National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for region negative values

  1. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    2 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios; Unit: Varies. Consumption ...

  2. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    2 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios; Unit: Varies. Consumption ...

  3. Modeling of a negative ion source. I. Gas kinetics and dynamics in the expansion region

    SciTech Connect

    Taccogna, F.; Schneider, R.; Longo, S.; Capitelli, M.

    2007-07-15

    The vibrational population distribution of the electronic ground state of H{sub 2} in the expansion region of a negative ion source is investigated using a kinetic Monte Carlo model. Operative conditions are referred to the inductively coupled plasma radio frequency negative ion source developed at IPP-Garching. The different excitation and relaxation processes are discussed, both bulk and surface contributions. In particular, due to the relatively high plasma density, the relevant role of direct low energy electron-impact excitation, surface Auger neutralization, and vibration-translation deactivation are recovered. Results of the present model will be used as input data for the neutral source model in the extraction region.

  4. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Porter, William C.; Rosenstiel, Todd N.; Guenther, Alex; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Barsanti, Kelley

    2015-05-06

    An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air quality through changes in biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced through the substitution of next-generation bioenergy crops such as eucalyptus, giant reed, and switchgrass for fossil fuels, the choice of species has important ramifications for human health, potentially reducing the benefits of conversion due to increases in ozone (O₃) and fine particulate matter (PM₂̣₅) levels as a result of large changes in biogenic emissions. Using the Community Earth Systemmore » Model we simulate the conversion of marginal and underutilized croplands worldwide to bioenergy crops under varying future anthropogenic emissions scenarios. A conservative global replacement using high VOC-emitting crop profiles leads to modeled population-weighted O₃ increases of 5–27 ppb in India, 1–9 ppb in China, and 1–6 ppb in the United States, with peak PM₂̣₅ increases of up to 2 μgm⁻³. We present a metric for the regional evaluation of candidate bioenergy crops, as well as results for the application of this metric to four representative emissions profiles using four replacement scales (10–100% maximum estimated available land). Finally, we assess the total health and climate impacts of biogenic emissions, finding that the negative consequences of using high-emitting crops could exceed 50% of the positive benefits of reduced fossil fuel emissions in value.« less

  5. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, William C.; Rosenstiel, Todd N.; Guenther, Alex; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Barsanti, Kelley

    2015-05-06

    An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air quality through changes in biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced through the substitution of next-generation bioenergy crops such as eucalyptus, giant reed, and switchgrass for fossil fuels, the choice of species has important ramifications for human health, potentially reducing the benefits of conversion due to increases in ozone (O₃) and fine particulate matter (PM₂̣₅) levels as a result of large changes in biogenic emissions. Using the Community Earth System Model we simulate the conversion of marginal and underutilized croplands worldwide to bioenergy crops under varying future anthropogenic emissions scenarios. A conservative global replacement using high VOC-emitting crop profiles leads to modeled population-weighted O₃ increases of 5–27 ppb in India, 1–9 ppb in China, and 1–6 ppb in the United States, with peak PM₂̣₅ increases of up to 2 μgm⁻³. We present a metric for the regional evaluation of candidate bioenergy crops, as well as results for the application of this metric to four representative emissions profiles using four replacement scales (10–100% maximum estimated available land). Finally, we assess the total health and climate impacts of biogenic emissions, finding that the negative consequences of using high-emitting crops could exceed 50% of the positive benefits of reduced fossil fuel emissions in value.

  6. The oxidation of a gasoline surrogate in the negative temperature coefficient region

    SciTech Connect

    Lenhert, David B.; Miller, David L.; Cernansky, Nicholas P.; Owens, Kevin G.

    2009-03-15

    This experimental study investigated the preignition reactivity behavior of a gasoline surrogate in a pressurized flow reactor over the low and intermediate temperature regime (600-800 K) at elevated pressure (8 atm). The surrogate mixture, a volumetric blend of 4.6% 1-pentene, 31.8% toluene, 14.0% n-heptane, and 49.6% 2,2,4-trimethyl-pentane (iso-octane), was shown to reproduce the low and intermediate temperature reactivity of full boiling range fuels in a previous study. Each of the surrogate components were examined individually to identify the major intermediate species in order to improve existing kinetic models, where appropriate, and to provide a basis for examining constituent interactions in the surrogate mixture. n-Heptane and 1-pentene started reacting at 630 K and 640 K, respectively, and both fuels exhibited a strong negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior starting at 700 and 710 K, respectively. Iso-octane showed a small level of reactivity at 630 K and a weak NTC behavior starting at 665 K. Neat toluene was unreactive at these temperatures. The surrogate started reacting at 630 K and exhibited a strong NTC behavior starting at 693 K. The extent of fuel consumption varied for each of the surrogate constituents and was related to their general autoignition behavior. Most of the intermediates identified during the surrogate oxidation were species observed during the oxidation of the neat constituents; however, the surrogate mixture did exhibit a significant increase in intermediates associated with iso-octane oxidation, but not from n-heptane. While neat toluene was unreactive at these temperatures, in the mixture it reacted with the radical pool generated by the other surrogate components, forming benzaldehyde, benzene, phenol, and ethyl-benzene. The observed n-heptane, iso-octane, and surrogate oxidation behavior was compared to predictions using existing kinetic models. The n-heptane model reasonably predicted the disappearance of the fuel

  7. Role of Ultrasonography of Regional Nodal Basins in Staging Triple-Negative Breast Cancer and Implications For Local-Regional Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shaitelman, Simona F.; Tereffe, Welela; Dogan, Basak E.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Caudle, Abigail S.; Valero, Vicente; Stauder, Michael C.; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Candelaria, Rosalind P.; Strom, Eric A.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Whitman, Gary J.

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: We sought to determine the rate at which regional nodal ultrasonography would increase the nodal disease stage in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) beyond the clinical stage determined by physical examination and mammography alone, and significantly affect the treatments delivered to these patients. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of women with stages I to III TNBC who underwent physical examination, mammography, breast and regional nodal ultrasonography with needle biopsy of abnormal nodes, and definitive local-regional treatment at our institution between 2004 and 2011. The stages of these patients' disease with and without ultrasonography of the regional nodal basins were compared using the Pearson χ{sup 2} test. Definitive treatments of patients whose nodal disease was upstaged on the basis of ultrasonographic findings were compared to those of patients whose disease stage remained the same. Results: A total of 572 women met the study requirements. In 111 (19.4%) of these patients, regional nodal ultrasonography with needle biopsy resulted in an increase in disease stage from the original stage by physical examination and mammography alone. Significantly higher percentages of patients whose nodal disease was upstaged by ultrasonographic findings compared to that in patients whose disease was not upstaged underwent neoadjuvant systemic therapy (91.9% and 51.2%, respectively; P<.0001), axillary lymph node dissection (99.1% and 34.5%, respectively; P<.0001), and radiation to the regional nodal basins (88.2% and 29.1%, respectively; P<.0001). Conclusions: Regional nodal ultrasonography in TNBC frequently changes the initial clinical stage and plays an important role in treatment planning.

  8. Value engineering: An alternative liner system at the La Paz County Regional Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, A.L.; Purdy, S.; Tempelis, D.

    1997-11-01

    The La Paz County Regional Landfill is a 65 hectare (160 acre) municipal waste site located near the western border of Arizona between the cities of Parker and Quartzsite. The site is operated under a public/private partnership between the County of La Paz and Browning-Ferris Industries, Inc. (BFI). The County owns the landfill and infrastructure and BFI is responsible for facility improvements, environmental compliance, and daily operations. Following the initial permitting and construction of the first landfill cell, a value engineering review was conducted on the site design and permit requirements. Based on this review, substantial cost saving opportunities were identified. In order to implement the value engineering ideas, the site permit was modified and a new Solid Waste Facilities Plan was Submitted to the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality. This paper discusses the value engineering modifications that were conducted, the revisions to the permits, and the relative cost savings that were realized. The areas addressed include the liner system design, closure design, disposal capacity, and operations plan. Through the use of alternative liners a cost savings of well over 50 percent (as compared to the original permit) will be realized over the life of the landfill.

  9. Assessing Regional Scale Variability in Extreme Value Statistics Under Altered Climate Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Brunsell, Nathaniel; Mechem, David; Ma, Chunsheng

    2015-02-20

    Recent studies have suggested that low-frequency modes of climate variability can significantly influence regional climate. The climatology associated with extreme events has been shown to be particularly sensitive. This has profound implications for droughts, heat waves, and food production. We propose to examine regional climate simulations conducted over the continental United States by applying a recently developed technique which combines wavelet multi–resolution analysis with information theory metrics. This research is motivated by two fundamental questions concerning the spatial and temporal structure of extreme events. These questions are 1) what temporal scales of the extreme value distributions are most sensitive to alteration by low-frequency climate forcings and 2) what is the nature of the spatial structure of variation in these timescales? The primary objective is to assess to what extent information theory metrics can be useful in characterizing the nature of extreme weather phenomena. Specifically, we hypothesize that (1) changes in the nature of extreme events will impact the temporal probability density functions and that information theory metrics will be sensitive these changes and (2) via a wavelet multi–resolution analysis, we will be able to characterize the relative contribution of different timescales on the stochastic nature of extreme events. In order to address these hypotheses, we propose a unique combination of an established regional climate modeling approach and advanced statistical techniques to assess the effects of low-frequency modes on climate extremes over North America. The behavior of climate extremes in RCM simulations for the 20th century will be compared with statistics calculated from the United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) and simulations from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). This effort will serve to establish the baseline behavior of climate extremes, the

  10. Baseline and target values for regional and point PV power forecasts: Toward improved solar forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri -Mathias; Lu, Siyuan; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Lehman, Brad; Simmons, Joseph; Campos, Edwin; Banunarayanan, Venkat; Black, Jon; Tedesco, John

    2015-11-10

    Accurate solar photovoltaic (PV) power forecasting allows utilities to reliably utilize solar resources on their systems. However, to truly measure the improvements that any new solar forecasting methods provide, it is important to develop a methodology for determining baseline and target values for the accuracy of solar forecasting at different spatial and temporal scales. This paper aims at developing a framework to derive baseline and target values for a suite of generally applicable, value-based, and custom-designed solar forecasting metrics. The work was informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based on state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models in combination with a radiative transfer model. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of PV power output. The proposed reserve-based methodology is a reasonable and practical approach that can be used to assess the economic benefits gained from improvements in accuracy of solar forecasting. Lastly, the financial baseline and targets can be translated back to forecasting accuracy metrics and requirements, which will guide research on solar forecasting improvements toward the areas that are most beneficial to power systems operations.

  11. Baseline and target values for regional and point PV power forecasts: Toward improved solar forecasting

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri -Mathias; Lu, Siyuan; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Lehman, Brad; Simmons, Joseph; Campos, Edwin; Banunarayanan, Venkat; Black, Jon; Tedesco, John

    2015-11-10

    Accurate solar photovoltaic (PV) power forecasting allows utilities to reliably utilize solar resources on their systems. However, to truly measure the improvements that any new solar forecasting methods provide, it is important to develop a methodology for determining baseline and target values for the accuracy of solar forecasting at different spatial and temporal scales. This paper aims at developing a framework to derive baseline and target values for a suite of generally applicable, value-based, and custom-designed solar forecasting metrics. The work was informed by close collaboration with utility and independent system operator partners. The baseline values are established based onmore » state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models and persistence models in combination with a radiative transfer model. The target values are determined based on the reduction in the amount of reserves that must be held to accommodate the uncertainty of PV power output. The proposed reserve-based methodology is a reasonable and practical approach that can be used to assess the economic benefits gained from improvements in accuracy of solar forecasting. Lastly, the financial baseline and targets can be translated back to forecasting accuracy metrics and requirements, which will guide research on solar forecasting improvements toward the areas that are most beneficial to power systems operations.« less

  12. The value of adding regional to local stakeholder involvement in evaluating the acceptability of innovative technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.; McCabe, G.; Niesen, K.; Patricia, S.

    1995-12-01

    Technology is urgently needed to clean up contamination by volatile organic compounds at United States Department of Energy (DOE) and industrial sites throughout the country. In many cases, however, existing technology is too slow, inefficient, or expensive. The record of technology development is similarly disappointing. Remediation technologies developed at great expense and evaluated piecemeal over long periods have not been deployed because, in the end, the public judged them ineffective or unacceptable. The need for remediation is too great and resources too limited to continue with ineffective technology evaluation. Early and continuing stakeholder involvement is essential to developing successful, deployable technologies. In order to make good decisions about which technologies to deploy, remedial project managers need to know stakeholders` requirements for the performance of proposed technologies. Expanding stakeholder involvement regionally identifies the concerns of a broad range of stakeholders at a arid DOE sites throughout the West - issues that must be taken into account if technologies are to be accepted for wide deployment.

  13. Mortality in Appalachian coal mining regions: the value of statistical life lost

    SciTech Connect

    Hendryx, M.; Ahern, M.M.

    2009-07-15

    We examined elevated mortality rates in Appalachian coal mining areas for 1979-2005, and estimated the corresponding value of statistical life (VSL) lost relative to the economic benefits of the coal mining industry. We compared age-adjusted mortality rates and socioeconomic conditions across four county groups: Appalachia with high levels of coal mining, Appalachia with lower mining levels, Appalachia without coal mining, and other counties in the nation. We converted mortality estimates to VSL estimates and compared the results with the economic contribution of coal mining. We also conducted a discount analysis to estimate current benefits relative to future mortality costs. The heaviest coal mining areas of Appalachia had the poorest socioeconomic conditions. Before adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual age-adjusted deaths in coal mining areas ranged from 3,975 to 10,923, depending on years studied and comparison group. Corresponding VSL estimates ranged from $18.563 billion to $84.544 billion, with a point estimate of $50.010 billion, greater than the $8.088 billion economic contribution of coal mining. After adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual deaths in mining areas ranged from 1,736 to 2,889, and VSL costs continued to exceed the benefits of mining. Discounting VSL costs into the future resulted in excess costs relative to benefits in seven of eight conditions, with a point estimate of $41.846 billion.

  14. Improved negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, J.E.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  15. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reeccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200.degree. to 500.degree. for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  16. Value Engineering

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-12-30

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) value engineering policy that establishs and maintains cost-effective value procedures and processes.

  17. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, Regan W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions.

  18. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, R.W.

    1984-05-08

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

  19. Characteristics of ion acoustic solitary waves in a negative ion plasma with superthermal electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Rouhani, M. R.; Ebne Abbasi, Z.

    2012-11-15

    The behavior of ion acoustic solitons in a plasma including positive and negative ions and kappa distributed electrons is studied, using both small amplitude and arbitrary amplitude approaches. The existence regions of compressive and rarefactive solitons will depend on negative to positive ion density ratio ({nu}) and kappa parameter as well as positive to negative ion mass ratio (Q). The numerical analysis of Sagdeev potential shows that for a chosen plasma with fixed Q, the existence regime of compressive solitons is decreased (increased) by increasing density ratio (kappa parameter), while for rarefactive solitons these conditions are quite opposite. Additionally, the possibility of propagation of both compressive and rarefactive subsonic solitons is investigated. It is found that by increasing negative ions, the existence domains of subsonic solitons are decreased, so that in excess of negative ions subsonic solitons will not propagate even at the presence of superthermal electrons. Indeed, there is a critical negative ion density ratio for all values of kappa, above that only supersonic solitons are observed. Furthermore, in addition to the previous results based on Cairns-distributed electrons [R. A. Cairns et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2709 (1995)], which predicted that both compressive and rarefactive solitons can coexist simultaneously, we have also found the regions of {nu} and {kappa} in which either positive or negative potentials are permitted (i.e., not together). This research will be helpful in understanding the properties of space and laboratory plasmas containing negative ions with energetic electrons.

  20. Negative electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Chilenskas, Albert A.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell and a negative electrode composition for use therewith comprising a positive electrode containing an active material of a chalcogen or a transiton metal chalcogenide, a negative electrode containing a lithium-aluminum alloy and an amount of a ternary alloy sufficient to provide at least about 5 percent overcharge capacity relative to a negative electrode solely of the lithium-aluminum alloy, the ternary alloy comprising lithium, aluminum, and iron or cobalt, and an electrolyte containing lithium ions in contact with both of the positive and the negative electrodes. The ternary alloy is present in the electrode in the range of from about 5 percent to about 50 percent by weight of the electrode composition and may include lithium-aluminum-nickel alloy in combination with either the ternary iron or cobalt alloys. A plurality of series connected cells having overcharge capacity can be equalized on the discharge side without expensive electrical equipment.

  1. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Sugumi; Shock, Jonathan P.; Soda, Jiro

    2015-03-10

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  2. Superconductive microstrip exhibiting negative differential resistivity

    DOEpatents

    Huebener, R.P.; Gallus, D.E.

    1975-10-28

    A device capable of exhibiting negative differential electrical resistivity over a range of values of current and voltage is formed by vapor- depositing a thin layer of a material capable of exhibiting superconductivity on an insulating substrate, establishing electrical connections at opposite ends of the deposited strip, and cooling the alloy into its superconducting range. The device will exhibit negative differential resistivity when biased in the current- induced resistive state.

  3. VALUE STUDY

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    PREPARED FOR: DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF CONTRACT RESOURCES AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SEPTEMBER 2008 UPDATE BY: AON CONSULTING INC. FEBRUARY 1999 UPDATED SEPTEMBER 29, 2008 VALUE STUDY DESK MANUAL Prepared for: DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY By: BUCK CONSULTANTS Under DE-AC01-96AD38107 Update Prepared for: DOE By: AON CONSULTING, INC. Under Delivery Order DE-BP01-08MA345678, Contract No. DE-AB01-08-ME11881 Contents PART I Overview of Value Study Illustrative Flow

  4. Value Engineering

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-01-07

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) value engineering policy that meets the requirements of Public Law 104-106, Section 4306 as codified by 41 United States Code 432. Canceled by DOE N 251.94. Does not cancel other directives.

  5. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-08-06

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  6. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1984-12-04

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field. 14 figs.

  7. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1984-01-01

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  8. Is the negative glow plasma of a direct current glow discharge negatively charged?

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanov, E. A.; Saifutdinov, A. I.; Demidov, V. I.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.

    2015-02-15

    A classic problem in gas discharge physics is discussed: what is the sign of charge density in the negative glow region of a glow discharge? It is shown that traditional interpretations in text-books on gas discharge physics that states a negative charge of the negative glow plasma are based on analogies with a simple one-dimensional model of discharge. Because the real glow discharges with a positive column are always two-dimensional, the transversal (radial) term in divergence with the electric field can provide a non-monotonic axial profile of charge density in the plasma, while maintaining a positive sign. The numerical calculation of glow discharge is presented, showing a positive space charge in the negative glow under conditions, where a one-dimensional model of the discharge would predict a negative space charge.

  9. The value of volunteering

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    volunteering Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue:November 2, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit The value of volunteering Volunteers help fill gaps in staffing at regional nonprofits March 1, 2016 Betty Ehart Senior Center staffer Susie Eash challenges Pat Day on their daily match of "Aggravation." Betty Ehart Senior Center staffer Susie Eash challenges Pat Day on their daily match of Aggravation. Contacts

  10. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Bacal, M.; Wada, M.

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  11. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.; Hiskes, J.R.

    1983-11-10

    It is an object of this invention provide a negative ion source which efficiently provides a large flux of negatively ionized particles. This invention provides a volume source of negative ions which has a current density sufficient for magnetic fusion applications and has electrons suppressed from the output. It is still another object of this invention to provide a volume source of negative ions which can be electrostatically accelerated to high energies and subsequently neutralized to form a high energy neutral beam for use with a magnetically confined plasma.

  12. CO{sub 2} Allowance Allocation in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and the Effect on Electricity Investors

    SciTech Connect

    Burtraw, Dallas; Kahn, Danny; Palmer, Karen

    2006-03-01

    The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative among Northeastern states is expected to lead to an increase in the price of electricity in the region and beyond. In the RGGI region, changes in the value of electricity-generating assets may be positive or negative, while changes outside the Northeast are virtually always positive. For stakeholders in the industry, the change depends on the portfolio of assets held by affected firms. (author)

  13. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.; Hiskes, John R.

    1985-01-01

    A negative ion vessel is divided into an excitation chamber, a negative ionization chamber and an extraction chamber by two magnetic filters. Input means introduces neutral molecules into a first chamber where a first electron discharge means vibrationally excites the molecules which migrate to a second chamber. In the second chamber a second electron discharge means ionizes the molecules, producing negative ions which are extracted into or by a third chamber. A first magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the negative ionization chamber from the excitation chamber. A second magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the extraction chamber from the negative ionizing chamber. An extraction grid at the end of the negative ion vessel attracts negative ions into the third chamber and accelerates them. Another grid, located adjacent to the extraction grid, carries a small positive voltage in order to inhibit positive ions from migrating into the extraction chamber and contour the plasma potential. Additional electrons can be suppressed from the output flux using ExB forces provided by magnetic field means and the extractor grid electric potential.

  14. Bimolecular reaction dynamics from photoelectron spectroscopy of negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Bradforth, S.E.

    1992-11-01

    The transition state region of a neutral bimolecular reaction may be experimentally investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy of an appropriate negative ion. The photoelectron spectrum provides information on the spectroscopy and dynamics of the short lived transition state and may be used to develop model potential energy surfaces that are semi-quantitative in this important region. The principles of bound [yields] bound negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy are illustrated by way of an example: a full analysis of the photoelectron bands of CN[sup [minus

  15. Regional Purchasing

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Regional Partnerships Regional Partnerships DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Program DOE has created a network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) to help develop the technology, infrastructure, and regulations to implement large-scale CO2 storage (also called carbon sequestration) in different regions and geologic formations within the Nation. Collectively, the seven RCSPs represent regions encompassing: 97 percent of coal-fired CO2 emissions; 97 percent

  16. Sandia Energy - PV Value

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    PV Value Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation PV Value PV ValueTara Camacho-Lopez2015-06-12T20:36:38+00:0...

  17. Spectroscopic Evidence for Negative Electronic Compressibility...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectroscopic Evidence for Negative Electronic Compressibility in a Quasi-three-dimensional Spin-orbit Correlated Metal Tuesday, June 30, 2015 Negative compressibility is a sign of...

  18. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.

    1979-10-25

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employing crossed electric and magnetic fields, separates the electrons from the ions as they are extracted from the ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90/sup 0/ to each other, the electrons remain at approximately the electrical potential at which they were generated. The electromagnetic forces cause the ions to be accelerated to the full accelerating supply voltage energy while being deflected through an angle of less than 90/sup 0/. The electrons precess out of the accelerating field region into an electron recovery region where they are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply energy. It is possible, by this method, to collect > 90% of the electrons extracted along with the negative ions from a negative ion source beam at < 4% of full energy.

  19. Negative mass solitons in gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Cebeci, Hakan; Sarioglu, Oezguer; Tekin, Bayram

    2006-03-15

    We first reconstruct the conserved (Abbott-Deser) charges in the spin-connection formalism of gravity for asymptotically (Anti)-de Sitter spaces, and then compute the masses of the AdS soliton and the recently found Eguchi-Hanson solitons in generic odd dimensions, unlike the previous result obtained for only five dimensions. These solutions have negative masses compared to the global AdS or AdS/Z{sub p} spacetimes. As a separate note, we also compute the masses of the recent even dimensional Taub-NUT-Reissner-Nordstroem metrics.

  20. Threshold photodetachment spectroscopy of negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Kitsopoulos, T.N.

    1991-12-01

    This thesis is concerned with the development and application of high resolution threshold photodetachment spectroscopy of negative ions. Chapter I deals with the principles of our photodetachment technique, and in chapter II a detailed description of the apparatus is presented. The threshold photodetachment spectra of I{sup {minus}}, and SH{sup {minus}}, presented in the last sections of chapter II, indicated that a resolution of 3 cm{sup {minus}1} can be achieved using our technique. In chapter III the threshold photodetachment spectroscopy study of the transition state region of I + HI and I + Di reactions is discussed. Our technique probes the transition state region directly, and the results of our study are the first unambiguous observations of reactive resonances in a chemical reaction. Chapters IV, V and VI are concerned with the spectroscopy of small silicon and carbon clusters. From our spectra we were able to assign electronic state energies and vibrational frequencies for the low lying electronics states of Si{sub n} (n=2,3,4), C{sub 5} and their corresponding anions.

  1. VALUE STUDY | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    VALUE STUDY More Documents & Publications Contractor Human Resources Management VALUE STUDY Value Study Desk Manual...

  2. VALUE STUDY | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    VALUE STUDY VALUE STUDY PDF icon VALUE STUDY More Documents & Publications Contractor Human Resources Management VALUE STUDY Value Study Desk Manual

  3. Photodetachment of hydrogen negative ions with screened Coulomb interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Song Bin; Chen, Xiang Jun; Wang, Jian Guo; Janev, R. K.; Qu, Yi Zhi

    2010-06-15

    The effects of Coulomb interaction screening on photodetachment cross sections of hydrogen negative ions below the n =2 excitation threshold is investigated by using the R-matrix method with pseudostates. The contributions of Feshbach and shape resonances to H{sup -} photodetachment cross section are presented when screening length (D) varies from D = {infinity} to D = 4.6 a.u. It is found that the interaction screening has dramatic effects on the photodetachment cross sections of hydrogen negative ions in the photoelectron energy region around the n = 2 excitation threshold by strongly affecting the evolution of near-threshold resonances.

  4. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    ... Fuel Oil' includes Nos. 1, 2, and 4 fuel oils and Nos. 1, 2, and 4 diesel fuels. ... Notes: To obtain the RSE percentage for any table cell, multiply the cell's corresponding ...

  5. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ... has already been included as generating fuel (for example, coal). (c) 'Distillate Fuel ... Notes: To obtain the RSE percentage for any table cell, multiply the cell's corresponding ...

  6. New methods for identifying value added by a regional climate...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Brian Grabowski at media@anl.gov or (630) 252-1232. Connect Find an Argonne expert by subject. Follow Argonne on Twitter, Facebook, Google+ and LinkedIn. For inquiries on...

  7. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ... Related Devices * * * * 0 0 0 0 0 0 335 Electrical Equip., Appliances, and Components * * ... Related Devices * 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 335 Electrical Equip., Appliances, and Components * 0 ...

  8. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    ... Related Devices 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 335 Electrical Equip., Appliances, and Components 0 0 ... Related Devices 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 335 Electrical Equip., Appliances, and Components 0 0 ...

  9. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ... 10,810 176 10,622 Q Q 0 0 0 0 118 335 Electrical Equip., Appliances, and Components ... 1,959 123 1,824 0 Q 0 0 0 0 79 335 Electrical Equip., Appliances, and Components ...

  10. Level: National Data and Regional Totals; Row: NAICS Codes, Value...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ... Related Devices 4 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 335 Electrical Equip., Appliances, and Components 0 0 ... Related Devices 4 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 335 Electrical Equip., Appliances, and Components 0 0 ...

  11. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    ... Related Devices * 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 335 Electrical Equip., Appliances, and Components * * ... Related Devices * 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 335 Electrical Equip., Appliances, and Components * * ...

  12. Level: National Data and Regional Totals; Row: NAICS Codes, Value...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... Related Devices Q * Q * 0 0 0 0 0 0 335 Electrical Equip., Appliances, and Components 229 ... Related Devices Q 0 Q 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 335 Electrical Equip., Appliances, and Components Q Q ...

  13. Level: National Data and Regional Totals; Row: NAICS Codes, Value...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    ... Devices 19 10 5 * 9 0 0 0 0 * 335 Electrical Equip., Appliances, and Components Q 0 ... Devices 17 9 4 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 335 Electrical Equip., Appliances, and Components Q 0 ...

  14. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... Devices 19 1 18 0 1 * 0 0 0 0 335 Electrical Equip., Appliances, and Components 35 5 ... Related Devices 3 1 3 0 * * 0 0 0 0 335 Electrical Equip., Appliances, and Components 6 2 ...

  15. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes, Value of...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ... Related Devices * * * 0 * 0 0 0 0 * 335 Electrical Equip., Appliances, and Components * * ... Related Devices * 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 335 Electrical Equip., Appliances, and Components * * ...

  16. Level: National Data and Regional Totals; Row: NAICS Codes, Value...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    ... 12,746 124 11,308 6 114 0 0 0 0 4 335 Electrical Equip., Appliances, and Components ... Devices 2,180 Q 2,024 * Q 0 0 0 0 0 335 Electrical Equip., Appliances, and Components ...

  17. Level: National Data and Regional Totals; Row: NAICS Codes, Value...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ... Related Devices 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 335 Electrical Equip., Appliances, and Components 0 0 ... Related Devices 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 335 Electrical Equip., Appliances, and Components 0 0 ...

  18. Level: National Data and Regional Totals; Row: NAICS Codes, Value...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ... Devices 18 3 12 * 1 2 0 * 0 * 335 Electrical Equip., Appliances, and Components 40 8 ... Related Devices 4 2 2 * * 2 0 0 0 * 335 Electrical Equip., Appliances, and Components 3 * ...

  19. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... QWithheld because Relative Standard Error is greater than 50 percent. NANot available. Notes: To obtain the RSE percentage for any table cell, multiply the cell's corresponding ...

  20. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ... Noncombustible sources include solar power, wind power, hydropower, and geothermal power. ... Notes: To obtain the RSE percentage for any table cell, multiply the cell's corresponding ...

  1. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... of Oil and Gas, Petroleum Supply Division, Form EIA-810, 'Monthly Refinery Report' for 2006, and the Bureau of the Census, data files for the '2006 Annual Survey of Manufacturers.

  2. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... of Oil and Gas, Petroleum Supply Division, Form EIA-810, 'Monthly Refinery Report' for 2006, and the Bureau of the Census, data files for the '2006 Annual Survey of Manufacturers.'

  3. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ... Energy Consumption Division, Form EIA-846, '2006 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey,' and the Bureau of the Census, data files for the '2006 Annual Survey of Manufacturers

  4. Cyclotron Institute » Negative Ion Source

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Negative Ion Source Negative Ion Source The Multi-Cusp Negative Ion Source was installed on the K150 cyclotron in 2010. H- and D- ions are produced in the plasma chamber with a hot tantalum filament. The source is capable of producing milliamperes of ions and is used for experiments needing high intensity proton and deuteron beams

  5. Effects of discharge chamber length on the negative ion generation in volume-produced negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Jung, Bong-Ki; An, YoungHwa; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Hwang, Y. S.

    2014-02-15

    In a volume-produced negative hydrogen ion source, control of electron temperature is essential due to its close correlation with the generation of highly vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules in the heating region as well as the generation of negative hydrogen ions by dissociative attachment in the extraction region. In this study, geometric effects of the cylindrical discharge chamber on negative ion generation via electron temperature changes are investigated in two discharge chambers with different lengths of 7.5 cm and 11 cm. Measurements with a radio-frequency-compensated Langmuir probe show that the electron temperature in the heating region is significantly increased by reducing the length of the discharge chamber due to the reduced effective plasma size. A particle balance model which is modified to consider the effects of discharge chamber configuration on the plasma parameters explains the variation of the electron temperature with the chamber geometry and gas pressure quite well. Accordingly, H{sup −} ion density measurement with laser photo-detachment in the short chamber shows a few times increase compared to the longer one at the same heating power depending on gas pressure. However, the increase drops significantly as operating gas pressure decreases, indicating increased electron temperatures in the extraction region degrade dissociative attachment significantly especially in the low pressure regime. It is concluded that the increase of electron temperature by adjusting the discharge chamber geometry is efficient to increase H{sup −} ion production as long as low electron temperatures are maintained in the extraction region in volume-produced negative hydrogen ion sources.

  6. Hanford Advisory Board Values

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    of work are fundamental core values. Workers should receive appropriate training and programs should be in place to ensure a safety-conscious work environment, without...

  7. NOAA 2015 Regional Coast Resilience Grant Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOOA) is accepting applications for the Regional Coastal Resilience Grant program to support regional approaches to undertake activities that build resilience of coastal regions, communities, and economic sectors to the negative impacts from extreme weather events, climate hazards, and changing ocean conditions.

  8. High coking value pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  9. Regional Partnerships

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has created a network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) to help develop the technology, infrastructure, and regulations to implement large-scale CO2 storage (also...

  10. VALUE ENGINEERING.PDF

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    6 I N S P E C T I O N R E P O R T U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL OFFICE OF INSPECTIONS FOLLOW-ON INSPECTION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'S VALUE ENGINEERING PROGRAM DECEMBER 2001 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Washington, DC 20585 December 20, 2001 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY FROM: Gregory H. Friedman /s/ Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Report on "Follow-on Inspection of the Department of Energy's Value Engineering Program" BACKGROUND Value Engineering is a

  11. Electrochemical cell and negative electrode therefor

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell with the positive and negative electrodes separated by a molten salt electrolyte with the negative electrode comprising a particulate mixture of lithium-aluminum alloy and electrolyte and an additive selected from graphitized carbon, Raney iron or mixtures thereof. The lithium-aluminum alloy is present in the range of from about 45 to about 80 percent by volume of the negative electrode, and the electrolyte is present in an amount not less than about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode. The additive of graphitized carbon is present in the range of from about 1 to about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode, and the Raney iron additive is present in the range of from about 3 to about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode.

  12. Photovoltaics Value Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras, J.L.; Frantzis, L.; Blazewicz, S.; Pinault, D.; Sawyer, H.

    2008-02-01

    The goals of this report are to identify best practices in methodologies for estimating the value of distributed PV technologies, identify gaps in existing knowledge, and outline R&D opportunities.

  13. Value of Information References

    DOE Data Explorer

    Morency, Christina

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  14. Value of Information References

    DOE Data Explorer

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  15. Earned Value Management

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Earned Value Management (EVM) is a systematic approach to the integration and measurement of cost, schedule, and technical (scope) accomplishments on a project or task. It provides both the...

  16. HSEP Value Statement

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    7/9/2012 HSEP Value Statement Safe and environmentally conscious performance of work is our fundamental core value. Integrated Safety Management should be used as the principal vehicle to protect the worker and the environment, and to guide work planning of all types. This includes practicing the proper principles of behavior conducive to a positive safety culture and incorporating safety and environmental risk identification and mitigation in facility designs. Workers should receive appropriate

  17. Table 2. Value and average value of photovoltaic module shipments...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Value and average value of photovoltaic module shipments, 2015" "Module value, total ... Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic CellModule Shipments Report' Note: ...

  18. Negative resistance in an organic thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Ehara, S. ); Takagi, T. ); Yoshida, T.; Inaba, H.; Naito, H.; Okuda, M. )

    1992-08-20

    This paper reports that the negative resistance of the tunneling currents was observed in a semiconducting organic thin film on a graphite substrate by an STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscopy). This negative resistance may be understood by the theory of a molecular resonance tunneling effect.

  19. Value of Information spreadsheet

    DOE Data Explorer

    Trainor-Guitton, Whitney

    2014-05-12

    This spreadsheet represents the information posteriors derived from synthetic data of magnetotellurics (MT). These were used to calculate value of information of MT for geothermal exploration. Information posteriors describe how well MT was able to locate the "throat" of clay caps, which are indicative of hidden geothermal resources. This data is full explained in the peer-reviewed publication: Trainor-Guitton, W., Hoversten, G. M., Ramirez, A., Roberts, J., Júlíusson, E., Key, K., Mellors, R. (Sept-Oct. 2014) The value of spatial information for determining well placement: a geothermal example, Geophysics.

  20. Value of Information spreadsheet

    DOE Data Explorer

    Trainor-Guitton, Whitney

    2014-05-12

    This spreadsheet represents the information posteriors derived from synthetic data of magnetotellurics (MT). These were used to calculate value of information of MT for geothermal exploration. Information posteriors describe how well MT was able to locate the "throat" of clay caps, which are indicative of hidden geothermal resources. This data is full explained in the peer-reviewed publication: Trainor-Guitton, W., Hoversten, G. M., Ramirez, A., Roberts, J., Jlusson, E., Key, K., Mellors, R. (Sept-Oct. 2014) The value of spatial information for determining well placement: a geothermal example, Geophysics.

  1. Positive and negative ion beam merging system for neutral beam production

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2005-12-13

    The positive and negative ion beam merging system extracts positive and negative ions of the same species and of the same energy from two separate ion sources. The positive and negative ions from both sources pass through a bending magnetic field region between the pole faces of an electromagnet. Since the positive and negative ions come from mirror image positions on opposite sides of a beam axis, and the positive and negative ions are identical, the trajectories will be symmetrical and the positive and negative ion beams will merge into a single neutral beam as they leave the pole face of the electromagnet. The ion sources are preferably multicusp plasma ion sources. The ion sources may include a multi-aperture extraction system for increasing ion current from the sources.

  2. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.; Stirling, William L.

    1982-01-01

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employs crossed electric and magnetic fields to separate the electrons from ions as they are extracted from a negative ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full kinetic energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90.degree. to each other, the electrons are separated from the plasma and remain at approximately the electrical potential of the generator in which they were generated. The electrons migrate from the ion beam path in a precessing motion out of the ion accelerating field region into an electron recovery region provided by a specially designed electron collector electrode. The electron collector electrode is uniformly spaced from a surface of the ion generator which is transverse to the direction of migration of the electrons and the two surfaces are contoured in a matching relationship which departs from a planar configuration to provide an electric field component in the recovery region which is parallel to the magnetic field thereby forcing the electrons to be directed into and collected by the electron collector electrode. The collector electrode is maintained at a potential slightly positive with respect to the ion generator so that the electrons are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply voltage energy.

  3. Core Values | The Ames Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Core Values What we do and how we do it is determined by our core values. Our core values are how we operate and what we value most. They are the qualities that define our culture...

  4. Regional Information

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Regional Information There is plenty to do and see in the cities of Golden and Denver, Colorado. Here you'll find links to general information about these areas, plus hospitals, local universities and colleges, entertainment, sports, amusement parks, and more. Golden City of Golden Golden's 2-Hour Vacation Denver www.denver.com www.denver.org Denver Public Library Colorado State of Colorado Colorado tourism Transportation (Bus and Light Rail) RTD Hospitals Largest Hospitals in Metro Denver

  5. The false-negative Meckel's scan

    SciTech Connect

    Wilton, G.; Froelich, J.W.

    1982-10-01

    A case is presented of a 17-month-old girl who underwent two Meckel's scans with /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate. The initial study was interpreted as normal while a subsequent study five days later was definitely positive. Surgery immediately following the positive Meckel's scan demonstrated a Meckel's diverticulum containing gastric mucosa without evidence of active hemorrhage. This prompted a review of the literature in reference to false-negative Meckel's scans which revealed a wide variance in the reported incidence of false-negative examinations. Repeat scintigraphy in the face of a strong clinical suspicion after an initial normal study may decrease the indicence of false-negative imaging series.

  6. Social Values | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Social Values Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSocialValues&oldid612345...

  7. Economic Values | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Economic Values Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleEconomicValues&oldid612356...

  8. Negative terahertz conductivity in remotely doped graphene bilayer heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhii, V.; Ryzhii, M.; Mitin, V.; Shur, M. S.; Otsuji, T.

    2015-11-14

    Injection or optical generation of electrons and holes in graphene bilayers (GBLs) can result in the interband population inversion enabling the terahertz (THz) radiation lasing. The intraband radiative processes compete with the interband transitions. We demonstrate that remote doping enhances the indirect interband generation of photons in the proposed GBL heterostructures. Therefore, such remote doping helps to surpass the intraband (Drude) absorption, and results in large absolute values of the negative dynamic THz conductivity in a wide range of frequencies at elevated (including room) temperatures. The remotely doped GBL heterostructure THz lasers are expected to achieve higher THz gain compared with previously proposed GBL-based THz lasers.

  9. Value Study Desk Manual

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    PREPARED FOR: DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Contractor Human Resources Policy Division September 26, 2012 UPDATE VALUE STUDY DESK MANUAL Prepared for: DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY By: BUCK CONSULTANTS Under DE-AC01-96AD38107 Update Prepared for: DOE By: AON CONSULTING, INC. Under Delivery Order DE-BP01-08MA345678, Contract No. DE-AB01-08-ME11881 September 28, 2008 Update Prepared for: DOE By: Aon Hewitt Inc. Under Delivery Order DE-BP01-08MA345678, Contract No. DE-AB01-08-ME11881 September 26, 2012

  10. Bimolecular reaction dynamics from photoelectron spectroscopy of negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Bradforth, S.E.

    1992-11-01

    The transition state region of a neutral bimolecular reaction may be experimentally investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy of an appropriate negative ion. The photoelectron spectrum provides information on the spectroscopy and dynamics of the short lived transition state and may be used to develop model potential energy surfaces that are semi-quantitative in this important region. The principles of bound {yields} bound negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy are illustrated by way of an example: a full analysis of the photoelectron bands of CN{sup {minus}}, NCO{sup {minus}} and NCS{sup {minus}}. Transition state photoelectron spectra are presented for the following systems Br + HI, Cl + HI, F + HI, F + CH{sub 3}0H,F + C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH,F + OH and F + H{sub 2}. A time dependent framework for the simulation and interpretation of the bound {yields} free transition state photoelectron spectra is subsequently developed and applied to the hydrogen transfer reactions Br + HI, F + OH {yields} O({sup 3}P, {sup 1}D) + HF and F + H{sub 2}. The theoretical approach for the simulations is a fully quantum-mechanical wave packet propagation on a collinear model reaction potential surface. The connection between the wavepacket time evolution and the photoelectron spectrum is given by the time autocorrelation function. For the benchmark F + H{sub 2} system, comparisons with three-dimensional quantum calculations are made.

  11. Determining the Capacity Value of Wind: An Updated Survey of Methods and Implementation; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Porter, K.

    2008-06-01

    This paper summarizes state and regional studies examining the capacity value of wind energy, how different regions define and implement capacity reserve requirements, and how wind energy is defined as a capacity resource in those regions.

  12. Carrier heating and negative photoconductivity in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Heyman, J. N.; Stein, J. D.; Kaminski, Z. S.; Banman, A. R.; Massari, A. M.; Robinson, J. T.

    2015-01-07

    We investigated negative photoconductivity in graphene using ultrafast terahertz techniques. Infrared transmission was used to determine the Fermi energy, carrier density, and mobility of p-type chemical vapor deposition graphene samples. Time-resolved terahertz photoconductivity measurements using a tunable mid-infrared pump probed these samples at photon energies between 0.35 eV and 1.55 eV, approximately one-half to three times the Fermi energy of the samples. Although interband optical transitions in graphene are blocked for pump photon energies less than twice the Fermi energy, we observe negative photoconductivity at all pump photon energies investigated, indicating that interband excitation is not required to observe this effect. Our results are consistent with a thermalized free-carrier population that cools by electron-phonon scattering, but are inconsistent with models of negative photoconductivity based on population inversion.

  13. Research progress on ionic plasmas generated in an intense hydrogen negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Takeiri, Y. Tsumori, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Kaneko, O.; Ikeda, K.; Nakano, H.; Kisaki, M.; Tokuzawa, T.; Osakabe, M.; Kondo, T.; Sato, M.; Shibuya, M.; Komada, S.; Sekiguchi, H.; Geng, S.

    2015-04-08

    Characteristics of ionic plasmas, observed in a high-density hydrogen negative ion source, are investigated with a multi-diagnostics system. The ionic plasma, which consists of hydrogen positive- and negative-ions with a significantly low-density of electrons, is generated in the ion extraction region, from which the negative ions are extracted through the plasma grid. The negative ion density, i.e., the ionic plasma density, as high as the order of 110{sup 17}m{sup ?3}, is measured with cavity ring-down spectroscopy, while the electron density is lower than 110{sup 16}m{sup ?3}, which is confirmed with millimeter-wave interferometer. Reduction of the negative ion density is observed at the negative ion extraction, and at that time the electron flow into the ionic plasma region is observed to conserve the charge neutrality. Distribution of the plasma potential is measured in the extraction region in the direction normal to the plasma grid surface with a Langmuir probe, and the results suggest that the sheath is formed at the plasma boundary to the plasma grid to which the bias voltage is applied. The beam extraction should drive the negative ion transport in the ionic plasma across the sheath formed on the extraction surface. Larger reduction of the negative ions at the beam extraction is observed in a region above the extraction aperture on the plasma grid, which is confirmed with 2D image measurement of the H? emission and cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The electron distribution is also measured near the plasma grid surface. These various properties observed in the ionic plasma are discussed.

  14. Experimental evidence on removing copper and light-induced degradation from silicon by negative charge

    SciTech Connect

    Boulfrad, Yacine Lindroos, Jeanette; Yli-Koski, Marko; Savin, Hele; Wagner, Matthias; Wolny, Franziska

    2014-11-03

    In addition to boron and oxygen, copper is also known to cause light-induced degradation (LID) in silicon. We have demonstrated previously that LID can be prevented by depositing negative corona charge onto the wafer surfaces. Positively charged interstitial copper ions are proposed to diffuse to the negatively charged surface and consequently empty the bulk of copper. In this study, copper out-diffusion was confirmed by chemical analysis of the near surface region of negatively/positively charged silicon wafer. Furthermore, LID was permanently removed by etching the copper-rich surface layer after negative charge deposition. These results demonstrate that (i) copper can be effectively removed from the bulk by negative charge, (ii) under illumination copper forms a recombination active defect in the bulk of the wafer causing severe light induced degradation.

  15. Negative electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Vaughey, John T.; Fransson, Linda M.; Thackeray, Michael M.

    2005-02-15

    A negative electrode is disclosed for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell. The electrode has an intermetallic compound as its basic structural unit with the formula M.sub.2 M' in which M and M' are selected from two or more metal elements including Si, and the M.sub.2 M' structure is a Cu.sub.2 Sb-type structure. Preferably M is Cu, Mn and/or Li, and M' is Sb. Also disclosed is a non-aqueous electrochemical cell having a negative electrode of the type described, an electrolyte and a positive electrode. A plurality of cells may be arranged to form a battery.

  16. PV Value | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    PV Value PV Value PV Value Sandia National Laboratories has developed a prospective model of determining the value of PV. Sandia uses an income capitalization approach, which considers the present value of future energy production to determine the remaining value of a PV system. An online tool developed by Energy Sense Finance, has been released to the public. https://www.pvvalue.com/ PV Value (332.15 KB) More Documents & Publications PV Value® Reduce Risk, Increase Clean Energy: How States

  17. The value of money

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, M.S.

    1995-12-01

    Today, more than ever before, power plant engineers find themselves in a new arena of competition. It is no longer enough to address the technical problems. Today is also an era of financial competition. This is not just competition in the sense of {open_quotes}the enemy out there{close_quotes}. Engineers are competing with a myriad of other good projects within their own company for precious budget dollars. Utility budget scrutiny is increasing every year. To be successful, engineers have to be prepared to justify their projects in clear, measurable terms that withstand management`s scrutiny. Today`s engineer is faced with a technical and financial challenge and must be prepared if he or she is to succeed. This paper addresses methods used at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company for justification of feedwater heater replacements. Though only a suggested method; it is nonetheless a method that has worked well. This paper covers how a feedwater heater replacement is evaluated, from the identified need to the proposed solution. Expectations are defined. Realistic assessments are made. Measurement criteria is established, in advance. Responsibility is assigned. The project is evaluated on its technical and financial merits, reflecting today`s {open_quotes}value of money{close_quotes}.

  18. Negative Electrode For An Alkaline Cell

    DOEpatents

    Coco, Isabelle; Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel; Villenave, Jean-Jacques

    1998-07-14

    The present invention concerns a negative electrode for an alkaline cell, comprising a current collector supporting a paste containing an electrochemically active material and a binder, characterized in that said binder is a polymer containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, said polymer being selected from an acrylic homopolymer, copolymer and terpolymer, an unsaturated organic acid copolymer and an unsaturated acid anhydride copolymer.

  19. Cesium injection system for negative ion duoplasmatrons

    DOEpatents

    Kobayashi, Maasaki (Oho, JA); Prelec, Krsto (Setauket, NY); Sluyters, Theodorus J (East Patchogue, NY)

    1978-01-01

    Longitudinally extending, foraminous cartridge means having a cylindrical side wall forming one flat, circular, tip end surface and an opposite end; an open-ended cavity, and uniformly spaced orifices for venting the cavity through the side wall in the annulus of a plasma ring for uniformly ejecting cesium for coating the flat, circular, surface. To this end, the cavity is filled with a cesium containing substance and attached to a heater in a hollow-discharge duoplasmatron. By coating the flat circular surface with a uniform monolayer of cesium and locating it in an electrical potential well at the end of a hollow-discharge, ion duoplasmatron source of an annular hydrogen plasma ring, the negative hydrogen production from the duoplasmatron is increased. The negative hydrogen is produced on the flat surface of the cartridge and extracted by the electrical potential well along a trajectory coaxial with the axis of the plasma ring.

  20. Structures with negative index of refraction

    DOEpatents

    Soukoulis, Costas M.; Zhou, Jiangfeng; Koschny, Thomas; Zhang, Lei; Tuttle, Gary

    2011-11-08

    The invention provides simplified negative index materials (NIMs) using wire-pair structures, 4-gap single ring split-ring resonator (SRR), fishnet structures and overleaf capacitor SRR. In the wire-pair arrangement, a pair of short parallel wires and continuous wires are used. In the 4-gap single-ring SRR, the SRRs are centered on the faces of a cubic unit cell combined with a continuous wire type resonator. Combining both elements creates a frequency band where the metamaterial is transparent with simultaneously negative .di-elect cons. and .mu.. In the fishnet structure, a metallic mesh on both sides of the dielectric spacer is used. The overleaf capacitor SRR changes the gap capacities to small plate capacitors by making the sections of the SRR ring overlap at the gaps separated by a thin dielectric film. This technique is applicable to conventional SRR gaps but it best deploys for the 4-gap single-ring structures.

  1. Prestack mid-value filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Changlian, X. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes mid-value filtering, a specific nonlinear smoothing filtering, and widely used in graphic processing, etc. Mid-value filtering before stack of seismic data can remove wild value (inconceivable particular big value) and improve signal-noise ratio. In view of big data volume before stack, computation efficiency of mid-value filtering is critical to its feasibility. The algorithm used here is sufficiently based on the properties of mid-value filtering, so that the computation efficiency is greatly improved. It is experimentally shown that prestack mid-value filtering can quite well eliminate wild value, abnormal traces as well as surface waves, and raise signal-noise ratio. After lateral low frequency noises are removed by high pass filtering, mid-value filtering works better.

  2. Value of solar thermal industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Fassbender, L.L.; Chockie, A.D.

    1986-03-01

    This study estimated the value of solar thermal-generated industrial process heat (IPH) as a function of process heat temperature. The value of solar thermal energy is equal to the cost of producing energy from conventional fuels and equipment if the energy produced from either source provides an equal level of service. This requirement put the focus of this study on defining and characterizing conventional process heat equipment and fuels. Costs (values) were estimated for 17 different design points representing different combinations of conventional technologies, temperatures, and fuels. Costs were first estimated for median or representative conditions at each design point. The cost impact of capacity factor, efficiency, fuel escalation rate, and regional fuel price differences were then evaluated by varying each of these factors within credible ranges.

  3. Negative Effective Gravity in Water Waves by Periodic Resonator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Negative Effective Gravity in Water Waves by Periodic Resonator Arrays Prev Next Title: Negative Effective Gravity in Water Waves by Periodic Resonator Arrays Authors: Hu,...

  4. California Policy Stimulates Carbon Negative CNG for Heavy Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    California Policy Stimulates Carbon Negative CNG for Heavy Duty Trucks California Policy Stimulates Carbon Negative CNG for Heavy Duty Trucks Describes system for fueling truck ...

  5. Positive and Negative Electrodes: Novel and Optimized Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Positive and Negative Electrodes: Novel and Optimized Materials Positive and Negative Electrodes: Novel and Optimized Materials 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs...

  6. Study of the negative ion extraction mechanism from a double-ion plasma in negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, I.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A.; Miyamoto, K.

    2015-04-08

    We have developed a 2D3V-PIC model of the extraction region, aiming to clarify the basic extraction mechanism of H{sup −} ions from the double-ion plasma in H{sup −} negative ion sources. The result shows the same tendency of the H{sup −} ion density n{sub H{sup −}} as that observed in the experiments, i.e.,n{sub H{sup −}} in the upstream region away from the plasma meniscus (H{sup −} emitting surface) has been reduced by applying the extraction voltage. At the same time, relatively slow temporal oscillation of the electric potential compared with the electron plasma frequency has been observed in the extraction region. Results of the systematic study using a 1D3V-PIC model with the uniform magnetic field confirm the result that the electrostatic oscillation is identified to be lower hybrid wave. The effect of this oscillation on the H{sup −} transport will be studied in the future.

  7. Studies of transition states and radicals by negative ion photodetachment

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, R.B.

    1991-12-01

    Negative ion photodetachment is a versatile tool for the production and study of transient neutral species such as reaction intermediates and free radicals. Photodetachment of the stable XHY{sup {minus}} anion provides a direct spectroscopic probe of the transition state region of the potential energy surface for the neutral hydrogen transfer reaction X + HY {yields} XH + Y, where X and Y are halogen atoms. The technique is especially sensitive to resonances, which occur at a specific energy, but the spectra also show features due to direct scattering. We have used collinear adiabatic simulations of the photoelectron spectra to evaluate trail potential energy surfaces for the biomolecular reactions and have extended the adiabatic approach to three dimensions and used it to evaluate empirical potential energy surfaces for the I + Hl and Br + HI reactions. In addition, we have derived an empirical, collinear potential energy surface for the Br + HBr reaction that reproduces our experimental results and have extended this surface to three dimensions. Photodetachment of a negative ion can be also used to study neutral free radicals. We have studied the vibrational and electronic spectroscopy of CH{sub 2}NO{sub 2} by photoelectron spectroscopy of CH{sub 2}NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, determining the electron affinity of CH{sub 2}NO{sub 2}, gaining insight on the bonding of the {sup 2}B{sub 1} ground state and observing the {sup 2}A{sub 2} excited state for the first time. Negative ion photodetachment also provides a novel and versatile source of mass-selected, jet-cooled free radicals. We have studied the photodissociation of CH{sub 2}NO{sub 2} at 270, 235, and 208 nm, obtaining information on the dissociation products by measuring the kinetic energy release in the photodissociation.

  8. Negative running of the spectral index, hemispherical asymmetry and the consistency of Planck with large r

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, John

    2014-11-01

    Planck favours a negative running of the spectral index, with the likelihood being dominated by low multipoles l?<50 and no preference for running at higher l. A negative spectral index is also necessary for the 2- Planck upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r to be consistent with values significantly larger than 0.1. Planck has also observed a hemispherical asymmetry of the CMB power spectrum, again mostly at low multipoles. Here we consider whether the physics responsible for the hemispherical asymmetry could also account for the negative running of the spectral index and the consistency of Planck with a large value of r. A negative running of the spectral index can be generated if the hemispherical asymmetry is due to a scale- and space-dependent modulation which suppresses the CMB power spectrum at low multipoles. We show that the observed hemispherical asymmetry at low l can be generated while satisfying constraints on the asymmetry at higher l and generating a negative spectral index of the right magnitude to account for the Planck observation and to allow Planck to be consistent with a large value of r.

  9. PV Value | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    PV Value is a web-based tool that calculates the energy production value for a residential or commercial photovoltaic (PV) system. The tool is Uniform Standards of Progressional ...

  10. Study of negative hydrogen ion beam optics using the 3D3V PIC model

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, K.; Nishioka, S.; Goto, I.; Hatayama, A.; Hanada, M.; Kojima, A.

    2015-04-08

    The mechanism of negative ion extraction under real conditions with the complex magnetic field is studied by using the 3D PIC simulation code. The extraction region of the negative ion source for the negative ion based neutral beam injection system in fusion reactors is modelled. It is shown that the E x B drift of electrons is caused by the magnetic filter and the electron suppression magnetic field, and the resultant asymmetry of the plasma meniscus. Furthermore, it is indicated that that the asymmetry of the plasma meniscus results in the asymmetry of negative ion beam profile including the beam halo. It could be demonstrated theoretically that the E x B drift is not significantly weakened by the elastic collisions of the electrons with neutral particles.

  11. The production and destruction of negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Pegg, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Single photon absorption-single electron detachment from few-electron atomic negative ions was studied. A crossed beam apparatus is being used to perform energy- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopic measurements following photodetachment. Forward-directed electrons were collected and energy analyzed. The kinetic energies and yields of the photoelectrons were obtained by fitting the spectral peaks to Gaussian functions. Electron affinities, asymmetry parameters and cross sections are determined from these measurements. A ratio method in which the cross section for the ion of interest is measured relative to that of a reference ion was used. The study of the photodetachment of Li[sup [minus

  12. Single-resonator double-negative metamaterial

    DOEpatents

    Warne, Larry K.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Langston, William L.; Johnson, William A.; Ihlefeld, Jon; Ginn, III, James C.; Clem, Paul G.; Sinclair, Michael B.

    2016-06-21

    Resonances can be tuned in dielectric resonators in order to construct single-resonator, negative-index metamaterials. For example, high-contrast inclusions in the form of metallic dipoles can be used to shift the first electric resonance down (in frequency) to the first magnetic resonance, or alternatively, air splits can be used to shift the first magnetic resonance up (in frequency) near the first electric resonance. Degenerate dielectric designs become especially useful in infrared- or visible-frequency applications where the resonator sizes associated with the lack of high-permittivity materials can become of sufficient size to enable propagation of higher-order lattice modes in the resulting medium.

  13. Negative ion extraction from hydrogen plasma bulk

    SciTech Connect

    Oudini, N.; Taccogna, F.; Minelli, P.

    2013-10-15

    A two-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision model has been developed and used to study low electronegative magnetized hydrogen plasma. A configuration characterized by four electrodes is used: the left electrode is biased at V{sub l} = −100 V, the right electrode is grounded, while the upper and lower transversal electrodes are biased at an intermediate voltage V{sub ud} between 0 and −100 V. A constant and homogeneous magnetic field is applied parallel to the lateral (left/right) electrodes. It is shown that in the magnetized case, the bulk plasma potential is close to the transversal electrodes bias inducing then a reversed sheath in front of the right electrode. The potential drop within the reversed sheath is controlled by the transversal electrodes bias allowing extraction of negative ions with a significant reduction of co-extracted electron current. Furthermore, introducing plasma electrodes, between the transversal electrodes and the right electrode, biased with a voltage just above the plasma bulk potential, increases the negative ion extracted current and decreases significantly the co-extracted electron current. The physical mechanism on basis of this phenomenon has been discussed.

  14. Development of versatile multiaperture negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Cavenago, M.; Minarello, A.; Sattin, M.; Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Recchia, M.; Veltri, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Barbisan, M.; Baseggio, L.; Cervaro, V.; Degli Agostini, F.; Franchin, L.; Laterza, B.; Ravarotto, D.; Rossetto, F.; Zaniol, B.; Zucchetti, S.; and others

    2015-04-08

    Enhancement of negative ion sources for production of large ion beams is a very active research field nowadays, driven from demand of plasma heating in nuclear fusion devices and accelerator applications. As a versatile test bench, the ion source NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1) is being commissioned by Consorzio RFX and INFN. The nominal beam current of 135?mA at ?60?kV is divided into 9 beamlets, with multiaperture extraction electrodes. The plasma is sustained by a 2?MHz radiofrequency power supply, with a standard matching box. A High Voltage Deck (HVD) placed inside the lead shielding surrounding NIO1 contains the radiofrequency generator, the gas control, electronics and power supplies for the ion source. An autonomous closed circuit water cooling system was installed for the whole system, with a branch towards the HVD, using carefully optimized helical tubing. Insulation transformer is installed in a nearby box. Tests of several magnetic configurations can be performed. Status of experiments, measured spectra and plasma luminosity are described. Upgrades of magnetic filter, beam calorimeter and extraction grid and related theoretical issues are reviewed.

  15. Potential formation in a collisionless plasma produced in an open magnetic field in presence of volume negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Phukan, Ananya, E-mail: ananya.phukan26@gmail.com; Goswami, K. S.; Bhuyan, P. J. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research Sonapur, Kamrup (M), Assam 782402 (India)

    2014-08-15

    The electric potential near a wall for a multi-species plasma with volume produced negative ions in presence of axially varying magnetic field is studied following an analytical-numerical approach. A constant negative ion source is assumed throughout the plasma volume, along with finite temperature positive ions and Boltzmann electrons. The particles are assumed to be guided by an open magnetic field that has its maximum at the centre, and field strength decreasing towards the walls. The one dimensional (1D) Poisson equation is derived using an analytical approach, and then solved numerically to study the potential profiles. Effect of (a) negative ion production rate, (b) magnetic field profile, and (c) negative ion temperature on the potential profile has been investigated. A potential peak appears near the wall when the negative ion temperature and density are sufficiently high. Also, the presence of negative ions further decreases the potential in the plasma region for a finite Debye Length (?{sub D})

  16. Negative hydrogen ion yields at plasma grid surface in a negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, M.; Kenmotsu, T.; Sasao, M.

    2015-04-08

    Negative hydrogen (H{sup ?}) ion yield from the plasma grid due to incident hydrogen ions and neutrals has been evaluated with the surface collision cascade model, ACAT (Atomic Collision in Amorphous Target) coupled to a negative surface ionization models. Dependence of negative ion fractions upon the velocity component normal to the surface largely affect the calculation results of the final energy and angular distributions of the H{sup ?} ions. The influence is particularly large for H{sup ?} ions desorbed from the surface due to less than several eV hydrogen particle implact. The present calculation predicts that H{sup ?} ion yield can be maximized by setting the incident angle of hydrogen ions and neutrals to be 65 degree. The Cs thickness on the plasma grid should also affect the yields and mean energies of surface produced H{sup ?} ions by back scattering and ion induced desorption processes.

  17. Quantum physics and human values

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, H.P.

    1989-09-01

    This report discusses the following concepts: the quantum conception of nature; the quantum conception of man; and the impact upon human values. (LSP).

  18. The value of energy data

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    The value of energy data DOE SSL Program Connected Lighting Meeting November 16, 2015 2 ... methods, passfail criteria 13 DOE SSL Program activities: energy reporting Based ...

  19. Earned Value Management System (EVMS)

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2012-03-13

    This Guide provides approaches for implementing the Earned Value Management System (EVMS) requirements of DOE O 413.3B. Supersedes DOE G 413.3-10.

  20. Production of intense negative hydrogen beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of cold negative ions

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1984-02-13

    A process for selectively neutralizing H/sup -/ ions in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative hydrogen ion beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H/sup -/ ions that are

  1. SEPARATION OF SCANDIUM VALUES FORM IRON VALUES BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Kuhlman, C.W. Jr.; Lang, G.P.

    1961-12-19

    A process is given for separating scandium from trivalent iron values. In this process, an aqueous nitric acid solution is contacted with a water- immiscible alkyl phosphate solution, the aqueous solution containing the values to be separated, whereby the scandium is taken up by the alkyl phosphate. The aqueous so1ution is preferably saturated with magnesium nitrate to retain the iron in the aqueous solution. (AEC)

  2. Negative ion source with external RF antenna

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Hahto, Sami K.; Hahto, Sari T.

    2007-02-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source. A converter can be included in the ion source to produce negative ions.

  3. Earned Value Management System (EVMS)

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2012-03-13

    To support DOE's initiatives to improve program, project, and contract management through the implementation and surveillance of a contractor's Earned Value Management System (EVMS) that is in conformance with DOE O 413.3B, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, the American National Standards Institute/Electronic Industries Alliance (ANSI/EIA)-748-B, Earned Value Management System (or as required by contract), and Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 52.234-4, Earned Value Management System (EVMS). Admin Chg 1 dated 10-22-2015.

  4. CMI Values | Critical Materials Institute

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Values CMI Values -- we listen, we are safe, we collaborate, we respect, we move fast, we are agile, we are responsible, and we deliver. We Listen: We are driven by the needs of technology and our best information comes from our industry partners. We Are Safe: We conduct all of our work in a manner that protects our workers, the public and the environment. We Collaborate: We bring together the best available expertise to solve the problems at hand. We Respect: We treat each other well and value

  5. Value-based reliability transmission planning

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, J.G. III; Garrison, D.L.; Fallon, C.M.

    1996-08-01

    This paper presents a new value-based reliability planning (VBRP) process proposed for planning Duke Power Company`s (DPC) regional transmission system. All transmission served customers are fed from DPC`s regional transmission system which consists of a 44-kV predominantly radial system and a 100-kV predominantly non-radial system. In the past, any single contingency that could occur during system peak conditions and cause a thermal overload required the overloaded facility to be upgraded, regardless of the costs or the likelihood of the overload occurring. The new VBRP process is based on transmission system reliability evaluation and includes the following important elements: (1) a ten-year historical data base describing the probabilities of forced outages for lines and transformers; (2) a five-year average load duration curve describing the probability of an overload should a contingency occur; (3) a customer outage cost data base; (4) and probabilistic techniques. The new process attempts to balance the costs of improving service reliability with the benefits or value that these improvements bring to these customers. The objective is to provide the customers their required level of reliability while minimizing the Total Cost of their electric service.

  6. Operating a redox flow battery with a negative electrolyte imbalance

    DOEpatents

    Pham, Quoc; Chang, On; Durairaj, Sumitha

    2015-03-31

    Loss of flow battery electrode catalyst layers during self-discharge or charge reversal may be prevented by establishing and maintaining a negative electrolyte imbalance during at least parts of a flow battery's operation. Negative imbalance may be established and/or maintained actively, passively or both. Actively establishing a negative imbalance may involve detecting an imbalance that is less negative than a desired threshold, and processing one or both electrolytes until the imbalance reaches a desired negative level. Negative imbalance may be effectively established and maintained passively within a cell by constructing a cell with a negative electrode chamber that is larger than the cell's positive electrode chamber, thereby providing a larger quantity of negative electrolyte for reaction with positive electrolyte.

  7. Earned Value Management System (EVMS)

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-05-06

    The Guide supports the Departments initiatives to improve program, project, and contract management through the implementation and surveillance of contractors earned value management systems. Canceled by DOE G 413.3-10A.

  8. Regional Education Partners

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Regional Education Partners Regional Education Partners One of the Laboratory's STEM education objectives is centered on strengthening the future workforce of Northern New Mexico...

  9. Core Values | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Core Values Core Values People - People are our most important resource. We respect and use our experience and skills and appreciate our diversity. Business Excellence - We are fiscally responsible and actively pursue best business practices. Safety - We protect our human and material resources and promote safe work practices within the office and at our sites. Communication - We take full advantage of our virtual organization's strengths and share information freely across all levels of the

  10. Negative Electrodes Improve Safety in Lithium Cells and Batteries | Argonne

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Negative Electrodes Improve Safety in Lithium Cells and Batteries Technology available for licensing: Enhanced stability at a lower cost Lowers cost for enhanced stability capability. A new class of intermetallic material for the negative electrode that offers a significantly higher volumetric and gravimetric capacity and improves battery stability and safety. PDF icon negative_electrodes

  11. Method for resurrecting negative electron affinity photocathodes after exposure to an oxidizing gas

    DOEpatents

    Mulhollan, Gregory A; Bierman, John C

    2012-10-30

    A method by which negative electron affinity photocathodes (201), single crystal, amorphous, or otherwise ordered, can be made to recover their quantum yield following exposure to an oxidizing gas has been discovered. Conventional recovery methods employ the use of cesium as a positive acting agent (104). In the improved recovery method, an electron beam (205), sufficiently energetic to generate a secondary electron cloud (207), is applied to the photocathode in need of recovery. The energetic beam, through the high secondary electron yield of the negative electron affinity surface (203), creates sufficient numbers of low energy electrons which act on the reduced-yield surface so as to negate the effects of absorbed oxidizing atoms thereby recovering the quantum yield to a pre-decay value.

  12. Radiative lifetimes of metastable states of negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Pontus; Fritioff, Karin; Sandstroem, Joakim; Collins, Gerard; Hanstorp, Dag; Ellmann, Anna; Schef, Peter; Lundin, Peter; Mannervik, Sven; Royen, Peder; Froese Fischer, K. Charlotte; Oesterdahl, Fabian; Rostohar, Danijela; Pegg, David J.; Gibson, N. D.; Danared, Haakan; Kaellberg, Anders

    2006-03-15

    We present a technique for measuring the radiative lifetimes of metastable states of negative ions that involves the use of a heavy-ion storage ring. The method has been applied to investigate the radiative decay of the np{sup 3} {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} levels of Te{sup -}(n=5) and Se{sup -}(n=4) and the 3p{sup 3} {sup 2}D state of Si{sup -} for which the J=3/2 and 5/2 levels were unresolved. All of these states are metastable and decay primarily by emission of E2 and M1 radiation. Multi Configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations of rates for the transitions in Te{sup -} and Se{sup -} yielded lifetimes of 0.45 s and 4.7 s, respectively. The measured values agree well with these predicted values. In the case of the {sup 2}D state of Si{sup -}, however, our measurement was only able to set a lower limit on the lifetime. The upper limit of the lifetime that can be measured with our apparatus is set by how long the ions can be stored in the ring, a limit determined by the rate of collisional detachment. Our lower limit of 1 min for the lifetime of the {sup 2}D state is consistent with both the calculated lifetimes of 162 s for the {sup 2}D{sub 3/2} level and 27.3 h for the {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} level reported by O'Malley and Beck and 14.5 h and 12.5 h, respectively, from our Breit-Pauli calculations.

  13. Regional Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation covers regional industrial energy efficiency programs in the Midwest, Southeast, and Southwest.

  14. Photovoltaics Value Clearinghouse | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Photovoltaics Value Clearinghouse Jump to: navigation, search The Photovoltaics Value Clearinghouse was developed by NREL and Clean Power Research.1 The PV Value Clearinghouse is...

  15. BIA Southwest Region - Wood Energy Assessment for BIA Schools and Facilities in the Southwest Region

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Wood Energy Assessment for BIA Schools and Facilities in Southwest Region John Waconda, BIA Southwest Region Regional Forester 505-563-3360 Tribal Energy Review October 26, 2006 Project Objectives/Goals * Seek viable solutions to forest product utilization challenges in support of fuels reduction activities, forest health/timber stand improvement projects, and assisting tribal and other forest enterprises seeking higher valued use for waste material. * Demonstrate to tribes and ourselves that

  16. Value of Concentrating Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2010-02-01

    This paper examines the value of concentrating solar power (CSP) and thermal energy storage (TES) in four regions in the southwestern United States. Our analysis shows that TES can increase the value of CSP by allowing more thermal energy from a CSP plant?s solar field to be used, by allowing a CSP plant to accommodate a larger solar field, and by allowing CSP generation to be shifted to hours with higher energy prices. We analyze the sensitivity of CSP value to a number of factors, including the optimization period, price and solar forecasting, ancillary service sales, capacity value and dry cooling of the CSP plant. We also discuss the value of CSP plants and TES net of capital costs.

  17. Core Values Postcard | The Ames Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Core Values Postcard Document Number: NA Effective Date: 09/2014 File (public): PDF icon Print_CoreValuesPostcard

  18. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

    1980-12-12

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface is described. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  19. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, Ady; Prelec, Krsto

    1983-01-01

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  20. Process for recovering actinide values

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Mason, George W.

    1980-01-01

    A process for rendering actinide values recoverable from sodium carbonate scrub waste solutions containing these and other values along with organic compounds resulting from the radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation of neutral organophosphorous extractants such as tri-n butyl phosphate (TBP) and dihexyl-N,N-diethyl carbamylmethylene phosphonate (DHDECAMP) which have been used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear reactor fuels. The scrub waste solution is preferably made acidic with mineral acid, to form a feed solution which is then contacted with a water-immiscible, highly polar organic extractant which selectively extracts the degradation products from the feed solution. The feed solution can then be processed to recover the actinides for storage or recycled back into the high-level waste process stream. The extractant is recycled after stripping the degradation products with a neutral sodium carbonate solution.

  1. Extended space expectation values in quantum dynamical system evolutions

    SciTech Connect

    Demiralp, Metin

    2014-10-06

    The time variant power series expansion for the expectation value of a given quantum dynamical operator is well-known and well-investigated issue in quantum dynamics. However, depending on the operator and Hamiltonian singularities this expansion either may not exist or may not converge for all time instances except the beginning of the evolution. This work focuses on this issue and seeks certain cures for the negativities. We work in the extended space obtained by adding all images of the initial wave function under the system Hamiltonians positive integer powers. This requires the introduction of certain appropriately defined weight operators. The resulting better convergence in the temporal power series urges us to call the new defined entities extended space expectation values even though they are constructed over certain weight operators and are somehow pseudo expectation values.

  2. Value Study Desk Manual | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Value Study Desk Manual Value Study Desk Manual Updated September 26, 2012. Memo from Robert Myers regarding DOE Benefit Value Desk Manual (56.76 KB) Value Study Desk Manual (1005.83 KB) More Documents & Publications Contractor Human Resources Management VALUE STUDY VALUE STUDY

  3. Negative ion production and beam extraction processes in a large...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spatial density and flow distributions of negative hydrogen ions (Hsup -) and positive hydrogen ions together with those of electrons are investigated with a 4-pin probe and a ...

  4. Negative Electrodes Improve Safety in Lithium Cells and Batteries...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Negative Electrodes Improve Safety in Lithium Cells and Batteries Technology available for licensing: Enhanced stability at a lower cost Lowers cost for enhanced stability ...

  5. Production of negative hydrogen ions on metal grids

    SciTech Connect

    Oohara, W.; Maetani, Y.; Takeda, Takashi; Takeda, Toshiaki; Yokoyama, H.; Kawata, K.

    2015-03-15

    Negative hydrogen ions are produced on a nickel grid with positive-ion irradiation. In order to investigate the production mechanism, a copper grid without the chemisorption of hydrogen atoms and positive helium ions without negative ionization are used for comparison. Positive hydrogen ions reflected on the metal surface obtain two electrons from the surface and become negatively ionized. It is found that the production yield of negative ions by desorption ionization of chemisorbed hydrogen atoms seems to be small, and the production is a minor mechanism.

  6. Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection Performance of a Validated Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis...

  7. Regional Education Partners

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Regional Education Partners Regional Education Partners One of the Laboratory's STEM education objectives is centered on strengthening the future workforce of Northern New Mexico and the Laboratory through effective partnerships with regional secondary and higher education organizations, businesses and industry. Contact Executive Office Director Kathy Keith Community Partnerships Office (505) 665-4400 Email Regional Partners Charlie McMillan talking with Rick Ulibarri and Dr. Fries, President of

  8. NASEO Midwest Regional Meeting

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) is hosting its Midwest Regional Meeting in Des Moines, Iowa.

  9. ADSORPTION METHOD FOR SEPARATING THORIUM VALUES FROM URANIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.E.; Russell, E.R.; Schubert, J.

    1959-08-01

    An improved ion exchange method is described for recovery of uranium and thorium values as separate functions from an aqueous acidic solution containing less than 10/sup -3/ M thorium ions and between 0.1 and 1 M uranyl ions. The solution is passed through a bed of cation exchange resin in the acid form to adsorb all the thorium ions and a portion of the uranyl ions. The uranium is eluted by means of aqueous 0.1 to 0.4 M sulfuric acid. The thorium may then be stripped from the resin by elution with aqueous 0.5 M oxalic acid.

  10. Hierarchical probabilistic regionalization of volcanism for Sengan region, Japan.

    SciTech Connect

    Balasingam, Pirahas; Park, Jinyong; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Kulatilake, Pinnaduwa H. S. W.

    2005-03-01

    A 1 km square regular grid system created on the Universal Transverse Mercator zone 54 projected coordinate system is used to work with volcanism related data for Sengan region. The following geologic variables were determined as the most important for identifying volcanism: geothermal gradient, groundwater temperature, heat discharge, groundwater pH value, presence of volcanic rocks and presence of hydrothermal alteration. Data available for each of these important geologic variables were used to perform directional variogram modeling and kriging to estimate geologic variable vectors at each of the 23949 centers of the chosen 1 km cell grid system. Cluster analysis was performed on the 23949 complete variable vectors to classify each center of 1 km cell into one of five different statistically homogeneous groups with respect to potential volcanism spanning from lowest possible volcanism to highest possible volcanism with increasing group number. A discriminant analysis incorporating Bayes theorem was performed to construct maps showing the probability of group membership for each of the volcanism groups. The said maps showed good comparisons with the recorded locations of volcanism within the Sengan region. No volcanic data were found to exist in the group 1 region. The high probability areas within group 1 have the chance of being the no volcanism region. Entropy of classification is calculated to assess the uncertainty of the allocation process of each 1 km cell center location based on the calculated probabilities. The recorded volcanism data are also plotted on the entropy map to examine the uncertainty level of the estimations at the locations where volcanism exists. The volcanic data cell locations that are in the high volcanism regions (groups 4 and 5) showed relatively low mapping estimation uncertainty. On the other hand, the volcanic data cell locations that are in the low volcanism region (group 2) showed relatively high mapping estimation uncertainty

  11. Electrostatic energy analyzer measurements of low energy zirconium beam parameters in a plasma sputter-type negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Malapit, Giovanni M.; Mahinay, Christian Lorenz S.; Poral, Matthew D.; Ramos, Henry J.

    2012-02-15

    A plasma sputter-type negative ion source is utilized to produce and detect negative Zr ions with energies between 150 and 450 eV via a retarding potential-type electrostatic energy analyzer. Traditional and modified semi-cylindrical Faraday cups (FC) inside the analyzer are employed to sample negative Zr ions and measure corresponding ion currents. The traditional FC registered indistinct ion current readings which are attributed to backscattering of ions and secondary electron emissions. The modified Faraday cup with biased repeller guard ring, cut out these signal distortions leaving only ringings as issues which are theoretically compensated by fitting a sigmoidal function into the data. The mean energy and energy spread are calculated using the ion current versus retarding potential data while the beam width values are determined from the data of the transverse measurement of ion current. The most energetic negative Zr ions yield tighter energy spread at 4.11 eV compared to the least energetic negative Zr ions at 4.79 eV. The smallest calculated beam width is 1.04 cm for the negative Zr ions with the highest mean energy indicating a more focused beam in contrast to the less energetic negative Zr ions due to space charge forces.

  12. Regional Slip Tendency Analysis of the Great Basin Region

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    - The resulting along?fault and fault?to?fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault?to?fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions were calculated across the entire Great Basin. Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson?Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2010; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012; Moeck et al., 2010; Moos and Ronne, 2010 and Reinecker et al., 2005). The minimum horizontal stress direction (Shmin) was contoured, and spatial bins with common Shmin directions were calculated. Based on this technique, we subdivided the Great Basin into nine regions (Shmin <070, 070140). Slip and dilation tendency were calculated using 3DStress for the faults within each region using the mean Shmin for the region. Shmin variation throughout Great Basin are shown on Figure 3. For faults within the Great Basin proper, we applied a normal faulting stress regime, where the vertical stress (sv) is larger than the maximum horizontal stress (shmax), which is larger than the minimum horizontal stress (sv>shmax>shmin). Based on visual inspection of the limited stress magnitude data in the Great Basin, we used magnitudes such that shmin/shmax = .527 and shmin/sv= .46. These values are consistent with stress magnitude data at both Dixie Valley (Hickman et al., 2000) and Yucca Mountain (Stock et al., 1985). For faults within the Walker Lane/Eastern California Shear Zone, we applied a strike?slip faulting stress, where shmax > sv > shmin. Upon visual inspection of limited stress magnitude data from the Walker Lane and Eastern California Shear zone, we chose values such that SHmin/SHmax = .46 and Shmin/Sv= .527

  13. Regional Slip Tendency Analysis of the Great Basin Region

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-09-30

    - The resulting along?fault and fault?to?fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault?to?fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions were calculated across the entire Great Basin. Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson?Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2010; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012; Moeck et al., 2010; Moos and Ronne, 2010 and Reinecker et al., 2005). The minimum horizontal stress direction (Shmin) was contoured, and spatial bins with common Shmin directions were calculated. Based on this technique, we subdivided the Great Basin into nine regions (Shmin <070, 070140). Slip and dilation tendency were calculated using 3DStress for the faults within each region using the mean Shmin for the region. Shmin variation throughout Great Basin are shown on Figure 3. For faults within the Great Basin proper, we applied a normal faulting stress regime, where the vertical stress (sv) is larger than the maximum horizontal stress (shmax), which is larger than the minimum horizontal stress (sv>shmax>shmin). Based on visual inspection of the limited stress magnitude data in the Great Basin, we used magnitudes such that shmin/shmax = .527 and shmin/sv= .46. These values are consistent with stress magnitude data at both Dixie Valley (Hickman et al., 2000) and Yucca Mountain (Stock et al., 1985). For faults within the Walker Lane/Eastern California Shear Zone, we applied a strike?slip faulting stress, where shmax > sv > shmin. Upon visual inspection of limited stress magnitude data from the Walker Lane and Eastern California Shear zone, we chose values such that SHmin/SHmax = .46 and Shmin/Sv= .527

  14. Production of intense negative hydrogen beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of negative ions

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    1987-01-01

    A process for selectively neutralizing H.sup.- ions in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative hydrogen ion beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H.sup.- ions that are intersected by a beam of laser light. Photodetachment is effected in a uniform magnetic field that is provided around the beam of H.sup.- ions to spin polarize the H.sup.- ions and produce first and second populations or groups of ions, having their respective proton spin aligned either with the magnetic field or opposite to it. The intersecting beam of laser light is directed to selectively neutralize a majority of the ions in only one population, or given spin polarized group of H.sup.- ions, without neutralizing the ions in the other group thereby forming a population of H.sup.- ions each of which has its proton spin down, and a second group or population of H.sup.o atoms having proton spin up. Finally, the two groups of ions are separated from each other by magnetically bending the group of H.sup.- ions away from the group of neutralized ions, thereby to form an intense H.sup.- ion beam that is directed toward a predetermined objective.

  15. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    SciTech Connect

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  16. Sharing values, sharing a vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Teamwork, partnership and shared values emerged as recurring themes at the Third Technology Transfer/Communications Conference. The program drew about 100 participants who sat through a packed two days to find ways for their laboratories and facilities to better help American business and the economy. Co-hosts were the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where most meetings took place. The conference followed traditions established at the First Technology Transfer/Communications Conference, conceived of and hosted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in May 1992 in Richmond, Washington, and the second conference, hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in January 1993 in Golden, Colorado. As at the other conferences, participants at the third session represented the fields of technology transfer, public affairs and communications. They came from Department of Energy headquarters and DOE offices, laboratories and production facilities. Continued in this report are keynote address; panel discussion; workshops; and presentations in technology transfer.

  17. Western Regional Partnership Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Regional Partnership Overview June 2013 Briefing Overview  WRP Background  Importance of Region  WRP Tribal Relations Committee  WRP Energy Committee WRP Region's Uniqueness  5 states stretching from the Great Plains to the Pacific Ocean  Diverse terrain ranging from desert valleys to forested mountains  Significant State Trust Landholdings  Approximately 188 Federally recognized Tribes  Significant amounts of Federally managed land  According to GSA 2004 study, WRP

  18. Regional Workforce Study - SRSCRO

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    delved into four of the region's key economic drivers - nuclear, manufacturing, cybersecurityIT, and healthcare. TIP Strategies conducted a comprehensive analysis of the...

  19. Regional Energy Planning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Hydroelectric Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine Fossil Fuel Turbines Alaska Energy Statistics, 2011 4 Energy Costs Vary 5 Regional Energy Planning * Energy Pathways led to ...

  20. ERHIC INTERACTION REGION DESIGN.

    SciTech Connect

    MONTAG,C.PARKER,B.PTITSYN,V.TEPIKIAN,S.WANG,D.WANG,F.

    2003-10-13

    This paper presents the current interaction region design status of the ring-ring version of the electron-ion collider eRHIC (release 2.0).

  1. CEMI Western Regional Summit

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Please Join Assistant Secretary of Energy Dr. David Danielson for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative's Western Regional Summit. Register now for this free event.

  2. Negative particle planar and axial channeling and channeling collimation

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    While information exists on high energy negative particle channeling there has been little study of the challenges of negative particle bending and channeling collimation. Partly this is because negative dechanneling lengths are relatively much shorter. Electrons are not particularly useful for investigating negative particle channeling effects because their material interactions are dominated by channeling radiation. Another important factor is that the current central challenge in channeling collimation is the proton-proton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) where both beams are positive. On the other hand in the future the collimation question might reemerge for electon-positron or muon colliders. Dechanneling lengths increase at higher energies so that part of the negative particle experimental challenge diminishes. In the article different approaches to determining negative dechanneling lengths are reviewed. The more complicated case for axial channeling is also discussed. Muon channeling as a tool to investigate dechanneling is also discussed. While it is now possible to study muon channeling it will probably not illuminate the study of negative dechanneling.

  3. Chapter 48 - Value Engineering | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    8 - Value Engineering Chapter 48 - Value Engineering PDF icon 48ValueEngineering0.pdf More Documents & Publications Audit Report: OAS-L-07-08 Emerging Lighting Technology...

  4. Regional Slip Tendency Analysis of the Great Basin Region

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-09-30

    Slip and dilation tendency on the Great Basin fault surfaces (from the USGS Quaternary Fault Database) were calculated using 3DStress (software produced by Southwest Research Institute). Slip and dilation tendency are both unitless ratios of the resolved stresses applied to the fault plane by the measured ambient stress field. - Values range from a maximum of 1 (a fault plane ideally oriented to slip or dilate under ambient stress conditions) to zero (a fault plane with no potential to slip or dilate). - Slip and dilation tendency values were calculated for each fault in the Great Basin. As dip is unknown for many faults in the USGS Quaternary Fault Database, we made these calculations using the dip for each fault that would yield the maximum slip or dilation tendency. As such, these results should be viewed as maximum slip and dilation tendency. - The resulting along‐fault and fault‐to‐fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault‐to‐fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions were calculated across the entire Great Basin. Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson‐Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2010; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012; Moeck et al., 2010; Moos and Ronne, 2010 and Reinecker et al., 2005). The minimum horizontal stress direction (Shmin) was contoured, and spatial bins with common Shmin directions were calculated. Based on this technique, we subdivided the Great Basin into nine regions (Shmin <070, 070140). Slip and dilation tendency were calculated using 3DStress for the faults within each region using the mean Shmin for the region. Shmin variation throughout Great Basin

  5. Negative circular polarization as a universal property of quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Matthew W.; Spencer, Peter; Murray, Ray

    2015-03-23

    This paper shows that negative circular polarization, a spin flip of polarized carriers resulting in emission of opposite helicity, can be observed in undoped, n-doped, and p-doped InAs/GaAs quantum dots. These results contradict the usual interpretation of the effect. We show using power dependent and time resolved spectroscopy that the generation of negative circular polarization correlates with excited state emission. Furthermore, a longer spin lifetime of negatively polarized excitons is observed where emission is largely ground state in character.

  6. Noise reduction in negative-ion quadrupole mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, Philippe

    1993-01-01

    A quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) system having an ion source, quadrupole mass filter, and ion collector/recorder system. A weak, transverse magnetic field and an electron collector are disposed between the quadrupole and ion collector. When operated in negative ion mode, the ion source produces a beam of primarily negatively-charged particles from a sample, including electrons as well as ions. The beam passes through the quadrupole and enters the magnetic field, where the electrons are deflected away from the beam path to the electron collector. The negative ions pass undeflected to the ion collector where they are detected and recorded as a mass spectrum.

  7. Noise reduction in negative-ion quadrupole mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, P.

    1993-04-20

    A quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) system is described having an ion source, quadrupole mass filter, and ion collector/recorder system. A weak, transverse magnetic field and an electron collector are disposed between the quadrupole and ion collector. When operated in negative ion mode, the ion source produces a beam of primarily negatively-charged particles from a sample, including electrons as well as ions. The beam passes through the quadrupole and enters the magnetic field, where the electrons are deflected away from the beam path to the electron collector. The negative ions pass undeflected to the ion collector where they are detected and recorded as a mass spectrum.

  8. Negative to positive magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric effect in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pr0.6Er0.4Al2 (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Accepted Manuscript: Negative to positive magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric effect in Pr0.6Er0.4Al2 Title: Negative to positive magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric effect in Pr0.6Er0.4Al2 We report on the magnetic, magnetocaloric and magnetotransport properties of Pr0.6Er0.4Al2. The title compound exhibits a large positive magnetoresistance (MR) for H ≥ 40 kOe and a small but non negligible negative MR for H ≤ 30 kOe. The maximum positive

  9. Earned Value Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Earned Value Management Earned Value Management Earned Value Management The mission of the DOE Earned Value Management website is to educate and train on theory and practice of Earned Value Management, and use it as an integrated Project Management process. Earned Value Management (EVM) is a systematic approach to the integration and measurement of cost, schedule, and technical (scope) accomplishments on a project or task. It provides both the government and contractors the ability to examine

  10. Regional Analysis Briefs

    Reports and Publications

    2028-01-01

    Regional Analysis Briefs (RABs) provide an overview of specific regions that play an important role in world energy markets, either directly or indirectly. These briefs cover areas that are currently major producers (Caspian Sea), have geopolitical importance (South China Sea), or may have future potential as producers or transit areas (East Africa, Eastern Mediterranean).

  11. Size scaling of negative hydrogen ion sources for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fantz, U. Franzen, P.; Kraus, W.; Schiesko, L.; Wimmer, C.; Wünderlich, D.

    2015-04-08

    The RF-driven negative hydrogen ion source (H{sup −}, D{sup −}) for the international fusion experiment ITER has a width of 0.9 m and a height of 1.9 m and is based on a ⅛ scale prototype source being in operation at the IPP test facilities BATMAN and MANITU for many years. Among the challenges to meet the required parameters in a caesiated source at a source pressure of 0.3 Pa or less is the challenge in size scaling of a factor of eight. As an intermediate step a ½ scale ITER source went into operation at the IPP test facility ELISE with the first plasma in February 2013. The experience and results gained so far at ELISE allowed a size scaling study from the prototype source towards the ITER relevant size at ELISE, in which operational issues, physical aspects and the source performance is addressed, highlighting differences as well as similarities. The most ITER relevant results are: low pressure operation down to 0.2 Pa is possible without problems; the magnetic filter field created by a current in the plasma grid is sufficient to reduce the electron temperature below the target value of 1 eV and to reduce together with the bias applied between the differently shaped bias plate and the plasma grid the amount of co-extracted electrons. An asymmetry of the co-extracted electron currents in the two grid segments is measured, varying strongly with filter field and bias. Contrary to the prototype source, a dedicated plasma drift in vertical direction is not observed. As in the prototype source, the performance in deuterium is limited by the amount of co-extracted electrons in short as well as in long pulse operation. Caesium conditioning is much harder in deuterium than in hydrogen for which fast and reproducible conditioning is achieved. First estimates reveal a caesium consumption comparable to the one in the prototype source despite the large size.

  12. Negative ion-driven associated particle neutron generator

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Antolak, A. J.; Leung, K. N.; Morse, D. H.; Donovan, D. C.; Chames, J. M.; Whaley, J. A.; Buchenauer, D. A.; Chen, A. X.; Hausladen, P. A.; Liang, F.

    2015-10-09

    We describe an associated particle neutron generator that employs a negative ion source to produce high neutron flux from a small source size. Furthermore, negative ions produced in an rf-driven plasma source are extracted through a small aperture to form a beam which bombards a positively biased, high voltage target electrode. Electrons co-extracted with the negative ions are removed by a permanent magnet electron filter. The use of negative ions enables high neutron output (100% atomic ion beam), high quality imaging (small neutron source size), and reliable operation (no high voltage breakdowns). Finally, the neutron generator can operate in eithermore » pulsed or continuous-wave (cw) mode and has been demonstrated to produce 106 D-D n/s (equivalent to similar to 108 D-T n/s) from a 1 mm-diameter neutron source size to facilitate high fidelity associated particle imaging.« less

  13. Negative ion-driven associated particle neutron generator

    SciTech Connect

    Antolak, A. J.; Leung, K. N.; Morse, D. H.; Donovan, D. C.; Chames, J. M.; Whaley, J. A.; Buchenauer, D. A.; Chen, A. X.; Hausladen, P. A.; Liang, F.

    2015-10-09

    We describe an associated particle neutron generator that employs a negative ion source to produce high neutron flux from a small source size. Furthermore, negative ions produced in an rf-driven plasma source are extracted through a small aperture to form a beam which bombards a positively biased, high voltage target electrode. Electrons co-extracted with the negative ions are removed by a permanent magnet electron filter. The use of negative ions enables high neutron output (100% atomic ion beam), high quality imaging (small neutron source size), and reliable operation (no high voltage breakdowns). Finally, the neutron generator can operate in either pulsed or continuous-wave (cw) mode and has been demonstrated to produce 106 D-D n/s (equivalent to similar to 108 D-T n/s) from a 1 mm-diameter neutron source size to facilitate high fidelity associated particle imaging.

  14. Structures with Negative Refractive Index for Applications in Optics and

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanophotonics - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Structures with Negative Refractive Index for Applications in Optics and Nanophotonics Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory researchers have developed materials and structures with a negative refractive index that potentially open new frontiers in

  15. Negative ion source with low temperature transverse divergence optical system

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, John H.; Stirling, William L.

    1986-01-01

    A negative ion source is provided which has extremely low transverse divergence as a result of a unique ion focusing system in which the focal line of an ion beam emanating from an elongated, concave converter surface is outside of the ion exit slit of the source and the path of the exiting ions. The beam source operates with a minimum ion temperature which makes possible a sharply focused (extremely low transverse divergence) ribbon like negative ion beam.

  16. Negative ion source with low temperature transverse divergence optical system

    DOEpatents

    Whealton, J.H.; Stirling, W.L.

    1985-03-04

    A negative ion source is provided which has extremely low transverse divergence as a result of a unique ion focusing system in which the focal line of an ion beam emanating from an elongated, concave converter surface is outside of the ion exit slit of the source and the path of the exiting ions. The beam source operates with a minimum ion temperature which makes possible a sharply focused (extremely low transverse divergence) ribbon like negative ion beam.

  17. Three-Body Recombination of {sup 6}Li Atoms with Large Negative Scattering Lengths

    SciTech Connect

    Braaten, Eric; Kang, Daekyoung; Platter, Lucas; Hammer, H.-W.

    2009-08-14

    The three-body recombination rate at threshold for distinguishable atoms with large negative pair scattering lengths is calculated in the zero-range approximation. The only parameters in this limit are the 3 scattering lengths and the Efimov parameter, which can be complex-valued. We provide semianalytic expressions for the cases of 2 or 3 equal scattering lengths, and we obtain numerical results for the general case of 3 different scattering lengths. Our general result is applied to the three lowest hyperfine states of {sup 6}Li atoms. Comparisons with recent experiments provide indications of loss features associated with Efimov trimers near the 3-atom threshold.

  18. DOE: Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-31

    The report summarizes research to Quantify the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. This 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. Methods are described for valuation and planning of pumped storage and conventional hydropower. The project team conducted plant case studies, electric system modeling, market analysis, cost data gathering, and evaluations of operating strategies and constraints. Five other reports detailing these research results are available a project website, www.epri.com/hydrogrid. With increasing deployment of wind and solar renewable generation, many owners, operators, and developers of hydropower have recognized the opportunity to provide more flexibility and ancillary services to the electric grid. To quantify value of services, this study focused on the Western Electric Coordinating Council region. A security-constrained, unit commitment and economic dispatch model was used to quantify the role of hydropower for several future energy scenarios up to 2020. This hourly production simulation considered transmission requirements to deliver energy, including future expansion plans. Both energy and ancillary service values were considered. Addressing specifically the quantification of pumped storage value, no single value stream dominated predicted plant contributions in various energy futures. Modeling confirmed that service value depends greatly on location and on competition with other available grid support resources. In this summary, ten different value streams related to hydropower are described. These fell into three categories; operational improvements, new technologies, and electricity market opportunities. Of these ten, the study was able to quantify a monetary value in six by applying both present day and future scenarios for operating the electric grid. This study confirmed that hydropower resources across the United States contribute significantly to operation of the grid in terms

  19. Regional Science Bowl

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    January » Regional Science Bowl Regional Science Bowl WHEN: Jan 23, 2016 8:00 AM - 5:00 PM WHERE: Highland High School 4700 Coal SE, Albuquerque, NM CONTACT: Janelle Vigil-Maestas (505) 665-4329 CATEGORY: Community INTERNAL: Calendar Login Event Description Five teams from Northern New Mexico area schools are among 16 participating in the middle school Regional Science Bowl competition. Northern area teams participating are from Los Alamos, Española, Cuba and Santa Fe. The winning team at this

  20. Delineating coal market regions

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, B.D.; Pyrdol, J.J.

    1986-04-01

    This study addresses the delineation of US coal market regions and their evolution since the 1973 Arab oil embargo. Dichotomizing into compliance (low sulfur) and high sulfur coal deliveries, market regions are generated for 1973, 1977, and 1983. Focus is restricted to steam coal shipments to electric utilities, which currently account for over 80% of the total domestic market. A two-stage method is used. First, cluster analyses are performed on the origin-destination shipments data to generate baseline regions. This is followed by multiple regression analyses on CIF delivered price data for 1983. Sensitivity analysis on the configuration of the regions is also conducted, and some thoughts on the behavior of coal markets conclude the paper. 37 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Regional Standards Enforcement

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Central air conditioners are now subject to a base national standard in the North and different, regional standards in the Southeast and Southwest. This page provides information about those standards and how DOE enforces them.

  2. Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE has created a network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) to help develop the technology, infrastructure, and regulations to implement large-scale CO2 storage (also...

  3. CEMI Southeast Regional Summit

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    As part of the Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative (CEMI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) organizes regional summits around the country to expand its partnerships, share resources and...

  4. Regional companies eye growth

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Regional companies eye growth Regional companies eye growth Adaptive Radio Technologies, Los Alamos Visualization Associates, Mesa Tech International Inc., and ThermaSun Inc. were awarded from the Venture Acceleration Fund. August 21, 2009 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new

  5. Evaluation of negative ion distribution changes by image processing diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, K. Nakano, H.; Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Geng, S.

    2015-04-08

    Distributions of hydrogen Balmer-α (H{sub α}) intensity and its reduction behavior close to a plasma grid (PG) surface have been observed by a spectrally selective imaging system in an arc discharge type negative hydrogen ion source in National Institute for Fusion Science. H{sub α} reduction indicates a reduction of negative hydrogen ions because the mutual neutralization process between H{sup +} and H{sup −} ions causes the dominant excitation process for H{sub α} emission in the rich H{sup −} condition such as in ionic plasma. We observed a significant change in H{sub α} reduction distribution due to change in the bias voltage, which is used to suppress the electron influx. Small H{sub α} reduction in higher bias is likely because the production of negative ions is suppressed by the potential difference between the plasma and PG surface.

  6. Device for translating negative film image to a line scan

    DOEpatents

    Dutton, G. Wayne

    1998-05-19

    A negative film reader records high-resolution optical density changes across negative film radiographic images to allow precise image dimensions to be determined. A laser light source capable of high-resolution focusing is passed through an intensity control filter, focused by a lens, and reflected off a mirror to focus in the plane of the negative film. The light transmitted through the film is collected by a second lens and directed to a photo diode detector which senses the transmitted intensity. The output of the photo diode signal amplifier is sent to the Y-axis input of an X-Y recorder. The film sample is transported in a plane perpendicular to the beam axis by means of a slide. The film position is monitored, with the signal amplified and recorded as the X-axis on the X-Y recorder. The linear dimensions and positions of image components can be determined by direct measurement of the amplified recording.

  7. Magnetic Response and Negative Refractive Index of Metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Koschny, Th.; Zhou, J.; Soukoulis, C.M.

    2007-05-04

    We study the scaling of negative magnetic response of the SRR from microwave to upper THz frequencies. We show, that the linear scaling breaks down for SRR sizes below the order of 1 {micro}m. This breakdown is due to the contribution of the finite electron mass to the inductance of the effective LC oscillator. While at microwave frequencies metals can be treated as near-perfect conductors, close to optical frequencies they rather constitute lossy negative dielectrics. We also study the scaling of the losses in SRR as well as the higher order excitations or plasmon modes and their magnetic response. We discuss the non-resonant diamagnetic response of the SRR and the corresponding corrections to the shape of the frequency dependent effective permeability of the metamaterial. We discuss the connection of recently suggested alternative negative index metamaterial designs in a unified picture.

  8. Negative thermal expansion and anomalies of heat capacity of LuB50 at low temperatures

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Novikov, V. V.; Zhemoedov, N. A.; Matovnikov, A. V.; Mitroshenkov, N. V.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Bud'ko, S. L.

    2015-07-20

    Heat capacity and thermal expansion of LuB50 boride were experimentally studied in the 2–300 K temperature range. The data reveal an anomalous contribution to the heat capacity at low temperatures. The value of this contribution is proportional to the first degree of temperature. It was identified that this anomaly in heat capacity is caused by the effect of disorder in the LuB50 crystalline structure and it can be described in the soft atomic potential model (SAP). The parameters of the approximation were determined. The temperature dependence of LuB50 heat capacity in the whole temperature range was approximated by the summore » of SAP contribution, Debye and two Einstein components. The parameters of SAP contribution for LuB50 were compared to the corresponding values for LuB66, which was studied earlier. Negative thermal expansion at low temperatures was experimentally observed for LuB50. The analysis of the experimental temperature dependence for the Gruneisen parameter of LuB50 suggested that the low-frequency oscillations, described in SAP mode, are responsible for the negative thermal expansion. As a result, the glasslike character of the behavior of LuB50 thermal characteristics at low temperatures was confirmed.« less

  9. Negative thermal expansion and anomalies of heat capacity of LuB 50 at low temperatures

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Novikov, V. V.; Zhemoedov, N. A.; Matovnikov, A. V.; Mitroshenkov, N. V.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Bud'ko, S. L.

    2015-07-20

    Heat capacity and thermal expansion of LuB50 boride were experimentally studied in the 2300 K temperature range. The data reveal an anomalous contribution to the heat capacity at low temperatures. The value of this contribution is proportional to the first degree of temperature. It was identified that this anomaly in heat capacity is caused by the effect of disorder in the LuB50crystalline structure and it can be described in the soft atomic potential model (SAP). The parameters of the approximation were determined. The temperature dependence of LuB50 heat capacity in the whole temperature range was approximated by the sum ofmoreSAP contribution, Debye and two Einstein components. The parameters of SAP contribution for LuB50 were compared to the corresponding values for LuB66, which was studied earlier. Negative thermal expansion at low temperatures was experimentally observed for LuB50. The analysis of the experimental temperature dependence for the Gruneisen parameter of LuB50 suggested that the low-frequency oscillations, described in SAP mode, are responsible for the negative thermal expansion. Thus, the glasslike character of the behavior of LuB50 thermal characteristics at low temperatures was confirmed.less

  10. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  11. Effect of Divalent Cation Removal on the Structure of Gram-Negative Bacterial Outer Membrane Models

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Clifton, Luke A.; Skoda, Maximilian W. A.; Le Brun, Anton P.; Ciesielski, Filip; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Holt, Stephen A.; Lakey, Jeremy H.

    2014-12-09

    The Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane (GNB-OM) is asymmetric in its lipid composition with a phospholipid-rich inner leaflet and an outer leaflet predominantly composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS are polyanionic molecules, with numerous phosphate groups present in the lipid A and core oligosaccharide regions. The repulsive forces due to accumulation of the negative charges are screened and bridged by the divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) that are known to be crucial for the integrity of the bacterial OM. Indeed, chelation of divalent cations is a well-established method to permeabilize Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Here, we use X-ray and neutronmore » reflectivity (XRR and NR, respectively) techniques to examine the role of calcium ions in the stability of a model GNB-OM. Using XRR we show that Ca2+ binds to the core region of the rough mutant LPS (RaLPS) films, producing more ordered structures in comparison to divalent cation free monolayers. Using recently developed solid-supported models of the GNB-OM, we study the effect of calcium removal on the asymmetry of DPPC:RaLPS bilayers. We show that without the charge screening effect of divalent cations, the LPS is forced to overcome the thermodynamically unfavorable energy barrier and flip across the hydrophobic bilayer to minimize the repulsive electrostatic forces, resulting in about 20% mixing of LPS and DPPC between the inner and outer bilayer leaflets. These results reveal for the first time the molecular details behind the well-known mechanism of outer membrane stabilization by divalent cations. This confirms the relevance of the asymmetric models for future studies of outer membrane stability and antibiotic penetration.« less

  12. Effect of Divalent Cation Removal on the Structure of Gram-Negative Bacterial Outer Membrane Models

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, Luke A.; Skoda, Maximilian W. A.; Le Brun, Anton P.; Ciesielski, Filip; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Holt, Stephen A.; Lakey, Jeremy H.

    2014-12-09

    The Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane (GNB-OM) is asymmetric in its lipid composition with a phospholipid-rich inner leaflet and an outer leaflet predominantly composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS are polyanionic molecules, with numerous phosphate groups present in the lipid A and core oligosaccharide regions. The repulsive forces due to accumulation of the negative charges are screened and bridged by the divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) that are known to be crucial for the integrity of the bacterial OM. Indeed, chelation of divalent cations is a well-established method to permeabilize Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Here, we use X-ray and neutron reflectivity (XRR and NR, respectively) techniques to examine the role of calcium ions in the stability of a model GNB-OM. Using XRR we show that Ca2+ binds to the core region of the rough mutant LPS (RaLPS) films, producing more ordered structures in comparison to divalent cation free monolayers. Using recently developed solid-supported models of the GNB-OM, we study the effect of calcium removal on the asymmetry of DPPC:RaLPS bilayers. We show that without the charge screening effect of divalent cations, the LPS is forced to overcome the thermodynamically unfavorable energy barrier and flip across the hydrophobic bilayer to minimize the repulsive electrostatic forces, resulting in about 20% mixing of LPS and DPPC between the inner and outer bilayer leaflets. These results reveal for the first time the molecular details behind the well-known mechanism of outer membrane stabilization by divalent cations. This confirms the relevance of the asymmetric models for future studies of outer membrane stability and antibiotic penetration.

  13. Electrostatic plasma lens for focusing negatively charged particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, A. A.; Dobrovolskiy, A. M.; Dunets, S. M.; Litovko, I. V.; Gushenets, V. I.; Oks, E. M.

    2012-02-15

    We describe the current status of ongoing research and development of the electrostatic plasma lens for focusing and manipulating intense negatively charged particle beams, electrons, and negative ions. The physical principle of this kind of plasma lens is based on magnetic isolation electrons providing creation of a dynamical positive space charge cloud in shortly restricted volume propagating beam. Here, the new results of experimental investigations and computer simulations of wide-aperture, intense electron beam focusing by plasma lens with positive space charge cloud produced due to the cylindrical anode layer accelerator creating a positive ion stream towards an axis system is presented.

  14. Doppler Lidar Wind Value-Added Product

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Doppler Lidar Wind Value-Added Product RK Newsom C Sivaraman TR Shippert LD Riihimaki ... DOESC-ARMTR-148 Doppler Lidar Wind Value-Added Product Version 1.0 RK Newsom C Sivaraman ...

  15. Comparison of measured and modelled negative hydrogen ion densities at the ECR-discharge HOMER

    SciTech Connect

    Rauner, D.; Kurutz, U.; Fantz, U.

    2015-04-08

    As the negative hydrogen ion density n{sub H{sup −}} is a key parameter for the investigation of negative ion sources, its diagnostic quantification is essential in source development and operation as well as for fundamental research. By utilizing the photodetachment process of negative ions, generally two different diagnostic methods can be applied: via laser photodetachment, the density of negative ions is measured locally, but only relatively to the electron density. To obtain absolute densities, the electron density has to be measured additionally, which induces further uncertainties. Via cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), the absolute density of H{sup −} is measured directly, however LOS-averaged over the plasma length. At the ECR-discharge HOMER, where H{sup −} is produced in the plasma volume, laser photodetachment is applied as the standard method to measure n{sub H{sup −}}. The additional application of CRDS provides the possibility to directly obtain absolute values of n{sub H{sup −}}, thereby successfully bench-marking the laser photodetachment system as both diagnostics are in good agreement. In the investigated pressure range from 0.3 to 3 Pa, the measured negative hydrogen ion density shows a maximum at 1 to 1.5 Pa and an approximately linear response to increasing input microwave powers from 200 up to 500 W. Additionally, the volume production of negative ions is 0-dimensionally modelled by balancing H{sup −} production and destruction processes. The modelled densities are adapted to the absolute measurements of n{sub H{sup −}} via CRDS, allowing to identify collisions of H{sup −} with hydrogen atoms (associative and non-associative detachment) to be the dominant loss process of H{sup −} in the plasma volume at HOMER. Furthermore, the characteristic peak of n{sub H{sup −}} observed at 1 to 1.5 Pa is identified to be caused by a comparable behaviour of the electron density with varying pressure, as n{sub e} determines

  16. NV PFA Regional Data

    SciTech Connect

    James Faulds

    2015-10-28

    This project focused on defining geothermal play fairways and development of a detailed geothermal potential map of a large transect across the Great Basin region (96,000 km2), with the primary objective of facilitating discovery of commercial-grade, blind geothermal fields (i.e. systems with no surface hot springs or fumaroles) and thereby accelerating geothermal development in this promising region. Data included in this submission consists of: structural settings (target areas, recency of faulting, slip and dilation potential, slip rates, quality), regional-scale strain rates, earthquake density and magnitude, gravity data, temperature at 3 km depth, permeability models, favorability models, degree of exploration and exploration opportunities, data from springs and wells, transmission lines and wilderness areas, and published maps and theses for the Nevada Play Fairway area.

  17. Value of Information Evaluation using Field Data

    SciTech Connect

    Trainor-Guitton, W.

    2015-06-15

    Value of information (VOI) provides the ability to identify and prioritize useful information gathering for a geothermal prospect, either hydrothermal or for enhanced geothermal systems. Useful information provides a value greater than the cost of the information; wasteful information costs more than the expected value of the information. In this project we applied and refined VOI methodologies on selected geothermal prospects.

  18. core values | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    core values Livermore Field Office sets core values as part of continuous improvement process At their recent off-site continuous improvement session, the NNSA Livermore Field Office (LFO) in California unveiled their new set of core values: Integrity - Trustworthy, Reliable, Ethical We are responsible stewards of federal resources Collaboration - Communicate, Support, Team-Focused

  19. Cesium Delivery System for Negative Ion Source at IPR

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, G.; Pandya, K.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, 382 428 (India); Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakraborty, A.; Singh, M. J. [ITER- India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29, Sector 25, GIDC, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2011-09-26

    The technique of surface production of negative ions using cesium, Cs, has been efficiently exploited over the years for producing negative ion beams with increased current densities from negative ion sources used on neutral beam lines. Deposition of Cs on the source walls and the plasma grid lowers the work function and therefore enables a higher yield of H{sup -}, when hydrogen particles (H and/or H{sub x}{sup +}) strike these surfaces.A single driver RF based (100 kW, 1 MHz) negative ion source test bed, ROBIN, is being set up at IPR under a technical collaboration between IPR and IPP, Germany. The optimization of the Cs oven design to be used on this facility as well as multidriver sources is underway. The characterization experiments of such a Cs delivery system with a 1 g Cs inventory have been carried out using surface ionization technique. The experiments have been carried by delivering Cs into a vacuum chamber without plasma. The linear motion of the surface ionization detector, SID, attached with a linear motion feedthrough allows measuring the angular distribution of the Cs coming out of the oven. Based on the experimental results, a Cs oven for ROBIN has been proposed. The Cs oven design and experimental results of the prototype Cs oven are reported and discussed in the paper.

  20. Pennsylvania Regional Infrastructure Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    CTC Team 1 Pennsylvania Regional Infrastructure Project Presentation by: The Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) Team January 6, 2004 The CTC Team 2 Presentation Outline Introduction of CTC Team CTC Background Technical Approach - CTC Team Member Presentations Conclusions The CTC Team 3 The CTC Project Team Concurrent Technologies Corporation Program Management and Coordination Hydrogen Delivery and Storage Material Development Hydrogen Sensors Concurrent Technologies Corporation Program

  1. Negative hydrogen ion production in a helicon plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Santoso, J. Corr, C. S.; Manoharan, R.; O'Byrne, S.

    2015-09-15

    In order to develop very high energy (>1 MeV) neutral beam injection systems for applications, such as plasma heating in fusion devices, it is necessary first to develop high throughput negative ion sources. For the ITER reference source, this will be realised using caesiated inductively coupled plasma devices, containing either hydrogen or deuterium discharges, operated with high rf input powers (up to 90 kW per driver). It has been suggested that due to their high power coupling efficiency, helicon devices may be able to reduce power requirements and potentially obviate the need for caesiation due to the high plasma densities achievable. Here, we present measurements of negative ion densities in a hydrogen discharge produced by a helicon device, with externally applied DC magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 8.5 mT at 5 and 10 mTorr fill pressures. These measurements were taken in the magnetised plasma interaction experiment at the Australian National University and were performed using the probe-based laser photodetachment technique, modified for the use in the afterglow of the plasma discharge. A peak in the electron density is observed at ∼3 mT and is correlated with changes in the rf power transfer efficiency. With increasing magnetic field, an increase in the negative ion fraction from 0.04 to 0.10 and negative ion densities from 8 × 10{sup 14 }m{sup −3} to 7 × 10{sup 15 }m{sup −3} is observed. It is also shown that the negative ion densities can be increased by a factor of 8 with the application of an external DC magnetic field.

  2. Numerical experiment to estimate the validity of negative ion diagnostic using photo-detachment combined with Langmuir probing

    SciTech Connect

    Oudini, N.; Sirse, N.; Ellingboe, A. R.; Benallal, R.; Taccogna, F.; Bendib, A.

    2015-07-15

    This paper presents a critical assessment of the theory of photo-detachment diagnostic method used to probe the negative ion density and electronegativity α = n{sub -}/n{sub e}. In this method, a laser pulse is used to photo-detach all negative ions located within the electropositive channel (laser spot region). The negative ion density is estimated based on the assumption that the increase of the current collected by an electrostatic probe biased positively to the plasma is a result of only the creation of photo-detached electrons. In parallel, the background electron density and temperature are considered as constants during this diagnostics. While the numerical experiments performed here show that the background electron density and temperature increase due to the formation of an electrostatic potential barrier around the electropositive channel. The time scale of potential barrier rise is about 2 ns, which is comparable to the time required to completely photo-detach the negative ions in the electropositive channel (∼3 ns). We find that neglecting the effect of the potential barrier on the background plasma leads to an erroneous determination of the negative ion density. Moreover, the background electron velocity distribution function within the electropositive channel is not Maxwellian. This is due to the acceleration of these electrons through the electrostatic potential barrier. In this work, the validity of the photo-detachment diagnostic assumptions is questioned and our results illustrate the weakness of these assumptions.

  3. Regions for Select Spot Prices

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    are used to represent the following regions: Region Gas Point Used Power Point Used New England Algonquin Citygate Massachusetts Hub (ISONE) New York City Transco Zone 6-NY...

  4. Introduction: Regional Dialogue Contract Templates

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Introduction: Regional Dialogue Contract Templates October 17, 2007 1. Summary * BPA invites comments on the first draft of the Regional Dialogue Master Template by Friday,...

  5. Groundwater in the Regional Aquifer

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Groundwater in the Regional Aquifer Groundwater in the Regional Aquifer LANL maintains an ... August 1, 2013 Conceptual model of water movement and geology at Los Alamos National ...

  6. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, Michael B.; Dennison, Deborah; Kane, Jave; Walker, Hoyt; Miller, Paul

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  7. The sheath structure around a negatively charged rocket payload

    SciTech Connect

    Neubert, T.; Gilchrist, B.E.; Banks, P.M.; Williamson, P.R. ); Mandell, M.J.; Katz, I. ); Sasaki, S.; Oyama, K.I. ); Raitt, W.J.; Meyers, N.B. )

    1990-05-01

    The sheath structure around a rocket payload charged up to 460 V negative relative to the ambient ionospheric plasma is investigated experimentally and by computer simulations. In one of the experimental modes, the voltage between the payloads was increased linearly from 0 to 460 V in 2.5 s. In this case the tethered mother/daughter functioned as a double probe, the negative probe (mother) reaching large negative potentials, while the positive probe (daughter) stayed close to the ambient plasma potential. A floating probe array was mounted on the mother with probes located, 25, 50, 75, and 100 cm from the rocket surface. The internal impedance of the array was smaller than the probe/plasma impedance, which influenced the potential measurements. However, the measurements contain signatures, which the authors interpret as resulting from the outward expansion of the ion sheath with increasing negative mother potential. This conclusion is substantiated by NASCAP/LEO computer simulations of space charge limited flow. At high potentials, the observed ion current flowing to the mother increased more strongly with bias potential than found from the simulations. It is suggested that the enhancement of the current is generated by secondary electrons emitted by the ions bombarding the payload skin. The effects of the motion of the mother (540-580 m/s) and of the ambient magnetic field have been assessed by the code. It was estimated that the ion current to the mother was increased by 20% relative to a stationary payload, while the incorporation of a magnetic field had no practical influence on the simulation results.

  8. Solar Energy and Capacity Value (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-09-01

    This is a one-page, two-sided fact sheet on the capacity of solar power to provide value to utilities and power system operators.

  9. Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2011-06-01

    This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

  10. Photovoltaics Value Analysis | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Photovoltaics Value Analysis Focus Area: Renewable Energy Topics: Environmental Website: www.nrel.govanalysispdfs42303.pdf Equivalent URI:...

  11. PV Value® | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    PV Value® PV Value® PV Value® is a free solar PV Valuation tool that answers the question of "How much is solar PV worth" and is compliant with the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice. It is available for and being used by real estate appraisers, realtors, homeowners, commercial building owners, home builders, solar installers, green raters, insurance companies, and mortgage lenders in all 50 states along with D.C. and Puerto Rico. PV Value® allows for the

  12. Analytic Challenges to Valuing Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ookie; O'Malley, Mark; Cheung, Kerry; Larochelle, Philippe; Scheer, Rich

    2011-10-25

    Electric grid energy storage value. System-level asset focus for mechanical and electrochemical energy storage. Analysis questions for power system planning, operations, and customer-side solutions.

  13. Shared Value in Utility and Efficiency Partnerships

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Residential Energy Efficiency Solutions Conference: Shared Value in Utility and Efficiency Partnerships, July 10, 2012. Presents four case studies highlighting partnerships between local utilities and energy efficiency programs.

  14. ZERH Architect Training: Understanding the Value, Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Architect Training: Understanding the Value, Technology and Benefits of the Zero Energy ... Consumer demand for market options that offer improved comfort, health, safety, resale ...

  15. Earned Value Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    development. DOE EVMS Risk Assessment Matrix - (MS Word) Formulas and Terminology "Gold Card" - September 2011 Road Show Presentation: Enhancing Earned Value (EV) Analysis Using ...

  16. Analytic Challenges to Valuing Energy Storage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    analytical task. Market Conditions - Markets are continually evolving, and the long-term value of energy storage is difficult to capture. Niche markets have emerged, but...

  17. Austin Energy- Value of Solar Residential Rate

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: In August 2014, the City Council of Austin, Texas, enacted Resolution No. 20140828, which directed program changes to the Value of Solar Tariff as follows:

  18. Generalized Bohms criterion and negative anode voltage fall in electric discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Londer, Ya. I.; Ulyanov, K. N.

    2013-10-15

    The value of the voltage fall across the anode sheath is found as a function of the current density. Analytic solutions are obtained in a wide range of the ratio of the directed velocity of plasma electrons v{sub 0} to their thermal velocity v{sub T}. It is shown that the voltage fall in a one-dimensional collisionless anode sheath is always negative. At the small values of v{sub 0}/v{sub T}, the obtained expression asymptotically transforms into the Langmuir formula. Generalized Bohms criterion for an electric discharge with allowance for the space charge density ?(0), electric field E(0), ion velocity v{sub i}(0), and ratio v{sub 0}/v{sub T} at the plasma-sheath interface is formulated. It is shown that the minimum value of the ion velocity v{sub i}{sup *}(0) corresponds to the vanishing of the electric field at one point inside the sheath. The dependence of v{sub i}{sup *} (0) on ?(0), E(0), and v{sub 0}/v{sub T} determines the boundary of the existence domain of stationary solutions in the sheath. Using this criterion, the maximum possible degree of contraction of the electron current at the anode is determined for a short high-current vacuum arc discharge.

  19. Pacific Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Pacific Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Pacific Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 2010-Jan 01/01 268 01/08 257 01/15 246 01/22 235 01/29 221 2010-Feb 02/05 211 02/12 197 02/19 193 02/26 184 2010-Mar 03/05 182 03/12 176 03/19 179 03/26 185 2010-Apr 04/02 189 04/09 193 04/16 199 04/23 209 04/30 220 2010-May

  20. Salt South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cubic Feet) Salt South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Salt South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 2010-Jan 01/01 159 01/08 123 01/15 91 01/22 102 01/29 108 2010-Feb 02/05 95 02/12 85 02/19 71 02/26 70 2010-Mar 03/05 63 03/12 71 03/19 80 03/26 89 2010-Apr 04/02 101 04/09 112 04/16 120

  1. South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 2010-Jan 01/01 985 01/08 886 01/15 793 01/22 789 01/29 779 2010-Feb 02/05 719 02/12 658 02/19 592 02/26 566 2010-Mar 03/05 535 03/12 548 03/19 567 03/26 581 2010-Apr 04/02 612 04/09 649 04/16 679 04/23 710

  2. Midwest Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Midwest Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Midwest Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 2010-Jan 01/01 900 01/08 820 01/15 750 01/22 710 01/29 661 2010-Feb 02/05 604 02/12 552 02/19 502 02/26 464 2010-Mar 03/05 433 03/12 422 03/19 419 03/26 410 2010-Apr 04/02 410 04/09 429 04/16 444 04/23 462 04/30 480 2010-May

  3. Mountain Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Mountain Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Mountain Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 2010-Jan 01/01 195 01/08 185 01/15 176 01/22 171 01/29 164 2010-Feb 02/05 157 02/12 148 02/19 141 02/26 133 2010-Mar 03/05 129 03/12 127 03/19 126 03/26 126 2010-Apr 04/02 126 04/09 126 04/16 129 04/23 134 04/30 138

  4. Nonsalt South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonsalt South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonsalt South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 2010-Jan 01/01 826 01/08 763 01/15 702 01/22 687 01/29 671 2010-Feb 02/05 624 02/12 573 02/19 521 02/26 496 2010-Mar 03/05 472 03/12 477 03/19 487 03/26 492 2010-Apr 04/02

  5. Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Feet) Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 1993-Dec 12/31 570 1994-Jan 01/07 532 01/14 504 01/21 440 01/28 414 1994-Feb 02/04 365 02/11 330 02/18 310 02/25 309 1994-Mar 03/04 281 03/11 271 03/18 284 03/25 303 1994-Apr 04/01 287 04/08 293 04/15 308 04/22

  6. Transforming dielectric coated tungsten and platinum wires to gaseous state using negative nanosecond-pulsed-current in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jian; Li, Xingwen Wang, Kun; Yang, Zefeng; Shi, Zongqian; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici; Li, Zhenghong

    2014-11-15

    With the help of thin dielectric coatings, corona free explosions were achieved in the region of about half a wire length (2?cm) for tungsten wires and nearly the whole wire length for platinum wires under a fast rising (46170?A/ns) negative polarity current in vacuum. Expansion velocity of the tungsten gas was over 10?km/s. Current waveforms from exploding coated wires were similar to those from bare wires in the air including a current pause stage. Coated wires with different coating parameters had a similar joule energy deposition before voltage collapsed, but a quite different scenario in the region near the electrodes. The axial field under negative current was the main reason for the axial inhomogeneity of coated tungsten wires. Tungsten or platinum gases in the vaporized region were tightly encompassed by the dielectric coating, while gaps or probably low density gases, were observed between the coating and the edge of the dense wire core in the core-corona structure region.

  7. Recent Progress in the Negative-Ion-Based Neutral Beam Injectors in Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Ikeda, K.; Osakabe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Oka, Y.; Asano, E.; Kondo, T.; Sato, M.; Shibuya, M.; Komada, S.; Kaneko, O.

    2009-03-12

    Negative-ion-based neutral beam injection (negative-NBI) system has been operated for 10 years in Large Helical Device (LHD). The injection power has been increased year by year, according to the improvement of the negative ion sources. Up to now, every injector achieves the designed injection energy and power of 180 keV-5 MW with hydrogen beams, and the total injection power exceeds 16 MW with three injectors. In the multi-round aperture grounded grid (GG), the diameter of a round aperture has been enlarged for higher GG transparency. Then, the GG heat load is reduced, as well as in the multi-slotted GG, and the voltage holding ability in the beam acceleration was improved. As a result, the beam energy is raised and the injection power is increased. To improve the anisotropic property of the beamlet convergence condition between the perpendicular and the parallel directions to the slots in the multi-slotted GG, a round-shape aperture of the steering grid (SG) has been changed to a racetrack shape. As a result, the difference of the beamlet conversion condition is much mitigated, and the injection efficiency (port-transmission efficiency) is improved, leading to 188 keV-6.4 MW injection. The Cs consumption is observed to be proportional to the tungsten evaporation from filaments. The Cs behavior is investigated with optical emission spectroscopy. During the beam extraction, the Cs recycling is dominated by Cs on the backplate, which is evaporated into the plasma by the backstreaming positive ions, and the wall surfaces should be loss regions for the supplied Cs.

  8. COST OF ADDRESSING TARGETS OF UNEQUAL VALUE

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. CANAVAN

    2001-08-01

    The formalism for evaluating first strike costs and incentives for military targeting generalize to include higher value targets. That introduces two new allocations to the usual allocation between missiles and military targets, but they can be performed analytically. As the number of weapons on each side decreases, the optimal fraction of second strike weapons allocated to military values falls. The shift to high value targets is more pronounced below about 1,000 weapons for nominal parameters. Below 500 weapons the first striker's cost of action drops below its cost of inaction. A strike would induce a second strike of about 250 weapons on high value targets. An increase in the first striker's preference for damage to the other's high value targets increases or a decrease in its preference for preventing damage to its own high value targets decreases first strike costs and stability margins. Including defenses complicates allocations slightly. The main effect is increased attrition of second strikes, particularly at larger defenses, which makes it possible to significantly reduce damage to high value targets. At 1,000 weapons, by 300 to 400 interceptors the first striker's costs are reduced to 30% below that of inaction and the number of weapons delivered on the first striker's high value targets is reduced to about 100.

  9. Applying vitrification to meet customers` values

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, B. [Scientific Ecology Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Cost-effective waste management solutions that maximize customer value require a thorough and flexible evaluation and integration of approaches, technology applications, and disposal options. This is particulary true in the application of vitrification to low-level radioactive and mixed waste stabilization. Case-specific evaluations are the required to determine the highest value, most cost-effective approaches.

  10. Negative differential mobility for negative carriers as revealed by space charge measurements on crosslinked polyethylene insulated model cables

    SciTech Connect

    Teyssedre, G. Laurent, C.; Vu, T. T. N.

    2015-12-21

    Among features observed in polyethylene materials under relatively high field, space charge packets, consisting in a pulse of net charge that remains in the form of a pulse as it crosses the insulation, are repeatedly observed but without complete theory explaining their formation and propagation. Positive charge packets are more often reported, and the models based on negative differential mobility(NDM) for the transport of holes could account for some charge packets phenomenology. Conversely, NDM for electrons transport has never been reported so far. The present contribution reports space charge measurements by pulsed electroacoustic method on miniature cables that are model of HVDC cables. The measurements were realized at room temperature or with a temperature gradient of 10 °C through the insulation under DC fields on the order 30–60 kV/mm. Space charge results reveal systematic occurrence of a negative front of charges generated at the inner electrode that moves toward the outer electrode at the beginning of the polarization step. It is observed that the transit time of the front of negative charge increases, and therefore the mobility decreases, with the applied voltage. Further, the estimated mobility, in the range 10{sup −14}–10{sup −13} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} for the present results, increases when the temperature increases for the same condition of applied voltage. The features substantiate the hypothesis of negative differential mobility used for modelling space charge packets.

  11. PKC{eta} is a negative regulator of AKT inhibiting the IGF-I induced proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Shahaf, Galit; Rotem-Dai, Noa; Koifman, Gabriela; Raveh-Amit, Hadas; Frost, Sigal A.; Livneh, Etta

    2012-04-15

    The PI3K-AKT pathway is frequently activated in human cancers, including breast cancer, and its activation appears to be critical for tumor maintenance. Some malignant cells are dependent on activated AKT for their survival; tumors exhibiting elevated AKT activity show sensitivity to its inhibition, providing an Achilles heel for their treatment. Here we show that the PKC{eta} isoform is a negative regulator of the AKT signaling pathway. The IGF-I induced phosphorylation on Ser473 of AKT was inhibited by the PKC{eta}-induced expression in MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cancer cells. This was further confirmed in shRNA PKC{eta}-knocked-down MCF-7 cells, demonstrating elevated phosphorylation on AKT Ser473. While PKC{eta} exhibited negative regulation on AKT phosphorylation it did not alter the IGF-I induced ERK phosphorylation. However, it enhanced ERK phosphorylation when stimulated by PDGF. Moreover, its effects on IGF-I/AKT and PDGF/ERK pathways were in correlation with cell proliferation. We further show that both PKC{eta} and IGF-I confer protection against UV-induced apoptosis and cell death having additive effects. Although the protective effect of IGF-I involved activation of AKT, it was not affected by PKC{eta} expression, suggesting that PKC{eta} acts through a different route to increase cell survival. Hence, our studies show that PKC{eta} provides negative control on AKT pathway leading to reduced cell proliferation, and further suggest that its presence/absence in breast cancer cells will affect cell death, which could be of therapeutic value.

  12. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A.; Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard; Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso; Midttun, Øystein

    2014-02-15

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  13. Negative ion production in the RF multiaperture surface-plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Abdrashitov, G.; Belchenko, Yu. Dranichnikov, A.; Gorbovsky, A.; Kapitonov, V.; Kolmogorov, V.; Kondakov, A.; Konstantinov, S.; Sanin, A.; Selivanov, A.; Selivanov, P.; Shikhovtsev, I.; Stupishin, N.; Tiunov, M.; Ivanov, A.; Sotnikov, O.; Binderbauer, M.; Putvinski, S.; Smirnov, A.; Sevier, L.

    2015-04-08

    The experiments on negative hydrogen ion beam production in a multi-aperture long-pulse surface-plasma source are described. H- ions are produced on the surface of a plasma grid covered by cesium and illuminated by fast plasma particles. The source uses a radio-frequency driver to generate plasma. A composite magnet system made of external permanent magnets confines and filters electrons in the plasma region, and deflects them in the extraction area. A multiaperture, multi-electrode ion optical system is used for beam formation. The electrode heating and cooling during long pulses is accomplished by circulating a heat transfer fluid through channels drilled in the electrodes bodies. H- ions extraction through a single aperture and 21 apertures was performed and studied. A stable H- beam with the current up to 0.7 A, energy up to 74 kV, and pulse duration up to 7 s was routinely obtained.

  14. Colorado Regional Faults

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Regional Faults Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the regional faults of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4543192.100000 m Left: 144385.020000 m Right: 754585.020000 m Bottom: 4094592.100000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  15. An assessment of the net value of CSP systems integrated with thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Mehos, M.; Jorgenson, J.; Denholm, P.; Turchi, C.

    2015-05-01

    Within this study, we evaluate the operational and capacity valueor total system valuefor multiple concentrating solar power (CSP) plant configurations under an assumed 33% renewable penetration scenario in California. We calculate the first-year bid price for two CSP plants, including a 2013 molten-salt tower integrated with a conventional Rankine cycle and a hypothetical 2020 molten-salt tower system integrated with an advanced supercritical carbon-dioxide power block. The overall benefit to the regional grid, defined in this study as the net value, is calculated by subtracting the first-year bid price from the total system value.

  16. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of ``noxious facilities`` be identified and measured? To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  17. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of noxious facilities'' be identified and measured To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  18. Excitation of Meinel and the first negative band system at the collision of electrons and protons with the nitrogen molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Gochitashvili, Malkhaz R.; Lomsadze, Ramaz A.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.

    2010-08-15

    The absolute cross sections for the e-N{sub 2} and p-N{sub 2} collisions for the first negative B{sup 2{Sigma}}{sub u}{sup +}-X{sup 2{Sigma}}{sub g}{sup +} and Meinel A{sup 2{Pi}}{sub u}-X{sup 2{Sigma}}{sub g}{sup +} bands have been measured in the energy region of 400-1500 eV for electrons and 0.4-10 keV for protons, respectively. Measurements are performed in the visible spectral region of 400-800 nm by an optical spectroscopy method. The ratio of the cross sections of the Meinel band system to the cross section of the first negative band system (0,0) does not depend on the incident electron energy. The populations of vibrational levels corresponding to A{sup 2{Pi}}{sub u} states are consistent with the Franck-Condon principle. The ratios of the cross sections of (4,1) to (3,0) bands and (5,2) to (3,0) bands exhibit slight dependence on the proton energy. A theoretical estimation within the quasimolecular approximation provides a reasonable description of the total cross section for the first negative band.

  19. Coal-Producing Region

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    . Coal Production by State (thousand short tons) Year to Date Coal-Producing Region and State April - June 2016 January - March 2016 April - June 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change Alabama 2,223 2,446 3,504 4,669 7,561 -38.2 Alaska 228 310 345 538 610 -11.9 Arizona 1,235 1,335 1,912 2,569 3,667 -29.9 Arkansas 15 11 27 27 48 -44.9 Colorado 3,081 2,482 5,078 5,564 10,341 -46.2 Illinois 11,125 11,312 13,391 22,437 30,221 -25.8 Indiana 6,963 7,224 8,577 14,187 18,040 -21.4 Kansas - 27 49 27 102 -73.9

  20. Strengthening regional safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Palhares, L.; Almeida, G.; Mafra, O.

    1996-08-01

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980`s and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States.

  1. Mr. W. Librirzi Regional Superfund Office EPA Region II

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    W. Librirzi Regional Superfund Office EPA Region II 4th Floor 26 Federal Plaza New York, ... Steel Corporation H. Snyder, EPA HQS T. DeBore, NYS Energy Office Y. Ogden, Commerce Dept. ...

  2. Understanding Variation in Partition Coefficient, Kd, Values

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... or "two-region" model (Coats and Smith, 1964; Haggerty and Gorelick, 1995; van ... of soil systems e.g., Smith and Jenne (1991) as summarized by Tompson et al. (1996). ...

  3. Lithium aluminum/iron sulfide battery having lithium aluminum and silicon as negative electrode

    DOEpatents

    Gilbert, M.; Kaun, T.

    1984-01-20

    A method of making a negative electrode, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical c

  4. It`s material strength, not a negative Grueneisen gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Sinz, K.H.P.H.; Moss, W.C.

    1993-02-01

    Hydrocode simulations of CORRTEX data (shock position as a function of time) require a model for the material properties of the medium in which the explosion occurs. Prior to the BULLION underground nuclear test, Furnish performed gun experiments on core samples that were taken from a satellite hole near the working point. The authors have analyzed some of these data and constructed a constitutive model that is consistent with the gun data. The model consists of a Mie-Grueneisen equation of state that is parameterized using the Hugoniot, a Grueneisen gamma that is only volume dependent, and a pressure dependent strength model. Previous analyses of these particular experiments have ignored material strength, because of its lack of influence on numerical simulations of the CORRTEX data. However, if strength is excluded, negative gammas are required to fit Furnish`s data, but these negative gammas give an extremely poor fit to the CORRTEX field data. The simple model, which includes strength, has a positive volume dependent gamma. The model fits Furnish`s laboratory data and the measured experimental CORRTEX data. What is remarkable about the model is that all of the parameters in it can be obtained from the gun data, indicating that laboratory experiments of this type (and perhaps others) on core samples are potentially more useful than believed previously.

  5. Phonon anharmonicity and negative thermal expansion in SnSe

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Bansal, Dipanshu; Hong, Jiawang; Li, Chen W.; May, Andrew F.; Porter, Wallace; Hu, Michael Y.; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Delaire, Olivier

    2016-08-09

    In this paper, the anharmonic phonon properties of SnSe in the Pnma phase were investigated with a combination of experiments and first-principles simulations. Using inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (NRIXS), we have measured the phonon dispersions and density of states (DOS) and their temperature dependence, which revealed a strong, inhomogeneous shift and broadening of the spectrum on warming. First-principles simulations were performed to rationalize these measurements, and to explain the previously reported anisotropic thermal expansion, in particular the negative thermal expansion within the Sn-Se bilayers. Including the anisotropic strain dependence of the phonon free energy,more » in addition to the electronic ground state energy, is essential to reproduce the negative thermal expansion. From the phonon DOS obtained with INS and additional calorimetry measurements, we quantify the harmonic, dilational, and anharmonic components of the phonon entropy, heat capacity, and free energy. Finally, the origin of the anharmonic phonon thermodynamics is linked to the electronic structure.« less

  6. Chapter 48 - Value Engineering | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    48ValueEngineering0.pdf More Documents & Publications Audit Report: OAS-L-07-08 Emerging Lighting Technology Microsoft PowerPoint - 12 Holman White PM Conference 2010 Rev 2...

  7. ARM - Value-Added Product Status Reports

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Status Reports Publications Journal Articles Conference Documents Program Documents & Technical Reports Publications Database Public Information Materials Image Library Videos Publication Resources Submit a Publication Publishing Procedures ARM Style Guide (PDF, 448KB) Acronyms Glossary Logos Contacts RSS for Publications Value-Added Product Status Reports ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report July 1-September 30, 2015 (PDF, 1MB) ARM Climate Research Facility

  8. Value of Flexibility in the Markets

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Value of Flexibility in the Markets * Basic overview of the SPP and MISO markets * Potential benefit to some SPA customers of using markets to schedule energy * Increasing need for ancillary services, and the value of ancillary services in the markets 3 From presentation by ERCOT: Operational Challenges due to High Wind * Higher frequency deviations due to large system excursions * Inadequate transmission for projected wind growth * Constraint management under high and low wind * Difficulty in

  9. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  10. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, J.

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  11. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, Joyce

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  12. Trapping and aerogelation of nanoparticles in negative gravity hydrocarbon flames

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarty, Rajan K.; Novosselov, Igor V.; Beres, Nicholas D.; Moosmller, Hans; Sorensen, Christopher M.; Stipe, Christopher B.

    2014-06-16

    We report the experimental realization of continuous carbon aerogel production using a flame aerosol reactor by operating it in negative gravity (?g; up-side-down configuration). Buoyancy opposes the fuel and air flow forces in ?g, which eliminates convectional outflow of nanoparticles from the flame and traps them in a distinctive non-tipping, flicker-free, cylindrical flame body, where they grow to millimeter-size aerogel particles and gravitationally fall out. Computational fluid dynamics simulations show that a closed-loop recirculation zone is set up in ?g flames, which reduces the time to gel for nanoparticles by ?10{sup 6}?s, compared to positive gravity (upward rising) flames. Our results open up new possibilities of one-step gas-phase synthesis of a wide variety of aerogels on an industrial scale.

  13. Models of radiofrequency coupling for negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Cavenago, M.; Petrenko, S.

    2012-02-15

    Radiofrequency heating for ICP (inductively coupled plasma) ion sources depends on the source operating pressure, the presence or absence of a Faraday shield, the driver coil geometry, the frequency used, and the magnetic field configuration: in negative ion source a magnetic filter seems necessary for H{sup -} survival. The result of single particle simulations showing the possibility of electron acceleration in the preglow regime and for reasonable driver chamber radius (15 cm) is reported, also as a function of the static external magnetic field. An effective plasma conductivity, depending not only from electron density, temperature, and rf field but also on static magnetic field is here presented and compared to previous models. Use of this conductivity and of multiphysics tools for a plasma transport and heating model is shown and discussed for a small source.

  14. Multiple delivery cesium oven system for negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, G.; Bhartiya, S.; Pandya, K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, M. J.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G.; Chakraborty, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2012-02-15

    Distribution of cesium in large negative ion beam sources to be operational in ITER, is presently based on the use of three or more cesium ovens, which operate simultaneously and are controlled remotely. However, use of multiple Cs ovens simultaneously is likely to pose difficulties in operation and maintenance of the ovens. An alternate method of Cs delivery, based on a single oven distribution system is proposed as one which could reduce the need of simultaneous operation of many ovens. A proof of principle experiment verifying the concept of a multinozzle distributor based Cs oven has been carried out at Institute for Plasma Research. It is also observed that the Cs flux is not controlled by Cs reservoir temperature after few hours of operation but by the temperature of the distributor which starts behaving as a Cs reservoir.

  15. Aerosol remote sensing in polar regions

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi, Claudio; Kokhanovsky, Alexander A.; Lupi, Angelo; Ritter, Christoph; Smirnov, Alexander; O'Neill, Norman T.; Stone, Robert S.; Holben, Brent N.; Nyeki, Stephan; Mazzola, Mauro; Lanconelli, Christian; Vitale, Vito; Stebel, Kerstin; Aaltonen, Veijo; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Rodriguez, Edith; Herber, Andreas B.; Radionov, Vladimir F.; Zielinski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Sakerin, Sergey M.; Kabanov, Dmitry M.; Xue, Yong; Mei, Linlu; Istomina, Larysa; Wagener, Richard; McArthur, Bruce; Sobolewski, Piotr S.; Kivi, Rigel; Courcoux, Yann; Larouche, Pierre; Broccardo, Stephen; Piketh, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness ?(?) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of ngstrm's exponent ? were calculated. Analysing these data, the monthly mean values of ?(0.50 ?m) and ? and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winterspring and summerautumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of ? versus ?(0.50 ?m) showed: (i) a considerable increase in ?(0.50 ?m) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winterspring, without marked changes in ?; and (ii) a marked increase in ?(0.50 ?m) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas ? decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of ?(?) and ? at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterise vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-lesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of ?(?) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were defined to represent the average features of nuclei, accumulation and coarse mode particles

  16. RF-Plasma Source Commissioning in Indian Negative Ion Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. J.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Yadava, Ratnakar; Chakraborty, A. K.; Bansal, G.; Gahlaut, A.; Soni, J.; Kumar, Sunil; Pandya, K.; Parmar, K. G.; Sonara, J.; Kraus, W.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Obermayer, S.; Martens, C.; Franzen, P.; Fantz, U.

    2011-09-26

    The Indian program of the RF based negative ion source has started off with the commissioning of ROBIN, the inductively coupled RF based negative ion source facility under establishment at Institute for Plasma research (IPR), India. The facility is being developed under a technology transfer agreement with IPP Garching. It consists of a single RF driver based beam source (BATMAN replica) coupled to a 100 kW, 1 MHz RF generator with a self excited oscillator, through a matching network, for plasma production and ion extraction and acceleration. The delivery of the RF generator and the RF plasma source without the accelerator, has enabled initiation of plasma production experiments. The recent experimental campaign has established the matching circuit parameters that result in plasma production with density in the range of 0.5-1x10{sup 18}/m{sup 3}, at operational gas pressures ranging between 0.4-1 Pa. Various configurations of the matching network have been experimented upon to obtain a stable operation of the set up for RF powers ranging between 25-85 kW and pulse lengths ranging between 4-20 s. It has been observed that the range of the parameters of the matching circuit, over which the frequency of the power supply is stable, is narrow and further experiments with increased number of turns in the coil are in the pipeline to see if the range can be widened. In this paper, the description of the experimental system and the commissioning data related to the optimisation of the various parameters of the matching network, to obtain stable plasma of required density, are presented and discussed.

  17. Safe disposal of metal values in slag

    SciTech Connect

    Halpin, P.T.; Zarur, G.L.

    1982-10-26

    The method of safely disposing of sludge containing metal values capable of displaying toxic ecological properties includes the steps of deriving from an organic or inorganic sludge an intermediate product such as a dewatered sludge or an incinerated ash, and adding this intermediate product to a metal smelting step of a type producing a slag such that most of the metal values become encapsulated in the slag. Some precious metal values may be recovered with the metal being smelted, and may be subsequently separated therefrom by appropriate metal winning steps. The sludge product brings to the smelting process certain additives needed therein such as silica and phosphates for the slag, alumina and magnesium to lower the viscosity of the molten slag, and organic matter serving as reducing agents.

  18. Microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Alex L.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Moorman, Matthew W.

    2010-05-04

    A microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device comprises a microfabricated gas chromatography column in combination with a catalytic microcalorimeter. The microcalorimeter can comprise a reference thermal conductivity sensor to provide diagnostics and surety. Using microfabrication techniques, the device can be manufactured in production quantities at a low per-unit cost. The microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device enables continuous calorimetric determination of the heating value of natural gas with a 1 minute analysis time and 1.5 minute cycle time using air as a carrier gas. This device has applications in remote natural gas mining stations, pipeline switching and metering stations, turbine generators, and other industrial user sites. For gas pipelines, the device can improve gas quality during transfer and blending, and provide accurate financial accounting. For industrial end users, the device can provide continuous feedback of physical gas properties to improve combustion efficiency during use.

  19. Negative-parity states and {beta} decays in odd Ho and Dy nuclei with A=151,153

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Khudair, Falih H.; Long Guilu; Sun Yang

    2008-03-15

    We investigated the negative-parity states and electromagnetic transitions in {sup 151,153}Ho and {sup 151,153}Dy within the framework of the interacting boson fermion model 2 (IBFM-2). Spin assignments for some states with uncertain spin are made based on this calculation. Calculated excitation energies, electromagnetic transitions, and branching ratios are compared with available experimental data and a good agreement is obtained. The model wave functions were used to study {beta} decays from Ho to Dy isotones, and the calculated logft values are close to the experimental data.

  20. Emission measure distribution for diffuse regions in solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Srividya; Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2014-11-01

    Our knowledge of the diffuse emission that encompasses active regions is very limited. In this paper we investigate two off-limb active regions, namely, AR 10939 and AR 10961, to probe the underlying heating mechanisms. For this purpose, we have used spectral observations from Hinode/EIS and employed the emission measure (EM) technique to obtain the thermal structure of these diffuse regions. Our results show that the characteristic EM distributions of the diffuse emission regions peak at log T = 6.25 and the coolward slopes are in the range 1.4-3.3. This suggests that both low- as well as high-frequency nanoflare heating events are at work. Our results provide additional constraints on the properties of these diffuse emission regions and their contribution to the background/foreground when active region cores are observed on-disk.

  1. Determine and Communicate the Value of Replication | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    and Communicate the Value of Replication Determine and Communicate the Value of Replication This presentation shares how to determine and later communicate the value of ...

  2. Value Creation Through Integrated Networks and Convergence

    SciTech Connect

    De Martini, Paul; Taft, Jeffrey D.

    2015-04-01

    Customer adoption of distributed energy resources and public policies are driving changes in the uses of the distribution system. A system originally designed and built for one-way energy flows from central generating facilities to end-use customers is now experiencing injections of energy from customers anywhere on the grid and frequent reversals in the direction of energy flow. In response, regulators and utilities are re-thinking the design and operations of the grid to create more open and transactive electric networks. This evolution has the opportunity to unlock significant value for customers and utilities. Alternatively, failure to seize this potential may instead lead to an erosion of value if customers seek to defect and disconnect from the system. This paper will discuss how current grid modernization investments may be leveraged to create open networks that increase value through the interaction of intelligent devices on the grid and prosumerization of customers. Moreover, even greater value can be realized through the synergistic effects of convergence of multiple networks. This paper will highlight examples of the emerging nexus of non-electric networks with electricity.

  3. Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Hummon, M.; Jenkin, T.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.; O'Malley, M.

    2013-05-01

    This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  4. The Business Value of Superior Energy Performance

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Evans, Tracy; Glatt, Sandy; Meffert, William

    2015-08-04

    Industrial facilities participating in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (US DOE) Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program are finding that it provides them with significant business value. This value starts with the implementation of ISO 50001-Energy management system standard, which provides an internationally-relevant framework for integration of energy management into an organization’s business processes. The resulting structure emphasizes effective use of available data and supports continual improvement of energy performance. International relevance is particularly important for companies with a global presence or trading interests, providing them with access to supporting ISO standards and a growing body of certified companies representing the collective knowledge of communities of practice. This paper examines the business value of SEP, a voluntary program that builds on ISO 50001, inviting industry to demonstrate an even greater commitment through third-party verification of energy performance improvement to a specified level of achievement. Information from 28 facilities that have already achieved SEP certification will illustrate key findings concerning both the value and the challenges from SEP/ISO 50001 implementation. These include the facilities’ experience with implementation, internal and external value of third-party verification of energy performance improvement; attractive payback periods and the importance of SEP tools and guidance. US DOE is working to bring the program to scale, including the Enterprise-Wide Accelerator (SEP for multiple facilities in a company), the Ratepayer-Funded Program Accelerator (supporting tools for utilities and program administrators to include SEP in their program offerings), and expansion of the program to other sectors and industry supply chains.

  5. Study of plasma meniscus formation and beam halo in negative ion source using the 3D3VPIC model

    SciTech Connect

    Nishioka, S.; Goto, I.; Hatayama, A.; Miyamoto, K.; Fukano, A.

    2015-04-08

    In this paper, the effect of the electron confinement time on the plasma meniscus and the fraction of the beam halo is investigated by 3D3V-PIC (three dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space) (Particle in Cell) simulation in the extraction region of negative ion source. The electron confinement time depends on the characteristic time of electron escape along the magnetic field as well as the characteristic time of diffusion across the magnetic field. Our 3D3V-PIC results support the previous result by 2D3V-PIC results i.e., it is confirmed that the penetration of the plasma meniscus becomes deep into the source plasma region when the effective confinement time is short.

  6. Qualitative experiment with arc discharges on negatively biased solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuninaka, Hitoshi )

    1990-12-01

    The present ground simulation of arc discharges using heat-sensitive materials in dense Ar plasma can preclude interactions with the vacuum chamber wall due to its plasma shielding. The results obtained suggest that arc discharges occurred only on the surface of the masked model, and on the model with a clean conductor. Discharge frequency depended on substrate temperature, and surface luminosity was observed on the insulator mask; this last feature suggests that electrons are incident from the conductor region onto the mask. It is necessary to construct a new theory for the arc discharge integrating the effects of the surface gas adsorption/desorption and the secondary electrons. 14 refs.

  7. Negative terahertz conductivity in disordered graphene bilayers with population inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Svintsov, D.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, V.; Mitin, V.; Shur, M. S.

    2015-03-16

    The gapless energy band spectra make the structures based on graphene and graphene bilayer with the population inversion to be promising media for the interband terahertz (THz) lasing. However, a strong intraband absorption at THz frequencies still poses a challenge for efficient THz lasing. In this paper, we show that in the pumped graphene bilayer, the indirect interband radiative transitions accompanied by scattering of carriers by disorder can provide a substantial negative contribution to the THz conductivity (together with the direct interband transitions). In the graphene bilayer on high-? substrates with point charged defects, these transitions substantially compensate the losses due to the intraband (Drude) absorption. We also demonstrate that the indirect interband contribution to the THz conductivity in a graphene bilayer with the extended defects (such as the charged impurity clusters) can surpass by several times the fundamental limit associated with the direct interband transitions, and the Drude conductivity as well. These predictions can affect the strategy of the graphene-based THz laser implementation.

  8. Robust activation method for negative electron affinity photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Mulhollan, Gregory A.; Bierman, John C.

    2011-09-13

    A method by which photocathodes(201), single crystal, amorphous, or otherwise ordered, can be surface modified to a robust state of lowered and in best cases negative, electron affinity has been discovered. Conventional methods employ the use of Cs(203) and an oxidizing agent(207), typically carried by diatomic oxygen or by more complex molecules, for example nitrogen trifluoride, to achieve a lowered electron affinity(404). In the improved activation method, a second alkali, other than Cs(205), is introduced onto the surface during the activation process, either by co-deposition, yo-yo, or sporadic or intermittent application. Best effect for GaAs photocathodes has been found through the use of Li(402) as the second alkali, though nearly the same effect can be found by employing Na(406). Suitable photocathodes are those which are grown, cut from boules, implanted, rolled, deposited or otherwise fabricated in a fashion and shape desired for test or manufacture independently supported or atop a support structure or within a framework or otherwise affixed or suspended in the place and position required for use.

  9. Waves and negative refraction in magnetized plasma with ferrite grains

    SciTech Connect

    Mesfin, Belayneh; Mal'nev, V. N.; Martysh, E. V.; Rapoport, Yu. G.

    2010-11-15

    The propagation of high frequency electromagnetic waves in the low temperature magnetized plasma with ferrite grains (MPFG) is considered. The dispersion properties of MPFG are simultaneously characterized by the permittivity and permeability tensors. The dispersion of the permeability is caused by the high frequency magnetization of the grain subsystem and is important in the vicinity of the frequency of ferromagnetic resonance, which coincides with the electron cyclotron frequency {omega}{sub c}. The MPFG becomes transparent for the waves that cannot propagate in conventional electron-ion magnetized plasma. It is shown that the refractive index of the extraordinary wave propagating along and transversal to the external magnetic field with frequencies close to {omega}{sub c} can be negative as well as positive. For the typical parameters of MPFG, the group velocity of this wave is much smaller than the speed of light. The refractive index of MPFG matched with the free space is obtained for waves propagating at an arbitrary angle with respect to the applied constant magnetic field. The results obtained clearly shows that the dispersion properties of MPFG have all the known properties of left-handed media in the vicinity of {omega}{sub c}.

  10. " Electricity Generation by Census Region...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    A6. Total Inputs of Selected Byproduct Energy for Heat, Power, and" " Electricity Generation by Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group, and" " Selected Industries, 1994" " ...

  11. Regional Networks for Energy Efficiency

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Sustainability Peer Exchange Call: Regional Networks for Energy Efficiency, call slides and discussion summary, December 6, 2012.

  12. " Level: National Data and Regional...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... have been consumed in place of residual fuel oil." " (f) Value of Shipments and ... for any table cell, multiply the cell's" "corresponding RSE column and RSE row factors. ...

  13. " Level: National Data and Regional...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... have been consumed in place of distillate fuel oil." " (f) Value of Shipments and ... for any table cell, multiply the cell's" "corresponding RSE column and RSE row factors. ...

  14. Value Streams in Microgrids: A literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Gonçalo; Mashayekh, Salman; Forget, Thibault; DeForest, Nicholas; Agarwal, Ankit; Schönbein, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Microgrids are an increasingly common component of the evolving electricity grids with the potential to improve local reliability, reduce costs, and increase penetration rates for distributed renewable generation. The additional complexity of microgrids often leads to increased investment costs, creating a barrier for widespread adoption. These costs may result directly from specific needs for islanding detection, protection systems and power quality assurance that would otherwise be avoided in simpler system configurations. However, microgrids also facilitate additional value streams that may make up for their increased costs and improve the economic viability of microgrid deployment. This paper analyses the literature currently available on research relevant to value streams occurring in microgrids that may contribute to offset the increased investment costs. A review on research related to specific microgrid requirements is also presented.

  15. ARM - Value-Added Product (VAP) Reports

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    (VAP) Reports Publications Journal Articles Conference Documents Program Documents & Technical Reports Publications Database Public Information Materials Image Library Videos Publication Resources Submit a Publication Publishing Procedures ARM Style Guide (PDF, 448KB) Acronyms Glossary Logos Contacts RSS for Publications Value-Added Product (VAP) Reports For proper viewing, technical reports should be viewed with Adobe Acrobat Reader. Download the latest version from the Adobe Reader

  16. ARM - Value-Added Products - Status

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    - Status Report Expand Orange | Expand Blue | Expand Green | Collapse All See Legend for Data Availability explanation. ARM - Value-Added Products - Status Last Update: March 21 2016 19:00:50 +/- Vap Name Translator Developer Frequency Tier Producer Data Availability ACRED (ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data) Shaocheng Xie Chuanfeng Zhao, Renata Mc Coy Periodically Evaluation Developer ARM Overview: Developer Description: The ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Dataset (ACRED) is a multi-year cloud

  17. Merged Sounding Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Troyan, D

    2010-03-03

    The Merged Sounding value-added product (VAP) uses a combination of observations from radiosonde soundings, the microwave radiometer (MWR), surface meteorological instruments, and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model output with a sophisticated scaling/interpolation/smoothing scheme in order to define profiles of the atmospheric thermodynamic state at one-minute temporal intervals and a total of 266 altitude levels.

  18. Survey to determine the value of DYNA

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, J.W.; Bellshaw, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the value of the DYNA software program to US Industry. The software conducts dynamic finite element analysis tailored specifically to simulating high energy impacts, such as car crashes or aircraft collisions with birds. DYNA is available at nearly zero cost to the public in two-dimensional (DYNA2D) and three-dimensional versions (DYNA3D). DYNA has had a major impact on US industry. Measuring this impact using conventional approaches, such as profitability or revenue size, does not apply to DYNA. A new approach is needed that will capture DYNA's value to US industry. Our challenge was two fold: (1) to develop a methodology for valuing technology transferred to the public domain; and (2) to apply this methodology to DYNA. We accomplished the evaluation task by using indirect measurements of value. These indicators encompassed three broad categories, answering three key questions: (1) Use of DYNA and DYNA-like'' codes: Are companies, academic institutions, government agencies actually using DYNA and codes like it (2) Savings generated from using these codes: Is the use of DYNA and codes like it creating a positive economic impact (3) Market size of afl DYNA-like'' codes: Has a commercial market developed for DYNA-like'' codes This study represents the results of interviews with people identified by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as users of DYNA. Some of the people surveyed for this study do not use DYNA. They rely upon other dynamic finite element analysis codes. We refer to these individuals as users of DYNA-like'' codes or codes like DYNA.'' Several of the DYNA-like'' codes used DYNA as their core. These codes are descendants of DYNA.

  19. Survey to determine the value of DYNA

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, J.W.; Bellshaw, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the value of the DYNA software program to US Industry. The software conducts dynamic finite element analysis tailored specifically to simulating high energy impacts, such as car crashes or aircraft collisions with birds. DYNA is available at nearly zero cost to the public in two-dimensional (DYNA2D) and three-dimensional versions (DYNA3D). DYNA has had a major impact on US industry. Measuring this impact using conventional approaches, such as profitability or revenue size, does not apply to DYNA. A new approach is needed that will capture DYNA`s value to US industry. Our challenge was two fold: (1) to develop a methodology for valuing technology transferred to the public domain; and (2) to apply this methodology to DYNA. We accomplished the evaluation task by using indirect measurements of value. These indicators encompassed three broad categories, answering three key questions: (1) Use of DYNA and ``DYNA-like`` codes: Are companies, academic institutions, government agencies actually using DYNA and codes like it? (2) Savings generated from using these codes: Is the use of DYNA and codes like it creating a positive economic impact (3) Market size of afl ``DYNA-like`` codes: Has a commercial market developed for ``DYNA-like`` codes? This study represents the results of interviews with people identified by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as users of DYNA. Some of the people surveyed for this study do not use DYNA. They rely upon other dynamic finite element analysis codes. We refer to these individuals as users of ``DYNA-like`` codes or ``codes like DYNA.`` Several of the ``DYNA-like`` codes used DYNA as their core. These codes are descendants of DYNA.

  20. PROCESS OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM VALUES BY ELECTRODEPOSITION

    DOEpatents

    Whal, A.C.

    1958-04-15

    A process is described of separating plutonium values from an aqueous solution by electrodeposition. The process consists of subjecting an aqueous 0.1 to 1.0 N nitric acid solution containing plutonium ions to electrolysis between inert metallic electrodes. A current density of one milliampere io one ampere per square centimeter of cathode surface and a temperature between 10 and 60 d C are maintained. Plutonium is electrodeposited on the cathode surface and recovered.

  1. ARM KAZR-ARSCL Value Added Product

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jensen, Michael

    The Ka-band ARM Zenith Radars (KAZRs) have replaced the long-serving Millimeter Cloud Radars, or MMCRs. Accordingly, the primary MMCR Value Added Product (VAP), the Active Remote Sensing of CLouds (ARSCL) product, is being replaced by a KAZR-based version, the KAZR-ARSCL VAP. KAZR-ARSCL provides cloud boundaries and best-estimate time-height fields of radar moments.

  2. ARM KAZR-ARSCL Value Added Product

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jensen, Michael

    2012-09-28

    The Ka-band ARM Zenith Radars (KAZRs) have replaced the long-serving Millimeter Cloud Radars, or MMCRs. Accordingly, the primary MMCR Value Added Product (VAP), the Active Remote Sensing of CLouds (ARSCL) product, is being replaced by a KAZR-based version, the KAZR-ARSCL VAP. KAZR-ARSCL provides cloud boundaries and best-estimate time-height fields of radar moments.

  3. Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants Seyed Hossein Madaeni and Ramteen Sioshansi Ohio State University Paul Denholm National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-51253 June 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract

  4. Observation of two distinct negative trions in tungsten disulfide monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Huang, Bing; Wang, Kai; Lin, Ming-Wei; Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Xiao, Kai; Yoon, Mina; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Geohegan, David B.

    2015-09-25

    We report on the observation of two distinct photogenerated negative trion states TA and TB in two-dimensional tungsten disulfide (2D-WS2) monolayers. These trions are postulated to emerge from their parent excitons XA and XB, which originate from spin-orbit-split (SOS) levels in the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB). Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements suggests that Pauli blocking controls a competition process between TA and TB photoformation, following dissociation of XA and XB through hole trapping at internal or substrate defect sites. While TA arises directly from its parent XA, TB emerges through a different transition accessible only after XB dissociates through a hole trapping channel. This discovery of additional optically-active band-edge transitions in atomically-thin metal dichalcogenides may revolutionize optoelectronic applications and fundamental research opportunities for many-body interaction physics. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy of two-dimensional tungsten disulfide monolayers (2D-WS2) grown on sapphire substrates revealed two transient absorption spectral peaks that are attributed to distinct negative trions at ~2.02 eV (T1) and ~1.98 eV (T2). The dynamics measurements indicate that trion formation by the probe is enabled by photodoped electrons that remain after trapping of holes from excitons or free electron-hole pairs at defect sites in the crystal or on the substrate. Dynamics of the excitons XA and XB’s characteristic absorption bands, at ~2.03 and ~2.40 eV, respectively, were separately monitored and compared with the photoinduced absorption features. Selective excitation of the lowest exciton level XA using λpump < 2.4 eV forms only trion T1, which implies that the electron that remains

  5. Observation of two distinct negative trions in tungsten disulfide monolayers

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Huang, Bing; Wang, Kai; Lin, Ming-Wei; Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Xiao, Kai; Yoon, Mina; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; et al

    2015-09-25

    We report on the observation of two distinct photogenerated negative trion states TA and TB in two-dimensional tungsten disulfide (2D-WS2) monolayers. These trions are postulated to emerge from their parent excitons XA and XB, which originate from spin-orbit-split (SOS) levels in the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB). Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements suggests that Pauli blocking controls a competition process between TA and TB photoformation, following dissociation of XA and XB through hole trapping at internal or substrate defect sites. While TA arises directly from its parent XA, TB emerges through a different transition accessible only after XB dissociates throughmore » a hole trapping channel. This discovery of additional optically-active band-edge transitions in atomically-thin metal dichalcogenides may revolutionize optoelectronic applications and fundamental research opportunities for many-body interaction physics. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy of two-dimensional tungsten disulfide monolayers (2D-WS2) grown on sapphire substrates revealed two transient absorption spectral peaks that are attributed to distinct negative trions at ~2.02 eV (T1) and ~1.98 eV (T2). The dynamics measurements indicate that trion formation by the probe is enabled by photodoped electrons that remain after trapping of holes from excitons or free electron-hole pairs at defect sites in the crystal or on the substrate. Dynamics of the excitons XA and XB’s characteristic absorption bands, at ~2.03 and ~2.40 eV, respectively, were separately monitored and compared with the photoinduced absorption features. Selective excitation of the lowest exciton level XA using λpump < 2.4 eV forms only trion T1, which implies that the electron that remains from the dissociation of exciton XA is involved in the creation of this trion with a binding energy ~ 10 meV with respect to XA. The absorption peak that corresponds to trion T2 appears when λpump > 2.4 eV, which is just

  6. Observation of two distinct negative trions in tungsten disulfide monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Huang, Bing; Wang, Kai; Lin, Ming-Wei; Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Xiao, Kai; Yoon, Mina; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Geohegan, David B.

    2015-09-25

    We report on the observation of two distinct photogenerated negative trion states TA and TB in two-dimensional tungsten disulfide (2D-WS2) monolayers. These trions are postulated to emerge from their parent excitons XA and XB, which originate from spin-orbit-split (SOS) levels in the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB). Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements suggests that Pauli blocking controls a competition process between TA and TB photoformation, following dissociation of XA and XB through hole trapping at internal or substrate defect sites. While TA arises directly from its parent XA, TB emerges through a different transition accessible only after XB dissociates through a hole trapping channel. This discovery of additional optically-active band-edge transitions in atomically-thin metal dichalcogenides may revolutionize optoelectronic applications and fundamental research opportunities for many-body interaction physics. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy of two-dimensional tungsten disulfide monolayers (2D-WS2) grown on sapphire substrates revealed two transient absorption spectral peaks that are attributed to distinct negative trions at ~2.02 eV (T1) and ~1.98 eV (T2). The dynamics measurements indicate that trion formation by the probe is enabled by photodoped electrons that remain after trapping of holes from excitons or free electron-hole pairs at defect sites in the crystal or on the substrate. Dynamics of the excitons XA and XBs characteristic absorption bands, at ~2.03 and ~2.40 eV, respectively, were separately monitored and compared with the photoinduced absorption features. Selective excitation of the lowest exciton level XA using ?pump < 2.4 eV forms only trion T1, which implies that the electron that remains from

  7. Negative Valve Overlap Reforming Chemistry in Low-Oxygen Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Steeper, Richard R.; Splitter, Derek A; Kalaskar, Vickey B; Pihl, Josh A; Daw, C Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and other forms of advanced combustion. When fuel is injected into O2-deficient NVO conditions, a portion of the fuel can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO. Additionally, other short chain hydrocarbons are produced by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions. The present study experimentally investigates the fuel reforming chemistry that occurs during NVO. To this end, two very different experimental facilities are utilized and their results are compared. One facility is located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which uses a custom research engine cycle developed to isolate the NVO event from main combustion, allowing a steady stream of NVO reformate to be exhausted from the engine and chemically analyzed. The other experimental facility, located at Sandia National Laboratories, uses a dump valve to capture the exhaust from a single NVO event for analysis. Results from the two experiments are in excellent trend-wise agreement and indicate that the reforming process under low-O2 conditions produces substantial concentrations of H2, CO, methane, and other short-chain hydrocarbon species. The concentration of these species is found to be strongly dependent on fuel injection timing and injected fuel type, with weaker dependencies on NVO duration and initial temperature, indicating that NVO reforming is kinetically slow. Further, NVO reforming does not require a large energy input from the engine, meaning that it is not thermodynamically expensive. The implications of these results on HCCI and other forms of combustion are discussed in detail.

  8. Acceleration of 500 keV Negative Ion Beams By Tuning Vacuum Insulation Distance On JT-60 Negative Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Taniguchi, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Inoue, T.; Umeda, N.; Watanabe, K.; Tobari, H.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamano, Y.; Grisham, L. R.

    2011-09-26

    Acceleration of a 500 keV beam up to 2.8 A has been achieved on a JT-60U negative ion source with a three-stage accelerator by overcoming low voltage holding which is one of the critical issues for realization of the JT-60SA ion source. In order to improve the voltage holding, preliminary voltage holding tests with small-size grids with uniform and locally intense electric fields were carried out, and suggested that the voltage holding was degraded by both the size and local electric field effects. Therefore, the local electric field was reduced by tuning gap lengths between the large size grids and grid support structures of the accelerator. Moreover, a beam radiation shield which limited extension of the minimum gap length was also optimized so as to reduce the local electric field while maintaining the shielding effect. These modifications were based on the experiment results, and significantly increased the voltage holding from <150 kV/stage for the original configuration to 200 kV/stage. These techniques for improvement of voltage holding should also be applicable to other large ion sources accelerators such as those for ITER.

  9. Negative thermal expansion and anomalies of heat capacity of LuB50 at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, V. V.; Zhemoedov, N. A.; Matovnikov, A. V.; Mitroshenkov, N. V.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Bud'ko, S. L.

    2015-07-20

    Heat capacity and thermal expansion of LuB50 boride were experimentally studied in the 2–300 K temperature range. The data reveal an anomalous contribution to the heat capacity at low temperatures. The value of this contribution is proportional to the first degree of temperature. It was identified that this anomaly in heat capacity is caused by the effect of disorder in the LuB50 crystalline structure and it can be described in the soft atomic potential model (SAP). The parameters of the approximation were determined. The temperature dependence of LuB50 heat capacity in the whole temperature range was approximated by the sum of SAP contribution, Debye and two Einstein components. The parameters of SAP contribution for LuB50 were compared to the corresponding values for LuB66, which was studied earlier. Negative thermal expansion at low temperatures was experimentally observed for LuB50. The analysis of the experimental temperature dependence for the Gruneisen parameter of LuB50 suggested that the low-frequency oscillations, described in SAP mode, are responsible for the negative thermal expansion. As a result, the glasslike character of the behavior of LuB50 thermal characteristics at low temperatures was confirmed.

  10. USDA Regional Conservation Partnership Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture is accepting applications for the Regional Conservation Partnership Program to identify and address natural resource objectives in balance with operational goals in order to benefit soil, water, wildlife, and related natural resources locally, regionally, and nationally.

  11. EWONAP Training and Regional Meeting

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Native Learning Center is pleased to announce the 2016 Eastern Woodlands ONAP Training and Regional Meeting taking place in our newly renovated training facility in Hollywood, FL. This three-day interactive training is designed to address Tribal Housing needs identified throughout the Eastern Woodlands region.

  12. A discharge with a magnetic X-point as a negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Tsankov, Tsanko; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2011-09-26

    The study presents first results from investigations of a novel low-pressure plasma source, intended for a negative hydrogen ion production. The source utilizes a dc magnetic field, shaped to form a cusp with a magnetic null-point (X-point). Beside the common role of filtering out the high energy electrons, this magnetic field configuration ensures in the present case also an interesting mechanism of coupling the RF power to the plasma. Investigations performed using radio frequency modulation spectroscopy (RFMOS) reveal that the main power coupling to the electrons is confined in the region on one side of the X-point. The modulation of the light intensity indicates also the presence of a strong dc drift close to the plane of the X-point. Several hypothesises for its explanation are raised: an azimuthal diamagnetic drift due to strong axial gradients of the electron energy, the excitation of a standing helicon wave, which couples to the radial magnetic field in the plane of the X-point, or a Trivelpiece-Gould wave which is resonantly absorbed near the plane of the X-point.

  13. Regional Climate Change Webinar Presentation | Department of...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Regional Climate Change Webinar presentation dated August 6, 2015. Regional Climate Change Webinar Presentation (7.29 MB) More Documents & Publications Regional Climate Change ...

  14. Regional Climate Change Webinar Presentation | Department of...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Regional Climate Change Webinar presentation dated August 6, 2015. Regional Climate Change Webinar Presentation More Documents & Publications Regional Climate Change Webinar...

  15. Yellowstone Caldera Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Region (Finn & Morgan, 2002) Compound and Elemental Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Goff & Janik, 2002) Compound and Elemental Analysis At Yellowstone Region (Hurwitz, Et Al.,...

  16. Measurement of Electron Density near Plasma Grid of Large-scaled Negative Ion Source by Means of Millimeter-Wave Interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaoka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Tsumori, K.; Nakano, H.; Ito, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Ikeda, K.; Kisaki, M.; Shibuya, M.; Sato, M.; Komada, S.; Kondo, T.; Hayashi, H.; Asano, E.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.

    2011-09-26

    A millimeter-wave interferometer with the frequency of 39 GHz ({lambda} 7.7 mm) was newly installed to a large-scaled negative ion source. The measurable line-integrated electron density (n{sub e}l) is from 2x10{sup 16} to 7x10{sup 18} m{sup -2}, where n{sub e} and l represent an electron density and the plasma length along the millimeter-wave path, respectively. Our interest in this study is behavior of negative ions and reduction of electron density in the beam extraction region near the plasma grid. The first results show the possibility of the electron density measurement by the millimeter-wave interferometer in this region. The line-averaged electron density increases proportional to the arc power under the condition without cesium seeding. The significant decrease of the electron density and significant increase of the negative ion density were observed just after the cesium seeding. The electron density measured with the interferometer agrees well with that observed with a Langmuir probe. The very high negative ion ratio of n{sub H-}/(n{sub e}+n{sub H-}) = 0.85 was achieved within 400 min. after the cesium seeding.

  17. Specific features of the behaviour of targets under negative pressures created by a picosecond laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Abrosimov, S A; Bazhulin, A P; Voronov, Valerii V; Geras'kin, A A; Krasyuk, Igor K; Pashinin, Pavel P; Semenov, Andrei Yu; Stuchebryukhov, I A; Khishchenko, K V; Fortov, Vladimir E

    2013-03-31

    New experimental data are obtained concerning the character of spallation and the mechanical strength of targets made of aluminium, aluminium - magnesium alloy (AMg6M), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, plexiglass), tantalum, copper, tungsten, palladium, silicon, and lead under the impact of laser radiation with the duration 70 ps. The specific features of the spallation phenomenon, in which the separation of a part of the target substance occurs at the back surface as a result of the effect of negative pressures (tensile stresses) in the substance, are experimentally studied. To determine the time moment of spallation, the electrocontact method of measuring the velocity of the spalled layer is developed and implemented. The obtained results show that the values of spall strength of the studied materials at moderate amplitudes of the shock-wave effect agree with the known literature data, while at higher pressures the growth of spall strength is observed, which is an evidence of the material hardening. The results of the studies demonstrate that the dynamic strength of a substance depends on both the duration and the amplitude of the shock-wave impact on the target. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  18. First principles design of divacancy defected graphene nanoribbon based rectifying and negative differential resistance device

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarty, Soubhik; Wasey, A. H. M. Abdul; Das, G. P. E-mail: ranjit.t@res.srmuniv.ac.in; Thapa, Ranjit E-mail: ranjit.t@res.srmuniv.ac.in

    2015-08-15

    We have studied using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green’s function based approach, the electronic structures of 555-777 divacancy (DV) defected armchair edged graphene nanoribbons (AGNR) as well as the transport properties of AGNR based two-terminal devices constructed with one defected electrode and one N doped electrode. Introduction of 555-777 DV defect into AGNR results in shifting of the π and π∗ bands towards the higher energy value indicating a downward shift of the Fermi level. Formation of a potential barrier, analogous to that of conventional p-n junction, has been observed across the junction of defected and N-doped AGNR. The two terminal devices show diode like property with high rectifying efficiency for a wide range of bias voltages. The devices also show robust negative differential resistance with very high peak-to-valley ratio. Shift of the electrode energy states and modification of the transmission function with applied bias have been analyzed, in order to gain an insight into the nonlinear and asymmetric behavior of the current-voltage characteristics. Variation of the transport properties on the width of the ribbons has also been discussed.

  19. Interpolated Sounding Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Troyan, D

    2013-04-01

    The Interpolated Sounding (INTERPSONDE) value-added product (VAP) uses a combination of observations from radiosonde soundings, the microwave radiometer (MWR), and surface meteorological instruments in order to define profiles of the atmospheric thermodynamic state at one-minute temporal intervals and a total of at least 266 altitude levels. This VAP is part of the Merged Sounding (MERGESONDE) suite of VAPs. INTERPSONDE is the profile of the atmospheric thermodynamic state created using the algorithms of MERGESONDE without including the model data from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). More specifically, INTERPSONDE VAP represents an intermediate step within the larger MERGESONDE process.

  20. Pumped Storage Hydropower (Detailed Analysis to Demonstrate Value)-Modeling

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    and Analysis of Value of Advanced Pumped Storage Hydropower in the U.S. | Department of Energy Pumped Storage Hydropower (Detailed Analysis to Demonstrate Value)-Modeling and Analysis of Value of Advanced Pumped Storage Hydropower in the U.S. Pumped Storage Hydropower (Detailed Analysis to Demonstrate Value)-Modeling and Analysis of Value of Advanced Pumped Storage Hydropower in the U.S. Pumped Storage Hydropower (Detailed Analysis to Demonstrate Value)-Modeling and Analysis of Value of

  1. Droplet Number Concentration Value Added Product

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2015-08-06

    Cloud droplet number concentration is an important factor in understanding aerosol-cloud interactions. As aerosol concentration increases, it is expected that droplet number concentration (Nd) will increase and droplet size will decrease, for a given liquid water path. This will greatly affect cloud albedo as smaller droplets reflect more shortwave radiation; however, the magnitude and variability of these processes under different environmental conditions is still uncertain.McComiskey et al. (2009) have implemented a method, based onBoers andmore » Mitchell (1994), for calculating Nd from ground-based remote sensing measurements of optical depth and liquid water path. They show that the magnitude of the aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) varies with a range of factors, including the relative value of the cloud liquid water path (LWP), the aerosol size distribution, and the cloud updraft velocity. Estimates of Nd under a range of cloud types and conditions and at a variety of sites are needed to further quantify the impacts of aerosol cloud interactions. In order to provide data sets for studying aerosol-cloud interactions, the McComiskey et al. (2009) method was implemented as the Droplet Number Concentration (NDROP) value-added product (VAP).« less

  2. Figure 1. Census Regions and Divisions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    US Federal Regions> Region 1 Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont Region 2 New Jersey, New York Region 3 ...

  3. More Regional Science Bowl Winners

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    By March 25, 2011, thousands of students will have competed in more than 100 regional science bowl contests throughout the country, and then the winning schools will compete in DC this spring for the national championship.

  4. Geothermal Regions | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    groundwater flow), and other relevant factors. The 21 regions can be seen outlined in red and overlain on the 2008 USGS Geothermal Favorability Map in Figure 1.1 Add a new...

  5. 2015 NHA Alaska Regional Meeting

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Register today and join industry professionals for interactive discussions covering a variety of regional topics and a tour of the Eklutna lake Project.

  6. RAFT Regional Algal Feedstock Testbed

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3B—Integration of Supply Chains III: Algal Biofuels Strategy RAFT Regional Algal Feedstock Testbed Kimberly Ogden, Professor, University of Arizona, Engineering Technical Lead, National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts

  7. The Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP)

    SciTech Connect

    James J. Dooley; Robert Dahowski; Casie Davidson

    2005-12-01

    This final report summarizes the Phase I research conducted by the Midwest regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP). The Phase I effort began in October 2003 and the project period ended on September 31, 2005. The MRCSP is a public/private partnership led by Battelle with the mission of identifying the technical, economic, and social issues associated with implementation of carbon sequestration technologies in its seven state geographic region (Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) and identifying viable pathways for their deployment. It is one of seven partnerships that together span most of the U.S. and parts of Canada that comprise the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Regional Carbon Sequestration Program led by DOE's national Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The MRCSP Phase I research was carried out under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41981. The total value of Phase I was $3,513,513 of which the DOE share was $2,410,967 or 68.62%. The remainder of the cost share was provided in varying amounts by the rest of the 38 members of MRCSP's Phase I project. The next largest cost sharing participant to DOE in Phase I was the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority (OCDO). OCDO's contribution was $100,000 and was contributed under Grant Agreement No. CDO/D-02-17. In this report, the MRCSP's research shows that the seven state MRCSP region is a major contributor to the U. S. economy and also to total emissions of CO2, the most significant of the greenhouse gases thought to contribute to global climate change. But, the research has also shown that the region has substantial resources for sequestering carbon, both in deep geological reservoirs (geological sequestration) and through improved agricultural and land management practices (terrestrial sequestration). Geological reservoirs, especially deep saline reservoirs, offer the potential to permanently store CO2 for

  8. Regional

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    3 AÇORIANO ORIENTAL SEGUNDA-FEIRA, 5 DE MARÇO DE 2012 PUB Da Graciosa para a Índia graças à estação atmosférica Carlos está atualmente a trabalhar na estação atmosférica móvel instalada na Índia, a dois mil metros de altitude Estar no lugar certo na hora cer- ta pode mudar radicalmente a vida de uma pessoa. Foi isso que aconteceu ao graciosense Carlos Sousa, de 41 anos, que começou por ser trabalhador daconstrução civil antes de emigrar para os Es- tados Unidos da América. No

  9. WINDExchange: About Regional Resource Centers

    WindExchange

    Deployment Activities Printable Version Bookmark and Share Regional Resource Centers About Economic Development Siting About Regional Resource Centers Significant expansion of wind energy deployment will be required to achieve the President's goal of doubling renewable energy production in the United States by 2020. Wind energy currently provides more than 4% of the nation's electricity but has the potential to provide much more. Increasing the country's percentage from wind power will mean

  10. Aerosol remote sensing in polar regions

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Tomasi, Claudio; Kokhanovsky, Alexander A.; Lupi, Angelo; Ritter, Christoph; Smirnov, Alexander; O'Neill, Norman T.; Stone, Robert S.; Holben, Brent N.; Nyeki, Stephan; Wehrli, Christoph; et al

    2015-01-01

    Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness τ(λ) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of Ångström's exponent α were calculated. Analysing these data, the monthly mean values of τ(0.50 μm) and α and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winter–spring and summer–autumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of α versus τ(0.50 μm) showed: (i)more » a considerable increase in τ(0.50 μm) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winter–spring, without marked changes in α; and (ii) a marked increase in τ(0.50 μm) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas α decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of τ(λ) and α at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterise vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-Ålesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of τ(λ) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were defined to represent the average features of nuclei

  11. Aerosol remote sensing in polar regions

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi, Claudio; Kokhanovsky, Alexander A.; Lupi, Angelo; Ritter, Christoph; Smirnov, Alexander; O'Neill, Norman T.; Stone, Robert S.; Holben, Brent N.; Nyeki, Stephan; Mazzola, Mauro; Lanconelli, Christian; Vitale, Vito; Stebel, Kerstin; Aaltonen, Veijo; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Rodriguez, Edith; Herber, Andreas B.; Radionov, Vladimir F.; Zielinski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Sakerin, Sergey M.; Kabanov, Dmitry M.; Xue, Yong; Mei, Linlu; Istomina, Larysa; Wagener, Richard; McArthur, Bruce; Sobolewski, Piotr S.; Kivi, Rigel; Courcoux, Yann; Larouche, Pierre; Broccardo, Stephen; Piketh, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness τ(λ) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of Ångström's exponent α were calculated. Analysing these data, the monthly mean values of τ(0.50 μm) and α and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winter–spring and summer–autumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of α versus τ(0.50 μm) showed: (i) a considerable increase in τ(0.50 μm) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winter–spring, without marked changes in α; and (ii) a marked increase in τ(0.50 μm) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas α decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of τ(λ) and α at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterise vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-Ålesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of τ(λ) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were defined to represent the average features of nuclei

  12. Value Stream Mapping: Foam Collection and Processing.

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The effort to collect and process foam for the purpose of recycling performed by the Material Sustainability and Pollution Prevention (MSP2) team at Sandia National Laboratories is an incredible one, but in order to make it run more efficiently it needed some tweaking. This project started in June of 2015. We used the Value Stream Mapping process to allow us to look at the current state of the foam collection and processing operation. We then thought of all the possible ways the process could be improved. Soon after that we discussed which of the "dreams" were feasible. And finally, we assigned action items to members of the team so as to ensure that the improvements actually occur. These improvements will then, due to varying factors, continue to occur over the next couple years.

  13. SUV: Standard uptake or silly useless value?

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, J.W. Jr.

    1995-10-01

    Quantification has always held a pervasive allure for nuclear medicine. There is a sense that anything that can be quantified should be. Once we have the numbers in hand, there is a mysterious tendency to accord them special value. Why this should be the case is unclear. Perhaps it is because of the functional nature of nuclear medicine studies, which seem as if they should be quantified. Perhaps it is because it is so easy to extract numbers from our studies. Whatever the cause, the phenomenon has been particularly strong in PET, in which we hear at every turn that PET is {open_quotes}quantitative.{close_quotes} DiChiro and Brooks commented on this phenomenon years ago, noting that, in many applications, subjective interpretation of PET images is actually superior to the use of quantitative data. Undaunted, however, the field has continued to lean heavily toward numbers as the final arbiter of correctness. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Values and the quantum conception of man

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, H.P.

    1995-06-01

    Classical mechanics is based upon a mechanical picture of nature that is fundamentally incorrect. It has been replaced at the basic level by a radically different theory: quantum mechanics. This change entails an enormous shift in one`s basic conception of nature, one that can profoundly alter the scientific image of man himself. Self-image is the foundation of values, and the replacement of the mechanistic self-image derived from classical mechanics by one concordant with quantum mechanics may provide the foundation of a moral order better suited to today`s times, a self-image that endows human life with meaning, responsibility, and a deeper linkage to nature as a whole.

  15. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  16. DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC CURRENTS IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Trk, T.; Titov, V. S.; Miki?, Z.; Leake, J. E.; Archontis, V.; Linton, M. G.; Dalmasse, K.; Aulanier, G.; Kliem, B.

    2014-02-10

    There has been a long-standing debate on the question of whether or not electric currents in solar active regions are neutralized. That is, whether or not the main (or direct) coronal currents connecting the active region polarities are surrounded by shielding (or return) currents of equal total value and opposite direction. Both theory and observations are not yet fully conclusive regarding this question, and numerical simulations have, surprisingly, barely been used to address it. Here we quantify the evolution of electric currents during the formation of a bipolar active region by considering a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the emergence of a sub-photospheric, current-neutralized magnetic flux rope into the solar atmosphere. We find that a strong deviation from current neutralization develops simultaneously with the onset of significant flux emergence into the corona, accompanied by the development of substantial magnetic shear along the active region's polarity inversion line. After the region has formed and flux emergence has ceased, the strong magnetic fields in the region's center are connected solely by direct currents, and the total direct current is several times larger than the total return current. These results suggest that active regions, the main sources of coronal mass ejections and flares, are born with substantial net currents, in agreement with recent observations. Furthermore, they support eruption models that employ pre-eruption magnetic fields containing such currents.

  17. Sandia Energy - Sandia Tool Determines Value of Solar Photovoltaic...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Tool Determines Value of Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems Home Renewable Energy Energy Partnership News News & Events Photovoltaic Solar Sandia Tool Determines Value of Solar...

  18. Energy Star Building Upgrade Value Calculator | Open Energy Informatio...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Upgrade Value Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy Star Building Upgrade Value Calculator (for Office Properties) AgencyCompany...

  19. Department of Energy Earned Value Management Survey Results ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Earned Value Management Survey Results Department of Energy Earned Value Management Survey Results Humphreys & Associates, Inc. (H&A) conducted a survey of ...

  20. CBEI: Broker Training - Placing Value on Energy Retrofits - 2015...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Broker Training - Placing Value on Energy Retrofits - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Broker Training - Placing Value on Energy Retrofits - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Susan Wachter, ...

  1. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Program Document: ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added ...

  2. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report ...

  3. Methods for Analyzing the Economic Value of Concentrating Solar...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    (CSP-TES) provides multiple quantifiable benefits compared to CSP without storage or to solar photovoltaic (PV) technology, including higher energy value, ancillary services value,...

  4. Biopower Report Presents Methodology for Assessing the Value...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Report Presents Methodology for Assessing the Value of Co-Firing Biomass in Pulverized Coal Plants Biopower Report Presents Methodology for Assessing the Value of Co-Firing...

  5. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added ...

  6. The Value of Distributed Generation and CHP Resources in Wholesale...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    The Value of Distributed Generation and CHP Resources in Wholesale Power Markets, September 2005 The Value of Distributed Generation and CHP Resources in Wholesale Power Markets, ...

  7. Estimating the Value of Electricity Storage Resources in Electricity...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Estimating the Value of Electricity Storage Resources in Electricity Markets - EAC 2011 Estimating the Value of Electricity Storage Resources in Electricity Markets - EAC 2011 The ...

  8. Pumped Storage Hydropower (Detailed Analysis to Demonstrate Value...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Pumped Storage Hydropower (Detailed Analysis to Demonstrate Value)-Modeling and Analysis of Value of Advanced Pumped Storage Hydropower in the U.S. Pumped Storage Hydropower ...

  9. Best Practices for Getting the Best Value from Federal Utility...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Utility Energy Service Contracts Best Practices for Getting the Best Value from Federal Utility Energy Service Contracts Best Practices for Getting the Best Value from Federal ...

  10. Carbon Value Analysis Tool (CVAT) | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Value Analysis Tool (CVAT) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Value Analysis Tool (CVAT) AgencyCompany Organization: World Resources Institute...

  11. The value of energy storage in decarbonizing the electricity...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    The value of energy storage in decarbonizing the electricity sector Title The value of energy storage in decarbonizing the electricity sector Publication Type Journal Article Year ...

  12. Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications This analysis evaluates several operational ...

  13. Baseline and Target Values for PV Forecasts: Toward Improved...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Baseline and Target Values for PV Forecasts: Toward Improved Solar Power Forecasting ... Baseline and Target Values for PV Forecasts: Toward Improved Solar Power Forecasting Jie ...

  14. Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and Soil Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and Soil ...

  15. Defining a region of optimization based on engine usage data

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-08-04

    Methods and systems for engine control optimization are provided. One or more operating conditions of a vehicle engine are detected. A value for each of a plurality of engine control parameters is determined based on the detected one or more operating conditions of the vehicle engine. A range of the most commonly detected operating conditions of the vehicle engine is identified and a region of optimization is defined based on the range of the most commonly detected operating conditions of the vehicle engine. The engine control optimization routine is initiated when the one or more operating conditions of the vehicle engine are within the defined region of optimization.

  16. Improving Negative Ion Beam Quality And Purity With A RF Quadrupole Cooler

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Improving Negative Ion Beam Quality And Purity With A RF Quadrupole Cooler Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improving Negative Ion Beam Quality And Purity With A RF Quadrupole Cooler Recent progress in the development of a gas-filled RF quadrupole ion cooler for cooling negative ions is reported. Experiments demonstrate that negative ion beams can be cooled to 2 eV FWHM energy spread with more than 50% transmission through the cooler. The RFQ cooler

  17. Production of High Value Cellulose from Tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Berson, R Eric; Dvaid, Keith; McGinley, W Mark; Meduri, Praveen; Clark, Ezra; Dayalan, Ethirajulu; Sumanasekera, Gamini; Sunkara, Mahendra; Colliver, Donald

    2011-06-15

    The Kentucky Rural Energy Supply Program was established in 2005 by a federal direct appropriation to benefit the citizens of the Commonwealth by creating a unified statewide consortium to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency in Kentucky. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Biomass Programs initially funded the consortium in 2005 with a $2 million operational grant. The Kentucky Rural Energy Consortium (KREC) was formed at the outset of the program to advance energy efficiency and comprehensive research on biomass and bioenergy of importance to Kentucky agriculture, rural communities, and related industries. In recognition of the successful efforts of the program, KREC received an additional $1.96 million federal appropriation in 2008 for renewal of the DOE grant. From the beginning, KREC understood the value of providing a statewide forum for the discussion of Kentucky's long term energy needs and economic development potential. The new funding allowed KREC to continue to serve as a clearinghouse and support new research and development and outreach programs for energy efficiency and renewable energy.

  18. Value of Laboratory Experiments for Code Validations

    SciTech Connect

    Wawersik, W.R.

    1998-12-14

    Numerical codes have become indispensable for designing underground structures and interpretating the behavior of geologic systems. Because of the complexities of geologic systems, however, code calculations often are associated with large quantitative uncertainties. This papers presents three examples to demonstrate the value of laboratory(or bench scale) experiments to evaluate the predictive capabilities of such codes with five major conclusions: Laboratory or bench-scale experiments are a very cost-effective, controlled means of evaluating and validating numerical codes, not instead of but before or at least concurrent with the implementation of in situ studies. The design of good laboratory validation tests must identifj what aspects of a code are to be scrutinized in order to optimize the size, geometry, boundary conditions, and duration of the experiments. The design of good and sometimes difficult numerical analyses and sensitivity studies. Laboratory validation tests must involve: Good validation experiments will generate independent data sets to identify the combined effect of constitutive models, model generalizations, material parameters, and numerical algorithms. Successfid validations of numerical codes mandate a close collaboration between experimentalists and analysts drawing from the full gamut of observations, measurements, and mathematical results.

  19. An assessment of the net value of CSP systems integrated with thermal energy storage

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Mehos, M.; Jorgenson, J.; Denholm, P.; Turchi, C.

    2015-05-01

    Within this study, we evaluate the operational and capacity value—or total system value—for multiple concentrating solar power (CSP) plant configurations under an assumed 33% renewable penetration scenario in California. We calculate the first-year bid price for two CSP plants, including a 2013 molten-salt tower integrated with a conventional Rankine cycle and a hypothetical 2020 molten-salt tower system integrated with an advanced supercritical carbon-dioxide power block. The overall benefit to the regional grid, defined in this study as the net value, is calculated by subtracting the first-year bid price from the total system value.

  20. The value of windpower: An investigation using a qualified production cost model

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.R.; Miller, A.H.

    1993-07-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy`s Wind Energy Program at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, we are using the Environmental Defense Fund`s Electric Utility Financial & Production Cost Model (Elfin) as a tool to determine the value of wind energy to specific utilities. The cases we have developed exercise a number of options in the way in which wind energy is treated: (1) as a load modifer (negative load); (2) as a quick-start supply-side resource with hourly varying output; and (3) probabilistically, using time-varying Weibull distributions. By using two wind speed distributions, two different wind turbines, and two different utilities, we show what the wind turbine cost/kW might be that results in a positive value of wind energy for these utilities.

  1. 2006-2007 CHP Action Plan, Positioning CHP Value: Solutions for National, Regional and Local Energy Issues, September 2006

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2006 Action Agenda to provide the situational context in which priorities are set for upcoming year and goals

  2. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Regional Definitions

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Definitions Map About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Regional Definitions The regions defined in the above map are based upon the 10 Federal Regions of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The State groupings are as follows: Northeast Region - Federal Region 1: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. Federal Region 2: New Jersey, and New York. Federal Region 3:Delaware, District of

  3. Groundwater in the Regional Aquifer

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Groundwater in the Regional Aquifer Groundwater in the Regional Aquifer LANL maintains an extensive groundwater monitoring and surveillance program through sampling. August 1, 2013 Conceptual model of water movement and geology at Los Alamos National Laboratory Conceptual model of water movement and geology at Los Alamos National Laboratory RELATED IMAGES http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3749/9827580556_473a91fd78_t.jpg Enlarge http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2856/9804364405_b25f74cbb2_t.jpg En

  4. BLOWIN' IN THE WIND: BOTH ''NEGATIVE'' AND ''POSITIVE'' FEEDBACK IN AN OBSCURED HIGH-z QUASAR

    SciTech Connect

    Cresci, G.; Mannucci, F.; Mainieri, V.; Brusa, M.; Perna, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Piconcelli, E.; Feruglio, C.; Fiore, F.; Bongiorno, A.; Maiolino, R.; Merloni, A; Schramm, M.; Silverman, J. D.; Civano, F.

    2015-01-20

    Quasar feedback in the form of powerful outflows is invoked as a key mechanism to quench star formation in galaxies, preventing massive galaxies to overgrow and producing the red colors of ellipticals. On the other hand, some models are also requiring ''positive'' active galactic nucleus feedback, inducing star formation in the host galaxy through enhanced gas pressure in the interstellar medium. However, finding observational evidence of the effects of both types of feedback is still one of the main challenges of extragalactic astronomy, as few observations of energetic and extended radiatively driven winds are available. Here we present SINFONI near infrared integral field spectroscopy of XID2028, an obscured, radio-quiet z = 1.59 QSO detected in the XMM-COSMOS survey, in which we clearly resolve a fast (1500 km s{sup –1}) and extended (up to 13 kpc from the black hole) outflow in the [O III] lines emitting gas, whose large velocity and outflow rate are not sustainable by star formation only. The narrow component of Hα emission and the rest frame U-band flux from Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging enable to map the current star formation in the host galaxy: both tracers independently show that the outflow position lies in the center of an empty cavity surrounded by star forming regions on its edge. The outflow is therefore removing the gas from the host galaxy (''negative feedback''), but also triggering star formation by outflow induced pressure at the edges (''positive feedback''). XID2028 represents the first example of a host galaxy showing both types of feedback simultaneously at work.

  5. Matrix-filler interfaces and physical properties of metal matrix composites with negative thermal expansion manganese nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Takenaka, Koshi; Kuzuoka, Kota; Sugimoto, Norihiro

    2015-08-28

    Copper matrix composites containing antiperovskite manganese nitrides with negative thermal expansion (NTE) were formed using pulsed electric current sintering. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that the chemically reacted region extends over 10 μm around the matrix–filler interfaces. The small-size filler was chemically deteriorated during formation of composites and it lost the NTE property. Therefore, we produced the composites using only the nitride particles having diameter larger than 50 μm. The large-size filler effectively suppressed the thermal expansion of copper and improved the conductivity of the composites to the level of pure aluminum. The present composites, having high thermal conductivity and low thermal expansion, are suitable for practical applications such as a heat radiation substrate for semiconductor devices.

  6. Electronically Nonadiabatic Dynamics via Semiclassical Initial Value Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William H.

    2008-12-11

    In the late 1970's Meyer and Miller (MM) [J. Chem. Phys. 70, 3214 (1979)] presented a classical Hamiltonian corresponding to a finite set of electronic states of a molecular system (i.e., the various potential energy surfaces and their couplings), so that classical trajectory simulations could be carried out treating the nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom (DOF) in an equivalent dynamical framework (i.e., by classical mechanics), thereby describing non-adiabatic dynamics in a more unified manner. Much later Stock and Thoss (ST) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 578 (1997)] showed that the MM model is actually not a 'model', but rather a 'representation' of the nuclear-electronic system; i.e., were the MMST nuclear-electronic Hamiltonian taken as a Hamiltonian operator and used in the Schroedinger equation, the exact (quantum) nuclear-electronic dynamics would be obtained. In recent years various initial value representations (IVRs) of semiclassical (SC) theory have been used with the MMST Hamiltonian to describe electronically non-adiabatic processes. Of special interest is the fact that though the classical trajectories generated by the MMST Hamiltonian (and which are the 'input' for an SC-IVR treatment) are 'Ehrenfest trajectories', when they are used within the SC-IVR framework the nuclear motion emerges from regions of non-adiabaticity on one potential energy surface (PES) or another, and not on an average PES as in the traditional Ehrenfest model. Examples are presented to illustrate and (hopefully) illuminate this behavior.

  7. Contractor Earned Value Management System Certification Status | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy Earned Value Management System Certification Status Contractor Earned Value Management System Certification Status Certification Status for major EM Contracts Contractor Earned Value Management System Certification Status (129.77 KB) More Documents & Publications Department of Energy Earned Value Management Survey Results VPP Participant Status EM Major Contracts Awarded Since 2006

  8. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2 Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Billion Cubic Feet." ,,"Natural Gas",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  9. Introduction to the Value of Program Evaluation Case Study Series |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Introduction to the Value of Program Evaluation Case Study Series Introduction to the Value of Program Evaluation Case Study Series Case Studies Show the Value of Program Evaluation, part of the Value of Program Evaluation Case Study Series, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, November 2009. Case Studies Show the Value of Program Evaluation (124.48 KB) More Documents & Publications Evaluation Helps Pesticide Program Finish Project Four Years Sooner Than

  10. Determining perception-based impacts of noxious facilities on wage rates and property values

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Clark, D.E.

    1992-02-01

    This document, written for the US Department of Energy, discusses current information and the need for future research on estimating the impacts on wages and property values that could result from people's perceptions of the risks associated with noxious facilities. Psychometric studies indicate that the US population is averse to living near noxious facilities, nuclear-related facilities in particular. Contingent valuation and hedonic studies find that the net economic impacts of proximity to noxious facilities are generally negative and often substantial. Most of these studies are limited in scope, and none estimate the impacts derived from public perceptions of such facilities. This study examines the mechanisms by which negative public perceptions result in economic impacts reflected in wages and property values. On the basis of these mechanisms, it develops a predictive model of perception-based impacts and identifies the data and methods needed to implement it. The key to predicting perception-based impacts lies in combining psychometric and hedonic methods. The reliability of psychometric measures as indicators of aversive stimuli that precipitate economic impacts can be empirically tested. To test the robustness of the findings, alternative estimation methods an be employed in the hedonic analysis. Contingent valuation methods can confirm the results.

  11. Determining perception-based impacts of noxious facilities on wage rates and property values

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Clark, D.E.

    1992-02-01

    This document, written for the US Department of Energy, discusses current information and the need for future research on estimating the impacts on wages and property values that could result from people`s perceptions of the risks associated with noxious facilities. Psychometric studies indicate that the US population is averse to living near noxious facilities, nuclear-related facilities in particular. Contingent valuation and hedonic studies find that the net economic impacts of proximity to noxious facilities are generally negative and often substantial. Most of these studies are limited in scope, and none estimate the impacts derived from public perceptions of such facilities. This study examines the mechanisms by which negative public perceptions result in economic impacts reflected in wages and property values. On the basis of these mechanisms, it develops a predictive model of perception-based impacts and identifies the data and methods needed to implement it. The key to predicting perception-based impacts lies in combining psychometric and hedonic methods. The reliability of psychometric measures as indicators of aversive stimuli that precipitate economic impacts can be empirically tested. To test the robustness of the findings, alternative estimation methods an be employed in the hedonic analysis. Contingent valuation methods can confirm the results.

  12. False negative rate and other performance measures of a sponge-wipe surface sampling method for low contaminant concentrations.

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, Wayne; Krauter, Paula A.; Boucher, Raymond M.; Tezak, Mathew; Amidan, Brett G.; Piepel, Greg F.

    2011-05-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces is known to vary due to sampling methodology, techniques, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. A series of tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge-wipe method. Specific factors evaluated were the effects of contaminant concentrations and surface materials on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD) - and the uncertainties of these quantities. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show a roughly linear dependence of surface roughness on RE, where the smoothest surfaces have the highest mean RE values. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3 x 10{sup -3} to 1.86 CFU/cm{sup 2}). The FNR data were consistent with RE data, showing a trend of smoother surfaces resulting in higher REs and lower FNRs. Stainless steel generally had the lowest mean FNR (0.123) and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD{sub 90} varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm{sup 2} on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. Selecting sampling locations on the basis of surface roughness and using roughness to interpret spore recovery data can improve sampling. Further, FNR values, calculated as a function of concentration and surface material, can be used pre-sampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance, and post-sampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

  13. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM OTHER METAL VALUES IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY SELECTIVE COMPLEXING AND ADSORPTION

    DOEpatents

    Beaton, R.H.

    1960-06-28

    A process is given for separating tri- or tetravalent plutonium from fission products in an aqueous solution by complexing the fission products with oxalate, tannate, citrate, or tartrate anions at a pH value of at least 2.4 (preferably between 2.4 and 4), and contacting a cation exchange resin with the solution whereby the plutonium is adsorbed while the complexed fission products remain in solution.

  14. Form:GeothermalRegion | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    of a Geothermal Region below. If the region already exists, you will be able to edit its information. AddEdit a Geothermal Region Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  15. Regional Climate Effects of Aerosols Over China: Modeling and Observation

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai R.; Ghan, Steven J.; Giorgi, Filippo

    2003-09-01

    We present regional simulations of aerosol properties, direct radiative forcing and aerosol climatic effects over China, and compare the simulations with observed aerosol characteristics and climatic data over the region. The climate simulations are performed with a regional climate model, which is shown to capture the spatial distribution and seasonal pattern of temperature and precipitation. Aerosol concentrations are obtained from a global tracer-transport model and are provided to the regional model for the calculation of radiative forcing. Different aerosols are included: sulfate, organic carbon, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt and MSA particles. Generally, the aerosol optical depth is well simulated in both magnitude and spatial distribution. The direct radiative forcing of the aerosol is in the range of –1 to –14 W m-2 in autumn and summer and -1 to –9 W m-2 in spring and winter, with substantial spatial variability at the regional scale. A strong maximum in aerosol optical depth and negative radiative forcing is found over the Sichuan Basin. The negative radiative forcing of aerosol induces a surface cooling in the range of –0.6 to –1.2oC in autumn and winter, –0.3 to –0.6oC in spring and 0.0 to –0.9oC in summer throughout East China. The aerosol-induced cooling is mainly due to a decrease in day-time maximum temperature. The cooling is maximum and is statistically significant over the Sichuan Basin. The effect of aerosol on precipitation is not evident in our simulations. The temporal and spatial patterns of the temperature trends observed in the second half of the twentieth century, including different trends for daily maximum and minimum temperature, are at least qualitatively consistent with the simulated aerosol-induced cooling over the Sichuan Basin and East China. This result supports the hypothesis that the observed temperature trends during the latter decades of the twentieth century, especially the cooling trends over the

  16. Hazard perception and the economic impact of internment on residential land values

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, J.F.

    1983-04-01

    The potential for large scale natural and man-made hazards exists in the form of hurricanes, earthquakes, volcanoes, floods, dams, accidents involving poisonous, explosive or radioactive materials, and severe pollution or waste disposal mishaps. Regions prone to natural hazards and areas located proximally to technological hazards may be subject to economic losses from low probability-high consequence events. Economic costs may be incurred in: evacuation and relocation of inhabitants; personal, industrial, agricultural, and tax revenue losses; decontamination; property damage or loss of value; and temporary or prolonged internment of land. The value of land in an area subjected to a low probability-high consequence event may decrease, reflecting, a fortiori, a reluctance to continue living in the area or to repopulate a region which had required internment. The future value of such land may be described as a function of location, time, interdiction period (if applicable), and variables reflecting the magnitude of the perceived hazard. This paper presents a study of these variables and proposes a model for land value estimation. As an example, the application of the model to the Love Canal area in Niagara Falls, New York is presented.

  17. PROJECT PROFILE: Regional Test Center Operations | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Regional Test Center Operations PROJECT PROFILE: Regional Test Center Operations Funding Opportunity: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Photovoltaics Location: Sandia National ...

  18. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline System - Midwest Region

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Midwest Region About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Natural Gas Pipelines in the Midwest Region ...

  19. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline System - Central Region

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Central Region About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Natural Gas Pipelines in the Central Region ...

  20. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline System - Southwest Region

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Southwest Region About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Natural Gas Pipelines in the Southwest Region ...

  1. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline System - Southeast Region

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Southeast Region About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Natural Gas Pipelines in the Southeast Region ...

  2. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline System - Northeast Region

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Northeast Region About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Natural Gas Pipelines in the Northeast Region ...

  3. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline System - Western Region

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Western Region About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Natural Gas Pipelines in the Western Region ...

  4. Cascades Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Cascades Geothermal Region (Redirected from Cascades) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Cascades Geothermal Region Details Areas (2) Power Plants (0)...

  5. Italy Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Region Larderello Geothermal Area Mount Amiata Geothermal Area Travale-Radicondoli Geothermal Area Energy Generation Facilities within the Italy Geothermal Region Bagnore 3...

  6. Lake Region State College | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    College Jump to: navigation, search Name Lake Region State College Facility Lake Region State College Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In Service...

  7. Regional Climate Vulnerabilities and Resilience Solutions | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Regional Climate Vulnerabilities and Resilience Solutions Regional Climate Vulnerabilities and Resilience Solutions This interactive map is not viewable in your browser. Please ...

  8. Transition Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Unknown Planned Capacity 1 Geothermal Areas within the Transition Zone Geothermal Region Energy Generation Facilities within the Transition Zone Geothermal Region Geothermal Power...

  9. Category:Geothermal Regions | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Geothermal Regions Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Geothermal Regions page? For detailed information on Geothermal...

  10. Germany Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Germany Geothermal Region Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Germany Geothermal Region Details Areas (1) Power Plants (0) Projects (0) Techniques (0)...

  11. Thailand Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Thailand Geothermal Region Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Thailand Geothermal Region Details Areas (1) Power Plants (1) Projects (0) Techniques (0)...

  12. Indonesia Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Indonesia Geothermal Region Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Indonesia Geothermal Region Details Areas (5) Power Plants (4) Projects (0) Techniques (0)...

  13. Philippines Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Philippines Geothermal Region Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Philippines Geothermal Region Details Areas (1) Power Plants (0) Projects (0) Techniques...

  14. Austria Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Austria Geothermal Region Details Areas (0) Power Plants (0) Projects (0) Techniques (0) References Geothermal Region Data Area USGS Resource...

  15. Australia Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Australia Geothermal Region Details Areas (0) Power Plants (0) Projects (0) Techniques (0) References Geothermal Region Data Area USGS Resource...

  16. New Zealand Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home New Zealand Geothermal Region Details Areas (2) Power Plants (2) Projects (0) Techniques (0) References Geothermal Region Data Area USGS Resource...

  17. Russia Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Russia Geothermal Region Details Areas (0) Power Plants (0) Projects (0) Techniques (0) References Geothermal Region Data Area USGS Resource...

  18. Iceland Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Iceland Geothermal Region Details Areas (0) Power Plants (0) Projects (0) Techniques (0) References Geothermal Region Data Area USGS Resource...

  19. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Southeast Regional Summit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Southeast Regional Summit Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Southeast Regional Summit July 9, 2015 8:30AM to 6:00PM EDT Renaissance...

  20. China Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Geothermal Region Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home China Geothermal Region Details Areas (0) Power Plants (0) Projects (0) Techniques (0) References...

  1. Mexico Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Geothermal Region Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Mexico Geothermal Region Details Areas (0) Power Plants (0) Projects (0) Techniques (0) References...

  2. Turkey Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Geothermal Region Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Turkey Geothermal Region Details Areas (0) Power Plants (0) Projects (0) Techniques (0) References...

  3. Regional Feedstock Partnership Report | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Regional Feedstock Partnership Report The U.S. Department of Energy and the Sun Grant Initiative established the Regional Feedstock Partnership to address information gaps ...

  4. Representation of the Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

    2014-08-01

    An important emerging issue is the estimation of renewables' contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly, effective load-carrying capacity (ELCC), are considered to be the most robust techniques for addressing this resource variability. The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model and other long-term electricity capacity planning models require an approach to estimating CV for generalized PV and system configurations with low computational and data requirements. In this paper we validate treatment of solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity value by ReEDS capacity expansion model by comparing model results to literature for a range of energy penetration levels. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons--despite not being resolved at an hourly scale.

  5. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  6. Developing a Regional Recovery Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Clark, Rebecca; Kelly, Heather; Sheline, Jim; Tietje, Grant; Williamson, Mark; Woodcock, Jody

    2011-09-01

    Abstract A biological attack would present an unprecedented challenge for local, state, and federal agencies; the military; the private sector; and individuals on many fronts ranging from vaccination and treatment to prioritization of cleanup actions to waste disposal. To prepare the Seattle region to recover from a biological attack, the Seattle Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) partners collaborated with military and federal agencies to develop a Regional Recovery Framework for a Biological Attack in the Seattle Urban Area. The goal was to reduce the time and resources required to recover and restore wide urban areas, military installations, and other critical infrastructure following a biological incident by providing a coordinated systems approach. Based on discussions in small workshops, tabletop exercises, and interviews with emergency response agency staff, the partners identified concepts of operation for various areas to address critical issues the region will face as recovery progresses. Key to this recovery is the recovery of the economy. Although the Framework is specific to a catastrophic, wide-area biological attack using anthrax, it was designed to be flexible and scalable so it could also serve as the recovery framework for an all-hazards approach. The Framework also served to coalesce policy questions that must be addressed for long-term recovery. These questions cover such areas as safety and health, security, financial management, waste management, legal issues, and economic development.

  7. Southeastern Regional Vocational Technical High School | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    - Yankton School District Wind Project

  8. Representation of Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model

    SciTech Connect

    Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

    2014-03-01

    An important issue for electricity system operators is the estimation of renewables' capacity contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to the resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly assessment of the Effective Load-Carrying Capacity, are considered to be the most robust and widely-accepted techniques for addressing this resource variability. This report compares estimates of solar PV capacity value by the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model against two sources. The first comparison is against values published by utilities or other entities for known electrical systems at existing solar penetration levels. The second comparison is against a time-series ELCC simulation tool for high renewable penetration scenarios in the Western Interconnection. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons, despite being resolved at a super-hourly temporal resolution. Two results are relevant for other capacity-based models that use a super-hourly resolution to model solar capacity value. First, solar capacity value should not be parameterized as a static value, but must decay with increasing penetration. This is because -- for an afternoon-peaking system -- as solar penetration increases, the system's peak net load shifts to later in the day -- when solar output is lower. Second, long-term planning models should determine system adequacy requirements in each time period in order to approximate LOLP calculations. Within the ReEDS model we resolve these issues by using a capacity value estimate that varies by time-slice. Within each time period the net load and shadow price on ReEDS's planning reserve constraint signals the relative importance of additional firm capacity.

  9. Negative differential resistance in GaN tunneling hot electron transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhichao; Nath, Digbijoy; Rajan, Siddharth

    2014-11-17

    Room temperature negative differential resistance is demonstrated in a unipolar GaN-based tunneling hot electron transistor. Such a device employs tunnel-injected electrons to vary the electron energy and change the fraction of reflected electrons, and shows repeatable negative differential resistance with a peak to valley current ratio of 7.2. The device was stable when biased in the negative resistance regime and tunable by changing collector bias. Good repeatability and double-sweep characteristics at room temperature show the potential of such device for high frequency oscillators based on quasi-ballistic transport.

  10. Permeability barrier of Gram-negative cell envelopes and approaches to bypass it

    SciTech Connect

    Zgurskaya, Helen I.; López, Cesar A.; Gnanakaran, Sandrasegaram

    2015-09-18

    Gram-negative bacteria are intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics. Species that have acquired multidrug resistance and cause infections that are effectively untreatable present a serious threat to public health. The problem is broadly recognized and tackled at both the fundamental and applied levels. This article summarizes current advances in understanding the molecular bases of the low permeability barrier of Gram-negative pathogens, which is the major obstacle in discovery and development of antibiotics effective against such pathogens. Gaps in knowledge and specific strategies to break this barrier and to achieve potent activities against difficult Gram-negative bacteria are also discussed.

  11. METHOD OF SEPARATING TETRAVALENT PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM CERIUM SUB-GROUP RARE EARTH VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Duffield, R.B.; Stoughton, R.W.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for separating plutonium from the cerium sub-group of rare earths when both are present in an aqueous solution. The method consists in adding an excess of alkali metal carbonate to the solution, which causes the formation of a soluble plutonium carbonate precipitate and at the same time forms an insoluble cerium-group rare earth carbonate. The pH value must be adjusted to bctween 5.5 and 7.5, and prior to the precipitation step the plutonium must be reduced to the tetravalent state since only tetravalent plutonium will form the soluble carbonate complex.

  12. 2D Gridded Surface Data Value-Added Product

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    2 2D Gridded Surface Data Value-Added Product Q Tang S Xie July 2015 DISCLAIMER This ... DOESC-ARMTR-152 2D Gridded Surface Data Value-Added Product Version 1.0 Q Tang S Xie ...

  13. Simulating the Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Simulating the Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage in a ... DE-AC36-08GO28308 Simulating the Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy ...

  14. Value of Concentrating Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL-TP-6A2-45833 February 2010 The Value of Concentrating Solar Power and Thermal Energy ... February 2010 The Value of Concentrating Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage Ramteen ...

  15. NREL Quantifies Value of CSP to the Grid (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    In California study, greater penetration of renewable energy means greater value of CSP with thermal energy storage.

  16. Superior Energy Performance: Getting the Most Value from ISO 50001 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Superior Energy Performance: Getting the Most Value from ISO 50001 Superior Energy Performance: Getting the Most Value from ISO 50001 This presentation describes ISO 50001 and explains how Superior Energy Performance can help get the most value from implementation of an Energy Management Standard. Superior Energy Performance: Getting the Most Value from ISO 50001 (March 13, 2012) (1.73 MB) More Documents & Publications Becoming a Certified Practitioner or a Certified

  17. Hydrogen Regional Infrastructure Program in Pennsylvania

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Hydrogen Regional Infrastructure Program in Pennsylvania. Objectives: Capture data pertinent to H2 delivery in PA

  18. RECOVERY AND SEPARATION OF LITHIUM VALUES FROM SALVAGE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Hansford, D.L.; Raabe, E.W.

    1963-08-20

    Lithium values can be recovered from an aqueous basic solution by reacting the values with a phosphate salt soluble in the solution, forming an aqueous slurry of the resultant aqueous insoluble lithium phosphate, contacting the slurry with an organic cation exchange resin in the acid form until the slurry has been clarified, and thereafter recovering lithium values from the resin. (AEC)

  19. Regional and local subsidence in Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Trahan, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    The measurement of local, man-induced subsidence is especially critical in areas with high rates of land loss. To measure this subsidence, absolute historical geodetic movements have been estimated by adjusting all movements along the first-order vertical control network from northeast to southwest Louisiana as related to the Monroe uplift. The adjustment will serve as a base line by which local subsidence or uplift can be measured. A generalized trend of increasing subsidence to the south in Louisiana probably reflects increasing sediment thickness and weight toward the axis of the Gulf Coast basin. Anomalous values as low as -17.6 mm/y (-0.7 in./y) occur in areas overlying Pleistocene and Holocene fluvial elements. Positive movement as high as +4.1 mm/y (+0.2 in./y), has been found to be associated with the Iberian structural axis in south-central Louisiana. Land subsidence due to natural causes may far outweigh subsidence resulting from fluid withdrawal or depressurization of geopressured aquifers. The effects of regional and local natural processes should not be underestimated in any systematic approach to measuring subsidence.

  20. A NEW CATALOG OF H II REGIONS IN M31

    SciTech Connect

    Azimlu, M.; Marciniak, R.; Barmby, P.

    2011-10-15

    We present a new catalog of H II regions in M31. The full disk of the galaxy ({approx}24 kpc from the galaxy center) is covered in a 2.2 deg{sup 2} mosaic of 10 fields observed with the Mosaic Camera on the Mayall 4 m telescope as part of the Local Group Galaxies survey. We used HIIphot, a code for automated photometry of H II regions, to identify the regions and measure their fluxes and sizes. A 10{sigma} detection level was used to exclude diffuse gas fluctuations and star residuals after continuum subtraction. That selection limit may result in missing some faint H II regions, but our catalog of 3691 H II regions is still complete to a luminosity of L{sub H{alpha}} = 10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1}. This is five times fainter than the only previous CCD-based study which contained 967 objects in the NE half of M31. We determined the H{alpha} luminosity function (LF) by fitting a power law to luminosities larger than L{sub H{alpha}} = 10{sup 36.7} and determined a slope of 2.52 {+-} 0.07. The in-arm and inter-arm LFs peak at different luminosities but they have similar bright-end slopes. The inter-arm regions are less populated (40% of total detected regions) and constitute only 14% of the total luminosity of L{sub H{alpha}} = 5.6 x 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} (after extinction correction and considering 65% contribution from diffused ionized gas). A star formation rate of 0.44 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} was estimated from the H{alpha} total luminosity; this value is consistent with the determination from the Spitzer 8 {mu}m image. We removed all known and potential planetary nebulae, yet we found a double-peaked LF. The inter-arm older population suggests a starburst between 15 and 20 million years ago. This result is in agreement with UV studies of the star formation history in M31 which found a star formation rate decrease in the recent past. We found a fair spatial correlation between the H II regions and stellar clusters in selected star-forming regions. Most of the matched

  1. Study of small carbon and semiconductor clusters using negative ion threshold photodetachment spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, C.C.

    1994-08-01

    The bonding and electronics of several small carbon and semiconductor clusters containing less than ten atoms are probed using negative ion threshold photodetachment (zero electron kinetic energy, or ZEKE) spectroscopy. ZEKE spectroscopy is a particularly advantageous technique for small cluster study, as it combines mass selection with good spectroscopic resolution. The ground and low-lying electronic states of small clusters in general can be accessed by detaching an electron from the ground anion state. The clusters studied using this technique and described in this work are C{sub 6}{sup {minus}}/C{sub 6}, Si{sub n}{sup {minus}}/Si{sub n} (n = 2, 3, 4), Ge{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/Ge{sub 2}, In{sub 2}P{sup {minus}}/In{sub 2}P,InP{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/InP{sup 2}, and Ga{sub 2}As{sup {minus}}. The total photodetachment cross sections of several other small carbon clusters and the ZEKE spectrum of the I{sup {minus}}{center_dot}CH{sub 3}I S{sub N}2 reaction complex are also presented to illustrate the versatility of the experimental apparatus. Clusters with so few atoms do not exhibit bulk properties. However, each specie exhibits bonding properties that relate to the type of bonding found in the bulk. C{sub 6}, as has been predicted, exhibits a linear cumulenic structure, where double bonds connect all six carbon atoms. This double bonding reflects how important {pi} bonding is in certain phases of pure carbon (graphite and fullerenes). The symmetric stretch frequencies observed in the C{sub 6}{sup {minus}} spectra, however, are in poor agreement with the calculated values. Also observed as sharp structure in total photodetachment cross section scans was an excited anion state bound by only {approximately}40 cm{sup {minus}1} relative to the detachment continuum. This excited anion state appears to be a valence bound state, possible because of the high electron affinity of C{sub 6}, and the open shell of the anion.

  2. Negative refraction imaging of acoustic metamaterial lens in the supersonic range

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jianning; Wen, Tingdun; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Lu

    2014-05-15

    Acoustic metamaterials with negative refraction index is the most promising method to overcome the diffraction limit of acoustic imaging to achieve ultrahigh resolution. In this paper, we use localized resonant phononic crystal as the unit cell to construct the acoustic negative refraction lens. Based on the vibration model of the phononic crystal, negative quality parameters of the lens are obtained while excited near the system resonance frequency. Simulation results show that negative refraction of the acoustic lens can be achieved when a sound wave transmiting through the phononic crystal plate. The patterns of the imaging field agree well with that of the incident wave, while the dispersion is very weak. The unit cell size in the simulation is 0.0005 m and the wavelength of the sound source is 0.02 m, from which we show that acoustic signal can be manipulated through structures with dimensions much smaller than the wavelength of incident wave.

  3. Intermetallic negative electrodes for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Fransson, Linda M.; Edstrom, Ester Kristina; Henriksen, Gary

    2004-05-04

    A method of operating an electrochemical cell is disclosed. The cell has an intermetallic negative electrode of Cu.sub.6-x M.sub.x Sn.sub.5, wherein x is .ltoreq.3 and M is one or more metals including Si and a positive electrode containing Li in which Li is shuttled between the positive electrode and the negative electrode during charge and discharge to form a lithiated intermetallic negative electrode during charge. The voltage of the electrochemical cell is controlled during the charge portion of the charge-discharge cycles so that the potential of the lithiated intermetallic negative electrode in the fully charged electrochemical cell is less than 0.2 V but greater than 0 V versus metallic lithium.

  4. Stronger warming effects on microbial abundances in colder regions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ji; Luo, Yiqi; Xia, Jianyang; Jiang, Lifen; Zhou, Xuhui; Lu, Meng; Liang, Junyi; Shi, Zheng; Shelton, Shelby; Cao, Junji

    2015-12-10

    Soil microbes play critical roles in regulating terrestrial carbon (C) cycle and its feedback to climate change. However, it is still unclear how the soil microbial community and abundance respond to future climate change scenarios. In this meta-analysis, we synthesized the responses of microbial community and abundance to experimental warming from 64 published field studies. Our results showed that warming significantly increased soil microbial abundance by 7.6% on average. When grouped by vegetation or soil types, tundras and histosols had the strongest microbial responses to warming with increased microbial, fungal, and bacterial abundances by 15.0%, 9.5% and 37.0% in tundra, and 16.5%, 13.2% and 13.3% in histosols, respectively. We found significant negative relationships of the response ratios of microbial, fungal and bacterial abundances with the mean annual temperature, indicating that warming had stronger effects in colder than warmer regions. Moreover, the response ratios of microbial abundance to warming were positively correlated with those of soil respiration. Our results therefore indicate that the large quantities of C stored in colder regions are likely to be more vulnerable to climate warming than the soil C stored in other warmer regions.

  5. Stronger warming effects on microbial abundances in colder regions

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Chen, Ji; Luo, Yiqi; Xia, Jianyang; Jiang, Lifen; Zhou, Xuhui; Lu, Meng; Liang, Junyi; Shi, Zheng; Shelton, Shelby; Cao, Junji

    2015-12-10

    Soil microbes play critical roles in regulating terrestrial carbon (C) cycle and its feedback to climate change. However, it is still unclear how the soil microbial community and abundance respond to future climate change scenarios. In this meta-analysis, we synthesized the responses of microbial community and abundance to experimental warming from 64 published field studies. Our results showed that warming significantly increased soil microbial abundance by 7.6% on average. When grouped by vegetation or soil types, tundras and histosols had the strongest microbial responses to warming with increased microbial, fungal, and bacterial abundances by 15.0%, 9.5% and 37.0% in tundra,more » and 16.5%, 13.2% and 13.3% in histosols, respectively. We found significant negative relationships of the response ratios of microbial, fungal and bacterial abundances with the mean annual temperature, indicating that warming had stronger effects in colder than warmer regions. Moreover, the response ratios of microbial abundance to warming were positively correlated with those of soil respiration. Our results therefore indicate that the large quantities of C stored in colder regions are likely to be more vulnerable to climate warming than the soil C stored in other warmer regions.« less

  6. Effect of nickel grid parameters on production of negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Oohara, W.; Yokoyama, H.; Takeda, Toshiaki; Maetani, Y.; Takeda, Takashi; Kawata, K.

    2014-06-15

    Negative hydrogen ions are produced by plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using a nickel grid. When positive ions passing through the grid are decelerated by an electric field, the extraction current density of passing positive ions is sharply reduced by neutralization and negative ionization of the ions. This phenomenon is found to depend on the specific surface area of the grid and the current density.

  7. Hierarchical probabilistic regionalization of volcanism for Sengan region in Japan using multivariate statistical techniques and geostatistical interpolation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jinyong; Balasingham, P; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Pinnaduwa H.S.W. Kulatilake

    2004-09-01

    pH value, presence of volcanic rocks and presence of hydrothermal alteration. Data available for each of these important geologic variables were used to perform directional variogram modeling and kriging to estimate values for each variable at 23949 centers of the chosen 1 km cell grid system that represents the Sengan region. These values formed complete geologic variable vectors at each of the 23,949 one km cell centers.

  8. WINDExchange: Wind Energy Regional Resource Centers

    WindExchange

    Deployment Activities Printable Version Bookmark and Share Regional Resource Centers About Economic Development Siting Wind Energy Regional Resource Centers The U.S. Department of Energy's Regional Resource Centers provide unbiased wind energy information to communities and decision makers to help them evaluate wind energy potential and learn about wind power's benefits and impacts in their regions. During their first year of operations, the Regional Resource Centers impacted more than 12,000

  9. Regional solid waste management study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    In 1990, the Lower Savannah Council of Governments (LSCOG) began dialogue with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) regarding possibilities for cooperation and coordination of solid waste management practices among the local governments and the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy eventually awarded a grant to the Lower Savannah Council of Governments for the development of a study, which was initiated on March 5, 1992. After careful analysis of the region`s solid waste needs, this study indicates a network approach to solid waste management to be the most viable. The network involves the following major components: (1) Rural Collection Centers, designed to provide convenience to rural citizens, while allowing some degree of participation in recycling; (2) Rural Drop-Off Centers, designed to give a greater level of education and recycling activity; (3) Inert landfills and composting centers, designed to reduce volumes going into municipal (Subtitle D) landfills and produce useable products from yard waste; (4) Transfer Stations, ultimate landfill disposal; (5) Materials Recovery Facilities, designed to separate recyclables into useable and sellable units, and (6) Subtitle D landfill for burial of all solid waste not treated through previous means.

  10. Method for selectively reducing plutonium values by a photochemical process

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, Horace A.; Toth, Louis M.; Bell, Jimmy T.

    1978-01-01

    The rate of reduction of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) in nitric acid solution containing a reducing agent is enhanced by exposing the solution to 200-500 nm electromagnetic radiation. Pu values are recovered from an organic extractant solution containing Pu(IV) values and U(VI) values by the method of contacting the extractant solution with an aqueous nitric acid solution in the presence of a reducing agent and exposing the aqueous solution to electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength of 200-500 nm. Under these conditions, Pu values preferentially distribute to the aqueous phase and U values preferentially distribute to the organic phase.

  11. Time-fractional Gardner equation for ion-acoustic waves in negative-ion-beam plasma with negative ions and nonthermal nonextensive electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Shimin Mei, Liquan; Zhang, Zhengqiang

    2015-05-15

    Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves is investigated in a one-dimensional, unmagnetized plasma consisting of positive ions, negative ions, and nonthermal electrons featuring Tsallis distribution that is penetrated by a negative-ion-beam. The classical Gardner equation is derived to describe nonlinear behavior of ion-acoustic waves in the considered plasma system via reductive perturbation technique. We convert the classical Gardner equation into the time-fractional Gardner equation by Agrawal's method, where the time-fractional term is under the sense of Riesz fractional derivative. Employing variational iteration method, we construct solitary wave solutions of the time-fractional Gardner equation with initial condition which depends on the nonlinear and dispersion coefficients. The effect of the plasma parameters on the compressive and rarefactive ion-acoustic solitary waves is also discussed in detail.

  12. Physics of a magnetic filter for negative ion sources. I. Collisional transport across the filter in an ideal, 1D filter

    SciTech Connect

    Boeuf, J. P.; Chaudhury, B.; Garrigues, L.

    2012-11-15

    Magnetic filters are used in negative ion sources for neutral beam injection in fusion devices to reduce the electron temperature in the extraction region in order to limit negative ion destruction by fast electrons. The drop in electron temperature through the filter is due to the enhanced residence time and collisional energy losses of electrons trapped in the magnetic field. The mechanisms controlling particle and energy transport through the magnetic filter in negative ion sources of the ITER type are still not clear and the aim of this paper is to clarify and quantify these mechanisms. A particle-in-cell Monte Carlo simulation is used to revisit and analyze the role and operation of the magnetic filter in an 'ideal' one-dimensional configuration and to study the stability of the one-dimensional solution in a two-dimensional configuration with periodic boundary conditions. The roles of collisions and instabilities on electron transport through the filter are discussed. The influence of a more realistic geometry on electron transport through the filter is analyzed in the companion paper [Boeuf et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 113510 (2012)].

  13. Improving consumer value through enhanced performance around the world

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Improving consumer value through enhanced performance around the world Improving consumer value through enhanced performance around the world LANL statistical tools have helped create Reliability Technology (RT), which increases the overall fraction of productive manufacturing time, or "uptime," for its internal manufacturing lines. April 3, 2012 Improving consumer value through enhanced performance around the world Reliability Technology (RT) is a comprehensive reliability engineering

  14. Estimating the Value of Electricity Storage Resources in Electricity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Markets - EAC 2011 | Department of Energy Estimating the Value of Electricity Storage Resources in Electricity Markets - EAC 2011 Estimating the Value of Electricity Storage Resources in Electricity Markets - EAC 2011 The purpose of this report is to assist the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 1) establishing a framework for understanding the role electricity storage resources (storage) can play in wholesale and retail electricity markets, 2) assessing the value of electricity storage in a

  15. CBEI: Broker Training - Placing Value on Energy Retrofits - 2015 Peer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Review | Department of Energy Broker Training - Placing Value on Energy Retrofits - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Broker Training - Placing Value on Energy Retrofits - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Susan Wachter, University of Pennsylvania View the Presentation CBEI: Broker Training - Placing Value on Energy Retrofits - 2015 Peer Review (771.97 KB) More Documents & Publications Market Engagement Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review Commercial Buildings Integration Program Overview - 2015 BTO Peer

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Value-Added Data Products

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Including Evaluated Data Sets) () | Data Explorer Value-Added Data Products (Including Evaluated Data Sets) Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Value-Added Data Products (Including Evaluated Data Sets) Many of the scientific needs of the ARM Program are met through the analysis and processing of existing data products into "value-added" products or VAPs. Despite extensive instrumentation deployed at the ARM sites, there will always be quantities of interest that are

  17. The Value of Distributed Solar Electric Generation to San Antonio

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Nic; Norris, Ben; Meyer, Lisa

    2013-02-14

    This report presents an analysis of value provided by grid-connected, distributed PV in San Antonio from a utility perspective. The study quantified six value components, summarized in Table ES- 1. These components represent the benefits that accrue to the utility, CPS Energy, in accepting solar onto the grid. This analysis does not treat the compensation of value, policy objectives, or cost-effectiveness from the retail consumer perspective.

  18. Eastern Woodlands Training and Regional Meeting

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Native Learning Center and the Seminole Tribe of Florida is pleased to announce the 2016 Eastern Woodlands ONAP Training and Regional Meeting designed to address tribal housing needs identified throughout the Eastern Woodlands region.

  19. DC High School Science Bowl Regionals

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This event is the Washington, D.C. High School Regional competition for the US National Science Bowl. The regional competition is run by the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity, and the...

  20. National Strategy for the Arctic Region

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Strategy for the Arctic Region (NSAR) outlines strategic priorities intended to position the United States to respond effectively to emerging opportunities in the region, while...

  1. Microsoft Word - Web Posting for Earned Value Management

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    CONTRACTOR EARNED VALUE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CERTIFICATION STATUS (as of January 14, 2016) DOE Office (Geographic Site) Contract Name Contractor Name Principal Companies Certified ...

  2. Enhancing Earned Value (EV) Analysis Using Project Assessment...

    Energy Saver

    Reporting System (PARS II) - Road Show Presentation Enhancing Earned Value (EV) Analysis Using Project Assessment & Reporting System (PARS II) - Road Show Presentation This ...

  3. Table 4. Average value of photovoltaic modules, 2005-2015

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Average value of photovoltaic modules, 2005-2015" "(dollars per peak watt)" ... Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic CellModule Shipments Report.' Note: ...

  4. Texas: City of San Antonio Demonstrates Value of Greater Investments...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Greater Investments in Clean Energy Texas: City of San Antonio Demonstrates Value ... in efficient and renewable energy and water conservation can create jobs and stimulate ...

  5. Earned Value Management System (EVMS) - DOE Directives, Delegations...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    0A, Earned Value Management System (EVMS) by Rick Blaisdell Functional areas: Capital Assets, Contract Management, Program Management, Project Management This Guide provides...

  6. History, Applications, Numerical Values and Problems with the...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Numerical Values and Problems with the Calculation of EROI (Energy Return on Energy Investment) Professor Charles Hall State University of NY College of Environmental Science and...

  7. Microsoft Word - Web Posting for Earned Value Management.doc

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 CONTRACTOR EARNED VALUE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CERTIFICATION STATUS (as of May 11, 2016) DOE Office (Geographic Site) Contract Name Contractor Name Principal Companies Certified Green ...

  8. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report Fourth Quarter: July 1-September 30, 2012 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM Climate Research Facility ...

  9. Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and Soil Friday, G. P. 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; SOILS; SURFACE WATERS; SEDIMENTS; ECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION; ENVIRONMENTAL...

  10. Earned Value Management System Gold Card | Department of Energy

    Energy Saver

    Earned Value Management (EVM) is a systematic approach to the integration and measurement of cost, schedule, and technical (scope) accomplishments on a project or task. It provides ...

  11. Level: National Data; Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2006; Level: National Data; Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios; Unit: Varies. Consumption Consumption per Dollar Consumption per Dollar ...

  12. Level: National Data; Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    2010; Level: National Data; Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios; Unit: Varies. Consumption Consumption per Dollar Consumption per Dollar ...

  13. An Initial Value of Information (VOI) Framework for Geophysical...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Exploration of Geothermal Energy Abstract We present a value of information (VOI) methodology for the exploration geothermal problem. VOI quantifies how relevant any particular...

  14. Deriving value from wet and gaseous waste streams.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Deriving value from wet and gaseous waste streams. Assessing the real value of "higher value products" Setting realistic assumption and avoid common pitfalls Luca Zullo VerdeNero LLC luca.zullo@verdenero.com 651-270-6478 My technology works great and my feedstock is a no value waste! Thermodynamics and process economics are not very different Reactants Products G1 G2 $2 $1 G<0 $>0 Ea Project development and capital cost It is never too early to think about economics! Feedstock

  15. Livermore Field Office sets core values as part of continuous...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    At their recent off-site continuous improvement session, the NNSA Livermore Field Office (LFO) in California unveiled their new set of core values: Integrity - Trustworthy, ...

  16. Valuing Green in the Appraisal Process - Building America Top...

    Energy Saver

    Valuing Green in the Appraisal Process - Building America Top Innovation Real estate appraisers have historically faced challenges with green and energy efficient homes, both in ...

  17. Module 1 - Introduction to Earned Value | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    and defines the framework necessary for proper Earned Value management implementation. ... Module 7 - Integrated Baseline Review and Change Control Module 8 - Reporting

  18. Quantifying Fl Value of Hydro in Transmission Grid | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Quantifying Fl Value of Hydro in Transmission Grid 72hydrogridserviceseprikey.ppt (3.96 MB) More Documents & Publications Enviro effects of hydrokinetic turbines on fish ...

  19. Double-{beta} decay Q value of {sup 150}Nd

    SciTech Connect

    Kolhinen, V. S.; Eronen, T.; Gorelov, D.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Moore, I. D.; Rissanen, J.; Saastamoinen, A.; Suhonen, J.; Aeystoe, J. [Department of Physics, P. O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2010-08-15

    The double-{beta} decay Q value of {sup 150}Nd was determined by using the JYFLTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer. The measured mass difference between {sup 150}Nd and {sup 150}Sm is 3371.38(20) keV. This new value deviates by 3.7 keV from the previously adopted value of 3367.7(22) keV and is a factor of 10 more precise. Accurate knowledge of this Q value is important because {sup 150}Nd is a primary candidate to be used in the search for neutrinoless double-{beta} decay modes in several experiments.

  20. Two small businesses selected for work valued at $80 million

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Businesses compete for drilling, monitoring work Two small businesses selected for work valued at 80 million Two small businesses compete for up to 80 million in well drilling ...

  1. Microsoft Word - Web Posting for Earned Value Management.doc

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    CONTRACTOR EARNED VALUE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CERTIFICATION STATUS (as of April 11, 2016) DOE Office (Geographic Site) Contract Name Contractor Name Principal Companies Certified Green ...

  2. The Purpose and Value of Successful Technology Demonstrations...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Purpose and Value of Successful Technology Demonstrations - The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 Demonstrations by Steve Bossart, NETL Senior Management and Technical...

  3. Microsoft Word - Web Posting for Earned Value Management

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    CONTRACTOR EARNED VALUE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CERTIFICATION STATUS (as of December 2, 2015) DOE Office (Geographic Site) Contract Name Contractor Name Principal Companies Certified ...

  4. Shared Value in Utility and Efficiency Partnerships | Department...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Energy Efficiency Solutions Conference: Shared Value in Utility and Efficiency Partnerships, July 10, 2012. Presents four case studies highlighting partnerships between local...

  5. Bioenergy Demonstration Project: Value-Added Products from Renewable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Bioenergy Demonstration Project: Value-Added Products from Renewable Fuels May 23, 2013 Technology Area Review: Biochemical Conversion Paul Blum University of Nebraska 2 Goal ...

  6. Superior Energy Performance: Getting the Most Value from ISO...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Superior Energy Performance cm : Getting the Most Value from ISO 50001- Energy Management Systems US Department of Energy Advanced Manufacturing Office March 13, 2012 Aimee McKane ...

  7. Enhancing Earned Value (EV) Analysis Using Project Assessment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    & Reporting System (PARS II) - Road Show Presentation Enhancing Earned Value (EV) Analysis Using Project Assessment & Reporting System (PARS II) - Road Show Presentation This ...

  8. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaraman, Chitra

    2014-11-21

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for value-added products (VAP) implemented by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility.

  9. Microsoft Word - Web Posting for Earned Value Management.doc

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 CONTRACTOR EARNED VALUE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CERTIFICATION STATUS (as of June 10, 2016) DOE Office (Geographic Site) Contract Name Contractor Name Principal Companies Certified ...

  10. State and Regional Hydrogen Initiatives Meeting, Challenges for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    and Regional Hydrogen Initiatives Meeting, Challenges for State and Regional Hydrogen Initiatives State and Regional Hydrogen Initiatives Meeting, Challenges for State and Regional ...

  11. Diode having trenches in a semiconductor region

    DOEpatents

    Palacios, Tomas Apostol; Lu, Bin; Matioli, Elison de Nazareth

    2016-03-22

    An electrode structure is described in which conductive regions are recessed into a semiconductor region. Trenches may be formed in a semiconductor region, such that conductive regions can be formed in the trenches. The electrode structure may be used in semiconductor devices such as field effect transistors or diodes. Nitride-based power semiconductor devices are described including such an electrode structure, which can reduce leakage current and otherwise improve performance.

  12. Community Programs Office supports regional education

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Community Programs Office supports regional education Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue:November 2, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Community Programs Office supports regional education New programs strengthen teachers' math and science teaching skills September 1, 2013 Teachers from the region attended a half-day workshop to improve their science-teaching skills Teachers from the region attended a half-day workshop

  13. Enforcement Policy: Regional Standards Enforcement and Distributors |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Enforcement and Distributors Enforcement Policy: Regional Standards Enforcement and Distributors Issued April 24, 2014 DOE has initiated a rulemaking to consider possible approaches to enforcing regional standards for residential central air conditioners and heat pumps. DOE will not assert civil penalty authority over distributors for violation of the regional standard for central air conditioners. Enforcement Policy: Regional Standards Enforcement and Distributors (3.55

  14. 2015 Alaska Regional Energy Workshops Flier

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn about the three Alaska Regional Energy Workshops that the DOE Office of Indian Energy is presenting in March 2015.

  15. State & Regional Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Pacific Regional Biomass Energy Program Dave Sjoding Renewable Resources Specialist 925 ... Alabama, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, ...

  16. Regional Transportation Simulation Tool for Emergency Planning

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    rtstep-diag TRACC RESEARCH Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Structural Mechanics Transportation Systems Modeling Regional Transportation Simulation Tool for Emergency ...

  17. Ch 19 Cumulative Impacts FN East Region

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... impacts for resource areas on a regional basis for unknown deployment activities ... Infrastructure + Soils Geology Water Resources Wetlands ...

  18. Geothermal Literature Review At Cascades Region (Ingebritsen...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermal Literature Review At Cascades Region (Ingebritsen & Mariner, 2010) Exploration Activity Details...

  19. The Baltics: Regional energy profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic`s exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

  20. The Baltics: Regional energy profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic's exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

  1. Laser photodetachment diagnostics of a 1/3-size negative hydrogen ion source for NBI

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, S.; Tsumori, K.; Nakano, H.; Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Kaneko, O.

    2015-04-08

    To investigate the flows of charged particles in front of the plasma grid (PG) in a negative hydrogen ion source, the information of the local densities of electrons and negative hydrogen ions (H-) are necessary. For this purpose, the laser photodetachment is applied for pure hydrogen plasmas and Cs-seeded plasma in a 1/3-size negative hydrogen ion source in NIFS-NBI test stand. The H- density obtained by photodetachment is calibrated by the results from cavity ring-down (CRD). The pressure dependence and PG bias dependence of the local H- density are presented and discussed. The results show that H- density increases significantly by seeding Cs into the plasma. In Cs-seeded plasma, relativity exists between the H- ion density and plasma potential.

  2. Photodissociation and charge transfer dynamics of negative ions studied with femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zanni, Martin T.

    1999-12-17

    This dissertation presents studies aimed at understanding the potential energy surfaces and dynamics of isolated negative ions, and the effects of solvent on each. Although negative ions play important roles in atmospheric and solution phase chemistry, to a large extent the ground and excited state potential energy surfaces of gas phase negative ions are poorly characterized, and solvent effects even less well understood. In an effort to fill this gap, the author's coworkers and the author have developed a new technique, anion femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy, and applied it to gas phase photodissociation and charge transfer processes. Studies are presented that (1) characterize the ground and excited states of isolated and clustered anions, (2) monitor the photodissociation dynamics of isolated and clustered anions, and (3) explore the charge-transfer-to-solvent states of atomic iodide clustered with polar and non-polar solvents.

  3. Roles of a plasma grid in a negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Bacal, M.; Sasao, M.; Wada, M.; McAdams, R.

    2015-04-08

    The plasma grid is electrically biased with respect to other parts of source chamber wall in both volume sources and sources seeded with alkali metals. The roles of the plasma grid in these two kinds of sources will be described. The main functions of the plasma grid in volume sources are: optimizing the extracted negative ion current, reducing the co-extracted electron current, controlling the axial plasma potential profile, recycling the hydrogen atoms to molecules, concentrating the negative ions near its surface and, when biased positive, depleting the electron population near its surface. These functions are maintained in the sources seeded with alkali metals. However an additional function appears in the Cs seeded sources, namely direct emission of negative ions under positive ion and neutral hydrogen bombardment.

  4. Negative pressures and spallation in water drops subjected to nanosecond shock waves

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Stan, Claudiu A.; Willmott, Philip R.; Stone, Howard A.; Koglin, Jason E.; Liang, Mengning; Aquila, Andrew L.; Robinson, Joseph S.; Gumerlock, Karl L.; Blaj, Gabriel; Sierra, Raymond G.; et al

    2016-05-16

    Most experimental studies of cavitation in liquid water at negative pressures reported cavitation at tensions significantly smaller than those expected for homogeneous nucleation, suggesting that achievable tensions are limited by heterogeneous cavitation. We generated tension pulses with nanosecond rise times in water by reflecting cylindrical shock waves, produced by X-ray laser pulses, at the internal surface of drops of water. Depending on the X-ray pulse energy, a range of cavitation phenomena occurred, including the rupture and detachment, or spallation, of thin liquid layers at the surface of the drop. When spallation occurred, we evaluated that negative pressures below –100 MPamore » were reached in the drops. As a result, we model the negative pressures from shock reflection experiments using a nucleation-and-growth model that explains how rapid decompression could outrun heterogeneous cavitation in water, and enable the study of stretched water close to homogeneous cavitation pressures.« less

  5. Physically consistent simulation of mesoscale chemical kinetics: The non-negative FIS-{alpha} method

    SciTech Connect

    Dana, Saswati, E-mail: saswatid@rishi.serc.iisc.ernet.in [Supercomputer Education and Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Raha, Soumyendu, E-mail: raha@serc.iisc.ernet.in [Supercomputer Education and Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2011-10-01

    Biochemical pathways involving chemical kinetics in medium concentrations (i.e., at mesoscale) of the reacting molecules can be approximated as chemical Langevin equations (CLE) systems. We address the physically consistent non-negative simulation of the CLE sample paths as well as the issue of non-Lipschitz diffusion coefficients when a species approaches depletion and any stiffness due to faster reactions. The non-negative Fully Implicit Stochastic {alpha} (FIS {alpha}) method in which stopped reaction channels due to depleted reactants are deleted until a reactant concentration rises again, for non-negativity preservation and in which a positive definite Jacobian is maintained to deal with possible stiffness, is proposed and analysed. The method is illustrated with the computation of active Protein Kinase C response in the Protein Kinase C pathway.

  6. Negative plasma potential in a multidipole chamber with a dielectric coated plasma boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, J. P.; Hershkowitz, Noah

    2012-05-15

    Negative plasma potentials with respect to a grounded wall that was coated with a dielectric have been achieved in an electropositive plasma confined by a multidipole device. A Langmuir probe was used to measure the density and temperatures of the bi-Maxwellian distribution electrons and an emissive probe was used to measure the plasma potential profile near the plasma boundary. For many discharge parameters, the potential profile was that of a typical electropositive sheath, but it was shifted negative due to negative charge accumulated on the plasma-surface boundary. A virtual cathode was observed near the boundary when the neutral pressure, primary electron energy, and/or discharge current were low ({approx}2 x 10{sup -4} Torr, {approx}60 eV, and 80 mA, respectively). The behavior of the sheath potential was shown to be consistent with that predicted by particle balance and a qualitative mechanism for wall charging is presented.

  7. Recommended Parameter Values for GENII Modeling of Radionuclides in Routine Air and Water Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Arimescu, Carmen; Napier, Bruce A.; Hay, Tristan R.

    2012-11-01

    The GENII v2 code is used to estimate dose to individuals or populations from the release of radioactive materials into air or water. Numerous parameter values are required for input into this code. User-defined parameters cover the spectrum from chemical data, meteorological data, agricultural data, and behavioral data. This document is a summary of parameter values that reflect conditions in the United States. Reasonable regional and age-dependent data is summarized. Data availability and quality varies. The set of parameters described address scenarios for chronic air emissions or chronic releases to public waterways. Considerations for the special tritium and carbon-14 models are briefly addressed. GENIIv2.10.0 is the current software version that this document supports.

  8. Big Sky Regional Middle School Regional Science Bowl | U.S. DOE Office of

    Office of Science (SC)

    Science (SC) Big Sky Regional Middle School Regional Science Bowl National Science Bowl® (NSB) NSB Home About Regional Competitions Rules, Forms, and Resources High School Regionals Middle School Regionals National Finals Volunteers Key Dates Frequently Asked Questions News Media Contact Us WDTS Home Contact Information National Science Bowl® U.S. Department of Energy SC-27/ Forrestal Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 E: Email Us Middle School Regionals Big Sky

  9. NREL: Energy Analysis - Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) Model

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) Model Energy Analysis The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) helps the U.S. Department of Energy, utilities, public utility commissions, state/local regulators and others optimize and visualize the build-out of U.S. electricity generation and transmission systems. Learn more about ReEDS: Model Description Unique Value Documentation Publications Transformation of the Electric Sector (Compare to Baseline Projections) Printable Version Model

  10. Estimated Value of Service Reliability for Electric Utility Customers in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.J.; Mercurio, Matthew; Schellenberg, Josh

    2009-06-01

    Information on the value of reliable electricity service can be used to assess the economic efficiency of investments in generation, transmission and distribution systems, to strategically target investments to customer segments that receive the most benefit from system improvements, and to numerically quantify the risk associated with different operating, planning and investment strategies. This paper summarizes research designed to provide estimates of the value of service reliability for electricity customers in the US. These estimates were obtained by analyzing the results from 28 customer value of service reliability studies conducted by 10 major US electric utilities over the 16 year period from 1989 to 2005. Because these studies used nearly identical interruption cost estimation or willingness-to-pay/accept methods it was possible to integrate their results into a single meta-database describing the value of electric service reliability observed in all of them. Once the datasets from the various studies were combined, a two-part regression model was used to estimate customer damage functions that can be generally applied to calculate customer interruption costs per event by season, time of day, day of week, and geographical regions within the US for industrial, commercial, and residential customers. Estimated interruption costs for different types of customers and of different duration are provided. Finally, additional research and development designed to expand the usefulness of this powerful database and analysis are suggested.

  11. Twenty Five Years of Vibrational Kinetics and Negative Ion Production in H2 Plasmas: Modelling Aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Capitelli, M.; De Pascale, O.; Diomede, P.; Gorse, C.; Longo, S.; Pagano, D.; Gicquel, A.; Hassouni, K.

    2005-04-06

    Different approaches to study vibrational kinetics coupled to electron one for modeling different kinds of negative ion sources are presented. In particular two types of sources are investigated. The first one is a classical negative ion source in which the plasma is generated by thermoemitted electrons; in the second one, electrons already present in the mixture are accelerated by an RF field to sufficiently high energy to ionize the gas molecules. For the first kind of ion source a new computational scheme is presented to couple heavy particle and electron kinetics. Moreover models developed for an RF inductive discharge and for a parallel plate discharge are described.

  12. Negative ion beam injection apparatus with magnetic shield and electron removal means

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Oscar A.; Chan, Chun F.; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1994-01-01

    A negative ion source is constructed to produce H.sup.- ions without using Cesium. A high percentage of secondary electrons that typically accompany the extracted H.sup.- are trapped and eliminated from the beam by permanent magnets in the initial stage of acceleration. Penetration of the magnetic field from the permanent magnets into the ion source is minimized. This reduces the destructive effect the magnetic field could have on negative ion production and extraction from the source. A beam expansion section in the extractor results in a strongly converged final beam.

  13. Negative Ion Photoelectron Spectroscopy Confirms the Prediction that (CO)5 and (CO)6 Each Has a Singlet Ground State

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Xiaoguang; Hrovat, David; Borden, Weston; Wang, Xue B.

    2013-03-20

    Cyclobutane-1,2,3,4-tetraone has been both predicted and found to have a triplet ground state, in which a b2g MO and an a2u MO is each singly occupied. In contrast, (CO)5 and (CO)6 have each been predicted to have a singlet ground state. This prediction has been tested by generating the (CO)5 - and (CO)6 - anions in the gas-phase by electrospray vaporization of solutions of, respectively, the croconate (CO)52- and rhodizonate (CO)62- dianions. The negative ion photoelectron (NIPE) spectra of the (CO)5•- radical anion give electron affinity (EA) = 3.830 eV and a singlet ground state for (CO)5, with the triplet higher in energy by 0.850 eV (19.6 kcal/mol). The NIPE spectra of the (CO)6•- radical anion give EA = 3.785 eV and a singlet ground state for (CO)6, with the triplet higher in energy by 0.915 eV (21.1 kcal/mol). (RO)CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ//(U)B3LYP/6-311+G(2df) calculations give EA values that are only ca. 1 kcal/mol lower than those measured and EST values that are only 2 - 3 kcal/mol higher than those obtained from the NIPE spectra. Thus, the calculations support the interpretations of the NIPE spectra and the finding, based on the spectra, that (CO)5 and (CO)6 both have a singlet ground state.

  14. Securing non-volatile memory regions

    DOEpatents

    Faraboschi, Paolo; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy; Muralimanohar, Naveen

    2013-08-20

    Methods, apparatus and articles of manufacture to secure non-volatile memory regions are disclosed. An example method disclosed herein comprises associating a first key pair and a second key pair different than the first key pair with a process, using the first key pair to secure a first region of a non-volatile memory for the process, and using the second key pair to secure a second region of the non-volatile memory for the same process, the second region being different than the first region.

  15. Negative Ion Photoelectron Spectroscopy Confirms the Prediction that D-3h Carbontrioxide (CO3) Has a Singlet Ground State

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Hrovat, David; Hou, Gao-Lei; Chen, Bo; Wang, Xue B.; Borden, Weston

    2015-11-13

    The CO3 radical anion (CO3•–) has been formed by electrospraying carbonate dianion (CO32–) into the gas phase. The negative ion photoelectron (NIPE) spectrum of CO3•– shows that, unlike trimethylenemethane [C(CH2)3], carbontrioxide (CO3) has a singlet ground state. From the NIPE spectrum, the electron affinity of CO3 was determined to be EA = 4.06 ± 0.03 eV, and the singlet-triplet energy difference was found to be ΔEST = - 17.8 ± 0.9 kcal/mol. B3LYP, CCSD(T), and CASPT2 calculations all find that the two lowest triplet states of CO3 are very close in energy, a prediction that is confirmed by the relativemore » intensities of the bands in the NIPE spectrum of CO3•–. The 560 cm-1 vibrational progression, seen in the low energy region of the triplet band, enables the identification of the lowest, Jahn-Teller-distorted, triplet state as 3A1, in which both unpaired electrons reside in σ MOs, rather than 3A2, in which one unpaired electron occupies the b2 σ MO, and the other occupies the b1 π MO.« less

  16. Figure F8. Coal demand regions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    9 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Energy Outlook 2016 Regional maps Figure F8. Coal demand regions Figure F7. Coal Demand Regions CT,MA,ME,NH,RI,VT OH 1. NE 3. S1 4. S2 5. GF 6. OH 7. EN AL,MS MN,ND,SD IA,NE,MO,KS TX,LA,OK,AR MT,WY,ID CO,UT,NV AZ,NM 9. AM 11. C2 12. WS 13. MT 14. CU 15. ZN WV,MD,DC,DE 2. YP Region Content Region Code NY,PA,NJ VA,NC,SC GA,FL IN,IL,MI,WI Region Content Region Code 14. CU 13. MT 16. PC 15. ZN 12. WS 11. C2 9. AM 5. GF 8. KT 4. S2 7. EN 6. OH 2. YP

  17. Method of preparing a negative electrode including lithium alloy for use within a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Tomczuk, Zygmunt; Olszanski, Theodore W.; Battles, James E.

    1977-03-08

    A negative electrode that includes a lithium alloy as active material is prepared by briefly submerging a porous, electrically conductive substrate within a melt of the alloy. Prior to solidification, excess melt can be removed by vibrating or otherwise manipulating the filled substrate to expose interstitial surfaces. Electrodes of such as solid lithium-aluminum filled within a substrate of metal foam are provided.

  18. Lithium aluminum/iron sulfide battery having lithium aluminum and silicon as negative electrode

    DOEpatents

    Gilbert, Marian; Kaun, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    A method of making a negative electrode, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical cell using the electrode. Silicon powder is mixed with powdered electroactive material, such as the lithium-aluminum eutectic, to provide an improved electrode and cell.

  19. Negative space charge effects in photon-enhanced thermionic emission solar converters

    SciTech Connect

    Segev, G.; Weisman, D.; Rosenwaks, Y.; Kribus, A.

    2015-07-06

    In thermionic energy converters, electrons in the gap between electrodes form a negative space charge and inhibit the emission of additional electrons, causing a significant reduction in conversion efficiency. However, in Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) solar energy converters, electrons that are reflected by the electric field in the gap return to the cathode with energy above the conduction band minimum. These electrons first occupy the conduction band from which they can be reemitted. This form of electron recycling makes PETE converters less susceptible to negative space charge loss. While the negative space charge effect was studied extensively in thermionic converters, modeling its effect in PETE converters does not account for important issues such as this form of electron recycling, nor the cathode thermal energy balance. Here, we investigate the space charge effect in PETE solar converters accounting for electron recycling, with full coupling of the cathode and gap models, and addressing conservation of both electric and thermal energy. The analysis shows that the negative space charge loss is lower than previously reported, allowing somewhat larger gaps compared to previous predictions. For a converter with a specific gap, there is an optimal solar flux concentration. The optimal solar flux concentration, the cathode temperature, and the efficiency all increase with smaller gaps. For example, for a gap of 3 μm the maximum efficiency is 38% and the optimal flux concentration is 628, while for a gap of 5 μm the maximum efficiency is 31% and optimal flux concentration is 163.

  20. Negative-mass mitigation of Coulomb repulsion for terahertz undulator radiation of electron bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Balal, N.; Magory, E.; Bandurkin, I. V.; Bratman, V. L.; Savilov, A. V.

    2015-10-19

    It is proposed to utilize the effect of negative mass for stabilization of the effective axial size of very dense and short electron bunches produced by photo-injector guns by using combined undulator and strong uniform magnetic fields. It has been shown that in the “abnormal” regime, an increase in the electron energy leads to a decrease in the axial velocity of the electron; due to the negative-mass effect, the Coulomb repulsion of electrons leads to their attraction and formation of a fairly stable and compact bunch “nucleus.” An undulator with a strong uniform magnetic field providing the negative-mass effect is designed for an experimental source of terahertz radiation. The use of the negative-mass regime in this experiment should result in a long-pulse coherent spontaneous undulator emission from a short dense moderately relativistic (5.5 MeV) photo-injector electron bunch with a high (up to 20%) efficiency and a narrow frequency spectrum.

  1. Anthraquinones quinizarin and danthron unwind negatively supercoiled DNA and lengthen linear DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Verebová, Valéria; Adamcik, Jozef; Danko, Patrik; Podhradský, Dušan; Miškovský, Pavol; Staničová, Jana

    2014-01-31

    Highlights: • Anthraquinones quinizarin and danthron unwind negatively supercoiled DNA. • Anthraquinones quinizarin and danthron lengthen linear DNA. • Anthraquinones quinizarin and danthron possess middle binding affinity to DNA. • Anthraquinones quinizarin and danthron interact with DNA by intercalating mode. - Abstract: The intercalating drugs possess a planar aromatic chromophore unit by which they insert between DNA bases causing the distortion of classical B-DNA form. The planar tricyclic structure of anthraquinones belongs to the group of chromophore units and enables anthraquinones to bind to DNA by intercalating mode. The interactions of simple derivatives of anthraquinone, quinizarin (1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone) and danthron (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone), with negatively supercoiled and linear DNA were investigated using a combination of the electrophoretic methods, fluorescence spectrophotometry and single molecule technique an atomic force microscopy. The detection of the topological change of negatively supercoiled plasmid DNA, unwinding of negatively supercoiled DNA, corresponding to appearance of DNA topoisomers with the low superhelicity and an increase of the contour length of linear DNA in the presence of quinizarin and danthron indicate the binding of both anthraquinones to DNA by intercalating mode.

  2. Measuring industrial energy efficiency: Physical volume versus economic value

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, S.L.; Niefer, M.J.; Roop, J.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report examines several different measures of industrial output for use in constructing estimates of industrial energy efficiency and discusses some reasons for differences between the measures. Estimates of volume-based measures of output, as well as 3 value-based measures of output (value of production, value of shipments, and value added), are evaluated for 15 separate 4-digit industries. Volatility, simple growth rate, and trend growth rate estimates are made for each industry and each measure of output. Correlations are made between the volume- and value-based measures of output. Historical energy use data are collected for 5 of the industries for making energy- intensity estimates. Growth rates in energy use, energy intensity, and correlations between volume- and value-based measures of energy intensity are computed. There is large variability in growth trend estimates both long term and from year to year. While there is a high correlation between volume- and value-based measures of output for a few industries, typically the correlation is low, and this is exacerbated for estimates of energy intensity. Analysis revealed reasons for these low correlations. It appears that substantial work must be done before reliable measures of trends in the energy efficiency of industry can be accurately characterized.

  3. The social values at risk from sea-level rise

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Sonia; Barnett, Jon; Fincher, Ruth; Hurlimann, Anna; Mortreux, Colette; Waters, Elissa

    2013-07-15

    Analysis of the risks of sea-level rise favours conventionally measured metrics such as the area of land that may be subsumed, the numbers of properties at risk, and the capital values of assets at risk. Despite this, it is clear that there exist many less material but no less important values at risk from sea-level rise. This paper re-theorises these multifarious social values at risk from sea-level rise, by explaining their diverse nature, and grounding them in the everyday practices of people living in coastal places. It is informed by a review and analysis of research on social values from within the fields of social impact assessment, human geography, psychology, decision analysis, and climate change adaptation. From this we propose that it is the lived values of coastal places that are most at risk from sea-level rise. We then offer a framework that groups these lived values into five types: those that are physiological in nature, and those that relate to issues of security, belonging, esteem, and self-actualisation. This framework of lived values at risk from sea-level rise can guide empirical research investigating the social impacts of sea-level rise, as well as the impacts of actions to adapt to sea-level rise. It also offers a basis for identifying the distribution of related social outcomes across populations exposed to sea-level rise or sea-level rise policies.

  4. Erosion control for the Fundamental values in NEPA

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, M.C.; Hinds, W.T.

    1997-08-01

    A commitment to exploring alternatives to major Federal actions, pursuing and facilitating public involvement, and identifying measures to mitigate the adverse effects of actions selected for implementation are important values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. While other major environmental legislation may commit an agency to different aspects of environmental review and protection, no other Federal statute combines the unique values that NEPA does. Since its enactment over 26 years ago, NEPA has faced numerous challenges to its fundamental intent and values. Recently, processes deemed to be, or assumed to be, functionally equivalent have attempted to subsume important NEPA values while allowing major Federal actions to proceed without NEPA`s environmental review. This paper examines the concept and origin of the term NEPA values, and the effects of judicial review and actions such as DOE`s NEPA/CERCLA integration agreement, have had on maintaining fundamental NEPA values in the Federal decision making process. In addition, based on concerns that are building momentum in the US Congress, a brief discussion will be included exploring what may occur in the future to prevent further erosion of fundamental NEPA values.

  5. ESTIMATED NEPTUNIUM SEDIMENT SORPTION VALUES AS A FUNCTION OF PH AND MEASURED BARIUM AND RADIUM KD VALUES

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.

    2011-01-13

    The objective of this document is to provide traceability and justification for a select few new geochemical data used in the Special Analysis entitled 'Special Analysis for the Dose Assessment of the Final Inventories in Center Slit Trenches One through Five'. Most values used in the Special Analysis came from the traditional geochemical data package, however, some recent laboratory measurements have made it possible to estimate barium K{sub d} values. Additionally, some recent calculations were made to estimate neptunium K{sub d} values as a function of pH. The assumptions, justifications, and calculations needed to generate these new values are presented in this document, and the values are summarized.

  6. A procedure to determine the planar integral spot dose values of proton pencil beam spots

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Aman; Sahoo, Narayan; Zhu, X. Ronald; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O.; Poenisch, Falk; Amos, Richard A.; Ciangaru, George; Titt, Uwe; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Mohan, Radhe; Gillin, Michael T.

    2012-02-15

    found to have angular anisotropy. This anisotropy in PPBS dose distribution could be accounted in a reasonable approximate manner by taking the average of PISD values obtained using the in-line and cross-line profiles. The PISD{sub RBPC} values fall within 3.5% of those measured by BPC. Due to inherent dosimetry challenges associated with PPBS dosimetry, which can lead to large experimental uncertainties, such an agreement is considered to be satisfactory for validation purposes. The PISD{sub full} values show differences ranging from 1 to 11% from BPC measured values, which are mainly due to the size limitation of the BPC to account for the dose in the long tail regions of the spots extending beyond its 4.08 cm radius. The dose in long tail regions occur both for high energy beams such as 221.8 MeV PPBS due to the contributions of nuclear interactions products in the medium, and for low energy PPBS because of their larger spot sizes. The calculated LTDCF values agree within 1% with those determined by the Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Conclusions: The area integration method to compute the PISD from PPBS lateral dose profiles is found to be useful both to determine the correction factors for the values measured by the BPC and to validate the results from MC simulations.

  7. NREL: State and Local Governments - Value-of-Solar Tariffs

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Value-of-Solar Tariffs A value-of-solar (VOS) tariff is a rate design policy that gives customers with solar installations credit for the electricity generated by a photovoltaic (PV) system. Utility customers with distributed PV panels on their homes or businesses can give power to and take power from the grid. A VOS tariff clarifies how much energy is sold in each direction (customer to utility and utility to customer) and at what rate the energy is valued. A VOS tariff should not be confused

  8. The value of post-extracted algae residue

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Bryant, Henry; Gogichaishvili, Ilia; Anderson, David; Richardson, James; Sawyer, Jason; Wickersham, Tryon; Drewery, Merritt

    2012-07-26

    This paper develops a hedonic pricing model for post-extracted algae residue (PEAR), which can be used for assessing the economic feasibility of an algal production enterprise. Prices and nutritional characteristics of commonly employed livestock feed ingredients are used to estimate the value of PEAR based on its composition. We find that PEAR would have a value lower than that of soybean meal in recent years. The value of PEAR will vary substantially based on its characteristics. PEAR could have generated algal fuel co-product credits that in recent years would have ranged between $0.95 and $2.43 per gallon of fuel produced.

  9. Case Studies Show the Value of Program Evaluation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    
 1
 Case Studies Show the Value of Program Evaluation Value of Program Evaluation Case Study Series Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, November 2009 The U.S Department of Energy sponsored several small case studies that clearly demonstrate the benefits that evaluation can provide to energy and environmental programs. The result is a set of five "Value of Program Evaluation" Case Studies (each 2-pages in length) documenting the benefits of implementing recommendations from

  10. The Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Electricity storage can provide multiple benefits to the grid, including the ability to levelize load, provide ancillary services, and provide firm capacity. Historically, it has been difficult to compare the value of electricity storage to alternative generation resources using simplified metrics, such as levelized cost of energy. To properly value energy storage requires detailed time-series simulations using software tools that can co-optimize multiple services provided by different storage technologies. This analysis uses a commercial grid simulation tool to examine the potential value of different general classes of storage devices when providing both energy and ancillary services.

  11. Value of a Smart Grid System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Value of a Smart Grid System Value of a Smart Grid System Implementing a Smart Grid is the effort to move the electric grid from a "static" to a "dynamic" state. Doing so improves the efficiency, reliability and cost-effectiveness of the electrical system's operations, planning and maintenance and creates a system that is interactive with consumers and markets, allowing better energy and dollar savings. Below we summarize the value of the Smart Grid from six perspectives.

  12. Characteristics of Hydrogen Negative Ion Source with FET based RF System

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, A.; Matsuno, T.; Funaoi, T.; Tanaka, N.; Tsumori, K.; Takeiri, Y.

    2011-09-26

    Characteristics of radio frequency (RF) plasma production were investigated using a FET inverter power supply as a RF generator. High density hydrogen plasma was obtained using an external coil wound a cylindrical ceramic tube (driver region) with RF frequency of lower than 0.5 MHz. When an axial magnetic field around 10 mT was applied to the driver region, an electron density increased drastically and attained to over 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} in the driver region. Effect of the axial magnetic field in driver and expansion region was examined. Lower gas pressure operation below 0.5 Pa was possible with higher RF frequency. H{sup -} density in the expansion region was measured by using laser photo-detachment system. It decreased as the axial magnetic field applied, which was caused by the increase of energetic electron from the driver.

  13. Characteristics of anomalous skin effect and evolution of power absorption regions in a cylindrical radio frequency inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Z. F.; Sun, B.; Huo, W. G.

    2015-06-15

    In a low-pressure radio-frequency (13.56 MHz), inductively coupled argon plasma generated by a normal cylindrical rf coil, electric field, current density, and absorbed power density is calculated from magnetic field measured with a phase-resolved magnetic probe. The anomalous skin effect (ASE) for the cylindrical rf coil is compared to those previously reported for the planar and re-entrant cylindrical rf coils. Physical reasons for our observed characteristics of ASE are presented. With the increasing discharge power, the size and the number of negative and positive power absorption regions evolve into several distinct patterns. For the low discharge power (at 156.9 W), there is one area of positive and one area of negative power absorption in the radial direction. For the medium discharge power (279 W–683.5 W), there are two areas of negative and two areas of positive power absorption. For the even higher discharge power (above 803.5 W), the number of areas is the same as that of the medium discharge power, but the size of the inner positive and negative power absorption areas is approximately doubled and halved, respectively, while the outer positive and negative power absorption areas slightly shrinks. The evolution of positive and negative power absorption regions is explained as a result of electron thermal diffusion and the energy conversion between rf current and electric field. The spatial decays of electric field and current density are also elucidated by linking them with the positive and negative power absorption pattern.

  14. THE VALUE OF ECONOMIC DISPATCH A REPORT TO CONGRESS PURSUANT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    PDF icon THE VALUE OF ECONOMIC DISPATCH A REPORT TO CONGRESS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1234 OF THE ENERGY POLICY ACT OF 2005 More Documents & Publications Economic Dispatch of Electric ...

  15. Object detection with a multistatic array using singular value decomposition

    DOEpatents

    Hallquist, Aaron T.; Chambers, David H.

    2014-07-01

    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across a surface and that travels down the surface. The detection system converts the return signals from a time domain to a frequency domain, resulting in frequency return signals. The detection system then performs a singular value decomposition for each frequency to identify singular values for each frequency. The detection system then detects the presence of a subsurface object based on a comparison of the identified singular values to expected singular values when no subsurface object is present.

  16. Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications Denholm, P.; Jorgenson...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Hummon, M.; Jenkin, T.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.; O'Malley, M. 24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND...

  17. Earned Value (EV) Analysis and Project Assessment & Reporting...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    staff to the Secretary of Energy will have easy access to the same data. EarnedValue-EV-AnalysisProjectAssessmentReportingSystem-PARS IIPresentationJanuary2013.pdf More...

  18. ARM Evaluation Product : Droplet Number Concentration Value-Added...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    They show that the magnitude of the aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) varies with a range of factors, including the relative value of the cloud liquid water path (LWP), the aerosol ...

  19. How to Estimate the Value of Service Reliability Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Michael J.; Mercurio, Matthew G.; Schellenberg, Josh A.; Eto, Joseph H.

    2010-06-08

    A robust methodology for estimating the value of service reliability improvements is presented. Although econometric models for estimating value of service (interruption costs) have been established and widely accepted, analysts often resort to applying relatively crude interruption cost estimation techniques in assessing the economic impacts of transmission and distribution investments. This paper first shows how the use of these techniques can substantially impact the estimated value of service improvements. A simple yet robust methodology that does not rely heavily on simplifying assumptions is presented. When a smart grid investment is proposed, reliability improvement is one of the most frequently cited benefits. Using the best methodology for estimating the value of this benefit is imperative. By providing directions on how to implement this methodology, this paper sends a practical, usable message to the industry.

  20. Value of Improved Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.; Sharp, J.; Margulis, M.; Mcreavy, D.

    2015-02-01

    This report summarizes an assessment of improved short-term wind power forecasting in the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) market and provides a quantification of its potential value.