National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for region coal natural

  1. Delineating coal market regions

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, B.D.; Pyrdol, J.J.

    1986-04-01

    This study addresses the delineation of US coal market regions and their evolution since the 1973 Arab oil embargo. Dichotomizing into compliance (low sulfur) and high sulfur coal deliveries, market regions are generated for 1973, 1977, and 1983. Focus is restricted to steam coal shipments to electric utilities, which currently account for over 80% of the total domestic market. A two-stage method is used. First, cluster analyses are performed on the origin-destination shipments data to generate baseline regions. This is followed by multiple regression analyses on CIF delivered price data for 1983. Sensitivity analysis on the configuration of the regions is also conducted, and some thoughts on the behavior of coal markets conclude the paper. 37 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Coal-Producing Region

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    . Coal Production by State (thousand short tons) Year to Date Coal-Producing Region and State April - June 2016 January - March 2016 April - June 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change Alabama 2,223 2,446 3,504 4,669 7,561 -38.2 Alaska 228 310 345 538 610 -11.9 Arizona 1,235 1,335 1,912 2,569 3,667 -29.9 Arkansas 15 11 27 27 48 -44.9 Colorado 3,081 2,482 5,078 5,564 10,341 -46.2 Illinois 11,125 11,312 13,391 22,437 30,221 -25.8 Indiana 6,963 7,224 8,577 14,187 18,040 -21.4 Kansas - 27 49 27 102 -73.9

  3. Natural gas beats coal in power generation

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Natural gas beats coal in power generation The amount of U.S. electricity generated by natural gas is expected to exceed the output from coal-fired power plants this year and in ...

  4. Natural mercury isotope variation in coal deposits and organic soils

    SciTech Connect

    Abir, Biswas; Joel D. Blum; Bridget A. Bergquist; Gerald J. Keeler; Zhouqing Xie

    2008-11-15

    There is a need to distinguish among sources of Hg to the atmosphere in order to more fully understand global Hg pollution. In this study we investigate whether coal deposits within the United States, China, and Russia-Kazakhstan, which are three of the five greatest coal-producing regions, have diagnostic Hg isotopic fingerprints that can be used to discriminate among Hg sources. We also investigate the Hg isotopic composition of modern organic soil horizons developed in areas distant from point sources of Hg in North America. Mercury stored in coal deposits displays a wide range of both mass dependent fractionation and mass independent fractionation. {delta}{sup 202}Hg varies in coals by 3{per_thousand} and {Delta}{sup 201}Hg varies by 0.9{per_thousand}. Combining these two Hg isotope signals results in what may be a unique isotopic 'fingerprint' for many coal deposits. Mass independent fractionation of mercury has been demonstrated to occur during photochemical reactions of mercury. This suggests that Hg found in most coal deposits was subjected to photochemical reduction near the Earth's surface prior to deposition. The similarity in MDF and MIF of modern organic soils and coals from North America suggests that Hg deposition from coal may have imprinted an isotopic signature on soils. This research offers a new tool for characterizing mercury inputs from natural and anthropogenic sources to the atmosphere and provides new insights into the geochemistry of mercury in coal and soils. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Figure F8. Coal demand regions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    9 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Energy Outlook 2016 Regional maps Figure F8. Coal demand regions Figure F7. Coal Demand Regions CT,MA,ME,NH,RI,VT OH 1. NE 3. S1 4. S2 5. GF 6. OH 7. EN AL,MS MN,ND,SD IA,NE,MO,KS TX,LA,OK,AR MT,WY,ID CO,UT,NV AZ,NM 9. AM 11. C2 12. WS 13. MT 14. CU 15. ZN WV,MD,DC,DE 2. YP Region Content Region Code NY,PA,NJ VA,NC,SC GA,FL IN,IL,MI,WI Region Content Region Code 14. CU 13. MT 16. PC 15. ZN 12. WS 11. C2 9. AM 5. GF 8. KT 4. S2 7. EN 6. OH 2. YP

  6. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

    2009-01-31

    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  7. Figure F7. Coal supply regions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    8 Appendix F Figure F7. Coal supply regions WA ID OR CA NV UT TX OK AR MO LA MS AL GA FL TN SC NC KY VA WV WY CO SD ND MI MN WI IL IN OH MD PA NJ DE CT MA NH VT NY ME RI MT NE IA KS MI AZ NM 500 0 SCALE IN MILES APPALACHIA Northern Appalachia Central Appalachia Southern Appalachia INTERIOR NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS Eastern Interior Western Interior Gulf Lignite Dakota Lignite Western Montana Wyoming, Northern Powder River Basin Wyoming, Southern Powder River Basin Western Wyoming OTHER WEST Rocky

  8. Hydrogen Resource Assessment: Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    60-42773 February 2009 Hydrogen Resource Assessment Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, and Hydro Power Anelia Milbrandt and Margaret Mann National Renewable Energy...

  9. Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-01-31

    The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

  10. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  11. Testing for market integration crude oil, coal, and natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bachmeier, L.J.; Griffin, J.M.

    2006-07-01

    Prompted by the contemporaneous spike in coal, oil, and natural gas prices, this paper evaluates the degree of market integration both within and between crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets. Our approach yields parameters that can be readily tested against a priori conjectures. Using daily price data for five very different crude oils, we conclude that the world oil market is a single, highly integrated economic market. On the other hand, coal prices at five trading locations across the United States are cointegrated, but the degree of market integration is much weaker, particularly between Western and Eastern coals. Finally, we show that crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets are only very weakly integrated. Our results indicate that there is not a primary energy market. Despite current price peaks, it is not useful to think of a primary energy market, except in a very long run context.

  12. Annotated bibliography of coal in the Caribbean region. [Lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Orndorff, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of preparing this annotated bibliography was to compile information on coal localities for the Caribbean region used for preparation of a coal map of the region. Also, it serves as a brief reference list of publications for future coal studies in the Caribbean region. It is in no way an exhaustive study or complete listing of coal literature for the Caribbean. All the material was gathered from published literature with the exception of information from Cuba which was supplied from a study by Gordon Wood of the US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Resources. Following the classification system of the US Geological Survey (Wood and others, 1983), the term coal resources has been used in this report for reference to general estimates of coal quantities even though authors of the material being annotated may have used the term coal reserves in a similar denotation. The literature ranges from 1857 to 1981. The countries listed include Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the countries of Central America.

  13. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline System - Midwest Region

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Midwest Region About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Natural Gas Pipelines in the Midwest Region ...

  14. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline System - Central Region

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Central Region About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Natural Gas Pipelines in the Central Region ...

  15. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline System - Southwest Region

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Southwest Region About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Natural Gas Pipelines in the Southwest Region ...

  16. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline System - Southeast Region

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Southeast Region About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Natural Gas Pipelines in the Southeast Region ...

  17. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline System - Northeast Region

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Northeast Region About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Natural Gas Pipelines in the Northeast Region ...

  18. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline System - Western Region

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Western Region About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Natural Gas Pipelines in the Western Region ...

  19. Spatial taxation effects on regional coal economic activities

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.W.; Labys, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Spatial taxation effects related to economic activities at the regional level can be directly evaluated using the Kuhn-Tucker system of equations based on a commodity model. In particular, the impacts of a specific tax are predictable within a given set of trade patterns. However, the impacts of an ad valorem tax are difficult to evaluate analytically, mainly because of nonlinearity in the associated response surface. The aspect of spatial-taxation analysis of present relevance for the coal industry related to coal policy, i.e., the share of tax burdens coal producers and consumers are able to bear. Each supplier in a given market boundary shares the same amount of tax burden, which may eliminate the weakest coal producers, i.e., Southern West Virginia coal mines. The same analogy also applies to the weakest demand region, i.e., Illinois, Wisconsin, and Minnesota utilities. Consequently, a proper policy requires that some preferential tax treatment be given to these regions. Since the taxation effects depend critically on the trade patterns and market boundaries, the successful policy application of present regional energy models will not be possible unless effects of this type are included in the evaluation.

  20. Spatial taxation effects on regional coal economic activities

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.W.; Labys, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Taxation effects on resource production, consumption and prices are seldom evaluated especially in the field of spatial commodity modeling. The most commonly employed linear programming model has fixed-point estimated demands and capacity constraints; hence it makes taxation effects difficult to be modeled. The second type of resource allocation model, the interregional input-output models does not include a direct and explicit price mechanism. Therefore, it is not suitable for analyzing taxation effects. The third type or spatial commodity model has been econometric in nature. While such an approach has a good deal of flexibility in modeling political and non-economic variables, it treats taxation (or tariff) effects loosely using only dummy variables, and, in many cases, must sacrifice the consistency criterion important for spatial commodity modeling. This leaves model builders only one legitimate choice for analyzing taxation effects: the quadratic programming model which explicitly allows the interplay of regional demand and supply relations via a continuous spatial price constructed by the authors related to the regional demand for and supply of coal from Appalachian markets.

  1. Petroleum Data, Natural Gas Data, Coal Data, Macroeconomic Data, Petroleum Import Data

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    Supplemental tables to the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2006 for petroleum, natural gas, coal, macroeconomic, and import data

  2. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Regional Definitions

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Definitions Map About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Regional Definitions The regions defined in the above map are based upon the 10 Federal Regions of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The State groupings are as follows: Northeast Region - Federal Region 1: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. Federal Region 2: New Jersey, and New York. Federal Region 3:Delaware, District of

  3. Regional trends in the take-up of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wootten, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    Using surveys of the electricity industry taken in major OECD coal producing/coal consuming regions of North America, Europe, Southern Africa, and Asia/Pacific, this paper reports on the attitudes of power plant operators and developers toward clean coal technologies, the barriers to their use and the policies and measures that might be implemented, if a country or region desired to encourage greater use of clean coal technologies.

  4. AEO2011: World Total Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report...

  5. Regional price targets appropriate for advanced coal extraction. [Forecasting to 1985 and 2000; USA; Regional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Terasawa, K.L.; Whipple, D.W.

    1980-12-01

    The object of the study is to provide a methodology for predicting coal prices in regional markets for the target time frames 1985 and 2000 that could subsequently be used to guide the development of an advanced coal extraction system. The model constructed for the study is a supply and demand model that focuses on underground mining, since the advanced technology is expected to be developed for these reserves by the target years. The supply side of the model is based on coal reserve data generated by Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. (EEA). Given this data and the cost of operating a mine (data from US Department of Energy and Bureau of Mines), the Minimum Acceptable Selling Price (MASP) is obtained. The MASP is defined as the smallest price that would induce the producer to bring the mine into production, and is sensitive to the current technology and to assumptions concerning miner productivity. Based on this information, market supply curves can then be generated. On the demand side of the model, demand by region is calculated based on an EEA methodology that emphasizes demand by electric utilities and demand by industry. The demand and supply curves are then used to obtain the price targets. This last step is accomplished by allocating the demands among the suppliers so that the combined cost of producing and transporting coal is minimized.

  6. Modeling of a coal-fired natural circulation boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Bhambare, K.S.; Mitra, S.K.; Gaitonde, U.N.

    2007-06-15

    Modeling of a natural circulation boiler for a coal-fired thermal power station is presented here. The boiler system is divided into seven subcomponents, and for each section, models based on conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are formulated. The pressure drop at various sections and the heat transfer coefficients are computed using empirical correlations. Solutions are obtained by using SIMULINK. The model is validated by comparing its steady state and dynamic responses with the actual plant data. Open loop responses of the model to the step changes in the operating parameters, such as pressure, temperature, steam flow, feed water flow, are also analyzed. The present model can be used for the development and design of effective boiler control systems.

  7. Regional population and employment adjustments to rising coal production. [USA

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, P.R.

    1983-11-01

    Annual U.S. coal production rose by nearly 17 percent in the years following the oil crisis of 1973. This increase induced slight gains in population in the Nation's 289 coal counties but greater gains in employment--both in coal mining and in other industries. Coal counties in the West increased production and employment more than those in the Interior and East. Increased coal mining caused employment to expand in secondary industries (contract construction, transportation, finance), but had little effect on agriculture (employment down) and manufacturing (employment up slightly).

  8. Salt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Energy Technology Laboratory Ken Kern Strategic Energy Analysis and Planning Division National Energy Technology Lab, Pittsburgh, PA June 16, 2015 Coal Baseload Asset Aging, Evaluating Impacts on Capacity Factors Workshop on Coal Fleet Aging and Performance, EIA Post-Conference Meeting, Renaissance Hotel, Washington D.C. Generation by fuel "As natural gas prices increase in the AEO2013 Reference case, the utilization rate of coal-fired generators returns to previous historical levels and

  9. Comparing Statewide Economic Impacts of New Generation from Wind, Coal, and Natural Gas in Arizona, Colorado, and Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.

    2006-05-01

    Report comparing the impacts to states from equivalent new electrical generation from wind, natural gas, and coal.

  10. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Regional/State Underground...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    RegionalState Underground Natural Gas Storage Table About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Regional ...

  11. Regional coal-mining employment in the United States from 1985 to 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.D.; Hoag, J.H.

    1984-07-01

    Mining employment projections for 15 coal-producing regions in the US indicate that substantial regional reallocation of employment will occur over the time frame considered. The East and Midwest are expected to be net losers of employment, while a major portion of the Appalachian coal region and the West will show considerable growth. Further analysis to separate the percentage of change in employment into the components of change show major dislocations in the coal-mining industry. Historically, mining employment response to such dislocation has been sluggish. If major migration of mining employment does not take place, there will be significant unemployment in the East and Midwest. 2 figures, 5 tables.

  12. Fact #844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    From 2002 to 2012, most states have reduced their reliance on coal for electricity generation. The figure below shows the percent change in electricity generated by coal and natural gas for each...

  13. Eastern Consuming Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Eastern Consuming Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) Eastern Consuming Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (Million...

  14. East Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    East Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) East Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar...

  15. A Perspective of petroleum, natural gas, and coal bed methane on the energy security of India

    SciTech Connect

    Ghose, M.K.; Paul, B.

    2008-07-01

    The global energy requirement has grown at a phenomenal rate and the consumption of primary energy sources has been a very high positive growth. This article focuses on the consumption of different primary energy sources and it identifies that coal will continue to remain as the prime energy in the foreseeable future. It examines energy requirement perspectives for India and demands of petroleum, natural gas, and coal bed methane in the foreseeable future. It discusses the state of present day petroleum and petrochemical industries in the country and the latest advances in them to take over in the next few years. The regional pattern of consumption of primary energy sources shows that oil remains as the largest single source of primary energy in most parts of the world. However, gas dominates as the prime source in some parts of the world. Economic development and poverty alleviation depend on securing affordable energy sources and for the country's energy security; it is necessary to adopt the latest technological advances in petroleum and petrochemical industries by supportive government policies. But such energy is very much concerned with environmental degradation and must be driven by contemporary managerial acumen addressing environmental and social challenges effectively. Environmental laws for the abatement of environmental degradation are discussed in this paper. The paper concludes that energy security leading to energy independence is certainly possible and can be achieved through a planned manner.

  16. Reducing GHG emissions by co-utilization of coal with natural gas or biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, I.M.

    2004-07-01

    Energy reserves price and security of supply issues are discussed in the context of the prospects for coal and policies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Coal is projected to remain a major source of energy, with most of the demand growth in developing countries. Currently available power-generating technologies, deploying coal with natural gas or biomass, are examined. Examples of successful, partial substitution of coal by other fuels in power stations are highlighted, including the GHG emissions reductions achieved as well as the costs where available. Among various options, hybrid gasification and parallel cofiring of coal with biomass and natural gas appear to have the greatest potential to reduce GHG emissions. Much may also be achieved by cofiring, reburning, and repowering with gas turbines. The best method differs between different power systems. Co-utilization of biomass with coal is a least-cost option to reduce GHG emissions where the fuel prices are comparable, usually due to subsidies or taxes. The role of biomass is likely to increase due to greater use of subsidies, carbon taxes, and emissions trading within the context of the Kyoto Protocol. This should provide opportunities for clean coal technology transfer and diffusion, including biomass co-utilization. 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Environmental trends in Asia are accelerating the introduction of clean coal technologies and natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-09-01

    This paper examines the changing energy mix for Asia to 2020, and impacts of increased coal consumption on Asia`s share of world SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions. Stricter SO{sub 2} emissions laws are summarized for eight Asian economies along with implications for fuel and technology choices. The paper compares the economics of different technologies for coal and natural gas in 1997 and in 2007. Trends toward introducing clean coal technologies and the use of natural gas will accelerate in response to tighter environmental standards by 2000. The most important coal conversion technology for Asia, particularly China, in the long term is likely to be integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC), but only under the assumption of multiple products.

  18. Economic comparison of clean coal generating technologies with natural gas-combined cycle systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sebesta, J.J.; Hoskins, W.W. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that there are four combustion technologies upon which U.S. electric utilities are expected to rely for the majority of their future power generating needs. These technologies are pulverized coal- fired combustion (PC); coal-fired fluidized bed combustion (AFBC); coal gasification, combined cycle systems (CGCC); and natural gas-fired combined cycle systems (NGCC). The engineering and economic parameters which affect the choice of a technology include capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, fuel costs, construction schedule, process risk, environmental and site impacts, fuel efficiency and flexibility, plant availability, capacity factors, timing of startup, and the importance of utility economic and financial factors.

  19. A novel configuration for coproducing transportation fuels and power from coal and natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.

    1998-07-01

    The US Department of Energy and Mitretek Systems have evolved and evaluated a concept that combines the use of gas and coal for the highly efficient production of electric power and high quality transportation fuels. In its simplest form, this coproduction cofeed (CoCo) concept consists of diverting coal-derived synthesis gas from the combined cycle power block of an Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) unit to a slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis reactor. The unreacted synthesis gas from the F-T reactor, and imported natural gas are then combusted in the downstream combined cycle power generation unit. Combining processes in this manner accomplishes the equivalent of natural gas to liquid synthesis while eliminating the conversion losses associated with the production of synthesis gas from natural gas. The paper discusses the benefits of coproduction.

  20. DOE Regional Partnership Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Seam

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory team of regional partners has begun injecting CO2 into a deep lignite coal seam in Burke County, North Dakota, to demonstrate the economic and environmental viability of geologic CO2 storage in the U.S. Great Plains region.

  1. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Region To Region System...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Interregional Capacity About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Interregional Natural Gas Transmission ...

  2. Hydrogen Resource Assessment: Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, and Hydro Power

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Mann, M.

    2009-02-01

    This paper estimates the quantity of hydrogen that could be produced from coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydro power by county in the United States. The study estimates that more than 72 million tonnes of hydrogen can be produced from coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydro power per year in the country (considering only 30% of their total annual production). The United States consumed about 396 million tonnes of gasoline in 2007; therefore, the report suggests the amount of hydrogen from these sources could displace about 80% of this consumption.

  3. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Regional Overview and Links

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Overview and Links About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Regional Overviews and Links to Pipeline ...

  4. East Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    East Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet) East Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug...

  5. ,"Midwest Region Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...282016 11:29:21 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","Midwest Region Natural Gas ...

  6. ,"Mountain Region Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...282016 11:29:22 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","Mountain Region Natural Gas ...

  7. ,"Pacific Region Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...282016 11:29:26 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","Pacific Region Natural Gas ...

  8. ,"East Region Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...282016 11:29:19 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","East Region Natural Gas in ...

  9. ,"AGA Producing Region Underground Natural Gas Storage - All...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...282016 11:29:23 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","AGA Producing Region Natural ...

  10. ,"South Central Region Underground Natural Gas Storage - All...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...282016 11:29:20 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","South Central Region Natural ...

  11. Natural gas from coal, courtesy of microbes | Argonne National...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Students from Kansas State University sample water from natural gas production wells in the Cherokee basin of southern Kansas as part of a study to understand the role of ...

  12. System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, Raymond

    2012-08-07

    The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

  13. FAQ's for New Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report Regions

    Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report

    FAQs about New Regions for Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report Originally Released: September 29, 2015 Updated: November 5, 2015 What led EIA to change the Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report (WNGSR) reporting from three to five regions? The three storage regions were developed more than 20 years ago when the dynamics of the natural gas market, including producing and consuming regions, were different than they are today. The new storage regions better reflect groupings of storage locations and the

  14. Case Study - Natural Gas Regional Transport Trucks

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Natural Gas ............................................................................................................................. 4 Financial Benefits ........................................................................................................................................................... 4 Environmental and Energy Benefits ........................................................................................................................... 4 Project-Specific

  15. Study on systems based on coal and natural gas for producing dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, L.; Hu, S.Y.; Chen, D.J.; Li, Y.R.; Zhu, B.; Jin, Y.

    2009-04-15

    China is a coal-dependent country and will remain so for a long time. Dimethyl ether (DME), a potential substitute for liquid fuel, is a kind of clean diesel motor fuel. The production of DME from coal is meaningful and is studied in this article. Considering the C/H ratios of coal and natural gas (NG), the cofeed (coal and NG) system (CFS), which does not contain the water gas shift process, is studied. It can reduce CO{sub 2} emission and increase the conversion rate of carbon, producing more DME. The CFS is simulated and compared with the coal-based and NG-based systems with different recycling ratios. The part of the exhaust gas that is not recycled is burned, producing electricity. On the basis of the simulation results, the thermal efficiency, economic index, and CO{sub 2} emission ratio are calculated separately. The CFS with a 100% recycling ratio has the best comprehensive evaluation index, while the energy, economy, and environment were considered at the same time.

  16. Comparing Statewide Economic Impacts of New Generation from Wind, Coal, and Natural Gas in Arizona, Colorado, and Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.

    2006-05-01

    With increasing concerns about energy independence, job outsourcing, and risks of global climate change, it is important for policy makers to understand all impacts from their decisions about energy resources. This paper assesses one aspect of the impacts: direct economic effects. The paper compares impacts to states from equivalent new electrical generation from wind, natural gas, and coal. Economic impacts include materials and labor for construction, operations, maintenance, fuel extraction, and fuel transport, as well as project financing, property tax, and landowner revenues. We examine spending on plant construction during construction years, in addition to all other operational expenditures over a 20-year span. Initial results indicate that adding new wind power can be more economically effective than adding new gas or coal power and that a higher percentage of dollars spent on coal and gas will leave the state. For this report, we interviewed industry representatives and energy experts, in addition to consulting government documents, models, and existing literature. The methodology for this research can be adapted to other contexts for determining economic effects of new power generation in other states and regions.

  17. Alaska Regional Energy Resources Planning Project. Phase 2: coal, hydroelectric and energy alternatives. Volume I. Beluga Coal District Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, G.; Lane, D.; Edblom, G.

    1980-01-01

    This volume deals with the problems and procedures inherent in the development of the Beluga Coal District. Socio-economic implications of the development and management alternatives are discussed. A review of permits and approvals necessary for the initial development of Beluga Coal Field is presented. Major land tenure issues in the Beluga Coal District as well as existing transportation routes and proposed routes and sites are discussed. The various coal technologies which might be employed at Beluga are described. Transportation options and associated costs of transporting coal from the mine site area to a connecting point with a major, longer distance transportation made and of transporting coal both within and outside (exportation) the state are discussed. Some environmental issues involved in the development of the Beluga Coal Field are presented. (DMC)

  18. ,"Midwest Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at ...dnavnghistn5030852m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, ...

  19. ,"East Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at ...dnavnghistn5030832m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, ...

  20. Vermont Agency of Natural Resources Floodplain Manager Regions...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Supplemental Material: Vermont Agency of Natural Resources Floodplain Manager RegionsPermittingRegulatory...

  1. ,"AGA Eastern Consuming Region Underground Natural Gas Storage...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...282016 11:29:24 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","AGA Eastern Consuming Region ...

  2. ,"AGA Western Consuming Region Underground Natural Gas Storage...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...282016 11:29:25 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Underground Storage" ... Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (MMcf)","AGA Western Consuming Region ...

  3. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Regional Overview and Links

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Overview and Links About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Regional Overviews and Links to Pipeline Companies Through a series of interconnecting interstate and intrastate pipelines the transportation of natural gas from one location to another within the United States has become a relatively seamless operation. While intrastate pipeline systems often transports natural gas from production areas directly to consumers in

  4. Sustainable Transportation Fuels from Natural Gas (H{sub 2}), Coal and Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, Gerald

    2012-12-31

    This research program is focused primarily on the conversion of coal, natural gas (i.e., methane), and biomass to liquid fuels by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), with minimum production of carbon dioxide. A complementary topic also under investigation is the development of novel processes for the production of hydrogen with very low to zero production of CO{sub 2}. This is in response to the nation's urgent need for a secure and environmentally friendly domestic source of liquid fuels. The carbon neutrality of biomass is beneficial in meeting this goal. Several additional novel approaches to limiting carbon dioxide emissions are also being explored.

  5. Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2007-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Coal investment and long-term supply and demand outlook for coal in the Asia-Pacific Region

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-12-31

    The theme of this symposium to look ahead almost a quarter century to 2020 gives one the freedom to speculate more than usual in projections for coal. It is important to attempt to take a long term look into the future of coal and energy, so that one can begin to prepare for major changes on the horizon. However, it would be a mistake to believe that the crystal ball for making long term projections is accurate for 2020. Hopefully it can suggest plausible changes that have long term strategic importance to Asia`s coal sector. This paper presents the medium scenario of long term projects of coal production, consumption, imports and exports in Asia. The second part of the paper examines the two major changes in Asia that could be most important to the long term role of coal. These include: (1) the impact of strict environmental legislation on energy and technology choices in Asia, and (2) the increased role of the private sector in all aspects of coal in Asia.

  7. Coal Data Browser

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ... Petroleum Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Natural Gas Coal Nuclear Electricity Hydropower Biofuels: Ethanol & Biodiesel Wind Geothermal Solar ...

  8. AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 888,010 816,597 813,746 830,132 ...

  9. AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Total Underground Storage Capacity...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Total Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec...

  10. AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Million Cubic Feet) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in ... Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 393,598 297,240 289,617 356,360 ...

  11. AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 58,880 70,469 16,774 11,878 ...

  12. AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 2,449 542 13,722 29,089 ...

  13. AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Percent) AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in ... Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 -32.70 -36.20 -48.60 -41.00 ...

  14. AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Percent) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas ... Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 -32.80 -42.10 -53.10 -51.10 ...

  15. AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Million Cubic Feet) AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - ... Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 280,414 208,968 200,997 216,283 ...

  16. Figure F6. Natural gas transmission and distribution model regions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    7 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Energy Outlook 2016 Regional maps Figure F6. Natural gas transmission and distribution model regions 218 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Outlook 2010 Figure F5. Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model Regions Pacifi c (9) Moun tain (8) CA (12) AZ/N M (11) W. North Centr al (4) W. South Centr al (7) E. South Centr al (6) E. North Centr al (3) S. Atlan tic (5) FL (10) Mid. Atlan tic (2) New Engl. (1) W. Canad a E.

  17. California--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Future Production (Million Barrels) Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) California--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 22 1980's 23 14 16 17 14 15 15 13 13 11 1990's 12 11 9 10 9 7 9 9 9 31 2000's 27 16 17 15 19 16 22 14 10 10 2010's 11 12 18 13 12

  18. Short-term, econometrically based coal-supply model

    SciTech Connect

    Soyster, A.L.; Enscore, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    A short-term coal supply model is described. The model is econometric in nature and is based on several statistical regressions in which coal prices are regressed against such explanatory variables as productivity, wages and mine size. The basic objective is to relate coal prices with various economic and engineering variables. A whole set of alternative regressions is provided to account for different geographical regions as well as varying coal quality. 3 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  19. Coal Markets

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Coal Markets | Archive Coal Markets Weekly production Dollars per short ton Dollars per mmbtu Average weekly coal commodity spot prices dollars per short ton Week ending Week ago change Central Appalachia 12,500 Btu, 1.2 SO2 Northern Appalachia 13,000 Btu, < 3.0 SO2 Illinois Basin 11,800 Btu, 5.0 SO2 Powder River Basin 8,800 Btu, 0.8 SO2 Uinta Basin 11,700 Btu, 0.8 SO2 Source: With permission, SNL Energy Note: Coal prices shown reflect those of relatively high-Btu coal selected in each region

  20. AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Percent) AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in ... Dec 1996 -2.90 -12.60 -11.90 -5.90 -5.40 -8.80 -13.60 -15.80 -17.10 -20.40 -23.20 -23.00 ...

  1. Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Reserves in

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Nonproducing Reservoirs, Wet (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs, Wet (Billion Cubic Feet) Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs, Wet (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 3 2 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 6 2 6 0 0 0 2010's 1 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  2. California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 22 0 5 2 7 1 58 6 6 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 49 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves

  3. California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cubic Feet) Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 3 2 3 0 70 4 6 0 2010's 1 0 0 0 53 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales

  4. Pacific Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Pacific Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Pacific Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 2010-Jan 01/01 268 01/08 257 01/15 246 01/22 235 01/29 221 2010-Feb 02/05 211 02/12 197 02/19 193 02/26 184 2010-Mar 03/05 182 03/12 176 03/19 179 03/26 185 2010-Apr 04/02 189 04/09 193 04/16 199 04/23 209 04/30 220 2010-May

  5. Salt South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cubic Feet) Salt South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Salt South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 2010-Jan 01/01 159 01/08 123 01/15 91 01/22 102 01/29 108 2010-Feb 02/05 95 02/12 85 02/19 71 02/26 70 2010-Mar 03/05 63 03/12 71 03/19 80 03/26 89 2010-Apr 04/02 101 04/09 112 04/16 120

  6. South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 2010-Jan 01/01 985 01/08 886 01/15 793 01/22 789 01/29 779 2010-Feb 02/05 719 02/12 658 02/19 592 02/26 566 2010-Mar 03/05 535 03/12 548 03/19 567 03/26 581 2010-Apr 04/02 612 04/09 649 04/16 679 04/23 710

  7. Midwest Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Midwest Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Midwest Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 2010-Jan 01/01 900 01/08 820 01/15 750 01/22 710 01/29 661 2010-Feb 02/05 604 02/12 552 02/19 502 02/26 464 2010-Mar 03/05 433 03/12 422 03/19 419 03/26 410 2010-Apr 04/02 410 04/09 429 04/16 444 04/23 462 04/30 480 2010-May

  8. Mountain Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Mountain Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Mountain Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 2010-Jan 01/01 195 01/08 185 01/15 176 01/22 171 01/29 164 2010-Feb 02/05 157 02/12 148 02/19 141 02/26 133 2010-Mar 03/05 129 03/12 127 03/19 126 03/26 126 2010-Apr 04/02 126 04/09 126 04/16 129 04/23 134 04/30 138

  9. Nonsalt South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonsalt South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonsalt South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 2010-Jan 01/01 826 01/08 763 01/15 702 01/22 687 01/29 671 2010-Feb 02/05 624 02/12 573 02/19 521 02/26 496 2010-Mar 03/05 472 03/12 477 03/19 487 03/26 492 2010-Apr 04/02

  10. Midwest Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Midwest Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Midwest Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 37.50 45.20 77.20 72.70 38.10 19.90 9.40 5.50 4.00 4.60 12.20 15.70 2016 23.70 75.90 115.20 82.90 53.00 34.90 21.80 10.60 - = No Data

  11. Mountain Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Mountain Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Mountain Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 -4.70 13.00 35.00 41.50 36.90 27.10 22.30 18.60 16.40 14.60 18.60 22.30 2016 19.40 24.20 27.80 31.30 31.00 27.50 21.90 18.00 - = No Data

  12. Pacific Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Pacific Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 39.40 137.00 162.70 103.50 62.40 34.80 25.30 14.90 12.90 9.80 8.70 -0.90 2016 0.10 -3.90 -3.60 -2.20 -6.10 -6.00 -8.10 -9.60 - = No Data Reported;

  13. South Central Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) South Central Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 24.30 27.20 70.30 75.70 64.30 50.50 39.00 35.90 29.90 21.20 22.90 24.80 2016 32.10 77.60 87.90 54.60 34.30 23.30 14.50 5.70 - = No Data

  14. Mountain Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage Capacity (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Mountain Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Mountain Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 -4.70 13.00 35.00 41.50 36.90 27.10 22.30 18.60 16.40 14.60 18.60 22.30 2016 19.40 24.20 27.80 31.30 31.00 27.50 21.90 18.00 - = No Data

  15. Pacific Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage Capacity (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Pacific Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 39.40 137.00 162.70 103.50 62.40 34.80 25.30 14.90 12.90 9.80 8.70 -0.90 2016 0.10 -3.90 -3.60 -2.20 -6.10 -6.00 -8.10 -9.60 - = No Data Reported;

  16. East Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) East Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) East Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2015 18.20 24.60 42.70 44.60 29.20 20.70 13.20 10.60 6.30 2.60 9.50 14.90 2016 18.10 42.70 82.40 49.90 23.20 14.30 11.80 5.50 - = No Data Reported;

  17. Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Feet) Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 1993-Dec 12/31 570 1994-Jan 01/07 532 01/14 504 01/21 440 01/28 414 1994-Feb 02/04 365 02/11 330 02/18 310 02/25 309 1994-Mar 03/04 281 03/11 271 03/18 284 03/25 303 1994-Apr 04/01 287 04/08 293 04/15 308 04/22

  18. Mortality in Appalachian coal mining regions: the value of statistical life lost

    SciTech Connect

    Hendryx, M.; Ahern, M.M.

    2009-07-15

    We examined elevated mortality rates in Appalachian coal mining areas for 1979-2005, and estimated the corresponding value of statistical life (VSL) lost relative to the economic benefits of the coal mining industry. We compared age-adjusted mortality rates and socioeconomic conditions across four county groups: Appalachia with high levels of coal mining, Appalachia with lower mining levels, Appalachia without coal mining, and other counties in the nation. We converted mortality estimates to VSL estimates and compared the results with the economic contribution of coal mining. We also conducted a discount analysis to estimate current benefits relative to future mortality costs. The heaviest coal mining areas of Appalachia had the poorest socioeconomic conditions. Before adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual age-adjusted deaths in coal mining areas ranged from 3,975 to 10,923, depending on years studied and comparison group. Corresponding VSL estimates ranged from $18.563 billion to $84.544 billion, with a point estimate of $50.010 billion, greater than the $8.088 billion economic contribution of coal mining. After adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual deaths in mining areas ranged from 1,736 to 2,889, and VSL costs continued to exceed the benefits of mining. Discounting VSL costs into the future resulted in excess costs relative to benefits in seven of eight conditions, with a point estimate of $41.846 billion.

  19. Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions

    SciTech Connect

    Hendryx, M.; Zullig, K.J.

    2009-11-15

    This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N = 235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.30), angina or CHO (OR = 1.29, 95% C1 = 1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR = 1.19, 95% C1 = 1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

  20. Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

    2008-06-20

    China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is inextricably entwined with

  1. California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    After Lease Separation, Estimated Production from Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Estimated Production from Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Estimated Production from Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 27 1980's 26 30 34 32 28 28 26 24 22 24 1990's 25 22 19 14 12 9 9 11 13 10 2000's 10 13 12 11 10 18 9 12 11 12 2010's 12

  2. California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    After Lease Separation, New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 1980's 1 3 1 29 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W

  3. California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    After Lease Separation, New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1 1980's 5 2 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No

  4. California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    After Lease Separation, Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 23 0 5 2 7 1 60 6 6 0 2010's 0 0 0 1 52 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  5. California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    After Lease Separation, Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 47 1980's -31 10 44 -2 -42 -4 -4 -17 -5 8 1990's 6 18 -11 -59 4 -15 15 10 6 -3 2000's -1 3 2 6 -4 73 -64 2 1 2 2010's 2 15 2 -8 3 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  6. California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    After Lease Separation, Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1 1980's 3 11 23 7 13 10 1 2 1 5 1990's 16 1 0 1 1 1 1 16 0 56 2000's 0 0 3 0 3 6 5 0 0 0 2010's 0 1 1 1 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  7. California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    After Lease Separation, Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 49 1980's 38 29 26 27 81 20 22 15 24 14 1990's 36 32 11 6 8 24 5 16 54 10 2000's 15 64 4 31 10 13 12 22 72 14 2010's 17 31 17 15 23 - = No Data Reported; -- =

  8. California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    After Lease Separation, Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 60 1980's 44 33 41 44 50 40 58 36 27 38 1990's 34 27 17 17 25 11 9 9 48 84 2000's 14 15 21 12 32 32 29 33 21 42 2010's 38 21 157 14 24 - = No Data Reported; -- =

  9. California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    After Lease Separation, Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 3 2 3 0 70 4 6 0 2010's 1 0 0 1 56 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015

  10. California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 30 25 1980's -44 23 41 -4 -68 -5 -3 -14 -5 2 1990's 5 16 6 -20 4 -13 8 18 -42 -11 2000's 30 2 2 5 -3 72 -62 3 0 2 2010's 1 13 1 -11 13 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  11. California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 29 28 28 1980's 27 31 34 34 28 28 26 24 23 23 1990's 23 20 20 17 16 14 13 17 12 8 2000's 10 12 11 11 10 18 9 12 11 12 2010's 12 11 11 12 13 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure

  12. California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 0 0 1980's 1 3 1 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  13. California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 36 32 45 1980's 44 33 28 29 78 22 27 15 23 13 1990's 34 31 15 6 17 34 9 19 48 10 2000's 14 61 4 30 9 13 12 26 69 14 2010's 16 31 16 14 24 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  14. California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 25 44 56 1980's 40 32 38 50 46 37 54 34 27 36 1990's 32 33 16 26 33 19 16 10 44 69 2000's 14 14 21 13 32 31 28 32 21 41 2010's 38 20 150 13 23 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  15. California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Reserves (Million Barrels) Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 22 1980's 23 14 16 17 15 16 15 13 13 11 1990's 12 12 10 12 11 8 9 9 9 31 2000's 27 16 17 15 19 16 22 14 10 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  16. California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Lease Separation, Estimated Production from Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Estimated Production from Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Estimated Production from Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 3 1980's 3 3 2 4 2 2 1 2 2 1 1990's 0 0 2 4 5 6 5 6 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  17. California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Lease Separation, New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 1980's 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  18. California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Lease Separation, New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 1980's 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; --

  19. California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Lease Separation, Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring

  20. California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Lease Separation, Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 10 1980's -10 2 -3 -1 -29 0 -1 1 1 -6 1990's -1 1 15 39 1 4 -4 9 -46 0 2000's 0 0 0 -1 0 -1 0 0 0 1 2010's 0 0 0 0 9 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  1. California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Lease Separation, Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 5 1980's 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  2. California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Lease Separation, Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 1980's 10 5 3 5 2 3 7 1 1 0 1990's 0 2 5 1 11 13 5 6 0 2 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 1 2010's 0 1 0 0 2 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  3. California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Lease Separation, Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 1980's 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 2 0 1990's 0 8 0 11 9 9 8 2 1 0 2000's 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 2010's 1 0 1 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  4. California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Lease Separation, Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date:

  5. California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 307 1980's 265 265 325 344 256 254 261 243 220 233 1990's 228 220 196 135 145 109 120 129 116 233 2000's 244 185 197 173 188 269 208 211 150 168 2010's 178 172 303 282 269 - = No

  6. California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 334 350 365 1980's 299 306 362 381 265 256 255 238 215 222 1990's 217 216 203 189 194 153 156 164 106 192 2000's 234 177 190 167 189 268 206 205 146 163 2010's 173 165 290 266 261 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  7. California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 395 1980's 330 325 384 405 284 277 275 255 232 238 1990's 232 231 215 201 205 163 168 176 118 233 2000's 244 185 197 174 196 277 214 212 151 169 2010's 180 173 305 284 277 - = No Data Reported;

  8. California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 88 1980's 65 60 59 61 28 23 14 12 12 5 1990's 4 11 19 66 60 54 48 47 2 0 2000's 0 0 0 1 8 8 6 1 1 1 2010's 2 1 2 2 8 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld

  9. South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    * * 17 9 1967-2015 Propane-Air 0 0 17 9 1980-201

    Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 1973 1974 1975 View History Net Withdrawals -6 -27 46 1973-1975 Injections 48 80 70 1973-1975 Withdrawals 42 53 116 1973-197

    in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent)

    Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous

  10. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

  11. Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436

    SciTech Connect

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim; Meira Castro, Ana Cristina

    2013-07-01

    Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

  12. Review of Sector and Regional Trends in U.S. Electricity Markets. Focus on Natural Gas. Natural Gas and the Evolving U.S. Power Sector Monograph Series. Number 1 of 3

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Jeffrey; Medlock, III, Kenneth B.; Boyd, William C.

    2015-10-15

    This study explores dynamics related to natural gas use at the national, sectoral, and regional levels, with an emphasis on the power sector. It relies on a data set from SNL Financial to analyze recent trends in the U.S. power sector at the regional level. The research aims to provide decision and policy makers with objective and credible information, data, and analysis that informs their discussions of a rapidly changing energy system landscape. This study also summarizes regional changes in natural gas demand within the power sector. The transition from coal to natural gas is occurring rapidly along the entire eastern portion of the country, but is relatively stagnant in the central and western regions. This uneven shift is occurring due to differences in fuel price costs, renewable energy targets, infrastructure constraints, historical approach to regulation, and other factors across states.

  13. Pacific Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet) Pacific Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 544,417 522,182 529,030 543,901 581,848 610,748 619,005 624,692 636,405 645,077 626,113 529,510 2014 456,688 373,776 363,397 402,887 459,189 507,932 533,461 561,487 576,755 604,676 598,236 581,556 2015 535,012 532,186 534,713 552,592 584,491 595,030 603,251 606,862 617,976 638,832 628,206 579,071 2016 535,527 521,897

  14. South Central Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet) South Central Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 2,000,884 1,827,846 1,714,360 1,762,847 1,899,091 1,989,604 2,061,520 2,097,649 2,191,153 2,281,316 2,224,775 2,044,114 2014 1,719,230 1,501,862 1,386,639 1,476,237 1,609,924 1,719,264 1,809,652 1,864,897 1,989,374 2,150,785 2,144,710 2,104,699 2015 1,889,028 1,633,827 1,629,734 1,804,453 1,977,770

  15. Mountain Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet) Mountain Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 596,220 571,001 555,330 550,911 560,785 573,145 586,231 605,322 623,662 636,750 632,304 595,336 2014 558,453 523,122 503,750 502,309 519,323 541,977 562,863 580,527 598,135 610,882 598,284 573,155 2015 552,277 537,185 537,004 539,816 558,882 578,300 595,505 610,816 626,924 638,383 633,170 611,934 2016 582,516 569,950

  16. Midwest Region Natural Gas Total Underground Storage Capacity (Million

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cubic Feet) Total Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Midwest Region Natural Gas Total Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 2,720,465 2,720,436 2,720,436 2,720,436 2,720,881 2,720,881 2,721,231 2,721,231 2,721,231 2,721,231 2,721,231 2,721,231 2014 2,721,231 2,721,231 2,721,231 2,721,231 2,721,231 2,721,231 2,721,231 2,721,231 2,721,231 2,723,336 2,725,497 2,725,535 2015 2,727,987 2,727,987 2,727,987

  17. Midwest Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) Midwest Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 245,791 202,093 152,913 32,351 4,462 2,642 7,377 4,478 2,266 14,497 103,084 248,313 2014 303,499 226,394 125,284 24,726 2,965 1,475 2,904 3,200 2,019 8,158 110,419 134,700 2015 243,669 277,575 114,546 18,265 3,379 2,610 6,047 3,637 2,234 4,518 49,679 115,761 2016 230,165 164,964 82,682 32,304

  18. Mountain Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cubic Feet) Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Mountain Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 425,980 426,295 426,294 426,272 426,297 425,243 424,116 423,218 422,615 422,706 422,704 421,938 2014 421,075 420,615 419,767 420,250 420,606 420,353 422,402 422,811 423,525 423,507 423,501 421,314 2015 421,311 421,304 423,663 423,684 423,689 423,689 423,690 423,699 423,698 423,690 425,847 426,205 2016 426,151

  19. AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 3,605,263 3,281,694 3,164,033 3,297,696 3,531,074 3,786,195 4,043,225 4,279,875 4,477,279 4,588,167 4,522,088 4,292,649 1995 3,905,789 3,514,201 3,360,765 3,369,823 3,576,559 3,812,014 3,968,751 4,159,006 4,362,855 4,483,271 4,279,539 3,905,710 1996 3,483,209 3,190,123 2,987,233

  20. AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Total Underground Storage Capacity

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Total Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Total Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 4,737,921 4,727,501 4,727,501 4,727,501 4,727,501 4,727,501 4,727,501 4,727,501 4,727,446 4,727,446 4,727,446 4,727,509 1995 4,730,109 4,647,791 4,647,791 4,647,791 4,647,791 4,647,791 4,593,948 4,593,948 4,593,948 4,593,948 4,593,948 4,593,948 1996 4,593,948

  1. AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 905,018 584,386 467,210 599,207 831,273 1,086,355 1,342,894 1,578,648 1,775,994 1,885,465 1,819,517 1,589,500 1995 1,206,116 814,626 663,885 674,424 850,290 1,085,760 1,300,439 1,487,188 1,690,456 1,811,013 1,608,177 1,232,901 1996 812,303 520,053 341,177 397,770 612,572 890,243

  2. AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 20,366 29,330 55,297 93,538 129,284 83,943 104,001 98,054 88,961 65,486 49,635 27,285 1995 24,645 25,960 57,833 78,043 101,019 100,926 77,411 54,611 94,759 84,671 40,182 33,836 1996 34,389 48,922 38,040 76,100 98,243 88,202 88,653 109,284 125,616 91,618 37,375

  3. AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cubic Feet) Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 201,567 147,250 61,339 23,149 9,789 29,178 13,371 19,352 10,151 24,102 52,809 137,962 1995 166,242 120,089 100,955 31,916 17,279 19,712 35,082 62,364 16,966 33,762 102,735 181,097 1996 223,932 157,642 141,292 36,788 27,665 26,393 32,861 27,599 20,226 34,000 116,431 142,519 1997

  4. AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 393,598 297,240 289,617 356,360 461,202 516,155 604,504 678,168 747,928 783,414 775,741 673,670 1995 549,759 455,591 416,294 457,969 533,496 599,582 638,359 634,297 713,319 766,411 700,456 552,458 1996 369,545 263,652 195,447 224,002 279,731 339,263 391,961 474,402 578,991 638,500 562,097

  5. AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 1,226,103 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1,232,392 1995 1,232,392 1,233,637 1,233,637 1,233,637 1,233,637 1,243,137 1,237,446 1,237,446 1,237,446 1,237,446 1,237,446 1,237,446 1996 1,237,446 1,237,446 1,237,446 1,237,446

  6. AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 280,414 208,968 200,997 216,283 261,894 293,909 326,049 349,274 387,670 405,477 381,931 342,394 1995 288,908 270,955 251,410 246,654 284,291 328,371 362,156 372,718 398,444 418,605 419,849 366,944 1996 280,620 236,878 221,371 232,189 268,812 299,619 312,736 313,747 330,116

  7. California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 23 0 1 1980's 5 3 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  8. California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 9 2 6 1980's 3 10 27 6 12 9 1 2 1 5 1990's 15 1 0 3 1 1 1 15 0 46 2000's 0 0 3 0 8 6 5 0 0 0 2010's 0 1 1 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  9. South Central Region Natural Gas Total Underground Storage Capacity

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Total Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) South Central Region Natural Gas Total Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 2,508,352 2,514,265 2,529,180 2,531,695 2,529,876 2,536,936 2,535,640 2,550,594 2,589,361 2,595,678 2,592,798 2,591,295 2014 2,578,946 2,577,866 2,578,498 2,578,547 2,590,575 2,599,184 2,611,335 2,616,178 2,612,570 2,613,746 2,635,148 2,634,993 2015 2,631,717 2,630,903

  10. East Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) East Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 16,843 6,411 17,023 86,311 133,867 127,512 86,944 99,113 102,640 71,127 33,857 19,392 2014 9,107 10,259 22,569 71,857 144,145 132,960 120,491 118,493 122,207 94,669 33,103 25,810 2015 8,399 5,034 16,192 88,291 149,749 130,181 108,902 114,713 101,145 71,500 40,008 27,824 2016 8,190 15,514

  11. East Region Natural Gas Total Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Total Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) East Region Natural Gas Total Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 2,195,656 2,195,664 2,195,669 2,195,869 2,195,869 2,195,869 2,195,869 2,195,869 2,195,869 2,195,869 2,195,869 2,195,869 2014 2,200,169 2,200,169 2,200,169 2,200,169 2,200,169 2,200,169 2,200,169 2,200,169 2,200,169 2,200,169 2,200,169 2,200,169 2015 2,197,482 2,197,482 2,197,482 2,197,482

  12. East Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) East Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 205,329 192,162 133,394 27,394 7,768 9,648 18,856 16,972 8,426 15,331 92,696 181,860 2014 246,785 190,063 128,801 25,000 7,746 7,431 13,938 10,048 5,968 7,987 94,148 115,013 2015 215,493 200,362 114,997 18,745 6,334 8,256 18,204 9,973 7,272 12,476 44,672 85,173 2016 232,338 162,650 89,624 42,709

  13. AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    (Million Cubic Feet) Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 2,700,245 2,697,308 2,696,823 2,698,489 2,699,802 2,699,840 2,700,331 2,701,227 2,701,285 2,702,703 2,702,571 2,703,149 1995 2,699,674 2,699,575 2,696,880 2,695,400 2,726,268 2,726,255 2,668,312 2,671,818 2,672,399 2,672,258 2,671,362 2,672,808 1996 2,670,906 2,670,070 2,646,056 2,654,836

  14. AGA WesternConsuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Cubic Feet) Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 1,039,864 1,032,160 1,033,297 1,032,517 1,037,294 1,037,338 1,038,940 1,036,193 1,037,422 1,035,931 1,035,050 1,043,103 1995 1,051,669 1,054,584 1,051,120 1,051,697 1,052,949 1,062,613 1,058,260 1,054,218 1,054,870 1,051,687 1,056,704 1,060,588 1996 1,067,220 1,062,343 1,027,692 1,040,511 1,055,164

  15. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  16. Chemicals from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  17. Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2008-10-15

    Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Coal supply/demand, 1980 to 2000. Task 3. Resource applications industrialization system data base. Final review draft. [USA; forecasting 1980 to 2000; sector and regional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, W.M.; Hasson, V.

    1980-10-10

    This report is a compilation of data and forecasts resulting from an analysis of the coal market and the factors influencing supply and demand. The analyses performed for the forecasts were made on an end-use-sector basis. The sectors analyzed are electric utility, industry demand for steam coal, industry demand for metallurgical coal, residential/commercial, coal demand for synfuel production, and exports. The purpose is to provide coal production and consumption forecasts that can be used to perform detailed, railroad company-specific coal transportation analyses. To make the data applicable for the subsequent transportation analyses, the forecasts have been made for each end-use sector on a regional basis. The supply regions are: Appalachia, East Interior, West Interior and Gulf, Northern Great Plains, and Mountain. The demand regions are the same as the nine Census Bureau regions. Coal production and consumption in the United States are projected to increase dramatically in the next 20 years due to increasing requirements for energy and the unavailability of other sources of energy to supply a substantial portion of this increase. Coal comprises 85 percent of the US recoverable fossil energy reserves and could be mined to supply the increasing energy demands of the US. The NTPSC study found that the additional traffic demands by 1985 may be met by the railways by the way of improved signalization, shorter block sections, centralized traffic control, and other modernization methods without providing for heavy line capacity works. But by 2000 the incremental traffic on some of the major corridors was projected to increase very significantly and is likely to call for special line capacity works involving heavy investment.

  19. CA, Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    169 180 173 305 284 277 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 1 2 1 2 2 8 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 168 178 ...

  20. Northern Cheyenne Reservation Coal Bed Natural Resource Assessment and Analysis of Produced Water Disposal Options

    SciTech Connect

    Shaochang Wo; David A. Lopez; Jason Whiteman Sr.; Bruce A. Reynolds

    2004-07-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Powder River Basin (PRB) is currently one of the most active gas plays in the United States. Monthly production in 2002 reached about 26 BCF in the Wyoming portion of the basin. Coalbed methane reserves for the Wyoming portion of the basin are approximately 25 trillion cubic feet (TCF). Although coal beds in the Powder River Basin extend well into Montana, including the area of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, the only CBM development in Montana is the CX Field, operated by the Fidelity Exploration, near the Wyoming border. The Northern Cheyenne Reservation is located on the northwest flank of the PRB in Montana with a total land of 445,000 acres. The Reservation consists of five districts, Lame Deer, Busby, Ashland, Birney, and Muddy Cluster and has a population of 4,470 according to the 2000 Census. The CBM resource represents a significant potential asset to the Northern Cheyenne Indian Tribe. Methane gas in coal beds is trapped by hydrodynamic pressure. Because the production of CBM involves the dewatering of coalbed to allow the release of methane gas from the coal matrix, the relatively large volume of the co-produced water and its potential environmental impacts are the primary concerns for the Tribe. Presented in this report is a study conducted by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology (MBMG) in partnership with the Northern Cheyenne Tribe to assess the Tribe’s CBM resources and evaluate applicable water handling options. The project was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Native American Initiative of the National Petroleum Technology Office, under contract DEAC07- 99ID13727. Matching funds were granted by the MBMG in supporting the work of geologic study and mapping conducted at MBMG.

  1. Midwest Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage Capacity (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    May 2003 1 Despite a national economic slowdown and a 4.9 percent drop in overall U.S. natural gas consumption in 2001, 1 more than 3,571 miles of pipeline and a record 12.8 billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/d) of natural gas pipeline capacity were added to the national pipeline network during 2002 (Table 1). The estimated cost was $4.4 billion. Overall, 54 natural gas pipeline projects were completed during 2002 (Figure 1, Table 2). 2 Of these, 34 were expansions of existing pipeline systems or

  2. Workshop on the utilization of coal as an alternative to petroleum fuels in the Andean Region. Volume 1. Summary report. Held in Lima, Peru on June 24-28, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    1985-12-31

    The Workshop on the Utilization of Coal as an Alternative to Petroleum Fuels in the Andean Region was one regional effort to examine issues involved in developing coal as a major energy source. Held in Lima, Peru, June 24-28, 1985, and funded by the Government of Peru and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID), the workshop examined technological measures and economic policy initiatives needed to promote coal development, particularly in Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador.

  3. Coal market momentum converts skeptics

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-01-15

    Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

  4. The mobile phase in coals: Its nature and modes of release: Final report: Part 1, Structural inferences from dry catalytic hydrogenation of a subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Terrer, M.T.; Derbyshire, F.J.

    1986-12-01

    In a study to provide insight into the two component structural model of coal and the mechanisms of coal liquefaction, an approach was adopted in which a subbituminous coal was reacted with hydrogen in the presence of an impregnated molybdenum sulphide catalyst and in the absence of solvent. Reactions were conducted at temperatures between 300 and 400/sup 0/C and for reaction times up to 180 min. The composition and yields of gaseous products, chloroform-soluble liquids and insoluble residues were followed as a function of the reaction conditions by means of different analytical and characterization techniques: gas chromatography; /sup 1/H NMR; elemental analysis; FTIR; solvent swelling in pyridine. 105 refs., 20 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30

    This report presents the results of the research and development conducted on an Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP) conceived and developed by Arizona Public Service Company (APS) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract: DE-FC26-06NT42759 for Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) production from western coal. A double-wall (i.e., a hydrogasification contained within a pressure shell) down-flow hydrogasification reactor was designed, engineered, constructed, commissioned and operated by APS, Phoenix, AZ. The reactor is ASME-certified under Section VIII with a rating of 1150 pounds per square inch gage (psig) maximum allowable working pressure at 1950 degrees Fahrenheit ({degrees}F). The reaction zone had a 1.75 inch inner diameter and 13 feet length. The initial testing of a sub-bituminous coal demonstrated ~ 50% carbon conversion and ~10% methane yield in the product gas under 1625{degrees}F, 1000 psig pressure, with a 11 seconds (s) residence time, and 0.4 hydrogen-to-coal mass ratio. Liquid by-products mainly contained Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) and tar. Char collected from the bottom of the reactor had 9000-British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) heating value. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic model simulation of the hydrodynamics around the reactor head was utilized to design the nozzles for injecting the hydrogen into the gasifier to optimize gas-solid mixing to achieve improved carbon conversion. The report also presents the evaluation of using algae for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) management and biofuel production. Nannochloropsis, Selenastrum and Scenedesmus were determined to be the best algae strains for the project purpose and were studied in an outdoor system which included a 6-meter (6M) radius cultivator with a total surface area of 113 square meters (m{sup 2}) and a total culture volume between 10,000 to 15,000 liters (L); a CO{sub 2} on-demand feeding system; an on-line data collection system for temperature, p

  6. AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Eastern Consuming Region ... 530,741 349,007 159,102 30,353 9,093 4,218 8,493 5,462 6,537 22,750 119,120 256,340 ...

  7. Workshop on the utilization of coal as an alternative to petroleum fuels in the Andean region. Volume 2. Contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-28

    Since the advent of the petroleum crisis in the mid-seventies, with its escalating fuel-oil prices, coal production has shown a substantial increase. Worldwide coal reserves are large, and the technology exists to exploit these reserves. Andean countries, especially Peru, are known to have significant underutilized coal reserves, which could prove socially and economically attractive for energy policy and planning and for long-term self-sufficiency. At present, many industrial operations and electric-generating facilities in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru are dependent on fuel-oil from diminishing domestic reserves or from imports. With current prices of coal generally about half those for residual petroleum fuels (based on energy content), the potential exists for exploitation of Andean coal as an alternative to petroleum fuels. Greater use of coal resources would help meet the demand for increased energy needed to improve living standards and for increased industrialization in the area.

  8. Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 11 2010's 80 192 345 498 869 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Estimated Production West Virginia Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes,

  9. Pelletization of fine coals

    SciTech Connect

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1991-09-01

    The present research project attempts to provide a basis to determine the pelletizability of fine coals, to ascertain the role of additives and binders and to establish a basis for binder selection. Currently, there are no established techniques for determining the quality of coal pellets. Our research is intended to develop a series of tests on coal pellets to measure their storage characteristics, transportability, ease of gasification and rate of combustion. Information developed from this research should be valuable for making knowledgeable decisions for on-time plant design, occasional binder selection and frequent process control during the pelletization of coal fines. During the last quarter, we continued the batch pelletization studies on Upper Freeport coal. The results as presented in that last quarterly report (April 1991) indicated that the surface conditions on the coal particle influenced the pelletizing growth rates. For example, a fresh (run of mine) sample of coal will display different pelletizing growth kinetics than a weathered sample of the same coal. Since coal is a heterogeneous material, the oxidized product of coal is equally variable. We found it to be logistically difficult to consistently produce large quantities of artificially oxidized coal for experimental purposes and as such we have used a naturally weathered coal. We have plans to oxidize coals under controlled oxidizing conditions and be able to establish their pelletizing behavior. The next phase of experiments were directed to study the effect of surface modification, introduced during the coal cleaning steps, on pelletizing kinetics. Accordingly, we initiated studies with two additives commonly used during the flotation of coal: dextrin (coal depressant) and dodecane (coal collector).

  10. Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate,

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Reserves New Field Discoveries (Million Barrels) New Field Discoveries (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Lease Condensate New Field Discoveries CA, Coastal Region Onshore Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve

  11. Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate,

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Proved Nonproducing Reserves of Lease Condensate CA, Coastal Region

  12. Pacific Region Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Natural Gas in Storage 525,124 546,324 565,012 575,121 575,495 573,856 2013-2016 Base Gas 259,331 259,331 259,331 259,331 259,331 259,331 2013-2016 Working Gas 265,792 286,993 305,681 315,789 316,164 314,524 2013-2016 Net Withdrawals -3,232 -21,206 -22,310 -10,112 -906 2,142 2013-2016 Injections 16,892 23,819 27,387 15,867 11,961 10,000 2013-2016 Withdrawals 13,660 2,613 5,078 5,755 11,056 12,142 2013-2016 Change in Working Gas from Same

  13. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  14. "Table 2. Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary Transport Mode and Supply Region" "(2013 dollars per ton)" "Coal Supply Region",2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "Railroad"...

  15. British coal privatization procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The form in which British Coal is to be privatized has finally been announced. Offers are to be invited for the operating underground and opencast mines which will be grouped into five regionally based companies. Additionally, offers will be invited for a number of collieries which are currently under care and maintenance. The five Regional Coal Companies to be formed are Central North, which will comprise the assets in the Yorkshire and Durham coalfields, including the five collieries in the Selby Complex; Central South, which will contain the assets located in the Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Derbyshire, and Warwickshire coalfields; North East, which has four opencast sites, Scotland, which has nine operating open-cast sites and a single underground mine, Longannet; and South Wales with its nine operating opencast sites. Tower colliery, the last underground mine in South Wales, was finally put on care and maintenance on April 20, 1994. Details of the five Regional Coal Companies are given. A new public sector body, the Coal Authority will be set up to which all British Coal's title to unworked coal and coal mines will be transferred. All the relevant property rights and liabilities of British Coal will be transferred into the Regional Coal Companies prior to their sun.

  16. System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

    2004-12-01

    Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

  17. U.S. Domestic and Foreign Coal Distribution by State of Origin

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    (thousand short tons) Coal Exports Coal Origin State and Region Domestic Distribution By Coal Mines By Brokers & Traders* Total Exports Total Distribution Alabama 10,679.56...

  18. STEO November 2012 - coal supplies

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach record high in 2012. While U.S. coal production is down 7 percent this year due in part to utilities switching to low-priced natural gas to generate electricity, American coal is still finding plenty of buyers in overseas markets. U.S. coal exports are expected to hit a record 125 million tons in 2012, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says in its new monthly short-term energy outlook. Coal exports are expected to

  19. ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,..."Natural Gas ... " " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,..."Natu...

  20. Coal underlying Federal lands in the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Alex W. Karlsen; John R. SanFilipo; Peter D. Warwick

    2002-09-01

    About 6% of the total coa resource was selected for assessment in the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain region of the NCRA project underlies federally proclaimed management areas. Of the approximately 11 billion short tons of coal in this category, approximately 37 percent are estimated to be federally owned. Much of the coal in these categories may not be available for mining, and much of it is probably not economically recoverable. The dispersed nature of Federal holdings, the complicated nature of surface and mineral estate ownership, and the existence of various legal and technological restrictions may remove a significant portion of this coal resource from consideration for development. Continuing work by USGS scientists suggests that potentially viable energy resources of coal-bed methane are present within both Federal and non-Federal areas of the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain coal-bearing region. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Coal sector profile

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  2. Natural Gas Processing Plants in the United States: 2010 Update / Regional

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Analysis Rocky Mountain States and California Regional Analysis Rocky Mountain States and California Rocky Mountain States and California The Rocky Mountain States, which include all of the States west of the Great Plains and Texas and those east of California, have seen significant natural gas production increases over the last decade. With the development of new production basins, including the San Juan Basin, Powder River Basin, and Green River Basin, natural gas processing capacity in

  3. ,"AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","12/2014" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  4. ,"AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","12/2014" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016"

  5. ,"AGA Producing Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","AGA Producing Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","12/2014" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  6. ,"AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","12/2014" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  7. ,"East Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","East Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","8/2016" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016"

  8. ,"Eastern Consuming Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Eastern Consuming Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Eastern Consuming Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","12/2014" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  9. ,"Midwest Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Midwest Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","8/2016" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  10. ,"Weekly East Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    East Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Weekly East Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Weekly","11/11/2016" ,"Release Date:","11/17/2016" ,"Next Release

  11. ,"Weekly Midwest Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Midwest Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Weekly Midwest Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Weekly","11/11/2016" ,"Release Date:","11/17/2016" ,"Next Release

  12. ,"Weekly Mountain Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mountain Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Weekly Mountain Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Weekly","11/11/2016" ,"Release Date:","11/17/2016" ,"Next Release

  13. ,"Weekly Pacific Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Pacific Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Weekly Pacific Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Weekly","11/11/2016" ,"Release Date:","11/17/2016" ,"Next Release

  14. ,"Weekly South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Weekly South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Weekly","11/11/2016" ,"Release Date:","11/17/2016" ,"Next

  15. ,"Western Consuming Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Western Consuming Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Western Consuming Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","12/2014" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  16. ,"Mountain Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Mountain Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","8/2016" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel

  17. ,"Mountain Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Mountain Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","8/2016" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  18. ,"Pacific Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Pacific Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","8/2016" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel

  19. ,"Pacific Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Pacific Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","8/2016" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  20. ,"South Central Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","South Central Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","8/2016" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016"

  1. ,"South Central Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","South Central Regions Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","8/2016" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  2. Strength and durability properties of core lithologies from coal-bearing Tyonek formation, Cook Inlet region, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Odum, J.K.

    1985-04-01

    The Tyonek Formation (late Oligocene to middle Miocene) is a nonmarine unit of sandstone, siltstone, and claystone that contains large quantities of strippable subbituminous coal and lignite. The geotechnical properties, determined by field and laboratory tests on core from the Capps and Chuitna coalfields, dictate the equipment needs for excavation, determination of pit slope angle for mine planning, and durability of excavated spoil to weathering degradation. Point-load strength index tests are rapid and inexpensive field tests approximating the tensile and unconfined compressive strength of rock types. These tests, combined with laboratory uniaxial compression tests, were used to rank the formation lithologies in order of decreasing strength: coal (2670 psi), carbonaceous claystone (835 psi), siltstone (435 psi), claystone (375 psi), and sandstone (145 psi). Except for coal, the lithologies range in hardness from soft soil to soft rock. Laboratory slake durability index tests, which measure the deterioration potential of rock masses as a result of cyclic wetting and drying, were used to rank lithologies in order of decreasing durability: claystone (49%), carbonaceous claystone (46%), siltstone (40%), and sandstone (20%). The cored Tyonek lithologies are noncarbonate, and their strength and durability increase with decreasing grain size and increasing clay-particle content. Compressional wave velocity, combined with point-load data, indicates that most of the rocks could be removed by bull-dozers with ripping blades or by scrapers and shovels. However, coal (with rare exceptions, the strongest lithology tested) would require blasting before removal.

  3. Fact #844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown Fact 844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while ...

  4. Fact #844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown - Dataset Fact 844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while ...

  5. Coal resources of Kyrgyzstan

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, E.R.; Bostick, N.H.; Gluskoter, H.J.; Johnson, E.A.; Harrison, C.D.; Huber, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The rugged, mountainous country of Kyrgyzstan contains about one-half of the known coal resources of central Asia (a geographic and economic region that also includes Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan and Turkmenistan). Coal of Jurassic age is present in eight regions in Kyrgyzstan in at least 64 different named localities. Significant coal occurrences of about the same age are present in the central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, China, and Russia. Separation of the coal-bearing rocks into individual deposits results more than earth movements before and during formation of the present-day mountains and basins of the country than from deposition in separate basins.Separation was further abetted by deep erosion and removal of the coal-bearing rocks from many areas, followed by covering of the remaining coal-bearing rocks by sands and gravels of Cenozoic age. The total resources of coal in Kyrgyzstan have been reported as about 30 billion tons. In some of the reported localities, the coal resources are known and adequately explored. In other parts of the republic, the coal resources are inadequately understood or largely unexplored. The resource and reserve inventory of Kyrgyzstan is at best incomplete; for some purposes, such as short-term local and long-range national planning, it may be inadequate. Less than 8% of the total estimated resources are categorized as recoverable reserves, and the amount that is economically recoverable is unknown. The coal is largely of subbituminous and high-volatile C bituminous rank, most has low and medium ash and sulfur contents, and coals of higher rank (some with coking qualities) are present in one region. It is recommended that appropriate analyses and tests be made during planning for utilization.

  6. Coal Markets

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Coal Glossary FAQS Overview Data Coal Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting and mapping) Summary Prices Reserves Consumption Production Stocks Imports, exports ...

  7. Summary of the APEC coal trade and investment liberalization and facilitation workshop: Facilitating trade and investment in Indonesia`s coal energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-08-01

    The Workshop brought together experts from APEC economies to discuss important issues related to coal development, trade and consumption in the APEC region, with a focus on Indonesia. Papers ranged from broad regional coal-related issues to specific policy and contract terms. The host, Indonesia, was selected as the focus of the workshop because it: (a) has APEC`s fastest growing electricity sector, (b) is in the process of switching from oil based electricity generation to coal and natural gas-based generation, (c) is among the fastest growing coal exporters in APEC, and (d) has a contract system for coal development that has been widely accepted by foreign investors. In addition, Indonesia is in the process of revising its coal policies, and might benefit from the timely discussions in this workshop. The papers presented in the workshop spanned the coal chain from coal resources and reserves, conversion technologies, economics and markets, legal and policy issues, to community and cultural concerns. Participants represented government, industry and academic interests, and provided perspectives of coal and technology suppliers, consumers, energy policy makers and legal experts.

  8. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals-Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond Hobbs

    2007-05-31

    The Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP)--conversion of coal to methane--is being developed through NETL with a DOE Grant and has successfully completed its first phase of development. The results so far are encouraging and have led to commitment by DOE/NETL to begin a second phase--bench scale reactor vessel testing, expanded engineering analysis and economic perspective review. During the next decade new means of generating electricity, and other forms of energy, will be introduced. The members of the AHP Team envision a need for expanded sources of natural gas or substitutes for natural gas, to fuel power generating plants. The initial work the team has completed on a process to use hydrogen to convert coal to methane (pipeline ready gas) shows promising potential. The Team has intentionally slanted its efforts toward the needs of US electric utilities, particularly on fuels that can be used near urban centers where the greatest need for new electric generation is found. The process, as it has evolved, would produce methane from coal by adding hydrogen. The process appears to be efficient using western coals for conversion to a highly sought after fuel with significantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. Utilities have a natural interest in the preservation of their industry, which will require a dramatic reduction in stack emissions and an increase in sustainable technologies. Utilities tend to rank long-term stable supplies of fuel higher than most industries and are willing to trade some ratio of cost for stability. The need for sustainability, stability and environmentally compatible production are key drivers in the formation and progression of the AHP development. In Phase II, the team will add a focus on water conservation to determine how the basic gasification process can be best integrated with all the plant components to minimize water consumption during SNG production. The process allows for several CO{sub 2} reduction options including consumption of

  9. Climate change and the future of natural disturbances in the central hardwood region

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Hughes, M. Joseph; Hayes, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The spatial patterns and ecological processes of the southeastern upland hardwood forests have evolved to reflect past climatic conditions and natural disturbance regimes. Changes in climate can lead to disturbances that exceed their natural range of variation, and the impacts of these changes will depend on the vulnerability or resiliency of these ecosystems. Global Circulation Models generally project annual increases in temperature across the southeastern United States over the coming decades, but changes in precipitation are less consistent. Even more unclear is how climate change might affect future trends in the severity and frequency of natural disturbances, such as severe storms, fires, droughts, floods, and insect outbreaks. Here, we use a time-series satellite data record to map the spatial pattern and severity of broad classes of natural disturbances the southeast region. The data derived from this map allow analysis of regional-scale trends in natural and anthropogenic disturbances in the region over the last three decades. Throughout the region, between 5% and 25% of forest land is affected by some sort of disturbance each year since 1985. The time series reveals periodic droughts that themselves are widespread and of low severity but are associated with more localized, high-severity disturbances such as fire and insect outbreaks. The map also reveals extensive anthropogenic disturbance across the region in the form of forest conversion related to resource extraction and urban and residential development. We discuss how changes in climate and disturbance regimes might affect southeastern forests in the future via altering the exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity of these ecosystems. Changes in climate are highly likely to expose southeastern forests to more frequent and severe disturbances, but ultimately how vulnerable or resilient southeastern forests are to these changes will depend on their sensitivity and capacity to adapt to these novel

  10. The mobile phase in coals: Its nature and modes of release: Part 2, Efforts to better define the nature and magnitude of the mobile phase: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Given, P.H.

    1987-04-01

    Several liquefaction conditions and many extracting solvents were used in attempts to set up conditions such that, as the conditions became more severe, progressively more hexane-solubles, analyzable by GC/MS, would be released. It was hoped to identify a threshold beyond which trapped mobile phase molecules would become evident. A set of 10 hexane-soluble fractions, all obtained under various conditions from the same coal (a sample of Herrin No. 6 seam, Illinois), were subjected to analysis by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Yields ranged from 0.6 to 16% of the organic matter in the coal. Prominent constituents of all of the fractions were homologous series of alkyl aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols and heterocycles, notably alkylacenaphthenes. Alkyl chains were either unbranched or lightly branched. There was a similarity in the spectra of all of the fractions irrespective of yield. The ease with which a certain homologous series can be released from a coal is highly variable. Thus the data are consistent with the concept of a mobile phase some components of which are trapped in cavities with entrances and exits of restricted size. Release of the various physically held species and the fragments from thermal breakdown of the structure will certainly present a very complex system for kinetic modeling. 30 refs., 10 tabs.

  11. Assessment of the petroleum, coal, and geothermal resources of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    coal, and geothermal resources of the economic community of West African states (ECOWAS) region Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Assessment of the petroleum, coal, and ...

  12. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  13. ,"CA, Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","CA, Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1977" ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","12/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  14. Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Reserves in

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Nonproducing Reservoirs, Wet (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs, Wet (Billion Cubic Feet) Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs, Wet (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 41 7 17 63 2000's 51 54 49 29 12 47 52 14 18 22 2010's 34 20 242 123 225 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  15. Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Wet After Lease Separation,

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Billion Cubic Feet) Natural Gas Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Billion Cubic Feet) Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 44 9 17 63 2000's 51 54 49 29 18 49 58 14 18 22 2010's 35 20 242 123 225 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    . Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels | Prices | States | International | Country Analysis...

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 . Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels |...

  18. coal to sng | netl.doe.gov

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    The economic viability of producing SNG through coal gasification is heavily dependent on the market prices of natural gas and the coal feedstock to be used, the value of ...

  19. Underground gasification of coal

    DOEpatents

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Overbey, Jr., William K.; Komar, Charles A.

    1976-01-20

    There is disclosed a method for the gasification of coal in situ which comprises drilling at least one well or borehole from the earth's surface so that the well or borehole enters the coalbed or seam horizontally and intersects the coalbed in a direction normal to its major natural fracture system, initiating burning of the coal with the introduction of a combustion-supporting gas such as air to convert the coal in situ to a heating gas of relatively high calorific value and recovering the gas. In a further embodiment the recovered gas may be used to drive one or more generators for the production of electricity.

  20. Chapter 4 - Coal

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Chapter 4 Coal Overview In the International Energy Outlook 2016 (IEO2016) Reference case, coal remains the second-largest energy source worldwide- behind petroleum and other liquids-until 2030. From 2030 through 2040, it is the third-largest energy source, behind both liquid fuels and natural gas. World coal consumption increases from 2012 to 2040 at an average rate of 0.6%/year, from 153 quadrillion Btu in 2012 to 169

  1. U.S. coal outlook in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-02-01

    Coal exports from the US to Asia are declining over time as a result of (1) increased competition from coal suppliers within the Asia-Pacific region, (2) changing steel making technologies, (3) decreased emphasis on security of coal supplies, and (4) deregulation of the energy industry--particularly electric utilities. There are no major changes on the horizon that are likely to alter the role of the US as a modest coal supplier to the Asia-Pacific region. The downward trend in US coal exports to Asia is expected to continue over the 1997--2010 period. But economic and policy changes underway in Asia are likely to result in periodic coal shortages, lasting a few months to a year, and short term increased export opportunities for US coal. US coal exports to Asia are projected to fluctuate within the following ranges over the 2000--2010 period: 10--17 million tons in total exports, 6--12 million tons in thermal coal exports, and 4--9 million tons in coking coal exports. The most important role for US coal, from the perspective of Asian coal importing countries, is to ensure a major alternative source of coal supplies that can be turned to in the event of unforeseen disruptions in coal supplies from the Asia-Pacific region or South Africa. However, the willingness of consumers to pay a premium to ensure US export capacity is declining, with increased emphasis on obtaining the lowest cost coal supplies.

  2. Fluvial sedimentology and basin analyses of the Permian Fairchild and Buckley formations, Beardmore Glacier region, and the Weller Coal Measures, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Isbell, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Beardmore Glacier region contains a 1-km-thick Permian fluvial sequence that was deposited in an elongate basin along the margin of the East Antarctica craton. Fluvial architecture, sandstone composition and paleocurrents within the basin record a change from an early Permian cratonic to a late Permian foreland basin. The Lower Permian Fairchild Formation consists entirely of overlapping channel-form sandstone bodies deposited by braided streams. Arkosic sandstone was deposited by SE flowing streams. Fairchild strata record slow subsidence within a broad cratonic basin. The Lower to Upper Permian Buckley Formation consists of an arkosic lower member and a volcaniclastic upper member. Paleocurrents which consist of transverse and longitudinal paleocurrents, suggest a cratonward migration of the basin axis through time. The Buckley Formation was deposited within a braided stream setting and is an important unit because it contains interstratified channel-sandstone sheets, shale and coal, along with evidence of channel-belt avulsions. Sandstone sheets predominate at the base of the formation, while flood-plain deposits thicken and increase in abundance upward. The interaction between fluvial processes and subsidence rates produced this alluvial stratigraphy. The Lower Permian Weller Coal Measures in southern Victoria Land were deposited within a narrow basin located cratonward of the foreland basin. Basin geometry and depositional patterns are similar to those of fault-bounded basins. Although basin formation is not constrained, deposition of the Weller was contemporaneous with the development of the foreland basin. This suggests a relationship between subsidence within the two basins.

  3. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Crist

    2004-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  4. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Crist

    2008-12-31

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport

  5. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This analysis calculates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for regional coal and imported natural gas power in Europe and Asia. The primary research questions are as follows:...

  6. American coal imports 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Kolojeski

    2007-09-15

    As 2007 ends, the US coal industry passes two major milestones - the ending of the Synfuel tax break, affecting over 100M st annually, and the imposition of tighter and much more expensive safety measures, particularly in deep mines. Both of these issues, arriving at a time of wretched steam coal price levels, promise to result in a major shake up in the Central Appalachian mining sector. The report utilizes a microeconomic regional approach to determine whether either of these two schools of thought have any validity. Transport, infrastructure, competing fuels and regional issues are examined in detail and this forecasts estimates coal demand and imports on a region by region basis for the years 2010 and 2015. Some of the major highlights of the forecast are: Import growth will be driven by steam coal demand in the eastern and southern US; Transport will continue to be the key driver - we believe that inland rail rates will deter imports from being railed far inland and that the great majority of imports will be delivered directly by vessel, barge or truck to end users; Colombian coal will be the overwhelmingly dominant supply source and possesses a costs structure to enable it to compete with US-produced coal in any market conditions; Most of the growth will come from existing power plants - increasing capacity utilization at existing import facilities and other plants making investments to add imports to the supply portfolio - the growth is not dependent upon a lot of new coal fired capacity being built. Contents of the report are: Key US market dynamics; International supply dynamics; Structure of the US coal import market; and Geographic analysis.

  7. NETL: Coal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Gasification Systems | Advanced Combustion | Coal & Coal-Biomass to Liquids | Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Turbines | sCO2 Technology CO2 Capture CO2 Capture NETL's CO2 Capture Program ...

  8. Coal pump

    DOEpatents

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  9. Design and Feasibility Assessment of a Retrospective Epidemiological Study of Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions in the Pittsburgh Pennsylvania Region

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A. Bilonick; Daniel Connell; Evelyn Talbott; Jeanne Zborowski; Myoung Kim

    2006-12-20

    Eighty-nine (89) percent of the electricity supplied in the 35-county Pittsburgh region (comprising parts of the states of Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland) is generated by coal-fired power plants making this an ideal region in which to study the effects of the fine airborne particulates designated as PM{sub 2.5} emitted by the combustion of coal. This report demonstrates that during the period from 1999-2006 (1) sufficient and extensive exposure data, in particular samples of speciated PM{sub 2.5} components from 1999 to 2003, and including gaseous co-pollutants and weather have been collected, (2) sufficient and extensive mortality, morbidity, and related health outcomes data are readily available, and (3) the relationship between health effects and fine particulates can most likely be satisfactorily characterized using a combination of sophisticated statistical methodologies including latent variable modeling (LVM) and generalized linear autoregressive moving average (GLARMA) time series analysis. This report provides detailed information on the available exposure data and the available health outcomes data for the construction of a comprehensive database suitable for analysis, illustrates the application of various statistical methods to characterize the relationship between health effects and exposure, and provides a road map for conducting the proposed study. In addition, a detailed work plan for conducting the study is provided and includes a list of tasks and an estimated budget. A substantial portion of the total study cost is attributed to the cost of analyzing a large number of archived PM{sub 2.5} filters. Analysis of a representative sample of the filters supports the reliability of this invaluable but as-yet untapped resource. These filters hold the key to having sufficient data on the components of PM{sub 2.5} but have a limited shelf life. If the archived filters are not analyzed promptly the important and costly information they

  10. Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 3 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Lease

  11. Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Reserves (Million Barrels) (Million Barrels) Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 1 1 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 3 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release

  12. Natural Gas Processing Plants in the United States: 2010 Update / Regional

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Analysis Alaska Regional Analysis Alaska Alaska The State of Alaska had the third-largest processing capacity, trailing only Texas and Louisiana. While much of the natural gas processed in Alaska does not enter any transmission system and is instead re-injected into reservoirs, its processing capability is nonetheless significant. At 9.5 Bcf per day of processing capacity, the State of Alaska accounted for about 12 percent of total U.S. capacity. As of 2009, there were a total of 4 plants in

  13. EIA - Coal Distribution

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Annual Coal Distribution Report > Annual Coal Distribution Archives Annual Coal Distribution Archive Release Date: February 17, 2011 Next Release Date: December 2011 Domestic coal ...

  14. EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution

    Annual Energy Outlook

    - Coal Distribution Home > Coal> Quarterly Coal Distribution Back Issues Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: March 9, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2016 The Quarterly ...

  15. Investigation of the carbon dioxide sorption capacity and structural deformation of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, Tae-Bong; Fazio, James; Romanov, Vyacheslav; Harbert, William

    2010-01-01

    Due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations causing the global energy and environmental crises, geological sequestration of carbon dioxide is now being actively considered as an attractive option to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. One of the important strategies is to use deep unminable coal seams, for those generally contain significant quantities of coal bed methane that can be recovered by CO2 injection through enhanced coal bed natural gas production, as a method to safely store CO2. It has been well known that the adsorbing CO2 molecules introduce structural deformation, such as distortion, shrinkage, or swelling, of the adsorbent of coal organic matrix. The accurate investigations of CO2 sorption capacity as well as of adsorption behavior need to be performed under the conditions that coals deform. The U.S. Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory and Regional University Alliance are conducting carbon dioxide sorption isotherm experiments by using manometric analysis method for estimation of CO2 sorption capacity of various coal samples and are constructing a gravimetric apparatus which has a visual window cell. The gravimetric apparatus improves the accuracy of carbon dioxide sorption capacity and provides feasibility for the observation of structural deformation of coal sample while carbon dioxide molecules interact with coal organic matrix. The CO2 sorption isotherm measurements have been conducted for moist and dried samples of the Central Appalachian Basin (Russell County, VA) coal seam, received from the SECARB partnership, at the temperature of 55 C.

  16. Great Plains Coal Gasification Project:

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-29

    This progress report on the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project discusses Lignite coal, natural gas, and by-products production as well as gas quality. A tabulation of raw material, product and energy consumption is provided for plant operations. Capital improvement projects and plant maintenance activities are detailed and summaries are provided for environmental, safety, medical, quality assurance, and qualtiy control activities.

  17. Beluga coal gasification feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Chaney; Lawrence Van Bibber

    2006-07-15

    The objective of the study was to determine the economic feasibility of developing and siting a coal-based integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant in the Cook Inlet region of Alaska for the co-production of electric power and marketable by-products. The by-products, which may include synthesis gas, Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids, fertilizers such as ammonia and urea, alcohols, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, would be manufactured for local use or for sale in domestic and foreign markets. This report for Phase 1 summarizes the investigation of an IGCC system for a specific industrial setting on the Cook Inlet, the Agrium U.S. Inc. ('Agrium') fertilizer plant in Nikiski, Alaska. Faced with an increase in natural gas price and a decrease in supply, the Agrium is investigating alternatives to gas as feed stock for their plant. This study considered all aspects of the installation and infrastructure, including: coal supply and cost, coal transport costs, delivery routes, feedstock production for fertilizer manufacture, plant steam and power, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) uses, markets for possible additional products, and environmental permit requirements. The Cook Inlet-specific Phase 1 results, reported here, provided insight and information that led to the conclusion that the second study should be for an F-T plant sited at the Usibelli Coal Mine near Healy, Alaska. This Phase 1 case study is for a very specific IGCC system tailored to fit the chemical and energy needs of the fertilizer manufacturing plant. It demonstrates the flexibility of IGCC for a variety of fuel feedstocks depending on plant location and fuel availability, as well as the available variety of gas separation, gas cleanup, and power and steam generation technologies to fit specific site needs. 18 figs., 37 tabs., 6 apps.

  18. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  19. Estimating household fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and LPG prices by census region

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to estimate individual fuel prices within the residential sector. The data from four US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, residential energy consumption surveys were used to estimate the models. For a number of important fuel types - fuel oil, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas - the estimation presents a problem because these fuels are not used by all households. Estimates obtained by using only data in which observed fuel prices are present would be biased. A correction for this self-selection bias is needed for estimating prices of these fuels. A literature search identified no past studies on application of the selectivity model for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. This report describes selectivity models that utilize the Dubin/McFadden correction method for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas in the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West census regions. Statistically significant explanatory variables are identified and discussed in each of the models. This new application of the selectivity model should be of interest to energy policy makers, researchers, and academicians.

  20. Large methane emission upon spring thaw from natural wetlands in the northern permafrost region

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Changchun [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Xu, Xiaofeng [ORNL; Sun, Xiaoxin [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Tian, Hanqin [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Sun, Li [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Miao, Yuqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Wang, Xianwei [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Guo, Yuedong [Chinese Academy of Sciences

    2012-01-01

    The permafrost carbon climate feedback is one of the major mechanisms in controlling the climate ecosystem interactions in northern high latitudes. Of this feedback, methane (CH4) emission from natural wetlands is critically important due to its high warming potential. The freeze thaw transition has been confirmed to play an important role in annual CH4 budget, yet the magnitude of this effect is uncertain. An intensive field campaign was carried out in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China to estimate the CH4 emission in the spring freeze thaw transition period. The observation concluded that a large CH4 source was caused by spring thaw; the maximum hourly emission rate was 48.6 g C m 2 h 1, more than three orders of the regularly observed CH4 emission rate in the growing season. In some sporadically observed 'hot spots', the spring thawing effect contributed to a large CH4 source of 31.3 10.1 g C m 2, which is approximately 80% of the previously calculated annual CH4 emission in the same study area. If our results are typical for natural wetlands in the Northern Hemisphere permafrost region, we estimate a global CH4 source strength of 0.5 1.0 Tg C (1 Tg =1012 g) caused by spring thaw in the Northern Hemisphere permafrost region in the year 2011. Combining with available satellite and flask data, a regional extrapolation reaches a temporal pattern of CH4 emission during 2003 2009 which is consistent with recently observed changes in atmospheric CH4 concentration in the high latitudes. This suggests that the CH4 emission upon spring thaw in the high latitudes might be enhanced by the projected climate warming. These findings indicate that the spring thawing effect is an important mechanism in the permafrost carbon climate feedback and needs to be incorporated in Earth system models.

  1. ,"California--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  2. Midwest Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Midwest Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,503,197 1,503,193 1,502,629 1,501,810 1,503,236 1,504,117 1,504,116 1,504,114 1,504,506 1,502,817 1,502,848 1,503,480 2014 1,505,645 1,504,979 1,497,798 1,502,556 1,498,128 1,498,610 1,498,610 1,498,610 1,498,887 1,496,791 1,496,848 1,497,021 2015 1,497,256 1,496,957 1,496,400 1,495,858 1,495,743 1,496,917 1,496,915

  3. Midwest Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Midwest Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 -63,664 -102,296 -211,632 -235,463 -214,379 -166,660 -123,165 -100,408 -77,814 -65,919 -81,637 -181,602 2014 -243,074 -255,871 -209,941 -189,692 -156,914 -124,375 -83,035 -47,387 -33,755

  4. Mountain Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Mountain Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 12,014 6,758 -9,151 -16,380 -18,695 -22,708 -24,019 -20,476 -26,134 -26,039 -24,866 -34,136 2014 -32,861 -42,199 -45,053 -42,581 -35,771 -26,278 -21,654 -24,388 -26,437 -26,669 -34,817

  5. AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 2,700,245 2,697,308 2,696,823 2,698,489 2,699,802 2,699,840 2,700,331 2,701,227 2,701,285 2,702,703 2,702,571 2,703,149 1995 2,699,674 2,699,575 2,696,880 2,695,400 2,726,268 2,726,255 2,668,312 2,671,818 2,672,399 2,672,258 2,671,362 2,672,808 1996 2,670,906 2,670,070 2,646,056 2,654,836

  6. AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 905,018 584,386 467,210 599,207 831,273 1,086,355 1,342,894 1,578,648 1,775,994 1,885,465 1,819,517 1,589,500 1995 301,098 230,240 196,675 75,216 19,017 -596 -42,455 -91,460 -85,538 -74,452 -211,340 -356,599 1996

  7. AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cubic Feet) Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 1,039,864 1,032,160 1,033,297 1,032,517 1,037,294 1,037,338 1,038,940 1,036,193 1,037,422 1,035,931 1,035,050 1,043,103 1995 1,051,669 1,054,584 1,051,120 1,051,697 1,052,949 1,062,613 1,058,260 1,054,218 1,054,870 1,051,687 1,056,704 1,060,588 1996 1,067,220 1,062,343 1,027,692 1,040,511 1,055,164

  8. AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 607,596 607,629 612,749 613,849 614,562 614,534 615,937 617,412 614,732 615,667 615,712 613,840 1995 613,874 613,874 613,898 613,357 613,699 616,811 613,151 613,413 613,504 613,752 613,514 615,837 1996 616,124 616,330 616,610 617,033 616,902 617,159 616,822 615,039 616,632 616,849 617,148

  9. Pacific Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Pacific Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 272,719 272,719 272,719 272,719 272,719 272,719 258,434 258,434 258,434 258,434 258,434 258,736 2014 258,736 258,541 258,456 258,619 258,736 258,736 258,736 258,736 258,736 259,036 259,036 259,036 2015 259,036 259,036 259,036 259,036 259,036 259,036 259,036 259,036 259,036 259,331 259,331 259,331 2016 259,331 259,331

  10. Pacific Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Pacific Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 -6,428 -10,631 -3,098 -14,687 -15,553 -18,935 -5,226 21,508 26,741 10,233 -13,013 -77,412 2014 -73,745 -134,228 -151,370 -126,913 -108,676 -88,833 -85,846 -63,506 -59,951 -41,003 -28,478

  11. South Central Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cubic Feet) Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) South Central Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,050,521 1,050,280 1,049,800 1,049,335 1,051,606 1,051,264 1,051,428 1,048,886 1,049,936 1,052,825 1,054,003 1,053,370 2014 1,050,691 1,049,083 1,049,047 1,049,443 1,049,496 1,053,249 1,054,073 1,058,479 1,060,363 1,060,181 1,060,298 1,059,866 2015 1,057,760 1,057,807 1,054,816 1,054,786 1,057,044

  12. South Central Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) South Central Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 -101,888 -155,544 -335,881 -301,038 -208,037 -149,650 -71,958 -32,654 -17,109 -7,023 -55,429 -144,477 2014 -281,823 -324,789 -326,968 -286,719 -287,056 -272,324 -254,513

  13. East Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) East Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,117,434 1,117,332 1,116,711 1,116,886 1,117,023 1,117,057 1,113,024 1,113,436 1,113,408 1,113,422 1,113,396 1,113,414 2014 1,113,096 1,112,811 1,110,723 1,111,592 1,111,730 1,113,003 1,113,262 1,113,458 1,113,383 1,113,607 1,113,589 1,113,356 2015 1,111,081 1,110,574 1,112,593 1,112,719 1,113,055 1,114,216 1,119,070

  14. East Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) East Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 605,224 419,836 303,741 362,496 488,370 606,051 678,197 759,995 854,238 910,008 851,251 688,716 2014 451,335 271,801 167,715 213,475 349,739 474,624 580,937 689,328 805,733 892,328 831,398 742,486 2015 533,537 338,726 239,291 308,664 451,773 572,878 657,591 762,518 856,308 915,094 910,246 852,876 2016 629,905

  15. East Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) East Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 -59,770 -101,657 -207,266 -202,799 -176,110 -131,033 -101,059 -80,666 -54,688 -45,655 -40,177 -105,210 2014 -153,889 -148,035 -136,025 -149,021 -138,631 -131,428 -97,260 -70,667 -48,505 -17,679

  16. Development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1996--March 27, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Pisupati, S.V.

    1997-07-22

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of developing technologies which can potentially decrease DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction studies, economic analyses of coal use, and evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. Preliminary pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction catalyst tests were conducted when firing natural gas in Penn State`s down-fired combustor. This is the first step in the scale-up of bench-scale results obtained in Phase II to the demonstration boiler scale when firing coal. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional/national economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio. The evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel included installing a ribbon mixer into Penn State`s micronized coal-water mixture circuit for reentraining filter cake. In addition, three cleaned coals were received from CQ Inc. and three cleaned coals were received from Cyprus-Amax.

  17. Flotation and flocculation chemistry of coal and oxidized coals

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaran, P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to understand the fundamentals involved in the flotation and flocculation of coal and oxidized coals and elucidate mechanisms by which surface interactions between coal and various reagents enhance coal beneficiation. An understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity of coal surfaces arising from the intrinsic distribution of chemical moieties is fundamental to the elucidation of mechanism of coal surface modification and its role in interfacial processes such as flotation, flocculation and agglomeration. A new approach for determining the distribution in surface properties of coal particles was developed in this study and various techniques capable of providing such information were identified. Distributions in surface energy, contact angle and wettability were obtained using novel techniques such as centrifugal immersion and film flotation. Changes in these distributions upon oxidation and surface modifications were monitored and discussed. An approach to the modelling of coal surface site distributions based on thermodynamic information obtained from gas adsorption and immersion calorimetry is proposed. Polyacrylamide and dodecane was used to alter the coal surface. Methanol adsorption was also studied. 62 figs.

  18. The relativity ability to tax coal in the western states

    SciTech Connect

    Fain, J.R.; Gade, M.N.

    1995-07-01

    Over the past decade, state governments have begun to acknowledge an implicit relationship between states in the tax-setting process. The recent taxation literature suggests that differences in tax burdens do affect economic decisions and that states do compete with each other when designing tax policy. Moreover, there has been a growing interest in the theoretical models of strategic interactions between regions as they compete for tax revenues. Natural source-laden states enjoy an advantage in the collection of own-source revenues. Reserves of coal, oil, copper, or other natural resources with a national market provide states with an opportunity to exploit their advantage through the imposition of severance taxes. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the western states in their relative power to tax the extraction of coal. In section II of this paper we examine earlier work on the taxation of western coal. Section III contains the details of the coal model we use. In section IV we determine the composition of the western coal market and the strategic tax-setting behavior of the state governments involved. In section V we discuss our empirical results. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Coal production, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons).

  20. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2001 State Region Domestic Foreign Total Alabama 14,828 4,508 19,336 Alaska 825 698 1,524 Arizona 13,143 - 13,143...

  1. Effects of Varying RedoxConditions on Natural Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants from the D-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basin (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D

    2004-05-30

    The objective of this study was to provide geochemical parameters to characterize the D-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basin (DCPRB) sediment as a potential source term. It is anticipated that the measured values will be used in risk calculations and will provide additional technical support for imposing Monitored Natural Attenuation at D-Area. This study provides a detailed evaluation of the DCPRB sediment and is part of another study that quantified the Monitored Natural Attenuation of inorganic contaminants more broadly at the D-Area Expanded Operable Unit, which includes the DCPRB (Powell et al. 2004). Distribution coefficients (K{sub d} values; a solid to liquid contaminant concentration ratio) and the Potentially Leachable Fraction (the percent of the total contaminant concentration in the sediment that can likely contribute to a contaminant plume) were measured in a DCPRB sediment as a function of redox conditions. Redox conditions at the DCPRB are expected to vary greatly as the system undergoes varying drying and flooding conditions. Conservative values; K{sub d} values that err on the side of being too low and Potentially Leachable Fraction values that err on the side of being too high, are presented. The K{sub d} values are high compared to conservative literature values, and underscores the importance of measuring site-specific values to provide estimates of sediments natural attenuation/sorption capacities. The Potentially Leachable Fraction indicates that as little as 27% of the As, but all of the Cu and Tl will be part of the source term. In the case of the As, the remaining 83% will likely never leach out of the sediment, thereby providing a form of natural attenuation. Importantly, Be, Cr, Cu, Ni, and V concentrations in the sediment were less-than twice background levels, indicating this sediment was not a potential source for these contaminants. K{sub d} values generally increased significantly (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se, and Tl) when the sediment was

  2. Underground coal gasification. Presentations

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The 8 presentations are: underground coal gasification (UCG) and the possibilities for carbon management (J. Friedmann); comparing the economics of UCG with surface gasification technologies (E. Redman); Eskom develops UCG technology project (C. Gross); development and future of UCG in the Asian region (L. Walker); economically developing vast deep Powder River Basin coals with UCG (S. Morzenti); effectively managing UCG environmental issues (E. Burton); demonstrating modelling complexity of environmental risk management; and UCG research at the University of Queensland, Australia (A.Y. Klimenko).

  3. Coal reserves are plentiful but unevenly distributed

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremic, M.L.

    1981-07-01

    There is plenty of coal in Canada. The estimated coal resources are more than 360,000,000,000 tons with most of this coal located in the western provinces. The estimated minable coal reserves are more than 16,000,000,000 tons and the recoverable coal is more than 6,000,000,000 tons. The latter figure reflects the lack of current development in many coalfields. Very recent and current exploration for coal as well as for oil and gas has indicated coal resources in addition to those already estimated. Incremental additions to coal resources can be expected in northern and eastern Canada. In the latter region, more than 85 percent of the total coal resources are beneath the ocean. The main coal deposits in western Canada are very far from the large industrial markets of Ontario and Quebec. They are closer, yet still quite distant, from export ports on the Pacific Ocean. Current efforts to improve coal transportation are expected to decrease the disadvantages of the unfavorable location of the western coalfields. This will increase the coal reserves in the region as further exploration will surely follow.

  4. Coal Market Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  5. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Processing Coal Plants and Commercial and Institutional Coal Users" and Form EIA-7A, "Coal Production and Preparation Report." Appendix A Assigning Missing Data to EIA-923...

  6. Coal Fleet Aging Meeting

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Director, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis FROM: Coal and ... capital cost adder based on the age and type of unit (coal, oilgas steam, and nuclear). ...

  7. Coal industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, distribution, coal stocks, quality, prices, coal production information, and emissions for a wide audience.

  8. Erosion-oxidation of carbon steel in the convection section of an industrial boiler cofiring coal-water fuel and natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, J.J.; Walsh, P.M.

    1997-07-01

    Walsh et al. (1994) reported measurements of erosion of carbon steel by fly ash and unburned char particles in the convective heat transfer section of an industrial boiler cofiring coal-water fuel and natural gas. Changes in shape of the surface were measured using a surface profiler. Time-averaged maximum erosion rates were obtained from the differences between the original surface height and the lowest points in the profiles. A model was developed by Xie (1995) to describe wastage of tube material in the presence of erosion by particle impacts and oxidation of the metal. The observed changes in erosion rate with temperature and oxygen concentration were consistent with a mechanism based upon the following assumptions: (1) metal was eroded as a ductile material, at a rate that increased with increasing temperature; (2) oxide was eroded as a brittle material, at a rate independent of temperature; (3) the oxide scale was strongly attached to the metal; (4) the erosion resistance of metal and scale was a linear combination of the resistances of the individual components; (5) oxide formed according to the parabolic rate law, with a rate coefficient proportional to the square root of the oxygen partial pressure; (6) erosion resistance from particles sticking to, or embedded in, the surface was negligible. Using the model and rate coefficients for metal and oxide erosion derived from the measurements, estimates were made of the erosion rate of a boiler tube as functions of impaction angle and gas velocity. Under the conditions of metal temperature, gas composition, particle size, particle concentration, and particle composition investigated, erosion of carbon steel is expected to be slower than 0.05 {micro}m/h when the gas velocity in the convection section is less than approximately 8 m/s.

  9. ,"Weekly Nonsalt South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Nonsalt South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Weekly Nonsalt South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Weekly","11/11/2016" ,"Release

  10. ,"Weekly Salt South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Salt South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Weekly Salt South Central Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Weekly","11/11/2016" ,"Release Date:","11/17/2016"

  11. Coal Reserves Data Base report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.W.; Glass, G.B.

    1991-12-05

    The Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program is a cooperative data base development program sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The objective of the CRDB Program is to involve knowledgeable coal resource authorities from the major coal-bearing regions in EIA's effort to update the Nation's coal reserves data. This report describes one of two prototype studies to update State-level reserve estimates. The CRDB data are intended for use in coal supply analyses and to support analyses of policy and legislative issues. They will be available to both Government and non-Government analysts. The data also will be part of the information used to supply United States energy data for international data bases and for inquiries from private industry and the public. (VC)

  12. Review of a Proposed Quarterly Coal Publication

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This Review of a Proposed Quartery Coal Publication contains findings and recommendations regarding the content of a new summary Energy Information Administration (EIA) coal and coke publication entitled The Quarterly Coal Review (QCR). It is divided into five sections: results of interviews with selected EIA data users; identification of major functions of the coal and coke industries; analysis of coal and coke data collection activities; evaluation of issues conerning data presentation including recommendations for the content of the proposed QCR; and comparison of the proposed QCR with other EIA publications. Major findings and recommendations are as follows: (1) User interviews indicate a definite need for a compehensive publication that would support analyses and examine economic, supply and demand trends in the coal industry; (2) the organization of the publication should reflect the natural order of activities of the coal and coke industries. Based on an analysis of the industries, these functions are: production, stocks, imports, exports, distribution, and consumption; (3) current EIA coal and coke surveys collect sufficient data to provide a summary of the coal and coke industries on a quarterly basis; (4) coal and coke data should be presented separately. Coke data could be presented as an appendix; (5) three geographic aggregations are recommended in the QCR. These are: US total, coal producing districts, and state; (6) coal consumption data should be consolidated into four major consumer categories: electric utilities, coke plants, other industrial, and residential commercial; (7) several EIA publications could be eliminated by the proposed QCR.

  13. STEO December 2012 - coal demand

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    coal demand seen below 1 billion tons in 2012 for fourth year in a row Coal consumption by U.S. power plants to generate electricity is expected to fall below 1 billion tons in 2012 for the fourth year in a row. Domestic coal consumption is on track to total 829 million tons this year. That's the lowest level since 1992, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's new monthly energy forecast. Utilities and power plant operators are choosing to burn more lower-priced natural gas

  14. Keystone coal industry manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The 1994 Keystone Coal Industry Manual is presented. Keystone has served as the one industry reference authority for the many diverse organizations concerned with the supply and utilization of coal in the USA and Canada. Through the continuing efforts of coal producers, buyers, users, sellers, and equipment designers and manufacturers, the coal industry supplies an abundant and economical fuel that is indispensable in meeting the expanding energy needs of North America. The manual is divided into the following sections: coal sales companies, coal export, transportation of coal, consumer directories, coal associations and groups, consulting and financial firms, buyers guide, industry statistics and ownership, coal preparation, coal mine directory, and coal seams.

  15. Regional Purchasing

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Regional Partnerships Regional Partnerships DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Program DOE has created a network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) to help develop the technology, infrastructure, and regulations to implement large-scale CO2 storage (also called carbon sequestration) in different regions and geologic formations within the Nation. Collectively, the seven RCSPs represent regions encompassing: 97 percent of coal-fired CO2 emissions; 97 percent

  16. Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis

    Reports and Publications

    2005-01-01

    On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

  17. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Alabama ...

  18. Assessment of the petroleum, coal, and geothermal resources of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the petroleum, coal, and geothermal resources of the economic community of West African states (ECOWAS) region Mattick, R.E. (comp.) 02 PETROLEUM; 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 15...

  19. Continuing consolidation in the coal industry

    SciTech Connect

    Gaalaas, T.

    2006-08-15

    Extensive consolidation has occurred in the coal industry over the past decade. The greatest degree of consolidation has occurred in Northern Appalachia, the Illinois Basin, and the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin (PRB), which are the coal supply regions where most observers expect the greatest growth in coal production over the next decade. In addition to reducing the number of alternative suppliers, high level of concentration also tend to result in higher prices, more volatile spot markets, and lower levels of reliability. Therefore, coal-fired generators purchasing in these regions need to respond proactively and strategically to these market trends. 2 figs.

  20. Radionuclides in Western coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, D.T.; Styron, C.E.; Casella, V.R.

    1983-09-23

    The increase in domestic energy production coupled with the switch from oil and natural gas to coal as a boiler-fuel source have prompted various federal agencies to assess the potential environmental and health risks associated with coal-fired power plants. Because it has been suggested that Western coals contain more uranium than Eastern coals, particular concern has been expressed about radioactive emissions from the increasing number of power plants that burn low-sulfur Western coal. As a result, the radionuclides in coal program was established to analyze low-sulfur coal reserves in Western coal fields for radioactivity. Samples from seams of obvious commercial value were taken from 19 operating mines that represented 65% of Western coal production. Although the present study did not delve deeply into underlying causative factors, the following general conclusions were reached. Commercially exploited Western coals do not show any alarming pattern of radionuclide content and probably have lower radioactivity levels than Eastern coals. The materials that were present appeared to be in secular equilibrium in coal, and a detailed dose assessment failed to show a significant hazard associated with the combustion of Western coal. Flue gas desulfurization technology apparently has no significant impact on radionuclide availability, nor does it pose any significant radiologic health risks. This study has also shown that Western coals are not more radioactive than most soils and that most solid combustion products have emanation powers <1%, which greatly reduce dose estimates from this pathway. In summary, the current use of mined, Western coals in fossil-fueled power plants does not present any significant radiological hazard.

  1. Measures used to tackle environmental problems related to global warming and climate change resulting from the use of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Environmental issues continue to play a major role in strategic planning associated with the use of coal for power generation. Problems, such as Acid Rain resulting from SO{sub 2} emissions produced from the sulfur content of coal during coal combustion, have recently cornered the attention of policy makers and planners. More recently the carbon content of coal, which provides for most of the coals heating value, has been identified as the major contributor to the production of CO{sub 2} and other emissions associated with Global Warming and Climate Change. Total world carbon emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels were approximately 6 billion metric tons in 1990, of which 44% were from the consumption of oil, 39% from coal, and 17% from natural gas. Assuming no change in current regulations, carbon emissions are anticipated to grow by 1.5% per year, and are predicted to reach more than 8 billion tons by the year 2010. Most of this increase in carbon emissions is expected to come from developing countries in the Asian Pacific Region such as China where coal use dominates the power production industry and accounts for 71% of its total CO{sub 2} emissions. Asian Pacific coal demand is expected to double over the next 15 years accounting for a 46% increase in total primary energy demand, and China currently produces approximately 11% of the world`s global greenhouse gas emissions which is expected to grow to 15% by the year 2010.

  2. Washington delivers for the coal industry

    SciTech Connect

    2005-08-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 sets the course for better use of America's largest natural resource. Approximately $62 billion were authorised for coal related projects and nearly $2.9 million directed at coal projects in the tax portion of the bill. The article summarises some key points of the bill that affect the coal mining, processing and utilization sectors. The background for the article was provided courtesy of the National Mining Association. 4 tabs.

  3. Coal: America's energy future. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    2006-03-15

    Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman requested the National Coal Council in April 2005 a report identifying the challenges and opportunities of more fully exploring the USA's domestic coal resources to meet the nations' future energy needs. This resultant report addresses the Secretary's request in the context of the President's focus, with eight findings and recommendations that would use technology to leverage the USA's extensive coal assets and reduce dependence on imported energy. Volume I outlines these findings and recommendations. Volume II provides technical data and case histories to support the findings and recommendations. Chapter headings of Volume I are: Coal-to-Liquids to Produce 2.6 MMbbl/d; Coal-to-Natural Gas to Produce 4.0 Tcf Per Year; Coal-to-Clean Electricity; Coal to Produce Ethanol; Coal-to-Hydrogen; Enhanced Oil and Gas (Coalbed Methane); Recovery as Carbon Management Strategies; Delineate U.S. Coal Reserves and Transportation Constraints as Part of an Effort to Maximize U.S. Coal Production; and Penn State Study, 'Economic Benefits of Coal Conversion Investments'.

  4. Natural Gas Processing Plants in the United States: 2010 Update / Regional

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Analysis Gulf of Mexico States Gulf of Mexico States Gulf of Mexico States The Gulf of Mexico area, which includes the States of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, has in the past accounted for the majority of natural gas production. Processing plants are especially important in this part of the country because of the amount of NGLs in the natural gas produced and existence of numerous petro-chemical plants seeking that feedstock in this area. Consequently, the States along

  5. ,"CA, Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","CA, Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation",10,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1979" ,"Release

  6. ,"CA, Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","CA, Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation",10,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1979" ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015"

  7. ,"Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  8. ,"California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  9. ,"California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015"

  10. ,"California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  11. "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.4;" " Unit: Percents." " ",," "," ",," "," " ,,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal" "Characteristic(a)","(kWh)","(gallons)","(gallons)","(1000 cu

  12. EIS-0083: Final Northeast Regional Environmental Impact Statement; The Potential Conversion of Forty-Two Powerplants From Oil to Coal or Alternate Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This Economic Regulatory Administration statement assesses the potential for cumulative and interactive environmental impacts resulting from conversion of up to 42 northeastern power plants from oil to coal and from an alternative “Voluntary Conversion” scenario for 27 power plants.

  13. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  14. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  15. Preparation of Clay Brick Using Coal Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Jung W.; Jung, Jin H.; Kim, Jae M.; Lee, Sung M.; Kim, Hyung T.

    2004-03-31

    A great deal of coal waste produced during the development of a mine was accumulated around the mine, which caused many problems such as traffic, acid mine drainage and damage of forest and scenery. Carbon in the coal waste helps calcination of the brick even at low temperature. Considering the reuse of natural waste and energy saving, clay brick was prepared using coal waste under various conditions, including particle size, amount of coal waste mixed, calcination temperature and pressing pressure. The specimens were characterized by XRD, SEM and TG-DTA and interpreted in terms of water absorption and compressive strength.

  16. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  17. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  18. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  19. 1983 annual outlook for US coal

    SciTech Connect

    Paull, M.K.

    1983-11-01

    This report highlights projections and discusses them in relation to coal's future domestic uses; the report also examines factors affecting coal's future growth. Coal was the primary source of energy in the United States from the mid-1800's until after World War II. After that war, coal lost most of its markets to oil and natural gas. In the 1960's, coal development was also hampered by environmental and mine safety concerns, and by the emergence of nuclear power. The 1973-74 oil embargo, however, demonstrated that the United States could no longer depend on imported oil to fuel its energy growth. Through 1990, coal is projected to meet an increasing share of total US energy demand. The projections for the 1985 to 1990 time period show an increased growth in coal consumption, particularly in the electric utility sector where new coal-fired power plants are coming on line. The projected growth in coal production, however, is subject to a series of potential constraints and/or obstacles that must be overcome. These potential constraints and obstacles are described after the history of coal supply and demand is reviewed and future projections are discussed.

  20. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  1. Effects of new environmental regulations on coal-fired generation

    SciTech Connect

    LaCount, R.

    1999-07-01

    As restructuring of the electricity industry places downward pressure on power production costs, new environmental regulations are having the opposite effect. Although power plants may be subject to a variety of environmental regulations over the next ten years including reductions in mercury, toxics, and carbon dioxide, new regulations for sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) are poised to impact the electricity industry in the very short term. The cost for coal-fired power plants to comply with these new regulations has the potential to alter their competitive position. January 1, 2000 marks the beginning of Phase II for the Environmental Protection Agency's SO2 allowance market. Starting in January, all coal and oil plants above 25 MW will be required to comply with the federal SO2 provisions. Regulatory deadlines for NOX are also fast approaching; though the ultimate requirements are still subject to change. On May 1, 1999, a NOX allowance market began for states within the Northeast Ozone Transport Commission (OTC). A second phase of this program is scheduled to begin in 2003 that will lower the overall cap for allowable NOX emissions in the participating states. EPA is also working to expand the reach of regional NOX reductions in 2003 through its NOX SIP call. This program, which is currently subject to litigation, would require NOX reductions in 14 states outside of the OTC. A new study by Resource Data International (RDI), Coal-Fired Generation in Competitive Power Markets, assessed the potential impact that the new SO2 and NOX regulations may have on the competitiveness of coal-fired generation. Overall, the study shows that coal-fired generation will continue to grow despite significant environmental costs and competition from natural gas-fired units. The new environmental regulations have the effect of increasing the dispatch cost of coal-fired units from $0.65/MWh on average in the WSCC to $4.14/MWh on average in the MAAC region. The addition

  2. Environmental data energy technology characterizations: coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    This document describes the activities leading to the conversion of coal to electricity. Specifically, the activities consist of coal mining and beneficiation, coal transport, electric power generation, and power transmission. To enhance the usefulness of the material presented, resource requirements, energy products, and residuals for each activity area are normalized in terms of 10/sup 12/ Btus of energy produced. Thus, the total effect of producing electricity from coal can be determined by combining the residuals associated with the appropriate activity areas. Emissions from the coal cycle are highly dependent upon the type of coal consumed as well as the control technology assigned to the activity area. Each area is assumed to be equipped with currently available control technologies that meet environmental regulations. The conventional boiler, for example, has an electrostatic precipitator and a flue gas desulfurization scrubber. While this results in the removal of most of the particulate matter and sulfur dioxide in the flue gas stream, it creates other new environmental residuals -- solid waste, sludge, and ash. There are many different types of mined coal. For informational purposes, two types from two major producing regions, the East and the West, are characterized here. The eastern coal is typical of the Northern Appalachian coal district with a high sulfur and heat content. The western coal, from the Powder River Basin, has much less sulfur, but also has a substantially lower heating value.

  3. Natural Gas Processing Plants in the United States: 2010 Update / Regional

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Analysis Midwestern and Eastern States Midwestern and Eastern States Midwestern and Eastern States Midwestern and Eastern States combined accounted for about 13 percent of total U.S. processing capacity in 2009, accounting for the smallest portion of any region in the lower 48 States. The combined processing capacity in these States more than doubled, although a few of the States saw decreased capacity compared with 2004. Processing capacity in Illinois, Kansas, North Dakota, and

  4. MOLECULAR ACCESSIBILITY IN OXIDIZED AND DRIED COALS

    SciTech Connect

    Lowell D. Kispert

    1999-07-01

    Changes in physical and chemical structure of the micropore system in eight solvent swelled Argonne Premium Coal Sample (APCS) coals upon weathering were studied using the EPR spin probe method. Spin probes, which are allowed to diffuse into the coal structure during swelling, are trapped when the swelling solvent is removed. Excess spin probes are removed from the coal surface and larger pores so that only the presence of spin probes trapped in pores which closely approximate the size of the spin probe are detected. Detailed explanations and illustrations of the experimental procedure used are given. Careful examination of the weathering process on coal as a function of rank was accomplished using the EPR spin probe method. The retention of spin probes in eight APCS coals provided valuable insight into both the loss of water and the oxidation which occur during the weathering process. The results could be explained in terms of the autoxidation process observed in other polymeric systems. It was shown that initial oxidation of coal can result in increased cross-linking in the coal structure. As the oxidation process continued, both the covalent and hydrogen bonded character of the coal were significantly altered. The retention character of some coals during oxidation was shown to change by as much as three orders of magnitude. Experiments were performed to study the effects of short term oxidation and dehydration on coal structure by exposing the coal samples to argon or oxygen for time periods up to five minutes. The results indicate that the structure of coal is extremely sensitive to environmental changes and exhibits significant changes in as little as 30 seconds. Exposure of Illinois No.6 coal to argon or oxygen for 30 seconds caused a decrease in the retention of polar spin probes by as much as an order of magnitude. The studies presented here suggest that the structure of coal is dynamic in nature, and has an intimate relationship with the nature of its

  5. Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Sadowski, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  6. X-ray Computed Tomography of coal: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Maylotte, D.H.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.; Lamby, E.J.

    1986-12-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a method of mapping with x-rays the internal structures of coal. The technique normally produces 2-D images of the internal structures of an object. These images can be recast to create pseudo 3-D representations. CT of coal has been explored for a variety of different applications to coal and coal processing technology. In a comparison of CT data with conventional coal analyses and petrography, CT was found to offer a good indication of the total ash content of the coal. The spatial distribution of the coal mineral matter as seen with CT has been suggested as an indicator of coal washability. Studies of gas flow through coal using xenon gas as a tracer have shown the extremely complicated nature of the modes of penetration of gas through coal, with significant differences in the rates at which the gas can pass along and across the bedding planes of coal. In a special furnace designed to allow CT images to be taken while the coal was being heated, the pyrolysis and gasification of coal have been studied. Gasification rates with steam and CO/sub 2/ for a range of coal ranks have been obtained, and the location of the gasification reactions within the piece of coal can be seen. Coal drying and the progress of the pyrolysis wave into coal have been examined when the coal was subjected to the kind of sudden temperature jump that it might experience in fixed bed gasifier applications. CT has also been used to examine stable flow structures within model fluidized beds and the accessibility of lump coal to microbial desulfurization. 53 refs., 242 figs., 26 tabs.

  7. Environmental benefits of replacing fuel oil by natural gas in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, S.; Assuncao, J.V. de

    1998-12-31

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (Brazil) has a population 16.322 million people (1995 estimate) living in an area of 8,051 km2 with most of them concentrated in the city of Sao Paulo with 9.8 million people and 4.6 million cars. Although with an air quality better than some other Latin American megacities such as Mexico and Santiago do Chile, the air quality still exceeds the national air quality standards. In 2/17/1993 Brazilian Petroleum Company (PETROBRAS) and the Bolivian Petroleum Company (Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos -- YPFB) signed an agreement to bring natural gas from Bolivia to the south and southeast of Brazil. The end of the construction of the gas pipeline will be in 1999, and it will deliver 4 million Nm3/day of natural gas to COMGAS Sao Paulo State Gas Company. This amount will increase to 8.1 million Nm3/day by the year 2006, that will be sufficient to supply the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region market need at that time. In this study an estimate of the influence in the air quality was performed supposing the substitution of fuel oil by natural gas in industry and also in diesel buses. The results showed that there will be benefits in relation to sulfur dioxide, PM10, greenhouse gases and trace elements, and negligible effects in relation to NO{sub x}, NMTOC and carbon monoxide.

  8. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li

    2006-07-15

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  9. BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, J. C.; Stephens, J. C.; Chung, Serena; Brady, M. P.; Evans, R. D.; Kruger, C. E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Liu, M. L.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Vaughan, Joseph K.; Rajagopalan, K.; Harrison, John; Tague, C. L.; Kalyanaraman, Anantharaman; Chen, Yong; Guenther, Alex B.; Leung, F. Y.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Perleberg, A. B.; Yoder, J.; Allen, Elizabeth; Anderson, S.; Chandrasekharan, B.; Malek, K.; Mullis, T.; Miller, C.; Nergui, T.; Poinsatte, J.; Reyes, J.; Zhu, J.; Choate, J. S.; Jiang, X.; Nelson, R.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Yorgey, G. G.; Johnson, Kristen; Chinnayakanhalli, K. J.; Hamlet, A. F.; Nijssen, B.; Walden, Von

    2015-04-01

    As managers of agricultural and natural resources are confronted with uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (land, air, water, economics, etc). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and "usability" of EaSMs. BioEarth is a current research initiative with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region that explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a "bottom-up" approach, upscaling a catchment-scale model to basin and regional scales, as opposed to the "top-down" approach of downscaling global models utilized by most other EaSM efforts. This paper describes the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.

  10. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Schindler, Harvey D.; Chen, James M.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

  11. By Coal Destination State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Destination State ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal

  12. By Coal Origin State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Origin State ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal

  13. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  14. Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    and Coal-Biomass to Liquids Turning coal into liquid fuels like gasoline, diesel and jet fuel, with biomass to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, is the main goal of the Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids program. The program also aims to reduce the cost of these low-emission fuels, and will take advantage of carbon capture and sequestration technologies to further reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Other Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids (C&CBTL) Program Activities: The C&CBTL Program

  15. Assessment of Natural Stream Sites for Hydroelectric Dams in the Pacific Northwest Region

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G. Hall; Kristin L. Verdin; Randy D. Lee

    2012-03-01

    This pilot study presents a methodology for modeling project characteristics using a development model of a stream obstructing dam. The model is applied to all individual stream reaches in hydrologic region 17, which encompasses nearly all of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Project site characteristics produced by the modeling technique include: capacity potential, principal dam dimensions, number of required auxiliary dams, total extent of the constructed impoundment boundary, and the surface area of the resulting reservoir. Aggregated capacity potential values for the region are presented in capacity categories including total, that at existing dams, within federal and environmentally sensitive exclusion zones, and the balance which is consider available for greenfield development within the limits of the study. Distributions of site characteristics for small hydropower sites are presented and discussed. These sites are screened to identify candidate small hydropower sites and distributions of the site characteristics of this site population are presented and discussed. Recommendations are made for upgrading the methodology and extensions to make the results more accessible and available on a larger scale.

  16. Coal conversion. 1979 technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    Individual reports are made on research programs which are being conducted by various organizations and institutions for the commercial development of processes for converting coal into products that substitute for these derived from oil and natural gas. Gasification, liquefaction, and demonstration processes and plants are covered. (DLC)

  17. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  18. By Coal Origin State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  19. By Coal Origin State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 4th Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  20. By Coal Destination State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  1. By Coal Origin State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  2. By Coal Destination State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  3. By Coal Destination State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  4. By Coal Origin State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 4th Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  5. By Coal Origin State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  6. By Coal Origin State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  7. By Coal Destination State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  8. By Coal Origin State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  9. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables...

  10. By Coal Destination State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  11. By Coal Origin State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  12. By Coal Destination State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  13. By Coal Destination State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  14. By Coal Destination State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  15. Annual Coal Distribution Report

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: April 16, 2015 | Next Release Date: March 2016 | full report | RevisionCorrection Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution Report ...

  16. Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation

    DOEpatents

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.

    1985-01-01

    In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

  17. Coal liquefaction

    DOEpatents

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

  18. Investigation of coal structure. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nishioka, Masaharu

    1994-03-01

    A better understanding of coal structure is the first step toward more effective utilization of the most abundant hydrocarbon resource. Detailed characterization of coal structure is very difficult, even with today`s highly developed analytical techniques. This is primarily due to the amorphous nature of these high-molecular-weight mixtures. Coal has a polymeric character and has been popularly represented as a three-dimensional cross-linked network. There is, however, little or no information which positively verifies this model. The principal objective of this research was to further investigate the physical structure of coal and to determine the extent to which coal molecules may be covalently cross-linked and/or physically associated. Two common characterization methods, swellability and extractability, were used. A technique modifying the conventional swelling procedure was established to better determine network or associated model conformation. A new method for evaluating coal swelling involving laser scattering has also been developed. The charge-transfer interaction is relatively strong in high-volatile bituminous coal. Soaking in the presence of electron donors and acceptors proved effective for solubilizing the coal, but temperatures in excess of 200 C were required. More than 70 wt% of the coal was readily extracted with pyridine after soaking. Associative/dissociative equilibria of coal molecules were observed during soaking. From these results, the associated model has gained credibility over the network model as the representative structure of coal. Significant portions of coal molecules are unquestionably physically associated, but the overall extent is not known at this time.

  19. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Duane McVay; Walter Ayers, Jr.; Jerry Jensen; Jorge Garduno; Gonzola Hernandez; Rasheed Bello; Rahila Ramazanova

    2006-08-31

    .59 Bcf of CO{sub 2} with an ECBM recovery of 0.68 to 1.20 Bcf. Economic modeling of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM recovery indicates predominantly negative economic indicators for the reservoir depths (4,000 to 6,200 ft) and well spacings investigated, using natural gas prices ranging from $2 to $12 per Mscf and CO{sub 2} credits based on carbon market prices ranging from $0.05 to $1.58 per Mscf CO{sub 2} ($1.00 to $30.00 per ton CO{sub 2}). Injection of flue gas (87% N{sub 2} - 13% CO{sub 2}) results in better economic performance than injection of 100% CO{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} sequestration potential and methane resources in low-rank coals of the Lower Calvert Bluff formation in East-Central Texas are significant. The potential CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of the coals ranges between 27.2 and 49.2 Tcf (1.57 and 2.69 billion tons), with a mean value of 38 Tcf (2.2 billion tons), assuming a 72.4% injection efficiency. Estimates of recoverable methane resources range between 6.3 and 13.6 Tcf, with a mean of 9.8 Tcf, assuming a 71.3% recovery factor. Moderate increases in gas prices and/or carbon credits could generate attractive economic conditions that, combined with the close proximity of many CO{sub 2} point sources near unmineable coalbeds, could enable commercial CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM projects in Texas low-rank coals. Additional studies are needed to characterize Wilcox regional methane coalbed gas systems and their boundaries, and to assess potential of other low-rank coal beds. Results from this study may be transferable to other low-rank coal formations and regions.

  20. Economic implication of coal taxation

    SciTech Connect

    Weyand, C.

    1982-09-01

    This paper discusses taxation of coal itself (as opposed to actual mine operation) as applied to property acquisition (depletion, purchase, lease), exploration (expenditures capitalized or deducted), development (expenditures to delineate deducted currently or amortized), production (gain to owner-lessor, severance tax), and reclamation (accrual of imposed expenditures ), and explores certain tax saving decisions vis-a-vis mining engineers. Tax incentives created by the US government encourage energy companies to transfer technology and resources from natural gas and petroleum to coal. Decisions throughout a mine life cycle can at times depend on tax stipulations.

  1. Electricity from coal and utilization of coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    Most electricity in the world is conventionally generated using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, or hydropower. Due to environmental concerns, there is a growing interest in alternative energy sources for heat and electricity production. The major by-products obtained from coal combustion are fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials. The solid wastes produced in coal-fired power plants create problems for both power-generating industries and environmentalists. The coal fly ash and bottom ash samples may be used as cementitious materials.

  2. BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, Jennifer C.; Stephens, Jennie C.; Chung, Serena H.; Brady, Michael P.; Evans, R. David; Kruger, Chad E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Liu, Mingliang; Stöckle, Claudio O.; Vaughan, Joseph K.; Rajagopalan, Kirti; Harrison, John A.; Tague, Christina L.; Kalyanaraman, Ananth; Chen, Yong; Guenther, Alex; Leung, Fok-Yan; Leung, L. Ruby; Perleberg, Andrew B.; Yoder, Jonathan; Allen, Elizabeth; Anderson, Sarah; Chandrasekharan, Bhagyam; Malek, Keyvan; Mullis, Tristan; Miller, Cody; Nergui, Tsengel; Poinsatte, Justin; Reyes, Julian; Zhu, Jun; Choate, Janet S.; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Nelson, Roger; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Yorgey, Georgine G.; Johnson, Kristen; Chinnayakanahalli, Kiran J.; Hamlet, Alan F.; Nijssen, Bart; Walden, Von

    2014-04-24

    Uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (e.g., land, air, water, and economics). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers’ needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and “usability” of EaSMs. BioEarth is a research initiative currently under development with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region that explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a bottom-up approach for its land surface model that preserves fine spatial-scale sensitivities and lateral hydrologic connectivity, which makes it unique among many regional EaSMs. Here, we describe the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.

  3. BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Adam, Jennifer C.; Stephens, Jennie C.; Chung, Serena H.; Brady, Michael P.; Evans, R. David; Kruger, Chad E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Liu, Mingliang; Stöckle, Claudio O.; Vaughan, Joseph K.; et al

    2014-04-24

    Uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (e.g., land, air, water, and economics). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers’ needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and “usability” of EaSMs. BioEarth is a research initiative currently under development with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region thatmore » explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a bottom-up approach for its land surface model that preserves fine spatial-scale sensitivities and lateral hydrologic connectivity, which makes it unique among many regional EaSMs. Here, we describe the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.« less

  4. Annual Coal Distribution

    Reports and Publications

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for the report year are final and this report supersedes all data in the quarterly distribution reports.

  5. Coal production 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-22

    Coal Production 1988 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1989. 5 figs., 45 tabs.

  6. " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2 Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals;" " Row: NAICS Codes, Value of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Billion Cubic Feet." ,,"Natural Gas",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,,,,,,,,"Coal Coke",,"RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total","

  7. Repowering with clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Freier, M.D.; Buchanan, T.L.; DeLallo, M.L.; Goldstein, H.N.

    1996-02-01

    Repowering with clean coal technology can offer significant advantages, including lower heat rates and production costs, environmental compliance, incremental capacity increases, and life extension of existing facilities. Significant savings of capital costs can result by refurbishing and reusing existing sites and infrastructure relative to a greenfield siting approach. This paper summarizes some key results of a study performed by Parsons Power Group, Inc., under a contract with DOE/METC, which investigates many of the promising advanced power generation technologies in a repowering application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical and economic results of applying each of a menu of Clean Coal Technologies in a repowering of a hypothetical representative fossil fueled power station. Pittsburgh No. 8 coal is used as the fuel for most of the cases evaluated herein, as well as serving as the fuel for the original unrepowered station. The steam turbine-generator, condenser, and circulating water system are refurbished and reused in this study, as is most of the existing site infrastructure such as transmission lines, railroad, coal yard and coal handling equipment, etc. The technologies evaluated in this study consisted of an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor, several varieties of pressurized fluid bed combustors, several types of gasifiers, a refueling with a process derived fuel, and, for reference, a natural gas fired combustion turbine-combined cycle.

  8. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

  9. Coal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Coal Coal Coal Coal is the largest domestically produced source of energy in America and is used to generate a significant chunk of our nation's electricity. The Energy Department is working to develop technologies that make coal cleaner, so we can ensure it plays a part in our clean energy future. The Department is also investing in development of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies, also referred to as carbon capture, utilization and sequestration. Featured FE-Supported

  10. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  11. Region Overview

    Energy Saver

    44 million (14% total U.S.) Housing Units: 18 million (14% total U.S.) Business Establishments: 1 million (12% total U.S.) Annual Energy Consumption Electric Power: 654.4 TWh (18% total U.S.) Coal: 174,055 MSTN (20% total U.S.) Natural Gas: 6,560 Bcf (28% total U.S.) Motor Gasoline: 499,900 Mbarrels (17% total U.S.) Distillate Fuel: 286,500 Mbarrels (21% total U.S.) Annual Energy Production Electric Power Generation: 842.3 TWh (21% total U.S.) Coal: 265.8 TWh, 32% [56.4 GW total capacity]

  12. Region Overview

    Energy Saver

    82.3 million (26% total U.S.) Housing Units: 36 million (27% total U.S.) Business Establishments: 2 million (26% total U.S.) Annual Energy Consumption Electric Power: 1,113 TWh (30% total U.S.) Coal: 411,750 MSTN (48% total U.S.) Natural Gas: 5,220 Bcf (22% total U.S.) Motor Gasoline: 830,400 Mbarrels (28% total U.S.) Distillate Fuel: 434,600 Mbarrels (32% total U.S.) Annual Energy Production Electric Power Generation: 1,187 TWh (29% total U.S.) Coal: 707.2 TWh, 60% [157.1 GW total capacity]

  13. Region Overview

    Energy Saver

    .4 million (4% total U.S.) Housing Units: 4.7 million (4% total U.S.) Business Establishments: 0.3 million (4% total U.S.) Annual Energy Consumption Electric Power: 130 TWh (4% total U.S.) Coal: 70,950 MSTN (8% total U.S.) Natural Gas: 1,500 Bcf (7% total U.S.) Motor Gasoline: 117,700 Mbarrels (4% total U.S.) Distillate Fuel: 69,400 Mbarrels (5% total U.S.) Annual Energy Production Electric Power Generation: 185 TWh (5% total U.S.) Coal: 122.8 TWh, 66% [19.3 GW total capacity] Petroleum: 0.6

  14. Region Overview

    Energy Saver

    60.8 million (19% total U.S.) Housing Units: 23.3 million (18% total U.S.) Business Establishments: 1.4 million (19% total U.S.) Annual Energy Consumption Electric Power: 524.9 TWh (14% total U.S.) Coal: 31,146 MSTN (4% total U.S.) Natural Gas: 4,065 Bcf (17% total U.S.) Motor Gasoline: 535,200 Mbarrels (18% total U.S.) Distillate Fuel: 180,000 Mbarrels (13% total U.S.) Annual Energy Production Electric Power Generation: 541 TWh (13% total U.S.) Coal: 54.2 TWh, 10% [11.3 GW total capacity]

  15. Region Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    44 million (14% total U.S.) Housing Units: 18 million (14% total U.S.) Business Establishments: 1 million (12% total U.S.) Annual Energy Consumption Electric Power: 654.4 TWh (18% total U.S.) Coal: 174,055 MSTN (20% total U.S.) Natural Gas: 6,560 Bcf (28% total U.S.) Motor Gasoline: 499,900 Mbarrels (17% total U.S.) Distillate Fuel: 286,500 Mbarrels (21% total U.S.) Annual Energy Production Electric Power Generation: 842.3 TWh (21% total U.S.) Coal: 265.8 TWh, 32% [56.4 GW total capacity]

  16. Region Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    82.3 million (26% total U.S.) Housing Units: 36 million (27% total U.S.) Business Establishments: 2 million (26% total U.S.) Annual Energy Consumption Electric Power: 1,113 TWh (30% total U.S.) Coal: 411,750 MSTN (48% total U.S.) Natural Gas: 5,220 Bcf (22% total U.S.) Motor Gasoline: 830,400 Mbarrels (28% total U.S.) Distillate Fuel: 434,600 Mbarrels (32% total U.S.) Annual Energy Production Electric Power Generation: 1,187 TWh (29% total U.S.) Coal: 707.2 TWh, 60% [157.1 GW total capacity]

  17. Region Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    .4 million (4% total U.S.) Housing Units: 4.7 million (4% total U.S.) Business Establishments: 0.3 million (4% total U.S.) Annual Energy Consumption Electric Power: 130 TWh (4% total U.S.) Coal: 70,950 MSTN (8% total U.S.) Natural Gas: 1,500 Bcf (7% total U.S.) Motor Gasoline: 117,700 Mbarrels (4% total U.S.) Distillate Fuel: 69,400 Mbarrels (5% total U.S.) Annual Energy Production Electric Power Generation: 185 TWh (5% total U.S.) Coal: 122.8 TWh, 66% [19.3 GW total capacity] Petroleum: 0.6

  18. Region Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    60.8 million (19% total U.S.) Housing Units: 23.3 million (18% total U.S.) Business Establishments: 1.4 million (19% total U.S.) Annual Energy Consumption Electric Power: 524.9 TWh (14% total U.S.) Coal: 31,146 MSTN (4% total U.S.) Natural Gas: 4,065 Bcf (17% total U.S.) Motor Gasoline: 535,200 Mbarrels (18% total U.S.) Distillate Fuel: 180,000 Mbarrels (13% total U.S.) Annual Energy Production Electric Power Generation: 541 TWh (13% total U.S.) Coal: 54.2 TWh, 10% [11.3 GW total capacity]

  19. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-20

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada.

  20. Kinetics and mechanisms of hydroliquefaction and hydrogasification of lignite. [Cellulose, wood, manure, municipal waste, coal of various ranks, fuel oil and natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A.H.; Kranich, W.L.; Geureuz, K.

    1981-01-01

    A high pressure, continuous, stirred-tank reactor system has been constructed for the study of the catalytic liquefaction of North Dakota lignite slurried in anthracene oil. The conversion of lignite using a cobalt-molybdenum on alumina catalyst and the distribution of products as preasphaltenes, asphaltenes, oils and gases has been studied at the following conditions: temperature, 375 to 440/sup 0/C; pressure, 1000 to 1600 psig; agitator speed, 800 to 1500 rpm; catalyst concentration, 0 to 10% (based on lignite); initial lignite concentration, 5 to 30%; and space time, 16 to 52 minutes. At reactor pressures above 1500 psig and agitator speeds above 1000 rpm, reaction rate was essentially independent of pressure. At catalyst concentrations above 1% (based on lignite), the conversion of lignite was essentially independent of catalyst concentration. Experiments were conducted above these limits to find the effect on lignite conversion rate, of initial lignite concentration, and space time, or degree of conversion. The results at constant temperature were correlated by an equation which is given in the report. The relationship between the rate constant, K, and temperature, and between the maximum conversion and temperature was established. The effect of reaction conditions on the distribution of products was studied. In the presence of catalyst, the oil yield was increased, even under conditions where the catalyst did not affect overall lignite conversion. Under the most favorable conditions the oil yield was a little better than that obtained by Cronauer in the uncatalyzed hydroliquefaction of subbituminous coal at similar temperature and pressure.

  1. Coal production 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-07

    Coal Production 1985 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. All data presented in this report, except the total production table presented in the Highlights section, and the demonstrated reserve base data presented in Appendix A, were obtained from form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1985. The data cover 4105 of the 5477 US coal mining operations active in 1985. These mining operations accounted for 99.4% of total US coal production and represented 74.9% of all US coal mining operations in 1985. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve vase of coal in the US on January 1, 1985.

  2. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources

  3. Injury experience in coal mining, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1984. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report.

  4. Coal feed lock

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  5. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  6. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    by 14.4 percent. During this period, U.S. manufacturers used less petroleum and coal in manufacturing processes. This expansion of gas use occurred although natural gas prices to...

  7. Rend Lake College celebrates the opening of a new coal miner training facility

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-09-15

    The Coal Miner Training Center at Rend Lake College recently hosted the Illinois Mining Institute's annual conference and a regional mine rescue competition. The article gives an outline of the coal miner training and refresher course offered. 3 photos.

  8. International perspectives on coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  9. Fact #844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown - Dataset | Department of Energy 4: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown - Dataset Fact #844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown - Dataset Excel file with dataset for Fact #844: Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown fotw#844_web.xlsx (16.11 KB) More Documents

  10. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

  11. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

  12. "Annual Coal Report

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Annual Coal Report Data Released: January 20, 2015 Data for: 2013 Re-Release Date: April 23, 2015 (CORRECTION) Annual Coal Report 2013 CorrectionUpdate April 23, 2015 The Annual ...

  13. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  14. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Strandberg, Gerald W.; Lewis, Susan N.

    1990-01-01

    This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

  15. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    2008-11-15

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Self-Scrubbing Coal -- an integrated approach to clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, K.E.

    1997-12-31

    Carefree Coal is coal cleaned in a proprietary dense-media cyclone circuit, using ultrafine magnetite slurries, to remove noncombustible material, including up to 90% of the pyritic sulfur. Deep cleaning alone, however, cannot produce a compliance fuel from coals with high organic sulfur contents. In these cases, Self-Scrubbing Coal will be produced. Self-Scrubbing Coal is produced in the same manner as Carefree Coal except that the finest fraction of product from the cleaning circuit is mixed with limestone-based additives and briquetted. The reduced ash content of the deeply-cleaned coal will permit the addition of relatively large amounts of sorbent without exceeding boiler ash specifications or overloading electrostatic precipitators. This additive reacts with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during combustion of the coal to remove most of the remaining sulfur. Overall, sulfur reductions in the range of 80--90% are achieved. After nearly 5 years of research and development of a proprietary coal cleaning technology coupled with pilot-scale validation studies of this technology and pilot-scale combustion testing of Self-Scrubbing Coal, Custom Coals Corporation organized a team of experts to prepare a proposal in response to DOE`s Round IV Program Opportunity Notice for its Clean Coal Technology Program under Public Law 101-121 and Public Law 101-512. The main objective of the demonstration project is the production of a coal fuel that will result in up to 90% reduction in sulfur emissions from coal-fired boilers at a cost competitive advantage over other technologies designed to accomplish the same sulfur emissions and over naturally occurring low sulfur coals.

  17. Coal gasification apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Charles K.

    1982-01-01

    Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

  18. Method for fluorinating coal

    DOEpatents

    Huston, John L.; Scott, Robert G.; Studier, Martin H.

    1978-01-01

    Coal is fluorinated by contact with fluorine gas at low pressure. After pial fluorination, when the reaction rate has slowed, the pressure is slowly increased until fluorination is complete, forming a solid fluorinated coal of approximate composition CF.sub.1.55 H.sub.0.15. The fluorinated coal and a solid distillate resulting from vacuum pyrolysis of the fluorinated coal are useful as an internal standard for mass spectrometric unit mass assignments from about 100 to over 1500.

  19. Coal Fleet Aging Meeting

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7, 2016 MEMORANDUM TO: Dr. Ian Mead Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Jim Diefenderfer Director, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis FROM: Coal and Uranium Analysis Team SUBJECT: Notes from the Coal Fleet Aging Meeting held on June 14, 2016 Attendees (36) *Indicates attendance via WebEx. 2 Framing the question This adjunct meeting of the AEO Coal Working Group (CWG) was held as a follow up to the previous Future Operating and Maintenance Considerations for the

  20. NETL: Coal Gasification Systems

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Gasification Systems Coal Gasification is a process that can turn coal into clean power, chemicals, hydrogen and transportation fuels, and can be used to capture the carbon from the coal for storage or for enhanced oil recovery. To better understand the basic concepts behind Gasification, watch this short video: What is Gasification? The Gasification Systems Program is developing advanced technologies to reduce the cost and increase the efficiency of producing coal syngas. Click on the Graphic

  1. Flash hydrogenation of coal

    DOEpatents

    Manowitz, Bernard; Steinberg, Meyer; Sheehan, Thomas V.; Winsche, Warren E.; Raseman, Chad J.

    1976-01-01

    A process for the hydrogenation of coal comprising the contacting of powdered coal with hydrogen in a rotating fluidized bed reactor. A rotating fluidized bed reactor suitable for use in this process is also disclosed. The coal residence time in the reactor is limited to less than 5 seconds while the hydrogen contact time is not in excess of 0.2 seconds.

  2. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  3. Development and utilization strategies for recovery and utilization of coal mine methane

    SciTech Connect

    Byrer, C.W.; Layne, A.W.; Guthrie, H.D.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), at its Morgantown Energy Technology Center, has been involved in natural gas research since the 1970`s. DOE has assessed the potential of gas in coals throughout the U.S. and promoted research and development for recovery and use of methane found in minable and unminable coalbeds. DOE efforts have focused on the use of coal mine methane for regional economic gas self-sufficiency, energy parks, self-help initiatives, and small-power generation. This paper focuses on DOE`s past and present efforts to more effectively and efficiently recover and use this valuable domestic energy source. The Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) (1) lists a series of 50 voluntary initiatives designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, such as methane from mining operations, to their 1990 levels. Action No. 36 of the CCAP expands the DOE research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) efforts to broaden the range of cost-effective technologies and practices for recovering methane associated with coal mining operations. The major thrust of Action No. 36 is to reduce methane emissions associated with coal mining operations from target year 2000 levels by 1.5 MMT of carbon equivalent. Crosscutting activities in the DOE Natural Gas Program supply the utilization sectors will address RD&D to reduce methane emissions released from various mining operations, focusing on recovery and end use technology systems to effectively drain, capture, and utilize the emitted gas. Pilot projects with industry partners will develop and test the most effective methods and technology systems for economic recovery and utilization of coal mine gas emissions in regions where industry considers efforts to be presently non-economic. These existing RD&D programs focus on near-term gas recovery and gathering systems, gas upgrading, and power generation.

  4. Coal recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Good, Robert J.; Badgujar, Mohan

    1992-01-01

    A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

  5. Coal Data: A reference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-26

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  6. Clean and Secure Energy from Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Philip; Davies, Lincoln; Kelly, Kerry; Lighty, JoAnn; Reitze, Arnold; Silcox, Geoffrey; Uchitel, Kirsten; Wendt, Jost; Whitty, Kevin

    2014-08-31

    The University of Utah, through their Institute for Clean and Secure Energy (ICSE), performed research to utilize the vast energy stored in our domestic coal resources and to do so in a manner that will capture CO2 from combustion from stationary power generation. The research was organized around the theme of validation and uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) through tightly coupled simulation and experimental designs and through the integration of legal, environment, economics and policy issues. The project included the following tasks: • Oxy-Coal Combustion – To ultimately produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. • High-Pressure, Entrained-Flow Coal Gasification – To ultimately provide a simulation tool for industrial entrained-flow integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) gasifier with quantified uncertainty. • Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) – To develop a new carbon-capture technology for coal through CLC and to transfer this technology to industry through a numerical simulation tool with quantified uncertainty bounds. • Underground Coal Thermal Treatment – To explore the potential for creating new in-situ technologies for production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from deep coal deposits and to demonstrate this in a new laboratory-scale reactor. • Mercury Control – To understand the effect of oxy-firing on the fate of mercury. • Environmental, Legal, and Policy Issues – To address the legal and policy issues associated with carbon management strategies in order to assess the appropriate role of these technologies in our evolving national energy portfolio. • Validation/Uncertainty Quantification for Large Eddy Simulations of the Heat Flux in the Tangentially Fired Oxy-Coal Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility – To produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for the heat flux in commercial-scale, tangentially fired, oxy-coal boilers.

  7. LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the Asia-Pacific region: Twenty years of trade and outlook for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Kiani, B.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: the current status of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region; present structure and projected demand in the Asia-Pacific region; prospective and tentative projects; and LNG contracts: stability versus flexibility.

  8. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    DOEpatents

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  9. Cogasification of coal and other domestic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Green, A.; Mullin, J.; Zanardi, M.; Peres, S.

    1996-12-31

    Almost all new additions to electrical generation in the USA are natural gas combined cycle systems (NGCC) systems. This trend reflects the development of high efficiency gas turbines (GT), low capital, operation and maintenance of NGCC systems and optimism as to natural gas resources. With utility deregulation these developments will seriously restrict long term use of coal and other solid fuels unless a los cost integrated gasifier (IG) fed by low cost feedstocks can be coupled with a CC system. This study mainly considers on-site cogasification of coal with other domestic fuels in an indirectly heated gasifier as a long term strategy for lowering the effective costs of IGGT systems. The authors also consider cocombustion of coal with other low cost domestic fuels as a near term strategy for minimizing fuel costs for competitiveness under utility deregulation. These fuel blending approaches both make use of common fast copyrolysis processes. They examine fast copyrolysis from a molecular point of view searching for advantageous feedstock blends. The authors conclude that blending coal with complementary coals, biomass, MSW or natural gas would be useful in near term cocombustion systems and long term integrated cogasification combined cycle or cogeneration systems.

  10. " Electricity Generation by Census Region, Industry...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    "," "," ","Coke"," ","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural Gas(d)","LPG","Coal","and ...

  11. Carbonization of blends of L'vovsk-Volynsk and Karaganda coals

    SciTech Connect

    Panchenko, N.I.; Maksimenko, I.I.; Glushchenko, I.M.; Mel'nichhuk, A.Yu.; Pustovoit, M.I.; Plvnyak, V.I.

    1981-07-01

    It has been shown that the coking of blends of Donbass, Karaganda and L'vov-Volynya coals can produce metallurgical coke of satisfactory quality. In view of the shortage of Donbass coking coals, and the availability of coals from the other two regions, it is obviously advantageous to increase the application of these latter coals in Ukraine coking plants by incorporating them in blends for the production of metallurgical coke. An account is given of tests at a Ukraine coking plant showing the effects of the Karaganda coal, which has a high fusinite and semi-vitrinite content, and the Volynya coal which has a high liptinite content. (6 refs.)

  12. The place of hard coal in energy supply pattern of Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, A.O.; Aydiner, K.

    2009-07-01

    Lignite and hard coal are the major sources of domestic energy sources of Turkey. Hard coal is produced at only one district in the country. Zonguldak Hard Coal Basin is the major power for development of the Turkish steel-making industry. It is the only hard coal basin in the country and it has, to date, supplied approximately 400 million tons of run-of-mine hard coal. This article investigates the potential of hard coal as an energy source and discusses the measures to activate the region for the future energy supply objectives of the country.

  13. Novel injector techniques for coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Badgley, P.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report, entitled Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines,'' describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder fuel injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these fuels at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel fuel, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.

  14. Microbial solubilization of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.; McCulloch, M.; Wilson, B.W.; Bean, R.M.

    1988-11-01

    Microbial solubilization of coal may serve as a first step in a process to convert low-rank coals or coal-derived products to other fuels or products. For solubilization of coal to be an economically viable technology, a mechanistic understanding of the process is essential. Leonardite, a highly oxidized, low-rank coal, has been solubilized by the intact microorganism, cell-free filtrate, and cell-free enzyme of /ital Coriolus versicolor/. A spectrophotometric conversion assay was developed to quantify the amount of biosolubilized coal. In addition, a bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6, was solubilized by a species of /ital Penicillium/, but only after the coal had been preoxidized in air. Model compounds containing coal-related functionalities have been incubated with the leonardite-degrading fungus, its cell-free filtrate, and purified enzyme. The amount of degradation was determined by gas chromatography and the degradation products were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We have also separated the cell-free filtrate of /ital C. versicolor/ into a <10,000 MW and >10,000 MW fraction by ultrafiltration techniques. Most of the coal biosolubilization activity is contained in the <10,000 MW fraction while the model compound degradation occurs in the >10,000 MW fraction. The >10,000 MW fraction appears to contain an enzyme with laccase-like activity. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Low-rank coal research. Quarterly report, January--March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This document contains several quarterly progress reports for low-rank coal research that was performed from January-March 1990. Reports in Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research are in Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, and Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains. Reports in Advanced Research and Technology Development are presented in Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Reports in Combustion Research cover Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Coal Fuels, Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals, and Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications. Liquefaction Research is reported in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction. Gasification Research progress is discussed for Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coal and for Chemistry of Sulfur Removal in Mild Gas.

  16. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment: Task 6 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.; Deo, M.; Edding, E.G.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.E.; Krumm, R.; Sarofim, Adel; Wang, D.

    2014-08-15

    The long-term objective of this task is to develop a transformational energy production technology by in- situ thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas and/or liquid transportation fuels while leaving much of the coal’s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This task focused on three areas: Experimental. The Underground Coal Thermal Treatment (UCTT) team focused on experiments at two scales, bench-top and slightly larger, to develop data to understand the feasibility of a UCTT process as well as to develop validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) data for the simulation team. Simulation. The investigators completed development of High Performance Computing (HPC) simulations of UCTT. This built on our simulation developments over the course of the task and included the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- based tools to perform HPC simulations of a realistically sized domain representative of an actual coal field located in Utah. CO2 storage. In order to help determine the amount of CO2 that can be sequestered in a coal formation that has undergone UCTT, adsorption isotherms were performed on coals treated to 325, 450, and 600°C with slow heating rates. Raw material was sourced from the Sufco (Utah), Carlinville (Illinois), and North Antelope (Wyoming) mines. The study indicated that adsorptive capacity for the coals increased with treatment temperature and that coals treated to 325°C showed less or similar capacity to the untreated coals.

  17. Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System September 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis A new natural gas-fired steam plant will replace an older coal-fired steam plant shown here. The new plant has the capacity to heat buildings at the Portsmouth site much more efficiently than the old coal-fired steam plant. A new natural gas-fired steam plant will replace an older coal-fired steam plant shown here. The new plant has the capacity to heat buildings at

  18. Structural implications of underground coal mining in the Mesaverde Group in the Somerset Coal Field, Delta and Gunnison Counties, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Carroll; Eric Robeck; Greg Hunt; Wendell Koontz

    2004-07-01

    Paleogene and Neogene faults and fractures on the eastern edge of the Colorado Plateau are present in Mesaverde Group coal and sandstone beds. Recent observations of coal cleat orientation in relation to faults in coal mines have significant impacts for mine planning in the area. Faults, coal cleats, and natural fractures are interpreted to show a structural evolution of the Mesaverde Group through time. This field trip included a visit to two active underground coal mines, the Bowie Resources' Bowie No. 2 Mine, and Mountain Coal's West Elk Mine. Mine geologists discussed structural styles including fault orientations and timing, cleat development, and rotation. Geologic encounters ranging from fault flooding, subsidence, mine fires, methane gas problems, and land use restrictions were also discussed. Coal cleat development and open-mode fractures in adjacent sandstones were observed on outcrops and compared to underground measurements in coal mines in the Somerset Coal Field, Colorado's most productive. Coal cleat orientations along a reverse fault in one mine showed rotation in relation to possible Neogene age displacement.

  19. Coal combustion products (CCPs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge. When properly managed, CCPs offer society environmental and economic benefits without harm to public health and safety. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has made an

  20. Pulverized coal fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Rini, Michael J.; Towle, David P.

    1992-01-01

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

  1. Integrated coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Effron, Edward

    1978-01-01

    In a process for the liquefaction of coal in which coal liquids containing phenols and other oxygenated compounds are produced during the liquefaction step and later hydrogenated, oxygenated compounds are removed from at least part of the coal liquids in the naphtha and gas oil boiling range prior to the hydrogenation step and employed as a feed stream for the manufacture of a synthesis gas or for other purposes.

  2. Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids FAQs

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... For further information, see: Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids. For additional information: Gasifipedia is a gasification resource that includes history, state-of-the art ...

  3. Rail Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    modes, the Coal Waybill Data is based only on rail shipments. Due to the different nature of the data sources, users should exercise caution when attempting to combine the two...

  4. http://wwwdev/cneaf/coal/special/waybill/waybill.html

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    modes, the Coal Waybill Database is based only on rail shipments. Due to the different nature of the data sources, users should exercise caution when attempting to combine the two...

  5. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers, Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

    2004-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main tasks for this reporting period were to correlate well logs and refine coal property maps, evaluate methane content and gas composition of Wilcox Group coals, and initiate discussions concerning collection of additional, essential data with Anadarko. To assess the volume of CO{sub 2} that may be sequestered and volume of methane that can be produced in the vicinity of the proposed Sam Seymour sequestration site, we used approximately 200 additional wells logs from Anadarko Petroleum Corp. to correlate and map coal properties of the 3 coal-bearing intervals of Wilcox group. Among the maps we are making are maps of the number of coal beds, number of coal beds greater than 5 ft thick, and cumulative coal thickness for each coal interval. This stratigraphic analysis validates the presence of abundant coal for CO{sub 2} sequestration in the Wilcox Group in the vicinity of Sam Seymour power plant. A typical wellbore in this region may penetrate 20 to 40 coal beds with cumulative coal thickness between 80 and 110 ft. Gas desorption analyses of approximately 75 coal samples from the 3 Wilcox coal intervals indicate that average methane content of Wilcox coals in this area ranges between 216 and 276 scf/t, basinward of the freshwater boundary indicated on a regional hydrologic map. Vitrinite reflectance data indicate that Wilcox coals are thermally immature for gas generation in this area. Minor amounts of biogenic gas may be present, basinward of the freshwater line, but we infer that most of the Wilcox coalbed gas in the deep coal beds is migrated thermogenic gas. Analysis based on limited data suggest that sites for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed gas recovery should be located basinward of the Wilcox

  6. US coal market softens

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-01-15

    The operators table some near term expansion plans, meanwhile long-term fundamentals look strong. This is one of the findings of the Coal Age Forecast 2007 survey of readers predictions on production and consumption of coal and attitudes in the coal industry. 50% of respondents expected product levels in 2007 to be higher than in 2006 and 50% described the attitude in the coal industry to be more optimistic in 2007 than in 2006. Most expenditure is anticipated on going on new equipment but levels of expenditure will be less than in 2006. 7 figs.

  7. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Recurring Reserves Stocks All reports Browse by Tag Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud Data For: 2001 Next Release Date: October 2003 U. S. Coal-Producing Districts...

  8. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2001 (Thousand Short Tons) DESTINATION: Alabama State of Origin by...

  9. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is...

  10. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.; Yeh, Chung-Liang; Donath, Ernest E.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  11. Coal | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Assuming no additional constraints on CO2 emissions, coal remains the largest source of electricity generation in the AEO2011 Reference case because of continued reliance on...

  12. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    TF RailroadVesselShip Fuel It is also noted that Destination State code of "X Export" indicates movements to foreign destinations. 1 68 Domestic Coal Distribution...

  13. WCI Case for Coal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    and storage, and the production of hydrogen from coal, ... countries, global energy consumption will continue to ... Other fuels will have to provide the great bulk of the ...

  14. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook

    California (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total...

  15. Balancing coal pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Earley, D.; Kirkenir, B.

    2009-11-15

    Balancing coal flow to the burners to optimise combustion by using real-time measurement systems (such as microwave mass measurement) is discussed. 3 figs.

  16. Coal Market Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    The use of coals with sub- optimal characteristics carries with it penalties in operating efficiency, maintenance cost, and system reliability. Such penalties range from the...

  17. Coal Gasification Report

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... (Btu) coal "that is combined with wind and other renewable sources, ... The Kentucky Pioneer EIS notes that "noise levels inside the turbine buildings would be very high, ...

  18. Coal transportation: a comparative spatial analysis between unit train and slurry pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Soltanmohammadi-Sarab, M.

    1986-01-01

    After the 1973 Arab oil embargo and a drastic price rise in crude oil, the demand for coal and, subsequently, the price of coal rose to a new high, thus encouraging further production of coal. The increase in production occurred in most of the coal fields except those in some specific areas, such as West Virginia. Preliminary studies indicate that the high transportation cost of coal contributes to this slacking coal-production pattern. Three related objectives are studied in this dissertation: (a) finding the least-cost mode of coal transportation; (b) determining the new pattern of trade under the chosen mode of coal transportation; and (c) conducting a comparative static analysis of the coal market in the US. Engineering models are used to calculate the average costs of transportation. These models are adjusted for the appropriate economic applications. The mainland US is divided into five regions and the demand and supply of coal in each region is estimated. The estimated cost of coal transportation for both the slurry pipeline and the unit train reveals that the slurry is the lower cost mode of coal transportation for any given distance or amount of coal handled by the system.

  19. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  20. ,"California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  1. NEMS Modeling of Coal Plants

    Annual Energy Outlook

    NEMS Modeling of Coal Plants Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewable Analysis ... oil and gas steam plants, and 23 for nuclear plants regardless of age - Beyond 30 ...

  2. Clean coal technologies market potential

    SciTech Connect

    Drazga, B.

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  3. Region Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    8.4 million (37% total U.S.) Housing Units: 51.1 million (38% total U.S.) Business Establishments: 3 million (39% total U.S.) Annual Energy Consumption Electric Power: 1,264 TWh (34% total U.S.) Coal: 172,175 MSTN (20% total U.S.) Natural Gas: 6,000 Bcf (26% total U.S.) Motor Gasoline: 1,034,400 Mbarrels (34% total U.S.) Distillate Fuel: 398,900 Mbarrels (29% total U.S.) Annual Energy Production Electric Power Generation: 1,295 TWh (32% total U.S.) Coal: 364.1 TWh, 28% [93.5 GW total capacity]

  4. Coal production, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-05

    Coal Production 1987 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data presented in this report were collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-275) as amended. The 1987 coal production and related data presented in this report were obtained from Form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1987. This survey originated at the Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior. In 1977, the responsibility for taking the survey was transferred to the EIA under the Department of Energy Organization Act (P.L. 95-91). The data cover 3667 of the 4770 US coal mining operations active in 1987. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 77 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1987. This issue is the 12th annual report published by EIA and continues the series formerly included as a chapter in the Minerals Yearbook published by the Bureau of Mines. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1988. This is the eighth annual summary on minable coal, pursuant to Section 801 of Public Law 95-620. 18 figs., 105 tabs.

  5. A perspective on syngas from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, L.K.; Longanbach, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Syngas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, has been produced from coal for more than 100 years. But today most syngas is produced from noncoal feedstocks, by catalytic steam reforming of natural gas and naphtha or partial oxidation of heavy hydrocarbons such as petroleum resid. Three types of syngas, characterized by their H{sub 2}/CO ratio, are needed. Low ratio, H{sub 2}/CO = 0.4-0.8, syngas can be used in recently developed processes such as the Liquid Phase Methanol synthesis and the Shell Fischer-Tropsch wax synthesis; moderate ratio, H{sub 2}/CO = 0.8-1.5, syngas is used in the Tennessee Eastman coal based synthesis of methanol and acetic anhydride; high ratio, H{sub 2}/CO = 1.8-2.5, syngas is used in traditional methanol synthesis and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis at Sasol. Different types of gasifiers are available for the production of syngas. These include Lurgi fixed-bed dry bottom and slagging gasifiers, agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifiers, single and two-stage entrained slurry feed gasifiers, and single-stage entrained dry feed gasifiers. The cost of syngas from subbituminous coal is shown to be relatively insensitive to the H{sub 2}/CO ratio produced and may soon be competitive with natural gas-based syngas in some parts of the country due to the increasing demand for and cost of natural gas. Recent in this paper, DOE sponsored research on three topics on the production of syngas from coal, coal gasifiers for the direct production of high hydrogen content syngas, advanced methods to separate hydrogen from syngas at elevated temperatures and biological conversion of coal to syngas, are also discussed.

  6. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOEpatents

    Wiser, Wendell H.; Oblad, Alex G.; Shabtai, Joseph S.

    1994-01-01

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1.

  7. Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Ralph T.; Smol, Robert; Farber, Gerald; Naphtali, Leonard M.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

  8. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Norman L.; Moon, William G.; Prudich, Michael E.

    1983-01-01

    A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

  9. Coal. [Great Plains Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The status of various research projects related to coal is considered: gasification (approximately 30 processes) and in-situ gasification. Methanol production, retrofitting internal combustion engines to stratified charge engines, methanation (Conoco), direct reduction of iron ores, water resources, etc. Approximately 200 specific projects related to coal are considered with respect to present status. (LTN)

  10. Dry piston coal feeder

    DOEpatents

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  11. Preliminary assessment of coal-based industrial energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, performed by Mittelhauser Corp. and Resource Engineering, Inc. to identify the potential economic, environmental, and energy impacts of possible New Source Performance Standards for industrial steam generators on the use of coal and coal-derived fuels. A systems-level approach was used to take mine-mouth coal and produce a given quantity of heat input to a new boiler at an existing Chicago industrial-plant site. The technologies studied included post-combustion clean-up, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, solvent-refined coal liquids, substitute natural gas, and low-Btu gas. Capital and operating costs were prepared on a mid-1985 basis from a consistent set of economic guidelines. The cases studied were evaluated using three levels of air emission controls, two coals, two boiler sizes, and two operating factors. Only those combinations considered likely to make a significant impact on the 1985 boiler population were considered. The conclusions drawn in the report are that the most attractive applications of coal technology are atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion and post-combustion clean-up. Solvent-refined coal and probably substitute natural gas become competitive for the smaller boiler applications. Coal-derived low-Btu gas was found not to be a competitive boiler fuel at the sizes studied. It is recommended that more cases be studied to broaden the applicability of these results.

  12. State coal profiles, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  13. Coal in China

    SciTech Connect

    Minchener, A.J.

    2005-07-01

    The article gives an overview of the production and use of coal in China, for power generation and in other sectors. Coal use for power generation was 850 million tonnes in 2003 and 800 million tonnes in the non-power sector. The majority of power will continue to be produced from coal, with a trend towards new larger pulverised coal fired units and introduction of circulating fluidised bed combustors. Stricter regulations are forcing introduction of improved pollution control technologies. It seems likely that China will need international finance to supplement private and state investment to carry out a programme to develop and apply clean coal technologies. The author concludes that there is evidence of a market economy being established but there is a need to resolve inconsistencies with the planned aspects of the economy and that additional policies are needed in certain sectors to achieve sustainable development. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  15. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Demand Residual and Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coke and Breeze) for Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) (billion NGL(d) (million End Use (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 977,338 40 22 5,357 21

  16. Apparatus and method for feeding coal into a coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Bissett, Larry A.; Friggens, Gary R.; McGee, James P.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is directed to a system for feeding coal into a gasifier operating at high pressures. A coal-water slurry is pumped to the desired pressure and then the coal is "dried" prior to feeding the coal into the gasifier by contacting the slurry with superheated steam in an entrained bed dryer for vaporizing the water in the slurry.

  17. EIA - Weekly U.S. Coal Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Maps Combined Natural Gas Transportation Maps About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Network Map of U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Network Major Natural Gas Supply Basins Relative to Natural Gas Pipeline Transportation Corridors Map of Major Natural Gas Supply Basins Relative to Natural Gas Pipeline Transportation Corridors see related text enlarge see related text enlarge U.S. Regional Breakdown

  18. Coal Distribution and Utilization Act of 1987. Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session on S. 801, September 10, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The hearing was called to review Senate bill S.801 which would provide Federal eminent domain authority for coal slurry pipelines to facilitate the national distribution and utilization of coal. Obtaining rights-of-way for the pipelines, particularly across railroad lands, has been a major stumbling lock to construction in the US. Testimony was heard from 9 witnesses, representing the Building and Construction Trade Department of AFL-CIO, Snamprogetti USA, Association of American Railroads, Railway Labor Executives Association, Coal and Slurry Technology Association, American Mining Congress, Edison Electric Institute, and the state of Louisiana. An attorney at law also gave testimony. Additional material was submitted by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, the American Farm Bureau Federation, American Public Power Association, several union representatives, and the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association.

  19. Coal in a changing climate

    SciTech Connect

    Lashof, D.A.; Delano, D.; Devine, J.

    2007-02-15

    The NRDC analysis examines the changing climate for coal production and use in the United States and China, the world's two largest producers and consumers of coal. The authors say that the current coal fuel cycle is among the most destructive activities on earth, placing an unacceptable burden on public health and the environment. There is no such thing as 'clean coal.' Our highest priorities must be to avoid increased reliance on coal and to accelerate the transition to an energy future based on efficient use of renewable resources. Energy efficiency and renewable energy resources are technically capable of meeting the demands for energy services in countries that rely on coal. However, more than 500 conventional coal-fired power plants are expected in China in the next eight years alone, and more than 100 are under development in the United States. Because it is very likely that significant coal use will continue during the transition to renewables, it is important that we also take the necessary steps to minimize the destructive effects of coal use. That requires the U.S. and China to take steps now to end destructive mining practices and to apply state of the art pollution controls, including CO{sub 2} control systems, to sources that use coal. Contents of the report are: Introduction; Background (Coal Production; Coal Use); The Toll from Coal (Environmental Effects of Coal Production; Environmental Effects of Coal Transportation); Environmental Effects of Coal Use (Air Pollutants; Other Pollutants; Environmental Effects of Coal Use in China); What Is the Future for Coal? (Reducing Fossil Fuel Dependence; Reducing the Impacts of Coal Production; Reducing Damage From Coal Use; Global Warming and Coal); and Conclusion. 2 tabs.

  20. APEC experts` group on clean coal technology

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Expert`s Group on Clean Coal Technology`s Technical Seminar held in Jakarta, Indonesia, from October 10-13, 1994 are presented. A total of 28 papers were presented at the seminar. These papers addressed issues of relevance to APEC member economies associated with the application of clean coal technologies (CCTs) and created a forum where information and ideas about CCTs and their application in the Asia-Pacific Region could be exchanged. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Coal gasification construction materials: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, J.M.; Laurens, R.M.; Danyluk, S.

    1981-12-01

    Materials performance test results are presented for two coal gasification processes, HYGAS SNG process, which converts any type of coal to substitute natural gas (SNG), and U-GAS fuel gas process, which converts coal to a low- or medium-heat value gas. A description of the pilot plant for each process and discussion of some experiences with materials and components used in plant construction is presented. Metals performance inside the gasifier reactors and in off-gas locations depended upon the character of the process. At moderate operating temperatures (427/sup 0/C), low-carbon steels are advisable. Very high-temperature environments may not only require use of exotic alloys, clads, and/or coatings but may also preclude extensive use of internal piping/valving in scale-up designs. Inconel 182, 600, and Monel 400 have all performed erratically in the plants; but in quench and purification sections, austenitic stainless steels performed well. 9 references. (BLM)

  2. Injury experience in coal mining, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1986. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 1 fig., 46 tabs.

  3. Injury experience in coal mining, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1987. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  4. Injury experience in coal mining, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1988. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 23 tabs.

  5. Injury experience in coal mining, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1990. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  6. Injury experience in coal mining, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, R.B.; Hugler, E.C.

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  7. Injury experience in coal mining, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This Mine and Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1989. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  8. Direct use of methane in coal liquefaction

    DOEpatents

    Sundaram, M.S.; Steinberg, M.

    1985-06-19

    This invention relates to a process for converting solid carbonaceous material, such as coal, to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons utilizing methane, generally at a residence time of about 20 to 120 minutes at a temperature of 250 to 750/sup 0/C, preferably 350 to 450/sup 0/C, pressurized up to 6000 psi, and preferably in the 1000 to 2500 psi range, preferably directly utilizing methane 50 to 100% by volume in a mix of methane and hydrogen. A hydrogen donor solvent or liquid vehicle such as tetralin, tetrahydroquinoline, piperidine, and pyrolidine may be used in a slurry mix where the solvent feed is 0 to 100% by weight of the coal or carbonaceous feed. Carbonaceous feed material can either be natural, such as coal, wood, oil shale, petroleum, tar sands, etc., or man-made residual oils, tars, and heavy hydrocarbon residues from other processing systems. 1 fig.

  9. Direct use of methane in coal liquefaction

    DOEpatents

    Sundaram, Muthu S.; Steinberg, Meyer

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for converting solid carbonaceous material, such as coal, to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons utilizing methane, generally at a residence time of about 20-120 minutes at a temperature of 250.degree.-750.degree. C., preferably 350.degree.-450.degree. C., pressurized up to 6000 psi, and preferably in the 1000-2500 psi range, preferably directly utilizing methane 50-100% by volume in a mix of methane and hydrogen. A hydrogen donor solvent or liquid vehicle such as tetralin, tetrahydroquinoline, piperidine, and pyrolidine may be used in a slurry mix where the solvent feed is 0-100% by weight of the coal or carbonaceous feed. Carbonaceous feed material can either be natural, such as coal, wood, oil shale, petroleum, tar sands, etc., or man-made residual oils, tars, and heavy hydrocarbon residues from other processing systems.

  10. Influence of additives on the increase of the heating value of Bayah’s coal with upgrading brown coal (UBC) method

    SciTech Connect

    Heriyanto, Heri; Widya Ernayati, K.; Umam, Chairul; Margareta, Nita

    2015-12-29

    UBC (upgrading brown coal) is a method of improving the quality of coal by using oil as an additive. Through processing in the oil media, not just the calories that increase, but there is also water repellent properties and a decrease in the tendency of spontaneous combustion of coal products produced. The results showed a decrease in the water levels of natural coal bayah reached 69%, increase in calorific value reached 21.2%. Increased caloric value and reduced water content caused by the water molecules on replacing seal the pores of coal by oil and atoms C on the oil that is bound to increase the percentage of coal carbon. As a result of this experiment is, the produced coal has better calorific value, the increasing of this new calorific value up to 23.8% with the additive waste lubricant, and the moisture content reduced up to 69.45%.

  11. Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Troiano

    2011-01-31

    The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time

  12. Environmentally conscious coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmott, D.D.; Brown, L.F.; Currier, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to evaluate the environmental impacts of home-scale coal combustion on the Navajo Reservation and develop strategies to reduce adverse health effects associated with home-scale coal combustion. Principal accomplishments of this project were: (1) determination of the metal and gaseous emissions of a representative stove on the Navajo Reservation; (2) recognition of cyclic gaseous emissions in combustion in home-scale combustors; (3) `back of the envelope` calculation that home-scale coal combustion may impact Navajo health; and (4) identification that improved coal stoves require the ability to burn diverse feedstocks (coal, wood, biomass). Ultimately the results of Navajo home-scale coal combustion studies will be extended to the Developing World, particularly China, where a significant number (> 150 million) of households continue to heat their homes with low-grade coal.

  13. Health and environmental effects of coal-fired electric power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-05-01

    This paper describes health and environmental impacts of coal-fired electric power plants. Effects on man, agriculture, and natural ecosystems are considered. These effects may result from direct impacts or exposures via air, water, and food chains. The paper is organized by geographical extent of effect. Occupational health impacts and local environmental effects such as noise and solid waste leachate are treated first. Then, regional effects of air pollution, including acid rain, are analyzed. Finally, potential global impacts are examined. Occupational health concerns considered include exposure to noise, dust, asbestos, mercury, and combustion products, and resulting injury and disease. Local effects considered include noise; air and water emissions of coal storage piles, solid waste operations, and cooling systems. Air pollution, once an acute local problem, is now a regional concern. Acute and chronic direct health effects are considered. Special attention is given to potential effects of radionuclides in coal and of acid rain. Finally, potential global impacts associated with carbon dioxide emissions are considered. 88 references, 9 tables.

  14. Coal leasing and taxation. Coal policy paper

    SciTech Connect

    Brody, S.E.; DeVries, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    The paper presents background information on current and proposed approaches to coal leasing and taxation, at both the State and federal levels. In addition, it discusses both the governmental objectives and probable economic effects of various combinations of leasing and taxation policies.

  15. Method for increasing the calorific value of gas produced by the in situ combustion of coal

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention relates to the production of relatively high Btu gas by the in situ combustion of subterranean coal. The coal bed is penetrated with a horizontally-extending borehole and combustion is initiated in the coal bed contiguous to the borehole. The absolute pressure within the resulting combustion zone is then regulated at a desired value near the pore pressure within the coal bed so that selected quantities of water naturally present in the coal will flow into the combustion zone to effect a hydrogen and carbon monoxide-producing steam-carbon reaction with the hot carbon in the combustion zone for increasing the calorific value of the product gas.

  16. Converting coal to liquid fuels. [US DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    Liquid fuels play a vital role in the US economy. Oil represents about 40 percent of the energy consumed each year in this country. In many cases, it fills needs for which other energy forms cannot substitute efficiently or economically - in transportation, for example. Despite a current world-wide surplus of oil, conventional petroleum is a depletable resource. It inevitably will become harder and more expensive to extract. Already in the US, most of the cheap, easily reached oil has been found and extracted. Even under optimistic projections of new discoveries, domestic oil production, particularly in the lower 48 states, will most likely continue to drop. A future alternative to conventional petroleum could be liquid fuels made from coal. The technique is called coal liquefaction. From 1 to 3 barrels of oil can be made from each ton of coal. The basic technology is known; the major obstacles in the US have been the high costs of the synthetic oil and the risks of building large, multi-billion dollar first-of-a-kind plants. Yet, as natural petroleum becomes less plentiful and more expensive, oil made from abundant coal could someday become an increasingly important energy option. To prepare for that day, the US government is working with private industries and universities to establish a sound base of technical knowledge in coal liquefaction.

  17. Coal-water mixture fuel burner

    DOEpatents

    Brown, T.D.; Reehl, D.P.; Walbert, G.F.

    1985-04-29

    The present invention represents an improvement over the prior art by providing a rotating cup burner arrangement for use with a coal-water mixture fuel which applies a thin, uniform sheet of fuel onto the inner surface of the rotating cup, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel on the inner surface of the cup, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge from the rotating cup, and further atomizes the fuel as it enters the combustion chamber by subjecting it to the high shear force of a high velocity air flow. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide for improved combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel. It is another object of the present invention to provide an arrangement for introducing a coal-water mixture fuel into a combustion chamber in a manner which provides improved flame control and stability, more efficient combustion of the hydrocarbon fuel, and continuous, reliable burner operation. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide for the continuous, sustained combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel without the need for a secondary combustion source such as natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Still another object of the present invention is to provide a burner arrangement capable of accommodating a coal-water mixture fuel having a wide range of rheological and combustion characteristics in providing for its efficient combustion. 7 figs.

  18. Process for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Sadowski, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  19. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, C.H.

    1986-02-11

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

  20. Aqueous coal slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Berggren, M.H.; Smit, F.J.; Swanson, W.W.

    1989-10-30

    A principal object of the invention is the provision of an aqueous coal slurry containing a dispersant, which is of low-cost and which contains very low or no levels of sodium, potassium, sulfur and other contaminants. In connection with the foregoing object, it is an object of the invention to provide an aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant and to provide a method of preparing an aqueous coal slurry which includes the step of adding an effective amount of dextrin as a dispersant. The invention consists of certain novel features and a combination of parts hereinafter fully described, and particularly pointed out in the appended claims. 6 tabs.

  1. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Charles H.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

  2. DOE - Fossil Energy: Coal Mining and Transportation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Mining Fossil Energy Study Guides Coal Mining and Transportation Coal Miners - One type of mining, called "longwall mining", uses a rotating blade to shear coal away from the ...

  3. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine Current Edition: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 3 (April 2016) Archived Editions: Coal ...

  4. Table 13. Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million short tons)" ... (Washington, DC, September 25, 2014), Table 6.1, Coal Production and Waste Coal Supplied

  5. Puda Coal Inc | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Puda Coal Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Puda Coal, Inc Place: Taiyuan, Shaanxi Province, China Product: Specializes in coal preparation by applying a water jig washing...

  6. GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA

    SciTech Connect

    Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong, Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

    2003-01-01

    Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants while enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Data from more than 4,000 coalbed methane wells in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama provide an opportunity to quantify the carbon sequestration potential of coal and to develop a geologic screening model for the application of carbon sequestration technology. This report summarizes stratigraphy and sedimentation, structural geology, geothermics, hydrology, coal quality, gas capacity, and production characteristics of coal in the Black Warrior coalbed methane fairway and the implications of geology for carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. Coal in the Black Warrior basin is distributed among several fluvial-deltaic coal zones in the Lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation. Most coal zones contain one to three coal beds that are significant targets for coalbed methane production and carbon sequestration, and net coal thickness generally increases southeastward. Pottsville strata have effectively no matrix permeability to water, so virtually all flow is through natural fractures. Faults and folds influence the abundance and openness of fractures and, hence, the performance of coalbed methane wells. Water chemistry in the Pottsville Formation ranges from fresh to saline, and zones with TDS content lower than 10,000 mg/L can be classified as USDW. An aquifer exemption facilitating enhanced recovery in USDW can be obtained where TDS content is higher than 3,000 mg/L. Carbon dioxide becomes a supercritical fluid above a temperature of 88 F and a pressure of 1,074 psi. Reservoir temperature exceeds 88 F in much of the study area. Hydrostatic pressure gradients range from normal to extremely underpressured. A large area of underpressure is developed around closely spaced longwall coal mines, and areas of natural underpressure are distributed among the coalbed methane fields. The mobility and

  7. Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams. [DOE patent

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, D.W.

    1980-08-29

    A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face is given. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern United States and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

  8. Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, David W.

    1982-01-01

    A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern United States and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

  9. Proposed coal product valuation rules. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Mineral Resources Development and Production of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session, November 16, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The hearing was called to discuss the proposed rules issued by the Department of the Interior relating to the valuation of coal production from Federal and Indian leases for royalty purposes. The rules would base the value of coal on the gross proceeds obtained under a contract. The rules would exclude Federal black lung excise tax payments and abandoned mine payments from value, but would include state severance taxes. Considerable controversy arose such that Congress imposed a moratorium on implementation to allow further public comment. An alternative proposal from a joint industry group would base value on the depletable income provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. However, several western governors have voiced concerns over this alternative which analysis shows would result in significantly lower revenues to the Federal government, the states, and to the Tribes. Testimony was heard from eight witnesses, representing the DOI Land and Minerals Management, electric power associations, Western Organization of Resource Councils, the Navajo nation, National Coal Association, and Montana. Additional materials were submitted by the Energy Information Administration, the Western Coal Traffic League, the Western Fuels Association, and the States of Wyoming, North Dakota, Colorado, and New Mexico.

  10. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    SciTech Connect

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  11. Coal markets squeeze producers

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.

    2005-12-01

    Supply/demand fundamentals seem poised to keep prices of competing fossil fuels high, which could cushion coal prices, but increased mining and transportation costs may squeeze producer profits. Are markets ready for more volatility?

  12. COAL & POWER SYSTEMS

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The low- Btu combustion work supports ex- panding the fuel flexibility of gas turbines by developing the capabil- ity to operate on gases derived from gasification of coal, biomass...

  13. Proximate analysis of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, C.J.; Rais, E.A.

    2009-02-15

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content are determined for each sample and comparisons are made. Proximate analysis is performed on a coal sample from a local electric utility. From the weight percent sulfur found in the coal (determined by a separate procedure the Eschka method) and the ash content, students calculate the quantity of sulfur dioxide emissions and ash produced annually by a large coal-fired electric power plant.

  14. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOEpatents

    Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

    1993-01-01

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  15. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOEpatents

    Berggren, Mark H.; Smit, Francis J.; Swanson, Wilbur W.

    1993-04-06

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  16. Quarterly coal report

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  17. Clean Coal Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE's clean coal R&D is focused on developing and demonstrating advanced power generation and carbon capture, utilization and storage technologies for existing facilities and new fossil-fueled...

  18. Coal Reserves Data Base report. Final report on the Demonstrated Reserve Base (DRB) of coal in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.W.; Glass, G.B.

    1991-12-05

    The Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program is a cooperative data base development program sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The objective of the CRDB Program is to involve knowledgeable coal resource authorities from the major coal-bearing regions in EIA`s effort to update the Nation`s coal reserves data. This report describes one of two prototype studies to update State-level reserve estimates. The CRDB data are intended for use in coal supply analyses and to support analyses of policy and legislative issues. They will be available to both Government and non-Government analysts. The data also will be part of the information used to supply United States energy data for international data bases and for inquiries from private industry and the public. (VC)

  19. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Skinner, Ronald W.; Tao, John C.; Znaimer, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

  20. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOEpatents

    Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.; Shabtai, J.S.

    1994-05-03

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400 C at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1. 1 figures.

  1. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Karr, Jr., Clarence

    1977-04-19

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided which enables conversion of a coal-oil slurry to a synthetic crude refinable to produce larger yields of gasoline and diesel oil. The process is characterized by a two-step operation applied to the slurry prior to catalytic desulfurization and hydrogenation in which the slurry undergoes partial hydrogenation to crack and hydrogenate asphaltenes and the partially hydrogenated slurry is filtered to remove minerals prior to subsequent catalytic hydrogenation.

  2. Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

  3. Coal-fueled diesels for modular power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Rao, A.K.; Smith, W.C.

    1993-11-01

    Interest in coal-fueled heat engines revived after the sharp increase in the prices of natural gas and petroleum in the 1970`s. Based on the success of micronized coal water slurry combustion tests in an engine in the 1980`s, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy. initiated several programs for the development of advanced coal-fueled diesel and gas turbine engines for use in cogeneration, small utilities, industrial applications and transportation. Cooper-Bessemer and Arthur D. Little have been developing technology since 1985, under the sponsor of METC, to enable coal water slurry (CWS) to be utilized in large bore, medium-speed diesel engines. Modular power generation applications in the 10--100 MW size (each plant typically using from two to eight engines) are the target applications for the late 1990`s and beyond when, according to the US DOE and other projections, oil and natural gas prices are expected to escalate much more rapidly compared to the price of coal. As part of this program over 7.50 hours of prototype engine operation has been achieved on coal water slurry (CWS), including over 100 hours operation of a six-cylinder full scale engine with Integrated Emissions Control System in 1993. In this paper, the authors described the project cost of the CWS fuel used, the heat rate of the engine operating on CWS, the projected maintenance cost for various engine components, and the demonstrated low emissions characteristics of the coal diesel system.

  4. Surface electrochemical control for fine coal and pyrite separation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, M.E.; Bodily, D.M.; Hu, Weibai; Chen, Wanxiong; Huang, Qinping; Liang, Jun; Riley, A.M.; Li, Jun; Wann, Jyi-Perng; Zhong, Tingke; Zhu, Ximeng

    1993-01-20

    Laboratory flotation tests were carried out on three coals and on coal pyrite. Floatability measurements included natural floatability, flotation with a xanthate collector and salt flotation. The ranking of the floatability of the three coals were: Upper Freeport > Pittsburgh > Illinois. The floatability of mineral pyrite and coal pyrite increased markedly with xanthate concentration, but decreased with increased pH. In general, coal pyrite was more difficult to float than mineral pyrite. This was attributed to the presence of surface carbonaceous and mineral matter, since floatability of coal pyrite improved by acid pretreatment. Flotation tests demonstrated that the floatability of coal and mineral pyrite was greatly enhanced by the presence of an electrolyte. Flotation was also enhanced by the addition of modifiers such as CuSO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2} and EDTA. Lime additions markedly reduced the floatability of coal pyrite. Enhanced floatability of coal pyrite resulted when the pyrite was anodically oxidized in a specially constructed electrochemical flotation cell Pretreatment in potential ranges previously observed for polysulfide and sulfur film formation resulted in the enhanced floatability. While interesting trends and influences, both chemical and electrochemical, markedly improved the floatability of coal, there is little hope for reverse flotation as an effective technology for coal/coal-pyrite separations. The effects of poor liberation and entrainment appear overriding.

  5. Coal repository. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    The Coal Repository Project was initiated in 1980 by the Department of Energy/Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center to provide a centralized system for the collection of well characterized coal samples, and distribution to organizations involved in the chemical beneficiation of coal and related research. TRW Energy Development Group, together with its subcontractor Commercial Testing and Engineering Company, established the Coal Repository at the TRW Capistrano Chemical Facility, which is the location of the DOE-owned Multi-Use Fuel and Energy Processes Test Plant (MEP). Twenty tons each of three coals (Illinois No. 6, Kentucky No. 11 (West), and Pittsburgh No. 8 (from an Ohio mine)) were collected, characterized, and stored under a nitrogen atmosphere. Ten tons of each coal are 3/8-inch x 0, five tons of each are 14-mesh x 0, and five tons of each are 100-mesh x 0. Although TRW was within budget and on schedule, Department of Energy funding priorities in this area were altered such that the project was terminated prior to completion of the original scope of work. 9 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Spin-mapping of Coal Structures with ESE and ENDOR

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Belford, R. L.; Clarkson, R. B.

    1989-12-01

    The broad goals of this project are to determine by nondestructive magnetic resonance methods chemical and physical structural characteristics of organic parts of native and treated coals. In this project period, we have begun to explore a technique which promises to enable us to follow to course of coal cleaning processes with microscopic spatial resolution. For the past five years, our laboratory has worked on extensions of the EPR technique as applied to coal to address these analytical problems. In this report we (1) describe the world's first nuclear magnetic resonance imaging results from an Illinois {number sign}6 coal and (2) transmit a manuscript describing how organic sulfur affect the very-high-frequency EPR spectra of coals. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive technique that has found wide medical application as a means of visualizing the interior of human bodies. We have used MRI techniques to study the diffusion of an organic solvent (DMSO) into the pores of Illinois {number sign}6 coal. Proton MRI images reveal that this solvent at room temperature does not penetrate approximately 30% of the coal volume. Regions of the coal that exclude solvent could be related to inertinite and mineral components. A multi-technique imaging program is contemplated.

  7. International Energy Outlook 2016-Coal - Energy Information Administration

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    4. Coal print version Overview In the IEO2016 Reference case, coal remains the second-largest energy source worldwide-behind petroleum and other liquids-until 2030. From 2030 through 2040, it is the third-largest energy source, behind both liquid fuels and natural gas. World coal consumption increases from 2012 to 2040 at an average rate of 0.6%/year, from 153 quadrillion Btu in 2012 to 169 quadrillion Btu in 2020 and to 180 quadrillion Btu in 2040. The Reference case estimates do not include

  8. Coal combustion by wet oxidation. Wet oxidation of coal for energy production: test plan and partial results. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Bettinger, J.A.

    1980-07-10

    A test plan has been developed which will provide the data necessary to carry out design and economic studies of a steam generating facility, employing the wet oxidation of coal as a heat source. It is obvious, from the literature search and preliminary testing, that the higher the reaction temperature, the more complete the combustion of coal. However, operation at elevated temperatures and pressures present difficult design problems, and the necessary equipment is costly. Operation under these conditions can only be justified by the higher economic value of high pressure and temperature steam. With a reduction in temperature from 550/sup 0/F (228/sup 0/C) to 450/sup 0/F (232/sup 0/C), the operating pressure is reduced by more than half, thus holding down the overall cost of the system. For this reason, our plan is to study both the enhancement of low temperature wet oxidation of coal, and the higher operating regions. The coal selected for the first portion of this test is an Eastern Appalachian high-volatile-A Bituminous type, from the Upper Clarion seam in Pennsylvania. This coal was selected as being a typical high sulfur, eastern coal. The wet oxidation of coal to produce low pressure steam is a process suited for a high sulfur, low grade, coal. It is not intended that wet oxidation be used in all applications with all types of coals, as it does not appear to be competitive, economically, with conventional combustion, therefore the testing will focus on using high sulfur, low grade coals. In the later portion of testing all the available coals will be tested. In addition, a sample of Minnesota peat will be tested to determine if it also can be used in the process.

  9. Economics of coal fines utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Hathi, V.; McHale, E.; Ramezan, M.; Winslow, J.

    1995-12-31

    In the twentieth century, coal has become the major fuel for electric power generation in the U.S. and most of the nonpetroleum-producing countries of the world. In 1998, the world coal-fired capacity for electric power generation was about 815 GW, consuming large quantities of coals of all ranks. Today, coal provides a third of the world`s energy requirements. In fact, coal use for power generation has grown steadily since the oil embargo in 1973 and has seen an even faster rate of growth in recent years. It has been reported that the global demand for new coal will increase by more than 1500 million tons by the year 2000. However, this increased production of coal has its drawbacks, including the concomitant production of coal waste. Reported estimates indicate that billions of tons of coal waste have already been disposed of in waste impoundments throughout the U.S. Further, in the U.S. today, about 20-25 % of each ton of mined coal is discarded by preparation plants as gob and plant tailings. It appears that the most economical near-term approach to coal waste recovery is to utilize the waste coal fines currently discarded with the refuse stream, rather than attempt to recover coal from waste impoundments that require careful prior evaluation and site preparation. A hypothetical circuit was designed to examine the economics of recovery and utilization of waste coal fines. The circuit recovers products from 100 tons per hour (tph) of coal waste feed recovering 70 tph of fine coal that can be used in coal-fired boilers. The present analysis indicates that the coal waste recovery is feasible and economical. In addition, significant environmental benefits can be expected.

  10. Appraisal of coal resources from uranium drill-hole logs, southern San Juan basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, S.C.

    1984-04-01

    Geophysical logs from uranium drill holes in the Grants region are a valuable source of information on coal resources. Coal occurs in the southern San Juan basin of New Mexico in the Upper Cretaceous Gallup Sandstone, Crevasse Canyon Formation, and Menefee Formation. Uranium has been mined from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation that underlies the coal-bearing Cretaceous formations and is separated from them by approximately 1000 ft (300 m) of section. Permission was obtained from Santa Fe Mining, Inc., Pathfinder Mines Corp., and Ranchers Exploration and Development Corp. to examine their uranium drill logs for information on coal. Over 1400 logs spudded above the base of the Gallup formation were examined, and depth to coal, coal thickness, and coal stratigraphic horizon were determined for coal beds at least 3 ft (1 m) thick. Coal isopachs have been drawn, and depth from the surface to the first coal have been contoured for the Crevasse Canyon and Menefee Formations. Data from an earlier study, which used geophysical logs from petroleum test borings, has been incorporated. The relationship between the coal resources determined from uranium drill holes and known coal deposits and mines in the southern San Juan basin is discussed.

  11. Biodegradation of air-oxidized Illinois No. 6 coal

    SciTech Connect

    Linehan, J.C.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Wilson, B.W.; Bean, R.M.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.; Campbell, J.A.; Franz, J.A.

    1988-09-01

    We have found that Illinois No. 6 coal, after an air-oxidation pretreatment, can be substantially biodegraded by Penicillium sp. to a product largely soluble in dilute base. It is the purpose of this paper to describe the chemical nature of the biotreated Illinois No. 6 coal and to compare it with the corresponding material from leonardite biosolubilization. 12 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. DOE - Fossil Energy: Introduction to Coal Technology

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Introduction An Energy Lesson Cleaning Up Coal COAL is our most abundant fossil fuel. The United States has more coal than the rest of the world has oil. There is still enough coal ...

  13. DOE - Fossil Energy: Clean Coal Technology

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    2-Clean Coal Technology An Energy Lesson Cleaning Up Coal The Clean Coal Technology Program The Clean Coal Technology Program began in 1985 when the United States and Canada ...

  14. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-10-23

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion.

  15. ZERO EMISSION COAL POWER, A NEW CONCEPT

    SciTech Connect

    H. -J. ZIOCK; K. S. LACKNER; D. P. HARRISON

    2001-04-01

    The Zero Emission Coal Alliance (ZECA) is developing an integrated zero emission process that generates clean energy carriers (electricity or hydrogen) from coal. The process exothermically gasifies coal using hydrogen to produce a methane rich intermediate state. The methane is subsequently reformed using water and a CaO based sorbent. The sorbent supplies the energy needed to drive the reforming reaction and simultaneously removes the generated CO{sub 2} by producing CaCO{sub 3}. The resulting hydrogen product stream is split, approximately 1/2 going to gasify the next unit of coal, and the other half being the product. This product stream could then be split a second time, part being cleaned up with a high temperature hydrogen separation membrane to produce pure hydrogen, and the remainder used to generate electricity via a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The inevitable high temperature waste heat produced by the SOFC would in turn be used to regenerate the CaO by calcining the CaCO{sub 3} product of the reforming stage thereby generating a pure stream of CO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2} will be dealt with a mineral sequestration process discussed in other papers presented at this conference. The SOFC has the added advantage of doubling as an oxygen separation membrane, thereby keeping its exhaust stream, which is predominantly steam, free of any air. This exhaust stream is largely recycled back to the reforming stage to generate more hydrogen, with a slipstream being extracted and condensed. The slipstream carries with it the other initial contaminants present in the starting coal. Overall the process is effectively closed loop with zero gaseous emissions to the atmosphere. The process also achieves very high conversion efficiency from coal energy to electrical energy ({approximately} 70%) and naturally generates a pure stream of CO{sub 2} ready for disposal via the mineral sequestration process.

  16. Coal-fueled diesel locomotive test

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, B.D.; McDowell, R.E.; Confer, G.L.; Basic, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    The biggest challenges to the development of a commercially-acceptable coal-fueled diesel-electric locomotive are integrating all systems into a working unit that can be operated in railroad service. This involves mainly the following three systems: (1) the multi-cylinder coal-fueled diesel engine, (2) the locomotive and engine controls, and (3) the CWS fuel supply system. Consequently, a workable 12-cylinder coal-fueled diesel engine was considered necessary at this stage to evolve the required locomotive support systems, in addition to gaining valuable multi-cylinder engine operating experience. The CWS fuel used during this project was obtained from Otisca, Inc. (Syracuse, NY). It was prepared from micronized and deashed Kentucky Blue Gem coal to 49.0% coal loading by weight, with less than 1% ash and 5 micron mean diameter particle size. Its higher heating value was analyzed at approximately 34630 kJ/k. Anti-agglomerating additive Triton X-114 was added to the CWS at GE Transportation Systems at 2% of coal weight. The nature of the Otisca CWS fuel makes it inherently more difficult to store, pump, and inject than diesel fuel, since concepts which govern Newtonian or normally viscous liquids do not apply entirely to CWS. Otisca CWS tends to be unstable and to settle in tanks and lines after a period of time, making it necessary to provide a means of agitation during storage. To avoid long term settling problems and to minimize losses, piping velocities were designed to be in the 60-90 m/min range.

  17. Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves 2009 November 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply...

  18. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2015

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    6. Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2015 (thousand short tons) Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Anthracite Total Coal-Producing State and Region 1 Number of Mines Production Number of Mines Production Number of Mines Production Number of Mines Production Number of Mines Production Alabama 37 13,191 - - - - - - 37 13,191 Alaska - - 1 1,177 - - - - 1 1,177 Arizona 1 6,805 - - - - - - 1 6,805 Arkansas 2 91 - - - - - - 2 91 Colorado 7 14,438 2 4,441 - - - - 9 18,879

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook

    markets. The global recession reduced demand, softened prices, and slowed investment. During the year, natural gas prices moved closer to parity with coal prices. As a...

  20. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOEpatents

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.