National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for refining group amoco

  1. EIA-782B EXCLUSIONARY LIST INSTRUCTIONS

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Age Refining Air BP Alon USA Amerada Hess (Hess Corporation) American Refining Group Amoco Amoco Canada Marketing Andrews Petroleum (Plains Marketing) Apex Oil Company Arco ...

  2. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Age Refining Air BP Alon USA American Refining Group Amoco Amoco Canada Marketing Anadarko ... Atlantic Richfield Atlantic Trading & Marketing Atofina Petro Axeon Specialty Products ...

  3. AMOCO Liuhua Triton{trademark} ROV(s)/AROWs -- Pre-planned remote intervention for subsea production systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stroud-Perry, D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the development and design of two (2) Advanced Remotely Operated Heavy Work (AROW) systems which have been designed specifically to support the AMOCO Liuhua FPSO and Subsea Production system remote intervention tasks in the South China Sea. The two ROV systems (Portable and Permanent) incorporate features and tools which have been pre-planned and designed to perform all aspects of the remote intervention requirements of the Liuhua project. This paper will address the design, coordination and planning performed to ensure that all phases of the subsea intervention were achievable in a cost effective, reliable and innovative manner. The emphasis is on the design solutions selected in relation to the project application requirements. The importance of early coordination between the client(s), operator and manufacturer to optimize the required system is also addressed.

  4. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten, the Proctor Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites, for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A separate Appendix provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. 26 figs., 121 tabs.

  5. Rietveld Refinement

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    profile Chi-squared value 4.944 Progress so far Inverse Modeling Method 2 Fourier Method Data Model Refined Structure 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 1000 2000 3000 4000...

  6. Refiner Crude Oil Inputs

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of RBOB Blending Components Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of CBOB Blending Components Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of GTAB Blending ...

  7. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Appendices to the final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The final report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten Island, the Proctor and Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. This appendix to the final report provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations.

  8. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes bandwidth.pdf (1.16 MB) More Documents & Publications ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in

  9. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes bandwidth.pdf (1.16 MB) More Documents & Publications ITP ...

  10. ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in California: California Industries of the Future Program ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in ...

  11. Method for refining contaminated iridium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heshmatpour, B.; Heestand, R.L.

    1982-08-31

    Contaminated iridium is refined by alloying it with an alloying agent selected from the group consisting of manganese and an alloy of manganese and copper, and then dissolving the alloying agent from the formed alloy to provide a purified iridium powder.

  12. Step 3: Project Refinement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    3: Project Refinement 2 1 Potential 3 Refinement 4 Implementation 5 Operations & Maintenance 2 Options 3 Refinement 1/28/2016 2 3 FUNDING AND FINANCING OPTIONS Project Ownership Financing structure is highly dependent on size of the project and the capital available for a given project: * Tribe owns the project (cash purchase or debt) * Tribe hosts the project and buys the electricity (power purchase agreement) * Tribe partners with private sector and co-owns the project (uncertainties about

  13. Refiners trade hydroprocessing experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-04-16

    Hydrogen treating and conversion processes less severe than hydrocracking abound in most refineries and therefore were a subject of high interest at the National Petroleum Refiners Association question and answer session on refining technology. The present paper, which is the second abstract of the transcript of the most recent meeting, covers hydroprocessing and some of its mechanical, process, and catalytic aspects.

  14. Sweet Lake Geopressured-geothermal Project, Magma Gulf-Technadril/DOE Amoco Fee. Volume II. Surface installations reservoir testing. Annual report, February 28, 1981-February 10, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, K.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Magma Gulf-Technadril/Department of Energy Amoco Fee No. 1 (production) and salt water disposal wells were drilled in the period from August, 1980 to February 1981. Surface facilities were designed and constructed during March-June 1981. Flow testing began in June 1981 and continued until February, 1982. The Miogypsinoides interval contains seven discrete sands in the test well. These sands have been numbered 1 to 7, beginning at the top of the sequence. Data from wireline logs and core samples suggested that the first zone to be perforated should be Sand 5. Because of its high porosity and permeability, Sand 5 was thought to contain almost 50% of the total hydraulic capacity of the well. Flow testing of Sand 5 was performed in three stages, each of which is fully described in this report. Phase I was designed as an initial clean-up flow and a reservoir confirmation test. Phase II consisted of the reservoir limit determination test and lasted 17 days. Boundaries were confirmed which suggest that the Sweet Lake reservoir is fairly narrow, with boundaries on three sides, but is open in one direction with no closure for at least 4-1/4 miles. These boundaries approximate the shape of the graben in which the test well was drilled, but may or may not be directly related to the major faults forming the graben. Phase III testing was planned to be a long-term test at commercial design rates. Although Sand 5 alone would not support such rates, long-term production was demonstrated. Additional research not supported by DOE funding was also performed during the period covered by this report. This research, consisting of mud logging, micropaleontology, organic geochemistry, core analysis, and rock mechanics, is summarized in this report.

  15. NAFTA opportunities: Petroleum refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) creates a more transparent environment for the sale of refined petroleum products to Mexico, and locks in access to Canada's relatively open market for these products. Canada and Mexico are sizable United States export markets for refined petroleum products, with exports of $556 million and $864 million, respectively, in 1992. These markets represent approximately 24 percent of total U.S. exports of these goods.

  16. Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron Refining

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Piping Experience in Chevron Refining Ned Niccolls Materials Engineer Chevron Energy Technology Company Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop August 30-31, 2005 Outline 2 Overall perspectives from long term use of hydrogen piping in refining. Piping specifications and practices. The (few) problem areas. Related industry work: American Petroleum Institute corrosion and materials work on high temperature hydrogen attack. Overall Perspectives 3 Few problems with hydrogen piping operating at

  17. ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    California: California Industries of the Future Program | Department of Energy Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in California: California Industries of the Future Program ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in California: California Industries of the Future Program cpi_profile.pdf (363.14 KB) More Documents & Publications ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) ITP Petroleum

  18. Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Petroleum Refining Petroleum Refining Maintaining the viability of the U.S. petroleum refining industry requires continuous improvement in productivity and energy efficiency. The U.S. refining industry has worked with AMO to provide a range of resources that can provide energy and cost savings for the industry. Analytical Studies & Other Publications Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints provide a mapping of energy use, energy loss, and carbon emissions for selected industry sectors.

  19. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, Richard K.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  20. CLAMR (Compute Language Adaptive Mesh Refinement)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    CLAMR (Compute Language Adaptive Mesh Refinement) CLAMR (Compute Language Adaptive Mesh Refinement) CLAMR (Compute Language Adaptive Mesh Refinement) is being developed as a DOE...

  1. Refines Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WRI

    2002-05-15

    Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as

  2. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes Prepared by Energetics Incorporated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Industrial ...

  3. Midcourse Refinements of Financing Strategies

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: Midcourse Refinements of Financing Strategies, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, March 29, 2012. During this webinar participants discussed how programs have adapted and refined their financing strategies based on initial implementation experience and learning.

  4. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheldrick, George M., E-mail: gsheldr@shelx.uni-ac.gwdg.de [Department of Structural Chemistry, Georg-August Universität Göttingen, Tammannstraße 4, Göttingen 37077 (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    New features added to the refinement program SHELXL since 2008 are described and explained. The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as ‘a CIF’) containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  5. Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diachin, L; Hornung, R; Plassmann, P; WIssink, A

    2005-03-04

    As large-scale, parallel computers have become more widely available and numerical models and algorithms have advanced, the range of physical phenomena that can be simulated has expanded dramatically. Many important science and engineering problems exhibit solutions with localized behavior where highly-detailed salient features or large gradients appear in certain regions which are separated by much larger regions where the solution is smooth. Examples include chemically-reacting flows with radiative heat transfer, high Reynolds number flows interacting with solid objects, and combustion problems where the flame front is essentially a two-dimensional sheet occupying a small part of a three-dimensional domain. Modeling such problems numerically requires approximating the governing partial differential equations on a discrete domain, or grid. Grid spacing is an important factor in determining the accuracy and cost of a computation. A fine grid may be needed to resolve key local features while a much coarser grid may suffice elsewhere. Employing a fine grid everywhere may be inefficient at best and, at worst, may make an adequately resolved simulation impractical. Moreover, the location and resolution of fine grid required for an accurate solution is a dynamic property of a problem's transient features and may not be known a priori. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is a technique that can be used with both structured and unstructured meshes to adjust local grid spacing dynamically to capture solution features with an appropriate degree of resolution. Thus, computational resources can be focused where and when they are needed most to efficiently achieve an accurate solution without incurring the cost of a globally-fine grid. Figure 1.1 shows two example computations using AMR; on the left is a structured mesh calculation of a impulsively-sheared contact surface and on the right is the fuselage and volume discretization of an RAH-66 Comanche helicopter [35]. Note the

  6. Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Piping Experience in Chevron Refining Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron Refining Overall Perspectives: Few problems with hydrogen piping operating at ambient to at least 800F and pressures up to at least 3000psia as long as we stay within well-defined limits hpwgw_chevronrefining_niccolls.pdf (373.32 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines A Review of Stress Corrosion

  7. MECS 2006 - Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Petroleum Refining MECS 2006 - Petroleum Refining Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Petroleum Refining (NAICS 324110) Sector with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006) All available footprints and supporting documents Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Petroleum Refining (123.98 KB) More Documents & Publications Petroleum Refining (2010 MECS) MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum MECS 2006 - Cement

  8. Electronic structure of superconductivity refined

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic structure of superconductivity refined Electronic structure of superconductivity refined A team of physicists propose a new model that expands on a little understood aspect of the electronic structure in high-temperature superconductors. July 10, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma

  9. Renewable Energy Financial Instruments Guidance Tool (REFINe...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Guidance Tool (REFINe) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Renewable Energy Financial Instruments Guidance Tool (REFINe) Focus Area: Renewable Energy...

  10. ,"U.S. Refiner Petroleum Product Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...AEPPRLPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRHPTGNUSDPG" "Date","U.S. Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per Gallon)","U.S. Aviation Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars ...

  11. Petroleum Refining (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Petroleum Refining (2010 MECS) Petroleum Refining (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Petroleum Refining Sector (NAICS 324110) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014 View footprints for other sectors here. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Petroleum Refining (125.36 KB) More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Petroleum Refining Cement (2010 MECS) Forest Products (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy Sankey

  12. GRAIN REFINEMENT OF URANIUM BILLETS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, L.

    1964-02-25

    A method of refining the grain structure of massive uranium billets without resort to forging is described. The method consists in the steps of beta- quenching the billets, annealing the quenched billets in the upper alpha temperature range, and extrusion upset of the billets to an extent sufficient to increase the cross sectional area by at least 5 per cent. (AEC)

  13. Refining and end use study of coal liquids I - pilot plant studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erwin, J.; Moulton, D.S.

    1995-12-31

    The Office of Fossil Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center is examining the ways in which coal liquids may best be integrated into the refinery of the 2000-2015 time frame and what performance and emission properties will prevail among the slate of fuels produced. The study consists of a Basic Program administered by Bechtel Group, Inc. to build a linear programming refinery model and provide processing and fuel properties data through subcontractors Southwest Research Institute, Amoco Oil R&D, and M.W. Kellogg Company. The model will be used in an Option 1 to devise a slate of test fuels meeting advanced specifications, which will be produced and tested for physical ASTM-type properties, engine performance, and vehicle emissions. Three coal liquids will be included: a direct liquid from bituminous coal, another from subbituminous, and a Fischer-Tropsch indirect liquefaction product. This paper reports the work to date on fractions of the first direct liquid including naphtha hydrotreating, heavy distillate hydrotreating, FCC of the heavy distillate hydrotreater products. Also reported are the first stages of work on the indirect liquefaction wax including feed preparation and FCC tests of blends with petroleum FCC feed.

  14. Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently, 1995

    Reports and Publications

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the costs of producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate.

  15. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derbidge, T. Craig; Mulholland, James A.; Foster, Edward P.

    1986-01-01

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  16. ITP Petroleum Refining: Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry ITP Petroleum Refining: Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry petroleumroadmap.pdf (338.1 KB) More Documents & Publications ITP Aluminum: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Aluminum Industry ITP Aluminum: Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies 2011 Strategic Plan

  17. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry ...

  18. Improving the accuracy of macromolecular structure refinement

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    is challenging at low resolution. We compared refinement methods using synchrotron diffraction data of photosystem I at 7.4 resolution, starting from different initial models...

  19. Refiners Increasingly Employing Catalyst Regeneration as Alternative...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    million by the end of 2019. Refiners Benefit from Catalyst Regeneration Technology via Price Reductions and Lower Maintenance Costs The catalyst regeneration technology is the...

  20. Right rock: Finding/refining customer expectations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashby, R.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on methods of finding customer expectations of software and then refining the documentation and software to fit these expectations.

  1. Midcourse Refinements of Financing Strategies | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    March 29, 2012. During this webinar participants discussed how programs have adapted and refined their financing strategies based on initial implementation experience and learning. ...

  2. Pneumatic conveying of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lennon, Dennis R.

    1984-11-06

    A method for pneumatically conveying solvent refined coal to a burner under conditions of dilute phase pneumatic flow so as to prevent saltation of the solvent refined coal in the transport line by maintaining the transport fluid velocity above approximately 95 ft/sec.

  3. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  4. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lennon, Dennis R.; Snedden, Richard B.; Foster, Edward P.; Bellas, George T.

    1990-05-15

    A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

  5. U.S. Refining Capacity Utilization

    Reports and Publications

    1995-01-01

    This article briefly reviews recent trends in domestic refining capacity utilization and examines in detail the differences in reported crude oil distillation capacities and utilization rates among different classes of refineries.

  6. Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis W.R. Grace, a leading provider of refining technologies, and Pacific ...

  7. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1995 Annual Averages Motor...

  8. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 3. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Retail Volumes 1997 Annual Averages Motor...

  9. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1997 Annual Averages Motor...

  10. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 3. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Retail Volumes 1995 Annual Averages Motor...

  11. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 3. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Retail Volumes 1996 Annual Averages Motor...

  12. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1996 Annual Averages Motor...

  13. ,"Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab ... Data for" ,"Data 1","Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner ...

  14. ,"U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" ...

  15. ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy Use: Selected Applications in Chemicals Processing and Petroleum Refining ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on ...

  16. Reitveld refinement study of PLZT ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Bavbande, D. V.; Bafna, V. H.; Mohan, D.; Kothiyal, G. P.; Mishra, R.

    2013-02-05

    PLZT ceramics of composition Pb{sub 0.93}La{sub 0.07}(Zr{sub 0.60}Ti{sub 0.40})O{sub 3}, have been milled for 6hrs and 24hrs were prepared by solid state synthesis route. The 6hrs milled and 24hrs milled samples are represented as PLZT-6 and PLZT-24 ceramics respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern was recorded at room temperature. The XRD pattern has been analyzed by employing Rietveld refinement method. Phase identification shows that all the peaks observed in PLZT-6 and PLZT-24 ceramics could be indexed to P4mm space group with tetragonal symmetry. The unit cell parameters of 6hrs milled PLZT ceramics are found to be a=b=4.0781(5)A and c=4.0938(7)A and for 24hrs milled PLZT ceramics unit cell parameters are a=b=4.0679(4)A and c=4.1010(5)A . The axial ratio c/a and unit cell volume of PLZT-6 are 1.0038 and 68.09(2)A{sup 3} respectively. In PLZT-24 samples, the axial ratio c/a value is 1.0080 which is little more than that of the 6hr milled PLZT sample whereas the unit cell volume decrease to 67.88 (1) A{sup 3}. An average crystallite size was estimated by using Scherrer's formula. Dielectric properties were obtained by measuring the capacitance and tand loss using Stanford LCR meter.

  17. Parallel tetrahedral mesh refinement with MOAB.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2008-12-01

    In this report, we present the novel functionality of parallel tetrahedral mesh refinement which we have implemented in MOAB. This report details work done to implement parallel, edge-based, tetrahedral refinement into MOAB. The theoretical basis for this work is contained in [PT04, PT05, TP06] while information on design, performance, and operation specific to MOAB are contained herein. As MOAB is intended mainly for use in pre-processing and simulation (as opposed to the post-processing bent of previous papers), the primary use case is different: rather than refining elements with non-linear basis functions, the goal is to increase the number of degrees of freedom in some region in order to more accurately represent the solution to some system of equations that cannot be solved analytically. Also, MOAB has a unique mesh representation which impacts the algorithm. This introduction contains a brief review of streaming edge-based tetrahedral refinement. The remainder of the report is broken into three sections: design and implementation, performance, and conclusions. Appendix A contains instructions for end users (simulation authors) on how to employ the refiner.

  18. Parallel Block Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Graphics Processing Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckingsale, D. A.; Gaudin, W. P.; Hornung, R. D.; Gunney, B. T.; Gamblin, T.; Herdman, J. A.; Jarvis, S. A.

    2014-11-17

    Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement is a technique that can be used when solving partial differential equations to reduce the number of zones necessary to achieve the required accuracy in areas of interest. These areas (shock fronts, material interfaces, etc.) are recursively covered with finer mesh patches that are grouped into a hierarchy of refinement levels. Despite the potential for large savings in computational requirements and memory usage without a corresponding reduction in accuracy, AMR adds overhead in managing the mesh hierarchy, adding complex communication and data movement requirements to a simulation. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a native GPU-based AMR library, including: the classes used to manage data on a mesh patch, the routines used for transferring data between GPUs on different nodes, and the data-parallel operators developed to coarsen and refine mesh data. We validate the performance and accuracy of our implementation using three test problems and two architectures: an eight-node cluster, and over four thousand nodes of Oak Ridge National Laboratoryā€™s Titan supercomputer. Our GPU-based AMR hydrodynamics code performs up to 4.87Ɨ faster than the CPU-based implementation, and has been scaled to over four thousand GPUs using a combination of MPI and CUDA.

  19. Trends in petroleum refining process technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalczyk, D.

    1995-12-31

    In the 1990`s, the shift toward reformulated fuels and the unrelenting economic pressures on the petroleum refining industry have led to the ongoing development of a series of technological advances to improve fuels quality and industry operating efficiency. In this paper, ten of the most innovative and high impact recent developments in petroleum refining process technology will be highlighted. Process improvements and innovations have occurred in all facets of petroleum refining operations including fluid catalytic cracking, ether production, desulfurization, hydrocracking, gas processing, environmental control and heavy oil processing. Discussed will be the technical and economic impact of each of these new technologies on the petroleum refinery of the late 20th and early 21st century.

  20. JAPAN: Refining options and liberalization plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Totto, L.; Isaak, D.T.

    1988-01-01

    The reformulation of Japan's petroleum import policy is important to Japan and to the international energy community. The technical and economic factors involved in opening the Japanese market is unknown. Assuming that foreign refiners have the technical capability to meet Japanese product specifications, the prices and volumes that will prove economical to both parties are also little known. Japanese refiners have been investigating the possibility of exporting gasoline and processing crude for China and Malaysia. The study demonstrates that under certain trade policies, Japan could become a significant product exporter. This study's purpose is to investigate the economic efficiency of alternative petroleum supply options, i.e., combining Japan's refining and product imports. An evaluation of the current import program and the technically feasible alternatives will play a major role in a new import policy. For this evaluation, a linear programming (LP) model of Japan's domestic refinery capacity and the petroleum import system was constructed. 3 figs., 23 tabs.

  1. The strategic outlook for petroleum refiners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, C.

    1994-12-31

    After several years of acceptable and relatively reliable profitability, refiners were plunged into uncertainty once again following passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) in 1990. While many of the original uncertainties that attended these regulations have since been resolved, the industry now must prepare for the new manufacturing, distributions, and transportation challenges that undoubtedly will accompany the first stages of reformulated gasoline (RFG) compliance in early 1995. This impending challenge introduces several fundamental questions: (1) How has the industry changed and adjusted to respond to anticipated future needs? (2) What strategies are refiners employing today? (3) What are industry performance expectations over the next several years?

  2. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2015-06-09

    A system and method for reactively refining hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20 degrees and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure, using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. A reaction portion of the system and method delivers lightweight, volatile hydrocarbons to an associated contacting unit which operates in mixed subcritical/supercritical or supercritical modes. Using thermal diffusion, multiphase contact, or a momentum generating pressure gradient, the contacting unit separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques.

  3. Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-09-29

    This is a simulation code involving an ALE (arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) hydrocode with AMR (adaptive mesh refinement) and pluggable physics packages for material strength, heat conduction, radiation diffusion, and laser ray tracing developed a LLNL, UCSD, and Berkeley Lab. The code is an extension of the open source SAMRAI (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Interface) code/library. The code can be used in laser facilities such as the National Ignition Facility. The code is alsi being appliedmoreĀ Ā» to slurry flow (landslides).Ā«Ā less

  4. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    in California | Department of Energy Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California refining_roadmap.pdf (1.34 MB) More Documents & Publications ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in California: California Industries of the Future Program ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California Bandwidth Study U.S.

  5. Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2006-10-01

    The petroleum refining energy bandwidth report analyzes the most energy-intensive unit operations used in U.S. refineries: crude oil distillation, fluid catalytic cracking, catalytic hydrotreating, catalytic reforming, and alkylation. The "bandwidth" provides a snapshot of the energy losses that can potentially be recovered through best practices and technology R&D.

  6. Focus on Venezuelan heavy crude: refining margins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-25

    Of six crudes refined in the US Gulf Coast, heavy Venezuelan crude Lagunillas (15/sup 0/ API) provides the best margin per barrel. Data for end of December 1983 and the first three weeks of January show that margins on all crudes are on the rise in this market, due to a turnaround in product prices. The lighter crudes are showing the greatest increase in Gross Product Worth. This is having a modest shrinking effect on the margin differential between light and heavy crudes in this market. The domestic crude West Texas Intermediate, at 40/sup 0/ API, provides the highest GPW in this crude slate sample, over US $31 per barrel, compared to GPW of under US $28 per barrel for Lagunillas. Still, as Lagunillas cost about US $8 less than does WTI, refiners with sufficient residue conversion capacity can be earning about US $3.50 more in margin per barrel than they can with WTI. Although few refiners would be using a 15/sup 0/ API crude exclusively for any length of time, heavier oil's inclusion in modern refiners' diets is enhancing their competitive position more than any other single factor. This issue of Energy Detente presents the fuel price/tax series and industrial fuel prices for January 1984 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  7. EIA-782A Exclusionary list instructions

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    CHS (Cenex Harvest States) Amoco Canada Marketing Citgo Petroleum Anadarko Energy Services ... Corp (Petro Star) Coastal Refining & Marketing Ashland Oil (MAP) Coastal States Trading ...

  8. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2014-11-25

    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

  9. Refining quadrilateral and brick element meshes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneiders, R.; Debye, J.

    1995-12-31

    We consider the problem of refining unstructured quadrilateral and brick element meshes. We present an algorithm which is a generalization of an algorithm developed by Cheng et. al. for structured quadrilateral element meshes. The problem is solved for the two-dimensional case. Concerning three dimensions we present a solution for some special cases and a general solution that introduces tetrahedral and pyramidal transition elements.

  10. Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Infrastructure

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-07-15

    SAMRAI is an object-oriented support library for structured adaptice mesh refinement (SAMR) simulation of computational science problems, modeled by systems of partial differential equations (PDEs). SAMRAI is developed and maintained in the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) under ASCI ITS and PSE support. SAMRAI is used in a variety of application research efforts at LLNL and in academia. These applications are developed in collaboration with SAMRAI development team members.

  11. Genealogy of major U.S. refiners - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Genealogy of Major U.S. Refiners Release date: September 18, 2013 figre 1. World energy consumption, 1990-2040. The structure of the U.S. petroleum refining industry has changed ...

  12. ,"Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales ... "Back to Contents","Data 1: Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ...

  13. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  14. Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Petroleum Refining Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas,

  15. ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy Use:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Selected Applications in Chemicals Processing and Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy Use: Selected Applications in Chemicals Processing and Petroleum Refining ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy Use: Selected Applications in Chemicals Processing and Petroleum Refining condition_assessment.pdf (319.56 KB) More Documents & Publications Effective Fouling Minimization Increases the Efficiency and Productivity of

  16. Deformable elastic network refinement for low-resolution macromolecular crystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrƶder, Gunnar F.; Levitt, Michael; Brunger, Axel T.

    2014-09-01

    An overview of applications of the deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method is presented together with recommendations for its optimal usage. Crystals of membrane proteins and protein complexes often diffract to low resolution owing to their intrinsic molecular flexibility, heterogeneity or the mosaic spread of micro-domains. At low resolution, the building and refinement of atomic models is a more challenging task. The deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method developed previously has been instrumental in the determinion of several structures at low resolution. Here, DEN refinement is reviewed, recommendations for its optimal usage are provided and its limitations are discussed. Representative examples of the application of DEN refinement to challenging cases of refinement at low resolution are presented. These cases include soluble as well as membrane proteins determined at limiting resolutions ranging from 3 to 7 ƅ. Potential extensions of the DEN refinement technique and future perspectives for the interpretation of low-resolution crystal structures are also discussed.

  17. Pollution prevention in the petroleum refining industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fromm, C.H.; White, S.L.

    1995-09-01

    Pollution prevention (P2) as applied to petroleum refining should seek opportunities to reduce waste by preventing oil/hydrocarbon loss, by decreasing consumption of auxiliary input materials, and by improving conversion of incoming impurities into useful products. This chapter will focus on P2 techniques that have found or could find applications in minimizing or eliminating reducible solid waste and wastewater from the petroleum refining process. Air emissions are not covered. The following commonly encountered wastes are considered in this chapter: oily sludges; spent caustics; spent catalysts; miscellaneous process wastes; wastewater; maintenance and materials handling wastes. Following a brief description of waste components and sources, specific P2 techniques are presented in tabular form for each of these wastestreams. None of the P2 techniques presented is discussed here in any detail--the intent is to give the reader a menu of potentially effective P2 options to consider, along with the references where a more detailed discussion may be found. Some of the options presented were advanced in the original references merely as suggestions or plans for improvement. No effort was made to verify their efficacy or applicability in this compilation.

  18. COSMOLOGICAL ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS WITH ENZO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, David C.; Xu Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Li Hui; Li Shengtai

    2010-02-01

    In this work, we present EnzoMHD, the extension of the cosmological code Enzo to include the effects of magnetic fields through the ideal magnetohydrodynamics approximation. We use a higher order Godunov method for the computation of interface fluxes. We use two constrained transport methods to compute the electric field from those interface fluxes, which simultaneously advances the induction equation and maintains the divergence of the magnetic field. A second-order divergence-free reconstruction technique is used to interpolate the magnetic fields in the block-structured adaptive mesh refinement framework already extant in Enzo. This reconstruction also preserves the divergence of the magnetic field to machine precision. We use operator splitting to include gravity and cosmological expansion. We then present a series of cosmological and non-cosmological test problems to demonstrate the quality of solution resulting from this combination of solvers.

  19. Visualization Tools for Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Gunther H.; Beckner, Vincent E.; Childs, Hank; Ligocki,Terry J.; Miller, Mark C.; Van Straalen, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes

    2007-05-09

    Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a highly effective method for simulations that span a large range of spatiotemporal scales, such as astrophysical simulations that must accommodate ranges from interstellar to sub-planetary. Most mainstream visualization tools still lack support for AMR as a first class data type and AMR code teams use custom built applications for AMR visualization. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Science Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) is currently working on extending VisIt, which is an open source visualization tool that accommodates AMR as a first-class data type. These efforts will bridge the gap between general-purpose visualization applications and highly specialized AMR visual analysis applications. Here, we give an overview of the state of the art in AMR visualization research and tools and describe how VisIt currently handles AMR data.

  20. Visualization of Scalar Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VACET; Weber, Gunther; Weber, Gunther H.; Beckner, Vince E.; Childs, Hank; Ligocki, Terry J.; Miller, Mark C.; Van Straalen, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes

    2007-12-06

    Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a highly effective computation method for simulations that span a large range of spatiotemporal scales, such as astrophysical simulations, which must accommodate ranges from interstellar to sub-planetary. Most mainstream visualization tools still lack support for AMR grids as a first class data type and AMR code teams use custom built applications for AMR visualization. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Science Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) is currently working on extending VisIt, which is an open source visualization tool that accommodates AMR as a first-class data type. These efforts will bridge the gap between general-purpose visualization applications and highly specialized AMR visual analysis applications. Here, we give an overview of the state of the art in AMR scalar data visualization research.

  1. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) | Department of Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) profile.pdf (1.62 MB) More Documents & Publications ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry

  2. A comparative assessment of resource efficiency in petroleum refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jeongwoo; Forman, Grant S.; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; DiVita, Vincent B.

    2015-03-25

    Because of increasing environmental and energy security concerns, a detailed understanding of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the petroleum refining industry is critical for fair and equitable energy and environmental policies. To date, this has proved challenging due in part to the complex nature and variability within refineries. In an effort to simplify energy and emissions refinery analysis, we delineated LP modeling results from 60 large refineries from the US and EU into broad categories based on crude density (API gravity) and heavy product (HP) yields. Product-specific efficiencies and process fuel shares derived from this study were incorporated in Argonne National Laboratoryā€™s GREET life-cycle model, along with regional upstream GHG intensities of crude, natural gas and electricity specific to the US and EU regions. The modeling results suggest that refineries that process relatively heavier crude inputs and have lower yields of HPs generally have lower energy efficiencies and higher GHG emissions than refineries that run lighter crudes with lower yields of HPs. The former types of refineries tend to utilize energy-intensive units which are significant consumers of utilities (heat and electricity) and hydrogen. Among the three groups of refineries studied, the major difference in the energy intensities is due to the amount of purchased natural gas for utilities and hydrogen, while the sum of refinery feed inputs are generally constant. These results highlight the GHG emissions cost a refiner pays to process deep into the barrel to produce more of the desirable fuels with low carbon to hydrogen ratio.

  3. A comparative assessment of resource efficiency in petroleum refining

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Han, Jeongwoo; Forman, Grant S.; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; DiVita, Vincent B.

    2015-03-25

    Because of increasing environmental and energy security concerns, a detailed understanding of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the petroleum refining industry is critical for fair and equitable energy and environmental policies. To date, this has proved challenging due in part to the complex nature and variability within refineries. In an effort to simplify energy and emissions refinery analysis, we delineated LP modeling results from 60 large refineries from the US and EU into broad categories based on crude density (API gravity) and heavy product (HP) yields. Product-specific efficiencies and process fuel shares derived from this study weremoreĀ Ā» incorporated in Argonne National Laboratoryā€™s GREET life-cycle model, along with regional upstream GHG intensities of crude, natural gas and electricity specific to the US and EU regions. The modeling results suggest that refineries that process relatively heavier crude inputs and have lower yields of HPs generally have lower energy efficiencies and higher GHG emissions than refineries that run lighter crudes with lower yields of HPs. The former types of refineries tend to utilize energy-intensive units which are significant consumers of utilities (heat and electricity) and hydrogen. Among the three groups of refineries studied, the major difference in the energy intensities is due to the amount of purchased natural gas for utilities and hydrogen, while the sum of refinery feed inputs are generally constant. These results highlight the GHG emissions cost a refiner pays to process deep into the barrel to produce more of the desirable fuels with low carbon to hydrogen ratio.Ā«Ā less

  4. A Comparative Assessment of Resource Efficiency in Petroleum Refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jeongwoo; Forman, G; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; Divita, V

    2015-10-01

    Because of increasing environmental and energy security concerns, a detailed understanding of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the petroleum refining industry is critical for fair and equitable energy and environmental policies. To date, this has proved challenging due in part to the complex nature and variability within refineries. In an effort to simplify energy and emissions refinery analysis, we delineated LP modeling results from 60 large refineries from the US and EU into broad categories based on crude density (API gravity) and heavy product (HP) yields. Product-specific efficiencies and process fuel shares derived from this study were incorporated in Argonne National Laboratory's GREET life-cycle model, along with regional upstream GHG intensities of crude, natural gas and electricity specific to the US and EU regions. The modeling results suggest that refineries that process relatively heavier crude inputs and have lower yields of HPs generally have lower energy efficiencies and higher GHG emissions than refineries that run lighter crudes with lower yields of HPs. The former types of refineries tend to utilize energy-intensive units which are significant consumers of utilities (heat and electricity) and hydrogen. Among the three groups of refineries studied, the major difference in the energy intensities is due to the amount of purchased natural gas for utilities and hydrogen, while the sum of refinery feed inputs are generally constant. These results highlight the GHG emissions cost a refiner pays to process deep into the barrel to produce more of the desirable fuels with low carbon to hydrogen ratio. (c) 2015 Argonne National Laboratory. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Secretary Bodman Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Capacity | Department of Energy Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining Capacity Secretary Bodman Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining Capacity May 18, 2006 - 10:43am Addthis Highlights President Bush's Four-Point Plan to Combat High Energy Prices PORT ARTHUR, TX - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today renewed the call for expanded oil refining capacity in the United States and discussed additional steps the Department of Energy (DOE) is taking to prepare for the

  6. REFINING PROGRAM HELPS REENERGIZE NEBRASKA UPGRADES | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    REFINING PROGRAM HELPS REENERGIZE NEBRASKA UPGRADES REFINING PROGRAM HELPS REENERGIZE NEBRASKA UPGRADES REFINING PROGRAM HELPS REENERGIZE NEBRASKA UPGRADES In a state where energy costs are low and the home performance workforce had not been established, Nebraska's two largest cities-Omaha and Lincoln-took on the challenge of promoting whole home energy upgrades to homeowners, businesses, and nonprofit organizations. Using $10 million in seed funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's)

  7. Parallel adaptive mesh refinement for electronic structure calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohn, S.; Weare, J.; Ong, E.; Baden, S.

    1996-12-01

    We have applied structured adaptive mesh refinement techniques to the solution of the LDA equations for electronic structure calculations. Local spatial refinement concentrates memory resources and numerical effort where it is most needed, near the atomic centers and in regions of rapidly varying charge density. The structured grid representation enables us to employ efficient iterative solver techniques such as conjugate gradients with multigrid preconditioning. We have parallelized our solver using an object-oriented adaptive mesh refinement framework.

  8. The Five-Step Development Process Step 3: Project Refinement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    3: Project Refinement 2 1 Potential 3 Refinement 4 Implementation 5 Operations & Maintenance 2 Options 3 Refinement 3 FUNDING AND FINANCING OPTIONS Project Ownership Financing structure is highly dependent on size of the project and the capital available for a given project: * Tribe owns the project (cash purchase or debt) * Tribe hosts the project and buys the electricity (power purchase agreement) * Tribe partners with private sector and co-owns the project (uncertainties about receipt of

  9. ,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...www.eia.govdnavpetpetprirefmg2cnusepm0rdpgalm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ... Reformulated Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per ...

  10. ,"U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...www.eia.govdnavpetpetprirefmg2cnusepm0udpgalm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ... Conventional Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per ...

  11. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997 Table 43....

  12. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All Grades Sales...

  13. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2000 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All Grades Sales...

  14. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 43....

  15. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  16. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  17. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  18. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  19. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  20. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  1. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    - - - - W W - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 292 Energy...

  2. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  3. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  4. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  5. ,"U.S. Total Refiner Petroleum Product Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    NUSDPG","EMAEPPRPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRLPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRHPTGNUSDPG" "Date","U.S. Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per Gallon)","U.S. Aviation Gasoline...

  6. Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy ...

  7. The Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris (STARE) mission Authors: Riot, V ; Devries, W ; Bauman, B ; Simms, L ; Carter, D ; Phillion, D ; Olivier, S ...

  8. The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris Pathfinder Mission Authors: Simms, L ; De Vries, W ; RIot, V ; Olivier, S ; Pertica, A ; Bauman, B ; ...

  9. ITP Petroleum Refining: Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 ITP Petroleum Refining: Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 techvision.pdf (684.96 KB) More Documents & Publications Manufacturing Energy and Carbon ...

  10. Refiners react to changes in the pipeline infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    Petroleum pipelines have long been a critical component in the distribution of crude and refined products in the U.S. Pipelines are typically the most cost efficient mode of transportation for reasonably consistent flow rates. For obvious reasons, inland refineries and consumers are much more dependent on petroleum pipelines to provide supplies of crude and refined products than refineries and consumers located on the coasts. Significant changes in U.S. distribution patterns for crude and refined products are reshaping the pipeline infrastructure and presenting challenges and opportunities for domestic refiners. These changes are discussed.

  11. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  12. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California refiningroadmap.pdf (1.34 ...

  13. The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris Pathfinder Mission Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Space-Based Telescopes for ...

  14. Mr. R. M. Zielinski, Plant Manager Amoco Chemical Company

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    We note that the levels of radiation identified at this site are typical of those found at most sites processing Florida phosphate ore and other commercial operations that utilize ...

  15. Adaptive h -refinement for reduced-order models: ADAPTIVE h -refinement for reduced-order models

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Carlberg, Kevin T.

    2014-11-05

    Our work presents a method to adaptively refine reduced-order models a posteriori without requiring additional full-order-model solves. The technique is analogous to mesh-adaptive h-refinement: it enriches the reduced-basis space online by ā€˜splittingā€™ a given basis vector into several vectors with disjoint support. The splitting scheme is defined by a tree structure constructed offline via recursive k-means clustering of the state variables using snapshot data. This method identifies the vectors to split online using a dual-weighted-residual approach that aims to reduce error in an output quantity of interest. The resulting method generates a hierarchy of subspaces online without requiring large-scale operationsmoreĀ Ā» or full-order-model solves. Furthermore, it enables the reduced-order model to satisfy any prescribed error tolerance regardless of its original fidelity, as a completely refined reduced-order model is mathematically equivalent to the original full-order model. Experiments on a parameterized inviscid Burgers equation highlight the ability of the method to capture phenomena (e.g., moving shocks) not contained in the span of the original reduced basis.Ā«Ā less

  16. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton; Cook, Glenn M.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  17. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1988-05-17

    Apparatus is described for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom. 2 figs.

  18. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1985-05-21

    Disclosed is an apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  19. Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    This report summarizes revisions to the design basis for the linear programing refining model that is being used in the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. This revision primarily reflects the addition of data for the upgrading of direct coal liquids.

  20. ,"Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)","New Mexico Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners ...87,16127.8,1684.4,1377.2,128.8,497.8,835.6,2030.3,1178.7,674.5,56.4,3.9,4678.6,764.1,9.3,1...

  1. ,"No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)","New Mexico No 2 Distillate Retail Sales by Refiners ...57.7,6018.7,64.6,101.5,691.5,1553.8,1576.9,2030.5,4320.3,1350.4,683.2,792.4,316.4,804.3,37...

  2. Integrated process for the solvent refining of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar

    1983-01-01

    A process is set forth for the integrated liquefaction of coal by the catalytic solvent refining of a feed coal in a first stage to liquid and solid products and the catalytic hydrogenation of the solid product in a second stage to produce additional liquid product. A fresh inexpensive, throw-away catalyst is utilized in the second stage hydrogenation of the solid product and this catalyst is recovered and recycled for catalyst duty in the solvent refining stage without any activation steps performed on the used catalyst prior to its use in the solvent refining of feed coal.

  3. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    253.2 2,222.4 W W 206.4 134.3 - 340.7 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  4. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    150.0 2,026.7 W W 234.5 161.7 - 396.3 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  5. May 28 Webinar to Focus on Tribal Energy Project Refinement

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Register for the Tribal Renewable Energy Project Refinement webinar, which will be held on Wednesday, May 28, 2014, from 11 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. Mountain time.

  6. Waste minimization for selected residuals in the petroleum refining industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    This technical report on residuals in the petroleum refining industry provides an industry overview, process description, and process flow diagrams. It presents residual descriptions for each of the 29 petroleum refining residuals of concern and what source reduction option exist. It reviews the data sources - RCRA Section 2007 surveys, site visits, and journal articles. It also describes major findings and evaluates the quantity and quality of waste minization information for each source.

  7. EERE Success Story-Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum EERE Success Story-Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis W.R. Grace, a leading provider of refining ...

  8. The Common Sense Initiative: Petroleum refining sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, M.M.

    1995-12-31

    The Common Sense Initiative is trying to answer three questions: (1) ``How does one leverage the change in corporate attitudes for more efficient compliance with pollution prevention and greater use of innovative technologies?`` (2) ``How does one incorporate new approaches into the traditional menu of EPA compliance tools?`` (3) ``How can one accomplish cleaner, cheaper, smarter results?`` One answer is to create a process that includes all stakeholders that have to either implement or live with EPA decisions. This is being done by creating stake-holder groups representing labor, communities, national and grassroots environmental organization, industries and States. The focus is on realizing improvements in: pollution prevention; innovative technologies; permitting; regulations; compliance; and reporting and recordkeeping.

  9. Toward parallel, adaptive mesh refinement for chemically reacting flow simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devine, K.D.; Shadid, J.N.; Salinger, A.G. Hutchinson, S.A.; Hennigan, G.L.

    1997-12-01

    Adaptive numerical methods offer greater efficiency than traditional numerical methods by concentrating computational effort in regions of the problem domain where the solution is difficult to obtain. In this paper, the authors describe progress toward adding mesh refinement to MPSalsa, a computer program developed at Sandia National laboratories to solve coupled three-dimensional fluid flow and detailed reaction chemistry systems for modeling chemically reacting flow on large-scale parallel computers. Data structures that support refinement and dynamic load-balancing are discussed. Results using uniform refinement with mesh sequencing to improve convergence to steady-state solutions are also presented. Three examples are presented: a lid driven cavity, a thermal convection flow, and a tilted chemical vapor deposition reactor.

  10. The US petroleum refining industry in the 1980's

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-11

    As part of the EIA program on petroleum, The US Petroleum Refining Industry in the 1980's, presents a historical analysis of the changes that took place in the US petroleum refining industry during the 1980's. It is intended to be of interest to analysts in the petroleum industry, state and federal government officials, Congress, and the general public. The report consists of six chapters and four appendices. Included is a detailed description of the major events and factors that affected the domestic refining industry during this period. Some of the changes that took place in the 1980's are the result of events that started in the 1970's. The impact of these events on US refinery configuration, operations, economics, and company ownership are examined. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state`s total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation`s energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska`s 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  12. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II.

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state's total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation's energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska's 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  13. Group X

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  14. PROP re-refined oil engine test performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linnard, R.E.

    1980-11-01

    Using conventional, commercially-available nonproprietary (to Phillips) additive treatments, engine test programs have successfully demonstrated Phillips Re-refined Oil Process (PROP) oils' compliance with the performance requirements of MIL-L-46152A and API Services SE/CC. This paper reports on the engine testing experience with PROP refined oils as produced in a full-scale 2 MM GPY PROP plant operating with Buyer-collected used oil feedstocks. Comment is also made on the status of the first two PROP plants, one built for the state of North Carolina and the other for Mohawk Oil Company, Ltd., Vancouver B.C., Canada.

  15. Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum RefiningIndustry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-05-01

    Information has proven to be an important barrier inindustrial energy efficiency improvement. Voluntary government programsaim to assist industry to improve energy efficiency by supplyinginformation on opportunities. ENERGY STAR(R) supports the development ofstrong strategic corporate energy management programs, by providingenergy management information tools and strategies. This paper summarizesENERGY STAR research conducted to develop an Energy Guide for thePetroleum Refining industry. Petroleum refining in the United States isthe largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually every economicsector, including the transport sector and the chemical industry.Refineries spend typically 50 percent of the cash operating costs (e.g.,excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy amajor cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction.The petroleum refining industry consumes about 3.1 Quads of primaryenergy, making it the single largest industrial energy user in the UnitedStates. Typically, refineries can economically improve energy efficiencyby 20 percent. The findings suggest that given available resources andtechnology, there are substantial opportunities to reduce energyconsumption cost-effectively in the petroleum refining industry whilemaintaining the quality of the products manufactured.

  16. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1995 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No. 4...

  17. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1997 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

  18. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1995 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

  19. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1996 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No. 4...

  20. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1995 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Retail < or 1% Wholesale < or 1% Retail > 1% Wholesale > 1% 7. U.S. Refiner Residual...

  1. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1996 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

  2. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1997 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No. 4...

  3. Decontamination of transuranic contaminated metals by melt refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heshmatpour, B.; Copeland, G.L.; Heestand, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Melt refining of transuranic contaminated metals is a possible decontamination process with the potential advantages of producing metal for reuse and of simplifying chemical analyses. By routinely achieving the 10 nCi/g( about0.1ppm) level by melt refining, scrap metal can be removed from the transuranic waste category. (To demonstrate the effectiveness of this melt refining process, mild steel, stainless steel, nickel, and copper were contaminated with 500 ppm (..mu..g/g) PuO/sub 2/ and melted with various fluxes. The solidified slags and metals were analyzed for their plutonium contents, and corresponding partition ratios for plutonium were calculated. Some metals were double refined in order to study the effect of secondary slag treatment. The initial weight of the slags was also varied to investigate the effect of slag weight on the degree of plutonium removal. In general, all four metals could be decontaminated below 1 ppm (..mu..g/g) Pu ( about100 nCi/g) by a single slag treatment. Doubling the slag weight did not improve decontamination significantly; however, double slag treatment using 5 wt.% slag did decontaminate the metals to below 0.1 ppm (..mu..g/g) Pu (10 nCi/g).)

  4. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    71.8 W 70.5 78.9 W 76.0 83.6 W 69.2 75.2 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

  5. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    W 68.4 70.8 W W 78.6 W 85.7 81.8 W 69.3 73.8 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

  6. Process for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, P.S. Jr.; Agee, W.A.; Bullock, J.S. IV; Condon, J.B.

    1975-07-22

    A process is described for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys wherein molten uranium and uranium alloys are melted in a molten layer of a fluoride slag containing up to about 8 weight percent calcium metal. The calcium metal reduces oxides in the uranium and uranium alloys to provide them with an oxygen content of less than 100 parts per million. (auth)

  7. ,"Conventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)","New Mexico Conventional Gasoline Retail Sales by ...928.8,,587,12358.1,196,1145.9,128.8,497.8,,2030.3,,459.7,56.4,3.9,4678.6,764.1,9.3,1677.4,...

  8. Galaxy groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Tully, R.

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10{sup 12}M{sub ?} are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of ?{sub matter}?0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  9. Macro Industrial Working Group

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    is a "Lite" year - New ethanepropane pricing model only major update - Major side ... you'll see today - Shipments - Industrial energy use (total and excluding both refining ...

  10. REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    This document summarizes all of the work conducted as part of the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. There were several distinct objectives set, as the study developed over time: (1) Demonstration of a Refinery Accepting Coal Liquids; (2) Emissions Screening of Indirect Diesel; (3) Biomass Gasification F-T Modeling; and (4) Updated Gas to Liquids (GTL) Baseline Design/Economic Study.

  11. Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale Contents * Introduction * Motor Gasoline Summer Volatility (RVP) Regulations o Table 1. Summer Volatility Regulations for Motor Gasoline o Table 2. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Figure 1. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Table 3. Price Relationship Between Normal Butane and Motor Gasoline o Table 4. Market Price Premium for Low Vapor Pressure (RVP) Gasoline *

  12. Decontamination of steel by melt refining: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    It has been reported that a large amount of metal waste is produced annually by nuclear fuel processing and nuclear power plants. These metal wastes are contaminated with radioactive elements, such as uranium and plutonium. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain level. Because of high cost, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low level contaminated metals. It has been shown by some investigators that a melt refining technique can be used for the processing of the contaminated metal wastes. In this process, contaminated metal is melted wit a suitable flux. The radioactive elements are oxidized and transferred to a slag phase. In order to develop a commercial process it is important to have information on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the removal. Therefore, a literature search was carried out to evaluate the available information on the decontamination uranium and transuranic-contaminated plain steel, copper and stainless steel by melt a refining technique. Emphasis was given to the thermodynamics and kinetics of the removal. Data published in the literature indicate that it is possible to reduce the concentration of radioactive elements to a very low level by the melt refining method. 20 refs.

  13. Mesh refinement for uncertainty quantification through model reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jing Stinis, Panos

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel way of deciding when and where to refine a mesh in probability space in order to facilitate uncertainty quantification in the presence of discontinuities in random space. A discontinuity in random space makes the application of generalized polynomial chaos expansion techniques prohibitively expensive. The reason is that for discontinuous problems, the expansion converges very slowly. An alternative to using higher terms in the expansion is to divide the random space in smaller elements where a lower degree polynomial is adequate to describe the randomness. In general, the partition of the random space is a dynamic process since some areas of the random space, particularly around the discontinuity, need more refinement than others as time evolves. In the current work we propose a way to decide when and where to refine the random space mesh based on the use of a reduced model. The idea is that a good reduced model can monitor accurately, within a random space element, the cascade of activity to higher degree terms in the chaos expansion. In turn, this facilitates the efficient allocation of computational sources to the areas of random space where they are more needed. For the Kraichnanā€“Orszag system, the prototypical system to study discontinuities in random space, we present theoretical results which show why the proposed method is sound and numerical results which corroborate the theory.

  14. ,"Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or ... Data for" ,"Data 1","Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales ...

  15. RFA-14-0001 - In the Matter of Commonwealth Oil Refining Company...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    RFA-14-0001 - In the Matter of Commonwealth Oil Refining Company, Inc.Commonwealth of Puerto Rico RFA-14-0001 - In the Matter of Commonwealth Oil Refining Company, Inc....

  16. Catalytic hydroprocessing of solvent refined coal to provide a liquid and a solid fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, M.J.; Heck, R.H.; Stein, T.R.

    1980-04-29

    In the hydroprocessing of blends of solvent refined coal and recycle solvent, small pore hydrotreating catalysts cause separation of a solid phase from treating blends containing high concentration of solvent refined coal.

  17. Petroleum Refining Sector (NAICS 324110) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    69 2.4 PETROLEUM REFINING SECTOR (NAICS 324110) 2.4.1. Overview of the Petroleum Refining Manufacturing Sector Petroleum refining is a complex industry that generates a diverse slate of fuel products and petrochemicals, from gasoline to asphalt. Refining requires a range of processing steps, including distillation, cracking, reforming, and treating. Most of these processes are highly reliant on process heating and steam energy. Petroleum refineries are an essential part of the U.S. economy.

  18. Occupational employment survey, booklet of definitions. Petroleum refining, coal products, and related industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The publication gives occupational definitions for 149 occupations in the petroleum refining, coal products, and related industries.

  19. Refining and end use study of coal liquids. Quarterly report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    Bechtel, with Southwest Research Institute, Amoco Oil R&D, and the M.W. Kellog Co. as subcontractors, initiated a study on November 1, 1993 for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to determine the most cost effective and suitable combination of existing petroleum refinery processes needed to make specification transportation fuels or blending stocks, from direct and indirect coal liquefaction product liquids. The work has been divided into two parts, the Basic Program and Option 1. The objectives of the Basic Program are to characterize the coal liquids, develop an optimized refinery configuration for processing indirect and direct coal liquids, and develop a LP refinery model with the Process Industry Modeling System (PIMS) software. The objectives of Option 1 are to confirm the validity of the optimization work of the Basic Program, produce large quantities of liquid transportation fuel blending stocks, conduct engine emission tests, and determine the value and the processing costs of the coal liquids. The major efforts during the reporting period, October through December 1996, were in the areas of Option 1 blending and Option 1 FCC production run.

  20. Environmental control technology for mining, milling, and refining thorium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate, in terms of cost and effectiveness, the various environmental control technologies that would be used to control the radioactive wastes generated in the mining, milling, and refining of thorium from domestic resources. The technologies, in order to be considered for study, had to reduce the radioactivity in the waste streams to meet Atomic Energy Commission (10 CFR 20) standards for natural thorium's maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in air and water. Further regulatory standards or licensing requirements, either federal, state, or local, were not examined. The availability and cost of producing thorium from domestic resources is addressed in a companion volume. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the major waste streams generated during the mining, milling, and refining of reactor-grade thorium oxide from domestic resources; and (2) to determine the cost and levels of control of existing and advanced environmental control technologies for these waste streams. Six potential domestic deposits of thorium oxide, in addition to stockpiled thorium sludges, are discussed in this report. A summary of the location and characteristics of the potential domestic thorium resources and the mining, milling, and refining processes that will be needed to produce reactor-grade thorium oxide is presented in Section 2. The wastes from existing and potential domestic thorium oxide mines, mills, and refineries are identified in Section 3. Section 3 also presents the state-of-the-art technology and the costs associated with controlling the wastes from the mines, mills, and refineries. In Section 4, the available environmental control technologies for mines, mills, and refineries are assessed. Section 5 presents the cost and effectiveness estimates for the various environmental control technologies applicable to the mine, mill, and refinery for each domestic resource.

  1. Cogeneration handbook for the petroleum refining industry. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fassbender, A.G.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the petroleum refining industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  2. Changing Trends in the Refining Industry (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications

    2006-01-01

    There have been some major changes in the U.S. refining industry recently, prompted in part by a significant decline in the quality of imported crude oil and by increasing restrictions on the quality of finished products. As a result, high-quality crudes, such as the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude that serves as a benchmark for oil futures on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), have been trading at record premiums to the OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) Basket price.

  3. Group Members

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Group Leader Sherry Yennello See full cv Assistant Research Scientist Alan B. McIntosh 2010-presentalanmcintosh at tamu.edu Current Post Docs Meirong Huang 2015-present Current Graduate Students Lauren Heilborn PhD Expected 2015 Andrew Zarrella PhD Expected 2016 Andrea Jedele PhD Expected 2018 Current Undergraduate Students Christine Lawrence 2015-Present Continuing Collaborators George Souliotis Past Post Docs Mike Youngs 2013-2016 Ellen Mccleskey 2014-2016 Justin Mabiala 2011-2014 Paola Marini

  4. Group Publications

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Publications Background Literature Group: Publications, Annual Reports, Theses, Conference Proceedings Title Lead Author Reference and Link Novel technique to extract experimental symmetry free energy information for nuclear matter J. Mabiala Phys. Rev. C 92, 024605 (2015) Studying heavy-ion collisions with coverage near zero degrees with FAUST-QTS P. Cammarata NIMA 792 61 (2015) Isoscaling of heavy projectile residues and N/Z equilibration in peripheral heavy-ion collisions below the Fermi

  5. Methods of refining natural oils and methods of producing fuel compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Firth, Bruce E; Kirk, Sharon E; Gavaskar, Vasudeo S

    2015-11-04

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent selected from the group consisting of phosphorous acid, phosphinic acid, and a combination thereof; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  6. Metal decontamination for waste minimization using liquid metal refining technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Lally, B.; Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J.

    1993-09-01

    The current Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project flowsheet indicates that no conventional technology, other than surface decontamination, exists for metal processing. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain concentration. This project is in support of the National Mixed Low Level Waste Treatment Program. Because of the high cost of disposal, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low-level contaminated metals. It is important to be able to decontaminate complex shapes where surfaces are hidden or inaccessible to surface decontamination processes and destruction of organic contamination. These goals can be achieved by adapting commercial metal refining processes to handle radioactive and organic contaminated metal. The radioactive components are concentrated in the slag, which is subsequently vitrified; hazardous organics are destroyed by the intense heat of the bath. The metal, after having been melted and purified, could be recycled for use within the DOE complex. In this project, we evaluated current state-of-the-art technologies for metal refining, with special reference to the removal of radioactive contaminants and the destruction of hazardous organics. This evaluation was based on literature reports, industrial experience, plant visits, thermodynamic calculations, and engineering aspects of the various processes. The key issues addressed included radioactive partitioning between the metal and slag phases, minimization of secondary wastes, operability of the process subject to widely varying feed chemistry, and the ability to seal the candidate process to prevent the release of hazardous species.

  7. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process: trace elements. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 6. Fate of trace elements in the SRC process. [Ph. D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, C.S.

    1980-09-01

    A study of the forms of trace elements occurring in Solvent Refined Coal has been performed by chemical separation of the Solvent Refined Coal based on differences in the functionality and molecular weight of the organic matrix. Analysis of the fractions separated for various trace elements has revealed associations of certain elements with other elements as well as with certain fractions. The analysis of Solvent Refined Coal I by these methods provided data on the distribution of Ti, V, Ca, S, Al, Mn, As, Se, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Sc, and Ga in the fractions generated. Because of the low trace element content of Solvent Refined Coal II only As, Se, and Cr could be detected in the silica fractions. Based on the distributions three different groups of elements have been based on the association of elements with each other and with certain fractions. The first group is composed of As, Se, and Cr associated with silica fractions of relatively low functionality; these elements have a high percent solubility in the starting Solvent Refined Coal II oil. The second group composed of Ti, V, and to a lesser extent a second form of Cr, is associated with fractions that have a high concentration of phenolic material and is probably present as phenoxide complexes. The third group composed of Fe, Ca, K, Al, and Mg is associated with the most functional fractions and is possibly present as humic acid type complexes or as submicron size particulates. The integration of chromatographic methods with trace element analysis of the fractions generated is capable of discerning the presence of different forms of the elements. The methods used are applicable to other important geologically occurring organic matter.

  8. ENZO: AN ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT CODE FOR ASTROPHYSICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, Greg L.; Turk, Matthew J.; Norman, Michael L.; Bordner, James; Xu, Hao; Kritsuk, Alexei G.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Smith, Britton; Abel, Tom; Wang, Peng; Skillman, Samuel W.; Wise, John H.; Reynolds, Daniel R.; Collins, David C.; Harkness, Robert P.; Kim, Ji-hoon; Kuhlen, Michael; Goldbaum, Nathan; Hummels, Cameron; Collaboration: Enzo Collaboration; and others

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the open-source code Enzo, which uses block-structured adaptive mesh refinement to provide high spatial and temporal resolution for modeling astrophysical fluid flows. The code is Cartesian, can be run in one, two, and three dimensions, and supports a wide variety of physics including hydrodynamics, ideal and non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics, N-body dynamics (and, more broadly, self-gravity of fluids and particles), primordial gas chemistry, optically thin radiative cooling of primordial and metal-enriched plasmas (as well as some optically-thick cooling models), radiation transport, cosmological expansion, and models for star formation and feedback in a cosmological context. In addition to explaining the algorithms implemented, we present solutions for a wide range of test problems, demonstrate the code's parallel performance, and discuss the Enzo collaboration's code development methodology.

  9. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  10. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-11-22

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figs.

  11. A case study of energy conservation opportunities in copper refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somers, W.E.; Hughen, M.L.; Kurylko, L.; Stone, J.R.

    1982-07-01

    A study of energy usage and distribution in a copper refinery was conducted in an attempt to determine possible cost savings in operations of the plant. The study covered those processes which were the major users of energy, namely, smelting, anode casting, electrolytic refining, steam generation and distribution, and electricity distribution. The study involved obtaining data of mass and energy flows in the refinery; identifying energy conservation opportunities (ECO's); obtaining price, operating costs, and saving potentials; for each conservation measure; and analyzing the economical viability of each conservation proposal. Potential cost savings were found to be substantial in heat recovery from slag and anode furnace hot gases, modification of the central steam supply system, control, and redistribution of electrical loads, insulation of electrolytic tanks, and changes in the atomization of oil.

  12. Research Groups - Cyclotron Institute

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Groups Research Group Homepages: Nuclear Theory Group Dr. Sherry Yennello's Research Group Dr. Dan Melconian's Research Group Dr. Cody Folden's Group...

  13. Evaluation of tropical channel refinement using MPAS-A aquaplanet simulations: TROPICAL CHANNEL REFINEMENT IN MPAS-A

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Martini, Matus N.; Gustafson, William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po-Lun

    2015-09-01

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scalesā€“Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configurationmoreĀ Ā» using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20Ā°Sā€“20Ā°N) and one with a wide (30Ā°Sā€“30Ā°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. The relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in earlier

  14. Influence of Alloy and Solidification Parameters on Grain Refinement in Aluminum Weld Metal due to Inoculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schempp, Philipp [BAM, Germany; Tang, Z. [BIAS, Germany; Cross, Carl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seefeld, T. [BIAS, Germany; Pittner, A. [BAM, Germany; Rethmeier, M. [BAM, Germany

    2012-06-28

    The goals are: (1) Establish how much Ti/B grain refiner is need to completely refine aluminum weld metal for different alloys and different welding conditions; (2) Characterize how alloy composition and solidification parameters affect weld metal grain refinement; and (3) Apply relevant theory to understand observed behavior. Conclusions are: (1) additions of Ti/B grain refiner to weld metal in Alloys 1050, 5083, and 6082 resulted in significant grain refinement; (2) grain refinement was more effective in GTAW than LBW, resulting in finer grains at lower Ti content - reason is limited time available for equiaxed grain growth in LBW (inability to occlude columnar grain growth); (3) welding travel speed did not markedly affect grain size within GTAW and LBW clusters; and (4) application of Hunt CET analysis showed experimental G to be on the order of the critical G{sub CET}; G{sub CET} was consistently higher for GTAW than for LBW.

  15. Just the crude oil, please: The oil imports - refining capacity connection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Steep growth has brought crude oil imports converging with the amount of US crude oil production in 1993. Meanwhile, petroleum product imports into the US have been falling because, among other reasons, only a few refiners outside the US can produce refined products to the specifications of environmentally minded US legislators. As refiners have concentrated investment to produce clean fuels only in select facilities, supply and logistical challenges loom closely in the future.

  16. Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability 1995-2001

    Reports and Publications

    2003-01-01

    This report assesses the effects of pollution abatement requirements on the financial performance of U.S. petroleum refining and marketing operations during the 1995 to 2001 period. This study is a follow-up to the October 1997 publication entitled The Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability, that focused on the financial impacts of U.S. refining pollution abatement investment requirements in the 1988 to1995 period.

  17. ,"U.S. Sales for Resale, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Resale, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ...

  18. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  19. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon...

  20. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  1. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 401 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon...

  2. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type (Million Gallons per Day) - Continued Year...

  3. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Marketing Annual 1999 421 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  4. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Marketing Annual 1995 467 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  5. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    retail outlets, e.g., sales to agricultural customers, commercial sales, and industrial sales. Source: Energy Information Administration Form EIA-782A, "Refiners'Gas...

  6. EERE Success Story-Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum EERE Success Story-Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis W.R. Grace, a leading provider of refining technologies, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are co-leading an effort to accelerate the development of technologies that enable the processing of bio-oils in petroleum refineries. The ability to leverage existing petroleum-refining infrastructure to produce "drop-in" biofuels (biofuels that

  7. Refining and end use study of coal liquids. Quarterly report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    Bechtel, with South west research Institute, Amoco Oil R&D, and the M. W. Kellogg Co. as subcontractors, initiated a study on November 1, 1993, for the US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center to determine the most cost effective and suitable combination of existing petroleum refinery processes needed to make specification transportation fuels or blending stocks, from direct and indirect coal liquefaction product liquids. A key objective is to determine the most desirable ways of integrating coal liquefaction liquids into existing petroleum refineries to produce transportation fuels meeting current and future, e.g. year 2000, Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) standards. An integral part of the above objectives is to test the fuels or blends produced and compare them with established ASTM fuels. The comparison will include engine tests to ascertain compliance of the fuels produced with CAAA and other applicable fuel quality and performance standards. To enhance management of the study, the work has been divided into two parts, the Basic Program and Option 1. The objectives of the Basic Program are to: characterize the coal liquids; develop an optimized refinery configuration for processing indirect and direct coal liquids; and develop a LP refinery model with Process Industry Modeling System software. The objective of Option 1 are to: confirm the validity of the optimization work of the Basic Program; produce large quantities of liquid transportation fuel blending stocks; conduct engine emission tests; and determine the value and the processing costs of the coal liquids. The major effort conducted during the fourth quarter of 1995 were in the areas of: IL catalytic cracking--microactivity tests were conducted on various wax blends; IL wax hydrocracking--a pilot plant run was conducted on a wax/petroleum blend; and DL2 characterization and fractionation.

  8. Refining and end use study of coal liquids. Quarterly report, July - September 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    Bechtel, with Southwest Research Institute, Amoco Oil R&D, and the M. W. Kellogg Co. as subcontractors, initiated a study on November 1, 1993, for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to determine the most cost effective and suitable combination of existing petroleum refinery processes needed to make specification transportation fuels or blending stocks, from direct and indirect coal liquefaction product liquids. This 47-month study, with an approved budget of $4.4 million dollars, is being performed under DOE Contract Number DE-AC22-93PC91029. A key objective is to determine the most desirable ways of integrating coal liquefaction liquids into existing petroleum refineries to produce transportation fuels meeting current and future, e.g. year 2000, Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) standards. An integral part of the above objectives is to test the fuels or blends produced and compare them with established ASTM fuels. The comparison will include engine tests to ascertain compliance of the fuels produced with CAAA and other applicable fuel quality and performance standards. The final part of the project includes a detailed economic evaluation of the cost of processing the coal liquids to their optimum products. The cost analyses is for the incremental processing cost; in other words, the feed is priced at zero dollars. The study reflects costs for operations using state of the art refinery technology; no capital costs for building new refineries is considered. Some modifications to the existing refinery may be required. Economy of scale dictates the minimum amount of feedstock that should be processed. The major efforts conducted during the third quarter of 1996 were in the areas of hydrotreating production runs and FCC production run. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Refining and end use study of coal liquids. Quarterly report, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-09-01

    Bechtel, with Southwest Research Institute, Amoco Oil R&D, and the M. W. Kellogg Co. as subcontractors, initiated a study on November 1, 1993, for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to determine the most cost effective and suitable combination of existing petroleum refinery processes needed to make specification transportation fuels or blending stocks, from direct and indirect coal liquefaction product liquids. A key objective is to determine the most desirable ways of integrating coal liquefaction liquids into existing petroleum refineries to produce transportation fuels meeting current and future, e.g. year 2000, Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) standards. An integral part of the above objectives is to test the fuels or blends produced and compare them with established ASTM fuels. The comparison will include engine tests to ascertain compliance of the fuels produced with CAAA and other applicable fuel quality and performance standards. The final part of the project includes a detailed economic evaluation of the cost of processing the coal liquids to their optimum products. The cost analyses is for the incremental processing cost; in other words, the feed is priced at zero dollars. The study reflects costs for operations using state of the art refinery technology; no capital costs for building new refineries is considered. Some modifications to the existing refinery may be required. Economy of scale dictates the minimum amount of feedstock that should be processed. The major efforts conducted during the first quarter of 1996 were in the areas of: DL2 light distillate hydrotreating; and DL2 heave distillate catalytic cracking.

  10. Environmental regulations and changes in petroleum refining operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lidderdale, T.C.M.

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. petroleum industry has responded to four major new federal rules on motor gasoline product quality in the last 6 years: Phase 1 Summer Volatility (Rvp) Regulation, June 1989; Phase 2 Summer Volatility (Rvp) regulation, May 1992; oxygenated Gasoline, November 1992; and reformulated Gasoline Phase I Simple Model, December 1994. These regulations have generated significant changes in domestic refinery operations, affecting marginal production costs and market prices, refinery yields, and the seasonality of production. Some changes have been dramatic. The price of motor gasoline has increased by as much as 60 {cents}/gal due to regulations. Refinery yields of motor gasoline (refinery output of motor gasoline as a fraction of refinery inputs or total refinery output), which historically peaked in the early summer to meet high summer driving demand, now are highest during the winter months. These changes in domestic refining operations are identified and related to the vapor pressure, oxygenated and reformulated gasoline (RFG) product quality regulations. This analysis uses linear regression equations from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts appearing in the EIA`s Short-Term Energy Outlook.

  11. Bioremediation of petroleum wastes from the refining of lubricant oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prince, M.; Sambasivam, Y. )

    1993-02-01

    The results of an initial feasibility study on the bioremediation of sludge are presented. The sludge used in the study was taken from a site containing waste produced during the refining of lubricant oils to which sulfuric acid had been added. The effectiveness of bioremediation was examined using shake flask experiments with indigenous and other bacteria sources and nutrient supplementation. The initial results show limited effectiveness of biological treatment at conditions employing indigenous bacteria and low (2%) sludge concentrations in Bushnell-Haas media. In addition, the indigenous bacteria were seen to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons naphthalene, penanthrene and pyrene which are present at some locations at the site. No apparent degradation of material was seen using conditions of high (30%) sludge concentrations in Bushnell-Haas medium under a variety of conditions. In addition, nutrients were rapidly depleted at these sludge concentrations, with the exception of sulfates which were produced when high sludge concentrations were used. 23 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Advances in Patch-Based Adaptive Mesh Refinement Scalability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunney, Brian T.N.; Anderson, Robert W.

    2015-12-18

    Patch-based structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) is widely used for high-resolution simu- lations. Combined with modern supercomputers, it could provide simulations of unprecedented size and resolution. A persistent challenge for this com- bination has been managing dynamically adaptive meshes on more and more MPI tasks. The dis- tributed mesh management scheme in SAMRAI has made some progress SAMR scalability, but early al- gorithms still had trouble scaling past the regime of 105 MPI tasks. This work provides two critical SAMR regridding algorithms, which are integrated into that scheme to ensure efficiency of the whole. The clustering algorithm is an extension of the tile- clustering approach, making it more flexible and efficient in both clustering and parallelism. The partitioner is a new algorithm designed to prevent the network congestion experienced by its prede- cessor. We evaluated performance using weak- and strong-scaling benchmarks designed to be difficult for dynamic adaptivity. Results show good scaling on up to 1.5M cores and 2M MPI tasks. Detailed timing diagnostics suggest scaling would continue well past that.

  13. Cosmos++: Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics on Unstructured Grids with Local Adaptive Refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anninos, P; Fragile, P C; Salmonson, J D

    2005-05-06

    A new code and methodology are introduced for solving the fully general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) equations using time-explicit, finite-volume discretization. The code has options for solving the GRMHD equations using traditional artificial-viscosity (AV) or non-oscillatory central difference (NOCD) methods, or a new extended AV (eAV) scheme using artificial-viscosity together with a dual energy-flux-conserving formulation. The dual energy approach allows for accurate modeling of highly relativistic flows at boost factors well beyond what has been achieved to date by standard artificial viscosity methods. it provides the benefit of Godunov methods in capturing high Lorentz boosted flows but without complicated Riemann solvers, and the advantages of traditional artificial viscosity methods in their speed and flexibility. Additionally, the GRMHD equations are solved on an unstructured grid that supports local adaptive mesh refinement using a fully threated oct-tree (in three dimensions) network to traverse the grid hierarchy across levels and immediate neighbors. A number of tests are presented to demonstrate robustness of the numerical algorithms and adaptive mesh framework over a wide spectrum of problems, boosts, and astrophysical applications, including relativistic shock tubes, shock collisions, magnetosonic shocks, Alfven wave propagation, blast waves, magnetized Bondi flow, and the magneto-rotational instability in Kerr black hole spacetimes.

  14. Advances in Patch-Based Adaptive Mesh Refinement Scalability

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Gunney, Brian T.N.; Anderson, Robert W.

    2015-12-18

    Patch-based structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) is widely used for high-resolution simu- lations. Combined with modern supercomputers, it could provide simulations of unprecedented size and resolution. A persistent challenge for this com- bination has been managing dynamically adaptive meshes on more and more MPI tasks. The dis- tributed mesh management scheme in SAMRAI has made some progress SAMR scalability, but early al- gorithms still had trouble scaling past the regime of 105 MPI tasks. This work provides two critical SAMR regridding algorithms, which are integrated into that scheme to ensure efficiency of the whole. The clustering algorithm is an extensionmoreĀ Ā» of the tile- clustering approach, making it more flexible and efficient in both clustering and parallelism. The partitioner is a new algorithm designed to prevent the network congestion experienced by its prede- cessor. We evaluated performance using weak- and strong-scaling benchmarks designed to be difficult for dynamic adaptivity. Results show good scaling on up to 1.5M cores and 2M MPI tasks. Detailed timing diagnostics suggest scaling would continue well past that.Ā«Ā less

  15. Aspects of Western Refining, Inc.'s Proposed Acquisition of Giant Industries, Inc.

    Reports and Publications

    2006-01-01

    Presentation of company-level, non-proprietary data and relevant aggregate data for U.S. refinery capacity and gasoline marketing of Western Refining and Giant Industries to inform discussions of Western Refining Inc.'s proposed acquisition of Giant Industries Inc. for a total of $1.5 billion, which was announced August 28, 2006.

  16. ,"No. 2 Diesel Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)","New Mexico No 2 Diesel Retail Sales by Refiners ...17.9,1773.9,,,781.9,,3446.1,296.5,,,,129.9,2030.1,,,,182.8,,416.2,,60.5,369.8,1495.2,,76.6...

  17. Impact of oxygenates on petroleum refining, review and forecast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unzelman, G.H.

    1995-09-01

    During the coming decade, oxygenates will continue to impact light oil processing and will steadily change the composition of the US gasoline pool. There are several major driving forces that will sustain the gradual influx of oxygen to US gasoline toward the regulatory limits: (1) the positive environmental characteristics of oxygenated compounds, (2) the high-octane quality of ethers that promote elimination of less desirable hydrocarbons and (3) the competitive need for ultra-clean gasoline to compete with alternatives. From 1995 forward, conventional gasoline will gradually shift to RFG (reformulated gasoline) containing a minimum of 2 wt% oxygen and less aromatics. As a result some processing changes, already in motion in the refining industry, will continue. For example, less severe naphtha reforming and cracking innovations to yield more feed for etherification and alkylation. While alternative fuel and vehicle technology will continue to develop, oxygenates in US gasoline will contribute the major alternative dimension to transportation fuel in the foreseeable future. With RFG, internal-combustion engine emissions will be progressively less toxic and lower in photochemical reactivity. The oxygenate mix will favor methyl ethers in spite of the recent methanol price spike. Ethyl ethers will be used on a more limited basis for specific situations where lower volatility and feedstock economics are an advantage. Downstream blending of ethanol will supplement ethers blended at the refinery in situations where economics are more favorable than refinery ethers. Long-range survival of ethanol, as a direct blending agent or feedstock for refinery ethers, depends on one or more of several factors: future crude oil costs, longevity of subsidies and/or mandates, and new production technology based on cellulose yielding ethanol economically competitive with hydrocarbons.

  18. RAM: a Relativistic Adaptive Mesh Refinement Hydrodynamics Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei-Qun; MacFadyen, Andrew I.; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2005-06-06

    The authors have developed a new computer code, RAM, to solve the conservative equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on parallel computers. They have implemented a characteristic-wise, finite difference, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme using the full characteristic decomposition of the SRHD equations to achieve fifth-order accuracy in space. For time integration they use the method of lines with a third-order total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme. They have also implemented fourth and fifth order Runge-Kutta time integration schemes for comparison. The implementation of AMR and parallelization is based on the FLASH code. RAM is modular and includes the capability to easily swap hydrodynamics solvers, reconstruction methods and physics modules. In addition to WENO they have implemented a finite volume module with the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) for reconstruction and the modified Marquina approximate Riemann solver to work with TVD Runge-Kutta time integration. They examine the difficulty of accurately simulating shear flows in numerical relativistic hydrodynamics codes. They show that under-resolved simulations of simple test problems with transverse velocity components produce incorrect results and demonstrate the ability of RAM to correctly solve these problems. RAM has been tested in one, two and three dimensions and in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates. they have demonstrated fifth-order accuracy for WENO in one and two dimensions and performed detailed comparison with other schemes for which they show significantly lower convergence rates. Extensive testing is presented demonstrating the ability of RAM to address challenging open questions in relativistic astrophysics.

  19. Presentation title: This can be up to 2 lines

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Genealogy of major U.S. refiners 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Amoco SOHIO BP ARCO Mapco Williams Clark Refining 1/89 12/98 4/00 3/98 Orion Diamond Shamrock Ultramar k 12/96 7/03 Ultramar Diamond Shamrock (UDS) Total North America UDS 9/97 Valero Salomon (Basis) Valero Williams BP BP b BP-Husky Refining LLC (jv) Husky Huntway 5/97 6/01 9/05 Valero Premcor g Valero Valero Valero 12/01 7/94 e 12/98 f Carlyle Group y Coastal 3/03 d 12/88 a 6/01 o Sun Company

  20. An adaptive mesh-moving and refinement procedure for one-dimensional conservation laws

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, R.; Flaherty, J.E.; Arney, D.C. Rensselaer Polytech. Inst., Troy, NY Military Acad., West Point, NY )

    1993-01-01

    We examine the performance of an adaptive mesh-moving and /or local mesh refinement procedure for the finite difference solution of one-dimensional hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. Adaptive motion of a base mesh is designed to isolate spatially distinct phenomena, and recursive local refinement of the time step and cells of the stationary or moving base mesh is performed in regions where a refinement indicator exceeds a prescribed tolerance. These adaptive procedures are incorporated into a computer code that includes a MacCormack finite difference scheme wih Davis' artificial viscosity model and a discretization error estimate based on Richardson's extrapolation. Experiments are conducted on three problems in order to qualify the advantages of adaptive techniques relative to uniform mesh computations and the relative benefits of mesh moving and refinement. Key results indicate that local mesh refinement, with and without mesh moving, can provide reliable solutions at much lower computational cost than possible on uniform meshes; that mesh motion can be used to improve the results of uniform mesh solutions for a modest computational effort; that the cost of managing the tree data structure associated with refinement is small; and that a combination of mesh motion and refinement reliably produces solutions for the least cost per unit accuracy.

  1. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Archives

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The following Topic Groups are no longer active; however, related documents and notes for these archived Topic Groups are available through the following links:

  2. Influence of Aluminum Content on Grain Refinement and Strength of AZ31 Magnesium GTA Weld Metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babu, N. Kishore; Cross, Carl E.

    2012-06-28

    The goal is to characterize the effect of Al content on AZ31 weld metal, the grain size and strength, and examine role of Al on grain refinement. The approach is to systematically vary the aluminum content of AZ31 weld metal, Measure average grain size in weld metal, and Measure cross-weld tensile properties and hardness. Conclusions are that: (1) increased Al content in AZ31 weld metal results in grain refinement Reason: higher undercooling during solidification; (2) weld metal grain refinement resulted in increased strength & hardness Reason: grain boundary strengthening; and (3) weld metal strength can be raised to wrought base metal levels.

  3. Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    from a Barrel of Oil | Department of Energy 6: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline from a Barrel of Oil Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline from a Barrel of Oil A standard U.S. barrel contains 42 gallons of crude oil which yields about 44 gallons of petroleum products. The additional 2 gallons of petroleum products come from refiner gains which result in an additional 6% of product. As shown in the figure below, a little more

  4. FIA-15-0002 - In the Matter of Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 2 - In the Matter of Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. FIA-15-0002 - In the Matter of Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. This Decision concerns an Appeal that Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. (Alon) filed in response to a determination that was issued to it by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Information Resources (OIR). In that determination, the OIR replied to a request for documents that Alon submitted under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), 5 U.S.C. Ā§

  5. Recovery Act - Refinement of Cross Flow Turbine Airfoils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McEntee, Jarlath

    2013-08-30

    Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC (ORPC) is a global leader in hydrokinetic technology and project development. ORPC develops hydrokinetic power systems and eco-conscious projects that harness the power of oceans and rivers to create clean, predictable renewable energy. ORPCā€™s technology consists of a family of modular hydrokinetic power systems: the TidGenĀ® Power System, for use at shallow to medium-depth tidal sites; the RivGenā„¢ Power System, for use at river and estuary sites; and the OCGenĀ® Power System, presently under development, for use at deep tidal and offshore ocean current sites. These power systems convert kinetic energy in moving water into clean, renewable, grid-compatible electric power. The core technology component for all ORPC power systems is its patented turbine generator unit (TGU). The TGU uses proprietary advanced design cross flow (ADCF) turbines to drive an underwater permanent magnet generator mounted at the TGUā€™s center. It is a gearless, direct-drive system that has the potential for high reliability, requires no lubricants and releases no toxins that could contaminate the surrounding water. The hydrokinetic industry shows tremendous promise as a means of helping reduce the U.S.ā€™s use of fossil fuels and dependence on foreign oil. To exploit this market opportunity, cross-flow hydrokinetic devices need to advance beyond the pre-commercial state and more systematic data about the structure and function of cross-flow hydrokinetic devices is required. This DOE STTR project, ā€œRecovery Act - Refinement of Cross Flow Turbine Airfoils,ā€ refined the cross-flow turbine design process to improve efficiency and performance and developed turbine manufacturing processes appropriate for volume production. The project proposed (1) to overcome the lack of data by extensively studying the properties of cross flow turbines, a particularly competitive design approach for extracting hydrokinetic energy and (2) to help ORPC mature its pre

  6. Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Year No. 1 Distillate No. 2...

  7. Process for solvent refining of coal using a denitrogenated and dephenolated solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Allentown, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the solvent refining of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures and pressure in a hydrogen atmosphere using a hydrocarbon solvent which before being recycled in the solvent refining process is subjected to chemical treatment to extract substantially all nitrogenous and phenolic constituents from the solvent so as to improve the conversion of coal and the production of oil in the solvent refining process. The solvent refining process can be either thermal or catalytic. The extraction of nitrogenous compounds can be performed by acid contact such as hydrogen chloride or fluoride treatment, while phenolic extraction can be performed by caustic contact or contact with a mixture of silica and alumina.

  8. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    839.2 135.0 1,251.9 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration ...

  9. Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3.3 3.4 7.9 3.3 W 11.3 See footnotes at end of table. 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 26 Energy Information Administration ...

  10. Table 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    88.4 87.8 80.1 70.0 NA 72.6 See footnotes at end of table. 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 16 Energy Information Administration ...

  11. Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5.7 5.9 4.4 12.9 NA 17.3 See footnotes at end of table. 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 18 Energy Information Administration ...

  12. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    92.8 92.5 84.0 72.5 W 80.7 See footnotes at end of table. 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 24 Energy Information Administration ...

  13. Table 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    87.4 86.9 78.3 68.5 W 70.8 See footnotes at end of table. 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 16 Energy Information Administration ...

  14. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    92.4 92.1 83.7 74.1 W 80.9 See footnotes at end of table. 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 24 Energy Information Administration ...

  15. Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    98.0 98.0 86.6 75.0 - 80.1 See footnotes at end of table. 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 20 Energy Information Administration ...

  16. Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    94.0 93.9 83.2 73.8 - 79.3 See footnotes at end of table. 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 20 Energy Information Administration ...

  17. Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3.6 3.7 7.9 3.1 W 11.0 See footnotes at end of table. 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 26 Energy Information Administration ...

  18. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    NA 26.6 See footnotes at end of table. 14 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type...

  19. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    NA 27.4 See footnotes at end of table. 14 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type...

  20. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    - W 73.5 See footnotes at end of table. A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present Energy Information Administration ...

  1. Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0.1 18.7 See footnotes at end of table. 18 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade...

  2. Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrino, Joan; Brueske, Sabine; Carole, Tracy; Andres, Howard

    2007-11-01

    This 2007 report provides an overview of the U.S. petroleum refining industry, including new data on market trends and energy and material consumption, as well as information on environmental performance.

  3. Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability

    Reports and Publications

    1997-01-01

    Assesses the effects of pollution abatement requirements on the financial performance of U.S. petroleum refining and marketing operations. The analysis draws heavily on financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS).

  4. Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    A standard U.S. barrel contains 42 gallons of crude oil which yields about 44 gallons of ... and 10 gallons of diesel fuel are produced from a barrel of crudeoil by U.S. refiners. ...

  5. Refinements in the Los Alamos model of the prompt fission neutron spectrum

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Published Article: Refinements in the Los Alamos model of the prompt fission neutron spectrum Title: Refinements in the Los Alamos model of the prompt fission neutron spectrum Authors: Madland, D. G. ; Kahler, A. C. Publication Date: 2017-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1326113 Grant/Contract Number: AC5206NA25396 Type: Published Article Journal Name: Nuclear Physics. A Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 957; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS

  6. Petroleum movements and investments in the refining industry: The impact of worldwide environmental regulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guariguata U., G.

    1995-09-01

    Since the enactment of the US Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the worldwide refining industry has aligned itself to become increasing attuned to the future well-being of the environment. Refiners must now develop strategies which address careful selection of crude slates, significant increases and changes in product movements, and upgrading of facilities to meet growing demand--in short, strategies which allow them to make substantial increases in capital investments. The objective of this paper is to determine the regional capital investments refiners must make in order to comply with environmental legislation. The methodology in making this determination was founded on a comprehensive analysis of worldwide petroleum supply/demand and distribution patterns for the coming five years, and included evaluation of a set of linear programming (LP) models based on forecasts for regional product demands and projections of regional specifications. The models considered two scenarios, in which either (1) refinery expansion occurs chiefly in the market consuming regions, or (2) crude producers take control of incremental crude volumes and further expand their planned refining projects and the marketing of refined products. The results of these models, coupled with an understanding of geopolitical situations and economic analyses, provided estimates for capital expenditures for the coming decade. In specific, the following issues were addressed, and are discussed in this paper: refined product trade outlook; crude supply; crude quality; shipping; and capital investments.

  7. Grain refinement of permanent mold cast copper base alloys. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadayappan, M.; Thomson, J. P.; Elboujdaini, M.; Gu, G. Ping; Sahoo, M.

    2004-04-29

    Grain refinement behavior of copper alloys cast in permanent molds was investigated. This is one of the least studied subjects in copper alloy castings. Grain refinement is not widely practiced for leaded copper alloys cast in sand molds. Aluminum bronzes and high strength yellow brasses, cast in sand and permanent molds, were usually fine grained due to the presence of more than 2% iron. Grain refinement of the most common permanent mold casting alloys, leaded yellow brass and its lead-free replacement EnviroBrass III, is not universally accepted due to the perceived problem of hard spots in finished castings and for the same reason these alloys contain very low amounts of iron. The yellow brasses and Cu-Si alloys are gaining popularity in North America due to their low lead content and amenability for permanent mold casting. These alloys are prone to hot tearing in permanent mold casting. Grain refinement is one of the solutions for reducing this problem. However, to use this technique it is necessary to understand the mechanism of grain refinement and other issues involved in the process. The following issues were studied during this three year project funded by the US Department of Energy and the copper casting industry: (1) Effect of alloying additions on the grain size of Cu-Zn alloys and their interaction with grain refiners; (2) Effect of two grain refining elements, boron and zirconium, on the grain size of four copper alloys, yellow brass, EnviroBrass II, silicon brass and silicon bronze and the duration of their effect (fading); (3) Prediction of grain refinement using cooling curve analysis and use of this method as an on-line quality control tool; (4) Hard spot formation in yellow brass and EnviroBrass due to grain refinement; (5) Corrosion resistance of the grain refined alloys; (6) Transfer the technology to permanent mold casting foundries; It was found that alloying elements such as tin and zinc do not change the grain size of Cu-Zn alloys

  8. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Tribal

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Tribal Topic Group was established in January 1998 to address government-to-government consultation between DOE and Indian Tribes affected by its transportation activities. The group focuses on...

  9. Hydrogen milestone could help lower fossil fuel refining costs

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McGraw, Jennifer

    2016-07-12

    Hydrogen researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory have reached another milestone on the road to reducing carbon emissions and protecting the nation against the effects of peaking world oil production. Stephen Herring, laboratory fellow and technical director of the INL High Temperature Electrolysis team, today announced that the latest fuel cell modification has set a new mark in endurance. The group's Integrated Laboratory Scale experiment has now operated continuously for 2,583 hours at higher efficiencies than previously attained. Learn more about INL research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  10. Hydrogen milestone could help lower fossil fuel refining costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGraw, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory have reached another milestone on the road to reducing carbon emissions and protecting the nation against the effects of peaking world oil production. Stephen Herring, laboratory fellow and technical director of the INL High Temperature Electrolysis team, today announced that the latest fuel cell modification has set a new mark in endurance. The group's Integrated Laboratory Scale experiment has now operated continuously for 2,583 hours at higher efficiencies than previously attained. Learn more about INL research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  11. Interagency mechanical operations group numerical systems group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    This report consists of the minutes of the May 20-21, 1971 meeting of the Interagency Mechanical Operations Group (IMOG) Numerical Systems Group. This group looks at issues related to numerical control in the machining industry. Items discussed related to the use of CAD and CAM, EIA standards, data links, and numerical control.

  12. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compere, A L; Griffith, William {Bill} L

    2009-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  13. Programming new geometry restraints: Parallelity of atomic groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobolev, Oleg V.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Adams, Paul D.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre

    2015-08-01

    Improvements in structural biology methods, in particular crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy, have created an increased demand for the refinement of atomic models against low-resolution experimental data. One way to compensate for the lack of high-resolution experimental data is to use a priori information about model geometry that can be utilized in refinement in the form of stereochemical restraints or constraints. Here, the definition and calculation of the restraints that can be imposed on planar atomic groups, in particular the angle between such groups, are described. Detailed derivations of the restraint targets and their gradients are provided so that they can be readily implemented in other contexts. Practical implementations of the restraints, and of associated data structures, in the Computational Crystallography Toolbox(cctbx) are presented.

  14. Programming new geometry restraints: Parallelity of atomic groups

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Sobolev, Oleg V.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Adams, Paul D.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre

    2015-08-01

    Improvements in structural biology methods, in particular crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy, have created an increased demand for the refinement of atomic models against low-resolution experimental data. One way to compensate for the lack of high-resolution experimental data is to use a priori information about model geometry that can be utilized in refinement in the form of stereochemical restraints or constraints. Here, the definition and calculation of the restraints that can be imposed on planar atomic groups, in particular the angle between such groups, are described. Detailed derivations of the restraint targets and their gradients are provided so that they canmoreĀ Ā» be readily implemented in other contexts. Practical implementations of the restraints, and of associated data structures, in the Computational Crystallography Toolbox(cctbx) are presented.Ā«Ā less

  15. Working Group Reports Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Workshop J. Vitko, Jr.

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Working Group Reports Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Workshop J. Vitko, Jr. Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, California The Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) Workshop concentrated on reviewing and refining the science experiments planned for the UAV Demonstration Flights (UDF) scheduled at the Oklahoma Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) in April 1994. These experiments are summarized below. UDF Experiments 1. Clear sky, daylight Scientific questions: Do models and observations agree? Under

  16. Economic incentives for US refiners to process incremental domestic heavy crude oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guillermo, G.U.

    1995-12-31

    Faced with declining domestic crude supplies and increasing refined product demands, U.S. refiners devote a great deal of attention to securing alternate sources of crude oil. In addition to the traditional and cost-effective choice of imports, a potentially viable source is domestic heavy crude oil. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractor, the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bonner & Moore undertook a project to ascertain the necessary adjustments U.S. refiners would need to make in order to process incremental amounts of heavy crude oil added to domestic refining slates between now and 2010. Results of this study indicated that significant economic investments would be required in order to process these crudes; processing of lighter imports, however, would remain substantially less costly. It would seem, then, that U.S. refiners would elect to process imports over incremental domestic heavy crudes unless they were offered some type of economic incentive to process the heavy oil. This paper addresses the issue of what those economic incentives could be.

  17. Need for refining capacity creates opportunities for producers in Middle East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, M.S.S. )

    1994-07-11

    Oil industry interest in refining has revived in the past few years in response to rising oil consumption. The trend creates opportunities, for countries in the Middle East, which do not own refining assets nearly in proportion to their crude oil reserved. By closing this gap between reserves and refining capacity, the countries can ease some of the instability now characteristic of the oil market. Some major oil producing countries have begun to move downstream. During the 1980s, Venezuela, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Libya, and other members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries acquired refining assets through direct total purchase or joint ventures. Nevertheless, the oil industry remains largely unintegrated, with the Middle East holding two thirds of worldwide oil reserves but only a small share downstream. As worldwide refining capacity swings from a period of surplus toward one in which the need for new capacity will be built. The paper discusses background of the situation, shrinking surplus, investment requirements, sources of capital, and shipping concerns.

  18. An adaptive grid refinement strategy for the simulation of negative streamers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montijn, C. . E-mail: carolynne.montijn@cwi.nl; Hundsdorfer, W. . E-mail: willem.hundsdorfer@cwi.nl; Ebert, U. . E-mail: ute.ebert@cwi.nl

    2006-12-10

    The evolution of negative streamers during electric breakdown of a non-attaching gas can be described by a two-fluid model for electrons and positive ions. It consists of continuity equations for the charged particles including drift, diffusion and reaction in the local electric field, coupled to the Poisson equation for the electric potential. The model generates field enhancement and steep propagating ionization fronts at the tip of growing ionized filaments. An adaptive grid refinement method for the simulation of these structures is presented. It uses finite volume spatial discretizations and explicit time stepping, which allows the decoupling of the grids for the continuity equations from those for the Poisson equation. Standard refinement methods in which the refinement criterion is based on local error monitors fail due to the pulled character of the streamer front that propagates into a linearly unstable state. We present a refinement method which deals with all these features. Tests on one-dimensional streamer fronts as well as on three-dimensional streamers with cylindrical symmetry (hence effectively 2D for numerical purposes) are carried out successfully. Results on fine grids are presented, they show that such an adaptive grid method is needed to capture the streamer characteristics well. This refinement strategy enables us to adequately compute negative streamers in pure gases in the parameter regime where a physical instability appears: branching streamers.

  19. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Archives Communications

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Communications Topic Group was convened in April 1998 to improve internal and external strategic level communications regarding DOE shipments of radioactive and other hazardous materials.

  20. Adaptive h -refinement for reduced-order models: ADAPTIVE h -refinement for reduced-order models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlberg, Kevin T.

    2014-11-05

    Our work presents a method to adaptively refine reduced-order models a posteriori without requiring additional full-order-model solves. The technique is analogous to mesh-adaptive h-refinement: it enriches the reduced-basis space online by ā€˜splittingā€™ a given basis vector into several vectors with disjoint support. The splitting scheme is defined by a tree structure constructed offline via recursive k-means clustering of the state variables using snapshot data. This method identifies the vectors to split online using a dual-weighted-residual approach that aims to reduce error in an output quantity of interest. The resulting method generates a hierarchy of subspaces online without requiring large-scale operations or full-order-model solves. Furthermore, it enables the reduced-order model to satisfy any prescribed error tolerance regardless of its original fidelity, as a completely refined reduced-order model is mathematically equivalent to the original full-order model. Experiments on a parameterized inviscid Burgers equation highlight the ability of the method to capture phenomena (e.g., moving shocks) not contained in the span of the original reduced basis.

  1. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Archives Protocols

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Transportation Protocols Topic Group serves as an important vehicle for DOE senior managers to assess and incorporate stakeholder input into the protocols process. The Topic Group was formed to review a series of transportation protocols developed in response to a request for DOE to be more consistent in its approach to transportation.

  2. Refining of fossil resin flotation concentrate from western coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

    1995-02-16

    During the past several years, significant research efforts have been made to develop process technology for the selective flotation of fossil resin from western coals. As a result of these efforts, several new flotation technologies have been developed. Operation of a proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit showed the selective flotation process to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry. However, little attention has been given to the refining of the fossil resin flotation concentrate although solvent refining is a critical step for the fossil resin to become a marketable product. In view of this situation, DOE funded this two-year project to evaluate the following aspects of the fossil resin refining technology: 1) Characterization of the fossil resin flotation concentrate and its refined products; 2) Kinetics of fossil resin extraction; 3) Effects of operating variables on solvent extraction; 4) Extraction solvents; 5) Proof-of-concept continuous refining tests; and 6) Technical and economic analysis. The results from this research effort have led to the following conclusions: Hexane- or heptane-refined fossil resin has a light-yellow color, a melting point of 140 - 142{degrees}C, a density of 1.034 gram/cm, and good solubility in nonpolar solvents. Among the four solvents evaluated (hexane, heptane, toluene and ethyl acetate), hexane is the most appropriate solvent based on overall technical and economic considerations. Batch extraction tests and kinetic studies suggest that the main interaction between the resin and the solvent is expected to be the forces associated with solvation phenomena. Temperature has the most significant effect on extraction rate. With hexane as the solvent, a recovery of 90% cam be achieved at 50{degrees}C and 10% solids concentration with moderate agitation for 1 hour.

  3. Free kick instead of cross-validation in maximum-likelihood refinement of macromolecular crystal structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pražnikar, Jure [Institute Jožef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Primorska, (Slovenia); Turk, Dušan, E-mail: dusan.turk@ijs.si [Institute Jožef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Center of Excellence for Integrated Approaches in Chemistry and Biology of Proteins, (Slovenia)

    2014-12-01

    The maximum-likelihood free-kick target, which calculates model error estimates from the work set and a randomly displaced model, proved superior in the accuracy and consistency of refinement of crystal structures compared with the maximum-likelihood cross-validation target, which calculates error estimates from the test set and the unperturbed model. The refinement of a molecular model is a computational procedure by which the atomic model is fitted to the diffraction data. The commonly used target in the refinement of macromolecular structures is the maximum-likelihood (ML) function, which relies on the assessment of model errors. The current ML functions rely on cross-validation. They utilize phase-error estimates that are calculated from a small fraction of diffraction data, called the test set, that are not used to fit the model. An approach has been developed that uses the work set to calculate the phase-error estimates in the ML refinement from simulating the model errors via the random displacement of atomic coordinates. It is called ML free-kick refinement as it uses the ML formulation of the target function and is based on the idea of freeing the model from the model bias imposed by the chemical energy restraints used in refinement. This approach for the calculation of error estimates is superior to the cross-validation approach: it reduces the phase error and increases the accuracy of molecular models, is more robust, provides clearer maps and may use a smaller portion of data for the test set for the calculation of R{sub free} or may leave it out completely.

  4. JLF User Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    jlf user group JLF User Group 2015 NIF and JLF User Group Meeting Links: Send request to join the JLF User Group Join the NIF User Group Dr. Carolyn Kuranz - JLF User Group Dr. Carolyn Kuranz received her Ph.D. in Applied Physics from the University of Michigan in 2009. She is currently an Assistant Research Scientist at the Center for Laser Experimental Astrophysical Research and the Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics at the University of Michigan. Her research involves hydrodynamic

  5. New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants January 31, 2012 - 2:09pm Addthis The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) released a new seismic study today that will help U.S. nuclear facilities in the central and eastern United States reassess seismic hazards. The Central and Eastern United

  6. Appendices: Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    DE P A R T M E N U E N I T E D S T A T S O F A E R IC A M Office of Energy Efficency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Appendices Appendices (This page intentionally left blank.) Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical

  7. ,"U.S. Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes",2,"Monthly","8/2016","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","11/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","12/1/2016" ,"Excel File

  8. ,"U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes",2,"Monthly","8/2016","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","11/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","12/1/2016" ,"Excel File

  9. ,"U.S. Total Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Total Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1968" ,"Release Date:","11/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","12/1/2016" ,"Excel File

  10. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Archives Consolidated Grant Topic Group

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Consolidated Grant Topic Group arose from recommendations provided by the TEC and other external parties to the DOE Senior Executive Transportation Forum in July 1998. It was proposed that the consolidation of multiple funding streams from numerous DOE sources into a single grant would provide a more equitable and efficient means of assistance to States and Tribes affected by DOE nuclear material shipments.

  11. Studies on design of a process for organo-refining of coal to obtain super clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, C.S.; Sharma, D.K.

    1999-08-01

    Organo-refining of coal results in refining the coal to obtain super clean coal and residual coal. Super clean coal may be used to obtain value added chemicals, products, and cleaner fuels from coal. In the present work, studies on the design of a semicontinuous process for organo-refining of one ton of coal have been made. The results are reported. This is only a cursory attempt for the design, and further studies may be required for designing this process for use in the development of a scaled-up process of organo-refining of coal.

  12. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Routing

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Routing Topic Group has been established to examine topics of interest and relevance concerning routing of shipments of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) to a...

  13. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Manual Review

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This group is responsible for the update of DOE Manual 460.2-1, Radioactive Material Transportation Practices Manual.Ā  This manual was issued on September 23, 2002, and establishes a set of...

  14. JLab Users Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    JLab Users Group Please upgrade your browser. This site's design is only visible in a graphical browser that supports web standards, but its content is accessible to any browser. Concerns? JLab Users Group User Liaison Home Users Group Program Advisory Committee User/Researcher Information print version UG Resources Background & Purpose Users Group Wiki By Laws Board of Directors Board of Directors Minutes Directory of Members Events At-A-Glance Member Institutions News Users Group Mailing

  15. Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced PADD IV refining capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Chin, S.M.

    1994-02-01

    Studies of Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced refining capacity in Petroleum Administration for Defense IV (PADD IV, part of the Rocky Mountain area) have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model, a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy constraints on emissions of nitrogen oxides and winter toxic air pollutants. The studies do not predict refinery closures in PADD IV. Rather, the reduced refining capacities provide an analytical framework for probing the flexibility of petroleum refining and distribution for winter demand conditions in the year 2000. Industry analysts have estimated that, for worst case scenarios, 20 to 35 percent of PADD IV refining capacity could be shut-down as a result of clean air and energy tax legislation. Given these industry projections, the study scenarios provide the following conclusions: The Rocky Mountain area petroleum system would have the capability to satisfy winter product demand with PADD IV refinery capacity shut-downs in the middle of the range of industry projections, but not in the high end of the range of projections. PADD IV crude oil production can be maintained by re-routing crude released from PADD IV refinery demands to satisfy increased crude oil demands in PADDs II (Midwest), III (Gulf Coast), and Washington. Clean Air Act product quality regulations generally do not increase the difficulty of satisfying emissions reduction constraints in the scenarios.

  16. Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations (Released in the STEO June 1998)

    Reports and Publications

    1998-01-01

    Changes in domestic refining operations are identified and related to the summer Reid vapor pressure (RVP) restrictions and oxygenate blending requirements. This analysis uses published Energy Information Administration survey data and linear regression equations from the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts appearing in the Short-Term Energy Outlook.

  17. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    71.6 92.3 78.2 101.8 83.6 87.5 74.7 See footnotes at end of table. A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District, and State, 1984-Present 452 Energy Information...

  18. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    61.5 67.3 89.8 89.5 82.2 69.4 71.1 74.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

  19. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    35.2 213.6 9.5 9.8 12.9 16.6 NA 29.5 See footnotes at end of table. 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 14 Energy Information Administration ...

  20. Table 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    W 5.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 - 0.9 See footnotes at end of table. 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 22 Energy Information Administration ...

  1. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    62.2 68.5 90.1 89.6 82.4 70.9 NA 75.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

  2. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    33.9 215.8 9.7 10.0 12.1 16.3 0.0 28.4 See footnotes at end of table. 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 14 Energy Information Administration ...

  3. Table 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    - 4.9 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 - 0.7 See footnotes at end of table. 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 22 Energy Information Administration ...

  4. Towards solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Prill, Dragica; Juhas, Pavol; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a method towards the solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) is developed. Approximate lattice parameters and molecular geometry must be given as input. The molecule is generally treated as a rigid body. The positions and orientations of the molecules inside the unit cell are optimized starting from random values. The PDF is obtained from carefully measured X-ray powder diffraction data. The method resembles `real-space' methods for structure solution from powder data, but works with PDF data instead of the diffraction pattern itself. As such it may bemoreĀ Ā» used in situations where the organic compounds are not long-range-ordered, are poorly crystalline, or nanocrystalline. The procedure was applied to solve and refine the crystal structures of quinacridone (Ī² phase), naphthalene and allopurinol. In the case of allopurinol it was even possible to successfully solve and refine the structure in P1 with four independent molecules. As an example of a flexible molecule, the crystal structure of paracetamol was refined using restraints for bond lengths, bond angles and selected torsion angles. In all cases, the resulting structures are in excellent agreement with structures from single-crystal data.Ā«Ā less

  5. Tools for macromolecular model building and refinement into electron cryo-microscopy reconstructions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Alan; Long, Fei; Nicholls, Robert A.; Toots, Jaan; Emsley, Paul; Murshudov, Garib

    2015-01-01

    A description is given of new tools to facilitate model building and refinement into electron cryo-microscopy reconstructions. The recent rapid development of single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) now allows structures to be solved by this method at resolutions close to 3 ƅ. Here, a number of tools to facilitate the interpretation of EM reconstructions with stereochemically reasonable all-atom models are described. The BALBES database has been repurposed as a tool for identifying protein folds from density maps. Modifications to Coot, including new Jiggle Fit and morphing tools and improved handling of nucleic acids, enhance its functionality for interpreting EM maps. REFMAC has been modified for optimal fitting of atomic models into EM maps. As external structural information can enhance the reliability of the derived atomic models, stabilize refinement and reduce overfitting, ProSMART has been extended to generate interatomic distance restraints from nucleic acid reference structures, and a new tool, LIBG, has been developed to generate nucleic acid base-pair and parallel-plane restraints. Furthermore, restraint generation has been integrated with visualization and editing in Coot, and these restraints have been applied to both real-space refinement in Coot and reciprocal-space refinement in REFMAC.

  6. EIS-0069: Solvent Refined Coal-II Demonstration Project, Fort Martin, Monongalia County, West Virginia

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to assess the potential environmental, economic and social impacts associated with the construction and short-term operation of a 6,000-tons-per-stream-day-capacity facility that will demonstrate the technical operability, economic viability, and environmental acceptability of the solvent refined coal process at Fort Martin, West Virginia.

  7. Towards solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prill, Dragica; Juhas, Pavol; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a method towards the solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) is developed. Approximate lattice parameters and molecular geometry must be given as input. The molecule is generally treated as a rigid body. The positions and orientations of the molecules inside the unit cell are optimized starting from random values. The PDF is obtained from carefully measured X-ray powder diffraction data. The method resembles `real-space' methods for structure solution from powder data, but works with PDF data instead of the diffraction pattern itself. As such it may be used in situations where the organic compounds are not long-range-ordered, are poorly crystalline, or nanocrystalline. The procedure was applied to solve and refine the crystal structures of quinacridone (Ī² phase), naphthalene and allopurinol. In the case of allopurinol it was even possible to successfully solve and refine the structure in P1 with four independent molecules. As an example of a flexible molecule, the crystal structure of paracetamol was refined using restraints for bond lengths, bond angles and selected torsion angles. In all cases, the resulting structures are in excellent agreement with structures from single-crystal data.

  8. Exploiting structure similarity in refinement: automated NCS and target-structure restraints in BUSTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smart, Oliver S. Womack, Thomas O.; Flensburg, Claus; Keller, Peter; Paciorek, Włodek; Sharff, Andrew; Vonrhein, Clemens; Bricogne, GĆ©rard

    2012-04-01

    Local structural similarity restraints (LSSR) provide a novel method for exploiting NCS or structural similarity to an external target structure. Two examples are given where BUSTER re-refinement of PDB entries with LSSR produces marked improvements, enabling further structural features to be modelled. Maximum-likelihood X-ray macromolecular structure refinement in BUSTER has been extended with restraints facilitating the exploitation of structural similarity. The similarity can be between two or more chains within the structure being refined, thus favouring NCS, or to a distinct ā€˜targetā€™ structure that remains fixed during refinement. The local structural similarity restraints (LSSR) approach considers all distances less than 5.5 ƅ between pairs of atoms in the chain to be restrained. For each, the difference from the distance between the corresponding atoms in the related chain is found. LSSR applies a restraint penalty on each difference. A functional form that reaches a plateau for large differences is used to avoid the restraints distorting parts of the structure that are not similar. Because LSSR are local, there is no need to separate out domains. Some restraint pruning is still necessary, but this has been automated. LSSR have been available to academic users of BUSTER since 2009 with the easy-to-use -autoncs and @@target target.pdb options. The use of LSSR is illustrated in the re-refinement of PDB entries http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm, where -target enables the correct ligand-binding structure to be found, and http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm, where -autoncs contributes to the location of an additional copy of the cyclic peptide ligand.

  9. Moltech Power Systems Group MPS Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Moltech Power Systems Group MPS Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Moltech Power Systems Group (MPS Group) Place: China Product: China-based subsidiary of Shanghai Huayi Group...

  10. Hanergy Holdings Group Company Ltd formerly Farsighted Group...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hanergy Holdings Group Company Ltd formerly Farsighted Group aka Huarui Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hanergy Holdings Group Company Ltd (formerly Farsighted Group, aka...

  11. Surface Protonation at the Rutile (110) Interface: Explicit Incorporation of Solvation Structure within the Refined MUSIC Model Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machesky, Michael L.; Predota, M.; Wesolowski, David J

    2008-11-01

    strength. Additionally, the H-bond interactions between protolyzable surface oxygen groups and water were found to be stronger than those between bulk water molecules at all temperatures investigated in our CMD simulations (25, 150 and 250 C). Comparison with the protonation scheme previously determined for the (110) surface of isostructural cassiterite ({alpha}-SnO{sub 2}) reveals that the greater extent of H-bonding on the latter surface, and in particular between water and the terminal hydroxyl group (Sn-OH) results in the predicted protonation constant for that group being lower than for the bridged oxygen (Sn-O-Sn), while the reverse is true for the rutile (110) surface. These results demonstrate the importance of H-bond structure in dictating surface protonation behavior, and that explicit use of this solvation structure within the refined MUSIC model framework results in predicted surface protonation constants that are also consistent with a variety of other experimental and computational data.

  12. MiniBooNE Pion Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Pion Group

  13. Running Jobs by Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Running Jobs by Group Running Jobs by Group Daily Graph: Weekly Graph: Monthly Graph: Yearly Graph: 2 Year Graph: Last edited: 2011-04-05 13:59:48...

  14. Pending Jobs by Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Pending Jobs by Group Pending Jobs by Group Daily Graph: Weekly Graph: Monthly Graph: Yearly Graph: 2 Year Graph: Last edited: 2011-04-05 14:00:14...

  15. SUB ZERO GROUP, INC.

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SUB ZERO GROUP, INC. 4717 Hammersley Road. Madison, WI 53711 P: 800.532.7820 P: ... SUBZERO WOLF SUB ZERO GROUP, INC. 4717 Hpmmersley Road, Madison, WI 53711 P: 800.5327820 ...

  16. UFD Working Group 2015

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Working Group 2015 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Twitter Google + Vimeo GovDelivery SlideShare UFD Working Group 2015 HomeStationary ...

  17. Running Jobs by Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Running Jobs by Group Running Jobs by Group Daily Graph: Weekly Graph: Monthly Graph: Yearly Graph: 2 Year Graph: Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:34:43

  18. Pending Jobs by Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Pending Jobs by Group Pending Jobs by Group Daily Graph: Weekly Graph: Monthly Graph: Yearly Graph: 2 Year Graph: Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:04

  19. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    17, 2012 The meeting was called to order by Huei Meznarich, HASQARD Focus Group Chair at 2:05 PM on July 17, 2012 in Conference Room 308 at 2420 Stevens. Those attending were: Huei Meznarich (Focus Group Chair), Cliff Watkins (Focus Group Secretary), Glen Clark, Robert Elkins, Scot Fitzgerald, Larry Markel, Cindy Taylor, Sam Vega, Rich Weiss and Eric Wyse. I. Huei Meznarich requested comments on the minutes from the June 12, 2012 meeting. No HASQARD Focus Group members present stated any

  20. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    8, 2013 The meeting was called to order by Huei Meznarich, HASQARD Focus Group Chair at 2:05 PM on June 18, 2013 in Conference Room 308 at 2420 Stevens. Those attending were: Huei Meznarich (Focus Group Chair), Cliff Watkins (Focus Group Secretary), Glen Clark, Scot Fitzgerald, Joan Kessner, Larry Markel, Karl Pool, Chris Sutton, Amanda Tuttle, Rich Weiss and Eric Wyse. I. Huei Meznarich requested comments on the minutes from the May 21, 2013 meeting. No HASQARD Focus Group members present

  1. TEC Communications Topic Group

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    procurement - Routing criteriaemergency preparedness Tribal Issues Topic Group * TEPP Navajo Nation (Tom Clawson) - 1404 - Needs Assessment * Identified strengths and...

  2. NIF User Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    group NIF User Group The National Ignition Facility User Group provides an organized framework and independent vehicle for interaction between the scientists who use NIF for "Science Use of NIF" experiments and NIF management. Responsibility for NIF and the research programs carried out at NIF resides with the NIF Director. The NIF User Group advises the NIF Director on matters of concern to users, as well as providing a channel for communication for NIF users with funding agencies and

  3. Tribal Topic Group Summary

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tribal Topic Group Summary Presented to: Transportation External Coordination Working Group Presented by: Dan King Oneida Nation of Wisconsin February 7, 2008 San Antonio, TX 2 Key Issues * Better communication needed * Groups needs to move forward with actions and assigned tasks * Tribal Caucus created a mission statement and resolution: - All Tribes with cultural ties to Yucca Mountain should be invited to join TEC - Ongoing funds to support Tribal Topic Group twice a year - Direct funding to

  4. Interagency Sustainability Working Group

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Interagency Sustainability Working Group (ISWG) is the coordinating body for sustainable buildings in the federal government.

  5. Women's Employee Resource Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Careers, Jobs Ā» Inclusion & Diversity Ā» Women's Employee Resource Group Women's Employee Resource Group The Women's Employee Resource Group encourages women's contributions, professional development opportunities, and shared support across the Laboratory. Contact Us Office of Diversity and Strategic Staffing (505) 667-2602 Email Computational scientist Hai Ah Nam, a member of the Women's Employee Resource Group Computational scientist Hai Ah Nam, a member of the Women's Employee Resource

  6. Tritium Focus Group- INEL

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the 34th Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Idaho Falls, Idaho on September 23-25, 2014.

  7. SSRL ETS Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    STANFORD SYNCHROTRON RADIATION LABORATORY Stanford Linear Accelerator Center Engineering & Technical Services Groups: Mechanical Services Group Mechanical Services Group Sharepoint ASD: Schedule Priorites Accelerator tech support - Call List Documentation: Engineering Notes, Drawings, and Accelerator Safety Documents Mechanical Systems: Accelerator Drawings Accelerator Pictures Accelerator Vacuum Systems (SSRL) LCW Vacuum Projects: Last Updated: February 8, 2007 Ben Scott

  8. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap Through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, Xiaofei; Zink, Peter; Pal, Uday

    2012-03-11

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.%Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the Mg content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapors in a separate condenser. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium; could not collect and weigh all of the magnesium recovered.

  9. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaofei Guan; Peter A. Zink; Uday B. Pal; Adam C. Powell

    2012-01-01

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.% Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the magnesium content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapor. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium.

  10. Large Group Visits

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Group Visits Large Group Visits All tours of the Museum are self-guided, but please schedule in advance so we can best accommodate your group. Contact Us 1350 Central Avenue (505) 667-4444 Email Let us know if you plan to bring a group of 10 or more. All tours of the Museum are self-guided, but please schedule in advance so we can best accommodate your group. Parking for buses and RVs is available on Iris Street behind the Museum off of 15th St. See attached map (pdf). Contact us at

  11. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Coit, William George; Griffin, Peter Terry; Hamilton, Paul Taylor; Hsu, Chia-Fu; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Samuel, Allan James; Watkins, Ronnie Wade

    2012-07-31

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  12. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Coit, William George; Griffin, Peter Terry; Hamilton, Paul Taylor; Hsu, Chia-Fu; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Samuel, Allan James; Watkins, Ronnie Wade

    2010-11-09

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  13. Development of Adaptive Model Refinement (AMoR) for Multiphysics and Multifidelity Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turinsky, Paul

    2015-02-09

    This project investigated the development and utilization of Adaptive Model Refinement (AMoR) for nuclear systems simulation applications. AMoR refers to utilization of several models of physical phenomena which differ in prediction fidelity. If the highest fidelity model is judged to always provide or exceeded the desired fidelity, than if one can determine the difference in a Quantity of Interest (QoI) between the highest fidelity model and lower fidelity models, one could utilize the fidelity model that would just provide the magnitude of the QoI desired. Assuming lower fidelity models require less computational resources, in this manner computational efficiency can be realized provided the QoI value can be accurately and efficiently evaluated. This work utilized Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) to evaluate the QoI, by convoluting the GPT solution with the residual of the highest fidelity model determined using the solution from lower fidelity models. Specifically, a reactor core neutronics problem and thermal-hydraulics problem were studied to develop and utilize AMoR. The highest fidelity neutronics model was based upon the 3D space-time, two-group, nodal diffusion equations as solved in the NESTLE computer code. Added to the NESTLE code was the ability to determine the time-dependent GPT neutron flux. The lower fidelity neutronics model was based upon the point kinetics equations along with utilization of a prolongation operator to determine the 3D space-time, two-group flux. The highest fidelity thermal-hydraulics model was based upon the space-time equations governing fluid flow in a closed channel around a heat generating fuel rod. The Homogenous Equilibrium Mixture (HEM) model was used for the fluid and Finite Difference Method was applied to both the coolant and fuel pin energy conservation equations. The lower fidelity thermal-hydraulic model was based upon the same equations as used for the highest fidelity model but now with coarse spatial

  14. Profiling of selenium removal in hydrogen ambient zone-refined tellurium bar using RF-GDOES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anil, G. . E-mail: anilpillai_99@yahoo.com; Reddy, M.R.P.; Prasad, D.S.; Ali, S.T.; Munirathnam, N.R.; Prakash, T.L.

    2007-01-15

    Ultrapure tellurium (Te) metal has become an important metal in the strategic sector for fabricating high performance infrared devices for thermal imaging and night vision cameras. Zone refining (ZR) is a proven technique for purification of Te. Selenium (Se), present as an impurity in Te, is not easily removed by ZR under normal conditions as the segregation coefficient (K) is around 0.44-0.50. Hence, ZR was performed in a hydrogen atmosphere, during which Se gets converted to hydrogen selenide at the molten moving zones and carried away into the sodium hydroxide scrubbers. In this study a radio-frequency glow discharge optical emission spectrometer (RF-GDOES) was used for determining the concentration of Se along the 56 cm Te zone-refined bar. It was observed that the initial concentration of 1100 ppb Se was decreased to 30 ppb after 2 cycles.

  15. The effects of air pollution regulations on the US refining industry. Task 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Numerous air pollution regulations affecting petroleum refineries recently have been promulgated, have been proposed, or are under consideration at the federal, state, and local level. As shown in Figure ES-1, all of these environmental regulations are intended to take effect over the relatively short time period from 1989 through 1995. In the aggregate these regulatory activities have significant implications for the US refining industry and the Nation, including: Major investment requirements; changes in industry profitability; potential closure of some refineries; and potential changes in crude oil or product import dependence. At issue is whether the cumulative effect of these regulations could so adversely affect the US refining industry that US national security would be affected. In addition to the regulations outlined in Figure ES-1, President Bush recently presented a major new plan to improve the nation`s air quality. The aspects of the President`s plan that could strongly affect US refineries are summarized below.

  16. Report to the Congress on the storage of refined petroleum products and on regional supply interruptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This report describes petroleum and petroleum products storage and supply disruption. Information is presented under the following topics: Historical Perspective; Current Patterns of Supply and Disposition of Petroleum Products in the Primary Distribution System; PADD I Clean Products Supply/Demand; 1990 Regional Petroleum Reserve Annual Computation; Market Infrastructure and Commercial Practices in the California Motor Gasoline Market, as Related to Potential Refined Petroleum Product Reserve Structures and Sales Procedures; Infrastructure and Commercial Practices in the Northeast Distillate Market, as Related to Potential Refined Petroleum Product Reserve Structures and Sales Procedures; Storage Stability Characteristics of Petroleum Products and Crude Oil; Effect of 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on Demand for Petroleum Product Storage Capacity; and Environmental Regulations on Tanks.

  17. Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining -

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Energy Information Administration Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining Release date: May 5, 2015 Revised: May 12, 2015 (revision) 1. Background and Analytical Framework Background Recent and projected increases in U.S. crude production have sparked discussion about the implications of current limitations on crude oil exports for prices, including both world and domestic crude oil and petroleum product prices, and for the level of domestic crude production

  18. Grain refinement of cast zinc through magnesium inoculation: Characterisation and mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhilin; Qiu, Dong; Wang, Feng; Taylor, John A.; Zhang, Mingxing

    2015-08-15

    It was previously found that peritectic-forming solutes are more favourable for the grain refinement of cast Al alloys than eutectic-forming solutes. In this work, we report that the eutectic-forming solute, Mg, can also significantly grain refine cast Zn. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) of a Znā€“Mg alloy, in which efficient grain refinement occurred, evidenced an unexpected peak that appeared before the nucleation of Ī·-Zn grains on the DTA spectrum. Based on extensive examination using X-ray diffraction, high resolution SEM and EDS, it was found that: (a) some faceted Znā€“Mg intermetallic particles were reproducibly observed; (b) the particles were located at or near grain centres; (c) the atomic ratio of Mg to Zn in the intermetallic compound was determined to be around 1/2. Using tilting selected area diffraction (SAD) and convergent beam Kikuchi line diffraction pattern (CBKLDP) techniques, these faceted particles were identified as MgZn{sub 2} and an orientation relationship between such grain-centred MgZn{sub 2} particles and the Ī·-Zn matrix was determined. Hence, the unexpected peak on the DTA spectrum is believed to correspond to the formation of MgZn{sub 2} particles, which act as effective heterogeneous nucleation sites in the alloy. Together with the effect of Mg solute on restricting grain growth, such heterogeneous nucleation is cooperatively responsible for the grain size reduction in Znā€“Mg alloys. - Highlights: ā€¢ A new eutectic-based grain refiner for the cast Zn was found. ā€¢ The formation process of an intermetallic compound (MgZn{sub 2}) was characterised. ā€¢ MgZn{sub 2} can act as potent heterogeneous nucleation sites above the liquidus. ā€¢ A new OR between MgZn{sub 2} and Ī·-Zn was determined using the CBKLDP technique.

  19. Application of a catalyst deactivation model for hydrotreating solvent refined coal feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalitham, R.V.

    1983-10-01

    A simple kinetic model, including a first-order catalyst deactivation rate, is applied to upgrading of coal-derived feedstocks prepared from two solvent refined coal fractions. A catalyst deactivation mechanism is proposed which involves the adsorption and surface reaction of coke precursors on catalytic active sites. The effect of feedstock composition, temperature and pressure on kinetic parameters, and in particular the catalyst deactivation rate, is determined.

  20. NREL Refines Method to Convert Lignin to Nylon Precursor - News Releases |

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL NREL Refines Method to Convert Lignin to Nylon Precursor Recent Findings Published in Energy & Environmental Science February 26, 2015 A new study from the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) demonstrates the conversion of lignin-derived compounds to adipic acid, an important industrial dicarboxylic acid produced for its use as a precursor to nylon, plasticizers, lubricants, polyesters, and other popular products and chemicals. The demonstration is an

  1. Refined BCF-type boundary conditions for mesoscale surface step dynamics

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Zhao, Renjie; Ackerman, David M.; Evans, James W.

    2015-06-24

    Deposition on a vicinal surface with alternating rough and smooth steps is described by a solid-on-solid model with anisotropic interactions. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of the model reveal step pairing in the absence of any additional step attachment barriers. We explore the description of this behavior within an analytic Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF)-type step dynamics treatment. Without attachment barriers, conventional kinetic coefficients for the rough and smooth steps are identical, as are the predicted step velocities for a vicinal surface with equal terrace widths. However, we determine refined kinetic coefficients from a two-dimensional discrete deposition-diffusion equation formalism which accounts for stepmoreĀ Ā» structure. These coefficients are generally higher for rough steps than for smooth steps, reflecting a higher propensity for capture of diffusing terrace adatoms due to a higher kink density. Such refined coefficients also depend on the local environment of the step and can even become negative (corresponding to net detachment despite an excess adatom density) for a smooth step in close proximity to a rough step. Incorporation of these refined kinetic coefficients into a BCF-type step dynamics treatment recovers quantitatively the mesoscale step-pairing behavior observed in the KMC simulations.Ā«Ā less

  2. Refined BCF-type boundary conditions for mesoscale surface step dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Renjie; Ackerman, David M.; Evans, James W.

    2015-06-24

    Deposition on a vicinal surface with alternating rough and smooth steps is described by a solid-on-solid model with anisotropic interactions. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of the model reveal step pairing in the absence of any additional step attachment barriers. We explore the description of this behavior within an analytic Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF)-type step dynamics treatment. Without attachment barriers, conventional kinetic coefficients for the rough and smooth steps are identical, as are the predicted step velocities for a vicinal surface with equal terrace widths. However, we determine refined kinetic coefficients from a two-dimensional discrete deposition-diffusion equation formalism which accounts for step structure. These coefficients are generally higher for rough steps than for smooth steps, reflecting a higher propensity for capture of diffusing terrace adatoms due to a higher kink density. Such refined coefficients also depend on the local environment of the step and can even become negative (corresponding to net detachment despite an excess adatom density) for a smooth step in close proximity to a rough step. Incorporation of these refined kinetic coefficients into a BCF-type step dynamics treatment recovers quantitatively the mesoscale step-pairing behavior observed in the KMC simulations.

  3. Source category survey: secondary copper smelting and refining industry. Final report Oct 79-Jan 80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, M.K.; Shobe, F.D.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the secondary copper smelting and refining industry to determine the probable impact of the development of new source performance standards under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. The surveyed industry processes copper scrap to produce pure copper or copper alloy, other than brass and bronze. Secondary copper foundries, which melt and cast high-quality copper scrap without refining it, are excluded. Primary copper smelters and refiners, which produce copper from ore, are also excluded, although they also process copper scrap. Process, emissions, and economic data were gathered by literature searches, contacts with representatives of the industry, trade associations, federal government agencies, and state and local air pollution control agencies, and visits to two plants. The industry's production processes, actual and allowable air emissions, and emission control systems are described. State and local emission regulations are compared. Production and capacity are projected to 1989 and the impact of new source performance standards is assessed.

  4. The value of continuity: Refined isogeometric analysis and fast direct solvers

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Garcia, Daniel; Pardo, David; Dalcin, Lisandro; Paszynski, Maciej; Collier, Nathan; Calo, Victor M.

    2016-08-24

    Here, we propose the use of highly continuous finite element spaces interconnected with low continuity hyperplanes to maximize the performance of direct solvers. Starting from a highly continuous Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) discretization, we introduce C0-separators to reduce the interconnection between degrees of freedom in the mesh. By doing so, both the solution time and best approximation errors are simultaneously improved. We call the resulting method ā€œrefined Isogeometric Analysis (rIGA)ā€. To illustrate the impact of the continuity reduction, we analyze the number of Floating Point Operations (FLOPs), computational times, and memory required to solve the linear system obtained by discretizing themoreĀ Ā» Laplace problem with structured meshes and uniform polynomial orders. Theoretical estimates demonstrate that an optimal continuity reduction may decrease the total computational time by a factor between p2 and p3, with pp being the polynomial order of the discretization. Numerical results indicate that our proposed refined isogeometric analysis delivers a speed-up factor proportional to p2. In a 2D mesh with four million elements and p=5, the linear system resulting from rIGA is solved 22 times faster than the one from highly continuous IGA. In a 3D mesh with one million elements and p=3, the linear system is solved 15 times faster for the refined than the maximum continuity isogeometric analysis.Ā«Ā less

  5. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    3, 2016 The meeting was called to order by Jonathan Sanwald, HASQARD Focus Group Chair at 2:05 PM on August 23, 2016 in Conference Room 308 at 2420 Stevens. Those attending were: Jonathan Sanwald (Mission Support Alliance (Mission Support Alliance (MSA)), Focus Group Chair), Cliff Watkins (Corporate Allocation Services, DOE-RL Support Contractor, Focus Group Secretary), Taffy Almeida (Battelle - Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)), Marcus Aranda (Wastren Advantage Inc. Wastren Hanford

  6. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    January 15, 2013 The meeting was called to order by Huei Meznarich, HASQARD Focus Group Chair at 2:02 PM on January 15, 2013 in Conference Room 308 at 2420 Stevens. Those attending were: Huei Meznarich (Focus Group Chair), Cliff Watkins (Focus Group Secretary), Glen Clark, Scot Fitzgerald, Larry Markel, Karl Pool, Dave St. John, Chris Sutton, Chris Thompson, Steve Trent, Amanda Tuttle and Eric Wyse. I. Huei Meznarich requested comments on the minutes from the December 18, 2012 meeting. One issue

  7. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    22, 2015 The meeting was called to order by Cliff Watkins, HASQARD Focus Group Secretary at 2:05 PM on October 22, 2015 in Conference Room 328 at 2420 Stevens. Those attending were: Jonathan Sanwald (Mission Support Alliance (MSA), Focus Group Chair), Cliff Watkins (Corporate Allocation Services, DOE-RL Support Contractor, Focus Group Secretary), Glen Clark (Washington River Protection Solution (WRPS)), Fred Dunhour (DOE-ORP), Joan Kessner (Washington Closure Hanford (WCH)), Karl Pool (Pacific

  8. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    6 The meeting was called to order by Jonathan Sanwald, HASQARD Focus Group Chair at 2:10 PM on April 19, 2016 in Conference Room 308 at 2420 Stevens. Those attending were: Jonathan Sanwald (Mission Support Alliance (Mission Support Alliance (MSA)), Focus Group Chair), Cliff Watkins (Corporate Allocation Services, DOE-RL Support Contractor, Focus Group Secretary), Marcus Aranda (Wastren Advantage Inc. Wastren Hanford Laboratory (WHL)), Joe Archuleta (CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company

  9. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Routing Key Documents | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Key Documents TEC Working Group Topic Groups Routing Key Documents KEY DOCUMENTS Proposed Task Plan - Routing Topic Group (53.69 KB) More Documents & Publications TEC Working Group ...

  10. ALS Communications Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Communications Group Print From left: Ashley White, Lori Tamura, Keri Troutman, and Carina Braun. The ALS Communications staff maintain the ALS Web site; write and edit all...

  11. ALS Communications Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Communications Group Print From left: Ashley White, Lori Tamura, Keri Troutman, and Carina Braun. The ALS Communications staff maintain the ALS Web site; write and edit all print...

  12. UMBC Research Group Update

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... In situ measurements of aerosol mass concentration and radiative properties in Xianghe, ... Contributions of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel ...

  13. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    6, 2012 The meeting was called to order by Huei Meznarich, HASQARD Focus Group Chair at 2:04 PM on October 16, 2012 in Conference Room 308 at 2420 Stevens. Those attending were: Huei Meznarich (Focus Group Chair), Cliff Watkins (Focus Group Secretary), Jeff Cheadle, Glen Clark, Robert Elkins, Larry Markel, Mary McCormick-Barger, Karl Pool, Noe'l Smith-Jackson, Chris Sutton, Steve Trent, Amanda Tuttle, Sam Vega, Rich Weiss and Eric Wyse. New personnel have joined the Focus Group since the last

  14. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    27, 2012 The meeting was called to order by Huei Meznarich, HASQARD Focus Group Chair at 2:09 PM on November 27, 2012 in Conference Room 308 at 2420 Stevens. Those attending were: Huei Meznarich (Focus Group Chair), Cliff Watkins (Focus Group Secretary), Glen Clark, Robert Elkins, Joan Kessner, Larry Markel, Mary McCormick-Barger, Steve Trent, and Rich Weiss. I. Huei Meznarich requested comments on the minutes from the October 16, 2012 meeting. No HASQARD Focus Group members present stated any

  15. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    0, 2013 The meeting was called to order by Huei Meznarich, HASQARD Focus Group Chair at 2:05 PM on August 20, 2013 in Conference Room 308 at 2420 Stevens. Those attending were: Huei Meznarich (Focus Group Chair), Cliff Watkins (Focus Group Secretary), Taffy Almeida, Glen Clark, Robert Elkins, Scot Fitzgerald, Joan Kessner, Steve Smith, Rich Weiss and Eric Wyse. I. Huei Meznarich asked if there were any comments on the minutes from the July 23, 2013 meeting. No Focus Group members stated they had

  16. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    5, 2014 The meeting was called to order by Huei Meznarich, HASQARD Focus Group Chair at 2:10 PM on April 15, 2014 in Conference Room 308 at 2420 Stevens. Those attending were: Huei Meznarich (Focus Group Chair), Cliff Watkins (Focus Group Secretary), Glen Clark, Robert Elkins, Scot Fitzgerald, Mary McCormick-Barger, Karl Pool, Noe'l Smith-Jackson, and Eric Wyse. I. Huei Meznarich asked if there were any comments on the minutes from the March 18, 2014 meeting. No Focus Group members stated they

  17. Hydrogen Technologies Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-03-01

    The Hydrogen Technologies Group at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory advances the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center's mission by researching a variety of hydrogen technologies.

  18. Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group of research and industry experts focuses on issues related to the cost, safety, and reliability of hydrogen pipelines. Participants represent organizations...

  19. ORGANIZATION/GROUP

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ...GROUP PRIMARY MEMBER ALTERNATE LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL INTERESTS (1) Richland Rod & Gun Club Gene Van Liew Paul Kison REGIONAL CITIZEN, ENVIRONMENTAL & PUBLIC INTEREST ...

  20. Re-refinement from deposited X-ray data can deliver improved models for most PDB entries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joosten, Robbie P.; Womack, Thomas; Vriend, Gert; Bricogne, GĆ©rard

    2009-02-01

    An evaluation of validation and real-space intervention possibilities for improving existing automated (re-)refinement methods. The deposition of X-ray data along with the customary structural models defining PDB entries makes it possible to apply large-scale re-refinement protocols to these entries, thus giving users the benefit of improvements in X-ray methods that have occurred since the structure was deposited. Automated gradient refinement is an effective method to achieve this goal, but real-space intervention is most often required in order to adequately address problems detected by structure-validation software. In order to improve the existing protocol, automated re-refinement was combined with structure validation and difference-density peak analysis to produce a catalogue of problems in PDB entries that are amenable to automatic correction. It is shown that re-refinement can be effective in producing improvements, which are often associated with the systematic use of the TLS parameterization of B factors, even for relatively new and high-resolution PDB entries, while the accompanying manual or semi-manual map analysis and fitting steps show good prospects for eventual automation. It is proposed that the potential for simultaneous improvements in methods and in re-refinement results be further encouraged by broadening the scope of depositions to include refinement metadata and ultimately primary rather than reduced X-ray data.

  1. Ardent Energy Group Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    California. The Company will engage in the production of biodiesel feedstock and refined biodiesel including (SPK) Bio-Aviation fuel using advanced technology with our partners....

  2. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    2 The meeting was called to order by Huei Meznarich, HASQARD Focus Group Chair at 2:06 PM on June 12, 2012 in Conference Room 308 at 2420 Stevens. Those attending were: Huei Meznarich (Focus Group Chair), Cliff Watkins (Focus Group Secretary), Jeff Cheadle, Glen Clark, Shannan Johnson, Joan Kessner, Larry Markel, Karl Pool, Steve Smith, Noe'l Smith-Jackson, Chris Sutton, Cindy Taylor, Chris Thomson, Amanda Tuttle, Sam Vega, Rick Warriner and Eric Wyse. I. Huei Meznarich requested comments on the

  3. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    1, 2012 The meeting was called to order by Huei Meznarich, HASQARD Focus Group Chair at 2:10 PM on August 21, 2012 in an alternate Conference Room in 2420 Stevens. Those attending were: Huei Meznarich (Focus Group Chair), Cliff Watkins (Focus Group Secretary), Lynn Albin, Glen Clark, Robert Elkins, Scot Fitzgerald, Joan Kessner, Larry Markel, Steve Smith, Chris Sutton. Chris Thompson, Amanda Tuttle, and Rich Weiss. I. Because the meeting was scheduled to take place in Room 308 and a glitch in

  4. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    January 28, 2014 The meeting was called to order by Huei Meznarich, HASQARD Focus Group Chair at 2:04 PM on January 28, 2014 in Conference Room 308 at 2420 Stevens. Those attending were: Huei Meznarich (Focus Group Chair), Cliff Watkins (Focus Group Secretary), Joe Archuleta, Glen Clark, Robert Elkins, Scot Fitzgerald, Joan Kessner, Mary McCormick-Barger, Karl Pool, Noe'l Smith-Jackson, Chris Sutton, Chris Thompson, Rich Weiss and Eric Wyse. I. Huei Meznarich asked if there were any comments on

  5. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    8, 2014 The meeting was called to order by Huei Meznarich, HASQARD Focus Group Chair at 2:05 PM on March 18, 2014 in Conference Room 308 at 2420 Stevens. Those attending were: Huei Meznarich (Focus Group Chair), Cliff Watkins (Focus Group Secretary), Joe Archuleta, Glen Clark, Robert Elkins, Scot Fitzgerald, Joan Kessner, Mary McCormick-Barger, Karl Pool, Noe'l Smith-Jackson, Rich Weiss, and Eric Wyse. I. Huei Meznarich asked if there were any comments on the minutes from the February 25, 2014

  6. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    0, 2014 The meeting was called to order by Huei Meznarich, HASQARD Focus Group Chair at 2:05 PM on May 20, 2014 in Conference Room 308 at 2420 Stevens. Those attending were: Huei Meznarich (Focus Group Chair), Cliff Watkins (Focus Group Secretary), Lynn Albin, Taffy Almeida, Joe Archuleta, Glen Clark, Robert Elkins, Scot Fitzgerald, Shannan Johnson, Joan Kessner, Mary McCormick-Barger, Craig Perkins, Karl Pool, Noe'l Smith-Jackson, Chris Sutton, Chris Thompson and Eric Wyse. I. Acknowledging the

  7. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    4 The meeting was called to order by Huei Meznarich, HASQARD Focus Group Chair at 2:07 PM on June 12, 2014 in Conference Room 308 at 2420 Stevens. Those attending were: Huei Meznarich (Focus Group Chair), Cliff Watkins (Focus Group Secretary), Joe Archuleta, Sara Champoux, Glen Clark, Jim Douglas, Robert Elkins, Scot Fitzgerald, Joan Kessner, Jan McCallum, Mary McCormick-Barger, Karl Pool, Noe'l Smith-Jackson, Rich Weiss and Eric Wyse. I. Acknowledging the presence of new and/or infrequent

  8. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    7, 2014 The meeting was called to order by Huei Meznarich, HASQARD Focus Group Chair at 2:10 PM on June 17, 2014 in Conference Room 308 at 2420 Stevens. Those attending were: Huei Meznarich (Focus Group Chair), Cliff Watkins (Focus Group Secretary), Robert Elkins, Shannan Johnson, Joan Kessner, Jan McCallum, Craig Perkins, Karl Pool, Chris Sutton and Rich Weiss. I. Because of the short time since the last meeting, Huei Meznarich stated that the minutes from the June 12, 2014 meeting have not yet

  9. Group key management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  10. Trails Working Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Working Group Trails Working Group Our mission is to inventory, map, and prepare historical reports on the many trails used at LANL. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email The LANL Trails Working Group inventories, maps, and prepares historical reports on the many trails used at LANL. Some of these trails are ancient pueblo footpaths that continue to be used for recreational hiking today. Some serve as quiet

  11. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Rail Conference Call Summaries...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Summaries Rail Topic Group TEC Working Group Topic Groups Rail Conference Call Summaries Rail Topic Group Rail Topic Group PDF icon May 17, 2007 PDF icon January 16, 2007 PDF icon...

  12. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  13. Tritium Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    matters related to tritium. Contacts Mike Rogers (505) 665-2513 Email Chandra Savage Marsden (505) 664-0183 Email The Tritium Focus Group consists of participants from member...

  14. InterGroup Protocols

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-04-02

    Existing reliable ordered group communication protocols have been developed for local-area networks and do not in general scale well to a large number of nodes and wide-area networks. The InterGroup suite of protocols is a scalable group communication system that introduces an unusual approach to handling group membership, and supports a receiver-oriented selection of service. The protocols are intended for a wide-area network, with a large number of nodes, that has highly variable delays andmoreĀ Ā» a high message loss rate, such as the Internet. The levels of the message delivery service range from unreliable unordered to reliable timestamp ordered.Ā«Ā less

  15. Strategic Initiatives Work Group

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Work Group, comprised of members representing DOE, contractor and worker representatives, provides a forum for information sharing; data collection and analysis; as well as, identifying best practices and initiatives to enhance safety performance and safety culture across the Complex.

  16. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... documents prior to their approval for use was approved by the Focus Group members present with no comments because it was language equivalent to NQA-1 language on the same subject. ...

  17. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The Focus Group discussed whether to have the same "level of review" for any changes or whether this applies to only "major" changes. Similar language exists in NQA-1-2008, Section ...

  18. # Energy Measuremenfs Group

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ri EECE Energy Measuremenfs Group SUMMARY REPORT . AiRIAL R4DIOLOGICAL SURVEY - NIAGARA ... Herbirt F. Hahn, Department of Energy PERFDRflED BY EGtf, INC. UNDER CONTRACT NO. ...

  19. Date Times Group Speakers

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Group Research Meeting Toms Arias Mon, 3-10 2:30-3:30pm Faculty Meeting Richard Robinson Fri, 3-14 12:30-1:30pm Student & Postdoc Mtg Michael Zachman (Kourkoutis) & Deniz...

  20. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Elkins, Mary McCormick-Barger, Noe'l Smith-Jackson, Chris Sutton, Amanda Tuttle, Rick ... Noe'l Smith-Jackson stated that the HASQARD document is the work of the Focus Group not ...

  1. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Markel, Mary McCormick-Barger, Dave St. John, Steve Smith, Steve Trent and Eric Wyse. ... On January 31, the Secretary received a call from the QA Sub-Group Chair, Steve Smith. ...

  2. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    6, 2010 The meeting was called to order by Dave Crawford, Focus Group Chairman at 2:03 PM on November 16, 2010 in Conference Room 208 at 2425 Stevens. Those attending were: Dave Crawford (Chair), Cliff Watkins (Secretary), Lynn Albin, Heather Anastos, Paula Ciszak, Glen Clark, Doug Duvon, Kathi Dunbar, Robert Elkins, Scot Fitzgerald, Joan Kessner, Larry Markel, Huei Meznarich, Steve Smith, Chris Sutton, Noe'l Smith-Jackson, Chris Thompson, Eric Wyse. New members to the Focus Group were

  3. Macro Industrial Working Group

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    September 29, 2014 | Washington, DC WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE AS RESULTS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE Industrial team preliminary results for AEO2015 Overview AEO2015 2 Industrial Team Washington DC, September 29, 2014 WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE AS RESULTS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE * AEO2015 is a "Lite" year - New ethane/propane pricing model only major update - Major side cases released with Reference case

  4. Specific Group Hardware

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Specific Group Hardware Specific Group Hardware ALICE palicevo1 The Virtual Organization (VO) server. Serves as gatekeeper for ALICE jobs. It's duties include getting assignments from ALICE file catalog (at CERN), submitting jobs to pdsfgrid (via condor) which submits jobs to the compute nodes, monitoring the cluster work load, and uploading job information to ALICE file catalog. It is monitored with MonALISA (the monitoring page is here). It's made up of 2 Intel Xeon E5520 processors each with

  5. Tritium Focus Group Meeting

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Fall 2015 Tritium Focus Group Meeting November 3 - 5, 2015 Meeting location: J.R. Oppenheimer Study Center TA 3, Building 207, Main Floor Technical Area 3 Map (pdf) Directions via Google Maps Meeting Information Tritium Focus Group Charter (pdf) Hotel Information Classified Session Information Los Alamos Restaurants (pdf) LANL Information Visiting Los Alamos Area Map Weather Contacts Mike Rogers (505) 665-2513 mrogers@lanl.gov Chandra Savage Marsden (505) 664-0183 chandra@lanl.gov

  6. Evaluation of tropical channel refinement using MPAS-A aquaplanet simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martini, Matus N.; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po -Lun

    2015-09-13

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scalesā€“Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configuration using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20Ā°Sā€“20Ā°N) and one with a wide (30Ā°Sā€“30Ā°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. Furthermore, the relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in earlier

  7. Direct Reduction of Waste through Refining of DOE Metal Assets - 13632

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hargett, Michael C.; Terekhov, Dimitri; Khozan, Kamran M.

    2013-07-01

    CVMR{sup R} presents a technology for refining nickel from the enrichment barrier materials of the DOE that is proven through 100 years of use by the metals industry. CVMR{sup R} applies modern controls, instrumentation for process and monitoring of the system, and innovative production methods to produce a wide spectrum of products that generate new technology applications and improvements to our society and economy. CVMR{sup R} will receive barrier materials as a secure operation and size reduce the metal to a shred that is fed to a carbonylation reactor where nickel is reacted with carbon monoxide and generate nickel carbonyl. The carbonyl will be filtered and decomposed with heat to form a variety of products that include high value nano powders, coated substrates, net shapes and pure nickel. The residue from the reactor will retain radionuclides from enrichment activities. The carbon monoxide will only react and extract nickel under the operating conditions to leave volumetric contamination in the unreacted residue. A demonstration plant was designed and built by CVMR{sup R} and operated by BWXT, to demonstrate the systems capabilities to DOE in 2006. A pilot plant operation precedes the detailed design of the nickel refinery and provides essential data for design, safe work practices, waste characterizations and system kinetics and confirms the project feasibility. CVMR{sup R} produces nickel products that are cleaner than the nickel in U.S. commerce and used by industry today. The CVMR{sup R} process and systems for nickel refining is well suited for DOE materials and will provide value through environmental stewardship, recovery of high value assets, and support of the DOE environmental remediation programs as the refined nickel generates additional long term benefits to local communities. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of Tropical Channel Refinement using MPAS-A Aquaplanet Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martini, Matus; Gustafson, William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po-Lun

    2015-09-13

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scalesā€“Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configuration using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20Ā°Sā€“20Ā°N) and one with a wide (30Ā°Sā€“30Ā°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. The relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in earlier studies that

  9. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Petroleum Refining (NAICS 324110), October 2012 (MECS 2006)

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Petroleum Refining (NAICS 324110) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 245 Nonprocess Losses 3,546 641 Steam Distribution Losses 145 20 Nonprocess Energy 2,994 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 3,546 110 Prepared for the Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) by Energetics Incorporated 62 2,779 127 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 41 275 Onsite Generation 2,840 2,304 927 3,231 402 151 682 9.6 24.3 33.8 64.7 64.3 144.5 176.0

  10. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-03-15

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  11. MX-2500 thermal processor for the treatment of petroleum refining wastes and contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanberg, C. )

    1993-05-01

    Separation and Recovery Systems, Inc. (SRS) of Irvine, California is the market leader in supplying hazardous waste and secondary material dewatering and drying services to the petroleum refining industry. In late 1991, SRS introduced the new generation of dryer technology, the MX-2500. The MX-2500 is an electrically heated dryer system that recovers virtually all of the hydrocarbon value of refinery wastes and secondary materials, while producing a solid residue meeting EPA Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) treatment levels which allows the refinery to land dispose of the solids, thereby realizing two objectives: waste minimization and oil recovery/recycling. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Managing process innovation through incremental improvements: Empirical evidence in the petroleum refining industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, J.Z.

    1994-11-01

    This paper developed a present value index (PVI) model to offer a new solution to differing the effects of radical innovation and incremental improvement. After comparing the return from an initial-radical-process innovation and the return from the incremental changes in petroleum refining processes, it was found that incremental improvements generated higher returns than from its initial innovations. The findings suggest that, in contrast to a conventional research and development (R&D) strategy with a focus on state-of-art innovations, manufacturing companies should place sufficient emphasis on incremental capital and operating improvements to fully exploit economic benefits from an innovation. 49 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Refinement of overlapping local/global iteration method based on Monte Carlo/p-CMFD calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Y.; Yun, S.; Cho, N. Z.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the overlapping local/global (OLG) iteration method based on Monte Carlo/p-CMFD calculations is refined in two aspects. One is the consistent use of estimators to generate homogenized scattering cross sections. Another is that the incident or exiting angular interval is divided into multi-angular bins to modulate albedo boundary conditions for local problems. Numerical tests show that, compared to the one angle bin case in a previous study, the four angle bin case shows significantly improved results. (authors)

  14. Quantitative phase analysis of Mg:ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles by Rietveld refinement method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaji, V. Senthilkumaran, S. Thangadurai, P.

    2014-04-24

    To quantify the structural phases of nanocrystalline ZrO{sub 2} doped with Mg ions of varying concentrations (3, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) and annealed at different temperatures. Magnesia doped zirconia was prepared by chemical co-precipitation method and annealed up to 1000Ā°C. The monoclinic and tetragonal phases present in Mg:ZrO{sub 2} were quantified using Rietveld refinement analysis of the X-ray diffraction data and compared with the Direct method based on peak intensity calculations. Tetragonal phase was dominant in the 600Ā°C annealed Mg:ZrO{sub 2} for all Mg concentrations.

  15. Table 3a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars per barrel in ""dollar year"" specific to each AEO)" ,"AEO $ Year",1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",1992,16.69,16.42999,16.9899,17.66,18.28,19.0599,19.89,20.72,21.65,22.61,23.51,24.29,24.9,25.6,26.3,27,27.64,28.16

  16. European refiners must seek creative processes to justify heavy-ends projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, P.

    1996-12-09

    There are strong reasons for wanting to upgrade the bottom of the crude oil barrel. But European refiners will not find it easy to get approval and funding for major capital investment projects. In most cases, investment justification will have to be creative and may need to rely on factors traditionally considered to be outside the conventional refinery fence. Examples of such creative upgrading schemes are those employed in four gasification projects planned for refineries in Italy. It is clear that the major obstacles to heavy residue processing are not technical, but economic. A review of these obstacles will set the stage for European investment in bottom-of-the-barrel processing.

  17. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Savings Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas, representing 68% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  18. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  19. ,"U.S. Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil",3,"Monthly","9/2016","1/15/1974" ,"Release Date:","11/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","12/1/2016" ,"Excel File

  20. Facilities removal working group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    This working group`s first objective is to identify major economic, technical, and regulatory constraints on operator practices and decisions relevant to offshore facilities removal. Then, the group will try to make recommendations as to regulatory and policy adjustments, additional research, or process improvements and/or technological advances, that may be needed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the removal process. The working group will focus primarily on issues dealing with Gulf of Mexico platform abandonments. In order to make the working group sessions as productive as possible, the Facilities Removal Working Group will focus on three topics that address a majority of the concerns and/or constraints relevant to facilities removal. The three areas are: (1) Explosive Severing and its Impact on Marine Life, (2) Pile and Conductor Severing, and (3) Deep Water Abandonments This paper will outline the current state of practice in the offshore industry, identifying current regulations and specific issues encountered when addressing each of the three main topics above. The intent of the paper is to highlight potential issues for panel discussion, not to provide a detailed review of all data relevant to the topic. Before each panel discussion, key speakers will review data and information to facilitate development and discussion of the main issues of each topic. Please refer to the attached agenda for the workshop format, key speakers, presentation topics, and panel participants. The goal of the panel discussions is to identify key issues for each of the three topics above. The working group will also make recommendations on how to proceed on these key issues.

  1. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Section 180(c) Meeting Summaries...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Meeting Summaries TEC Working Group Topic Groups Section 180(c) Meeting Summaries Meeting Summaries PDF icon Washington, DC TEC Meeting - 180(c) Group Summary - March 15, 2006 More...

  2. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Routing Meeting Summaries | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Routing Meeting Summaries TEC Working Group Topic Groups Routing Meeting Summaries MEETING SUMMARIES PDF icon Atlanta TEC Meeting, Routing Topic Group Summary More Documents &...

  3. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Rail Conference Call Summaries...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Rail Conference Call Summaries TEC Working Group Topic Groups Rail Conference Call Summaries CONFERENCE CALL SUMMARIES Rail Topic Group Inspections Subgroup Planning Subgroup...

  4. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Archives Protocols Meeting Summaries...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Protocols Meeting Summaries TEC Working Group Topic Groups Archives Protocols Meeting Summaries Meeting Summaries PDF icon Philadelphia TEC Meeting, Protocols Topic Group Summary -...

  5. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Security | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    TEC Working Group Topic Groups Security The Security Topic group is comprised of regulators, law enforcement officials, labor and industry representatives and other subject matter ...

  6. Good Energy Group Plc previously Monkton Group Plc | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Plc previously Monkton Group Plc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Good Energy Group Plc (previously Monkton Group Plc) Place: Chippenham, Wiltshire, United Kingdom Zip: SN15 1EE...

  7. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Tribal Meeting Summaries | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Tribal Meeting Summaries TEC Working Group Topic Groups Tribal Meeting Summaries Meeting Summaries PDF icon Kansas City TEC Meeting - Tribal Group Summary - July 25, 2007 PDF icon ...

  8. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Rail Meeting Summaries | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    TEC Working Group Topic Groups Rail Meeting Summaries MEETING SUMMARIES PDF icon Kansas City TEC Meeting, Rail Topic Group Summary - July 25, 2007 PDF icon Atlanta TEC...

  9. Illinois Wind Workers Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David G. Loomis

    2012-05-28

    The Illinois Wind Working Group (IWWG) was founded in 2006 with about 15 members. It has grown to over 200 members today representing all aspects of the wind industry across the State of Illinois. In 2008, the IWWG developed a strategic plan to give direction to the group and its activities. The strategic plan identifies ways to address critical market barriers to the further penetration of wind. The key to addressing these market barriers is public education and outreach. Since Illinois has a restructured electricity market, utilities no longer have a strong control over the addition of new capacity within the state. Instead, market acceptance depends on willing landowners to lease land and willing county officials to site wind farms. Many times these groups are uninformed about the benefits of wind energy and unfamiliar with the process. Therefore, many of the project objectives focus on conferences, forum, databases and research that will allow these stakeholders to make well-educated decisions.

  10. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    20, 2012 The meeting was called to order by Huei Meznarich, HASQARD Focus Group Chair at 2:05 PM on March 20, 2012 in Conference Room 308 at 2420 Stevens. Those attending were: Huei Meznarich (Chair), Cliff Watkins (Secretary), Jeff Cheadle, Glen Clark, Scot Fitzgerald, Larry Markel, Noe'l Smith-Jackson, Chris Sutton, Amanda Tuttle, Sam Vega, Rick Warriner and Eric Wyse. I. Huei Meznarich requested comments on the minutes from the February 21, 2012 meeting. No HASQARD Focus Group members present

  11. Bell, group and tangle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, A. I.

    2010-03-15

    The 'Bell' of the title refers to bipartite Bell states, and their extensions to, for example, tripartite systems. The 'Group' of the title is the Braid Group in its various representations; while 'Tangle' refers to the property of entanglement which is present in both of these scenarios. The objective of this note is to explore the relation between Quantum Entanglement and Topological Links, and to show that the use of the language of entanglement in both cases is more than one of linguistic analogy.

  12. SUB ZERO GROUP, INC.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    SUB ZERO GROUP, INC. 4717 Hammersley Road. Madison, WI 53711 P: 800.532.7820 P: 608.271.2233 F: 608.270.3362 Memorandum To: David Foster, Senior Advisor, Office of the Secretary of Energy CQ Michael Lafave, Director of Production Workers, SMART Union Workers Marc Norberg, Assistant to the General President, SMART Union Workers From: Christopher Jessup, Corporate Compliance Manager, Sub-Zero Group, Inc. Date: June 21, 2016 Re: June 15, 2016 Meeting at Department of Energy Forrestal Building in

  13. The Chaninik Wind Group

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Chaninik Wind Group It started as a small, simple idea..., now we are headed to become," the heartbeat of the region." William Igkurak, President USDoE Tribal Energy Program, Annual Program Review, November 13-16, 2012, Denver, Colorado Department of Energy Tribal Energy Chaninik Wind Group Villages ļƒ˜Kongiganak pop.359 ļƒ˜Kwigillingok pop. 388 ļƒ˜Kipnuk pop.644 ļƒ˜Tuntutuliak pop. 370 On average, 24% of families are below the poverty line. Chaninik's Goal is to become "The

  14. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  15. Molecular dynamics force-field refinement against quasi-elastic neutron scattering data

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Borreguero Calvo, Jose M.; Lynch, Vickie E.

    2015-11-23

    Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) is one of the experimental techniques of choice for probing the dynamics at length and time scales that are also in the realm of full-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. This overlap enables extension of current fitting methods that use time-independent equilibrium measurements to new methods fitting against dynamics data. We present an algorithm that fits simulation-derived incoherent dynamical structure factors against QENS data probing the diffusive dynamics of the system. We showcase the difficulties inherent to this type of fitting problem, namely, the disparity between simulation and experiment environment, as well as limitations in the simulationmoreĀ Ā» due to incomplete sampling of phase space. We discuss a methodology to overcome these difficulties and apply it to a set of full-atom MD simulations for the purpose of refining the force-field parameter governing the activation energy of methyl rotation in the octa-methyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane molecule. Our optimal simulated activation energy agrees with the experimentally derived value up to a 5% difference, well within experimental error. We believe the method will find applicability to other types of diffusive motions and other representation of the systems such as coarse-grain models where empirical fitting is essential. In addition, the refinement method can be extended to the coherent dynamic structure factor with no additional effort.Ā«Ā less

  16. Decontamination of metals by melt refining/slagging: First year progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizia, R.E.; Worcester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.

    1994-03-01

    As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult. The problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste storage problems, Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technologies for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small scale melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of pilot scale melting demonstrations (100-500 lbs) to be conducted at selected commercial facilities. This program will identify methods that can be used to recycle stainless steel RSM which will be used to fabricate high and low level waste canisters for the Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility. This report summarizes the results of an extensive literature review and the first year`s progress on slag design, small-scale melt refining of surrogate-containing stainless steel (presently only a three month effort), and pilot-scale preparation of surrogate master ingots.

  17. Projected refined product balances in key Latin American countries: A preliminary examination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    Over the years, the East-West Center (EWC) has developed considerable expertise in refinery modeling, especially in the area of forecasting product balances for countries, given planned capacity changes, changes in product demand, changes in crude slates, and changes in product specifications. This expertise has been applied on an ongoing basis to the major refiners in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, along with the US West Coast as region in its own right. Refinery modeling in these three areas has been ongoing for nearly 15 years at the Center, and the tools and information sources are now well developed. To date, the EWC has not applied these tools to Latin America. Although research on Latin America has been an ongoing area of concern at the Center in recent years, the information gathered to date is still not of the level of detail nor quality available for other areas. The modeling efforts undertaken in this report are of a ``baseline`` nature, designed to outline the major issues, attempt a first cut at emerging product balances, and, above all, to elicit commentary from those directly involved in the oil industry in the key countries modeled. Our experience in other regions has shown that it takes a few years dialogue with refiners and government planner in individual countries to develop a reliable database, as well as the insights into operational constraints and practices that make accurate modeling possible. This report is no more than a first step down the road.

  18. Molecular dynamics force-field refinement against quasi-elastic neutron scattering data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borreguero Calvo, Jose M.; Lynch, Vickie E.

    2015-11-23

    Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) is one of the experimental techniques of choice for probing the dynamics at length and time scales that are also in the realm of full-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. This overlap enables extension of current fitting methods that use time-independent equilibrium measurements to new methods fitting against dynamics data. We present an algorithm that fits simulation-derived incoherent dynamical structure factors against QENS data probing the diffusive dynamics of the system. We showcase the difficulties inherent to this type of fitting problem, namely, the disparity between simulation and experiment environment, as well as limitations in the simulation due to incomplete sampling of phase space. We discuss a methodology to overcome these difficulties and apply it to a set of full-atom MD simulations for the purpose of refining the force-field parameter governing the activation energy of methyl rotation in the octa-methyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane molecule. Our optimal simulated activation energy agrees with the experimentally derived value up to a 5% difference, well within experimental error. We believe the method will find applicability to other types of diffusive motions and other representation of the systems such as coarse-grain models where empirical fitting is essential. In addition, the refinement method can be extended to the coherent dynamic structure factor with no additional effort.

  19. Conformation-dependent backbone geometry restraints set a new standard for protein crystallographic refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2014-06-17

    Ideal values of bond angles and lengths used as external restraints are crucial for the successful refinement of protein crystal structures at all but the highest of resolutions. The restraints in common usage today have been designed based on the assumption that each type of bond or angle has a single ideal value independent of context. However, recent work has shown that the ideal values are, in fact, sensitive to local conformation, and as a first step toward using such information to build more accurate models, ultra-high resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive a conformation-dependent library (CDL) of restraints for the protein backbone (Berkholz et al. 2009. Structure. 17, 1316). Here, we report the introduction of this CDL into the Phenix package and the results of test refinements of thousands of structures across a wide range of resolutions. These tests show that use of the conformation dependent library yields models that have substantially better agreement with ideal main-chain bond angles and lengths and, on average, a slightly enhanced fit to the X-ray data. No disadvantages of using the backbone CDL are apparent. In Phenix usage of the CDL can be selected by simply specifying the cdl=True option. This successful implementation paves the way for further aspects of the context-dependence of ideal geometry to be characterized and applied to improve experimental and predictive modelling accuracy.

  20. Conformation-dependent backbone geometry restraints set a new standard for protein crystallographic refinement

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2014-06-17

    Ideal values of bond angles and lengths used as external restraints are crucial for the successful refinement of protein crystal structures at all but the highest of resolutions. The restraints in common usage today have been designed based on the assumption that each type of bond or angle has a single ideal value independent of context. However, recent work has shown that the ideal values are, in fact, sensitive to local conformation, and as a first step toward using such information to build more accurate models, ultra-high resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive a conformation-dependent library (CDL)moreĀ Ā» of restraints for the protein backbone (Berkholz et al. 2009. Structure. 17, 1316). Here, we report the introduction of this CDL into the Phenix package and the results of test refinements of thousands of structures across a wide range of resolutions. These tests show that use of the conformation dependent library yields models that have substantially better agreement with ideal main-chain bond angles and lengths and, on average, a slightly enhanced fit to the X-ray data. No disadvantages of using the backbone CDL are apparent. In Phenix usage of the CDL can be selected by simply specifying the cdl=True option. This successful implementation paves the way for further aspects of the context-dependence of ideal geometry to be characterized and applied to improve experimental and predictive modelling accuracy.Ā«Ā less

  1. US imports. Part II. Refined product market shares, then and now

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-07-08

    Unlike imports of crude oil to the US, which were up 45.7% between 1977 and 1986, imports of petroleum products have fallen by about 8.6% during the same period. The crude oil price crash of 1986 deepened US dependency on imports of crude, from 21.4% in 1977 to 25.4% in 1986, but reduced the dependency in the case of total refined products from 11.32% in 1977 to 11.13% in 1986. Comparing the first four months of 1987 with 1986, US dependency on imported petroleum products is down 2.73 percentage points; import dependency on OPEC petroleum products is down 4.60 percentage points; dependency on Arab OPEC countries product imports is down 1.88 percentage points; and for Eastern Hemisphere exporters, that dependency has fallen 2.17 percentage points. This issue also contains: (1) ED refining netback data from the US Gulf and West coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore for early July 1987; and (2) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, July 1987 edition. 4 figures, 5 tables.

  2. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1979-March 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Project by the Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. for the Department of Energy for the period January 1, 1979 to March 31, 1979. Activities included the operation and modification of the Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant at Fort Lewis, Washington; the Process Development Unit P-99 at Harmarville, Pennsylvania; and research at Merriam Laboratory in Merriam, Kansas. The Pilot Plant processed Powhatan No. 5 Coal in the SRC-II mode of operation studying the effect of coal particle size and system temperature on coal slurry blending and the effect of carbon monoxide concentration in the reaction feed gas on process yields. January and February were spent completing installation of a fourth High Pressure Separator on Process Development Unit P-99 to better simulate operating conditions for the proposed Demonstration Plant. During March, one run was completed at P-99 feeding Pittsburgh Seam Coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine. Merriam investigations included a study of the effect of iron containing additives on SRC-I operation, the addition of carbon monoxide to the feed gas, utilization of a hydrogenated solvent (Cresap process solvent) in the SRC-I mode under both normal and short residence time operating conditions, and development of a simulated distillation technique to determine the entire boiling range distribution of product oils.

  3. ENN Group aka XinAo Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    ENN Group aka XinAo Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: ENN Group (aka XinAo Group) Place: Langfang, Hebei Province, China Zip: 65001 Product: Chinese private industrial...

  4. MEA BREAKOUT GROUP

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    MEA BREAKOUT GROUP TOPICS FOCUSED ON CCMs * IONOMER * CATALYST LAYER * PERFORMANCE * DEGRADATION * FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES IONOMER * DEVELOP IMPROVED IONOMERS: PERFLUORINATED IONOMERS (O2 SOLUBILITY) HYDROCARBON IONOMERS * ANODE FLOODING ISSUES, CATHODE DRYOUT ISSUES: - DEVELOP SEPARATE IONOMERS FOR ANODE/CATHODE - IONOMER CHEMISTRY * IONOMER/CATALYST INTERACTION * CL / MEMBRANE INTERACTION * IMPROVED CL/M INTERFACES - IONOMER CROSSLINKING CATALYST LAYER * CATALYST CHALLENGES IN ANODE SIDE * FOCUS

  5. Abandoning wells working group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  6. Helms Research Group - Home

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Helms Group Home Research Members Publications Collaborations Connect Physical Organic Materials Chemistry Our research is devoted to understanding transport phenomena in mesostructured systems assembled from organic, organometallic, polymeric and nanocrystalline components. Enhanced capabilities relevant to energy, health, water, and food quality are enabled by our unique approaches to the modular design of their architectures and interfaces.

  7. Greenko Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Greenko Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Greenko Group Place: Hyderabad, India Zip: 500 033 Product: Focused on clean energy projects in Asia. References: Greenko Group1...

  8. Sinocome Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sinocome Group Place: Beijing Municipality, China Sector: Solar Product: A Chinese high tech group with business in solar PV sector...

  9. Valesul Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Valesul Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Valesul Group Place: Brazil Product: Brazilian ethanol producer. References: Valesul Group1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  10. Angeleno Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Angeleno Group Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Angeleno Group Name: Angeleno Group Address: 2029 Century Park East, Suite 2980 Place: Los Angeles, California Zip: 90067 Region:...

  11. MTorres Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: MTorres Group Place: Murcia, Spain Zip: 30320 Sector: Wind energy Product: Wind turbine manufacturer References: MTorres Group1 This...

  12. Ferrari Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Ferrari Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ferrari Group Place: Sao Paulo, Brazil Product: Sao Paulo-based ethanol producer. References: Ferrari Group1 This article is a...

  13. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Archives Communications Meeting Summaries |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Archives Communications Meeting Summaries TEC Working Group Topic Groups Archives Communications Meeting Summaries Meeting Summaries Milwaukee TEC Meeting, Communications Topic Group Summary - July 1998 (58.3 KB) Inaugural Group Meeting - April 1998 (83.34 KB) More Documents & Publications TEC Working Group Topic Groups Archives Communications Conference Call Summaries TEC Meeting Summaries - January 1997 TEC Working Group Topic Groups Tribal Conference Call

  14. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    July 20, 2010 The meeting was called to order by Dave Crawford, Focus Group Chairman, at 2:05 PM on July 20, 2010 in Conference Room 208 at 2425 Stevens. Those attending were: Dave Crawford (Chair), Cliff Watkins (Secretary), Taffy Almeida, Heather Anastos, Mike Barnes, Jeff Cheadle, Glen Clark, Robert Elkins, Cindy English, Al Hawkins, Jim Jewett, Kris Kuhl-Klinger, Joan Kessner, Larry Markel, Huei Meznarich, Karl Pool, Noe'l Smith-Jackson, Andrew Stevens, Genesis Thomas, Chris Thompson, Rich

  15. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    8, 2011 The meeting was called to order by Dave Crawford, Focus Group Chairman at 2:08 PM on January 18, 2011 in Conference Room 208 at 2425 Stevens. Those attending were: Dave Crawford (Chair), Cliff Watkins (Secretary), Heather Anastos, Paula Ciszak, Jim Conca, Scott Conley, Glen Clark, Scott Conley, Jim Douglas, Scot Fitzgerald, Stewart Huggins, Jim Jewett, Joan Kessner, Larry Markel, Huei Meznarich, Karl Pool, Dave Shea, Steve Smith, Chris Sutton, Amanda Tuttle, Rich Weiss, Eric Wyse. Dave

  16. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    1 The meeting was called to order by Huei Meznarich who was acting for the absent Dave Crawford, Focus Group Chairman at 2:04 PM on April 19, 2011 in Conference Room 208 at 2425 Stevens. Those attending were: Huei Meznarich (Acting Chair), Cliff Watkins (Secretary), Taffy Almeida, Heather Anastos, Courtney Blanchard, Jeff Cheadle, Glen Clark, Kathie Dunbar, Robert Elkins, Scot Fitzgerald, Greg Holte, Joan Kessner, Noe'l Smith- Jackson, Chris Sutton, Cindy Taylor, Chris Thompson, Amanda Tuttle,

  17. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    8, 2011 The meeting was called to order by Huei Meznarich, HASQARD Focus Group Chair at 2:04 PM on November 8, 2011 in Conference Room 126 at 2420 Stevens. Those attending were: Huei Meznarich (Chair), Cliff Watkins (Secretary), Lynn Albin, Heather Anastos, Courtney Blanchard, Jeff Cheadle, Scot Fitzgerald, Jim Jewett, Shannan Johnson, Kris Kuhl-Klinger, Joan Kessner, Larry Markel, Karl Pool, Noe'l Smith-Jackson, Steve Smith, Chris Sutton, Cindy Taylor, Chris Thompson, Amanda Tuttle and Eric

  18. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    7, 2012 The meeting was called to order by Huei Meznarich, HASQARD Focus Group Chair at 2:04 PM on January 17, 2012 in Conference Room 308 at 2420 Stevens. Those attending were: Huei Meznarich (Chair), Cliff Watkins (Secretary), Mike Barnes, Jeff Cheadle, Glen Clark, Scot Fitzgerald, Shannan Johnson, Joan Kessner, Larry Markel, Cindy Taylor, Chris Thompson, Amanda Tuttle, Sam Vega, Rich Weiss and Eric Wyse. I. Huei Meznarich requested comments on the minutes from the December 13, 2011 meeting.

  19. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    1, 2012 The meeting was called to order by Huei Meznarich, HASQARD Focus Group Chair at 2:02 PM on February 21, 2012 in Conference Room 308 at 2420 Stevens. Those attending were: Huei Meznarich (Chair), Cliff Watkins (Secretary), Lynn Albin, Taffy Almeida, Courtney Blanchard, Glen Clark, Scot Fitzgerald, Shannan Johnson, Kris Kuhl-Klinger, Larry Markel, Karl Pool, Steve Smith, Cindy Taylor, Amanda Tuttle, Sam Vega, Rick Warriner, Rich Weiss and Eric Wyse. I. Huei Meznarich requested comments on

  20. Investment Working Group

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    USA Investment Working Group Update Needs Expanding What started in California to reduce transportation related emissions has become a national effort. The net result is the need for the development of clustered station networks on both coasts. * Single station ~ $1.5 to $2.0 million * Cluster: 25 stations + two distribution hubs ~ $50 million * Corridor: 125 stations + five hubs ~ $250 million Investment * Automaker collaboration * Public & private fleet collaboration * Fleet hydrogen

  1. SCM Working Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling Working Group Translator Update Shaocheng Xie Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Outline 1. Data development in support of CMWG * Climate modeling best estimate data * Extended and updated TWP-ICE forcing and evaluation data * Radiative heating and cloud microphysics data for TWP-ICE * BBHRP for SGP * Other relevant data 2. Survey results for data used by CMWG and future forcing data development Initial data list * Cloud fraction from ARSCL and TSI * Liquid water path and

  2. Buildings Sector Working Group

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    July 22, 2013 AEO2014 Model Development For discussion purposes only Not for citation Overview Builldings Working Group Forrestal 2E-069 / July 22, 2013 2 * Residential projects - RECS update - Lighting model - Equipment, shell subsidies - ENERGY STAR benchmarking - Housing stock formation and decay * Commercial projects - Major end-use capacity factors - Hurdle rates - ENERGY STAR buildings * Both sectors - Consumer behavior workshop - Comparisons to STEO - AER ļƒ  MER - Usual annual updates -

  3. KKG Group Paraffin Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulte, Ralph

    2001-12-01

    The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) has recently completed a test of a paraffin removal system developed by the KKG Group utilizing the technology of two Russian scientists, Gennady Katzyn and Boris Koggi. The system consisting of chemical ''sticks'' that generate heat in-situ to melt the paraffin deposits in oilfield tubing. The melted paraffin is then brought to the surface utilizing the naturally flowing energy of the well.

  4. Focus Group | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Outreach Forums Ā» Focus Group and Work Group Activities Ā» Focus Group Focus Group The Focus Group was formed in March 2007 to initiate dialogue and interface with labor unions, DOE Program Secretarial Offices, and stakeholders in areas of mutual interest and concern related to health, safety, security, and the environment. Meeting Documents Available for Download November 13, 2012 Work Group Leadership Meetings: Transition Elements This Focus Group Work Group telecom was held with the Work

  5. Evaluation of tropical channel refinement using MPAS-A aquaplanet simulations

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Martini, Matus N.; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po -Lun

    2015-09-13

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scalesā€“Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configurationmoreĀ Ā» using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20Ā°Sā€“20Ā°N) and one with a wide (30Ā°Sā€“30Ā°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. Furthermore, the relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in

  6. TEC Working Group Topic Groups | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Topic Groups TEC Working Group Topic Groups TEC Topic Groups were formed in 1991 following an evaluation of the TEC program. Interested members, DOE and other federal agency staff meet to examine specific issues related to radioactive materials transportation. TEC Topic Groups enable a small number of participants to focus intensively on key issues at a level of detail that is unattainable during the TEC semiannual meetings due to time and group size constraints. Topic Groups meet individually

  7. Early F-type stars - refined classification, confrontation with Stromgren photometry, and the effects of rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, R.O.; Garrison, R.F.

    1989-02-01

    The classification for early F-type stars in the MK spectral classification system presented by Gray and Garrison (1987) is refined. The effect of rotation on spectral classification and ubvy-beta photometry of early F-type stars is examined. It is found that the classical luminosity criterion, the 4417 A/4481 A ratio gives inconsistent results. It is shown that most of the stars in the Delta Delphini class of metallic-line stars are either normal or are indistinguishable from proto-Am stars. It is suggested that the designation Delta Delphini should be dropped. The classifications are compared with Stromgren photometry. The effects of rotation on the delta-c sub 1 index in the early-F field dwarfs is demonstrated. 55 references.

  8. On the Computation of Integral Curves in Adaptive Mesh Refinement Vector Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deines, Eduard; Weber, Gunther H.; Garth, Christoph; Van Straalen, Brian; Borovikov, Sergey; Martin, Daniel F.; Joy, Kenneth I.

    2011-06-27

    Integral curves, such as streamlines, streaklines, pathlines, and timelines, are an essential tool in the analysis of vector field structures, offering straightforward and intuitive interpretation of visualization results. While such curves have a long-standing tradition in vector field visualization, their application to Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) simulation results poses unique problems. AMR is a highly effective discretization method for a variety of physical simulation problems and has recently been applied to the study of vector fields in flow and magnetohydrodynamic applications. The cell-centered nature of AMR data and discontinuities in the vector field representation arising from AMR level boundaries complicate the application of numerical integration methods to compute integral curves. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to alleviate these problems and show its application to streamline visualization in an AMR model of the magnetic field of the solar system as well as to a simulation of two incompressible viscous vortex rings merging.

  9. Effects of gas injection condition on mixing efficiency in the ladle refining process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, S.M.; Chiang, J.D.; Hwang, W.S.

    1997-02-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of injection condition on the mixing efficiency of the gas injection treatment of the ladle refining process in steelmaking. A water modeling approach was employed. A NaCl solution was injected into the vessel and the electric conductivity value of the water solution was measured to represent the concentration of the additive. The results of this investigation reveal that up to a certain level, mixing efficiency is improved as the gas flow rate increases. Off-center injection is better than centerline injection. However, the injection lance should not be too close to the wall. Also, mixing efficiency is improved when the submerged depth of the immersion lance increases. The immersion hood has a optimal size as far as mixing efficiency is concerned. A larger or smaller hood would reduce its efficiency. The submerged depth of the immersion hood should be kept to a minimum to improve mixing efficiency.

  10. 3D Adaptive Mesh Refinement Simulations of Pellet Injection in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Samtaney; S.C. Jardin; P. Colella; D.F. Martin

    2003-10-20

    We present results of Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) simulations of the pellet injection process, a proven method of refueling tokamaks. AMR is a computationally efficient way to provide the resolution required to simulate realistic pellet sizes relative to device dimensions. The mathematical model comprises of single-fluid MHD equations with source terms in the continuity equation along with a pellet ablation rate model. The numerical method developed is an explicit unsplit upwinding treatment of the 8-wave formulation, coupled with a MAC projection method to enforce the solenoidal property of the magnetic field. The Chombo framework is used for AMR. The role of the E x B drift in mass redistribution during inside and outside pellet injections is emphasized.

  11. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-12-20

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figures.

  12. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  13. Table 3a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars per barrel in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO $ Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 1992 16.69 16.43 16.99 17.66 18.28 19.06 19.89 20.72 21.65 22.61 23.51 24.29 24.90 25.60 26.30 27.00 27.64 28.16 AEO 1995 1993 14.90 16.41 16.90 17.45 18.00 18.53 19.13 19.65 20.16 20.63

  14. Methods of refining natural oils, and methods of producing fuel compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.

    2015-10-27

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent that comprises nitric acid; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  15. A technical and economic assessment of petroleum, heavy oil, shale oil and coal liquid refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikonia, J.G.; Shah, B.R.; Ulowetz, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    Decreasing availability of conventional crude oil will result in the utilization of alternative raw materials for the production of transportation fuels. Based on currently available processes and as a result of detailed pilot plant studies, the differences in the technical and economic aspects of refining alternative feedstocks of heavy oil, coal liquids and shale oil have indicated that heavy, hydrogen-deficient materials require more complex and costly upgrading techniques. Compared to the base case of Arabian Light crude oil, the Mexican Maya heavy oil is worth about $4.35/B less, the coal liquid about $2.38/B less and the shale oil about $5.98/B less. All of these alternative fuels can be upgraded into high quality transportation fuels.

  16. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Volume II. Sections V-XIV. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    This report documents the completion of development work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Co. The work was initiated in 1966 under Office of Coal Research, US Department of Interior, Contract No. 14-01-0001-496 and completed under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-79ET10104. This report discusses work leading to the development of the SRC-I and SRC-II processes, construction of the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant for the successful development of these processes, and results from the operation of this pilot plant. Process design data generated on a 1 ton-per-day Process Development Unit, bench-scale units and through numerous research projects in support of the design of major demonstration plants are also discussed in summary form and fully referenced in this report.

  17. Pillowing doublets: Refining a mesh to ensure that faces share at most one edge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, S.A.; Tautges, T.J.

    1995-11-01

    Occasionally one may be confronted by a hexahedral or quadrilateral mesh containing doublets, two faces sharing two edges. In this case, no amount of smoothing will produce a mesh with agreeable element quality: in the planar case, one of these two faces will always have an angle of at least 180 degrees between the two edges. The authors describe a robust scheme for refining a hexahedral or quadrilateral mesh to separate such faces, so that any two faces share at most one edge. Note that this also ensures that two hexahedra share at most one face in the three dimensional case. The authors have implemented this algorithm and incorporated it into the CUBIT mesh generation environment developed at Sandia National Laboratories.

  18. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  19. A node-centered local refinement algorithm for poisson's equation in complex geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCorquodale, Peter; Colella, Phillip; Grote, David P.; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2004-05-04

    This paper presents a method for solving Poisson's equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions on an irregular bounded three-dimensional region. The method uses a nodal-point discretization and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on Cartesian grids, and the AMR multigrid solver of Almgren. The discrete Laplacian operator at internal boundaries comes from either linear or quadratic (Shortley-Weller) extrapolation, and the two methods are compared. It is shown that either way, solution error is second order in the mesh spacing. Error in the gradient of the solution is first order with linear extrapolation, but second order with Shortley-Weller. Examples are given with comparison with the exact solution. The method is also applied to a heavy-ion fusion accelerator problem, showing the advantage of adaptivity.

  20. Exploratory research on solvent refined coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1-June 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Exploratory Research on Solvent Refined Coal Liquefaction project by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Company's Merriam Laboratory for the period April 1, 1979 through June 30, 1979. Experimental work included a number of short residence time runs, but discussion of that work has been delayed until a later report. Experimental work reported focuses on an investigation of the decline in solvent quality experienced by the Wilsonville Pilot Plant during runs in support of the SRC I Demonstration Plant. A four run series was initiated with Wilsonville solvent; both the coal used at Wilsonville (Kentucky 6/11 - Pyro Mine) and Kentucky 9/14 coal from the Colonial Mine were used. The effect of pyrite addition to the Pyro Mine coal was investigated. No solvent quality or coking problems were experienced in the Merriam runs. Significant changes in solvent composition were apparent and equilibrated solvent samples were returned to Wilsonville for solvent quality testing.

  1. Accident Response Group | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Accident Response Group

  2. REFINING THE ASSOCIATIONS OF THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE SOURCE CATALOGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massaro, F.; Dā€™Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Smith, Howard A.; Landoni, M.; Masetti, N.; Giroletti, M.; OtĆ­-Floranes, H.; JimĆ©nez-BailĆ³n, E.; Chavushyan, V.; PatiƱo-Ɓlvarez, V.; Digel, S. W.; Tosti, G.

    2015-03-15

    The Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) First Source Catalog (1FGL) was released in 2010 February and the Fermi-LAT 2-Year Source Catalog (2FGL) appeared in 2012 April, based on data from 24 months of operation. Since they were released, many follow up observations of unidentified Ī³-ray sources have been performed and new procedures for associating Ī³-ray sources with potential counterparts at other wavelengths have been developed. Here we review and characterize all of the associations as published in the 1FGL and 2FGL catalogs on the basis of multifrequency archival observations. In particular, we located 177 spectra for the low-energy counterparts that were not listed in the previous Fermi catalogs, and in addition we present new spectroscopic observations of eight Ī³-ray blazar candidates. Based on our investigations, we introduce a new counterpart category of ā€œcandidate associationsā€ and propose a refined classification for the candidate low-energy counterparts of the Fermi sources. We compare the 1FGL-assigned counterparts with those listed in 2FGL to determine which unassociated sources became associated in later releases of the Fermi catalogs. We also search for potential counterparts to all of the remaining unassociated Fermi sources. Finally, we prepare a refined and merged list of all of the associations of 1FGL plus 2FGL that includes 2219 unique Fermi objects. This is the most comprehensive and systematic study of all the associations collected for the Ī³-ray sources available to date. We conclude that 80% of the Fermi sources have at least one known plausible Ī³-ray emitter within their positional uncertainty regions.

  3. Petroleum refining industry of developed capitalist countries in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prokhorova, A.A.

    1994-07-01

    Crude oil is the principal source of energy today and in the immediate future. The increases in the consumption of crude oil (1.7% per year up to 2005) will be offset mainly by additional supplies from the countries of the Near East. Data on the imports of oil by the developed capitalists countries are presented in Table 2. In the United States, according to a projection made by Conoco, by the year 2000 the volume of imports will be twice the volume of domestic production; according to another prediction, the amount of Near East crude will increase from 34% in 1990 to 42% in 2000. Since the mid-1980s, the energy policy of the USA has been based on importing so-called cheap crude. Laws have been passed to mandate not only energy saving, but also cuts in the oil and gas production on U.S. territory. The volume of U.S. oil production will be 20% lower in 2000 than in 1990. Some 90% of the worldwide demand for oil is met by light and medium-density crudes, but such crudes account for only 25% of the oil resources. Projections indicate that the oil supplied to refiners in the future will be heavier and will have higher sulfur contents. The U.S. production of low-sulfur crude will drop off sharply in the next 10-15 years. The drop in oil production of the CIS [former USSR] and the consequent drop in exports from these countries will have a destabilizing effect on the world market. The average price of the {open_quotes}market basket{close_quotes} of OPEC crudes in 1991 was $149/ton (in 1990 $178/ton), in comparison with a 1992 price of $148/ton. This report presents data on refining process capacities and the ratio of secondary capacity to primary distillation capacity.

  4. Refining the site conceptual model at a former uranium mill site in Riverton, Wyoming, USA

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Dam, William; Campbell, Sam; Johnson, Ray; Looney, Brian; Denham, Miles E.; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Babits, Steven J.

    2015-07-07

    Milling activities at a former uranium mill site near Riverton, Wyoming, USA, contaminated the shallow groundwater beneath and downgradient of the site. Although the mill operated for <6 years (1958-1963), its impact remains an environmental liability. Groundwater modeling predicted that contaminant concentrations were declining steadily, which confirmed the conceptual site model (CSM). However, local flooding in 2010 mobilized contaminants that migrated downgradient from the Riverton site and resulted in a dramatic increase in groundwater contaminant concentrations. This observation indicated that the original CSM was inadequate to explain site conditions and needed to be refined. In response to the new observationsmoreĀ Ā» after the flood, a collaborative investigation to better understand site conditions and processes commenced. This investigation included installing 103 boreholes to collect soil and groundwater samples, sampling and analysis of evaporite minerals along the bank of the Little Wind River, an analysis of evaportranspiration in the shallow aquifer, and sampling naturally organic-rich sediments near groundwater discharge areas. The enhanced characterization revealed that the existing CSM did not account for high uranium concentrations in groundwater remaining on the former mill site and groundwater plume stagnation near the Little Wind River. Observations from the flood and subsequent investigations indicate that additional characterization is still needed to continue refining the CSM and determine the viability of the natural flushing compliance strategy. Additional sampling, analysis, and testing of soil and groundwater are necessary to investigate secondary contaminant sources, mobilization of contaminants during floods, geochemical processes, contaminant plume stagnation, distribution of evaporite minerals and organic-rich sediments, and mechanisms and rates of contaminant transfer from soil to groundwater. Future data collection will be used to

  5. Refining the site conceptual model at a former uranium mill site in Riverton, Wyoming, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dam, William; Campbell, Sam; Johnson, Ray; Looney, Brian; Denham, Miles E.; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Babits, Steven J.

    2015-07-07

    Milling activities at a former uranium mill site near Riverton, Wyoming, USA, contaminated the shallow groundwater beneath and downgradient of the site. Although the mill operated for <6 years (1958-1963), its impact remains an environmental liability. Groundwater modeling predicted that contaminant concentrations were declining steadily, which confirmed the conceptual site model (CSM). However, local flooding in 2010 mobilized contaminants that migrated downgradient from the Riverton site and resulted in a dramatic increase in groundwater contaminant concentrations. This observation indicated that the original CSM was inadequate to explain site conditions and needed to be refined. In response to the new observations after the flood, a collaborative investigation to better understand site conditions and processes commenced. This investigation included installing 103 boreholes to collect soil and groundwater samples, sampling and analysis of evaporite minerals along the bank of the Little Wind River, an analysis of evaportranspiration in the shallow aquifer, and sampling naturally organic-rich sediments near groundwater discharge areas. The enhanced characterization revealed that the existing CSM did not account for high uranium concentrations in groundwater remaining on the former mill site and groundwater plume stagnation near the Little Wind River. Observations from the flood and subsequent investigations indicate that additional characterization is still needed to continue refining the CSM and determine the viability of the natural flushing compliance strategy. Additional sampling, analysis, and testing of soil and groundwater are necessary to investigate secondary contaminant sources, mobilization of contaminants during floods, geochemical processes, contaminant plume stagnation, distribution of evaporite minerals and organic-rich sediments, and mechanisms and rates of contaminant transfer from soil to groundwater. Future data collection will be used to

  6. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for corn refining plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, G. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; USEPA

    2006-07-31

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing their plant's performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing facilities can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the corn refining industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for facilities that produce a variety of products--including corn starch, corn oil, animal feed, corn sweeteners, and ethanol--for the paper, food, beverage, and other industries in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for corn refining plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  7. An enriched finite element model with q-refinement for radiative boundary layers in glass cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed, M. Shadi; Seaid, Mohammed; Trevelyan, Jon; Laghrouche, Omar

    2014-02-01

    Radiative cooling in glass manufacturing is simulated using the partition of unity finite element method. The governing equations consist of a semi-linear transient heat equation for the temperature field and a stationary simplified P{sub 1} approximation for the radiation in non-grey semitransparent media. To integrate the coupled equations in time we consider a linearly implicit scheme in the finite element framework. A class of hyperbolic enrichment functions is proposed to resolve boundary layers near the enclosure walls. Using an industrial electromagnetic spectrum, the proposed method shows an immense reduction in the number of degrees of freedom required to achieve a certain accuracy compared to the conventional h-version finite element method. Furthermore the method shows a stable behaviour in treating the boundary layers which is shown by studying the solution close to the domain boundaries. The time integration choice is essential to implement a q-refinement procedure introduced in the current study. The enrichment is refined with respect to the steepness of the solution gradient near the domain boundary in the first few time steps and is shown to lead to a further significant reduction on top of what is already achieved with the enrichment. The performance of the proposed method is analysed for glass annealing in two enclosures where the simplified P{sub 1} approximation solution with the partition of unity method, the conventional finite element method and the finite difference method are compared to each other and to the full radiative heat transfer as well as the canonical Rosseland model.

  8. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    18, 2010 The meeting was called to order by Don Hart, Focus Group Chairman, at 2:00 PM on February 18, 2010 in Conference Room 199 at 2430 Stevens. Those attending were: Lynn Albin, Taffy Almeida, Heather Anastos, Glen Clark, Doug Duvon, Kathi Dunbar, Robert Elkins, Cindy English, Kris Kuhl-Klinger, Joan Kessner, Larry Markel, Huei Meznarich, Karl Pool, Steve Smith, Noe'l Smith-Jackson, Andrew Stevens, Chris Sutton, Chris Thompson, Wendy Thompson, Rich Weis, and Cliff Watkins. I. Because new

  9. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    August 24, 2010 The meeting was called to order by Huei Meznarich acting for Dave Crawford, Focus Group Chairman who was absent, at 2:10 PM on August 24, 2010 in Conference Room 208 at 2425 Stevens. Those attending were: Huei Meznarich (Acting Chair), Cliff Watkins (Secretary), Lynn Albin, Taffy Almeida, Heather Anastos, Glen Clark, Robert Elkins, Jim Jewett, Greg Holte, Kris Kuhl-Klinger, Joan Kessner, Larry Markel, Huei Meznarich, Karl Pool, Noe'l Smith-Jackson, Chris Sutton, Cindy Taylor,

  10. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    0 The meeting was called to order by Dave Crawford, Focus Group Chairman at 2:10 PM on December 13, 2010 in Conference Room 199 at 2430 Stevens. Those attending were: Dave Crawford (Chair), Cliff Watkins (Secretary), Jeff Cheadle, Glen Clark, Robert Elkins, Scot Fitzgerald, Kris Kuhl-Klinger, Larry Markel, Huei Meznarich, Noe'l Smith-Jackson, Dave Shea, Chris Sutton, Cindy Taylor, Chris Thompson, Rich Weiss, Eric Wyse. I. Dave Crawford requested approval of the minutes from the November 16

  11. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    16, 2011 The meeting was called to order by Dave Crawford, HASQARD Focus Group Chairman at 2:07 PM on August 16, 2011 in Conference Room 208 at 2425 Stevens. Those attending were: (Chair), Cliff Watkins (Secretary), Lynn Albin, Heather Anastos, Jeff Cheadle, Kathi Dunbar, Robert Elkins, Scot Fitzgerald, Jim Jewett, Kris Kuhl-Klinger, Joan Kessner, Larry Markel, Huei Meznarich, Noe'l Smith-Jackson, Cindy Taylor, Amanda Tuttle, Rich Weiss and Eric Wyse. I. Dave Crawford requested comments on the

  12. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    4, 2011 The meeting was called to order by Huei Meznarich, HASQARD Focus Group Chair at 2:04 PM on October 4, 2011 in Conference Room 208 at 2425 Stevens. Those attending were: Huei Meznarich (Chair), Cliff Watkins (Secretary), Lynn Albin, Heather Anastos, Jeff Cheadle, Glen Clark, Scot Fitzgerald, Shannan Johnson, Kris Kuhl-Klinger, Joan Kessner, Larry Markel, Karl Pool, Noe'l Smith-Jackson, Dave Shea, Cindy Taylor, Amanda Tuttle, Mary Ryan, Rich Weiss and Eric Wyse. I. Huei Meznarich requested

  13. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    1 The meeting was called to order by Huei Meznarich, HASQARD Focus Group Chair at 2:04 PM on December 13, 2011 in Conference Room 126 at 2420 Stevens. Those attending were: Huei Meznarich (Chair), Cliff Watkins (Secretary), Lynn Albin, Heather Anastos, Jeff Cheadle, Glen Clark, Scot Fitzgerald, Shannan Johnson, Kris Kuhl-Klinger, Joan Kessner, Karl Pool, Dave St. John, Noe'l Smith-Jackson, Chris Sutton, Cindy Taylor, Amanda Tuttle, Rich Weiss and Eric Wyse. I. Huei Meznarich requested comments

  14. HASQARD Focus Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    7, 2012 The meeting was called to order by Huei Meznarich, HASQARD Focus Group Chair at 2:06 PM on April 17, 2012 in Conference Room 308 at 2420 Stevens. Those attending were: Huei Meznarich (Chair), Cliff Watkins (Secretary), Lynn Albin, Taffy Almeida, Jeff Cheadle, Glen Clark, Scot Fitzgerald, Kris Kuhl-Klinger, Joan Kessner, Larry Markel, Noe'l Smith-Jackson, Cindy Taylor, Amanda Tuttle, Rich Weiss and Eric Wyse. I. Huei Meznarich requested comments on the minutes from the March 20, 2012

  15. Characterization report. Bulgarian petroleum refining sector. A sector overview of capability, energy consumption, environmental impacts, May 1992. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, N.

    1992-05-01

    The objective of the report is to provide data that will serve as a basis for the modernization and optimization of the economic performance of the petroleum refining industry of Bulgaria. It addresses the current status of the petroleum refining industry so that recommendations providing low cost economies to improve energy efficiency and environmental control at each refinery can be prepared. Both short and long term improvement possibilities were established and given to the second round team for detailed evaluation. Following the collection of data on operating variables, equipment and refinery impact on the environment, a data base was prepared reflecting refinery characteristics and is the subject of a separate report.

  16. Characterization report. Romanian petroleum refining sector. A sector overview of capability, energy consumption, environmental impacts, May 1992. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of the report is to provide data that will serve as a basis for the modernization and optimization of the economic performance of the petroleum refining industry of Romania. The report addresses the current status of the petroleum refining industry so that recommendations providing low cost economies to improve energy efficiency and environmental control at each refinery can be prepared. Following the collection of data on operating variables, equipment, and refinery impact on the environment, a computerized data base was prepared, which is the subject of a separate report.

  17. Characterization report. Polish petroleum refining sector. A sector overview of capability, energy consumption, environmental impacts, May 1992. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of the report is to provide data that will serve as a basis for the modernization and optimization of the economic performance of the petroleum refining industry of Poland. The report addresses the current status of the petroleum refining industry so that recommendations providing low cost economies to improve energy efficiency and environmental control at each refinery can be prepared. Following the collection of data on operating variables, equipment, and refinery impact on the environment, a computerized database was prepared which is the subject of a separate report.

  18. Working Group Report: Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artuso, M.; et al.,

    2013-10-18

    Sensors play a key role in detecting both charged particles and photons for all three frontiers in Particle Physics. The signals from an individual sensor that can be used include ionization deposited, phonons created, or light emitted from excitations of the material. The individual sensors are then typically arrayed for detection of individual particles or groups of particles. Mounting of new, ever higher performance experiments, often depend on advances in sensors in a range of performance characteristics. These performance metrics can include position resolution for passing particles, time resolution on particles impacting the sensor, and overall rate capabilities. In addition the feasible detector area and cost frequently provides a limit to what can be built and therefore is often another area where improvements are important. Finally, radiation tolerance is becoming a requirement in a broad array of devices. We present a status report on a broad category of sensors, including challenges for the future and work in progress to solve those challenges.

  19. Fall 2012 Working Groups

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    2 C STEC W orking G roup S chedule Thrust I --- s elected Thursdays; M SE C onference R oom ( 3062 H H D ow) October 1 1 Dylan B ayerl ( Kioupakis g roup) 3:00---4:00pm November 1 Andy M artin ( Millunchick g roup) 2:00---3:00pm December 1 3 Brian R oberts ( Ku g roup) 2:00---3:00pm Thrust II --- s elected T hursdays, 3 :30---4:30pm; M SE C onference R oom ( 3062 H H D ow) September 2 7 Hang C hi ( Uher g roup) October 1 8 Reddy g roup November 2 9 Gunho Kim (Pipe group) Thrust III --- s elected

  20. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Rail Conference Call Summaries...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Summaries Inspections Subgroup TEC Working Group Topic Groups Rail Conference Call Summaries Inspections Subgroup Inspections Subgroup PDF icon April 6, 2006 PDF icon February 23,...

  1. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Routing Conference Call Summaries...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Routing Conference Call Summaries TEC Working Group Topic Groups Routing Conference Call Summaries CONFERENCE CALL SUMMARIES PDF icon January 31, 2008 PDF icon December 6, 2007 PDF...

  2. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Security Meeting Summaries | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Meeting Summaries TEC Working Group Topic Groups Security Meeting Summaries Meeting Summaries PDF icon Green Bay STG Meeting Summary- September 14, 2006 PDF icon Washington STG...

  3. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Archives Mechanics of Funding...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Mechanics of Funding and Techical Assistance TEC Working Group Topic Groups Archives Mechanics of Funding and Techical Assistance Mechanics of Funding and Techical Assistance Items...

  4. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Tribal Conference Call Summaries...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Conference Call Summaries TEC Working Group Topic Groups Tribal Conference Call Summaries Conference Call Summaries PDF icon March 12, 2008 PDF icon October 3, 2007 PDF icon...

  5. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Archives Communications Conference...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Communications Conference Call Summaries TEC Working Group Topic Groups Archives Communications Conference Call Summaries Conference Call Summaries PDF icon Conference Call Summary...

  6. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Archives Communications Meeting...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Archives Communications Meeting Summaries TEC Working Group Topic Groups Archives Communications Meeting Summaries Meeting Summaries PDF icon Milwaukee TEC Meeting, Communications...

  7. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Security Conference Call Summaries...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Security Conference Call Summaries TEC Working Group Topic Groups Security Conference Call Summaries Conference Call Summaries PDF icon August 17, 2006 (Draft) PDF icon July 18,...

  8. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Rail Key Documents | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Rail Key Documents TEC Working Group Topic Groups Rail Key Documents KEY DOCUMENTS Radiation Monitoring Subgroup Intermodal Subgroup Planning Subgroup Current FRA State Rail Safety ...

  9. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Rail Key Documents Intermodal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Intermodal Subgroup TEC Working Group Topic Groups Rail Key Documents Intermodal Subgroup Intermodal Subgroup Draft Work Plan (206.83 KB) More Documents & Publications TEC Working ...

  10. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Rail Archived Documents | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Archived Documents TEC Working Group Topic Groups Rail Archived Documents ARCHIVED DOCUMENTS Inspections Summary Matrix (49.36 KB) TEC Transportation Safety WIPP-PIG Rail ...

  11. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Rail Key Documents Radiation Monitoring...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    TEC Working Group Topic Groups Rail Key Documents Radiation Monitoring Subgroup Radiation Monitoring Subgroup Draft Work Plan - February 4, 2008 (114.02 KB) More Documents & ...

  12. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Section 180(c) Key Documents ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Section 180(c) Key Documents TEC Working Group Topic Groups Section 180(c) Key Documents Key Documents Briefing Package for Section 180(c) Implementation - July 2005 Executive ...

  13. CORRELATION BETWEEN GROUP LOCAL DENSITY AND GROUP LUMINOSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng Xinfa; Yu Guisheng

    2012-11-10

    In this study, we investigate the correlation between group local number density and total luminosity of groups. In four volume-limited group catalogs, we can conclude that groups with high luminosity exist preferentially in high-density regions, while groups with low luminosity are located preferentially in low-density regions, and that in a volume-limited group sample with absolute magnitude limit M{sub r} = -18, the correlation between group local number density and total luminosity of groups is the weakest. These results basically are consistent with the environmental dependence of galaxy luminosity.

  14. Tecate Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Tecate Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tecate Group Place: San Diego, California Zip: 92108-4400 Product: The Tecate Group is a global supplier of electronic components and...

  15. USJ Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    USJ Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: USJ Group Place: So Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Zip: 04534 000 Product: Sao Paulo based ethanol producer. References: USJ Group1 This...

  16. Rowan Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Rowan Group Place: United Kingdom Product: ( Private family-controlled ) References: Rowan Group1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Rowan Group is a...

  17. ERIC Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    ERIC Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: ERIC Group Place: Italy Product: Italian project developer of PV power plants. References: ERIC Group1 This article is a stub. You...

  18. Westly Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Westly Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Westly Group Place: Menlo Park, California Zip: 94025 Product: Clean technology-oriented venture capital firm. References: Westly...

  19. Enerbio Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Enerbio Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Enerbio Group Place: Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Zip: 90480-003 Sector: Renewable Energy, Services Product: Brazilian...

  20. BOC Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: BOC Group Place: United Kingdom Zip: GU20 6HJ Sector: Services Product: UK-based industrial gases, vacuum technologies and distribution...

  1. Jinglong Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jinglong Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jinglong Group Place: Ningjin, Hebei Province, China Product: Chinese manufacturer and supplier of monocrystalline silicon and...

  2. Verdeo Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Verdeo Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Verdeo Group Place: Washington, DC Zip: 20006 Sector: Carbon Product: Washington based integrated carbon solutions company....

  3. Bazan Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Bazan Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Bazan Group Place: Pontal, Brazil Zip: 14180-000 Product: Bioethanol production company Coordinates: -21.023149, -48.037099 Show...

  4. Delaney Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Delaney Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Delaney Group Place: Gloversville, New York Zip: 12078 Sector: Services, Wind energy Product: Services company focused on...

  5. Ramky Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Ramky Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ramky Group Place: Andhra Pradesh, India Zip: 500082 Product: Focussed on construction, infrastructure development and waste...

  6. Samaras Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Samaras Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Samaras Group Place: Greece Sector: Renewable Energy, Services Product: Greek consultancy services provider with specialization in...

  7. Altira Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Altira Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Altira Group Address: 1675 Broadway, Suite 2400 Place: Denver, Colorado Zip: 80202 Region: Rockies Area Product: Venture Capital...

  8. Sunvim Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sunvim Group Place: Gaomi, Shandong Province, China Zip: 261500 Product: Sunvim, a Chinese home textile maker, is also engaged in the...

  9. Balta Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Balta Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Balta Group Place: Sint Baafs Vijve, Belgium Zip: 8710 Product: Belgium-based manufacturer of broadloom carpets, rugs and laminate...

  10. Noribachi Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Noribachi Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Noribachi Group Place: Albuquerque, New Mexico Zip: 87104 Product: New Mexico-based private equity firm focused on investing in...

  11. Lucas Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lucas Group Place: Chicago, Illinois Sector: Services Product: Renewable Energy Recruiters Year Founded: 1970 Coordinates: 41.850033,...

  12. Humus Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    search Name: Humus Group Place: Brazil Product: Stakeholder in the Vertente ethanol mill in Brazil. References: Humus Group1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  13. Bumlai Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Bumlai Group Place: Brazil Product: Investor in ethanol plant So Fernando Acar e lcool. References: Bumlai Group1 This...

  14. Paro group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Paro group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Paro group Place: Brazil Product: Ethanol producer that plans to jointly own an ethanol plant in Minas Gerais. References: Paro...

  15. Pohlen Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Pohlen Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Pohlen Group Place: Geilenkirchen, Germany Product: Specialises in roof engineering, including installing and maintaining PV systems...

  16. Vaillant Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Vaillant Group Place: Remscheid, Germany Zip: 42859 Product: For nearly 130 years Vaillant has been at the forefront of heating technology....

  17. Ostwind Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Ostwind Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ostwind Group Place: Regensburg, Germany Zip: D-93047 Sector: Biomass, Hydro, Wind energy Product: Develops wind projects, and also...

  18. Shenergy Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Shenergy Group Place: Shanghai Municipality, China Product: Gas and power project investor and developer based in Shanghai. References: Shenergy Group1 This article is a stub....

  19. Copisa Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Copisa Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Copisa Group Place: Barcelona, Spain Zip: 8029 Product: Barcelona-based, construction company. Copisa is involved in building three...

  20. Emte Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Emte Group Place: Spain Sector: Renewable Energy, Services Product: String representation "EMTE is the ben ... ctor companies." is too long....

  1. Mouratoglou Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Mouratoglou Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mouratoglou Group Place: France Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Investment parent-company of EDF Energies Nouvelles, involved...

  2. DOE Catalysis Working Group Meeting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    coffee, tea Joint Durability and Catalysis Working Groups Meeting Delaware A 9:00 - ... Pt Catalysts - Debbie Myers (ANL) Catalysis Working Group Meeting Delaware A 10:00 - ...

  3. Ralos Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Ralos Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ralos Group Place: Michelstadt, Germany Zip: D-64720 Sector: Solar Product: Germany-based solar project developer that specialises in...

  4. Enovos Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Enovos Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Enovos Group Place: Germany Sector: Solar Product: Germany-based utility. The utility has interests in solar energy. References:...

  5. GEA Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: GEA Group Place: Bochum, Germany Zip: 44809 Sector: Biofuels, Solar Product: Bochum-based, engineering group specialising in process engineering...

  6. Richway Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    by expanding it. Richway Group is a company based in Richmond, British Columbia. FROM WASTE TO ENERGY, YOUR WISE CHOICE Vision and Objectives Richway Group (Richway) is located...

  7. Poyry Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Poyry Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Poyry Group Place: Vantaa, Finland Zip: 1621 Product: Vantaa-based consulting and engineering firm, specialising in issues regarding...

  8. Anel Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Anel Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Anel Group Place: ISTANBUL, Turkey Zip: 34768 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Istanbul-based technological and engineering...

  9. Aksa Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Aksa Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Aksa Group Place: Istanbul, Turkey Zip: 34212 Sector: Wind energy Product: Turkey-based international company recently involved in the...

  10. Daesung Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Daesung Group Place: Jongno-Gu Seoul, Korea (Republic) Zip: 110-300 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Daesung Group, a Korea-based energy provider and electric machinary...

  11. Schaffner Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Schaffner Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Schaffner Group Place: Switzerland Zip: 4542 Product: Switzerland-based company supplier of components that support the efficient...

  12. Schulthess Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Schulthess Group Place: Wolfhausen, Switzerland Zip: CH-8633 Product: A company with activities in regenerative energy production,...

  13. TRITEC Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    TRITEC Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: TRITEC Group Place: Basel, Switzerland Zip: CH-4123 Product: Basel-based installer and distributor for PV products. Coordinates:...

  14. Swatch Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Swatch Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Swatch Group Place: Switzerland Product: String representation "The Swatch Grou ... ther industries" is too long. References: Swatch...

  15. Electrocell Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Electrocell Group Place: Sao Paolo, Brazil Zip: 05508-000 Product: Producer of fuel cells, accessories and controls. The company...

  16. Rioglass Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Rioglass Group Place: Spain Product: A Spanish glass company supplying the automotive sector, who has recently announced to launch...

  17. Local time–space mesh refinement for simulation of elastic wave propagation in multi-scale media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostin, Victor; Lisitsa, Vadim; Reshetova, Galina; Tcheverda, Vladimir

    2015-01-15

    This paper presents an original approach to local time–space grid refinement for the numerical simulation of wave propagation in models with localized clusters of micro-heterogeneities. The main features of the algorithm are –the application of temporal and spatial refinement on two different surfaces; –the use of the embedded-stencil technique for the refinement of grid step with respect to time; –the use of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)-based interpolation to couple variables for spatial mesh refinement. The latter makes it possible to perform filtration of high spatial frequencies, which provides stability in the proposed finite-difference schemes. In the present work, the technique is implemented for the finite-difference simulation of seismic wave propagation and the interaction of such waves with fluid-filled fractures and cavities of carbonate reservoirs. However, this approach is easy to adapt and/or combine with other numerical techniques, such as finite elements, discontinuous Galerkin method, or finite volumes used for approximation of various types of linear and nonlinear hyperbolic equations.

  18. Focus Group Training Work Group Meeting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Date: September 13, 2012 In conjunction with the HAMMER Steering Committee meeting the HSS Focus Group Training Working Group Meeting was conducted from 2:00 PM to 4:30 PM at the HAMMER Training Facility in Richland, WA. Documents Available for Download Meeting Agenda (43.92 KB) Meeting Summary (1.22 MB) More Documents & Publications Focus Group Training Work Group Meeting DOE Training Reciprocity Program Training Work Group Charter

  19. Fermilab Steering Group Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steering Group, Fermilab; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    The Fermilab Steering Group has developed a plan to keep U.S. accelerator-based particle physics on the pathway to discovery, both at the Terascale with the LHC and the ILC and in the domain of neutrinos and precision physics with a high-intensity accelerator. The plan puts discovering Terascale physics with the LHC and the ILC as Fermilab's highest priority. While supporting ILC development, the plan creates opportunities for exciting science at the intensity frontier. If the ILC remains near the Global Design Effort's technically driven timeline, Fermilab would continue neutrino science with the NOvA experiment, using the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) proton plan, scheduled to begin operating in 2011. If ILC construction must wait somewhat longer, Fermilab's plan proposes SNuMI, an upgrade of NuMI to create a more powerful neutrino beam. If the ILC start is postponed significantly, a central feature of the proposed Fermilab plan calls for building an intense proton facility, Project X, consisting of a linear accelerator with the currently planned characteristics of the ILC combined with Fermilab's existing Recycler Ring and the Main Injector accelerator. The major component of Project X is the linac. Cryomodules, radio-frequency distribution, cryogenics and instrumentation for the linac are the same as or similar to those used in the ILC at a scale of about one percent of a full ILC linac. Project X's intense proton beams would open a path to discovery in neutrino science and in precision physics with charged leptons and quarks. World-leading experiments would allow physicists to address key questions of the Quantum Universe: How did the universe come to be? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? Do all the particles and forces become one? What happened to the antimatter? Building Project X's ILC-like linac would offer substantial support for ILC development by accelerating the industrialization of ILC components

  20. Fermilab Steering Group Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beier, Eugene; Butler, Joel; Dawson, Sally; Edwards, Helen; Himel, Thomas; Holmes, Stephen; Kim, Young-Kee; Lankford, Andrew; McGinnis, David; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Raubenheimer, Tor; /SLAC /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    The Fermilab Steering Group has developed a plan to keep U.S. accelerator-based particle physics on the pathway to discovery, both at the Terascale with the LHC and the ILC and in the domain of neutrinos and precision physics with a high-intensity accelerator. The plan puts discovering Terascale physics with the LHC and the ILC as Fermilab's highest priority. While supporting ILC development, the plan creates opportunities for exciting science at the intensity frontier. If the ILC remains near the Global Design Effort's technically driven timeline, Fermilab would continue neutrino science with the NOVA experiment, using the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) proton plan, scheduled to begin operating in 2011. If ILC construction must wait somewhat longer, Fermilab's plan proposes SNuMI, an upgrade of NuMI to create a more powerful neutrino beam. If the ILC start is postponed significantly, a central feature of the proposed Fermilab plan calls for building an intense proton facility, Project X, consisting of a linear accelerator with the currently planned characteristics of the ILC combined with Fermilab's existing Recycler Ring and the Main Injector accelerator. The major component of Project X is the linac. Cryomodules, radio-frequency distribution, cryogenics and instrumentation for the linac are the same as or similar to those used in the ILC at a scale of about one percent of a full ILC linac. Project X's intense proton beams would open a path to discovery in neutrino science and in precision physics with charged leptons and quarks. World-leading experiments would allow physicists to address key questions of the Quantum Universe: How did the universe come to be? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? Do all the particles and forces become one? What happened to the antimatter? Building Project X's ILC-like linac would offer substantial support for ILC development by accelerating the industrialization of ILC components