifier and the output of the amplifier, wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to provide suitable positive feedback from the output of the amplifier to the input of the amplifier to initiate and sustain an oscillating condition, and wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to protect the input of the amplifier from a destructive feedback signal. One example of the oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.

  8. Northwest, the Bonneville Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    voltage power lines that move large amounts of power from hydroelectric projects and power plants to urban centers hundreds of miles away. To keep the electricity flowing safely...

  9. Power management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2007-10-02

    A method of managing power resources for an electrical system of a vehicle may include identifying enabled power sources from among a plurality of power sources in electrical communication with the electrical system and calculating a threshold power value for the enabled power sources. A total power load placed on the electrical system by one or more power consumers may be measured. If the total power load exceeds the threshold power value, then a determination may be made as to whether one or more additional power sources is available from among the plurality of power sources. At least one of the one or more additional power sources may be enabled, if available.

  10. Effect of sodium monofluorophosphate treatment on microstructure and frost salt scaling durability of slag cement paste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copuroglu, O. . E-mail: o.copuroglu@citg.tudelft.nl; Fraaij, A.L.A.; Bijen, J.M.J.M.

    2006-08-15

    Sodium-monofluorophosphate (Na-MFP) is currently in use as a surface applied corrosion inhibitor in the concrete industry. Its basic mechanism is to protect the passive layer of the reinforcement steel against disruption due to carbonation. Carbonation is known as the most detrimental environmental effect on blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) concrete with respect to frost salt scaling. In this paper the effect of Na-MFP on the microstructure and frost salt scaling resistance of carbonated BFSC paste is presented. The results of electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are discussed. It is found that the treatment modifies the microstructure and improves the resistance of carbonated BFSC paste against frost salt attack.

  11. Structural testing of corrugated asbestos-cement roof panels at the Hanford Facilities, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moustafa, S.E.; Rodehaver, S.M.; Frier, W.A.

    1993-10-01

    This report describes a roof testing program that was carried out at the 105KE/KW Spent Fuel Storage Basins and their surrounding facilities at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The roof panels were constructed in the mid 1950`s of corrugated asbestos-cement (A/C), which showed common signs of aging. Based on the construction specifications, the panels capacity to meet current design standards was questioned. Both laboratory and in-situ load testing of the corrugated A/C panels was conducted. The objective of the complete test program was to determine the structural integrity of the existing A/C roof panels installed in the 105KE and 105KW facilities. The data from these tests indicated that the roofs are capable of resisting the design loads and are considered safe. A second phase test to address the roof resistance to personnel and roof removal/roofing system installation equipment was recommended and is underway.

  12. Silicate species of water glass and insights for alkali-activated green cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansson, Helén; Bernin, Diana; Ramser, Kerstin

    2015-06-15

    Despite that sodium silicate solutions of high pH are commonly used in industrial applications, most investigations are focused on low to medium values of pH. Therefore we have investigated such solutions in a broad modulus range and up to high pH values (∼14) by use of infrared (IR) spectroscopy and silicon nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 29}Si-NMR). The results show that the modulus dependent pH value leads to more or less charged species, which affects the configurations of the silicate units. This in turn, influences the alkali-activation process of low CO{sub 2} footprint cements, i.e. materials based on industrial waste or by-products.

  13. Shut-off of a geopressured water channel behind casing via coiled tubing utilizing a dual slurry cement system: A case history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowak, T.W.; Lange, K.J.; Grant, W.H.; Patout, T.S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a case history involving a unique dual cement system to shut off a geopressured water channel behind casing utilizing coiled tubing. The channeling problem was identified and documented using water flow logging techniques. Logging indicated the lower gravel packed selective could produce salt water if perforated without eliminating the suspected water channel. Reserves did not warrant a major rig workover, making a non-rig workover via coiled tubing the only viable option to repair the well. A unique dual cement system tested on a hesitation squeeze schedule pumped through coiled tubing with extremely limited thickening time was necessary to repair the primary cement job.

  14. WINDExchange: Buying Wind Power

    WindExchange

    Buying Wind Power Individuals, communities, businesses, and government entities may decide that buying wind power to supply their energy needs is the right fit. There are several ways to purchase wind power. Green Power Marketing Green power marketing refers to green power being offered by multiple suppliers in a competitive marketplace. In states that have established retail competition, customers may be able to purchase green power from a competitive supplier. Learn more about green power

  15. PowerPoint Presentation

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Southeastern Federal Power Alliance - September 29, 2015 Proprietary and Confidential * ... Power Corporation 2 Proprietary and Confidential Generating Facilities Rocky Mountain ...

  16. Effect of Sodium Carboxymethyl Celluloses on Water-catalyzed Self-degradation of 200-degree C-heated Alkali-Activated Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the usefulness of sodium carboxymethyl celluloses (CMC) in promoting self-degradation of 200°C-heated sodium silicate-activated slag/Class C fly ash cementitious material after contact with water. CMC emitted two major volatile compounds, CO2 and acetic acid, creating a porous structure in cement. CMC also reacted with NaOH from sodium silicate to form three water-insensitive solid reaction products, disodium glycolate salt, sodium glucosidic salt, and sodium bicarbonate. Other water-sensitive solid reaction products, such as sodium polysilicate and sodium carbonate, were derived from hydrolysates of sodium silicate. Dissolution of these products upon contact with water generated heat that promoted cement’s self-degradation. Thus, CMC of high molecular weight rendered two important features to the water-catalyzed self-degradation of heated cement: One was the high heat energy generated in exothermic reactions in cement; the other was the introduction of extensive porosity into cement.

  17. Power Right. Power Smart. Efficient Computer Power Supplies and Monitors.

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn about energy-efficient power supplies that can help you reduce energy consumption and lower your energy costs.

  18. Power Services (pbl/about)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    About Power Services > About Power Services Power Services Home Page Other Related Web Sites Power Services Organization Power Services Financial Information Tribal Affairs Office...

  19. The use of electrical impedance spectroscopy for monitoring the hydration products of Portland cement mortars with high percentage of pozzolans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz, J.M.; Fita, I.C.; Soriano, L.; Pay, J.; Borrachero, M.V.

    2013-08-15

    In this paper, mortars and pastes containing large replacement of pozzolan were studied by mechanical strength, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of metakaolin (35%) and fly ash (60%) was evaluated and compared with an inert mineral addition (andalusite). The portlandite content was measured, finding that the pozzolanic reaction produced cementing systems with all portlandite fixed. The EIS measurements were analyzed by the equivalent electrical circuit (EEC) method. An EEC with three branches in parallel was applied. The dc resistance was related to the degree of hydration and allowed us to characterize plain and blended mortars. A constant phase element (CPE) quantified the electrical properties of the hydration products located in the solidsolution interface and was useful to distinguish the role of inert and pozzolanic admixtures present in the cement matrix.

  20. Self-degradable Slag/Class F Fly Ash-Blend Cements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T.; Warren, J.; Butcher, T.; Lance Brothers; Bour, D.

    2011-03-01

    Self-degradable slag/Class F fly ash blend pozzolana cements were formulated, assuming that they might serve well as alternative temporary fracture sealers in Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) wells operating at temperatures of {ge} 200 C. Two candidate formulas were screened based upon material criteria including an initial setting time {ge} 60 min at 85 C, compressive strength {ge} 2000 psi for a 200 C autoclaved specimen, and the extent of self-degradation of cement heated at {ge} 200 C for it was contacted with water. The first screened dry mix formula consisted of 76.5 wt% slag-19.0 wt% Class F fly ash-3.8 wt% sodium silicate as alkali activator, and 0.7 wt% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the self-degradation promoting additive, and second formula comprised of 57.3 wt% slag, 38.2 wt% Class F fly ash, 3.8 wt% sodium silicate, and 0.7 wt% CMC. After mixing with water and autoclaving it at 200 C, the aluminum-substituted 1.1 nm tobermorite crystal phase was identified as hydrothermal reaction product responsible for the development of a compressive strength of 5983 psi. The 200 C-autoclaved cement made with the latter formula had the combined phases of tobermorite as its major reaction product and amorphous geopolymer as its minor one providing a compressive strength of 5271 psi. Sodium hydroxide derived from the hydrolysis of sodium silicate activator not only initiated the pozzolanic reaction of slag and fly ash, but also played an important role in generating in-situ exothermic heat that significantly contributed to promoting self-degradation of cementitious sealers. The source of this exothermic heat was the interactions between sodium hydroxide, and gaseous CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 3}COOH by-products generated from thermal decomposition of CMC at {ge} 200 C in an aqueous medium. Thus, the magnitude of this self-degradation depended on the exothermic temperature evolved in the sealer; a higher temperature led to a sever disintegration of sealer. The exothermic

  1. Electric power 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    Subjects covered include: power industry trends - near term fuel strategies - price/quality/delivery/opportunity; generating fleet optimization and plant optimization; power plant safety and security; coal power plants - upgrades and new capacity; IGCC, advanced combustion and CO{sub 2} capture technologies; gas turbine and combined cycle power plants; nuclear power; renewable power; plant operations and maintenance; power plant components - design and operation; environmental; regulatory issues, strategies and technologies; and advanced energy strategies and technologies. The presentations are in pdf format.

  2. An assessment of potential environmental impacts of cement kiln dust produced in kilns co-fired with hazardous waste fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goad, P.T.; Millner, G.C.; Nye, A.C.

    1998-12-31

    The Keystone Cement Company (Keystone), located in Bath, Pennsylvania, produces cement in two kilns that are co-fired with hazardous waste-derived fuels. Beginning in the late 1970`s Keystone began storing cement kiln dust (CKD) in an aboveground storage pile located on company property adjacent to the cement kilns. Storm water runoff from the CKD pile is channeled into a storm water settling pond which in turn discharges into Monocacy Creek, a stream running along the eastern property boundary. Monocacy Creek sustains a thriving trout fishery and is routinely fished during the open recreational fishing season in pennsylvania. The CKD pile has a surface area of approximately 12 acres, with an average height of approximately 35 feet. The southern edge of the pile is contiguous with an adjacent company-owned field in which field corn is grown for cattle feed. Some of the corn on the edges of the field is actually grown in direct contact with CKD that comprises the edge of the storage pile. The CKD pile is located approximately 150 yards to the west of Monocacy Creek. In 1995--1996 water, sediment and fish (trout) samples were obtained from Monocacy Creek sampling stations upstream and downstream of the point of discharge of storm water runoff from the CKD pile. In addition, corn samples were obtained from the field contiguous with the CKD pile and from a control field located distant to the site. The sediment, water, fish, and corn samples were analyzed for various chemicals previously identified as chemicals of potential concern in CKD. These data indicate that chemical constituents of CKD are not contaminating surface water or sediment in the stream, and that bioaccumulation of organic chemicals and/or metals has not occurred in field corn grown in direct contact with undiluted CKD, or in fish living in the waters that receive CKD pile runoff.

  3. Evaluation of Life-Cycle Assessment Studies of Chinese Cement Production: Challenges and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Hongyou; Masanet, Eric; Price, Lynn

    2009-05-29

    The use of life-cycle assessment (LCA) to understand the embodied energy, environmental impacts, and potential energy-savings of manufactured products has become more widespread among researchers in recent years. This paper reviews recent LCA studies in the cement industry in China and in other countries and provides an assessment of the methodology used by the researchers compared to ISO LCA standards (ISO 14040:2006, ISO 14044:2006, and ISO/TR 14048:2002). We evaluate whether the authors provide information on the intended application, targeted audience, functional unit, system boundary, data sources, data quality assessment, data disaggregation and other elements, and draw conclusions regarding the level of adherence to ISO standards for the papers reviewed. We found that China researchers have gained much experience during last decade, but still have room for improvement in establishing boundaries, assessing data quality, identifying data sources, and explaining limitations. The paper concludes with a discussion of directions for future LCA research in China.

  4. Commerical-Scale CO2 Capture and Sequestration for the Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adolfo Garza

    2010-07-28

    On June 8, 2009, DOE issued Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) Number DE-FOA-000015 seeking proposals to capture and sequester carbon dioxide from industrial sources. This FOA called for what was essentially a two-tier selection process. A number of projects would receive awards to conduct front-end engineering and design (FEED) studies as Phase I. Those project sponsors selected would be required to apply for Phase II, which would be the full design, construction, and operation of their proposed technology. Over forty proposals were received, and ten were awarded Phase I Cooperative Agreements. One of those proposers was CEMEX. CEMEX proposed to capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from one of their existing cement plants and either sequester the CO2 in a geologic formation or use it for enhanced oil recovery. The project consisted of evaluating their plants to identify the plant best suited for the demonstration, identify the best available capture technology, and prepare a design basis. The project also included evaluation of the storage or sequestration options in the vicinity of the selected plant.

  5. Suppression of phosphate liberation from eutrophic lake sediment by using fly ash and ordinary Portland cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heng-Peng Ye; Fan-Zhong Chen; Yan-Qing Sheng; Guo-Ying Sheng; Jia-Mo Fu

    2006-08-15

    In this study, the effect of suppression on phosphate liberation from eutrophic lake sediment by using fly ash and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was investigated by small scale experiment. A system including sediment, lake water, and several kinds of capping materials was designed to clarify the suppression of phosphate liberation from sediment under the anaerobic condition. The suppression efficiencies of fly ash, OPC and glass bead used as control material were also determined, and these effects were discussed. The suppression efficiency of glass bead was 44.4%, and those of fly ash and OPC were 84.4%, 94.9%, respectively. The suppression by fly ash and OPC was mainly carried out by the adsorption effect, in addition to the covering effect. The suppression efficiency depended on the amounts of the material used, and about 90% of liberated phosphate was suppressed by fly ash of 10.0 Kg m{sup -2}, and OPC of 6.0 Kg m{sup -2}. The concentrations of heavy metals, such as mercury, cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, chromium, silver, arsenic and nickel, in fly ash and OPC were lower than those in the environmental materials. And it was considered that the concentrations of heavy metals in fly ash and OPC were too low to influence the ecosystem in natural water region.

  6. Effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement blended with siliceous fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deschner, Florian; Lothenbach, Barbara; Winnefeld, Frank; Neubauer, Jrgen

    2013-10-15

    The effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement pastes blended with 50 wt.% of siliceous fly ash is investigated within a temperature range of 7 to 80 C. The elevation of temperature accelerates both the hydration of OPC and fly ash. Due to the enhanced pozzolanic reaction of the fly ash, the change of the composition of the CSH and the pore solution towards lower Ca and higher Al and Si concentrations is shifted towards earlier hydration times. Above 50 C, the reaction of fly ash also contributes to the formation of siliceous hydrogarnet. At 80 C, ettringite and AFm are destabilised and the released sulphate is partially incorporated into the CSH. The observed changes of the phase assemblage in dependence of the temperature are confirmed by thermodynamic modelling. The increasingly heterogeneous microstructure at elevated temperatures shows an increased density of the CSH and a higher coarse porosity. -- Highlights: The reaction of quartz powder at 80 C strongly enhances the compressive strength. Almost no strength increase of fly ash blended OPC at 80 C was found after 2 days. Siliceous hydrogarnet is formed upon the reaction of fly ash at high temperatures. Temperature dependent change of the system was simulated by thermodynamic modelling. Destabilisation of ettringite above 50 C correlates with sulphate content of CSH.

  7. THE IMPACT OF DISSOLVED SALTS ON PASTES CONTAINING FLY ASH, CEMENT AND SLAG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harbour, J.; Edwards, T.; Williams, V.

    2009-09-21

    The degree of hydration of a mixture of cementitious materials (Class F fly ash, blast furnace slag and portland cement) in highly concentrated alkaline salt solutions is enhanced by the addition of aluminate to the salt solution. This increase in the degree of hydration, as monitored with isothermal calorimetry, leads to higher values of dynamic Young's modulus and compressive strength and lower values of total porosity. This enhancement in performance properties of these cementitious waste forms by increased hydration is beneficial to the retention of the radionuclides that are also present in the salt solution. The aluminate ions in the solution act first to retard the set time of the mix but then enhance the hydration reactions following the induction period. In fact, the aluminate ions increase the degree of hydration by {approx}35% over the degree of hydration for the same mix with a lower aluminate concentration. An increase in the blast furnace slag concentration and a decrease in the water to cementitious materials ratio produced mixes with higher values of Young's modulus and lower values of total porosity. Therefore, these operational factors can be fine tuned to enhance performance properties of cementitious waste form. Empirical models for Young modulus, heat of hydration and total porosity were developed to predict the values of these properties. These linear models used only statistically significant compositional and operational factors and provided insight into those factors that control these properties.

  8. Characterisation of magnesium potassium phosphate cements blended with fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, Laura J.; Bernal, Susan A.; Walling, Samuel A.; Corkhill, Claire L.; Provis, John L.; Hyatt, Neil C.

    2015-08-15

    Magnesium potassium phosphate cements (MKPCs), blended with 50 wt.% fly ash (FA) or ground granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) to reduce heat evolution, water demand and cost, were assessed using compressive strength, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy on {sup 25}Mg, {sup 27}Al, {sup 29}Si, {sup 31}P and {sup 39}K nuclei. We present the first definitive evidence that dissolution of the glassy aluminosilicate phases of both FA and GBFS occurred under the pH conditions of MKPC. In addition to the main binder phase, struvite-K, an amorphous orthophosphate phase was detected in FA/MKPC and GBFS/MKPC systems. It was postulated that an aluminium phosphate phase was formed, however, no significant Al–O–P interactions were identified. High-field NMR analysis of the GBFS/MKPC system indicated the potential formation of a potassium-aluminosilicate phase. This study demonstrates the need for further research on these binders, as both FA and GBFS are generally regarded as inert fillers within MKPC.

  9. Resistance of fly ash-Portland cement blends to thermal shock

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Pyatina, Tatiana; Sugama, Toshifumi

    2015-09-11

    Thermal-shock resistance of high-content fly ash-Portland cement blends was tested in the following ways. Activated and non-activated blends with 80-90 % fly ash F (FAF) were left to set at room temperature, then hydrated for 24 hours at 85°C and 24-more hours at 300°C and tested in five thermal-shock cycles (600°C heat - 25°C water quenching). XRD, and thermal gravimetric analyses, along with calorimetric measurements and SEM-EDX tests demonstrated that the activated blends form more hydrates after 24 hours at 300°C, and achieve a higher short-term compressive strength than do non-activated ones. Sodium meta-silicate and sodaash engendered the concomitant hydrationmore » of OPC and FAF, with the formation of mixed crystalline FAF-OPC hydrates and FAF hydrates, such as garranite, analcime, and wairakite, along with the amorphous FAF hydration products. In SS-activated and non-activated blends separate OPC (tobermorite) and FAF (amorphous gel) hydrates with no mixed crystalline products formed. The compressive strength of all tested blends decreased by nearly 50% after 5 thermal-shock test cycles. These changes in the compressive strength were accompanied by a marked decrease in the intensities of XRD patterns of the crystalline hydrates after the thermalshock. As a result, there was no significant difference in the performance of the blends with different activators« less

  10. Resistance of fly ash-Portland cement blends to thermal shock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pyatina, Tatiana; Sugama, Toshifumi

    2015-09-11

    Thermal-shock resistance of high-content fly ash-Portland cement blends was tested in the following ways. Activated and non-activated blends with 80-90 % fly ash F (FAF) were left to set at room temperature, then hydrated for 24 hours at 85°C and 24-more hours at 300°C and tested in five thermal-shock cycles (600°C heat - 25°C water quenching). XRD, and thermal gravimetric analyses, along with calorimetric measurements and SEM-EDX tests demonstrated that the activated blends form more hydrates after 24 hours at 300°C, and achieve a higher short-term compressive strength than do non-activated ones. Sodium meta-silicate and sodaash engendered the concomitant hydration of OPC and FAF, with the formation of mixed crystalline FAF-OPC hydrates and FAF hydrates, such as garranite, analcime, and wairakite, along with the amorphous FAF hydration products. In SS-activated and non-activated blends separate OPC (tobermorite) and FAF (amorphous gel) hydrates with no mixed crystalline products formed. The compressive strength of all tested blends decreased by nearly 50% after 5 thermal-shock test cycles. These changes in the compressive strength were accompanied by a marked decrease in the intensities of XRD patterns of the crystalline hydrates after the thermalshock. As a result, there was no significant difference in the performance of the blends with different activators

  11. Asbestos-cement panels test report, 100K Area, Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moustafa, S.E.

    1993-12-01

    The 105KE/105KW reactor facilities were constructed in the mid-1950s. The 105KE/105KW fuel-basin roof panels are in a radiation controlled area where there is smearable contamination. The roof panels in all of the inspected areas were constructed from corrugated asbestos-cement (A/C) panels. The corrugated A/C roof panels exhibit common signs of aging including cracking, chipping, spalling, or a combination of these processes. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has engaged Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc. (WJE) to perform laboratory and field tests on A/C roof panels of the 105KW building and also to make recommendations for panel replacement, maintenance, or upgrade that will maintain the structural integrity of the roof panels for an additional 20 years of service. This report contains the results of laboratory and in-situ testing performed by WJE. A Roof Proof Load Test Plan was prepared for WJE and approved by WHC. Conclusions and recommendations based on test results are presented for the 190-KE wall panels and 105KW roof panels.

  12. ClearEdge Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    From This To This To This ClearEdge5 - Delivering Smart Energy Today Combined heat and power 5kWh distributed power system CE5 converts natural gas into power and heat without ...

  13. Power Supply Challenges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Confidential DC Power Seth Paradise 28 February 2014 Power Solutions 1 Confidential Power-One Overview * 40+ Years in AC to DC, DC to DC and Inverters * Key Markets: - Industrial - ...

  14. Biomass: Potato Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    to 40 minutes Summary: Students assemble a potato battery that will power a digital clock. ... BIOPOWER - POTATO POWER Purpose: Can a potato power a clock? Materials: A potato A ...

  15. Power Right. Power Smart. Efficient Computer Power Supplies and...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    power supplies, limited to data center server applications. 80 Plus recently ... Again Going for the Gold (Computer) Ultra Energy Efficient Data Center Saves NREL 200,000

  16. WINDExchange: Selling Wind Power

    WindExchange

    Market Sectors Printable Version Bookmark and Share Utility-Scale Wind Distributed Wind Motivations for Buying Wind Power Buying Wind Power Selling Wind Power Selling Wind Power Owners of wind turbines interconnected directly to the transmission or distribution grid, or that produce more power than the host consumes, can sell wind power as well as other generation attributes. Wind-Generated Electricity Electricity generated by wind turbines can be used to cover on-site energy needs

  17. Detection of Cement Leakage After Vertebroplasty with a Non-Flat-Panel Angio Unit Compared to Multidetector Computed Tomography - An Ex Vivo Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumann, Clemens Fuchs, Heiko; Westphalen, Kerstin; Hierholzer, Johannes

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the detection of cement leakages after vertebroplasty using angiographic computed tomography (ACT) in a non-flat-panel angio unit compared to multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Vertebroplasty was performed in 19 of 33 cadaver vertebrae (23 thoracic and 10 lumbar segments). In the angio suite, ACT (190{sup o}; 1.5{sup o} per image) was performed to obtain volumetric data. Another volumetric data set of the specimen was obtained by MDCT using a standard algorithm. Nine multiplanar reconstructions in standardized axial, coronal, and sagittal planes of every vertebra were generated from both data sets. Images were evaluated on the basis of a nominal scale with 18 criteria, comprising osseous properties (e.g., integrity of the end plate) and cement distribution (e.g., presence of intraspinal cement). MDCT images were regarded as gold standard and analyzed by two readers in a consensus mode. Rotational acquisitions were analyzed by six blinded readers. Results were correlated with the gold standard using Cohen's {kappa}-coefficient analysis. Furthermore, interobserver variability was calculated. Correlation with the gold standard ranged from no correlation (osseous margins of the neuroforamen, {kappa} = 0.008) to intermediate (trace of vertebroplasty canula; {kappa} = 0.615) for criteria referring to osseous morphology. However, there was an excellent correlation for those criteria referring to cement distribution, with {kappa} values ranging from 0.948 (paravertebral cement distribution) to 0.972 (intraspinal cement distribution). With a minimum of {kappa} = 0.768 ('good correlation') and a maximum of {kappa} = 0.91 ('excellent'), interobserver variability was low. In conclusion, ACT in an angio suite without a flat-panel detector depicts a cement leakage after vertebroplasty as well as MDCT. However, the method does not provide sufficient depiction of osseous morphology.

  18. Electrolytes for power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Ingersoll, David

    1995-01-01

    Electrolytes for power sources, particularly alkaline and acidic power sources, comprising benzene polysulfonic acids and benzene polyphosphonic acids or salts of such acids.

  19. Electrolytes for power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-01-03

    Electrolytes are disclosed for power sources, particularly alkaline and acidic power sources, comprising benzene polysulfonic acids and benzene polyphosphonic acids or salts of such acids. 7 figures.

  20. Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas ...

  1. Power Towers for Utilities

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas ...

  2. BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    exit signs, kitchen equipment, network power management, power strips, showerheads, clothes washers, water heaters and ag stock tanks. Check IM for detailed requirements. c....

  3. Power System Dispatcher (Trainer)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    (See Frequently Asked Questions for more information). Where would I be working? Western Area Power Administration Rocky Mountain Region Power System Operations Transmission Switching (J4100) 5555...

  4. Southwestern Power Administration

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    FOIAPrivacy Act Submit a FOIA Request DOE FOIA Requester Service Center Electronic Reading Room FOIA Links Power Marketing Administrations' FOIA Links Bonneville Power ...

  5. Wireless Power Transmission

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... A typical photovoltaic system has planar solar arrays for power generation and chemical batteries to store excess solar array energy during periods of sunlight and provide power ...

  6. Supervisory Power System Dispatcher

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    (See Frequently Asked Questions for more information). Where would I be working? Western Area Power Administration Rocky Mountain Region Power System Operations, J4800 Transmission Scheduling &...

  7. Wind & Water Power Newsletter

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    & Water Power Newsletter - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact ... Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ...

  8. Bonneville Power Administration

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    agreement (Agreement) between the BC Hydro and Power uthority (BCH) and the Bonneville Power Administration (BP A), jointly the Parties, which BA for accounting purposes is...

  9. BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    October 2013 (Revised 060914) United States Department of Energy Bonneville Power Administration 905 N.E. 11th Avenue Portland, OR 97232 Bonneville Power Administration's 2014...

  10. power conversion efficiency

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    power conversion efficiency - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar ...

  11. 10 MWe power cycle

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    MWe power cycle - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy ...

  12. concentrating solar power plant

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    power plant - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy ...

  13. Western Area Power Administration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Power Administration Follow-up to Nov. 25, 2008 Transition ... Southwestern Power Administration CONSTRUCTION BUDGET ITEM DESCRIPTION FY 2009* MICROWAVE ...

  14. Mexico-NAMA on Reducing GHG Emissions in the Cement Sector |...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    similar analyses of the iron and steel, electric power, and aluminum industries in China, Brazil and Mexico." References "CCAP-Mexico-NAMA on Reducing GHG Emissions in...

  15. Flex power perspectives of indirect power system control through...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Flex power perspectives of indirect power system control through dynamic power price (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Flex power perspectives of...

  16. Indiabulls Power Ltd formerly Sophia Power Company | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Indiabulls Power Ltd formerly Sophia Power Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: Indiabulls Power Ltd. (formerly Sophia Power Company) Place: New Delhi, Delhi (NCT), India Zip:...

  17. Brookfield Renewable Power Corp formerly Brascan Power Corp ...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Brookfield Renewable Power Corp formerly Brascan Power Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Brookfield Renewable Power Corp (formerly Brascan Power Corp) Place: Toronto, Ontario,...

  18. High Power Laser Innovation Sparks Geothermal Power Potential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    High Power Laser Innovation Sparks Geothermal Power Potential High Power Laser Innovation Sparks Geothermal Power Potential May 29, 2015 - 11:02am Addthis The Energy Department's ...

  19. Hydrogen Power Inc formerly Hydrogen Power International and...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Power Inc formerly Hydrogen Power International and Equitex Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hydrogen Power, Inc. (formerly Hydrogen Power International and Equitex Inc.)...

  20. Delmarva Power Light Company Delmarva Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Delmarva Power Light Company Delmarva Power Jump to: navigation, search Name: Delmarva Power & Light Company (Delmarva Power) Place: Wilmington, Delaware Zip: 19886 Product:...

  1. ENER G Combined Power formerly Combined Power Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    ENER G Combined Power formerly Combined Power Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: ENER.G Combined Power (formerly Combined Power Ltd) Place: United Kingdom Product: Specialises...

  2. Karnataka Power Corporation Limited and National Thermal Power...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Power Corporation Limited and National Thermal Power Corporation JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Karnataka Power Corporation Limited and National Thermal Power Corporation JV...

  3. Life-cycle analysis results for geothermal systems in comparison to other power systems: Part II.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J.L.; Clark, C.E.; Yuan, L.; Han, J.; Wang, M.

    2012-02-08

    A study has been conducted on the material demand and life-cycle energy and emissions performance of power-generating technologies in addition to those reported in Part I of this series. The additional technologies included concentrated solar power, integrated gasification combined cycle, and a fossil/renewable (termed hybrid) geothermal technology, more specifically, co-produced gas and electric power plants from geo-pressured gas and electric (GPGE) sites. For the latter, two cases were considered: gas and electricity export and electricity-only export. Also modeled were cement, steel and diesel fuel requirements for drilling geothermal wells as a function of well depth. The impact of the construction activities in the building of plants was also estimated. The results of this study are consistent with previously reported trends found in Part I of this series. Among all the technologies considered, fossil combustion-based power plants have the lowest material demand for their construction and composition. On the other hand, conventional fossil-based power technologies have the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, followed by the hybrid and then two of the renewable power systems, namely hydrothermal flash power and biomass-based combustion power. GHG emissions from U.S. geothermal flash plants were also discussed, estimates provided, and data needs identified. Of the GPGE scenarios modeled, the all-electric scenario had the highest GHG emissions. Similar trends were found for other combustion emissions.

  4. Energy Efficient Microwave Hybrid Processing of Lime for Cement, Steel, and Glass Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fall, Morgana L; Yakovlev, Vadim; Sahi, Catherine; Baranova, Inessa; Bowers, Johnney G; Esquenazi , Gibran L

    2012-02-10

    MAT in the US lime industry. This estimate showed that 7.3 TBTU/year could be saved, with reduction of 270 MMlbs of CO2 emissions, and $29 MM/year in economic savings. Taking into account estimates for MAT implementation in the US cement industry, an additional 39 TBTU/year, 3 Blbs of CO2 and $155 MM/year could be saved. One of the main remaining barriers to commercialization of MAT for the lime and cement industries is the sheer size of production. Through this project, it was realized that a production size MAT rotary calciner was not feasible, and a different approach was adapted. The concept of a microwave post heat section located in the upper portion of the cooler was devised and appears to be a more realistic approach for MAT implementation. Commercialization of this technology will require (1) continued pilot scale calcining demonstrations, (2) involvement of lime kiln companies, and (3) involvement of an industrial microwave equipment provider. An initial design concept for a MAT post-heat treatment section was conceived as a retrofit into the cooler sections of existing lime rotary calciners with a 1.4 year payback. Retrofitting will help spur implementation of this technology, as the capital investment will be minimal for enhancing the efficiency of current rotary lime kilns. Retrofits would likely be attractive to lime manufacturers, as the purchase of a new lime kiln is on the order of a $30 million dollar investment, where as a MAT retrofit is estimated on the order of $1 million. The path for commercialization lies in partnering with existing lime kiln companies, who will be able to implement the microwave post heat sections in existing and new build kilns. A microwave equipment provider has been identified, who would make up part of the continued development and commercialization team.

  5. Power Purchase Agreements

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation covers the power purchase agreements taken from the FEMP Alternative Finance Options (AFO) webinar.

  6. Southwestern Power Administration

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Schedules Skip Navigation Links Excess Energy Hydro Peaking Power Hydro Power and Energy Sold to Sam Rayburn Dam Electric Cooperative (Rayburn) Hydro Power and Energy Sold to Sam Rayburn Municipal Power Agency (Willis) Non-Federal Transmission/Interconnection Facilities Service Contact swparates@swpa.gov Last Updated: January 05, 2016

  7. Offshore Wind Power USA

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Offshore Wind Power USA conference provides the latest offshore wind market updates and forecasts.

  8. Power Tower | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Concentrating Solar Power Power Tower Power Tower DOE funds solar research and development (R&D) in power tower (central receiver) systems as one of four concentrating solar ...

  9. Utilization of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash for sulfoaluminate cement clinker production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Kai; Shi Huisheng; Guo Xiaolu

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The replacement can be taken up to 30% of MSWI fly ash in the raw mix. > The novelty compositional parameters were defined, their optimum values were determined. > Expansive property of SAC is strongly depended on gypsum content. > Three leaching test methods are used to assess the environmental impact. - Abstract: The feasibility of partially substituting raw materials with municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash in sulfoaluminate cement (SAC) clinker production was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), compressive strength and free expansion ratio testing. Three different leaching tests were used to assess the environmental impact of the produced material. Experimental results show that the replacement of MSWI fly ash could be taken up to 30% in the raw mixes. The good quality SAC clinkers are obtained by controlling the compositional parameters at alkalinity modulus (C{sub m}) around 1.05, alumina-sulfur ratio (P) around 2.5, alumina-silica ratio (N) around 2.0{approx}3.0 and firing the raw mixes at 1250 deg. C for 2 h. The compressive strengths of SAC are high in early age while that develop slowly in later age. Results also show that the expansive properties of SAC are strongly depended on the gypsum content. Leaching studies of toxic elements in the hydrated SAC-based system reveal that all the investigated elements are well bounded in the clinker minerals or immobilized by the hydration products. Although some limited positive results indicate that the SAC prepared from MSWI fly ash would present no immediate thread to the environment, the long-term toxicity leaching behavior needs to be further studied.

  10. MOBILIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COLLOIDS GENERATED FROM CEMENT LEACHATES MOVING THROUGH A SRS SANDY SEDIMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, D.; Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Seaman, J.

    2011-09-20

    Naturally occurring mobile colloids are ubiquitous and are involved in many important processes in the subsurface zone. For example, colloid generation and subsequent mobilization represent a possible mechanism for the transport of contaminants including radionuclides in the subsurface environments. For colloid-facilitated transport to be significant, three criteria must be met: (1) colloids must be generated; (2) contaminants must associate with the colloids preferentially to the immobile solid phase (aquifer); and (3) colloids must be transported through the groundwater or in subsurface environments - once these colloids start moving they become 'mobile colloids'. Although some experimental investigations of particle release in natural porous media have been conducted, the detailed mechanisms of release and re-deposition of colloidal particles within natural porous media are poorly understood. Even though this vector of transport is known, the extent of its importance is not known yet. Colloid-facilitated transport of trace radionuclides has been observed in the field, thus demonstrating a possible radiological risk associated with the colloids. The objective of this study was to determine if cementitious leachate would promote the in situ mobilization of natural colloidal particles from a SRS sandy sediment. The intent was to determine whether cementitious surface or subsurface structure would create plumes that could produce conditions conducive to sediment dispersion and mobile colloid generation. Column studies were conducted and the cation chemistries of influents and effluents were analyzed by ICP-OES, while the mobilized colloids were characterized using XRD, SEM, EDX, PSD and Zeta potential. The mobilization mechanisms of colloids in a SRS sandy sediment by cement leachates were studied.

  11. Recycling of the product of thermal inertization of cement-asbestos for various industrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F.; Giacobbe, Carlotta; Sardisco, Lorenza; Saraceno, Michele; Lassinantti Gualtieri, Magdalena; Cavenati, Cinzia; Zanatto, Ivano

    2011-01-15

    Recycling of secondary raw materials is a priority of waste handling in the countries of the European community. A potentially important secondary raw material is the product of the thermal transformation of cement-asbestos, produced by prolonged annealing at 1200-1300 {sup o}C. The product is chemically comparable to a Mg-rich clinker. Previous work has assured the reliability of the transformation process. The current challenge is to find potential applications as secondary raw material. Recycling of thermally treated asbestos-containing material (named KRY.AS) in traditional ceramics has already been studied with successful results. The results presented here are the outcome of a long termed project started in 2005 and devoted to the recycling of this secondary raw materials in various industrial applications. KRY.AS can be added in medium-high percentages (10-40 wt%) to commercial mixtures for the production of clay bricks, rock-wool glasses for insulation as well as Ca-based frits and glass-ceramics for the production of ceramic tiles. The secondary raw material was also used for the synthesis of two ceramic pigments; a green uvarovite-based pigment [Ca{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 3}] and a pink malayaite-based pigment [Ca(Sn,Cr)SiO{sub 5}]. The latter is especially interesting as a substitute for cadmium-based pigments. This work also shows that KRY.AS can replace standard fillers in polypropylene plastics without altering the properties of the final product. For each application, a description and relevant results are presented and discussed.

  12. Concentrating Solar Power Projects | Concentrating Solar Power...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    SolarPACES, an international program of the International Energy Agency, furthers collaborative development, testing, and marketing of concentrating solar power plants. Activities ...

  13. PowerPoint Presentation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Robin Bedilion Senior Technical Leader, Technology Innovation Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) 2016 EIA Energy Conference July 12, 2016 The Need for Flexible Generation in the Bulk Power System 2 © 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Electric Power Research Institute EPRI Mission Advancing safe, reliable, affordable and environmentally responsible electricity for society through global

  14. Reducing Power Factor Cost

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Low power factor is expensive and inefficient. Many utility companies charge an additional fee if your power factor is less than 0.95. Low power factor also reduces your electrical system’s distribution capacity by increasing current flow and causing voltage drops. This fact sheet describes power factor and explains how you can improve your power factor to reduce electric bills and enhance your electrical system’s capacity.

  15. PowerPoint Presentation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Industry Reliability: Automotive Power Module Perspective Zhenxian Liang R&D Staff Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Group OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY 2360 Cherahala Boulevard Knoxville, Tennessee 37932 TEL: (865) 946-1467 FAX: (865) 946-1262 EMAIL: liangz@ornl.gov http://peemrc.ornl.gov 2013 PV System Symposium April 30, 2013, Santa Clara, CA 2 Outline * Introduction Power Electronics in Electric Drive Vehicles Automotive Power Electronics Module Operation Automotive Power

  16. Silicon Valley Power and Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority Win 2014 Public Power Wind Awards

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department and the American Public Power Association named Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority and Silicon Valley Power as the winners of the 2014 Public Power Wind Awards.

  17. Primer on Durability of Nuclear Power Plant Reinforced Concrete Structures - A Review of Pertinent Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naus, Dan J

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a primer on the environmental effects that can affect the durability of nuclear power plant concrete structures. As concrete ages, changes in its properties will occur as a result of continuing microstructural changes (i.e., slow hydration, crystallization of amorphous constituents, and reactions between cement paste and aggregates), as well as environmental influences. These changes do not have to be detrimental to the point that concrete will not be able to meet its performance requirements. Concrete, however, can suffer undesirable changes with time because of improper specifications, a violation of specifications, or adverse performance of its cement paste matrix or aggregate constituents under either physical or chemical attack. Contained in this report is a discussion on concrete durability and the relationship between durability and performance, a review of the historical perspective related to concrete and longevity, a description of the basic materials that comprise reinforced concrete, and information on the environmental factors that can affect the performance of nuclear power plant concrete structures. Commentary is provided on the importance of an aging management program.

  18. Assessment of the percent status of burning refuse-derived fuel as a fuel supplement in the cement kiln industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of the project was to solicit information on the use of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) in cement kilns by survey, follow up the mailed survey with telephone calls to the recipients, and assemble collected information into a report. A list of companies that had some experience with RFD was compiled and is presented in Appendix A. The procedure for conducting the survey is explained. A copy of the questionnaire is presented in Appendix B. The letters of response are reproduced in Appendix C. Two completed forms were received and clear conclusions are summarized. The effort was terminated and no final report was assembled.

  19. Active Power Control from Wind Power (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Brooks, D.

    2011-04-01

    In order to keep the electricity grid stable and the lights on, the power system relies on certain responses from its generating fleet. This presentation evaluates the potential for wind turbines and wind power plants to provide these services and assist the grid during critical times.

  20. High power fast ramping power supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marneris,I.; Bajon, E.; Bonati, R.; Sandberg, J.; Roser, T.; Tsoupas, N.

    2009-05-04

    Hundred megawatt level fast ramping power converters to drive proton and heavy ion machines are under research and development at accelerator facilities in the world. This is a leading edge technology. There are several topologies to achieve this power level. Their advantages and related issues will be discussed.

  1. EFFECT OF QUARTZ/MULLITE BLEND CERAMIC ADDITIVE ON IMPROVING RESISTANCE TO ACID OF SODIUM SILICATE-ACTIVATED SLAG CEMENT. CELCIUS BRINE.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SUGAMA, T.; BROTHERS, L.E.; VAN DE PUTTE, T.R.

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of manufactured quartz/mullite blend (MQMB) ceramic powder in increasing the resistance to acid of sodium silicate-activated slag (SSAS) cementitious material for geothermal wells. A 15-day exposure to 90{sup o} CO{sub 2}-laden H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} revealed that the MQMB had high potential as an acid-resistant additive for SSAS cement. Two factors, the appropriate ratio of slag/MQMB and the autoclave temperature, contributed to better performance of MQMB-modified SSAS cement in abating its acid erosion. The most effective slag/MQMB ratio in minimizing the loss in weight by acid erosion was 70/30 by weight. For autoclave temperature, the loss in weight of 100 C autoclaved cement was a less than 2%, but at 300 C it was even lower. Before exposure to acid, the cement autoclaved at 100 C was essentially amorphous; increasing the temperature to 200 C led to the formation of crystalline analcime in the zeolitic mineral family during reactions between the mullite in MQMB and the Na from sodium silicate. In addition, at 300 C, crystal of calcium silicate hydrate (1) (CSH) was generated in reactions between the quartz in MQMB and the activated slag. These two crystalline phases (CSH and analcime) were responsible for densifying the autoclaved cement, conveying improved compressive strength and minimizing water permeability. The CSH was susceptible to reactions with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, forming two corrosion products, bassanite and ionized monosilicic acid. However, the uptake of ionized monosilicic acid by Mg dissociated from the activated slag resulted in the formation of lizardite as magnesium silicate hydrate. On the other hand, the analcime was barely susceptible to acid if at all. Thus, the excellent acid resistance of MQMB-modified SSAS cement was due to the combined phases of lizardite and analcime.

  2. A review of Title V operating permit application requirements caused by the use of waste-derived fuel at cement plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarmac, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 required the USEPA to establish a comprehensive operating permit program which is being administered by the states. Most major air pollution sources will be required to submit operating permit applications by November 15, 1995 or earlier. Portland cement plants that burn waste-derived fuel face some special permitting problems that need to be addressed during the permit application process. This paper presents a brief summary of the Title V application with special emphasis on the permitting requirements incurred by the utilization of waste fuel at cement plants.

  3. In situ grouting of low-level burial trenches with a cement-based grout at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, C.W.; Spence, R.D.; Tamura, T.; Spalding, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    A technology being evaluated for use in the closure of one of the low-level radwaste burial grounds at ORNL is trench stabilization using a cement-based grout. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this technology, two interconnecting trenches in SWSA 6 were selected as candidates for in situ grouting with a particulate grout. The primary objective was to demonstrate the increased trench stability (characterized by trench penetration tests) and the decreased potential for leachate migration (characterized by hydraulic conductivity tests) following in situ injection of a particulate grout into the waste trenches. Stability against trench subsidence is a critical issue. For example, construction of impermeable covers to seal the trenches will be ineffectual unless subsequent trench subsidence is permanently suspended. A grout composed of 39% Type 1 Portland cement, 55.5% Class F fly ash, and 5.5% bentonite mixed at 12.5 lb/gal of water was selected. Before the trenches were grouted, the primary characteristics relating to physical stability, hydraulic conductivity, and void volume of the trenches were determined. Their physical stability was evaluated using soil-penetration tests.

  4. Design, fabrication, and properties of 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dongyu, Xu; Xin, Cheng; Shifeng, Huang; Banerjee, Sourav

    2014-12-28

    The laminated 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution were fabricated by employing Lead Zirconium Titanate ceramic as active phase, and mixture of cement powder, epoxy resin, and hardener as matrix phase with a mass proportion of 4:4:1. The dielectric, piezoelectric, and electromechanical coupling properties of the composites were studied. The composites with large total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric strain constant and relative permittivity, and the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites are independent of the dimensional variations of the piezoelectric ceramic layer. The composites with small total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric voltage constant, but also large dielectric loss. The composite with gradually increased dimension of piezoelectric ceramic layer has the smallest dielectric loss, and that with the gradually increased dimension of matrix layer has the largest piezoelectric voltage constant. The novel piezoelectric composites show potential applications in fabricating ultrasonic transducers with varied surface vibration amplitude of the transducer.

  5. Factors affecting the behavior of bentonite fluids and their in-situ conversion into cement. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gueven, N.; Carney, L.L.; Malekahmadi, F.; Lee, L.J.

    1984-11-01

    To develop a basic understanding of the effects of common salts, hydroxides, and other mud additives on the rheology and other functions of bentonite fluids, bentonite fluids containing these additives were autoclaved at the temperature range 70 to 600/sup 0/F, and under a pressure of 17,000 psi. Subsequently, the high-temperature rheology of the fluids was measured with a FANN 50C viscometer. Other fluid properties such as plastic viscosity, gel strength, yield point, pH, CEC, and fluid losses were also determined before and after autoclaving of the fluids. The high-temperature reactions occurring in these fluids were studied with x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Another costly problem in drilling technology is related to the poor cement bonding of the casing to the formation. As a solution to this troublesome situation, the in-situ conversion of bentonite fluids into cement has been studied. This conversion has been successfully achieved by the addition of lime to bentonite fluids at and above 300/sup 0/F.

  6. Examples of cooler reflective streets for urban heat-island mitigation : Portland cement concrete and chip seals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.; Chang, S.-C.; Levinson, R.; Pon, B.

    2003-04-30

    Part of the urban heat island effect can be attributed to dark pavements that are commonly used on streets and parking lots. In this paper we consider two light colored, hence cooler, alternative paving materials that are in actual use in cities today. These are Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements and chip seals. We report measurements of the albedos of some PCC and chip sealed pavements in the San Francisco Bay Area. The albedos of the PCC pavements ranged from about 0.18 to 0.35. The temperatures of some PCC pavements are also measured and calculated. We then consider how the albedos of the constituent materials of the PCC (stone, sand and cement) contribute to the albedos of the resulting finished concrete. The albedos of a set of chip sealed pavements in San Jose, CA, were measured and correlated with the times of their placement. It is found that the albedos decrease with age (and use) but remain higher than that of standard asphalt concrete (AC) for about five years. After t hat, the albedos of the chip seals are about 0.12, similar to aged AC. The fact that many PCC pavements have albedos at least twice as high as aged AC suggests that it is possible to have pavement albedos that remain high for many years.

  7. Power production and ADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raja, Rajendran; /Fermilab

    2010-03-01

    We describe the power production process in Accelerator Driven Sub-critical systems employing Thorium-232 and Uranium-238 as fuel and examine the demands on the power of the accelerator required.

  8. Power System Dispatcher

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    (See Frequently Asked Questions for more information). Where would I be working? Western Area Power Administration Sierra Nevada Region Power Systems Operation N4000 114 Parkshore Drive Folsom, CA...

  9. Southwestern Power Administration

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Sam Rayburn Dam Project Hydroelectric Power Rate Increase (Part B4.3) Robert Douglas Willis Hydropower Project Hydroelectric Power Rate Increase (Part B4.3) Springfield-Nixa-Tabler...

  10. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    self-heated) burning plasma. It aims to generate fusion power 30 times the levels produced to date and to exceed the external power applied to the plasma by at least a factor of ...

  11. Space Solar Power Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arif, H.; Barbosa, H.; Bardet, C.; Baroud, M.; Behar, A.; Berrier, K.; Berthe, P.; Bertrand, R.; Bibyk, I.; Bisson, J.; Bloch, L.; Bobadilla, G.; Bourque, D.; Bush, L.; Carandang, R.; Chiku, T.; Crosby, N.; De Seixas, M.; De Vries, J.; Doll, S.; Dufour, F.; Eckart, P.; Fahey, M.; Fenot, F.; Foeckersperger, S.; Fontaine, J.E.; Fowler, R.; Frey, H.; Fujio, H.; Gasa, J.M.; Gleave, J.; Godoe, J.; Green, I.; Haeberli, R.; Hanada, T.; Ha

    1992-08-01

    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

  12. Underwater power generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowley, W.W.

    1983-05-10

    Apparatus and method for generating electrical power by disposing a plurality of power producing modules in a substantially constant velocity ocean current and mechanically coupling the output of the modules to drive a single electrical generator is disclosed.

  13. Vampire Power and Gaming

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    There's something out there known as vampire power. Basically, many appliances that continue using power (and thus continue add to your energy bill in some way, shape or form) even when they are turned off.

  14. Wide Bandgap Power Electronics

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... coal power plant. 463 In addition to power savings, an important benefit of using high frequency GaN electronics is that the 464 adapter size can be reduced by 10x. Consumers ...

  15. Reducing Power Factor Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... The presence of both in the same circuit results in the continuous alternating transfer of ... In the diagram below, the power triangle shows an initial 0.70 power factor for a 100-kW ...

  16. Green Power Purchase Plan

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Class I renewable energy resources include solar, wind, new sustainable biomass, landfill gas, fuel cells (using renewable or non-renewable fuels), ocean thermal power, wave or tidal power, low...

  17. Electric Power Monthly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Electric Power Monthly Data for January 2016 | Release Date: March 25, 2016 | Next ... Revisions made to the March 2016 Electric Power Monthly: March 30, 2016 Tables 2.8.A-B ...

  18. SOUTHWESTERN POWER ADMINISTRATION

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    9/01 SOUTHWESTERN POWER ADMINISTRATION CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION (CX) DETERMINATION BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED ACTION: Hydroelectric Power Rate Increase for the Integrated System of Hydropower Projects. PROPOSED BY: Southwestern Power Administration. NUMBER AND TITLE OF THE CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION BEING APPLIED: ( 10 CFR 1021, Appendix B to Subpart D, 1-1-03 Edition, Part B4.3 - Electric power marketing rate changes. REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS IN 10 CFR 1021.410(B): (1) The proposed action fits within

  19. Nuclear Power & Engineering

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Power & Engineering - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  20. Power with STEAM

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    » Power with STEAM Power with STEAM ROSES outreach program inspires New Mexico African-American youth to envision themselves working as scientists and professionals August 18, 2016 Students at Power with STEAM 2016 The Lab's first Power with STEAM program event, held recently at the Bradbury Science Museum, brought students and some interns in the Los Alamos student programs together for fun and learning. Contacts Michelle B. Lee (505) 667-3624 Email Reaching out to New Mexico's

  1. Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  2. Power Electronics Block Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-12-31

    The software consists of code that will allow rapid prototyping of advanced power electronics for use in renewable energy systems.

  3. Southwestern Power Administration

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    January 29, 2015 Stockton Power Plant Back Online Refurbished Stockton Turbine Southwestern Administrator Chris Turner and Kansas City District Commander COL Andrew Sexton dedicate the new turbine at Stockton Power Plant. After a catastrophic failure and nearly two years of major equipment replacement work, the Stockton Power Plant in Stockton, Missouri, is back online, generating low-cost, renewable hydropower and energy for electric consumers in the marketing region of Southwestern Power

  4. Green Power Purchasing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Note: The green power purchasing goal has a target date of 2011. It has not been increased subsequently.

  5. Clean Fuels/Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  6. PowerPoint Presentation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    David Sun, PhD david.sun@power.alstom.com Power Automation & Controls, Alstom Power Session: Intelligent Electric Systems Smart Power Future of Energy Sustainability © ALSTOM 2011. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or

  7. Concentrating Solar Power Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects

  8. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  9. Wind power soars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flavin, C.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Some data for global wind power generating capacity are provided. European and other markets are discussed individually. Estimated potential for wind power is given for a number of countries. 3 figs.

  10. Management of by-products from fossil-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kofod, J.

    1998-07-01

    The world production of by-products from power plants is in excess of 500 Mt/year. Most of it consists of coal fly ash and bottom ash, but an increasing share is made up of by-products from flue gas desulfurization processes. In some countries less than 10% of the by-products are utilized, whereas the utilization ratio is as high as 90% in others. In the EU about half of the by-products is utilized, but according to the EU's policy the degree of utilization should be increased. Coal fly ash can be used in concrete pursuant to the provisions of the European standard EN 450, Fly Ash for Concrete. In addition quality fly ash can be used in the production of cement and gas concrete and in the building industry. Road construction and soil amendment can also make use of this material. Gypsum produced as a result of the flue gas desulfurization process can be used as wall boards, in the building industry and in the production of cement. Also other by-products from the flue gas desulfurization processes can be used for industrial purposes. By-products where utilization is no option will be disposed of. According to the EU's environmental legislation most of the by-products from the power plants are categorized as non-hazardous waste. This papers discusses how to design a landfill deposit for power plant residues in accordance with applicable EU-directives. However, as can be seen from the conclusion it will become increasingly difficult in the future to deposit these residues. This will urge power producers to cooperate with relevant industries to ensure utilization of a larger part of the by-products and to create solutions that will be profitable to both parties.

  11. Multimegawatt space power reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dearien, J.A.; Whitbeck, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    In response to the need of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and long range space exploration and extra-terrestrial basing by the National Air and Space Administration (NASA), concepts for nuclear power systems in the multi-megawatt levels are being designed and evaluated. The requirements for these power systems are being driven primarily by the need to minimize weight and maximize safety and reliability. This paper will discuss the present requirements for space based advanced power systems, technological issues associated with the development of these advanced nuclear power systems, and some of the concepts proposed for generating large amounts of power in space. 31 figs.

  12. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Power Block R&D

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Power block research at NREL focuses on assessing the potential of advanced power cycles to integrate with concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. This research increases the ...

  13. Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review - Power Electronic...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Power Electronics (PE) Systems Presentations Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer ... Compact SiC-Based Power Converter System - Timothy Lin, Aegis.pdf (370.13 KB) ...

  14. Multimode power processor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Sullivan, G.A.; O'Sullivan, J.A.

    1999-07-27

    In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources. 31 figs.

  15. Multimode power processor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Sullivan, George A.; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources.

  16. Discount Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Power Place: Texas Website: www.discountpowertx.com Twitter: @DiscountPowerTX Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesDiscount-Power-Texas1381444972140165 Outage Hotline:...

  17. Wind Power (pbl/generation)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation Hydro Power Wind Power Monthly GSP BPA White Book Dry Year Tools Firstgov Wind Power (Updated June 16, 2014) Project Descriptions Foote Creek I Wind Project (Carbon...

  18. Xtreme Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Zip: 78640 Product: Xtreme Power designs and manufactures power systems using power electronics and efficient storage technologies. Coordinates: 29.98837, -97.877369 Show Map...

  19. Celestial Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    ":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"" Hide Map References: Celestial Power Web Site1 Celestial Power Company Profile2 Celestial Power was founded by Jim Sylvana...

  20. Solartech Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Solartech Power Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solartech Power Place: Cerritos, California Zip: 90703 Sector: Solar Product: Solartech power is a distributer of solar modules....

  1. Eastern Power Customer Services Manager

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in the Eastern Power Services organization (PSE) of Northwest Requirements Marketing, Power Services, and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Northwest (NW) Requirements...

  2. Western Power Customer Services Manager

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in the Western Power Services organization (PSW) of Northwest Requirements Marketing, Power Services, and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Northwest (NW) Requirements...

  3. Power County | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    County Jump to: navigation, search Name Power County Facility Power County Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner CG Power...

  4. Perfect Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Perfect Power Jump to: navigation, search Name: Perfect Power Place: Phoenix, Arizona Zip: 85028 Sector: Solar Product: Perfect Power operates the world(tm)s largest solar...

  5. EPA Green Power Leadership Awards

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Green Power Leadership Awards recognize exceptional achievement among EPA Green Power Partners and among green power suppliers.

  6. Scotrenewables Wind Power and Marine Power Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Wind Power and Marine Power Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Scotrenewables Wind Power and Marine Power Ltd Place: Orkey, Scotland, United Kingdom Zip: KW16 3AW Sector:...

  7. EA-1726: Kahuku Wind Power, LLC Wind Power Generation Facility...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    6: Kahuku Wind Power, LLC Wind Power Generation Facility, O'ahu, HI EA-1726: Kahuku Wind Power, LLC Wind Power Generation Facility, O'ahu, HI EA-1726: Final Environmental ...

  8. Effects of setting regulators on the efficiency of an inorganic acid based alkali-free accelerator reacting with a Portland cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maltese, C. . E-mail: Building.lab@mapei.it; Pistolesi, C.; Bravo, A.; Cella, F.; Cerulli, T.; Salvioni, D.

    2007-04-15

    Today, in the field of underground constructions, alkali-free accelerators are commonly employed, during tunnel excavation, to allow flash concrete setting. In this way, the cementitious sprayed material can firmly bond to the tunnel walls, controlling the convergence (the tendency of the section to squeeze). Their efficiency may be related to many parameters like: cement type, setting regulator, concrete composition, working temperature. Nevertheless, the influence of such factors on the accelerator performance has not been clarified yet. The accelerator efficacy is evaluated by real spraying test in job site or, when only laboratory equipment are available, by measuring the final setting times of cement systems admixed with the accelerator. Several alkali-free flash setting admixtures are available on the market. They can be divided into two main categories both containing aluminium sulphate complexes stabilized either by inorganic acids or by organic acids. In this paper, the influence of different setting regulators on the performances of an inorganic acid based alkali-free accelerator was analysed. Portland cement samples were obtained by mixing clinker with gypsum, {alpha}-hemihydrate, {beta}-hemihydrate or anhydrite. The setting regulator instantaneous dissolution rates were evaluated through conductivity measurements. The setting time of cement pastes with and without the accelerator was measured. It was found that the shorter the final setting time (therefore the more efficient is the accelerator) the lower the setting regulator instantaneous dissolution rate. In order to understand this phenomenon, a comparison was performed between accelerated cement paste samples containing the setting regulator with the highest ({beta}-hemihydrate) and the lowest instantaneous dissolution rate (anhydrite). The analytical work included morphological (Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy-Field Emission Gun - ESEM-FEG), crystal-chemical (X-Ray Powder Diffraction

  9. Peak power ratio generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  10. Peak power ratio generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  11. Electric Power Research Institute

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Technical Notes This appendix describes how the U.S. Energy Information Administration collects, estimates, and reports electric power data in the Electric Power Annual. Data Quality and Submission The Electric Power Annual (EPA) is prepared by the Office of Electricity, Renewables, and Uranium Statistics (ERUS), U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ERUS performs routine reviews of the data collection respondent frames, survey forms, and reviews

  12. Concentrating Solar Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Concentrating Solar Power Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies use mirrors to focus and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver, from which a heat transfer fluid carries the intense thermal energy to a power block to generate electricity. A distinguishing feature of CSP is its ability to incorporate simple, efficient, and cost-effective thermal energy storage by virtue of converting sunlight to heat as an intermediate step to generating electricity. In addition to providing dispatchable

  13. Southwestern Power Administration

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE Order No. RA 6120.2 Repayment Process Under Department of Energy Order No. RA 6120.2, Southwestern conducts power repayment studies each year to determine the amount of revenue required to recover costs assigned to power, including the annual cost of marketing power, the cost of operating and maintaining the generating facilities, and, for the Integrated System and Sam Rayburn, the cost of the original investment in building the facilities, plus interest. Southwestern conducts three such

  14. Power Electronics and Controls

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronics and Controls - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  15. Power Towers for Utilities

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Towers for Utilities - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  16. Power Metering Project

    Education Teach & Learn

    There are many devices around campus that use electricity, but it helps to have an understanding of how much power each type of device uses. With this information, you are better able to focus efforts on reducing power consumption. With basic power data collection and analysis, we can begin to answer questions like: how much money does it cost the school to leave all the computers on at night?

  17. Electric Power Monthly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Electric Power Monthly > Electric Power Monthly Back Issues Electric Power Monthly Back Issues Monthly Excel files zipped 2010 January February March April May June July August September October November December 2009 January February March April May June July August September October November December 2008 January February March March Supplement April May June July August September October November December 2007 January February March April May June July August September October November

  18. Power Sector Modeling 101

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Erin Boyd Department of Energy - Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis erin.boyd@hq.doe.gov DOE's Technical Assistance Website www.energy.gov/ta Power Sector Modeling 101 2 Presentation Description - DOE Power Sector Modeling 101 With increased energy planning needs and new regulations, environmental agencies, state energy offices and others have expressed more of an interest in electric power sector models, both for (a) interpreting the results and potential applications of modeling from

  19. EIA Electric Power Forms

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Electric Power Forms EIA Electric Power Forms Listing of Publicly Available and Confidential Data EIA's statistical surveys encompass each significant electric supply and demand activity in the United States. Most of the electric power survey forms resulting data elements are published, but respondent confidentiality is required. The chart below shows the data elements for each survey form and how each data element is treated in regard to confidentiality. Data Categories Data collection forms

  20. Concentrating Solar Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear Energy

  1. Electric power annual 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-08

    This report presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and state levels: generating capability and additions, net generation, fossil-fuel statistics, retail sales and revenue, finanical statistics, environmental statistics, power transactions, demand side management, nonutility power producers. Purpose is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets.

  2. Interleaved power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Lizhi

    2007-11-13

    A power converter architecture interleaves full bridge converters to alleviate thermal management problems in high current applications, and may, for example, double the output power capability while reducing parts count and costs. For example, one phase of a three phase inverter is shared between two transformers, which provide power to a rectifier such as a current doubler rectifier to provide two full bridge DC/DC converters with three rather than four high voltage inverter legs.

  3. Concentrating Solar Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    2 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  4. Concentrating Solar Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    3 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  5. Concentrating Solar Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    4 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  6. Concentrating Solar Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    5 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  7. Cement-based waste forms for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C A; Dukes, M D; Simmons, R V

    1983-01-01

    Defense waste processing at the Savannah River Plant will include decontamination and disposal of approximately 100 million liters of soluble salts containing primarily NaNO/sub 3/, NaOH, NaNO/sub 2/, NaAl(OH)/sub 4/, and Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. A cement-based waste form, saltstone, has been designed for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste. Bulk properties of this material have been tailored with respect to salt leach rate, permeability, and compressive strength. Microstructure and mineralogy of leached and unleached specimens were characterized by SEM and x-ray diffraction analyses, respectively. It has been concluded that the salt leach rate can be limited so that amounts of salt and radionuclides in the groundwater at the perimeter of the 100-acre disposal site will not exceed EPA drinking water standards. 7 references, 4 figures, 6 tables.

  8. Cement technology for plugging boreholes in radioactive-waste-repository sites. Progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, J.G.; Morgan, M.T.; McDaniel, E.W.; Greene, H.B.; West, G.A.

    1980-08-01

    Laboratory evaluations were made of several borehole plug formulations proposed for the Bell Canyon field test. Measurements included compressive strength, permeability, density, and thermal conductivity. A few preliminary tests with saltcrete formulations showed no significant difference in physical properties of the solid as a function of fly ash or cement composition. The saltcrete proposed for the field test gave acceptable pushout strength and permeability values using miniature borehole plugs in anhydrite. Similar laboratory tests made with a freshwater formulation indicated high permeability. Electron micrographs showed dissolution cavities or cracks at the plug-wall interface. These studies showed that the reactions occurring between the borehole plug and the adjacent rock wall are an important factor in obtaining a good seal and that laboratory tests are useful to indicate the possibility of success or failure of field tests.

  9. Solar power tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The solar power tower section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  10. PowerPoint Presentation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Some new things Power to the People Steering Committee Andy Vogelmann, Greg McFarquhar, John Ogren, Dave Turner, Jennifer Comstock, Graham Feingold, Chuck Long AVP Technical &...

  11. Power Control System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-02-24

    Power Control System (PCS) is used as a real time control software package for Supervisory Control and Data Acquistion (SCADA) in an electric utility control center environment.

  12. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Calibration Intervals in Nuclear Power Plants," Transactions of the ANS 107:327-328, ... technologies unknown 15 Path Forward: Virtual Sensors OLM estimates can replace ...

  13. Power Marketing Specialist

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    (See Frequently Asked Questions for more information). Where would I be working? Western Area Power Administration, Corporate Services Office, Office of the Chief Operating Officer, Technical...

  14. Power Prepayment Program

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Program Overview Power Prepay Term Sheet Summary Request for Offers Prepayment Framework Business Case Model (Customer Prepay Impact Model) (updated 8202012) Instructions for...

  15. Sandia Energy - Water Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    News & Events, Partnership, Renewable Energy, Systems Analysis, Systems Engineering, Water Power WEC-Sim Code Development Meeting at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory...

  16. the Bonneville Power Administration

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Bonneville Power Administration deposited 12, 535,000 to the reclamation fund in the United States Treasury for the ac- count of Columbia Basin Project, Yakima Project...

  17. PowerPoint Presentation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    and outage factors (also weighted and un-weighted to consider fleets of plants) 6. Do we have data on PV ... References: 1. IEEE Power and Energy, http:...

  18. PowerPoint Presentation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Residential Variable Capacity Heat Pump Advanced Rooftop Unit Heat Pump Technology Japan Experience Next Generation HP Refrigerants Load Based testing Power Quality...

  19. Southwestern Power Administration

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    (Southwestern), to severely limit power generation at Denison to conserve water storage. ... "In fact, 2013 was the lowest year for generation since the project went online in 1945." ...

  20. Energy 101: Hydroelectric Power

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn how hydroelectric power, or hydropower, captures the kinetic energy of flowing water and turns it into electricity for our homes and businesses.

  1. Southwestern Power Administration

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    The completed exhibit includes: a large cutaway of the dam showing the primary components of power generation; interactive touch-screen displays with photos, maps, and an agency ...

  2. Southwestern Power Administration

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Student Employment Opportunities There are currently no student employment vacancies at Southwestern Power Administration. Please check here regularly for career opportunities ...

  3. Southwestern Power Administration

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    December 7, 2012 Southwestern Helps Restore Power After Hurricane Sandy Southwestern Aids Sandy Recovery Line crews from Southwestern repair distribution lines in Tom's River, New ...

  4. Southwestern Power Administration

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    in the United States, Southwestern markets hydroelectric power in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas from 24 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers multipurpose dams. ...

  5. Current Power Rates

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  6. Previous Power Rates

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  7. Solar Power Basics

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This video summarizes the process of generating solar electricity from photovoltaic and concentrating solar power technologies. Research, manufacturing, and usage across the United States is also...

  8. Water Power Program: Publications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    2014 Hydropower Market Report Details Bookmark & Share View Related Welcome to the Water Power Program Publication and Product Library. This library will allow you to find...

  9. Power Purchase Agreement Webinars

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides a listing of past power purchase agreement webinars and associated files. Author: U. S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

  10. Solar Power Purchase Agreements

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides an overview of solar power purchase agreements including how they work, benefits and challenges and eligibility. Author: United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

  11. River of Power (1987)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Volume One Film Collection Volume Two 75th Anniversary Hydropower in the Northwest Woody Guthrie Videos Strategic Direction Branding & Logos Power of the River History Book...

  12. BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Weatherization Program Support, BPA 2:00 One Utility's Low Income Program - Jeremy Stewart, Tacoma Power 2:30 CAP and Utility Collaboration * UtilityCAP contracts for...

  13. Wind Power Forecasting Data

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Operations Call 2012 Retrospective Reports 2012 Retrospective Reports 2011 Smart Grid Wind Integration Wind Integration Initiatives Wind Power Forecasting Wind Projects Email...

  14. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... * Political optimization: managing federal, state and local regulators * Capital optimization: using the capital of power companies, not the factory owner * Energy price risk ...

  15. PowerPoint Presentation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Southwestern Power Administration Drought Operations Guides * Non-Hydro Guide Curve * Inflow trends * Drought Indices * Storage Remaining * Long-term weather forecasts * Season of ...

  16. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Systems Program 1 DOE Energy Storage & Power Electronics Research Programs October 8, 2009 Marcelo Schupbach, Ph.D. Chief Technology Officer APEI, Inc. 535 Research Center Blvd. Fayetteville, AR 72701 Phone: (479)-443-5759 Email: mschupb@apei.net Website: www.apei.net Very High Temperature (400+ °C) High-Power Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Electronics Converter Energy Storage Systems Program 2 Overview * Broader Impact of SiC-based Power Converter * Phase I Review * Phase II Review * Related

  17. Alabama Power- UESC Activities

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—discusses Alabama Power and its utility energy service contract (UESC) projects and activities.

  18. PowerPoint Presentation

    Energy Savers

    PowerCentsDC Program Final Report PowerCentsDC Program Final Report In 2007 the Smart Meter Pilot Program Inc initiated PowerCentsDC to test the reactions and impacts on consumer behavior of smart prices, smart meters, and smart thermostats in the District of Columbia. PowerCentsDC Program Final Report (2.79 MB) More Documents & Publications Guidebook for ARRA Smart Grid Program Metrics and Benefits Interim Report on Customer Acceptance, Retention, and Response to Time-Based Rates from the

  19. Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2010-09-28

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  20. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Tech - National Acad. of Engineers, IEEE Fellow, past President IEEE Power Electronics Society, & recipient IEEE William E Newell Field ...

  1. Pacific Power- wattsmart Business

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pacific Power's wattsmart Business Program includes incentives and technical assistance for lighting, HVAC and other equipment upgrades that increase energy efficiency and exceed code requirements...

  2. Water Power Personnel

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  3. Water Power Technologies

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  4. PowerPoint Presentation

    Energy Savers

    Spilling of Water DroughtWet Years Completion delays M&I Water Use 2 ... to power over a reasonable period of years." 3 Pay annual costs first: ...

  5. BPA Power Services (PBL)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Executives Hydro Power 2010 Modified Streamflows BPA Fuel Mix Site Map Other Related Web Sites: BPA Energy Efficiency (EE) BPA Transmission Services BPA Environment, Fish, &...

  6. CSTI high capacity power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  7. PowerPoint Presentation

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Systems Program 1 DOE Energy Storage & Power Electronics Research Programs October 8, 2009 ... Si 208ns Energy Storage Systems Program 10 Efficiency Passive Cooling System California ...

  8. PowerPoint Presentation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Power Overview Unique Capabilities * SEAWOLF laboratoryfield oscillatory-flow sediment transport testing * Sandia Lake Facility - potential for large scale wave testing * ...

  9. Southwestern Power Administration

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    and terms and conditions and anyall notifications to listed customers of sale of Hydro Power Peaking, Peaking Energy and Supplemental Peaking Energy that have been increased,...

  10. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Space - University, Small Business, Large ... more reliable power electronic components 1 Lux Research, 2012. Institute ... 3.3 B market opportunity by 2020. ...

  11. BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    O&M Costs (Column AZ) Present Value of Periodic Capital Replacement Cost (Column BA) Power System Transmission System Coincident Factor (Column BB) Distribution System...

  12. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Purchase Power Expense SEPA Marketing Expense Interest on the Federal ... cancellation is June 30, 2017 * SEPA Marketing Policy established in the early 1980's * ...

  13. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... technology with sub-optimal market penetration - ... CostsUsage-e.g. lighting power density greater than 1.1 W... Variable Refrigerant Flow, 12.13 Condensing ...

  14. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Sustaining Maintain optimal subsurface conditions over ... Gas 28% Coal 18% Nuclear Power 8% Renewable Energy 10% ... Fractures and Fluid Flow Ability to adaptively ...

  15. Dine Power Authority (DPA)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Use state-of-the-art technology, Highly efficient, environmentally-friendly, coal-fired power plant which meets applicable regulatory standards Efficient and optimum use of ...

  16. COAL & POWER SYSTEMS

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... stitutions * InternationalCoal Technology Export C&PS ... * Systems Integration * Plant Designs Central Power ... Boiler System - Indirect Fired Cycles - Pressurized ...

  17. Nevis Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Nevis Power Jump to: navigation, search Name: Nevis Power Place: United Kingdom Product: Subsidiary of Welsh Power Group. References: Nevis Power1 This article is a stub. You can...

  18. Sandia Energy - Conventional Water Power: Technology Development

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Development Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Water Power Conventional Water Power: Technology Development Conventional Water Power: Technology...

  19. Southeastern Power Administration | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Southeastern Power Administration Southeastern Power Administration Southeastern Power Administration View All Maps Addthis

  20. Combined Heat and Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Combined Heat and Power 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 2 4 1.1 Combined Heat and Power overview ........................................................................................... 2 5 1.2 Benefits of CHP for the Nation ...................................................................................................... 4 6 1.3 Benefits of CHP for

  1. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  2. Power API Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-12-04

    The software serves two purposes. The first purpose of the software is to prototype the Sandia High Performance Computing Power Application Programming Interface Specification effort. The specification can be found at http://powerapi.sandia.gov . Prototypes of the specification were developed in parallel with the development of the specification. Release of the prototype will be instructive to anyone who intends to implement the specification. More specifically, our vendor collaborators will benefit from the availability of the prototype. The second is in direct support of the PowerInsight power measurement device, which was co-developed with Penguin Computing. The software provides a cluster wide measurement capability enabled by the PowerInsight device. The software can be used by anyone who purchases a PowerInsight device. The software will allow the user to easily collect power and energy information of a node that is instrumented with PowerInsight. The software can also be used as an example prototype implementation of the High Performance Computing Power Application Programming Interface Specification.

  3. Electrically powered hand tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-01-16

    An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

  4. Power API Prototype

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-12-04

    The software serves two purposes. The first purpose of the software is to prototype the Sandia High Performance Computing Power Application Programming Interface Specification effort. The specification can be found at http://powerapi.sandia.gov . Prototypes of the specification were developed in parallel with the development of the specification. Release of the prototype will be instructive to anyone who intends to implement the specification. More specifically, our vendor collaborators will benefit from the availability of the prototype.more » The second is in direct support of the PowerInsight power measurement device, which was co-developed with Penguin Computing. The software provides a cluster wide measurement capability enabled by the PowerInsight device. The software can be used by anyone who purchases a PowerInsight device. The software will allow the user to easily collect power and energy information of a node that is instrumented with PowerInsight. The software can also be used as an example prototype implementation of the High Performance Computing Power Application Programming Interface Specification.« less

  5. Power module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Jeremy B.; Newson, Steve

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  6. AC power systems handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, J.

    1991-01-01

    Transient disturbances are what headaches are made of. Whatever you call them-spikes, surges, are power bumps-they can take your equipment down and leave you with a complicated and expensive repair job. Protection against transient disturbances is a science that demands attention to detail. This book explains how the power distribution system works, what can go wrong with it, and how to protect a facility against abnormalities. system grounding and shielding are covered in detail. Each major method of transient protection is analyzed and its relative merits discussed. The book provides a complete look at the critical elements of the ac power system. Provides a complete look at the ac power system from generation to consumption. Discusses the mechanisms that produce transient disturbances and how to protect against them. Presents diagrams to facilitate system design. Covers new areas, such as the extent of the transient disturbance problem, transient protection options, and stand-by power systems.

  7. TEP Power Partners Project [Tucson Electric Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2014-02-06

    The Arizona Governor’s Office of Energy Policy, in partnership with Tucson Electric Power (TEP), Tendril, and Next Phase Energy (NPE), formed the TEP Power Partners pilot project to demonstrate how residential customers could access their energy usage data and third party applications using data obtained from an Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) network. The project applied for and was awarded a Smart Grid Data Access grant through the U.S. Department of Energy. The project participants’ goal for Phase I is to actively engage 1,700 residential customers to demonstrate sustained participation, reduction in energy usage (kWh) and cost ($), and measure related aspects of customer satisfaction. This Demonstration report presents a summary of the findings, effectiveness, and customer satisfaction with the 15-month TEP Power Partners pilot project. The objective of the program is to provide residential customers with energy consumption data from AMR metering and empower these participants to better manage their electricity use. The pilot recruitment goals included migrating 700 existing customers from the completed Power Partners Demand Response Load Control Project (DRLC), and enrolling 1,000 new participants. Upon conclusion of the project on November 19, 2013; 1,390 Home Area Networks (HANs) were registered; 797 new participants installed a HAN; Survey respondents’ are satisfied with the program and found value with a variety of specific program components; Survey respondents report feeling greater control over their energy usage and report taking energy savings actions in their homes after participating in the program; On average, 43 % of the participants returned to the web portal monthly and 15% returned weekly; and An impact evaluation was completed by Opinion Dynamics and found average participant savings for the treatment period1 to be 2.3% of their household use during this period.2 In total, the program saved 163 MWh in the treatment period of 2013.

  8. BPA Power Generation (pbl/main)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation Hydro Power Wind Power Monthly GSP BPA White Book Dry Year Tools Firstgov Power Generation Hydro Power Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Hydro Projects FCRPS...

  9. Electric power annual 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  10. Thermoelectric power generator for variable thermal power source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2015-04-14

    Traditional power generation systems using thermoelectric power generators are designed to operate most efficiently for a single operating condition. The present invention provides a power generation system in which the characteristics of the thermoelectrics, the flow of the thermal power, and the operational characteristics of the power generator are monitored and controlled such that higher operation efficiencies and/or higher output powers can be maintained with variably thermal power input. Such a system is particularly beneficial in variable thermal power source systems, such as recovering power from the waste heat generated in the exhaust of combustion engines.

  11. Salazar on private power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.

    1995-02-01

    The Philipines power market, considered one of the more mature markets in Asia, continues to expand with economic growth. Independent power producers will find opportunities in the next few years as new additions are required. Currently, the government is encouraging private investment and is awaiting feedback from financiers as it considers eliminating its government guarantee. In a recent interview, the Honorable Mariano S. Salazar, secretary of energy, with the Philippines` Department of Energy, discussed the regulatory structure, encouragement of private power and his country`s capital needs.

  12. Lifting BLS Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarychev, Michael

    2007-08-01

    This note describes BLS power supplies lifting techniques and provides stress calculations for lifting plate and handles bolts. BLS power supply weight is about 120 Lbs, with the center of gravity shifted toward the right front side. A lifting plate is used to attach a power supply to a crane or a hoist. Stress calculations show that safety factors for lifting plate are 12.9 (vs. 5 required) for ultimate stress and 5.7 (vs. 3 required) for yield stress. Safety factor for shackle bolt thread shear load is 37, and safety factor for bolts that attach handles is 12.8.

  13. Sets of Reports and Articles Regarding Cement Wastes Forms Containing Alpha Emitters that are Potentially Useful for Development of Russian Federation Waste Treatment Processes for Solidification of Weapons Plutonium MOX Fuel Fabrication Wastes for

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jardine, L J

    2003-06-12

    This is a set of nine reports and articles that were kindly provided by Dr. Christine A. Langton from the Savannah River Site (SRS) to L. J. Jardine LLNL in June 2003. The reports discuss cement waste forms and primarily focus on gas generation in cement waste forms from alpha particle decays. However other items such as various cement compositions, cement product performance test results and some cement process parameters are also included. This set of documents was put into this Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) releasable report for the sole purpose to provide a set of documents to Russian technical experts now beginning to study cement waste treatment processes for wastes from an excess weapons plutonium MOX fuel fabrication facility. The intent is to provide these reports for use at a US RF Experts Technical Meeting on: the Management of Wastes from MOX Fuel Fabrication Facilities, in Moscow July 9-11, 2003. The Russian experts should find these reports to be very useful for their technical and economic feasibility studies and the supporting R&D activities required to develop acceptable waste treatment processes for use in Russia as part of the ongoing Joint US RF Plutonium Disposition Activities.

  14. Normal and refractory concretes for LMFBR applications. Volume 1. Review of literature on high-temperature behavior of portland cement and refractory concretes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazant, Z.P.; Chern, J.C.; Abrams, M.S.; Gillen, M.P.

    1982-06-01

    The extensive literature on the properties and behavior at elevated temperature of portland cement concrete and various refractory concretes was reviewed to collect in concise form the physical and chemical properties of castable refractory concretes and of conventional portland cement concretes at elevated temperature. This survey, together with an extensive bibliography of source documents, is presented in Volume 1. A comparison was made of these properties, the relative advantages of the various concretes was evaluated for possible liquid metal fast breeder reactor applications, and a selection was made of several materials of interest for such applications. Volume 2 concludes with a summary of additional knowledge needed to support such uses of these materials together with recommendations on research to provide that knowledge.

  15. PowerPoint Presentation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    David S. Kosson 1 , Charles W. Powers 1 , Jennifer Salisbury, Craig H. Benson 2 , Kevin G. Brown 1 , ... J. LeBoeuf 1 , Henry S. Mayer 3 , Richard B. Stewart 6 , and Hamp Turner 1 1 ...

  16. PowerPoint Presentation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    * Machine shop * LH lab * Power systems and computer shop * Diagnostics setup lab * Welding shop 5 Year 513-514 2003 Some C-Mod Specific Instrumentation * 360 TF joint...

  17. PowerPoint Presentation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... XML etc.) hard to represent as adjacency matrices. * Associative-memory based learning * N-d-k problem (incremental k) * Understand power of in-memory computing Why EAGLE ? ...

  18. Structural power flow measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  19. Maine Green Power Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Legislation enacted in 2009 directed the Maine Public Utilities Commission (PUC) to develop a program offering green power as an option to residential and small commercial customers in the state....

  20. GMP Cow Power

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    GMP purchases the renewable energy credits for up to $0.04 per kWh with full subscription of the GMP voluntary Cow Power tariff. Attributes associated with production in excess of voluntary...

  1. Water Power Program News

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-19

    News stories about conventional hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic technologies from the U.S. Department of Energy, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, the Wind and Water Power Program, and other federal agencies.

  2. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... TBD - DC coupled hybrid inverter will be considered PV String Inverter - TBD PowerHub SiC-based 4- quadrant Battery LG Chem TBD DESS Integrated Local Controller Eaton TBD - BEMS ...

  3. Water Power News

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    858936+791+7+343Water Power News en Energy Department Awards 10.5 Million for Next-Generation Marine Energy Systems http:energy.goveerearticlesenergy-department-awards-105-...

  4. PowerOptions RFP

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    PowerOptions seeks proposals from qualified and experienced renewable energy project developers interested in providing renewable energy and Renewable Energy Credit (RECs) generated from renewable energy projects located in or deliverable to the ISO-NE.

  5. GMP Solar Power

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Green Mountain Power, an investor-owned electric utility operating in Vermont, offers a credit to customers with net-metered photovoltaic (PV) systems. In addition to the benefits of net metering,...

  6. Idaho Power- Net Metering

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In July 2013, the PUC issued an order in response to Idaho Power's application to modify its net metering program. The ruling removed a previously existing service capacity cap of 2.9 MW and chan...

  7. Lesson Plan: Power Metering

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Power Metering Project Grades: 9-12 Topic: Energy Basics Owner: ACTS This educational material is brought to you by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and...

  8. Wind Power Today

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-05-01

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview of the wind energy research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program.

  9. Wind Power Today

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-05-01

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview of the wind energy research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program.

  10. Annual Power Electric

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Electric Power Annual Update Revision Data for 2014 updated: February 16, 2016 February ... Table 8.11.A. U.S. Transmission Circuit Outages by Type and NERC region Table 8.11.B. ...

  11. Power Prepay Next Steps:

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    on BPA's Power Prepay Program is needed, please e-mail powerprepays@bpa.gov by July 19 th . * The open comment period will last for 15 days, beginning on June 28 th and...

  12. Green Power Purchasing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 2003, Maine's governor established a goal for the state government to buy at least 50% of its electricity from "reasonably priced" renewable power sources, paid for by energy conservation...

  13. PowerPoint Presentation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) FY 2013 THIRD QUARTER REVIEW Net Revenues and Reserves July 26, 2013 Projection for FY 2013 Page 2 This information has been made...

  14. Bonneville Power Administration

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    In reply refer to: PGPO Renata Kurschner Director, Generation Resource Management BC Hydro and Power Authority 691 1 Southpoint Drive, El5 Burnaby, B.C., Canada V3N 4 x 8 Dear...

  15. Kenneth W. Powers

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kenneth W. Powers, a member of the Senior Executive Service, is the Associate Administrator for Management and Budget.  As Associate Administrator, he is responsible for managing NNSA’s...

  16. Bonneville Power Administration

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    1,NT OF Bonneville Power Administration P.O Box 3621 Portland, Oregon 97208-3621 PUBLIC AFFAIRS March 10, 2010 In reply refer to: DK-7 Tom Jacobs Ex RE: BPA-2010-01030-F Dear Mr....

  17. PowerPoint Presentation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    EN debt. <4 Adjusted Net Revenue is calculated by adding Power Services and Transmission Services Net Revenues. <5 Financial reserves consist of BPA cash, investments in U.S....

  18. Dynamic Power Grid Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-09-14

    GridDyn is a part of power grid simulation toolkit. The code is designed using modern object oriented C++ methods utilizing C++11 and recent Boost libraries to ensure compatibility with multiple operating systems and environments.

  19. Southwestern Power Administration

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    About this site This Web site is the official Web site of the Southwestern Power Administration. It is part of a Federal computer system used to accomplish Federal functions and is ...

  20. Power control system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steigerwald, Robert Louis; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2006-11-07

    A power system includes an energy harvesting device, a battery coupled to the energy harvesting device, and a circuit coupled to the energy harvesting device and the battery. The circuit is adapted to deliver power to a load by providing power generated by the energy harvesting device to the load without delivering excess power to the battery and to supplement the power generated by the energy harvesting device with power from the battery if the power generated by the energy harvesting device is insufficient to fully power the load. A method of operating the power system is also provided.