National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for refining analyst based

  1. Program Analyst

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A successful candidate in this position will serve as an Program Analyst for the System Operations team in the area of regulatory compliance. The successful candidate will also become a subject...

  2. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  3. The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris Pathfinder Mission Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Space-Based Telescopes for ...

  4. The Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris (STARE) mission Authors: Riot, V ; Devries, W ; Bauman, B ; Simms, L ; Carter, D ; Phillion, D ; Olivier, S ...

  5. The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris Pathfinder Mission Authors: Simms, L ; De Vries, W ; RIot, V ; Olivier, S ; Pertica, A ; Bauman, B ; ...

  6. Operations Research Analysts

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Operations Research Analysts The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) within the Department of Energy has forged a world-class information program that stresses quality, teamwork, and employee growth. In support of our program, we offer a variety of profes- sional positions, including the Operations Research Analyst, whose work is associated with the development and main- tenance of energy modeling systems. Responsibilities: Operations Research Analysts perform or participate in one or

  7. Program Analyst (Transportation Safety)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A successful candidate in this position will serve as a Program Analyst(Transportation Safety) supporting and advising management on safety and health matters for nuclear and non-nuclear activities.

  8. Semantic Space Analyst

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2004-04-15

    The Semantic Space Analyst (SSA) is software for analyzing a text corpus, discovering relationships among terms, and allowing the user to explore that information in different ways. It includes features for displaying and laying out terms and relationships visually, for generating such maps from manual queries, for discovering differences between corpora. Data can also be exported to Microsoft Excel.

  9. Program Analyst | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Program Analyst Program Analyst Submitted by admin on Mon, 2016-11-14 00:15 Job Summary Organization Name Department Of Energy Agency SubElement Department of Energy Locations District of Columbia, District of Columbia Announcement Number SE-17-EI-00767-DE Job Summary As a Program Analyst you will... Serve a proponent of PM governance process within EIA responsible for promoting PM practices across the Agency by creating and maintaining project standards and methods; providing project

  10. Budget Analyst | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Budget Analyst Budget Analyst Submitted by admin on Mon, 2016-11-14 00:15 Job Summary Organization Name Department Of Energy Agency SubElement Department of Energy Locations Idaho Falls, Idaho Announcement Number DOE-SE-17-ID-00143-DE Job Summary A successful candidate in this position will will administer field budget office responsibilities in support of Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) program activities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The successful candidate

  11. Supervisory Operations Research Analyst | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Supervisory Operations Research Analyst Supervisory Operations Research Analyst Submitted by admin on Sat, 2016-01-16 00:16 Job Summary Organization Name Department Of Energy...

  12. Student Trainee (Operations Research Analyst) | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Student Trainee (Operations Research Analyst) Student Trainee (Operations Research Analyst) Submitted by admin on Fri, 2016-01-08 00:16 Job Summary Organization Name Department Of ...

  13. Advances in Patch-Based Adaptive Mesh Refinement Scalability

    SciTech Connect

    Gunney, Brian T.N.; Anderson, Robert W.

    2015-12-18

    Patch-based structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) is widely used for high-resolution simu- lations. Combined with modern supercomputers, it could provide simulations of unprecedented size and resolution. A persistent challenge for this com- bination has been managing dynamically adaptive meshes on more and more MPI tasks. The dis- tributed mesh management scheme in SAMRAI has made some progress SAMR scalability, but early al- gorithms still had trouble scaling past the regime of 105 MPI tasks. This work provides two critical SAMR regridding algorithms, which are integrated into that scheme to ensure efficiency of the whole. The clustering algorithm is an extension of the tile- clustering approach, making it more flexible and efficient in both clustering and parallelism. The partitioner is a new algorithm designed to prevent the network congestion experienced by its prede- cessor. We evaluated performance using weak- and strong-scaling benchmarks designed to be difficult for dynamic adaptivity. Results show good scaling on up to 1.5M cores and 2M MPI tasks. Detailed timing diagnostics suggest scaling would continue well past that.

  14. Advances in Patch-Based Adaptive Mesh Refinement Scalability

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Gunney, Brian T.N.; Anderson, Robert W.

    2015-12-18

    Patch-based structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) is widely used for high-resolution simu- lations. Combined with modern supercomputers, it could provide simulations of unprecedented size and resolution. A persistent challenge for this com- bination has been managing dynamically adaptive meshes on more and more MPI tasks. The dis- tributed mesh management scheme in SAMRAI has made some progress SAMR scalability, but early al- gorithms still had trouble scaling past the regime of 105 MPI tasks. This work provides two critical SAMR regridding algorithms, which are integrated into that scheme to ensure efficiency of the whole. The clustering algorithm is an extensionmore » of the tile- clustering approach, making it more flexible and efficient in both clustering and parallelism. The partitioner is a new algorithm designed to prevent the network congestion experienced by its prede- cessor. We evaluated performance using weak- and strong-scaling benchmarks designed to be difficult for dynamic adaptivity. Results show good scaling on up to 1.5M cores and 2M MPI tasks. Detailed timing diagnostics suggest scaling would continue well past that.« less

  15. Compensation Review Analyst

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2003-06-03

    COMPERA is a decision support system designed to facilitate the compensation review process. With parameters provided by the user(s), the system generates recommendations for base increases and nonbase compensation that strives to align total compensation with performance compensation targets. The user(s) prescribe(s) compensation targets according to performance (or value of contribution) designators. These targets are presented in look-up tables, which are then used by embedded formulas in the worksheet to determine the recommended compensation formore » each individual.« less

  16. Budget Analyst (Recent Graduate) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Budget Analyst (Recent Graduate) Budget Analyst (Recent Graduate) Submitted by admin on Sat, 2016-01-16 00:16 Job Summary Organization Name Department Of Energy Agency SubElement...

  17. Career Map: Analyst/Researcher | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Analyst/Researcher Career Map: Analyst/Researcher An analyst researcher explains a rendering of wind turbine flow patterns in a large, lighted diagram. Analyst/Researcher Position Title Analyst/Researcher Alternate Title(s) Research Analyst, Technical Analyst, Policy Analyst, Market Research Analyst Education & Training Level Bachelor's degree required, prefer graduate degree Education & Training Level Description A bachelor's degree is required for entry level positions. Researchers can

  18. Patricia Hagerty, Aviation Program Analyst - Bio | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Patricia Hagerty, Aviation Program Analyst - Bio HagertyPatPersonalProfile.pdf (10.55 KB) More Documents & Publications Ferrin Moore, Senior Aviation Policy Officer - Bio ...

  19. Global Industry Analysts | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search Name: Global Industry Analysts Address: 6150 Hellyer Avenue Place: San Jose, California Zip: 95138 Region: Bay Area Product: Market research services Year Founded:...

  20. Grain refinement of permanent mold cast copper base alloys. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sadayappan, M.; Thomson, J. P.; Elboujdaini, M.; Gu, G. Ping; Sahoo, M.

    2004-04-29

    control tool was proved in two foundries. The method can also correctly predict the onset of fading. The corrosion resistance of the grain refined alloys was measured in two solutions having different hydrogen activities, pH 6 and pH8, and compared with the base alloys. Potentiodynamic polarization and long term weight loss experiments were conducted to evaluate the corrosion resistance. Cu-Zn alloys were evaluated for dezincification. In general, the grain refined alloys performed marginally better than the base alloys.

  1. Recent Graduate Energy Industry Analyst | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Recent Graduate Energy Industry Analyst Recent Graduate Energy Industry Analyst Submitted ... (OEMR) in one of the three regional Electric Power Regulation Divisions (East, ...

  2. Energy Industry Analyst | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Industry Analyst Energy Industry Analyst Submitted by admin on Mon, 2016-11-14 00:15 Job Summary Organization Name Department Of Energy Agency SubElement Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Locations Washington DC, District of Columbia Announcement Number FERC-DE-2017-0009 Job Summary If you are ready to begin your new career or are looking for a place to make an impact, what better place than a top 5 agency? We are looking for the best and brightest to join our team of dedicated

  3. Refinement of overlapping local/global iteration method based on Monte Carlo/p-CMFD calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Y.; Yun, S.; Cho, N. Z.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the overlapping local/global (OLG) iteration method based on Monte Carlo/p-CMFD calculations is refined in two aspects. One is the consistent use of estimators to generate homogenized scattering cross sections. Another is that the incident or exiting angular interval is divided into multi-angular bins to modulate albedo boundary conditions for local problems. Numerical tests show that, compared to the one angle bin case in a previous study, the four angle bin case shows significantly improved results. (authors)

  4. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for corn refining plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; USEPA

    2006-07-31

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing their plant's performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing facilities can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the corn refining industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for facilities that produce a variety of products--including corn starch, corn oil, animal feed, corn sweeteners, and ethanol--for the paper, food, beverage, and other industries in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for corn refining plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  5. Rietveld Refinement

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    profile Chi-squared value 4.944 Progress so far Inverse Modeling Method 2 Fourier Method Data Model Refined Structure 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 1000 2000 3000 4000...

  6. Logan Daum > Analyst - DC Energy > Center Alumni > The Energy...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Logan Daum Analyst - DC Energy lrd56@cornell.edu Formerly a graduate student with the Fennie Group, Logan joined DC Energy in June of 2013...

  7. NREL Analyst Honored with WREC Pioneer Award - News Releases | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Analyst Honored with WREC Pioneer Award September 6, 2006 Photo of Barbara Farhar Barbara Farhar Barbara Farhar, senior policy analyst with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), received a 2006 Pioneer Award at the World Renewable Energy Congress (WREC) on Aug. 23 in Florence, Italy. The Pioneer Awards honor individuals for their contribution to advancing renewable energy through research, teaching and promotion. Farhar was recognized for her

  8. Hydrogen Delivery Analysis Plus Meeting: DTT, STT, HPTT, Other Analysts,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Invited Guests | Department of Energy Plus Meeting: DTT, STT, HPTT, Other Analysts, Invited Guests Hydrogen Delivery Analysis Plus Meeting: DTT, STT, HPTT, Other Analysts, Invited Guests Presentation at the Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007 deliv_analysis_paster.pdf (318.86 KB) More Documents & Publications Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis Meeting Agenda DOE and FreedomCAR and Fuels Partnership: Analysis Workshop Joint Meeting

  9. Supervisory Management and Program Analyst | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Management and Program Analyst Supervisory Management and Program Analyst Submitted by admin on Mon, 2016-11-14 00:15 Job Summary Organization Name Department Of Energy Agency SubElement Department of Energy Locations District of Columbia, District of Columbia Announcement Number DOE-SE-17-EE-00781-DE Job Summary The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE), mission is to create and sustain American leadership in the global transition to a clean energy economy through

  10. Refiner Crude Oil Inputs

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of RBOB Blending Components Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of CBOB Blending Components Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of GTAB Blending ...

  11. Enhancing adaptive sparse grid approximations and improving refinement strategies using adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Jakeman, J. D.; Wildey, T.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for adaptive sparse grid approximations of quantities of interest computed from discretized partial differential equations. We use adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates of the interpolation error in the sparse grid to enhance the sparse grid approximation and to drive adaptivity. We show that utilizing these error estimates provides significantly more accurate functional values for random samples of the sparse grid approximation. We also demonstrate that alternative refinement strategies based upon a posteriori error estimates can lead to further increases in accuracy in the approximation over traditional hierarchical surplus based strategies. Throughout this papermore » we also provide and test a framework for balancing the physical discretization error with the stochastic interpolation error of the enhanced sparse grid approximation.« less

  12. Enhancing adaptive sparse grid approximations and improving refinement strategies using adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Jakeman, J.D. Wildey, T.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for adaptive sparse grid approximations of quantities of interest computed from discretized partial differential equations. We use adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates of the physical discretization error and the interpolation error in the sparse grid to enhance the sparse grid approximation and to drive adaptivity of the sparse grid. Utilizing these error estimates provides significantly more accurate functional values for random samples of the sparse grid approximation. We also demonstrate that alternative refinement strategies based upon a posteriori error estimates can lead to further increases in accuracy in the approximation over traditional hierarchical surplus based strategies. Throughout this paper we also provide and test a framework for balancing the physical discretization error with the stochastic interpolation error of the enhanced sparse grid approximation.

  13. Sr. Business Analyst - Financials (Term Position) | Princeton...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    project team, and will set the directionvision for PeopleSoft General Ledger (GL), Commitment Control, Project Costing and Labor Distribution modulesareas based on...

  14. Midcourse Refinements of Financing Strategies

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: Midcourse Refinements of Financing Strategies, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, March 29, 2012. During this webinar participants discussed how programs have adapted and refined their financing strategies based on initial implementation experience and learning.

  15. A procedure for the estimation of the numerical uncertainty of CFD calculations based on grid refinement studies

    SciTech Connect

    Eça, L.; Hoekstra, M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper offers a procedure for the estimation of the numerical uncertainty of any integral or local flow quantity as a result of a fluid flow computation; the procedure requires solutions on systematically refined grids. The error is estimated with power series expansions as a function of the typical cell size. These expansions, of which four types are used, are fitted to the data in the least-squares sense. The selection of the best error estimate is based on the standard deviation of the fits. The error estimate is converted into an uncertainty with a safety factor that depends on the observed order of grid convergence and on the standard deviation of the fit. For well-behaved data sets, i.e. monotonic convergence with the expected observed order of grid convergence and no scatter in the data, the method reduces to the well known Grid Convergence Index. Examples of application of the procedure are included. - Highlights: • Estimation of the numerical uncertainty of any integral or local flow quantity. • Least squares fits to power series expansions to handle noisy data. • Excellent results obtained for manufactured solutions. • Consistent results obtained for practical CFD calculations. • Reduces to the well known Grid Convergence Index for well-behaved data sets.

  16. Managing the data deluge for national security analysts | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration | (NNSA) Managing the data deluge for national security analysts Wednesday, March 2, 2016 - 11:03am Sandia National Laboratories manager Kristina Czuchlewski says Pattern Analytics to Support High-Performance Exploitation and Reasoning, known as PANTHER, has developed software that can represent remote sensor images, couple them with additional information and present them in a searchable form. ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. - After a disaster or national tragedy, bits of

  17. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes bandwidth.pdf (1.16 MB) More Documents & Publications ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in

  18. Intelligence Research Analyst, GS-132-9/11 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Intelligence Research Analyst, GS-132-911 Intelligence Research Analyst, GS-132-911 Job Announcement Number: 16-0002 Who May Apply: All qualified U.S. citizens Duty Location: 2...

  19. Midcourse Refinements of Financing Strategies | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    March 29, 2012. During this webinar participants discussed how programs have adapted and refined their financing strategies based on initial implementation experience and learning. ...

  20. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes bandwidth.pdf (1.16 MB) More Documents & Publications ITP ...

  1. ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in California: California Industries of the Future Program ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in ...

  2. How Analysts Cognitively “Connect the Dots”

    SciTech Connect

    Bradel, Lauren; Self, Jessica S.; Endert, Alexander; Hossain, Shahriar M.; North, Chris; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2013-06-04

    As analysts attempt to make sense of a collection of documents, such as intelligence analysis reports, they may wish to “connect the dots” between pieces of information that may initially seem unrelated. This process of synthesizing information between information requires users to make connections between pairs of documents, creating a conceptual story. We conducted a user study to analyze the process by which users connect pairs of documents and how they spatially arrange information. Users created conceptual stories that connected the dots using organizational strategies that ranged in complexity. We propose taxonomies for cognitive connections and physical structures used when trying to “connect the dots” between two documents. We compared the user-created stories with a data-mining algorithm that constructs chains of documents using co-occurrence metrics. Using the insight gained into the storytelling process, we offer design considerations for the existing data mining algorithm and corresponding tools to combine the power of data mining and the complex cognitive processing of analysts.

  3. Step 3: Project Refinement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    3: Project Refinement 2 1 Potential 3 Refinement 4 Implementation 5 Operations & Maintenance 2 Options 3 Refinement 1/28/2016 2 3 FUNDING AND FINANCING OPTIONS Project Ownership Financing structure is highly dependent on size of the project and the capital available for a given project: * Tribe owns the project (cash purchase or debt) * Tribe hosts the project and buys the electricity (power purchase agreement) * Tribe partners with private sector and co-owns the project (uncertainties about

  4. The US petroleum refining industry in the 1980's

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-11

    As part of the EIA program on petroleum, The US Petroleum Refining Industry in the 1980's, presents a historical analysis of the changes that took place in the US petroleum refining industry during the 1980's. It is intended to be of interest to analysts in the petroleum industry, state and federal government officials, Congress, and the general public. The report consists of six chapters and four appendices. Included is a detailed description of the major events and factors that affected the domestic refining industry during this period. Some of the changes that took place in the 1980's are the result of events that started in the 1970's. The impact of these events on US refinery configuration, operations, economics, and company ownership are examined. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Refiners trade hydroprocessing experience

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-16

    Hydrogen treating and conversion processes less severe than hydrocracking abound in most refineries and therefore were a subject of high interest at the National Petroleum Refiners Association question and answer session on refining technology. The present paper, which is the second abstract of the transcript of the most recent meeting, covers hydroprocessing and some of its mechanical, process, and catalytic aspects.

  6. Analyst Tools and Quality Control Software for the ARM Data System

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.T.

    2004-12-14

    ATK Mission Research develops analyst tools and automated quality control software in order to assist the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Quality Office with their data inspection tasks. We have developed a web-based data analysis and visualization tool, called NCVweb, that allows for easy viewing of ARM NetCDF files. NCVweb, along with our library of sharable Interactive Data Language procedures and functions, allows even novice ARM researchers to be productive with ARM data with only minimal effort. We also contribute to the ARM Data Quality Office by analyzing ARM data streams, developing new quality control metrics, new diagnostic plots, and integrating this information into DQ HandS - the Data Quality Health and Status web-based explorer. We have developed several ways to detect outliers in ARM data streams and have written software to run in an automated fashion to flag these outliers.

  7. NAFTA opportunities: Petroleum refining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) creates a more transparent environment for the sale of refined petroleum products to Mexico, and locks in access to Canada's relatively open market for these products. Canada and Mexico are sizable United States export markets for refined petroleum products, with exports of $556 million and $864 million, respectively, in 1992. These markets represent approximately 24 percent of total U.S. exports of these goods.

  8. ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    California: California Industries of the Future Program | Department of Energy Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in California: California Industries of the Future Program ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in California: California Industries of the Future Program cpi_profile.pdf (363.14 KB) More Documents & Publications ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) ITP Petroleum

  9. Pantex Plant's Calvin Nelson honored as Analyst of the Year for

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Transportation Security | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Plant's Calvin Nelson honored as Analyst of the Year for Transportation Security Monday, January 25, 2016 - 12:00am Calvin Nelson Pantex's Calvin Nelson was recently awarded the 2015 Analyst of the Year for Transportation Security by the Department of Energy's Nuclear Materials Information Program. The award, for which Nelson is the first-ever Pantex recipient, recognizes outstanding analytic support to the NMIP. All

  10. Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Petroleum Refining Petroleum Refining Maintaining the viability of the U.S. petroleum refining industry requires continuous improvement in productivity and energy efficiency. The U.S. refining industry has worked with AMO to provide a range of resources that can provide energy and cost savings for the industry. Analytical Studies & Other Publications Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints provide a mapping of energy use, energy loss, and carbon emissions for selected industry sectors.

  11. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Richard K.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  12. Supporting Mutual Understanding in a Visual Dialogue Between Analyst and Computer

    SciTech Connect

    Chappell, Alan R.; Cowell, Andrew J.; Thurman, David A.; Thomson, Judi R.

    2004-09-20

    The Knowledge Associates for Novel Intelligence (KANI) project is developing a system of automated associates to actively support and participate in the information analysis task. The primary goal of KANI is to use automatically extracted information in a reasoning system that draws on the strengths of both a human analyst and automated reasoning. The interface between the two agents is a key element in achieving this goal. The KANI interface seeks to support a visual dialogue with mixed-initiative manipulation of information and reasoning components. To be successful, the interface must achieve mutual understanding between the analyst and KANI of the others actions. Toward this mutual understanding, KANI allows the analyst to work at multiple levels of abstraction over the reasoning process, links the information presented across these levels to make use of interaction context, and provides querying facilities to allow exploration and explanation.

  13. CLAMR (Compute Language Adaptive Mesh Refinement)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    CLAMR (Compute Language Adaptive Mesh Refinement) CLAMR (Compute Language Adaptive Mesh Refinement) CLAMR (Compute Language Adaptive Mesh Refinement) is being developed as a DOE...

  14. Refines Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    WRI

    2002-05-15

    Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as

  15. Parallel tetrahedral mesh refinement with MOAB.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2008-12-01

    In this report, we present the novel functionality of parallel tetrahedral mesh refinement which we have implemented in MOAB. This report details work done to implement parallel, edge-based, tetrahedral refinement into MOAB. The theoretical basis for this work is contained in [PT04, PT05, TP06] while information on design, performance, and operation specific to MOAB are contained herein. As MOAB is intended mainly for use in pre-processing and simulation (as opposed to the post-processing bent of previous papers), the primary use case is different: rather than refining elements with non-linear basis functions, the goal is to increase the number of degrees of freedom in some region in order to more accurately represent the solution to some system of equations that cannot be solved analytically. Also, MOAB has a unique mesh representation which impacts the algorithm. This introduction contains a brief review of streaming edge-based tetrahedral refinement. The remainder of the report is broken into three sections: design and implementation, performance, and conclusions. Appendix A contains instructions for end users (simulation authors) on how to employ the refiner.

  16. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes Prepared by Energetics Incorporated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Industrial ...

  17. Budget Analyst

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energys (EERE) mission is to create and sustain American leadership in the global transition to a clean energy economy through high-impact research, development, and...

  18. Policy Analyst

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A successful candidate will serve as sole or senior representative and recognized authority regarding economic productivity, policy expertise, communicating EPSA/DOE positions to advance and...

  19. Business Analyst

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in Transmission Strategy & Business Management (TAS), Chief of Staff, Transmission Services, Bonneville Power Administration. Transmission Strategy and Business...

  20. Managment Analyst

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A successful candidate in this position will... Have significant experience supporting or leading technology development, and technology transfer programs, on a regional or national scale, for...

  1. Management Analyst

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This position is located within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). EEREs mission is to create and sustain American leadership in the global transition to a clean energy...

  2. Management Analyst

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). EERE's mission is to create and sustain American leadership in the global transition to a clean energy...

  3. Disbursement Analyst

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in the Disbursement Operations (FTD) organization of Treasury (FT), Finance (F), and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Treasury directs financial planning and...

  4. Financial Analyst

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transacting and Credit Risk Management (CBC)is responsible for measuring, monitoring, controlling, and reporting market risks associated with BPAs commodity transacting activities. It fulfills its...

  5. Analysts | NISAC

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of the Impacts of the Clean Power Plan May 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Analysis of the Impacts of the Clean Power Plan i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or

  6. Program Analyst

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A successful candidate in this position will serve as a North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) reliability compliance specialist.

  7. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldrick, George M., E-mail: gsheldr@shelx.uni-ac.gwdg.de [Department of Structural Chemistry, Georg-August Universitt Gttingen, Tammannstrae 4, Gttingen 37077 (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    New features added to the refinement program SHELXL since 2008 are described and explained. The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as a CIF) containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  8. Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Diachin, L; Hornung, R; Plassmann, P; WIssink, A

    2005-03-04

    As large-scale, parallel computers have become more widely available and numerical models and algorithms have advanced, the range of physical phenomena that can be simulated has expanded dramatically. Many important science and engineering problems exhibit solutions with localized behavior where highly-detailed salient features or large gradients appear in certain regions which are separated by much larger regions where the solution is smooth. Examples include chemically-reacting flows with radiative heat transfer, high Reynolds number flows interacting with solid objects, and combustion problems where the flame front is essentially a two-dimensional sheet occupying a small part of a three-dimensional domain. Modeling such problems numerically requires approximating the governing partial differential equations on a discrete domain, or grid. Grid spacing is an important factor in determining the accuracy and cost of a computation. A fine grid may be needed to resolve key local features while a much coarser grid may suffice elsewhere. Employing a fine grid everywhere may be inefficient at best and, at worst, may make an adequately resolved simulation impractical. Moreover, the location and resolution of fine grid required for an accurate solution is a dynamic property of a problem's transient features and may not be known a priori. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is a technique that can be used with both structured and unstructured meshes to adjust local grid spacing dynamically to capture solution features with an appropriate degree of resolution. Thus, computational resources can be focused where and when they are needed most to efficiently achieve an accurate solution without incurring the cost of a globally-fine grid. Figure 1.1 shows two example computations using AMR; on the left is a structured mesh calculation of a impulsively-sheared contact surface and on the right is the fuselage and volume discretization of an RAH-66 Comanche helicopter [35]. Note the

  9. Storing and managing information artifacts collected by information analysts using a computing device

    DOEpatents

    Pike, William A; Riensche, Roderick M; Best, Daniel M; Roberts, Ian E; Whyatt, Marie V; Hart, Michelle L; Carr, Norman J; Thomas, James J

    2012-09-18

    Systems and computer-implemented processes for storage and management of information artifacts collected by information analysts using a computing device. The processes and systems can capture a sequence of interactive operation elements that are performed by the information analyst, who is collecting an information artifact from at least one of the plurality of software applications. The information artifact can then be stored together with the interactive operation elements as a snippet on a memory device, which is operably connected to the processor. The snippet comprises a view from an analysis application, data contained in the view, and the sequence of interactive operation elements stored as a provenance representation comprising operation element class, timestamp, and data object attributes for each interactive operation element in the sequence.

  10. MECS 2006 - Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Petroleum Refining MECS 2006 - Petroleum Refining Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Petroleum Refining (NAICS 324110) Sector with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006) All available footprints and supporting documents Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Petroleum Refining (123.98 KB) More Documents & Publications Petroleum Refining (2010 MECS) MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum MECS 2006 - Cement

  11. Electronic structure of superconductivity refined

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic structure of superconductivity refined Electronic structure of superconductivity refined A team of physicists propose a new model that expands on a little understood aspect of the electronic structure in high-temperature superconductors. July 10, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma

  12. Renewable Energy Financial Instruments Guidance Tool (REFINe...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Guidance Tool (REFINe) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Renewable Energy Financial Instruments Guidance Tool (REFINe) Focus Area: Renewable Energy...

  13. ,"U.S. Refiner Petroleum Product Prices"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...AEPPRLPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRHPTGNUSDPG" "Date","U.S. Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per Gallon)","U.S. Aviation Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars ...

  14. Hydrogen Delivery Analysis Plus Meeting: DTT, STT, HPTT, Other Analysts, Invited Guests

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Plus Meeting DTT, STT, HPTT, Other Analysts, Invited Guests May 8-9, 2007 Purpose/Objectives * Present, discuss, and reach consensus on H2A Delivery Models changes and results * Present and discuss On-Board Storage analysis * Present and discuss H2A EE and emissions modeling/tabs * Define a synergistic pathway forward for cost, EE, and emissions modeling for well through vehicle storage and the role for H2A tools. * Present the HyPro and Hytrans Transition Scenario models * Define next steps

  15. Petroleum Refining (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Petroleum Refining (2010 MECS) Petroleum Refining (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Petroleum Refining Sector (NAICS 324110) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014 View footprints for other sectors here. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Petroleum Refining (125.36 KB) More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Petroleum Refining Cement (2010 MECS) Forest Products (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy Sankey

  16. GRAIN REFINEMENT OF URANIUM BILLETS

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, L.

    1964-02-25

    A method of refining the grain structure of massive uranium billets without resort to forging is described. The method consists in the steps of beta- quenching the billets, annealing the quenched billets in the upper alpha temperature range, and extrusion upset of the billets to an extent sufficient to increase the cross sectional area by at least 5 per cent. (AEC)

  17. Method for refining contaminated iridium

    DOEpatents

    Heshmatpour, B.; Heestand, R.L.

    1982-08-31

    Contaminated iridium is refined by alloying it with an alloying agent selected from the group consisting of manganese and an alloy of manganese and copper, and then dissolving the alloying agent from the formed alloy to provide a purified iridium powder.

  18. Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced PADD IV refining capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.; Chin, S.M.

    1994-02-01

    Studies of Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced refining capacity in Petroleum Administration for Defense IV (PADD IV, part of the Rocky Mountain area) have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model, a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy constraints on emissions of nitrogen oxides and winter toxic air pollutants. The studies do not predict refinery closures in PADD IV. Rather, the reduced refining capacities provide an analytical framework for probing the flexibility of petroleum refining and distribution for winter demand conditions in the year 2000. Industry analysts have estimated that, for worst case scenarios, 20 to 35 percent of PADD IV refining capacity could be shut-down as a result of clean air and energy tax legislation. Given these industry projections, the study scenarios provide the following conclusions: The Rocky Mountain area petroleum system would have the capability to satisfy winter product demand with PADD IV refinery capacity shut-downs in the middle of the range of industry projections, but not in the high end of the range of projections. PADD IV crude oil production can be maintained by re-routing crude released from PADD IV refinery demands to satisfy increased crude oil demands in PADDs II (Midwest), III (Gulf Coast), and Washington. Clean Air Act product quality regulations generally do not increase the difficulty of satisfying emissions reduction constraints in the scenarios.

  19. Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently, 1995

    Reports and Publications

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the costs of producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate.

  20. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Derbidge, T. Craig; Mulholland, James A.; Foster, Edward P.

    1986-01-01

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  1. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry ...

  2. The In Vivo Quantitation of Diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and Their Major Metabolites in Rat Blood for the Refinement of a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, A.; Kousba, A.; Timchalk, C.

    2004-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF)(O,O-diethyl-O-[3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl]-phosphorothioate, CAS 2921-88-2), and diazinon (DZN)(O,O-diethyl-O-2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-pyrimidyl thiophosphate, CAS 333-41-5) are commonly encountered organophosphorus insecticides whose oxon metabolites (CPF-oxon and DZN-oxon) have the ability to strongly inhibit acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme responsible for the breakdown of acetylcholine at nerve synapses. Chlorpyrifos-oxon and DZN-oxon are highly unstable compounds that degrade via hepatic, peripheral blood, and intestinal metabolism to the more stable metabolites, TCP (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, CAS not assigned) and IMHP (2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol, CAS 2814-20-2), respectively. Studies have been performed to understand and model the chronic and acute toxic effects of CPF and DZN individually but little is known about their combined effects. The purpose of this study was to improve physiologically based pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) computational models by quantifying concentrations of CPF and DZN and their metabolites TCP and IMHP in whole rat blood, following exposure to the chemicals individually or as a mixture. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally dosed with 60 mg/kg of CPF, DZN, or a mixture of these two pesticides. When administered individually DZN and CPF were seen to reach their maximum concentration at ~3 hours post-dosing. When given as a mixture, both DZN and CPF peak blood concentrations were not achieved until ~6 hours post-dosing and the calculated blood area under the curve (AUC) for both chemicals exceeded those calculated following the single dose. Blood concentrations of IMHP and TCP correlated with these findings. It is proposed that the higher AUC obtained for both CPF and DZN as a mixture resulted from competition for the same metabolic enzyme systems.

  3. IMPROVED GROUND TRUTH IN SOUTHERN ASIA USING IN-COUNTRY DATA, ANALYST WAVEFORM REVIEW, AND ADVANCED ALGORITHMS

    SciTech Connect

    Engdahl, Eric, R.; Bergman, Eric, A.; Myers, Stephen, C.; Ryall, Floriana

    2009-06-19

    A new catalog of seismicity at magnitudes above 2.5 for the period 1923-2008 in the Iran region is assembled from arrival times reported by global, regional, and local seismic networks. Using in-country data we have formed new events, mostly at lower magnitudes that were not previously included in standard global earthquake catalogs. The magnitude completeness of the catalog varies strongly through time, complete to about magnitude 4.2 prior to 1998 and reaching a minimum of about 3.6 during the period 1998-2005. Of the 25,722 events in the catalog, most of the larger events have been carefully reviewed for proper phase association, especially for depth phases and to eliminate outlier readings, and relocated. To better understand the quality of the data set of arrival times reported by Iranian networks that are central to this study, many waveforms for events in Iran have been re-picked by an experienced seismic analyst. Waveforms at regional distances in this region are often complex. For many events this makes arrival time picks difficult to make, especially for smaller magnitude events, resulting in reported times that can be substantially improved by an experienced analyst. Even when the signal/noise ratio is large, re-picking can lead to significant differences. Picks made by our analyst are compared with original picks made by the regional networks. In spite of the obvious outliers, the median (-0.06 s) and spread (0.51 s) are small, suggesting that reasonable confidence can be placed in the picks reported by regional networks in Iran. This new catalog has been used to assess focal depth distributions throughout Iran. A principal result of this study is that the geographic pattern of depth distributions revealed by the relatively small number of earthquakes (~167) with depths constrained by waveform modeling (+/- 4 km) are now in agreement with the much larger number of depths (~1229) determined using reanalysis of ISC arrival-times (+/-10 km), within their

  4. Improving the accuracy of macromolecular structure refinement

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    is challenging at low resolution. We compared refinement methods using synchrotron diffraction data of photosystem I at 7.4 resolution, starting from different initial models...

  5. Refiners Increasingly Employing Catalyst Regeneration as Alternative...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    million by the end of 2019. Refiners Benefit from Catalyst Regeneration Technology via Price Reductions and Lower Maintenance Costs The catalyst regeneration technology is the...

  6. Right rock: Finding/refining customer expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, R.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on methods of finding customer expectations of software and then refining the documentation and software to fit these expectations.

  7. Pneumatic conveying of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Lennon, Dennis R.

    1984-11-06

    A method for pneumatically conveying solvent refined coal to a burner under conditions of dilute phase pneumatic flow so as to prevent saltation of the solvent refined coal in the transport line by maintaining the transport fluid velocity above approximately 95 ft/sec.

  8. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  9. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Lennon, Dennis R.; Snedden, Richard B.; Foster, Edward P.; Bellas, George T.

    1990-05-15

    A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

  10. U.S. Refining Capacity Utilization

    Reports and Publications

    1995-01-01

    This article briefly reviews recent trends in domestic refining capacity utilization and examines in detail the differences in reported crude oil distillation capacities and utilization rates among different classes of refineries.

  11. Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron Refining

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Piping Experience in Chevron Refining Ned Niccolls Materials Engineer Chevron Energy Technology Company Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop August 30-31, 2005 Outline 2 Overall perspectives from long term use of hydrogen piping in refining. Piping specifications and practices. The (few) problem areas. Related industry work: American Petroleum Institute corrosion and materials work on high temperature hydrogen attack. Overall Perspectives 3 Few problems with hydrogen piping operating at

  12. Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis W.R. Grace, a leading provider of refining technologies, and Pacific ...

  13. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1995 Annual Averages Motor...

  14. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 3. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Retail Volumes 1997 Annual Averages Motor...

  15. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1997 Annual Averages Motor...

  16. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 3. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Retail Volumes 1995 Annual Averages Motor...

  17. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 3. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Retail Volumes 1996 Annual Averages Motor...

  18. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1996 Annual Averages Motor...

  19. ,"Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab ... Data for" ,"Data 1","Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner ...

  20. ,"U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" ...

  1. ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy Use: Selected Applications in Chemicals Processing and Petroleum Refining ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on ...

  2. Parallel Block Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Graphics Processing Units

    SciTech Connect

    Beckingsale, D. A.; Gaudin, W. P.; Hornung, R. D.; Gunney, B. T.; Gamblin, T.; Herdman, J. A.; Jarvis, S. A.

    2014-11-17

    Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement is a technique that can be used when solving partial differential equations to reduce the number of zones necessary to achieve the required accuracy in areas of interest. These areas (shock fronts, material interfaces, etc.) are recursively covered with finer mesh patches that are grouped into a hierarchy of refinement levels. Despite the potential for large savings in computational requirements and memory usage without a corresponding reduction in accuracy, AMR adds overhead in managing the mesh hierarchy, adding complex communication and data movement requirements to a simulation. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a native GPU-based AMR library, including: the classes used to manage data on a mesh patch, the routines used for transferring data between GPUs on different nodes, and the data-parallel operators developed to coarsen and refine mesh data. We validate the performance and accuracy of our implementation using three test problems and two architectures: an eight-node cluster, and over four thousand nodes of Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Titan supercomputer. Our GPU-based AMR hydrodynamics code performs up to 4.87× faster than the CPU-based implementation, and has been scaled to over four thousand GPUs using a combination of MPI and CUDA.

  3. An adaptive mesh-moving and refinement procedure for one-dimensional conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, R.; Flaherty, J.E.; Arney, D.C. Rensselaer Polytech. Inst., Troy, NY Military Acad., West Point, NY )

    1993-01-01

    We examine the performance of an adaptive mesh-moving and /or local mesh refinement procedure for the finite difference solution of one-dimensional hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. Adaptive motion of a base mesh is designed to isolate spatially distinct phenomena, and recursive local refinement of the time step and cells of the stationary or moving base mesh is performed in regions where a refinement indicator exceeds a prescribed tolerance. These adaptive procedures are incorporated into a computer code that includes a MacCormack finite difference scheme wih Davis' artificial viscosity model and a discretization error estimate based on Richardson's extrapolation. Experiments are conducted on three problems in order to qualify the advantages of adaptive techniques relative to uniform mesh computations and the relative benefits of mesh moving and refinement. Key results indicate that local mesh refinement, with and without mesh moving, can provide reliable solutions at much lower computational cost than possible on uniform meshes; that mesh motion can be used to improve the results of uniform mesh solutions for a modest computational effort; that the cost of managing the tree data structure associated with refinement is small; and that a combination of mesh motion and refinement reliably produces solutions for the least cost per unit accuracy.

  4. Trends in petroleum refining process technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalczyk, D.

    1995-12-31

    In the 1990`s, the shift toward reformulated fuels and the unrelenting economic pressures on the petroleum refining industry have led to the ongoing development of a series of technological advances to improve fuels quality and industry operating efficiency. In this paper, ten of the most innovative and high impact recent developments in petroleum refining process technology will be highlighted. Process improvements and innovations have occurred in all facets of petroleum refining operations including fluid catalytic cracking, ether production, desulfurization, hydrocracking, gas processing, environmental control and heavy oil processing. Discussed will be the technical and economic impact of each of these new technologies on the petroleum refinery of the late 20th and early 21st century.

  5. JAPAN: Refining options and liberalization plans

    SciTech Connect

    Totto, L.; Isaak, D.T.

    1988-01-01

    The reformulation of Japan's petroleum import policy is important to Japan and to the international energy community. The technical and economic factors involved in opening the Japanese market is unknown. Assuming that foreign refiners have the technical capability to meet Japanese product specifications, the prices and volumes that will prove economical to both parties are also little known. Japanese refiners have been investigating the possibility of exporting gasoline and processing crude for China and Malaysia. The study demonstrates that under certain trade policies, Japan could become a significant product exporter. This study's purpose is to investigate the economic efficiency of alternative petroleum supply options, i.e., combining Japan's refining and product imports. An evaluation of the current import program and the technically feasible alternatives will play a major role in a new import policy. For this evaluation, a linear programming (LP) model of Japan's domestic refinery capacity and the petroleum import system was constructed. 3 figs., 23 tabs.

  6. The strategic outlook for petroleum refiners

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, C.

    1994-12-31

    After several years of acceptable and relatively reliable profitability, refiners were plunged into uncertainty once again following passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) in 1990. While many of the original uncertainties that attended these regulations have since been resolved, the industry now must prepare for the new manufacturing, distributions, and transportation challenges that undoubtedly will accompany the first stages of reformulated gasoline (RFG) compliance in early 1995. This impending challenge introduces several fundamental questions: (1) How has the industry changed and adjusted to respond to anticipated future needs? (2) What strategies are refiners employing today? (3) What are industry performance expectations over the next several years?

  7. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2015-06-09

    A system and method for reactively refining hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20 degrees and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure, using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. A reaction portion of the system and method delivers lightweight, volatile hydrocarbons to an associated contacting unit which operates in mixed subcritical/supercritical or supercritical modes. Using thermal diffusion, multiphase contact, or a momentum generating pressure gradient, the contacting unit separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques.

  8. Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2009-09-29

    This is a simulation code involving an ALE (arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) hydrocode with AMR (adaptive mesh refinement) and pluggable physics packages for material strength, heat conduction, radiation diffusion, and laser ray tracing developed a LLNL, UCSD, and Berkeley Lab. The code is an extension of the open source SAMRAI (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Interface) code/library. The code can be used in laser facilities such as the National Ignition Facility. The code is alsi being appliedmore » to slurry flow (landslides).« less

  9. Influence of Aluminum Content on Grain Refinement and Strength of AZ31 Magnesium GTA Weld Metal

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, N. Kishore; Cross, Carl E.

    2012-06-28

    The goal is to characterize the effect of Al content on AZ31 weld metal, the grain size and strength, and examine role of Al on grain refinement. The approach is to systematically vary the aluminum content of AZ31 weld metal, Measure average grain size in weld metal, and Measure cross-weld tensile properties and hardness. Conclusions are that: (1) increased Al content in AZ31 weld metal results in grain refinement Reason: higher undercooling during solidification; (2) weld metal grain refinement resulted in increased strength & hardness Reason: grain boundary strengthening; and (3) weld metal strength can be raised to wrought base metal levels.

  10. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    in California | Department of Energy Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California refining_roadmap.pdf (1.34 MB) More Documents & Publications ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in California: California Industries of the Future Program ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California Bandwidth Study U.S.

  11. Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-10-01

    The petroleum refining energy bandwidth report analyzes the most energy-intensive unit operations used in U.S. refineries: crude oil distillation, fluid catalytic cracking, catalytic hydrotreating, catalytic reforming, and alkylation. The "bandwidth" provides a snapshot of the energy losses that can potentially be recovered through best practices and technology R&D.

  12. Focus on Venezuelan heavy crude: refining margins

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-25

    Of six crudes refined in the US Gulf Coast, heavy Venezuelan crude Lagunillas (15/sup 0/ API) provides the best margin per barrel. Data for end of December 1983 and the first three weeks of January show that margins on all crudes are on the rise in this market, due to a turnaround in product prices. The lighter crudes are showing the greatest increase in Gross Product Worth. This is having a modest shrinking effect on the margin differential between light and heavy crudes in this market. The domestic crude West Texas Intermediate, at 40/sup 0/ API, provides the highest GPW in this crude slate sample, over US $31 per barrel, compared to GPW of under US $28 per barrel for Lagunillas. Still, as Lagunillas cost about US $8 less than does WTI, refiners with sufficient residue conversion capacity can be earning about US $3.50 more in margin per barrel than they can with WTI. Although few refiners would be using a 15/sup 0/ API crude exclusively for any length of time, heavier oil's inclusion in modern refiners' diets is enhancing their competitive position more than any other single factor. This issue of Energy Detente presents the fuel price/tax series and industrial fuel prices for January 1984 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  13. Mesh refinement for uncertainty quantification through model reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jing Stinis, Panos

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel way of deciding when and where to refine a mesh in probability space in order to facilitate uncertainty quantification in the presence of discontinuities in random space. A discontinuity in random space makes the application of generalized polynomial chaos expansion techniques prohibitively expensive. The reason is that for discontinuous problems, the expansion converges very slowly. An alternative to using higher terms in the expansion is to divide the random space in smaller elements where a lower degree polynomial is adequate to describe the randomness. In general, the partition of the random space is a dynamic process since some areas of the random space, particularly around the discontinuity, need more refinement than others as time evolves. In the current work we propose a way to decide when and where to refine the random space mesh based on the use of a reduced model. The idea is that a good reduced model can monitor accurately, within a random space element, the cascade of activity to higher degree terms in the chaos expansion. In turn, this facilitates the efficient allocation of computational sources to the areas of random space where they are more needed. For the Kraichnan–Orszag system, the prototypical system to study discontinuities in random space, we present theoretical results which show why the proposed method is sound and numerical results which corroborate the theory.

  14. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2014-11-25

    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

  15. Refining quadrilateral and brick element meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Schneiders, R.; Debye, J.

    1995-12-31

    We consider the problem of refining unstructured quadrilateral and brick element meshes. We present an algorithm which is a generalization of an algorithm developed by Cheng et. al. for structured quadrilateral element meshes. The problem is solved for the two-dimensional case. Concerning three dimensions we present a solution for some special cases and a general solution that introduces tetrahedral and pyramidal transition elements.

  16. Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Infrastructure

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2010-07-15

    SAMRAI is an object-oriented support library for structured adaptice mesh refinement (SAMR) simulation of computational science problems, modeled by systems of partial differential equations (PDEs). SAMRAI is developed and maintained in the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) under ASCI ITS and PSE support. SAMRAI is used in a variety of application research efforts at LLNL and in academia. These applications are developed in collaboration with SAMRAI development team members.

  17. Genealogy of major U.S. refiners - Energy Information Administration

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Genealogy of Major U.S. Refiners Release date: September 18, 2013 figre 1. World energy consumption, 1990-2040. The structure of the U.S. petroleum refining industry has changed ...

  18. ,"Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales ... "Back to Contents","Data 1: Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ...

  19. Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Petroleum Refining Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas,

  20. ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy Use:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Selected Applications in Chemicals Processing and Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy Use: Selected Applications in Chemicals Processing and Petroleum Refining ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy Use: Selected Applications in Chemicals Processing and Petroleum Refining condition_assessment.pdf (319.56 KB) More Documents & Publications Effective Fouling Minimization Increases the Efficiency and Productivity of

  1. Energy Industry Analyst (Litigation)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    If you are ready to begin your new career or are looking for a place to make an impact, what better place than a top 5 agency? We are looking for the best and brightest to join our team of...

  2. Operations Research Analyst

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in the Enterprise Risk Management group within the Risk Management group led by the Chief Risk Officer in the Office of the Deputy Administrator. The position is located at...

  3. Financial Analyst (Litigation)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    If you are ready to begin your new career or are looking for a place to make an impact, what better place than a top 5 agency? We are looking for the best and brightest to join our team of...

  4. Senior Counterintelligence Analyst

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A successful candidate in this position will: Manage counter-intelligence production and ensure analytical assessments adhere to the highest standards Support goals and objectives of the Director...

  5. Operations Research Analyst

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in the Transacting and Credit Risk Management group (TCRM) within the Risk Management group led by Chief Risk Officer (CRO) in the Office of the Compliance, Audit and Risk....

  6. Supervisory Financial Analyst

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    (See Frequently Asked Questions for more information). Where would I be working? Western Area Power Administration, Corporate Services Office, Office of the Chief Financial Officer, Financial...

  7. Supervisory Program Analyst (Transformation)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) conducts a relevant, reliable, and timely data collection program that covers the full spectrum of energy sources, end uses, and energy flows; generates...

  8. Operations Research Analyst

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This position is located in the Market Analysis and Pricing (PTM) group in the Power Services Organization. Market Analysis and Pricing performs market analysis, product pricing, transaction and...

  9. Energy Industry Analyst

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in the Office of Enforcement's (OE) Division of Analytics and Surveillance. OE serves the public interest by ensuring effective regulations and protecting customers through...

  10. Supervisory Supply Systems Analyst

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This position is located in Materials Management Group, which is part of the Logistics Management operations of Supply Chain Services. The Logistics Management organization manages the warehousing...

  11. Energy Industry Analyst (IT)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    If you are ready to begin your new career or are looking for a place to make an impact, what better place than a top 5 agency? We are looking for the best and brightest to join our team of...

  12. Management & Program Analyst

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Where would I be working? Western Area Power Administration, Corporate Services Office, Office of the Chief Financial Officer, Governance and Policy (A8500). 12155 West Alameda Parkway, Lakewood,...

  13. Financial Program Analyst

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    (See Frequently Asked Questions for more information). Where would I be working? Western Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Region Budget and Alternative Finance (G8100) 615 S. 43rd Avenue...

  14. Management and Program Analyst

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    EEREs mission is to create and sustain American leadership in the global transition to a clean energy economy through high-impact research, development, and demonstration and by breaking down...

  15. Supervisory Policy Analyst

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A successful candidate in this position will serve as an expert policy advisor and recognized technical authority to the Deputy Director for State, Local and Tribal Cooperation. The candidate will...

  16. Petroleum movements and investments in the refining industry: The impact of worldwide environmental regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Guariguata U., G.

    1995-09-01

    Since the enactment of the US Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the worldwide refining industry has aligned itself to become increasing attuned to the future well-being of the environment. Refiners must now develop strategies which address careful selection of crude slates, significant increases and changes in product movements, and upgrading of facilities to meet growing demand--in short, strategies which allow them to make substantial increases in capital investments. The objective of this paper is to determine the regional capital investments refiners must make in order to comply with environmental legislation. The methodology in making this determination was founded on a comprehensive analysis of worldwide petroleum supply/demand and distribution patterns for the coming five years, and included evaluation of a set of linear programming (LP) models based on forecasts for regional product demands and projections of regional specifications. The models considered two scenarios, in which either (1) refinery expansion occurs chiefly in the market consuming regions, or (2) crude producers take control of incremental crude volumes and further expand their planned refining projects and the marketing of refined products. The results of these models, coupled with an understanding of geopolitical situations and economic analyses, provided estimates for capital expenditures for the coming decade. In specific, the following issues were addressed, and are discussed in this paper: refined product trade outlook; crude supply; crude quality; shipping; and capital investments.

  17. Deformable elastic network refinement for low-resolution macromolecular crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Schröder, Gunnar F.; Levitt, Michael; Brunger, Axel T.

    2014-09-01

    An overview of applications of the deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method is presented together with recommendations for its optimal usage. Crystals of membrane proteins and protein complexes often diffract to low resolution owing to their intrinsic molecular flexibility, heterogeneity or the mosaic spread of micro-domains. At low resolution, the building and refinement of atomic models is a more challenging task. The deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method developed previously has been instrumental in the determinion of several structures at low resolution. Here, DEN refinement is reviewed, recommendations for its optimal usage are provided and its limitations are discussed. Representative examples of the application of DEN refinement to challenging cases of refinement at low resolution are presented. These cases include soluble as well as membrane proteins determined at limiting resolutions ranging from 3 to 7 Å. Potential extensions of the DEN refinement technique and future perspectives for the interpretation of low-resolution crystal structures are also discussed.

  18. Pollution prevention in the petroleum refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fromm, C.H.; White, S.L.

    1995-09-01

    Pollution prevention (P2) as applied to petroleum refining should seek opportunities to reduce waste by preventing oil/hydrocarbon loss, by decreasing consumption of auxiliary input materials, and by improving conversion of incoming impurities into useful products. This chapter will focus on P2 techniques that have found or could find applications in minimizing or eliminating reducible solid waste and wastewater from the petroleum refining process. Air emissions are not covered. The following commonly encountered wastes are considered in this chapter: oily sludges; spent caustics; spent catalysts; miscellaneous process wastes; wastewater; maintenance and materials handling wastes. Following a brief description of waste components and sources, specific P2 techniques are presented in tabular form for each of these wastestreams. None of the P2 techniques presented is discussed here in any detail--the intent is to give the reader a menu of potentially effective P2 options to consider, along with the references where a more detailed discussion may be found. Some of the options presented were advanced in the original references merely as suggestions or plans for improvement. No effort was made to verify their efficacy or applicability in this compilation.

  19. Metal decontamination for waste minimization using liquid metal refining technology

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Lally, B.; Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J.

    1993-09-01

    The current Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project flowsheet indicates that no conventional technology, other than surface decontamination, exists for metal processing. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain concentration. This project is in support of the National Mixed Low Level Waste Treatment Program. Because of the high cost of disposal, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low-level contaminated metals. It is important to be able to decontaminate complex shapes where surfaces are hidden or inaccessible to surface decontamination processes and destruction of organic contamination. These goals can be achieved by adapting commercial metal refining processes to handle radioactive and organic contaminated metal. The radioactive components are concentrated in the slag, which is subsequently vitrified; hazardous organics are destroyed by the intense heat of the bath. The metal, after having been melted and purified, could be recycled for use within the DOE complex. In this project, we evaluated current state-of-the-art technologies for metal refining, with special reference to the removal of radioactive contaminants and the destruction of hazardous organics. This evaluation was based on literature reports, industrial experience, plant visits, thermodynamic calculations, and engineering aspects of the various processes. The key issues addressed included radioactive partitioning between the metal and slag phases, minimization of secondary wastes, operability of the process subject to widely varying feed chemistry, and the ability to seal the candidate process to prevent the release of hazardous species.

  20. COSMOLOGICAL ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS WITH ENZO

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, David C.; Xu Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Li Hui; Li Shengtai

    2010-02-01

    In this work, we present EnzoMHD, the extension of the cosmological code Enzo to include the effects of magnetic fields through the ideal magnetohydrodynamics approximation. We use a higher order Godunov method for the computation of interface fluxes. We use two constrained transport methods to compute the electric field from those interface fluxes, which simultaneously advances the induction equation and maintains the divergence of the magnetic field. A second-order divergence-free reconstruction technique is used to interpolate the magnetic fields in the block-structured adaptive mesh refinement framework already extant in Enzo. This reconstruction also preserves the divergence of the magnetic field to machine precision. We use operator splitting to include gravity and cosmological expansion. We then present a series of cosmological and non-cosmological test problems to demonstrate the quality of solution resulting from this combination of solvers.

  1. Visualization Tools for Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Gunther H.; Beckner, Vincent E.; Childs, Hank; Ligocki,Terry J.; Miller, Mark C.; Van Straalen, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes

    2007-05-09

    Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a highly effective method for simulations that span a large range of spatiotemporal scales, such as astrophysical simulations that must accommodate ranges from interstellar to sub-planetary. Most mainstream visualization tools still lack support for AMR as a first class data type and AMR code teams use custom built applications for AMR visualization. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Science Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) is currently working on extending VisIt, which is an open source visualization tool that accommodates AMR as a first-class data type. These efforts will bridge the gap between general-purpose visualization applications and highly specialized AMR visual analysis applications. Here, we give an overview of the state of the art in AMR visualization research and tools and describe how VisIt currently handles AMR data.

  2. Visualization of Scalar Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data

    SciTech Connect

    VACET; Weber, Gunther; Weber, Gunther H.; Beckner, Vince E.; Childs, Hank; Ligocki, Terry J.; Miller, Mark C.; Van Straalen, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes

    2007-12-06

    Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a highly effective computation method for simulations that span a large range of spatiotemporal scales, such as astrophysical simulations, which must accommodate ranges from interstellar to sub-planetary. Most mainstream visualization tools still lack support for AMR grids as a first class data type and AMR code teams use custom built applications for AMR visualization. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Science Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) is currently working on extending VisIt, which is an open source visualization tool that accommodates AMR as a first-class data type. These efforts will bridge the gap between general-purpose visualization applications and highly specialized AMR visual analysis applications. Here, we give an overview of the state of the art in AMR scalar data visualization research.

  3. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) | Department of Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) profile.pdf (1.62 MB) More Documents & Publications ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry

  4. Secretary Bodman Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Capacity | Department of Energy Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining Capacity Secretary Bodman Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining Capacity May 18, 2006 - 10:43am Addthis Highlights President Bush's Four-Point Plan to Combat High Energy Prices PORT ARTHUR, TX - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today renewed the call for expanded oil refining capacity in the United States and discussed additional steps the Department of Energy (DOE) is taking to prepare for the

  5. REFINING PROGRAM HELPS REENERGIZE NEBRASKA UPGRADES | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    REFINING PROGRAM HELPS REENERGIZE NEBRASKA UPGRADES REFINING PROGRAM HELPS REENERGIZE NEBRASKA UPGRADES REFINING PROGRAM HELPS REENERGIZE NEBRASKA UPGRADES In a state where energy costs are low and the home performance workforce had not been established, Nebraska's two largest cities-Omaha and Lincoln-took on the challenge of promoting whole home energy upgrades to homeowners, businesses, and nonprofit organizations. Using $10 million in seed funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's)

  6. Parallel adaptive mesh refinement for electronic structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, S.; Weare, J.; Ong, E.; Baden, S.

    1996-12-01

    We have applied structured adaptive mesh refinement techniques to the solution of the LDA equations for electronic structure calculations. Local spatial refinement concentrates memory resources and numerical effort where it is most needed, near the atomic centers and in regions of rapidly varying charge density. The structured grid representation enables us to employ efficient iterative solver techniques such as conjugate gradients with multigrid preconditioning. We have parallelized our solver using an object-oriented adaptive mesh refinement framework.

  7. The Five-Step Development Process Step 3: Project Refinement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    3: Project Refinement 2 1 Potential 3 Refinement 4 Implementation 5 Operations & Maintenance 2 Options 3 Refinement 3 FUNDING AND FINANCING OPTIONS Project Ownership Financing structure is highly dependent on size of the project and the capital available for a given project: * Tribe owns the project (cash purchase or debt) * Tribe hosts the project and buys the electricity (power purchase agreement) * Tribe partners with private sector and co-owns the project (uncertainties about receipt of

  8. ,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...www.eia.govdnavpetpetprirefmg2cnusepm0rdpgalm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ... Reformulated Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per ...

  9. ,"U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...www.eia.govdnavpetpetprirefmg2cnusepm0udpgalm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ... Conventional Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per ...

  10. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997 Table 43....

  11. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All Grades Sales...

  12. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2000 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All Grades Sales...

  13. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 43....

  14. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  15. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  16. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  17. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  18. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  19. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  20. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    - - - - W W - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 292 Energy...

  1. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  2. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  3. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  4. ,"U.S. Total Refiner Petroleum Product Prices"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    NUSDPG","EMAEPPRPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRLPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRHPTGNUSDPG" "Date","U.S. Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per Gallon)","U.S. Aviation Gasoline...

  5. Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy ...

  6. ITP Petroleum Refining: Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 ITP Petroleum Refining: Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 techvision.pdf (684.96 KB) More Documents & Publications Manufacturing Energy and Carbon ...

  7. Refiners react to changes in the pipeline infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    Petroleum pipelines have long been a critical component in the distribution of crude and refined products in the U.S. Pipelines are typically the most cost efficient mode of transportation for reasonably consistent flow rates. For obvious reasons, inland refineries and consumers are much more dependent on petroleum pipelines to provide supplies of crude and refined products than refineries and consumers located on the coasts. Significant changes in U.S. distribution patterns for crude and refined products are reshaping the pipeline infrastructure and presenting challenges and opportunities for domestic refiners. These changes are discussed.

  8. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  9. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California refiningroadmap.pdf (1.34 ...

  10. An adaptive grid refinement strategy for the simulation of negative streamers

    SciTech Connect

    Montijn, C. . E-mail: carolynne.montijn@cwi.nl; Hundsdorfer, W. . E-mail: willem.hundsdorfer@cwi.nl; Ebert, U. . E-mail: ute.ebert@cwi.nl

    2006-12-10

    The evolution of negative streamers during electric breakdown of a non-attaching gas can be described by a two-fluid model for electrons and positive ions. It consists of continuity equations for the charged particles including drift, diffusion and reaction in the local electric field, coupled to the Poisson equation for the electric potential. The model generates field enhancement and steep propagating ionization fronts at the tip of growing ionized filaments. An adaptive grid refinement method for the simulation of these structures is presented. It uses finite volume spatial discretizations and explicit time stepping, which allows the decoupling of the grids for the continuity equations from those for the Poisson equation. Standard refinement methods in which the refinement criterion is based on local error monitors fail due to the pulled character of the streamer front that propagates into a linearly unstable state. We present a refinement method which deals with all these features. Tests on one-dimensional streamer fronts as well as on three-dimensional streamers with cylindrical symmetry (hence effectively 2D for numerical purposes) are carried out successfully. Results on fine grids are presented, they show that such an adaptive grid method is needed to capture the streamer characteristics well. This refinement strategy enables us to adequately compute negative streamers in pure gases in the parameter regime where a physical instability appears: branching streamers.

  11. Adaptive h -refinement for reduced-order models: ADAPTIVE h -refinement for reduced-order models

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Carlberg, Kevin T.

    2014-11-05

    Our work presents a method to adaptively refine reduced-order models a posteriori without requiring additional full-order-model solves. The technique is analogous to mesh-adaptive h-refinement: it enriches the reduced-basis space online by ‘splitting’ a given basis vector into several vectors with disjoint support. The splitting scheme is defined by a tree structure constructed offline via recursive k-means clustering of the state variables using snapshot data. This method identifies the vectors to split online using a dual-weighted-residual approach that aims to reduce error in an output quantity of interest. The resulting method generates a hierarchy of subspaces online without requiring large-scale operationsmore » or full-order-model solves. Furthermore, it enables the reduced-order model to satisfy any prescribed error tolerance regardless of its original fidelity, as a completely refined reduced-order model is mathematically equivalent to the original full-order model. Experiments on a parameterized inviscid Burgers equation highlight the ability of the method to capture phenomena (e.g., moving shocks) not contained in the span of the original reduced basis.« less

  12. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Blander, Milton; Cook, Glenn M.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  13. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1988-05-17

    Apparatus is described for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom. 2 figs.

  14. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1985-05-21

    Disclosed is an apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  15. A comparative assessment of resource efficiency in petroleum refining

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jeongwoo; Forman, Grant S.; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; DiVita, Vincent B.

    2015-03-25

    Because of increasing environmental and energy security concerns, a detailed understanding of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the petroleum refining industry is critical for fair and equitable energy and environmental policies. To date, this has proved challenging due in part to the complex nature and variability within refineries. In an effort to simplify energy and emissions refinery analysis, we delineated LP modeling results from 60 large refineries from the US and EU into broad categories based on crude density (API gravity) and heavy product (HP) yields. Product-specific efficiencies and process fuel shares derived from this study were incorporated in Argonne National Laboratory’s GREET life-cycle model, along with regional upstream GHG intensities of crude, natural gas and electricity specific to the US and EU regions. The modeling results suggest that refineries that process relatively heavier crude inputs and have lower yields of HPs generally have lower energy efficiencies and higher GHG emissions than refineries that run lighter crudes with lower yields of HPs. The former types of refineries tend to utilize energy-intensive units which are significant consumers of utilities (heat and electricity) and hydrogen. Among the three groups of refineries studied, the major difference in the energy intensities is due to the amount of purchased natural gas for utilities and hydrogen, while the sum of refinery feed inputs are generally constant. These results highlight the GHG emissions cost a refiner pays to process deep into the barrel to produce more of the desirable fuels with low carbon to hydrogen ratio.

  16. A comparative assessment of resource efficiency in petroleum refining

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Han, Jeongwoo; Forman, Grant S.; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; DiVita, Vincent B.

    2015-03-25

    Because of increasing environmental and energy security concerns, a detailed understanding of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the petroleum refining industry is critical for fair and equitable energy and environmental policies. To date, this has proved challenging due in part to the complex nature and variability within refineries. In an effort to simplify energy and emissions refinery analysis, we delineated LP modeling results from 60 large refineries from the US and EU into broad categories based on crude density (API gravity) and heavy product (HP) yields. Product-specific efficiencies and process fuel shares derived from this study weremore » incorporated in Argonne National Laboratory’s GREET life-cycle model, along with regional upstream GHG intensities of crude, natural gas and electricity specific to the US and EU regions. The modeling results suggest that refineries that process relatively heavier crude inputs and have lower yields of HPs generally have lower energy efficiencies and higher GHG emissions than refineries that run lighter crudes with lower yields of HPs. The former types of refineries tend to utilize energy-intensive units which are significant consumers of utilities (heat and electricity) and hydrogen. Among the three groups of refineries studied, the major difference in the energy intensities is due to the amount of purchased natural gas for utilities and hydrogen, while the sum of refinery feed inputs are generally constant. These results highlight the GHG emissions cost a refiner pays to process deep into the barrel to produce more of the desirable fuels with low carbon to hydrogen ratio.« less

  17. A Comparative Assessment of Resource Efficiency in Petroleum Refining

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jeongwoo; Forman, G; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; Divita, V

    2015-10-01

    Because of increasing environmental and energy security concerns, a detailed understanding of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the petroleum refining industry is critical for fair and equitable energy and environmental policies. To date, this has proved challenging due in part to the complex nature and variability within refineries. In an effort to simplify energy and emissions refinery analysis, we delineated LP modeling results from 60 large refineries from the US and EU into broad categories based on crude density (API gravity) and heavy product (HP) yields. Product-specific efficiencies and process fuel shares derived from this study were incorporated in Argonne National Laboratory's GREET life-cycle model, along with regional upstream GHG intensities of crude, natural gas and electricity specific to the US and EU regions. The modeling results suggest that refineries that process relatively heavier crude inputs and have lower yields of HPs generally have lower energy efficiencies and higher GHG emissions than refineries that run lighter crudes with lower yields of HPs. The former types of refineries tend to utilize energy-intensive units which are significant consumers of utilities (heat and electricity) and hydrogen. Among the three groups of refineries studied, the major difference in the energy intensities is due to the amount of purchased natural gas for utilities and hydrogen, while the sum of refinery feed inputs are generally constant. These results highlight the GHG emissions cost a refiner pays to process deep into the barrel to produce more of the desirable fuels with low carbon to hydrogen ratio. (c) 2015 Argonne National Laboratory. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    This report summarizes revisions to the design basis for the linear programing refining model that is being used in the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. This revision primarily reflects the addition of data for the upgrading of direct coal liquids.

  19. ,"Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)","New Mexico Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners ...87,16127.8,1684.4,1377.2,128.8,497.8,835.6,2030.3,1178.7,674.5,56.4,3.9,4678.6,764.1,9.3,1...

  20. ,"No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)","New Mexico No 2 Distillate Retail Sales by Refiners ...57.7,6018.7,64.6,101.5,691.5,1553.8,1576.9,2030.5,4320.3,1350.4,683.2,792.4,316.4,804.3,37...

  1. Reitveld refinement study of PLZT ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rakesh; Bavbande, D. V.; Bafna, V. H.; Mohan, D.; Kothiyal, G. P.; Mishra, R.

    2013-02-05

    PLZT ceramics of composition Pb{sub 0.93}La{sub 0.07}(Zr{sub 0.60}Ti{sub 0.40})O{sub 3}, have been milled for 6hrs and 24hrs were prepared by solid state synthesis route. The 6hrs milled and 24hrs milled samples are represented as PLZT-6 and PLZT-24 ceramics respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern was recorded at room temperature. The XRD pattern has been analyzed by employing Rietveld refinement method. Phase identification shows that all the peaks observed in PLZT-6 and PLZT-24 ceramics could be indexed to P4mm space group with tetragonal symmetry. The unit cell parameters of 6hrs milled PLZT ceramics are found to be a=b=4.0781(5)A and c=4.0938(7)A and for 24hrs milled PLZT ceramics unit cell parameters are a=b=4.0679(4)A and c=4.1010(5)A . The axial ratio c/a and unit cell volume of PLZT-6 are 1.0038 and 68.09(2)A{sup 3} respectively. In PLZT-24 samples, the axial ratio c/a value is 1.0080 which is little more than that of the 6hr milled PLZT sample whereas the unit cell volume decrease to 67.88 (1) A{sup 3}. An average crystallite size was estimated by using Scherrer's formula. Dielectric properties were obtained by measuring the capacitance and tand loss using Stanford LCR meter.

  2. Refining of fossil resin flotation concentrate from western coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

    1995-02-16

    During the past several years, significant research efforts have been made to develop process technology for the selective flotation of fossil resin from western coals. As a result of these efforts, several new flotation technologies have been developed. Operation of a proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit showed the selective flotation process to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry. However, little attention has been given to the refining of the fossil resin flotation concentrate although solvent refining is a critical step for the fossil resin to become a marketable product. In view of this situation, DOE funded this two-year project to evaluate the following aspects of the fossil resin refining technology: 1) Characterization of the fossil resin flotation concentrate and its refined products; 2) Kinetics of fossil resin extraction; 3) Effects of operating variables on solvent extraction; 4) Extraction solvents; 5) Proof-of-concept continuous refining tests; and 6) Technical and economic analysis. The results from this research effort have led to the following conclusions: Hexane- or heptane-refined fossil resin has a light-yellow color, a melting point of 140 - 142{degrees}C, a density of 1.034 gram/cm, and good solubility in nonpolar solvents. Among the four solvents evaluated (hexane, heptane, toluene and ethyl acetate), hexane is the most appropriate solvent based on overall technical and economic considerations. Batch extraction tests and kinetic studies suggest that the main interaction between the resin and the solvent is expected to be the forces associated with solvation phenomena. Temperature has the most significant effect on extraction rate. With hexane as the solvent, a recovery of 90% cam be achieved at 50{degrees}C and 10% solids concentration with moderate agitation for 1 hour.

  3. Free kick instead of cross-validation in maximum-likelihood refinement of macromolecular crystal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Pranikar, Jure [Institute Joef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Primorska, (Slovenia); Turk, Duan, E-mail: dusan.turk@ijs.si [Institute Joef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Center of Excellence for Integrated Approaches in Chemistry and Biology of Proteins, (Slovenia)

    2014-12-01

    The maximum-likelihood free-kick target, which calculates model error estimates from the work set and a randomly displaced model, proved superior in the accuracy and consistency of refinement of crystal structures compared with the maximum-likelihood cross-validation target, which calculates error estimates from the test set and the unperturbed model. The refinement of a molecular model is a computational procedure by which the atomic model is fitted to the diffraction data. The commonly used target in the refinement of macromolecular structures is the maximum-likelihood (ML) function, which relies on the assessment of model errors. The current ML functions rely on cross-validation. They utilize phase-error estimates that are calculated from a small fraction of diffraction data, called the test set, that are not used to fit the model. An approach has been developed that uses the work set to calculate the phase-error estimates in the ML refinement from simulating the model errors via the random displacement of atomic coordinates. It is called ML free-kick refinement as it uses the ML formulation of the target function and is based on the idea of freeing the model from the model bias imposed by the chemical energy restraints used in refinement. This approach for the calculation of error estimates is superior to the cross-validation approach: it reduces the phase error and increases the accuracy of molecular models, is more robust, provides clearer maps and may use a smaller portion of data for the test set for the calculation of R{sub free} or may leave it out completely.

  4. Integrated process for the solvent refining of coal

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar

    1983-01-01

    A process is set forth for the integrated liquefaction of coal by the catalytic solvent refining of a feed coal in a first stage to liquid and solid products and the catalytic hydrogenation of the solid product in a second stage to produce additional liquid product. A fresh inexpensive, throw-away catalyst is utilized in the second stage hydrogenation of the solid product and this catalyst is recovered and recycled for catalyst duty in the solvent refining stage without any activation steps performed on the used catalyst prior to its use in the solvent refining of feed coal.

  5. The Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  6. Tools for macromolecular model building and refinement into electron cryo-microscopy reconstructions

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Alan; Long, Fei; Nicholls, Robert A.; Toots, Jaan; Emsley, Paul; Murshudov, Garib

    2015-01-01

    A description is given of new tools to facilitate model building and refinement into electron cryo-microscopy reconstructions. The recent rapid development of single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) now allows structures to be solved by this method at resolutions close to 3 Å. Here, a number of tools to facilitate the interpretation of EM reconstructions with stereochemically reasonable all-atom models are described. The BALBES database has been repurposed as a tool for identifying protein folds from density maps. Modifications to Coot, including new Jiggle Fit and morphing tools and improved handling of nucleic acids, enhance its functionality for interpreting EM maps. REFMAC has been modified for optimal fitting of atomic models into EM maps. As external structural information can enhance the reliability of the derived atomic models, stabilize refinement and reduce overfitting, ProSMART has been extended to generate interatomic distance restraints from nucleic acid reference structures, and a new tool, LIBG, has been developed to generate nucleic acid base-pair and parallel-plane restraints. Furthermore, restraint generation has been integrated with visualization and editing in Coot, and these restraints have been applied to both real-space refinement in Coot and reciprocal-space refinement in REFMAC.

  7. Norwegian Silicon Refining AS | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    214 Product: Oslo-based company with an upgraded metallurgical silicon (UMG) production process called the Stubergh method. Coordinates: 59.91228, 10.74998 Show Map Loading...

  8. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    253.2 2,222.4 W W 206.4 134.3 - 340.7 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  9. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    150.0 2,026.7 W W 234.5 161.7 - 396.3 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  10. May 28 Webinar to Focus on Tribal Energy Project Refinement

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Register for the Tribal Renewable Energy Project Refinement webinar, which will be held on Wednesday, May 28, 2014, from 11 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. Mountain time.

  11. Waste minimization for selected residuals in the petroleum refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This technical report on residuals in the petroleum refining industry provides an industry overview, process description, and process flow diagrams. It presents residual descriptions for each of the 29 petroleum refining residuals of concern and what source reduction option exist. It reviews the data sources - RCRA Section 2007 surveys, site visits, and journal articles. It also describes major findings and evaluates the quantity and quality of waste minization information for each source.

  12. Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Piping Experience in Chevron Refining Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron Refining Overall Perspectives: Few problems with hydrogen piping operating at ambient to at least 800F and pressures up to at least 3000psia as long as we stay within well-defined limits hpwgw_chevronrefining_niccolls.pdf (373.32 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines A Review of Stress Corrosion

  13. EERE Success Story-Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum EERE Success Story-Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis W.R. Grace, a leading provider of refining ...

  14. Toward parallel, adaptive mesh refinement for chemically reacting flow simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, K.D.; Shadid, J.N.; Salinger, A.G. Hutchinson, S.A.; Hennigan, G.L.

    1997-12-01

    Adaptive numerical methods offer greater efficiency than traditional numerical methods by concentrating computational effort in regions of the problem domain where the solution is difficult to obtain. In this paper, the authors describe progress toward adding mesh refinement to MPSalsa, a computer program developed at Sandia National laboratories to solve coupled three-dimensional fluid flow and detailed reaction chemistry systems for modeling chemically reacting flow on large-scale parallel computers. Data structures that support refinement and dynamic load-balancing are discussed. Results using uniform refinement with mesh sequencing to improve convergence to steady-state solutions are also presented. Three examples are presented: a lid driven cavity, a thermal convection flow, and a tilted chemical vapor deposition reactor.

  15. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state`s total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation`s energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska`s 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  16. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II.

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state's total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation's energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska's 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  17. PROP re-refined oil engine test performance

    SciTech Connect

    Linnard, R.E.

    1980-11-01

    Using conventional, commercially-available nonproprietary (to Phillips) additive treatments, engine test programs have successfully demonstrated Phillips Re-refined Oil Process (PROP) oils' compliance with the performance requirements of MIL-L-46152A and API Services SE/CC. This paper reports on the engine testing experience with PROP refined oils as produced in a full-scale 2 MM GPY PROP plant operating with Buyer-collected used oil feedstocks. Comment is also made on the status of the first two PROP plants, one built for the state of North Carolina and the other for Mohawk Oil Company, Ltd., Vancouver B.C., Canada.

  18. Grain refinement of cast zinc through magnesium inoculation: Characterisation and mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhilin; Qiu, Dong; Wang, Feng; Taylor, John A.; Zhang, Mingxing

    2015-08-15

    It was previously found that peritectic-forming solutes are more favourable for the grain refinement of cast Al alloys than eutectic-forming solutes. In this work, we report that the eutectic-forming solute, Mg, can also significantly grain refine cast Zn. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) of a Zn–Mg alloy, in which efficient grain refinement occurred, evidenced an unexpected peak that appeared before the nucleation of η-Zn grains on the DTA spectrum. Based on extensive examination using X-ray diffraction, high resolution SEM and EDS, it was found that: (a) some faceted Zn–Mg intermetallic particles were reproducibly observed; (b) the particles were located at or near grain centres; (c) the atomic ratio of Mg to Zn in the intermetallic compound was determined to be around 1/2. Using tilting selected area diffraction (SAD) and convergent beam Kikuchi line diffraction pattern (CBKLDP) techniques, these faceted particles were identified as MgZn{sub 2} and an orientation relationship between such grain-centred MgZn{sub 2} particles and the η-Zn matrix was determined. Hence, the unexpected peak on the DTA spectrum is believed to correspond to the formation of MgZn{sub 2} particles, which act as effective heterogeneous nucleation sites in the alloy. Together with the effect of Mg solute on restricting grain growth, such heterogeneous nucleation is cooperatively responsible for the grain size reduction in Zn–Mg alloys. - Highlights: • A new eutectic-based grain refiner for the cast Zn was found. • The formation process of an intermetallic compound (MgZn{sub 2}) was characterised. • MgZn{sub 2} can act as potent heterogeneous nucleation sites above the liquidus. • A new OR between MgZn{sub 2} and η-Zn was determined using the CBKLDP technique.

  19. Impact of oxygenates on petroleum refining, review and forecast

    SciTech Connect

    Unzelman, G.H.

    1995-09-01

    During the coming decade, oxygenates will continue to impact light oil processing and will steadily change the composition of the US gasoline pool. There are several major driving forces that will sustain the gradual influx of oxygen to US gasoline toward the regulatory limits: (1) the positive environmental characteristics of oxygenated compounds, (2) the high-octane quality of ethers that promote elimination of less desirable hydrocarbons and (3) the competitive need for ultra-clean gasoline to compete with alternatives. From 1995 forward, conventional gasoline will gradually shift to RFG (reformulated gasoline) containing a minimum of 2 wt% oxygen and less aromatics. As a result some processing changes, already in motion in the refining industry, will continue. For example, less severe naphtha reforming and cracking innovations to yield more feed for etherification and alkylation. While alternative fuel and vehicle technology will continue to develop, oxygenates in US gasoline will contribute the major alternative dimension to transportation fuel in the foreseeable future. With RFG, internal-combustion engine emissions will be progressively less toxic and lower in photochemical reactivity. The oxygenate mix will favor methyl ethers in spite of the recent methanol price spike. Ethyl ethers will be used on a more limited basis for specific situations where lower volatility and feedstock economics are an advantage. Downstream blending of ethanol will supplement ethers blended at the refinery in situations where economics are more favorable than refinery ethers. Long-range survival of ethanol, as a direct blending agent or feedstock for refinery ethers, depends on one or more of several factors: future crude oil costs, longevity of subsidies and/or mandates, and new production technology based on cellulose yielding ethanol economically competitive with hydrocarbons.

  20. RAM: a Relativistic Adaptive Mesh Refinement Hydrodynamics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei-Qun; MacFadyen, Andrew I.; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2005-06-06

    The authors have developed a new computer code, RAM, to solve the conservative equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on parallel computers. They have implemented a characteristic-wise, finite difference, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme using the full characteristic decomposition of the SRHD equations to achieve fifth-order accuracy in space. For time integration they use the method of lines with a third-order total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme. They have also implemented fourth and fifth order Runge-Kutta time integration schemes for comparison. The implementation of AMR and parallelization is based on the FLASH code. RAM is modular and includes the capability to easily swap hydrodynamics solvers, reconstruction methods and physics modules. In addition to WENO they have implemented a finite volume module with the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) for reconstruction and the modified Marquina approximate Riemann solver to work with TVD Runge-Kutta time integration. They examine the difficulty of accurately simulating shear flows in numerical relativistic hydrodynamics codes. They show that under-resolved simulations of simple test problems with transverse velocity components produce incorrect results and demonstrate the ability of RAM to correctly solve these problems. RAM has been tested in one, two and three dimensions and in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates. they have demonstrated fifth-order accuracy for WENO in one and two dimensions and performed detailed comparison with other schemes for which they show significantly lower convergence rates. Extensive testing is presented demonstrating the ability of RAM to address challenging open questions in relativistic astrophysics.

  1. Characterization report. Bulgarian petroleum refining sector. A sector overview of capability, energy consumption, environmental impacts, May 1992. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, N.

    1992-05-01

    The objective of the report is to provide data that will serve as a basis for the modernization and optimization of the economic performance of the petroleum refining industry of Bulgaria. It addresses the current status of the petroleum refining industry so that recommendations providing low cost economies to improve energy efficiency and environmental control at each refinery can be prepared. Both short and long term improvement possibilities were established and given to the second round team for detailed evaluation. Following the collection of data on operating variables, equipment and refinery impact on the environment, a data base was prepared reflecting refinery characteristics and is the subject of a separate report.

  2. Characterization report. Romanian petroleum refining sector. A sector overview of capability, energy consumption, environmental impacts, May 1992. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of the report is to provide data that will serve as a basis for the modernization and optimization of the economic performance of the petroleum refining industry of Romania. The report addresses the current status of the petroleum refining industry so that recommendations providing low cost economies to improve energy efficiency and environmental control at each refinery can be prepared. Following the collection of data on operating variables, equipment, and refinery impact on the environment, a computerized data base was prepared, which is the subject of a separate report.

  3. Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum RefiningIndustry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-05-01

    Information has proven to be an important barrier inindustrial energy efficiency improvement. Voluntary government programsaim to assist industry to improve energy efficiency by supplyinginformation on opportunities. ENERGY STAR(R) supports the development ofstrong strategic corporate energy management programs, by providingenergy management information tools and strategies. This paper summarizesENERGY STAR research conducted to develop an Energy Guide for thePetroleum Refining industry. Petroleum refining in the United States isthe largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually every economicsector, including the transport sector and the chemical industry.Refineries spend typically 50 percent of the cash operating costs (e.g.,excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy amajor cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction.The petroleum refining industry consumes about 3.1 Quads of primaryenergy, making it the single largest industrial energy user in the UnitedStates. Typically, refineries can economically improve energy efficiencyby 20 percent. The findings suggest that given available resources andtechnology, there are substantial opportunities to reduce energyconsumption cost-effectively in the petroleum refining industry whilemaintaining the quality of the products manufactured.

  4. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1995 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No. 4...

  5. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1997 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

  6. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1995 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

  7. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1996 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No. 4...

  8. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1995 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Retail < or 1% Wholesale < or 1% Retail > 1% Wholesale > 1% 7. U.S. Refiner Residual...

  9. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1996 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

  10. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1997 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No. 4...

  11. Decontamination of transuranic contaminated metals by melt refining

    SciTech Connect

    Heshmatpour, B.; Copeland, G.L.; Heestand, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Melt refining of transuranic contaminated metals is a possible decontamination process with the potential advantages of producing metal for reuse and of simplifying chemical analyses. By routinely achieving the 10 nCi/g( about0.1ppm) level by melt refining, scrap metal can be removed from the transuranic waste category. (To demonstrate the effectiveness of this melt refining process, mild steel, stainless steel, nickel, and copper were contaminated with 500 ppm (..mu..g/g) PuO/sub 2/ and melted with various fluxes. The solidified slags and metals were analyzed for their plutonium contents, and corresponding partition ratios for plutonium were calculated. Some metals were double refined in order to study the effect of secondary slag treatment. The initial weight of the slags was also varied to investigate the effect of slag weight on the degree of plutonium removal. In general, all four metals could be decontaminated below 1 ppm (..mu..g/g) Pu ( about100 nCi/g) by a single slag treatment. Doubling the slag weight did not improve decontamination significantly; however, double slag treatment using 5 wt.% slag did decontaminate the metals to below 0.1 ppm (..mu..g/g) Pu (10 nCi/g).)

  12. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    71.8 W 70.5 78.9 W 76.0 83.6 W 69.2 75.2 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

  13. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    W 68.4 70.8 W W 78.6 W 85.7 81.8 W 69.3 73.8 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

  14. Process for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, P.S. Jr.; Agee, W.A.; Bullock, J.S. IV; Condon, J.B.

    1975-07-22

    A process is described for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys wherein molten uranium and uranium alloys are melted in a molten layer of a fluoride slag containing up to about 8 weight percent calcium metal. The calcium metal reduces oxides in the uranium and uranium alloys to provide them with an oxygen content of less than 100 parts per million. (auth)

  15. ITP Petroleum Refining: Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry ITP Petroleum Refining: Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry petroleumroadmap.pdf (338.1 KB) More Documents & Publications ITP Aluminum: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Aluminum Industry ITP Aluminum: Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies 2011 Strategic Plan

  16. ,"Conventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)","New Mexico Conventional Gasoline Retail Sales by ...928.8,,587,12358.1,196,1145.9,128.8,497.8,,2030.3,,459.7,56.4,3.9,4678.6,764.1,9.3,1677.4,...

  17. Projections of the impact of expansion of domestic heavy oil production on the U.S. refining industry from 1990 to 2010. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Strycker, A.R.; Guariguata, G.; Salmen, F.G.

    1994-12-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production. This report provides a compendium of the United States refining industry and analyzes the industry by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) and by ten smaller refining areas. The refining capacity, oil source and oil quality are analyzed, and projections are made for the U.S. refining industry for the years 1990 to 2010. The study used publicly available data as background. A linear program model of the U.S. refining industry was constructed and validated using 1990 U.S. refinery performance. Projections of domestic oil production (decline) and import of crude oil (increases) were balanced to meet anticipated demand to establish a base case for years 1990 through 2010. The impact of additional domestic heavy oil production, (300 MB/D to 900 MB/D, originating in select areas of the U.S.) on the U.S. refining complex was evaluated. This heavy oil could reduce the import rate and the balance of payments by displacing some imported, principally Mid-east, medium crude. The construction cost for refining units to accommodate this additional domestic heavy oil production in both the low and high volume scenarios is about 7 billion dollars for bottoms conversion capacity (delayed coking) with about 50% of the cost attributed to compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990.

  18. Patricia Hagerty, Aviation Program Analyst

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    United States. Pat has two bachelor's degrees from the University of Montana; she is a certified general aviation private pilot and a Vietnam Era Veteran of the U.S. Coast Guard.

  19. Student Trainee (Energy Industry Analyst)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Are you seeking challenging assignments working for a dynamic agency while gaining real-world experience? We are looking for the best and brightest to help us shape the future of the energy...

  20. Financial Analyst (Senior Policy Advisor)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in the Treasury organization and directs financial planning and investment of funds for Bonneville Power Administration and exercises authority for receipt, disbursement,...

  1. Budget Analyst | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    is to create and sustain American leadership in the global transition to a clean ... productivity, by exercising Federal leadership in developing policies, information, ...

  2. Supervisory Grants and Contracts Analyst

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, providing more than 40 percent of total funding for this vital area of...

  3. Program Analyst (Contracting Officer Representative)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position reports directly to the Office Director for PBPE. The incumbent of this position analyzes, evaluates and/or advises management on the effectiveness of complex and overarching EIA...

  4. REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    This document summarizes all of the work conducted as part of the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. There were several distinct objectives set, as the study developed over time: (1) Demonstration of a Refinery Accepting Coal Liquids; (2) Emissions Screening of Indirect Diesel; (3) Biomass Gasification F-T Modeling; and (4) Updated Gas to Liquids (GTL) Baseline Design/Economic Study.

  5. Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale Contents * Introduction * Motor Gasoline Summer Volatility (RVP) Regulations o Table 1. Summer Volatility Regulations for Motor Gasoline o Table 2. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Figure 1. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Table 3. Price Relationship Between Normal Butane and Motor Gasoline o Table 4. Market Price Premium for Low Vapor Pressure (RVP) Gasoline *

  6. Decontamination of steel by melt refining: A literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    It has been reported that a large amount of metal waste is produced annually by nuclear fuel processing and nuclear power plants. These metal wastes are contaminated with radioactive elements, such as uranium and plutonium. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain level. Because of high cost, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low level contaminated metals. It has been shown by some investigators that a melt refining technique can be used for the processing of the contaminated metal wastes. In this process, contaminated metal is melted wit a suitable flux. The radioactive elements are oxidized and transferred to a slag phase. In order to develop a commercial process it is important to have information on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the removal. Therefore, a literature search was carried out to evaluate the available information on the decontamination uranium and transuranic-contaminated plain steel, copper and stainless steel by melt a refining technique. Emphasis was given to the thermodynamics and kinetics of the removal. Data published in the literature indicate that it is possible to reduce the concentration of radioactive elements to a very low level by the melt refining method. 20 refs.

  7. Quantitative phase analysis of Mg:ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles by Rietveld refinement method

    SciTech Connect

    Balaji, V. Senthilkumaran, S. Thangadurai, P.

    2014-04-24

    To quantify the structural phases of nanocrystalline ZrO{sub 2} doped with Mg ions of varying concentrations (3, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) and annealed at different temperatures. Magnesia doped zirconia was prepared by chemical co-precipitation method and annealed up to 1000°C. The monoclinic and tetragonal phases present in Mg:ZrO{sub 2} were quantified using Rietveld refinement analysis of the X-ray diffraction data and compared with the Direct method based on peak intensity calculations. Tetragonal phase was dominant in the 600°C annealed Mg:ZrO{sub 2} for all Mg concentrations.

  8. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Savings Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas, representing 68% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  9. ,"Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or ... Data for" ,"Data 1","Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales ...

  10. RFA-14-0001 - In the Matter of Commonwealth Oil Refining Company...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    RFA-14-0001 - In the Matter of Commonwealth Oil Refining Company, Inc.Commonwealth of Puerto Rico RFA-14-0001 - In the Matter of Commonwealth Oil Refining Company, Inc....

  11. Catalytic hydroprocessing of solvent refined coal to provide a liquid and a solid fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Dabkowski, M.J.; Heck, R.H.; Stein, T.R.

    1980-04-29

    In the hydroprocessing of blends of solvent refined coal and recycle solvent, small pore hydrotreating catalysts cause separation of a solid phase from treating blends containing high concentration of solvent refined coal.

  12. Petroleum Refining Sector (NAICS 324110) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    69 2.4 PETROLEUM REFINING SECTOR (NAICS 324110) 2.4.1. Overview of the Petroleum Refining Manufacturing Sector Petroleum refining is a complex industry that generates a diverse slate of fuel products and petrochemicals, from gasoline to asphalt. Refining requires a range of processing steps, including distillation, cracking, reforming, and treating. Most of these processes are highly reliant on process heating and steam energy. Petroleum refineries are an essential part of the U.S. economy.

  13. Occupational employment survey, booklet of definitions. Petroleum refining, coal products, and related industries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The publication gives occupational definitions for 149 occupations in the petroleum refining, coal products, and related industries.

  14. Local timespace mesh refinement for simulation of elastic wave propagation in multi-scale media

    SciTech Connect

    Kostin, Victor; Lisitsa, Vadim; Reshetova, Galina; Tcheverda, Vladimir

    2015-01-15

    This paper presents an original approach to local timespace grid refinement for the numerical simulation of wave propagation in models with localized clusters of micro-heterogeneities. The main features of the algorithm are the application of temporal and spatial refinement on two different surfaces; the use of the embedded-stencil technique for the refinement of grid step with respect to time; the use of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)-based interpolation to couple variables for spatial mesh refinement. The latter makes it possible to perform filtration of high spatial frequencies, which provides stability in the proposed finite-difference schemes. In the present work, the technique is implemented for the finite-difference simulation of seismic wave propagation and the interaction of such waves with fluid-filled fractures and cavities of carbonate reservoirs. However, this approach is easy to adapt and/or combine with other numerical techniques, such as finite elements, discontinuous Galerkin method, or finite volumes used for approximation of various types of linear and nonlinear hyperbolic equations.

  15. Environmental control technology for mining, milling, and refining thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate, in terms of cost and effectiveness, the various environmental control technologies that would be used to control the radioactive wastes generated in the mining, milling, and refining of thorium from domestic resources. The technologies, in order to be considered for study, had to reduce the radioactivity in the waste streams to meet Atomic Energy Commission (10 CFR 20) standards for natural thorium's maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in air and water. Further regulatory standards or licensing requirements, either federal, state, or local, were not examined. The availability and cost of producing thorium from domestic resources is addressed in a companion volume. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the major waste streams generated during the mining, milling, and refining of reactor-grade thorium oxide from domestic resources; and (2) to determine the cost and levels of control of existing and advanced environmental control technologies for these waste streams. Six potential domestic deposits of thorium oxide, in addition to stockpiled thorium sludges, are discussed in this report. A summary of the location and characteristics of the potential domestic thorium resources and the mining, milling, and refining processes that will be needed to produce reactor-grade thorium oxide is presented in Section 2. The wastes from existing and potential domestic thorium oxide mines, mills, and refineries are identified in Section 3. Section 3 also presents the state-of-the-art technology and the costs associated with controlling the wastes from the mines, mills, and refineries. In Section 4, the available environmental control technologies for mines, mills, and refineries are assessed. Section 5 presents the cost and effectiveness estimates for the various environmental control technologies applicable to the mine, mill, and refinery for each domestic resource.

  16. Cogeneration handbook for the petroleum refining industry. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fassbender, A.G.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the petroleum refining industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  17. Changing Trends in the Refining Industry (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications

    2006-01-01

    There have been some major changes in the U.S. refining industry recently, prompted in part by a significant decline in the quality of imported crude oil and by increasing restrictions on the quality of finished products. As a result, high-quality crudes, such as the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude that serves as a benchmark for oil futures on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), have been trading at record premiums to the OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) Basket price.

  18. Conformation-dependent backbone geometry restraints set a new standard for protein crystallographic refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2014-06-17

    Ideal values of bond angles and lengths used as external restraints are crucial for the successful refinement of protein crystal structures at all but the highest of resolutions. The restraints in common usage today have been designed based on the assumption that each type of bond or angle has a single ideal value independent of context. However, recent work has shown that the ideal values are, in fact, sensitive to local conformation, and as a first step toward using such information to build more accurate models, ultra-high resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive a conformation-dependent library (CDL) of restraints for the protein backbone (Berkholz et al. 2009. Structure. 17, 1316). Here, we report the introduction of this CDL into the Phenix package and the results of test refinements of thousands of structures across a wide range of resolutions. These tests show that use of the conformation dependent library yields models that have substantially better agreement with ideal main-chain bond angles and lengths and, on average, a slightly enhanced fit to the X-ray data. No disadvantages of using the backbone CDL are apparent. In Phenix usage of the CDL can be selected by simply specifying the cdl=True option. This successful implementation paves the way for further aspects of the context-dependence of ideal geometry to be characterized and applied to improve experimental and predictive modelling accuracy.

  19. Conformation-dependent backbone geometry restraints set a new standard for protein crystallographic refinement

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2014-06-17

    Ideal values of bond angles and lengths used as external restraints are crucial for the successful refinement of protein crystal structures at all but the highest of resolutions. The restraints in common usage today have been designed based on the assumption that each type of bond or angle has a single ideal value independent of context. However, recent work has shown that the ideal values are, in fact, sensitive to local conformation, and as a first step toward using such information to build more accurate models, ultra-high resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive a conformation-dependent library (CDL)more » of restraints for the protein backbone (Berkholz et al. 2009. Structure. 17, 1316). Here, we report the introduction of this CDL into the Phenix package and the results of test refinements of thousands of structures across a wide range of resolutions. These tests show that use of the conformation dependent library yields models that have substantially better agreement with ideal main-chain bond angles and lengths and, on average, a slightly enhanced fit to the X-ray data. No disadvantages of using the backbone CDL are apparent. In Phenix usage of the CDL can be selected by simply specifying the cdl=True option. This successful implementation paves the way for further aspects of the context-dependence of ideal geometry to be characterized and applied to improve experimental and predictive modelling accuracy.« less

  20. A technical and economic assessment of petroleum, heavy oil, shale oil and coal liquid refining

    SciTech Connect

    Sikonia, J.G.; Shah, B.R.; Ulowetz, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    Decreasing availability of conventional crude oil will result in the utilization of alternative raw materials for the production of transportation fuels. Based on currently available processes and as a result of detailed pilot plant studies, the differences in the technical and economic aspects of refining alternative feedstocks of heavy oil, coal liquids and shale oil have indicated that heavy, hydrogen-deficient materials require more complex and costly upgrading techniques. Compared to the base case of Arabian Light crude oil, the Mexican Maya heavy oil is worth about $4.35/B less, the coal liquid about $2.38/B less and the shale oil about $5.98/B less. All of these alternative fuels can be upgraded into high quality transportation fuels.

  1. ENZO: AN ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT CODE FOR ASTROPHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Greg L.; Turk, Matthew J.; Norman, Michael L.; Bordner, James; Xu, Hao; Kritsuk, Alexei G.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Smith, Britton; Abel, Tom; Wang, Peng; Skillman, Samuel W.; Wise, John H.; Reynolds, Daniel R.; Collins, David C.; Harkness, Robert P.; Kim, Ji-hoon; Kuhlen, Michael; Goldbaum, Nathan; Hummels, Cameron; Collaboration: Enzo Collaboration; and others

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the open-source code Enzo, which uses block-structured adaptive mesh refinement to provide high spatial and temporal resolution for modeling astrophysical fluid flows. The code is Cartesian, can be run in one, two, and three dimensions, and supports a wide variety of physics including hydrodynamics, ideal and non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics, N-body dynamics (and, more broadly, self-gravity of fluids and particles), primordial gas chemistry, optically thin radiative cooling of primordial and metal-enriched plasmas (as well as some optically-thick cooling models), radiation transport, cosmological expansion, and models for star formation and feedback in a cosmological context. In addition to explaining the algorithms implemented, we present solutions for a wide range of test problems, demonstrate the code's parallel performance, and discuss the Enzo collaboration's code development methodology.

  2. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOEpatents

    Schlichting, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  3. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOEpatents

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-11-22

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figs.

  4. A case study of energy conservation opportunities in copper refining

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, W.E.; Hughen, M.L.; Kurylko, L.; Stone, J.R.

    1982-07-01

    A study of energy usage and distribution in a copper refinery was conducted in an attempt to determine possible cost savings in operations of the plant. The study covered those processes which were the major users of energy, namely, smelting, anode casting, electrolytic refining, steam generation and distribution, and electricity distribution. The study involved obtaining data of mass and energy flows in the refinery; identifying energy conservation opportunities (ECO's); obtaining price, operating costs, and saving potentials; for each conservation measure; and analyzing the economical viability of each conservation proposal. Potential cost savings were found to be substantial in heat recovery from slag and anode furnace hot gases, modification of the central steam supply system, control, and redistribution of electrical loads, insulation of electrolytic tanks, and changes in the atomization of oil.

  5. Evaluation of tropical channel refinement using MPAS-A aquaplanet simulations: TROPICAL CHANNEL REFINEMENT IN MPAS-A

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Martini, Matus N.; Gustafson, William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po-Lun

    2015-09-01

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configurationmore » using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. The relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in earlier

  6. Influence of Alloy and Solidification Parameters on Grain Refinement in Aluminum Weld Metal due to Inoculation

    SciTech Connect

    Schempp, Philipp [BAM, Germany; Tang, Z. [BIAS, Germany; Cross, Carl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seefeld, T. [BIAS, Germany; Pittner, A. [BAM, Germany; Rethmeier, M. [BAM, Germany

    2012-06-28

    The goals are: (1) Establish how much Ti/B grain refiner is need to completely refine aluminum weld metal for different alloys and different welding conditions; (2) Characterize how alloy composition and solidification parameters affect weld metal grain refinement; and (3) Apply relevant theory to understand observed behavior. Conclusions are: (1) additions of Ti/B grain refiner to weld metal in Alloys 1050, 5083, and 6082 resulted in significant grain refinement; (2) grain refinement was more effective in GTAW than LBW, resulting in finer grains at lower Ti content - reason is limited time available for equiaxed grain growth in LBW (inability to occlude columnar grain growth); (3) welding travel speed did not markedly affect grain size within GTAW and LBW clusters; and (4) application of Hunt CET analysis showed experimental G to be on the order of the critical G{sub CET}; G{sub CET} was consistently higher for GTAW than for LBW.

  7. Just the crude oil, please: The oil imports - refining capacity connection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Steep growth has brought crude oil imports converging with the amount of US crude oil production in 1993. Meanwhile, petroleum product imports into the US have been falling because, among other reasons, only a few refiners outside the US can produce refined products to the specifications of environmentally minded US legislators. As refiners have concentrated investment to produce clean fuels only in select facilities, supply and logistical challenges loom closely in the future.

  8. Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability 1995-2001

    Reports and Publications

    2003-01-01

    This report assesses the effects of pollution abatement requirements on the financial performance of U.S. petroleum refining and marketing operations during the 1995 to 2001 period. This study is a follow-up to the October 1997 publication entitled The Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability, that focused on the financial impacts of U.S. refining pollution abatement investment requirements in the 1988 to1995 period.

  9. ,"U.S. Sales for Resale, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Resale, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ...

  10. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  11. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon...

  12. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  13. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 401 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon...

  14. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type (Million Gallons per Day) - Continued Year...

  15. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Marketing Annual 1999 421 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  16. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Marketing Annual 1995 467 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  17. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    retail outlets, e.g., sales to agricultural customers, commercial sales, and industrial sales. Source: Energy Information Administration Form EIA-782A, "Refiners'Gas...

  18. EERE Success Story-Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum EERE Success Story-Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis W.R. Grace, a leading provider of refining technologies, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are co-leading an effort to accelerate the development of technologies that enable the processing of bio-oils in petroleum refineries. The ability to leverage existing petroleum-refining infrastructure to produce "drop-in" biofuels (biofuels that

  19. REFINING THE ASSOCIATIONS OF THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE SOURCE CATALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; D’Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Smith, Howard A.; Landoni, M.; Masetti, N.; Giroletti, M.; Otí-Floranes, H.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.; Chavushyan, V.; Patiño-Álvarez, V.; Digel, S. W.; Tosti, G.

    2015-03-15

    The Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) First Source Catalog (1FGL) was released in 2010 February and the Fermi-LAT 2-Year Source Catalog (2FGL) appeared in 2012 April, based on data from 24 months of operation. Since they were released, many follow up observations of unidentified γ-ray sources have been performed and new procedures for associating γ-ray sources with potential counterparts at other wavelengths have been developed. Here we review and characterize all of the associations as published in the 1FGL and 2FGL catalogs on the basis of multifrequency archival observations. In particular, we located 177 spectra for the low-energy counterparts that were not listed in the previous Fermi catalogs, and in addition we present new spectroscopic observations of eight γ-ray blazar candidates. Based on our investigations, we introduce a new counterpart category of “candidate associations” and propose a refined classification for the candidate low-energy counterparts of the Fermi sources. We compare the 1FGL-assigned counterparts with those listed in 2FGL to determine which unassociated sources became associated in later releases of the Fermi catalogs. We also search for potential counterparts to all of the remaining unassociated Fermi sources. Finally, we prepare a refined and merged list of all of the associations of 1FGL plus 2FGL that includes 2219 unique Fermi objects. This is the most comprehensive and systematic study of all the associations collected for the γ-ray sources available to date. We conclude that 80% of the Fermi sources have at least one known plausible γ-ray emitter within their positional uncertainty regions.

  20. Characterization report. CSFR petroleum refining sector. A sector overview of capability, energy consumption, environmental impacts, May 1992. Export trade information. [Czecho-Slovakian Federal Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, P.D.

    1992-05-01

    The objective of the report is to provide data that will serve as a basis for the modernization and optimization of the economic performance of the petroleum refining industry of CSFR. It addresses the current status of the petroleum refining industry so that recommendations providing low cost economies to improve energy efficiency and environmental control at each refinery can be prepared. Both short and long term improvement possibilities were established and given to the second round team for detailed evaluation. Following the collection of data on operating variables, equipment and refinery impact on the environment, a data base has been organized for use in a linear programming model.

  1. Monitoring the refinement of crystal structures with {sup 15}N solid-state NMR shift tensor data

    SciTech Connect

    Kalakewich, Keyton; Eloranta, Harriet; Harper, James K.; Iuliucci, Robbie; Mueller, Karl T.

    2015-11-21

    The {sup 15}N chemical shift tensor is shown to be extremely sensitive to lattice structure and a powerful metric for monitoring density functional theory refinements of crystal structures. These refinements include lattice effects and are applied here to five crystal structures. All structures improve based on a better agreement between experimental and calculated {sup 15}N tensors, with an average improvement of 47.0 ppm. Structural improvement is further indicated by a decrease in forces on the atoms by 2–3 orders of magnitude and a greater similarity in atom positions to neutron diffraction structures. These refinements change bond lengths by more than the diffraction errors including adjustments to X–Y and X–H bonds (X, Y = C, N, and O) of 0.028 ± 0.002 Å and 0.144 ± 0.036 Å, respectively. The acquisition of {sup 15}N tensors at natural abundance is challenging and this limitation is overcome by improved {sup 1}H decoupling in the FIREMAT method. This decoupling dramatically narrows linewidths, improves signal-to-noise by up to 317%, and significantly improves the accuracy of measured tensors. A total of 39 tensors are measured with shifts distributed over a range of more than 400 ppm. Overall, experimental {sup 15}N tensors are at least 5 times more sensitive to crystal structure than {sup 13}C tensors due to nitrogen’s greater polarizability and larger range of chemical shifts.

  2. Environmental regulations and changes in petroleum refining operations

    SciTech Connect

    Lidderdale, T.C.M.

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. petroleum industry has responded to four major new federal rules on motor gasoline product quality in the last 6 years: Phase 1 Summer Volatility (Rvp) Regulation, June 1989; Phase 2 Summer Volatility (Rvp) regulation, May 1992; oxygenated Gasoline, November 1992; and reformulated Gasoline Phase I Simple Model, December 1994. These regulations have generated significant changes in domestic refinery operations, affecting marginal production costs and market prices, refinery yields, and the seasonality of production. Some changes have been dramatic. The price of motor gasoline has increased by as much as 60 {cents}/gal due to regulations. Refinery yields of motor gasoline (refinery output of motor gasoline as a fraction of refinery inputs or total refinery output), which historically peaked in the early summer to meet high summer driving demand, now are highest during the winter months. These changes in domestic refining operations are identified and related to the vapor pressure, oxygenated and reformulated gasoline (RFG) product quality regulations. This analysis uses linear regression equations from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts appearing in the EIA`s Short-Term Energy Outlook.

  3. Bioremediation of petroleum wastes from the refining of lubricant oils

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, M.; Sambasivam, Y. )

    1993-02-01

    The results of an initial feasibility study on the bioremediation of sludge are presented. The sludge used in the study was taken from a site containing waste produced during the refining of lubricant oils to which sulfuric acid had been added. The effectiveness of bioremediation was examined using shake flask experiments with indigenous and other bacteria sources and nutrient supplementation. The initial results show limited effectiveness of biological treatment at conditions employing indigenous bacteria and low (2%) sludge concentrations in Bushnell-Haas media. In addition, the indigenous bacteria were seen to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons naphthalene, penanthrene and pyrene which are present at some locations at the site. No apparent degradation of material was seen using conditions of high (30%) sludge concentrations in Bushnell-Haas medium under a variety of conditions. In addition, nutrients were rapidly depleted at these sludge concentrations, with the exception of sulfates which were produced when high sludge concentrations were used. 23 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Cosmos++: Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics on Unstructured Grids with Local Adaptive Refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Anninos, P; Fragile, P C; Salmonson, J D

    2005-05-06

    A new code and methodology are introduced for solving the fully general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) equations using time-explicit, finite-volume discretization. The code has options for solving the GRMHD equations using traditional artificial-viscosity (AV) or non-oscillatory central difference (NOCD) methods, or a new extended AV (eAV) scheme using artificial-viscosity together with a dual energy-flux-conserving formulation. The dual energy approach allows for accurate modeling of highly relativistic flows at boost factors well beyond what has been achieved to date by standard artificial viscosity methods. it provides the benefit of Godunov methods in capturing high Lorentz boosted flows but without complicated Riemann solvers, and the advantages of traditional artificial viscosity methods in their speed and flexibility. Additionally, the GRMHD equations are solved on an unstructured grid that supports local adaptive mesh refinement using a fully threated oct-tree (in three dimensions) network to traverse the grid hierarchy across levels and immediate neighbors. A number of tests are presented to demonstrate robustness of the numerical algorithms and adaptive mesh framework over a wide spectrum of problems, boosts, and astrophysical applications, including relativistic shock tubes, shock collisions, magnetosonic shocks, Alfven wave propagation, blast waves, magnetized Bondi flow, and the magneto-rotational instability in Kerr black hole spacetimes.

  5. Petroleum refining industry of developed capitalist countries in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Prokhorova, A.A.

    1994-07-01

    Crude oil is the principal source of energy today and in the immediate future. The increases in the consumption of crude oil (1.7% per year up to 2005) will be offset mainly by additional supplies from the countries of the Near East. Data on the imports of oil by the developed capitalists countries are presented in Table 2. In the United States, according to a projection made by Conoco, by the year 2000 the volume of imports will be twice the volume of domestic production; according to another prediction, the amount of Near East crude will increase from 34% in 1990 to 42% in 2000. Since the mid-1980s, the energy policy of the USA has been based on importing so-called cheap crude. Laws have been passed to mandate not only energy saving, but also cuts in the oil and gas production on U.S. territory. The volume of U.S. oil production will be 20% lower in 2000 than in 1990. Some 90% of the worldwide demand for oil is met by light and medium-density crudes, but such crudes account for only 25% of the oil resources. Projections indicate that the oil supplied to refiners in the future will be heavier and will have higher sulfur contents. The U.S. production of low-sulfur crude will drop off sharply in the next 10-15 years. The drop in oil production of the CIS [former USSR] and the consequent drop in exports from these countries will have a destabilizing effect on the world market. The average price of the {open_quotes}market basket{close_quotes} of OPEC crudes in 1991 was $149/ton (in 1990 $178/ton), in comparison with a 1992 price of $148/ton. This report presents data on refining process capacities and the ratio of secondary capacity to primary distillation capacity.

  6. Aspects of Western Refining, Inc.'s Proposed Acquisition of Giant Industries, Inc.

    Reports and Publications

    2006-01-01

    Presentation of company-level, non-proprietary data and relevant aggregate data for U.S. refinery capacity and gasoline marketing of Western Refining and Giant Industries to inform discussions of Western Refining Inc.'s proposed acquisition of Giant Industries Inc. for a total of $1.5 billion, which was announced August 28, 2006.

  7. ,"No. 2 Diesel Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)","New Mexico No 2 Diesel Retail Sales by Refiners ...17.9,1773.9,,,781.9,,3446.1,296.5,,,,129.9,2030.1,,,,182.8,,416.2,,60.5,369.8,1495.2,,76.6...

  8. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process: trace elements. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 6. Fate of trace elements in the SRC process. [Ph. D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, C.S.

    1980-09-01

    A study of the forms of trace elements occurring in Solvent Refined Coal has been performed by chemical separation of the Solvent Refined Coal based on differences in the functionality and molecular weight of the organic matrix. Analysis of the fractions separated for various trace elements has revealed associations of certain elements with other elements as well as with certain fractions. The analysis of Solvent Refined Coal I by these methods provided data on the distribution of Ti, V, Ca, S, Al, Mn, As, Se, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Sc, and Ga in the fractions generated. Because of the low trace element content of Solvent Refined Coal II only As, Se, and Cr could be detected in the silica fractions. Based on the distributions three different groups of elements have been based on the association of elements with each other and with certain fractions. The first group is composed of As, Se, and Cr associated with silica fractions of relatively low functionality; these elements have a high percent solubility in the starting Solvent Refined Coal II oil. The second group composed of Ti, V, and to a lesser extent a second form of Cr, is associated with fractions that have a high concentration of phenolic material and is probably present as phenoxide complexes. The third group composed of Fe, Ca, K, Al, and Mg is associated with the most functional fractions and is possibly present as humic acid type complexes or as submicron size particulates. The integration of chromatographic methods with trace element analysis of the fractions generated is capable of discerning the presence of different forms of the elements. The methods used are applicable to other important geologically occurring organic matter.

  9. Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    from a Barrel of Oil | Department of Energy 6: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline from a Barrel of Oil Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline from a Barrel of Oil A standard U.S. barrel contains 42 gallons of crude oil which yields about 44 gallons of petroleum products. The additional 2 gallons of petroleum products come from refiner gains which result in an additional 6% of product. As shown in the figure below, a little more

  10. FIA-15-0002 - In the Matter of Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 2 - In the Matter of Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. FIA-15-0002 - In the Matter of Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. This Decision concerns an Appeal that Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. (Alon) filed in response to a determination that was issued to it by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Information Resources (OIR). In that determination, the OIR replied to a request for documents that Alon submitted under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), 5 U.S.C. §

  11. Recovery Act - Refinement of Cross Flow Turbine Airfoils

    SciTech Connect

    McEntee, Jarlath

    2013-08-30

    Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC (ORPC) is a global leader in hydrokinetic technology and project development. ORPC develops hydrokinetic power systems and eco-conscious projects that harness the power of oceans and rivers to create clean, predictable renewable energy. ORPC’s technology consists of a family of modular hydrokinetic power systems: the TidGen® Power System, for use at shallow to medium-depth tidal sites; the RivGen™ Power System, for use at river and estuary sites; and the OCGen® Power System, presently under development, for use at deep tidal and offshore ocean current sites. These power systems convert kinetic energy in moving water into clean, renewable, grid-compatible electric power. The core technology component for all ORPC power systems is its patented turbine generator unit (TGU). The TGU uses proprietary advanced design cross flow (ADCF) turbines to drive an underwater permanent magnet generator mounted at the TGU’s center. It is a gearless, direct-drive system that has the potential for high reliability, requires no lubricants and releases no toxins that could contaminate the surrounding water. The hydrokinetic industry shows tremendous promise as a means of helping reduce the U.S.’s use of fossil fuels and dependence on foreign oil. To exploit this market opportunity, cross-flow hydrokinetic devices need to advance beyond the pre-commercial state and more systematic data about the structure and function of cross-flow hydrokinetic devices is required. This DOE STTR project, “Recovery Act - Refinement of Cross Flow Turbine Airfoils,” refined the cross-flow turbine design process to improve efficiency and performance and developed turbine manufacturing processes appropriate for volume production. The project proposed (1) to overcome the lack of data by extensively studying the properties of cross flow turbines, a particularly competitive design approach for extracting hydrokinetic energy and (2) to help ORPC mature its pre

  12. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Water, other oxygen-containing compounds, and ... extraction process prior to isomerization. Feeds taken from hydrofluoric acid-based ... passing the feed over a hot bed of alumina. ...

  13. Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Year No. 1 Distillate No. 2...

  14. Process for solvent refining of coal using a denitrogenated and dephenolated solvent

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Allentown, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the solvent refining of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures and pressure in a hydrogen atmosphere using a hydrocarbon solvent which before being recycled in the solvent refining process is subjected to chemical treatment to extract substantially all nitrogenous and phenolic constituents from the solvent so as to improve the conversion of coal and the production of oil in the solvent refining process. The solvent refining process can be either thermal or catalytic. The extraction of nitrogenous compounds can be performed by acid contact such as hydrogen chloride or fluoride treatment, while phenolic extraction can be performed by caustic contact or contact with a mixture of silica and alumina.

  15. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    839.2 135.0 1,251.9 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration ...

  16. Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3.3 3.4 7.9 3.3 W 11.3 See footnotes at end of table. 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 26 Energy Information Administration ...

  17. Table 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    88.4 87.8 80.1 70.0 NA 72.6 See footnotes at end of table. 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 16 Energy Information Administration ...

  18. Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5.7 5.9 4.4 12.9 NA 17.3 See footnotes at end of table. 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 18 Energy Information Administration ...

  19. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    92.8 92.5 84.0 72.5 W 80.7 See footnotes at end of table. 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 24 Energy Information Administration ...

  20. Table 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    87.4 86.9 78.3 68.5 W 70.8 See footnotes at end of table. 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 16 Energy Information Administration ...

  1. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    92.4 92.1 83.7 74.1 W 80.9 See footnotes at end of table. 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 24 Energy Information Administration ...

  2. Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    98.0 98.0 86.6 75.0 - 80.1 See footnotes at end of table. 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 20 Energy Information Administration ...

  3. Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    94.0 93.9 83.2 73.8 - 79.3 See footnotes at end of table. 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 20 Energy Information Administration ...

  4. Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3.6 3.7 7.9 3.1 W 11.0 See footnotes at end of table. 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 26 Energy Information Administration ...

  5. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    NA 26.6 See footnotes at end of table. 14 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type...

  6. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    NA 27.4 See footnotes at end of table. 14 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type...

  7. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    - W 73.5 See footnotes at end of table. A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present Energy Information Administration ...

  8. Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0.1 18.7 See footnotes at end of table. 18 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade...

  9. Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrino, Joan; Brueske, Sabine; Carole, Tracy; Andres, Howard

    2007-11-01

    This 2007 report provides an overview of the U.S. petroleum refining industry, including new data on market trends and energy and material consumption, as well as information on environmental performance.

  10. Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability

    Reports and Publications

    1997-01-01

    Assesses the effects of pollution abatement requirements on the financial performance of U.S. petroleum refining and marketing operations. The analysis draws heavily on financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS).

  11. Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    A standard U.S. barrel contains 42 gallons of crude oil which yields about 44 gallons of ... and 10 gallons of diesel fuel are produced from a barrel of crudeoil by U.S. refiners. ...

  12. Refinements in the Los Alamos model of the prompt fission neutron spectrum

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Published Article: Refinements in the Los Alamos model of the prompt fission neutron spectrum Title: Refinements in the Los Alamos model of the prompt fission neutron spectrum Authors: Madland, D. G. ; Kahler, A. C. Publication Date: 2017-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1326113 Grant/Contract Number: AC5206NA25396 Type: Published Article Journal Name: Nuclear Physics. A Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 957; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS

  13. Synthesis and Rietveld refinement of the small-pore zeolite SSZ-16

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, R.F.; Zones, S.I.; Medrud, R.C.

    1996-10-01

    Recent research efforts invested in the synthesis of new high-silica zeolites have yielded several novel materials with medium ({approximately}5.6 {Angstrom}) and large ({approximately}7.2 {Angstrom}) pores. Examples include new zeolites with intersecting 10 and 12 member rings-i.e., pores bounded by 10 and 12 tetrahedral (T) atoms respectively-like SSZ-26, NU-87, SSZ-37, SSZ-25, MCM-22, CIT-1 (CON), and the aluminophosphate-based DAF-1 (DFO). However, except for the zeolites SSZ-28 (DDR) and SSZ-13 (CHA), no new high-silica zeolites with small pores have been reported. High-silica small-pore zeolites could be potentially useful for several catalytic reactions including the synthesis of dimethylamine, the reduction of NO{sub x} from combustion gases and the dewaxing of fuels for octane upgrading. The authors present here the synthesis and structural characterization using Rietveld refinement of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data of the zeolite SSZ-16. 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Chemical coal cleaning process and costs refinement for coal-water slurry manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Bhasin, A.K.; Berggren, M.H.; Ronzio, N.J.; Smit, F.J.

    1985-12-31

    This report describes the results of process and cost refinement studies for the manufacture of ultra-clean coal-slurry fuel for direct-fired gas turbines. The work was performed as an extension to an earlier contract in which AMAX R and D supplied METC with two lots of highly beneficiated coal slurry fuel for use in the Heat Engines program. A conceptual design study and cost estimate supplied to METC at that time indicated that a combined physical and chemical cleaning process could produce ultra-clean fuel at a competitive price. Laboratory and pilot plant studies performed for the contract extension further defined the process conditions and operating and capital costs to prepare coals containing from 0.2 to 1.0% ash as slurry fuels. A base-case fuel containing coal cleaned to 0.5% ash in a 1000 cp slurry containing 55% coal was $4.16 per million Btu when produced in quantities required to fuel a 500 MW gas-turbine generating station. Coal slurry fuel production costs as low as $3.66 per million Btu were projected for coals cleaned to 1.0% ash. 12 refs., 23 figs., 63 tabs.

  15. A Predictive Model of Fragmentation using Adaptive Mesh Refinement and a Hierarchical Material Model

    SciTech Connect

    Koniges, A E; Masters, N D; Fisher, A C; Anderson, R W; Eder, D C; Benson, D; Kaiser, T B; Gunney, B T; Wang, P; Maddox, B R; Hansen, J F; Kalantar, D H; Dixit, P; Jarmakani, H; Meyers, M A

    2009-03-03

    Fragmentation is a fundamental material process that naturally spans spatial scales from microscopic to macroscopic. We developed a mathematical framework using an innovative combination of hierarchical material modeling (HMM) and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to connect the continuum to microstructural regimes. This framework has been implemented in a new multi-physics, multi-scale, 3D simulation code, NIF ALE-AMR. New multi-material volume fraction and interface reconstruction algorithms were developed for this new code, which is leading the world effort in hydrodynamic simulations that combine AMR with ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) techniques. The interface reconstruction algorithm is also used to produce fragments following material failure. In general, the material strength and failure models have history vector components that must be advected along with other properties of the mesh during remap stage of the ALE hydrodynamics. The fragmentation models are validated against an electromagnetically driven expanding ring experiment and dedicated laser-based fragmentation experiments conducted at the Jupiter Laser Facility. As part of the exit plan, the NIF ALE-AMR code was applied to a number of fragmentation problems of interest to the National Ignition Facility (NIF). One example shows the added benefit of multi-material ALE-AMR that relaxes the requirement that material boundaries must be along mesh boundaries.

  16. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- National Smelting and Refining...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    OH.20-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination considered remote based upon limited scope of activities at the site OH.20-2 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes ...

  17. Economic incentives for US refiners to process incremental domestic heavy crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Guillermo, G.U.

    1995-12-31

    Faced with declining domestic crude supplies and increasing refined product demands, U.S. refiners devote a great deal of attention to securing alternate sources of crude oil. In addition to the traditional and cost-effective choice of imports, a potentially viable source is domestic heavy crude oil. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractor, the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bonner & Moore undertook a project to ascertain the necessary adjustments U.S. refiners would need to make in order to process incremental amounts of heavy crude oil added to domestic refining slates between now and 2010. Results of this study indicated that significant economic investments would be required in order to process these crudes; processing of lighter imports, however, would remain substantially less costly. It would seem, then, that U.S. refiners would elect to process imports over incremental domestic heavy crudes unless they were offered some type of economic incentive to process the heavy oil. This paper addresses the issue of what those economic incentives could be.

  18. Need for refining capacity creates opportunities for producers in Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, M.S.S. )

    1994-07-11

    Oil industry interest in refining has revived in the past few years in response to rising oil consumption. The trend creates opportunities, for countries in the Middle East, which do not own refining assets nearly in proportion to their crude oil reserved. By closing this gap between reserves and refining capacity, the countries can ease some of the instability now characteristic of the oil market. Some major oil producing countries have begun to move downstream. During the 1980s, Venezuela, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Libya, and other members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries acquired refining assets through direct total purchase or joint ventures. Nevertheless, the oil industry remains largely unintegrated, with the Middle East holding two thirds of worldwide oil reserves but only a small share downstream. As worldwide refining capacity swings from a period of surplus toward one in which the need for new capacity will be built. The paper discusses background of the situation, shrinking surplus, investment requirements, sources of capital, and shipping concerns.

  19. Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Energy Saver

    Department of Energy Ball State Completes Largest U.S. Ground-Source Geothermal System Ball State Completes Largest U.S. Ground-Source Geothermal System April 4, 2012 - 3:19pm Addthis Ball State University has completed its campus-wide ground-source geothermal system, the nation's largest geothermal heating and cooling system, DOE announced on March 20. DOE played a part in the project by providing a $5 million grant through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The Indiana-based

  20. Adaptive h -refinement for reduced-order models: ADAPTIVE h -refinement for reduced-order models

    SciTech Connect

    Carlberg, Kevin T.

    2014-11-05

    Our work presents a method to adaptively refine reduced-order models a posteriori without requiring additional full-order-model solves. The technique is analogous to mesh-adaptive h-refinement: it enriches the reduced-basis space online by ‘splitting’ a given basis vector into several vectors with disjoint support. The splitting scheme is defined by a tree structure constructed offline via recursive k-means clustering of the state variables using snapshot data. This method identifies the vectors to split online using a dual-weighted-residual approach that aims to reduce error in an output quantity of interest. The resulting method generates a hierarchy of subspaces online without requiring large-scale operations or full-order-model solves. Furthermore, it enables the reduced-order model to satisfy any prescribed error tolerance regardless of its original fidelity, as a completely refined reduced-order model is mathematically equivalent to the original full-order model. Experiments on a parameterized inviscid Burgers equation highlight the ability of the method to capture phenomena (e.g., moving shocks) not contained in the span of the original reduced basis.

  1. Management and Program Analyst (Supplemental Labor)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in the Supplemental Labor Management Office (NSP), Supply Chain Services (NS), Chief Administrative Office (N), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Supplemental...

  2. Investment/Credit Analyst | Department of Energy

    Energy Saver

    International News International News April 14, 2016 International News EM Shares Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Lessons Learned with Nuclear Energy Agency PARIS - EM officials shared lessons learned from the 2014 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant underground fire and radiological release with the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Division of Radiological Protection and Radioactive Waste Management in a seminar in Paris recently. December 29, 2015 The UK delegation gathers at the front of the H Reactor core.

  3. Supervisory, Infrastructure Systems Analyst | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Summary Become a part of an organization that touches the lives of every American. The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) leads national efforts to...

  4. Interdisciplinary Operations Research Analyst/Economist

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. EIA is the nation's premier source of energy information and, by law,...

  5. Electricity Policy Analyst | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    a part of an organization that touches the lives of every American. The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) leads national efforts to modernize the...

  6. Sandia Analyst Aide V0.5

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2005-05-06

    Allow people to analyze the contents of text document, allowing the user to generate: I. automated reports providing information about various aspects of the document set 2. produce models which can be uploaded into Sandia's cognitive model framework 3. produce visualization of various aspects of the document set, including relationships among key terms 4. compute various topical contexts discovered within the document set 5. start a web spider which can scour the web for moremore » information about the topics found in the document set« less

  7. Interdisciplinary Supervisory Economist/Operations Research Analyst

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Interdisciplinary position is located in the Office of the Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis (OEA), Energy Information Administration (EIA). OEA provides leadership and direction to...

  8. Interdisciplinary Economist/Operations Research Analyst

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position may be located in either the Office of Energy Statistics, Macroeconomic Analysis Team (MAT), Office of Energy Markets and Financial Analysis (EMFA) or the Office of Energy Analysis of...

  9. Program Analyst - DETAIL (Performance Improvement) | Department...

    Energy Saver

    Improvement) for the Human Resources Service Delivery (HRSD) Program (HC-1.6). The detail may be extended. The detailee will play a key role in a Chief Human Capital Officer ...

  10. Can refiners successfully extend revenue streams through petrochemicals?

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    The petrochemical industry is actually an outgrowth of the need for new types of materials throughout the world. A recent estimate places the requirements for infra-structure investment (public works, housing, power, etc.) in developing Asia for the period 1995-2004 at $1.4 trillion. New petrochemical derived materials for construction will be required in record numbers to meet this need. For example, the use of fiber reinforced plastics will have a substantial potential in construction. Other chemically resistant materials have wide applications in humid, corrosive environments and could therefore find markets worldwide. Other sectors such as telecommunications, power plants and transportation are also areas of potential commercial applications for petrochemical derived materials. For refinery-based petrochemicals such as ethylene, the world`s largest volume organic chemical, and for aromatics and propylene, the building blocks for so many modern materials, these circumstances present challenges, risks, but perhaps most of all opportunity.

  11. Refining and end use study of coal liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, G.

    1998-05-01

    A conceptual design and ASPEN Plus process flowsheet simulation model was developed for a Battelle biomass-based gasification, Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquefaction and combined-cycle power plant. This model was developed in a similar manner to those coal liquefaction models that were developed under DOE contract DE-AC22-91PC90027. As such, this process flowsheet simulation model was designed to be a research guidance tool and not a detailed process design tool. However, it does contain some process design features, such as sizing the F-T synthesis reactors. This model was designed only to predict the effects of various process and operating changes on the overall plant heat and material balances, utilities, capital and operating costs.

  12. New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants January 31, 2012 - 2:09pm Addthis The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) released a new seismic study today that will help U.S. nuclear facilities in the central and eastern United States reassess seismic hazards. The Central and Eastern United

  13. Appendices: Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    DE P A R T M E N U E N I T E D S T A T S O F A E R IC A M Office of Energy Efficency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Appendices Appendices (This page intentionally left blank.) Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical

  14. ,"U.S. Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes",2,"Monthly","8/2016","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","11/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","12/1/2016" ,"Excel File

  15. ,"U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes",2,"Monthly","8/2016","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","11/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","12/1/2016" ,"Excel File

  16. ,"U.S. Total Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Total Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1968" ,"Release Date:","11/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","12/1/2016" ,"Excel File

  17. Training Framework to Improve the DOE Performance-Based Culture |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Training Framework to Improve the DOE Performance-Based Culture Training Framework to Improve the DOE Performance-Based Culture Guidance Memorandum for implementing the Secretaries initiative for improving the Performanced-Based Culture of the Department. Training Framework Improve Performance (239.56 KB) Responsible Contacts N. Tony Nguyen PROGRAM ANALYST E-mail tony.nguyen@hq.doe.gov Phone 202-586-4533 More Documents & Publications Audit Report: IG-0510 Annual

  18. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A L; Griffith, William {Bill} L

    2009-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  19. Studies on design of a process for organo-refining of coal to obtain super clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, C.S.; Sharma, D.K.

    1999-08-01

    Organo-refining of coal results in refining the coal to obtain super clean coal and residual coal. Super clean coal may be used to obtain value added chemicals, products, and cleaner fuels from coal. In the present work, studies on the design of a semicontinuous process for organo-refining of one ton of coal have been made. The results are reported. This is only a cursory attempt for the design, and further studies may be required for designing this process for use in the development of a scaled-up process of organo-refining of coal.

  20. Refinement of the Kansas City Plant site conceptual model with respect to dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL)

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, N.E.; Hall, S.C.; Baker, J.L.

    1995-10-01

    This document presents a refinement of the site conceptual model with respect to dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) at the US Department of Energy Kansas City Plant (KCP). This refinement was prompted by a review of the literature and the results of a limited study that was conducted to evaluate whether pools of DNAPL were present in contaminated locations at the KCP. The field study relied on the micropurge method of sample collection. This method has been demonstrated as a successful approach for obtaining discrete samples within a limited aquifer zone. Samples were collected at five locations across 5-ft well screens located at the base of the alluvial aquifer at the KCP. The hypothesis was that if pools of DNAPL were present, the dissolved concentration would increase with depth. Four wells with highly contaminated groundwater were selected for the test. Three of the wells were located in areas where DNAPL was suspected, and one where no DNAPL was believed to be present. The results demonstrated no discernible pattern with depth for the four wells tested. A review of the data in light of the available technical literature suggests that the fine-grained nature of the aquifer materials precludes the formation of pools. Instead, DNAPL is trapped as discontinuous ganglia that are probably widespread throughout the aquifer. The discontinuous nature of the DNAPL distribution prevents the collection of groundwater samples with concentrations approaching saturation. Furthermore, the results indicate that attempts to remediate the aquifer with conventional approaches will not result in restoration to pristine conditions because the tortuous groundwater flow paths will inhibit the efficiency of fluid-flow-based treatments.

  1. Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations (Released in the STEO June 1998)

    Reports and Publications

    1998-01-01

    Changes in domestic refining operations are identified and related to the summer Reid vapor pressure (RVP) restrictions and oxygenate blending requirements. This analysis uses published Energy Information Administration survey data and linear regression equations from the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts appearing in the Short-Term Energy Outlook.

  2. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    71.6 92.3 78.2 101.8 83.6 87.5 74.7 See footnotes at end of table. A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District, and State, 1984-Present 452 Energy Information...

  3. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    61.5 67.3 89.8 89.5 82.2 69.4 71.1 74.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

  4. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    35.2 213.6 9.5 9.8 12.9 16.6 NA 29.5 See footnotes at end of table. 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 14 Energy Information Administration ...

  5. Table 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    W 5.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 - 0.9 See footnotes at end of table. 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 22 Energy Information Administration ...

  6. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    62.2 68.5 90.1 89.6 82.4 70.9 NA 75.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

  7. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    33.9 215.8 9.7 10.0 12.1 16.3 0.0 28.4 See footnotes at end of table. 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 14 Energy Information Administration ...

  8. Table 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    - 4.9 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 - 0.7 See footnotes at end of table. 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 22 Energy Information Administration ...

  9. Towards solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Prill, Dragica; Juhas, Pavol; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a method towards the solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) is developed. Approximate lattice parameters and molecular geometry must be given as input. The molecule is generally treated as a rigid body. The positions and orientations of the molecules inside the unit cell are optimized starting from random values. The PDF is obtained from carefully measured X-ray powder diffraction data. The method resembles `real-space' methods for structure solution from powder data, but works with PDF data instead of the diffraction pattern itself. As such it may bemore » used in situations where the organic compounds are not long-range-ordered, are poorly crystalline, or nanocrystalline. The procedure was applied to solve and refine the crystal structures of quinacridone (β phase), naphthalene and allopurinol. In the case of allopurinol it was even possible to successfully solve and refine the structure in P1 with four independent molecules. As an example of a flexible molecule, the crystal structure of paracetamol was refined using restraints for bond lengths, bond angles and selected torsion angles. In all cases, the resulting structures are in excellent agreement with structures from single-crystal data.« less

  10. EIS-0069: Solvent Refined Coal-II Demonstration Project, Fort Martin, Monongalia County, West Virginia

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to assess the potential environmental, economic and social impacts associated with the construction and short-term operation of a 6,000-tons-per-stream-day-capacity facility that will demonstrate the technical operability, economic viability, and environmental acceptability of the solvent refined coal process at Fort Martin, West Virginia.

  11. Towards solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function

    SciTech Connect

    Prill, Dragica; Juhas, Pavol; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a method towards the solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) is developed. Approximate lattice parameters and molecular geometry must be given as input. The molecule is generally treated as a rigid body. The positions and orientations of the molecules inside the unit cell are optimized starting from random values. The PDF is obtained from carefully measured X-ray powder diffraction data. The method resembles `real-space' methods for structure solution from powder data, but works with PDF data instead of the diffraction pattern itself. As such it may be used in situations where the organic compounds are not long-range-ordered, are poorly crystalline, or nanocrystalline. The procedure was applied to solve and refine the crystal structures of quinacridone (β phase), naphthalene and allopurinol. In the case of allopurinol it was even possible to successfully solve and refine the structure in P1 with four independent molecules. As an example of a flexible molecule, the crystal structure of paracetamol was refined using restraints for bond lengths, bond angles and selected torsion angles. In all cases, the resulting structures are in excellent agreement with structures from single-crystal data.

  12. PETRO-SAFE '91 conference papers: Volume 3 (Drilling and production environment and safety), Volume 4 (Transportation and storage environment and safety) and Volume 5 (Processing and refining environment and safety)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This conference provided a forum for the oil, gas, and petrochemical industries to discuss state of the art knowledge in those fields. The following topics were addressed: drilling and production environment and safety; transportation and storage environment and safety; and processing and refining environment and safety. Separate papers are processed for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  13. A revised partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for X-ray free-electron laser data

    SciTech Connect

    Ginn, Helen Mary; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Evans, Gwyndaf; Wagner, Armin; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Sutton, Geoff; Stuart, David Ian

    2015-05-23

    An updated partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for XFEL snapshot diffraction data is presented and confirmed by observing anomalous density for S atoms at an X-ray wavelength of 1.3 . Research towards using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to solve structures using experimental phasing methods such as sulfur single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) has been hampered by shortcomings in the diffraction models for X-ray diffraction from FELs. Owing to errors in the orientation matrix and overly simple partiality models, researchers have required large numbers of images to converge to reliable estimates for the structure-factor amplitudes, which may not be feasible for all biological systems. Here, data for cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 17 (CPV17) collected at 1.3 wavelength at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) are revisited. A previously published definition of a partiality model for reflections illuminated by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) pulses is built upon, which defines a fraction between 0 and 1 based on the intersection of a reflection with a spread of Ewald spheres modelled by a super-Gaussian wavelength distribution in the X-ray beam. A method of post-refinement to refine the parameters of this model is suggested. This has generated a merged data set with an overall discrepancy (by calculating the R{sub split} value) of 3.15% to 1.46 resolution from a 7225-image data set. The atomic numbers of C, N and O atoms in the structure are distinguishable in the electron-density map. There are 13 S atoms within the 237 residues of CPV17, excluding the initial disordered methionine. These only possess 0.42 anomalous scattering electrons each at 1.3 wavelength, but the 12 that have single predominant positions are easily detectable in the anomalous difference Fourier map. It is hoped that these improvements will lead towards XFEL experimental phase determination and structure determination by sulfur SAD and will

  14. Exploiting structure similarity in refinement: automated NCS and target-structure restraints in BUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, Oliver S. Womack, Thomas O.; Flensburg, Claus; Keller, Peter; Paciorek, Włodek; Sharff, Andrew; Vonrhein, Clemens; Bricogne, Gérard

    2012-04-01

    Local structural similarity restraints (LSSR) provide a novel method for exploiting NCS or structural similarity to an external target structure. Two examples are given where BUSTER re-refinement of PDB entries with LSSR produces marked improvements, enabling further structural features to be modelled. Maximum-likelihood X-ray macromolecular structure refinement in BUSTER has been extended with restraints facilitating the exploitation of structural similarity. The similarity can be between two or more chains within the structure being refined, thus favouring NCS, or to a distinct ‘target’ structure that remains fixed during refinement. The local structural similarity restraints (LSSR) approach considers all distances less than 5.5 Å between pairs of atoms in the chain to be restrained. For each, the difference from the distance between the corresponding atoms in the related chain is found. LSSR applies a restraint penalty on each difference. A functional form that reaches a plateau for large differences is used to avoid the restraints distorting parts of the structure that are not similar. Because LSSR are local, there is no need to separate out domains. Some restraint pruning is still necessary, but this has been automated. LSSR have been available to academic users of BUSTER since 2009 with the easy-to-use -autoncs and @@target target.pdb options. The use of LSSR is illustrated in the re-refinement of PDB entries http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm, where -target enables the correct ligand-binding structure to be found, and http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm, where -autoncs contributes to the location of an additional copy of the cyclic peptide ligand.

  15. A revised partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for X-ray free-electron laser data

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Ginn, Helen Mary; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Evans, Gwyndaf; Wagner, Armin; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Sutton, Geoff; Stuart, David Ian

    2015-05-23

    Research towards using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to solve structures using experimental phasing methods such as sulfur single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) has been hampered by shortcomings in the diffraction models for X-ray diffraction from FELs. Owing to errors in the orientation matrix and overly simple partiality models, researchers have required large numbers of images to converge to reliable estimates for the structure-factor amplitudes, which may not be feasible for all biological systems. Here, data for cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 17 (CPV17) collected at 1.3 Å wavelength at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) are revisited. A previously published definitionmore » of a partiality model for reflections illuminated by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) pulses is built upon, which defines a fraction between 0 and 1 based on the intersection of a reflection with a spread of Ewald spheres modelled by a super-Gaussian wavelength distribution in the X-ray beam. A method of post-refinement to refine the parameters of this model is suggested. This has generated a merged data set with an overall discrepancy (by calculating theRsplitvalue) of 3.15% to 1.46 Å resolution from a 7225-image data set. The atomic numbers of C, N and O atoms in the structure are distinguishable in the electron-density map. There are 13 S atoms within the 237 residues of CPV17, excluding the initial disordered methionine. These only possess 0.42 anomalous scattering electrons each at 1.3 Å wavelength, but the 12 that have single predominant positions are easily detectable in the anomalous difference Fourier map. It is hoped that these improvements will lead towards XFEL experimental phase determination and structure determination by sulfur SAD and will generally increase the utility of the method for difficult cases.« less

  16. A revised partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for X-ray free-electron laser data

    SciTech Connect

    Ginn, Helen Mary; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Evans, Gwyndaf; Wagner, Armin; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Sutton, Geoff; Stuart, David Ian

    2015-05-23

    Research towards using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to solve structures using experimental phasing methods such as sulfur single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) has been hampered by shortcomings in the diffraction models for X-ray diffraction from FELs. Owing to errors in the orientation matrix and overly simple partiality models, researchers have required large numbers of images to converge to reliable estimates for the structure-factor amplitudes, which may not be feasible for all biological systems. Here, data for cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 17 (CPV17) collected at 1.3 Å wavelength at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) are revisited. A previously published definition of a partiality model for reflections illuminated by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) pulses is built upon, which defines a fraction between 0 and 1 based on the intersection of a reflection with a spread of Ewald spheres modelled by a super-Gaussian wavelength distribution in the X-ray beam. A method of post-refinement to refine the parameters of this model is suggested. This has generated a merged data set with an overall discrepancy (by calculating theRsplitvalue) of 3.15% to 1.46 Å resolution from a 7225-image data set. The atomic numbers of C, N and O atoms in the structure are distinguishable in the electron-density map. There are 13 S atoms within the 237 residues of CPV17, excluding the initial disordered methionine. These only possess 0.42 anomalous scattering electrons each at 1.3 Å wavelength, but the 12 that have single predominant positions are easily detectable in the anomalous difference Fourier map. It is hoped that these improvements will lead towards XFEL experimental phase determination and structure determination by sulfur SAD and will generally increase the utility of the method for difficult cases.

  17. Development of Adaptive Model Refinement (AMoR) for Multiphysics and Multifidelity Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Turinsky, Paul

    2015-02-09

    This project investigated the development and utilization of Adaptive Model Refinement (AMoR) for nuclear systems simulation applications. AMoR refers to utilization of several models of physical phenomena which differ in prediction fidelity. If the highest fidelity model is judged to always provide or exceeded the desired fidelity, than if one can determine the difference in a Quantity of Interest (QoI) between the highest fidelity model and lower fidelity models, one could utilize the fidelity model that would just provide the magnitude of the QoI desired. Assuming lower fidelity models require less computational resources, in this manner computational efficiency can be realized provided the QoI value can be accurately and efficiently evaluated. This work utilized Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) to evaluate the QoI, by convoluting the GPT solution with the residual of the highest fidelity model determined using the solution from lower fidelity models. Specifically, a reactor core neutronics problem and thermal-hydraulics problem were studied to develop and utilize AMoR. The highest fidelity neutronics model was based upon the 3D space-time, two-group, nodal diffusion equations as solved in the NESTLE computer code. Added to the NESTLE code was the ability to determine the time-dependent GPT neutron flux. The lower fidelity neutronics model was based upon the point kinetics equations along with utilization of a prolongation operator to determine the 3D space-time, two-group flux. The highest fidelity thermal-hydraulics model was based upon the space-time equations governing fluid flow in a closed channel around a heat generating fuel rod. The Homogenous Equilibrium Mixture (HEM) model was used for the fluid and Finite Difference Method was applied to both the coolant and fuel pin energy conservation equations. The lower fidelity thermal-hydraulic model was based upon the same equations as used for the highest fidelity model but now with coarse spatial

  18. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap Through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Xiaofei; Zink, Peter; Pal, Uday

    2012-03-11

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.%Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the Mg content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapors in a separate condenser. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium; could not collect and weigh all of the magnesium recovered.

  19. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaofei Guan; Peter A. Zink; Uday B. Pal; Adam C. Powell

    2012-01-01

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.% Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the magnesium content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapor. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium.

  20. Profiling of selenium removal in hydrogen ambient zone-refined tellurium bar using RF-GDOES

    SciTech Connect

    Anil, G. . E-mail: anilpillai_99@yahoo.com; Reddy, M.R.P.; Prasad, D.S.; Ali, S.T.; Munirathnam, N.R.; Prakash, T.L.

    2007-01-15

    Ultrapure tellurium (Te) metal has become an important metal in the strategic sector for fabricating high performance infrared devices for thermal imaging and night vision cameras. Zone refining (ZR) is a proven technique for purification of Te. Selenium (Se), present as an impurity in Te, is not easily removed by ZR under normal conditions as the segregation coefficient (K) is around 0.44-0.50. Hence, ZR was performed in a hydrogen atmosphere, during which Se gets converted to hydrogen selenide at the molten moving zones and carried away into the sodium hydroxide scrubbers. In this study a radio-frequency glow discharge optical emission spectrometer (RF-GDOES) was used for determining the concentration of Se along the 56 cm Te zone-refined bar. It was observed that the initial concentration of 1100 ppb Se was decreased to 30 ppb after 2 cycles.

  1. The effects of air pollution regulations on the US refining industry. Task 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Numerous air pollution regulations affecting petroleum refineries recently have been promulgated, have been proposed, or are under consideration at the federal, state, and local level. As shown in Figure ES-1, all of these environmental regulations are intended to take effect over the relatively short time period from 1989 through 1995. In the aggregate these regulatory activities have significant implications for the US refining industry and the Nation, including: Major investment requirements; changes in industry profitability; potential closure of some refineries; and potential changes in crude oil or product import dependence. At issue is whether the cumulative effect of these regulations could so adversely affect the US refining industry that US national security would be affected. In addition to the regulations outlined in Figure ES-1, President Bush recently presented a major new plan to improve the nation`s air quality. The aspects of the President`s plan that could strongly affect US refineries are summarized below.

  2. Report to the Congress on the storage of refined petroleum products and on regional supply interruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This report describes petroleum and petroleum products storage and supply disruption. Information is presented under the following topics: Historical Perspective; Current Patterns of Supply and Disposition of Petroleum Products in the Primary Distribution System; PADD I Clean Products Supply/Demand; 1990 Regional Petroleum Reserve Annual Computation; Market Infrastructure and Commercial Practices in the California Motor Gasoline Market, as Related to Potential Refined Petroleum Product Reserve Structures and Sales Procedures; Infrastructure and Commercial Practices in the Northeast Distillate Market, as Related to Potential Refined Petroleum Product Reserve Structures and Sales Procedures; Storage Stability Characteristics of Petroleum Products and Crude Oil; Effect of 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on Demand for Petroleum Product Storage Capacity; and Environmental Regulations on Tanks.

  3. Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining -

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Energy Information Administration Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining Release date: May 5, 2015 Revised: May 12, 2015 (revision) 1. Background and Analytical Framework Background Recent and projected increases in U.S. crude production have sparked discussion about the implications of current limitations on crude oil exports for prices, including both world and domestic crude oil and petroleum product prices, and for the level of domestic crude production

  4. Application of a catalyst deactivation model for hydrotreating solvent refined coal feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Nalitham, R.V.

    1983-10-01

    A simple kinetic model, including a first-order catalyst deactivation rate, is applied to upgrading of coal-derived feedstocks prepared from two solvent refined coal fractions. A catalyst deactivation mechanism is proposed which involves the adsorption and surface reaction of coke precursors on catalytic active sites. The effect of feedstock composition, temperature and pressure on kinetic parameters, and in particular the catalyst deactivation rate, is determined.

  5. NREL Refines Method to Convert Lignin to Nylon Precursor - News Releases |

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL NREL Refines Method to Convert Lignin to Nylon Precursor Recent Findings Published in Energy & Environmental Science February 26, 2015 A new study from the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) demonstrates the conversion of lignin-derived compounds to adipic acid, an important industrial dicarboxylic acid produced for its use as a precursor to nylon, plasticizers, lubricants, polyesters, and other popular products and chemicals. The demonstration is an

  6. Refined BCF-type boundary conditions for mesoscale surface step dynamics

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Zhao, Renjie; Ackerman, David M.; Evans, James W.

    2015-06-24

    Deposition on a vicinal surface with alternating rough and smooth steps is described by a solid-on-solid model with anisotropic interactions. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of the model reveal step pairing in the absence of any additional step attachment barriers. We explore the description of this behavior within an analytic Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF)-type step dynamics treatment. Without attachment barriers, conventional kinetic coefficients for the rough and smooth steps are identical, as are the predicted step velocities for a vicinal surface with equal terrace widths. However, we determine refined kinetic coefficients from a two-dimensional discrete deposition-diffusion equation formalism which accounts for stepmore » structure. These coefficients are generally higher for rough steps than for smooth steps, reflecting a higher propensity for capture of diffusing terrace adatoms due to a higher kink density. Such refined coefficients also depend on the local environment of the step and can even become negative (corresponding to net detachment despite an excess adatom density) for a smooth step in close proximity to a rough step. Incorporation of these refined kinetic coefficients into a BCF-type step dynamics treatment recovers quantitatively the mesoscale step-pairing behavior observed in the KMC simulations.« less

  7. Refined BCF-type boundary conditions for mesoscale surface step dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Renjie; Ackerman, David M.; Evans, James W.

    2015-06-24

    Deposition on a vicinal surface with alternating rough and smooth steps is described by a solid-on-solid model with anisotropic interactions. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of the model reveal step pairing in the absence of any additional step attachment barriers. We explore the description of this behavior within an analytic Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF)-type step dynamics treatment. Without attachment barriers, conventional kinetic coefficients for the rough and smooth steps are identical, as are the predicted step velocities for a vicinal surface with equal terrace widths. However, we determine refined kinetic coefficients from a two-dimensional discrete deposition-diffusion equation formalism which accounts for step structure. These coefficients are generally higher for rough steps than for smooth steps, reflecting a higher propensity for capture of diffusing terrace adatoms due to a higher kink density. Such refined coefficients also depend on the local environment of the step and can even become negative (corresponding to net detachment despite an excess adatom density) for a smooth step in close proximity to a rough step. Incorporation of these refined kinetic coefficients into a BCF-type step dynamics treatment recovers quantitatively the mesoscale step-pairing behavior observed in the KMC simulations.

  8. Source category survey: secondary copper smelting and refining industry. Final report Oct 79-Jan 80

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, M.K.; Shobe, F.D.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the secondary copper smelting and refining industry to determine the probable impact of the development of new source performance standards under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. The surveyed industry processes copper scrap to produce pure copper or copper alloy, other than brass and bronze. Secondary copper foundries, which melt and cast high-quality copper scrap without refining it, are excluded. Primary copper smelters and refiners, which produce copper from ore, are also excluded, although they also process copper scrap. Process, emissions, and economic data were gathered by literature searches, contacts with representatives of the industry, trade associations, federal government agencies, and state and local air pollution control agencies, and visits to two plants. The industry's production processes, actual and allowable air emissions, and emission control systems are described. State and local emission regulations are compared. Production and capacity are projected to 1989 and the impact of new source performance standards is assessed.

  9. The value of continuity: Refined isogeometric analysis and fast direct solvers

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Garcia, Daniel; Pardo, David; Dalcin, Lisandro; Paszynski, Maciej; Collier, Nathan; Calo, Victor M.

    2016-08-24

    Here, we propose the use of highly continuous finite element spaces interconnected with low continuity hyperplanes to maximize the performance of direct solvers. Starting from a highly continuous Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) discretization, we introduce C0-separators to reduce the interconnection between degrees of freedom in the mesh. By doing so, both the solution time and best approximation errors are simultaneously improved. We call the resulting method “refined Isogeometric Analysis (rIGA)”. To illustrate the impact of the continuity reduction, we analyze the number of Floating Point Operations (FLOPs), computational times, and memory required to solve the linear system obtained by discretizing themore » Laplace problem with structured meshes and uniform polynomial orders. Theoretical estimates demonstrate that an optimal continuity reduction may decrease the total computational time by a factor between p2 and p3, with pp being the polynomial order of the discretization. Numerical results indicate that our proposed refined isogeometric analysis delivers a speed-up factor proportional to p2. In a 2D mesh with four million elements and p=5, the linear system resulting from rIGA is solved 22 times faster than the one from highly continuous IGA. In a 3D mesh with one million elements and p=3, the linear system is solved 15 times faster for the refined than the maximum continuity isogeometric analysis.« less

  10. Re-refinement from deposited X-ray data can deliver improved models for most PDB entries

    SciTech Connect

    Joosten, Robbie P.; Womack, Thomas; Vriend, Gert; Bricogne, Gérard

    2009-02-01

    An evaluation of validation and real-space intervention possibilities for improving existing automated (re-)refinement methods. The deposition of X-ray data along with the customary structural models defining PDB entries makes it possible to apply large-scale re-refinement protocols to these entries, thus giving users the benefit of improvements in X-ray methods that have occurred since the structure was deposited. Automated gradient refinement is an effective method to achieve this goal, but real-space intervention is most often required in order to adequately address problems detected by structure-validation software. In order to improve the existing protocol, automated re-refinement was combined with structure validation and difference-density peak analysis to produce a catalogue of problems in PDB entries that are amenable to automatic correction. It is shown that re-refinement can be effective in producing improvements, which are often associated with the systematic use of the TLS parameterization of B factors, even for relatively new and high-resolution PDB entries, while the accompanying manual or semi-manual map analysis and fitting steps show good prospects for eventual automation. It is proposed that the potential for simultaneous improvements in methods and in re-refinement results be further encouraged by broadening the scope of depositions to include refinement metadata and ultimately primary rather than reduced X-ray data.

  11. Dependence of Achievable Plan Quality on Treatment Technique and Planning Goal Refinement: A Head-and-Neck Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Application

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, X. Sharon Ruan, Dan; Lee, Steve P.; Pham, Andrew; Kupelian, Patrick; Low, Daniel A.; Steinberg, Michael; Demarco, John

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a practical workflow for retrospectively analyzing target and normal tissue dose–volume endpoints for various intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery techniques; to develop technique-specific planning goals to improve plan consistency and quality when feasible. Methods and Materials: A total of 165 consecutive head-and-neck patients from our patient registry were selected and retrospectively analyzed. All IMRT plans were generated using the same dose–volume guidelines for TomoTherapy (Tomo, Accuray), TrueBeam (TB, Varian) using fixed-field IMRT (TB-IMRT) or RAPIDARC (TB-RAPIDARC), or Siemens Oncor (Siemens-IMRT, Siemens). A MATLAB-based dose–volume extraction and analysis tool was developed to export dosimetric endpoints for each patient. With a fair stratification of patient cohort, the variation of achieved dosimetric endpoints was analyzed among different treatment techniques. Upon identification of statistically significant variations, technique-specific planning goals were derived from dynamically accumulated institutional data. Results: Retrospective analysis showed that although all techniques yielded comparable target coverage, the doses to the critical structures differed. The maximum cord doses were 34.1 ± 2.6, 42.7 ± 2.1, 43.3 ± 2.0, and 45.1 ± 1.6 Gy for Tomo, TB-IMRT, TB-RAPIDARC, and Siemens-IMRT plans, respectively. Analyses of variance showed significant differences for the maximum cord doses but no significant differences for other selected structures among the investigated IMRT delivery techniques. Subsequently, a refined technique-specific dose–volume guideline for maximum cord dose was derived at a confidence level of 95%. The dosimetric plans that failed the refined technique-specific planning goals were reoptimized according to the refined constraints. We observed better cord sparing with minimal variations for the target coverage and other organ at risk sparing for the Tomo cases, and higher

  12. Cloud-based Architecture Capabilities Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Vang, Leng; Prescott, Steven R; Smith, Curtis

    2014-09-01

    In collaborating scientific research arena it is important to have an environment where analysts have access to a shared of information documents, software tools and be able to accurately maintain and track historical changes in models. A new cloud-based environment would be accessible remotely from anywhere regardless of computing platforms given that the platform has available of Internet access and proper browser capabilities. Information stored at this environment would be restricted based on user assigned credentials. This report reviews development of a Cloud-based Architecture Capabilities (CAC) as a web portal for PRA tools.

  13. A knowledge based model of electric utility operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-11

    This report consists of an appendix to provide a documentation and help capability for an analyst using the developed expert system of electric utility operations running in CLIPS. This capability is provided through a separate package running under the WINDOWS Operating System and keyed to provide displays of text, graphics and mixed text and graphics that explain and elaborate on the specific decisions being made within the knowledge based expert system.

  14. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  15. Evaluation of tropical channel refinement using MPAS-A aquaplanet simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Martini, Matus N.; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po -Lun

    2015-09-13

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configuration using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. Furthermore, the relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in earlier

  16. Direct Reduction of Waste through Refining of DOE Metal Assets - 13632

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, Michael C.; Terekhov, Dimitri; Khozan, Kamran M.

    2013-07-01

    CVMR{sup R} presents a technology for refining nickel from the enrichment barrier materials of the DOE that is proven through 100 years of use by the metals industry. CVMR{sup R} applies modern controls, instrumentation for process and monitoring of the system, and innovative production methods to produce a wide spectrum of products that generate new technology applications and improvements to our society and economy. CVMR{sup R} will receive barrier materials as a secure operation and size reduce the metal to a shred that is fed to a carbonylation reactor where nickel is reacted with carbon monoxide and generate nickel carbonyl. The carbonyl will be filtered and decomposed with heat to form a variety of products that include high value nano powders, coated substrates, net shapes and pure nickel. The residue from the reactor will retain radionuclides from enrichment activities. The carbon monoxide will only react and extract nickel under the operating conditions to leave volumetric contamination in the unreacted residue. A demonstration plant was designed and built by CVMR{sup R} and operated by BWXT, to demonstrate the systems capabilities to DOE in 2006. A pilot plant operation precedes the detailed design of the nickel refinery and provides essential data for design, safe work practices, waste characterizations and system kinetics and confirms the project feasibility. CVMR{sup R} produces nickel products that are cleaner than the nickel in U.S. commerce and used by industry today. The CVMR{sup R} process and systems for nickel refining is well suited for DOE materials and will provide value through environmental stewardship, recovery of high value assets, and support of the DOE environmental remediation programs as the refined nickel generates additional long term benefits to local communities. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of Tropical Channel Refinement using MPAS-A Aquaplanet Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Martini, Matus; Gustafson, William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po-Lun

    2015-09-13

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configuration using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. The relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in earlier studies that

  18. Study on Evaluation of Project Management Data for Decommissioning of Uranium Refining and Conversion Plant - 12234

    SciTech Connect

    Usui, Hideo; Izumo, Sari; Tachibana, Mitsuo; Shibahara, Yuji; Morimoto, Yasuyuki; Tokuyasu, Takashi; Takahashi, Nobuo; Tanaka, Yoshio; Sugitsue, Noritake

    2012-07-01

    Some of nuclear facilities that would no longer be required have been decommissioned in JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). A lot of nuclear facilities have to be decommissioned in JAEA in near future. To implement decommissioning of nuclear facilities, it was important to make a rational decommissioning plan. Therefore, project management data evaluation system for dismantling activities (PRODIA code) has been developed, and will be useful for making a detailed decommissioning plan for an object facility. Dismantling of dry conversion facility in the uranium refining and conversion plant (URCP) at Ningyo-toge began in 2008. During dismantling activities, project management data such as manpower and amount of waste generation have been collected. Such collected project management data has been evaluated and used to establish a calculation formula to calculate manpower for dismantling equipment of chemical process and calculate manpower for using a green house (GH) which was a temporary structure for preventing the spread of contaminants during dismantling. In the calculation formula to calculate project management data related to dismantling of equipment, the relation of dismantling manpower to each piece of equipment was evaluated. Furthermore, the relation of dismantling manpower to each chemical process was evaluated. The results showed promise for evaluating dismantling manpower with respect to each chemical process. In the calculation formula to calculate project management data related to use of the GH, relations of GH installation manpower and removal manpower to GH footprint were evaluated. Furthermore, the calculation formula for secondary waste generation was established. In this study, project management data related to dismantling of equipment and use of the GH were evaluated and analyzed. The project management data, manpower for dismantling of equipment, manpower for installation and removal of GH, and secondary waste generation from GH were considered

  19. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Petroleum Refining (NAICS 324110), October 2012 (MECS 2006)

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Petroleum Refining (NAICS 324110) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 245 Nonprocess Losses 3,546 641 Steam Distribution Losses 145 20 Nonprocess Energy 2,994 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 3,546 110 Prepared for the Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) by Energetics Incorporated 62 2,779 127 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 41 275 Onsite Generation 2,840 2,304 927 3,231 402 151 682 9.6 24.3 33.8 64.7 64.3 144.5 176.0

  20. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-03-15

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  1. MX-2500 thermal processor for the treatment of petroleum refining wastes and contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Swanberg, C. )

    1993-05-01

    Separation and Recovery Systems, Inc. (SRS) of Irvine, California is the market leader in supplying hazardous waste and secondary material dewatering and drying services to the petroleum refining industry. In late 1991, SRS introduced the new generation of dryer technology, the MX-2500. The MX-2500 is an electrically heated dryer system that recovers virtually all of the hydrocarbon value of refinery wastes and secondary materials, while producing a solid residue meeting EPA Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) treatment levels which allows the refinery to land dispose of the solids, thereby realizing two objectives: waste minimization and oil recovery/recycling. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Managing process innovation through incremental improvements: Empirical evidence in the petroleum refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, J.Z.

    1994-11-01

    This paper developed a present value index (PVI) model to offer a new solution to differing the effects of radical innovation and incremental improvement. After comparing the return from an initial-radical-process innovation and the return from the incremental changes in petroleum refining processes, it was found that incremental improvements generated higher returns than from its initial innovations. The findings suggest that, in contrast to a conventional research and development (R&D) strategy with a focus on state-of-art innovations, manufacturing companies should place sufficient emphasis on incremental capital and operating improvements to fully exploit economic benefits from an innovation. 49 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Table 3a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars per barrel in ""dollar year"" specific to each AEO)" ,"AEO $ Year",1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",1992,16.69,16.42999,16.9899,17.66,18.28,19.0599,19.89,20.72,21.65,22.61,23.51,24.29,24.9,25.6,26.3,27,27.64,28.16

  4. European refiners must seek creative processes to justify heavy-ends projects

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, P.

    1996-12-09

    There are strong reasons for wanting to upgrade the bottom of the crude oil barrel. But European refiners will not find it easy to get approval and funding for major capital investment projects. In most cases, investment justification will have to be creative and may need to rely on factors traditionally considered to be outside the conventional refinery fence. Examples of such creative upgrading schemes are those employed in four gasification projects planned for refineries in Italy. It is clear that the major obstacles to heavy residue processing are not technical, but economic. A review of these obstacles will set the stage for European investment in bottom-of-the-barrel processing.

  5. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  6. ,"U.S. Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil",3,"Monthly","9/2016","1/15/1974" ,"Release Date:","11/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","12/1/2016" ,"Excel File

  7. Synthesis of CdSe/ZnS and CdTe/ZnS Quantum Dots: Refined Digestive Ripening

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Cingarapu, Sreeram; Yang, Zhiqiang; Sorensen, Christopher M.; Klabunde, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    We report synthesis of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots (QDs) from the bulk CdSe and CdTe material by evaporation/co-condensation using the solvated metal atom dispersion (SMAD) technique and refined digestive ripening. The outcomes of this new process are (1) the reduction of digestive ripening time by employing ligands (trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and oleylamine (OA)) as capping agent as well as digestive ripening solvent, (2) ability to tune the photoluminescence (PL) from 410 nm to 670 nm, (3) demonstrate the ability of SMAD synthesis technique for other semiconductors (CdTe), (4) direct comparison of CdSe QDs growth with CdTe QDs growth based on digestivemore » ripening times, and (5) enhanced PL quantum yield (QY) of CdSe QDs and CdTe QDs upon covering with a ZnS shell. Further, the merit of this synthesis is the use of bulk CdSe and CdTe as the starting materials, which avoids usage of toxic organometallic compounds, eliminates the hot injection procedure, and size selective precipitation processes. It also allows the possibility of scale up. These QDs were characterized by UV-vis, photoluminescence (PL), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and powder XRD.« less

  8. Initial chemical and biological characterization of hydrotreated solvent refined coal (SRC-II) liquids: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Weimer, W.C.; Wilson, B.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Craun, J.C.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents the results of both chemical and biomedical research performed on a solvent refined coal (SRC-II) research material (distillate blend) which was produced by the pilot plant facility at Fort Lewis, Washington. Samples of this distillate blend were subjected to research-scale hydrotreatment by Universal Oil Products, Inc., prior to chemical and biological analysis at PNL. The samples are considered to be, in general, generically representative of raw or hydrotreated materials which might be produced by demonstration or commercial-scale facilities. The above described feedstock and hydrotreated materials were analyzed for chemical composition both prior to and after chemical fractionation. The fractionation procedure used was an acid-base-neutral solvent extraction. The fractions produced, as well as the unfractionated materials, were subjected to microbial mutagenesis testing (Ames assay) and to further chemical analysis. The principal components of the unmodified distillate blend are two and three ringed aromatic and heteroatomic species together with high concentrations of phenolic and polynuclear aromatic components relative to typical levels found in petroleum crudes. The Ames assay mutagenic response for the unfractionated material, as well as the fractions produced by the solvent separation, was reduced considerably in the hydrotreated materials compared to that of the feedstock. Total mutagenic response for the hydrotreated products was approximately 1% of that in the untreated feedstock. The concentrations of two important genetically active compound classes, the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and the primary aromatic amines, were considerably reduced in both of the hydrotreated products compared to the feedstock.

  9. EIA model documentation: World oil refining logistics demand model,``WORLD`` reference manual. Version 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-11

    This manual is intended primarily for use as a reference by analysts applying the WORLD model to regional studies. It also provides overview information on WORLD features of potential interest to managers and analysts. Broadly, the manual covers WORLD model features in progressively increasing detail. Section 2 provides an overview of the WORLD model, how it has evolved, what its design goals are, what it produces, and where it can be taken with further enhancements. Section 3 reviews model management covering data sources, managing over-optimization, calibration and seasonality, check-points for case construction and common errors. Section 4 describes in detail the WORLD system, including: data and program systems in overview; details of mainframe and PC program control and files;model generation, size management, debugging and error analysis; use with different optimizers; and reporting and results analysis. Section 5 provides a detailed description of every WORLD model data table, covering model controls, case and technology data. Section 6 goes into the details of WORLD matrix structure. It provides an overview, describes how regional definitions are controlled and defines the naming conventions for-all model rows, columns, right-hand sides, and bounds. It also includes a discussion of the formulation of product blending and specifications in WORLD. Several Appendices supplement the main sections.

  10. Molecular dynamics force-field refinement against quasi-elastic neutron scattering data

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Borreguero Calvo, Jose M.; Lynch, Vickie E.

    2015-11-23

    Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) is one of the experimental techniques of choice for probing the dynamics at length and time scales that are also in the realm of full-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. This overlap enables extension of current fitting methods that use time-independent equilibrium measurements to new methods fitting against dynamics data. We present an algorithm that fits simulation-derived incoherent dynamical structure factors against QENS data probing the diffusive dynamics of the system. We showcase the difficulties inherent to this type of fitting problem, namely, the disparity between simulation and experiment environment, as well as limitations in the simulationmore » due to incomplete sampling of phase space. We discuss a methodology to overcome these difficulties and apply it to a set of full-atom MD simulations for the purpose of refining the force-field parameter governing the activation energy of methyl rotation in the octa-methyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane molecule. Our optimal simulated activation energy agrees with the experimentally derived value up to a 5% difference, well within experimental error. We believe the method will find applicability to other types of diffusive motions and other representation of the systems such as coarse-grain models where empirical fitting is essential. In addition, the refinement method can be extended to the coherent dynamic structure factor with no additional effort.« less

  11. Decontamination of metals by melt refining/slagging: First year progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mizia, R.E.; Worcester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.

    1994-03-01

    As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult. The problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste storage problems, Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technologies for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small scale melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of pilot scale melting demonstrations (100-500 lbs) to be conducted at selected commercial facilities. This program will identify methods that can be used to recycle stainless steel RSM which will be used to fabricate high and low level waste canisters for the Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility. This report summarizes the results of an extensive literature review and the first year`s progress on slag design, small-scale melt refining of surrogate-containing stainless steel (presently only a three month effort), and pilot-scale preparation of surrogate master ingots.

  12. Projected refined product balances in key Latin American countries: A preliminary examination

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Over the years, the East-West Center (EWC) has developed considerable expertise in refinery modeling, especially in the area of forecasting product balances for countries, given planned capacity changes, changes in product demand, changes in crude slates, and changes in product specifications. This expertise has been applied on an ongoing basis to the major refiners in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, along with the US West Coast as region in its own right. Refinery modeling in these three areas has been ongoing for nearly 15 years at the Center, and the tools and information sources are now well developed. To date, the EWC has not applied these tools to Latin America. Although research on Latin America has been an ongoing area of concern at the Center in recent years, the information gathered to date is still not of the level of detail nor quality available for other areas. The modeling efforts undertaken in this report are of a ``baseline`` nature, designed to outline the major issues, attempt a first cut at emerging product balances, and, above all, to elicit commentary from those directly involved in the oil industry in the key countries modeled. Our experience in other regions has shown that it takes a few years dialogue with refiners and government planner in individual countries to develop a reliable database, as well as the insights into operational constraints and practices that make accurate modeling possible. This report is no more than a first step down the road.

  13. Molecular dynamics force-field refinement against quasi-elastic neutron scattering data

    SciTech Connect

    Borreguero Calvo, Jose M.; Lynch, Vickie E.

    2015-11-23

    Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) is one of the experimental techniques of choice for probing the dynamics at length and time scales that are also in the realm of full-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. This overlap enables extension of current fitting methods that use time-independent equilibrium measurements to new methods fitting against dynamics data. We present an algorithm that fits simulation-derived incoherent dynamical structure factors against QENS data probing the diffusive dynamics of the system. We showcase the difficulties inherent to this type of fitting problem, namely, the disparity between simulation and experiment environment, as well as limitations in the simulation due to incomplete sampling of phase space. We discuss a methodology to overcome these difficulties and apply it to a set of full-atom MD simulations for the purpose of refining the force-field parameter governing the activation energy of methyl rotation in the octa-methyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane molecule. Our optimal simulated activation energy agrees with the experimentally derived value up to a 5% difference, well within experimental error. We believe the method will find applicability to other types of diffusive motions and other representation of the systems such as coarse-grain models where empirical fitting is essential. In addition, the refinement method can be extended to the coherent dynamic structure factor with no additional effort.

  14. US imports. Part II. Refined product market shares, then and now

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-08

    Unlike imports of crude oil to the US, which were up 45.7% between 1977 and 1986, imports of petroleum products have fallen by about 8.6% during the same period. The crude oil price crash of 1986 deepened US dependency on imports of crude, from 21.4% in 1977 to 25.4% in 1986, but reduced the dependency in the case of total refined products from 11.32% in 1977 to 11.13% in 1986. Comparing the first four months of 1987 with 1986, US dependency on imported petroleum products is down 2.73 percentage points; import dependency on OPEC petroleum products is down 4.60 percentage points; dependency on Arab OPEC countries product imports is down 1.88 percentage points; and for Eastern Hemisphere exporters, that dependency has fallen 2.17 percentage points. This issue also contains: (1) ED refining netback data from the US Gulf and West coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore for early July 1987; and (2) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, July 1987 edition. 4 figures, 5 tables.

  15. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1979-March 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Project by the Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. for the Department of Energy for the period January 1, 1979 to March 31, 1979. Activities included the operation and modification of the Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant at Fort Lewis, Washington; the Process Development Unit P-99 at Harmarville, Pennsylvania; and research at Merriam Laboratory in Merriam, Kansas. The Pilot Plant processed Powhatan No. 5 Coal in the SRC-II mode of operation studying the effect of coal particle size and system temperature on coal slurry blending and the effect of carbon monoxide concentration in the reaction feed gas on process yields. January and February were spent completing installation of a fourth High Pressure Separator on Process Development Unit P-99 to better simulate operating conditions for the proposed Demonstration Plant. During March, one run was completed at P-99 feeding Pittsburgh Seam Coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine. Merriam investigations included a study of the effect of iron containing additives on SRC-I operation, the addition of carbon monoxide to the feed gas, utilization of a hydrogenated solvent (Cresap process solvent) in the SRC-I mode under both normal and short residence time operating conditions, and development of a simulated distillation technique to determine the entire boiling range distribution of product oils.

  16. Evaluation of tropical channel refinement using MPAS-A aquaplanet simulations

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Martini, Matus N.; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po -Lun

    2015-09-13

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configurationmore » using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. Furthermore, the relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in

  17. Early F-type stars - refined classification, confrontation with Stromgren photometry, and the effects of rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.O.; Garrison, R.F.

    1989-02-01

    The classification for early F-type stars in the MK spectral classification system presented by Gray and Garrison (1987) is refined. The effect of rotation on spectral classification and ubvy-beta photometry of early F-type stars is examined. It is found that the classical luminosity criterion, the 4417 A/4481 A ratio gives inconsistent results. It is shown that most of the stars in the Delta Delphini class of metallic-line stars are either normal or are indistinguishable from proto-Am stars. It is suggested that the designation Delta Delphini should be dropped. The classifications are compared with Stromgren photometry. The effects of rotation on the delta-c sub 1 index in the early-F field dwarfs is demonstrated. 55 references.

  18. On the Computation of Integral Curves in Adaptive Mesh Refinement Vector Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Deines, Eduard; Weber, Gunther H.; Garth, Christoph; Van Straalen, Brian; Borovikov, Sergey; Martin, Daniel F.; Joy, Kenneth I.

    2011-06-27

    Integral curves, such as streamlines, streaklines, pathlines, and timelines, are an essential tool in the analysis of vector field structures, offering straightforward and intuitive interpretation of visualization results. While such curves have a long-standing tradition in vector field visualization, their application to Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) simulation results poses unique problems. AMR is a highly effective discretization method for a variety of physical simulation problems and has recently been applied to the study of vector fields in flow and magnetohydrodynamic applications. The cell-centered nature of AMR data and discontinuities in the vector field representation arising from AMR level boundaries complicate the application of numerical integration methods to compute integral curves. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to alleviate these problems and show its application to streamline visualization in an AMR model of the magnetic field of the solar system as well as to a simulation of two incompressible viscous vortex rings merging.

  19. Effects of gas injection condition on mixing efficiency in the ladle refining process

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, S.M.; Chiang, J.D.; Hwang, W.S.

    1997-02-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of injection condition on the mixing efficiency of the gas injection treatment of the ladle refining process in steelmaking. A water modeling approach was employed. A NaCl solution was injected into the vessel and the electric conductivity value of the water solution was measured to represent the concentration of the additive. The results of this investigation reveal that up to a certain level, mixing efficiency is improved as the gas flow rate increases. Off-center injection is better than centerline injection. However, the injection lance should not be too close to the wall. Also, mixing efficiency is improved when the submerged depth of the immersion lance increases. The immersion hood has a optimal size as far as mixing efficiency is concerned. A larger or smaller hood would reduce its efficiency. The submerged depth of the immersion hood should be kept to a minimum to improve mixing efficiency.

  20. 3D Adaptive Mesh Refinement Simulations of Pellet Injection in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    R. Samtaney; S.C. Jardin; P. Colella; D.F. Martin

    2003-10-20

    We present results of Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) simulations of the pellet injection process, a proven method of refueling tokamaks. AMR is a computationally efficient way to provide the resolution required to simulate realistic pellet sizes relative to device dimensions. The mathematical model comprises of single-fluid MHD equations with source terms in the continuity equation along with a pellet ablation rate model. The numerical method developed is an explicit unsplit upwinding treatment of the 8-wave formulation, coupled with a MAC projection method to enforce the solenoidal property of the magnetic field. The Chombo framework is used for AMR. The role of the E x B drift in mass redistribution during inside and outside pellet injections is emphasized.

  1. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOEpatents

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-12-20

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figures.

  2. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOEpatents

    Schlichting, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  3. Table 3a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars per barrel in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO $ Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 1992 16.69 16.43 16.99 17.66 18.28 19.06 19.89 20.72 21.65 22.61 23.51 24.29 24.90 25.60 26.30 27.00 27.64 28.16 AEO 1995 1993 14.90 16.41 16.90 17.45 18.00 18.53 19.13 19.65 20.16 20.63

  4. Methods of refining natural oils and methods of producing fuel compositions

    DOEpatents

    Firth, Bruce E; Kirk, Sharon E; Gavaskar, Vasudeo S

    2015-11-04

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent selected from the group consisting of phosphorous acid, phosphinic acid, and a combination thereof; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  5. Methods of refining natural oils, and methods of producing fuel compositions

    DOEpatents

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.

    2015-10-27

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent that comprises nitric acid; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  6. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Volume II. Sections V-XIV. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    This report documents the completion of development work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Co. The work was initiated in 1966 under Office of Coal Research, US Department of Interior, Contract No. 14-01-0001-496 and completed under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-79ET10104. This report discusses work leading to the development of the SRC-I and SRC-II processes, construction of the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant for the successful development of these processes, and results from the operation of this pilot plant. Process design data generated on a 1 ton-per-day Process Development Unit, bench-scale units and through numerous research projects in support of the design of major demonstration plants are also discussed in summary form and fully referenced in this report.

  7. Pillowing doublets: Refining a mesh to ensure that faces share at most one edge

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, S.A.; Tautges, T.J.

    1995-11-01

    Occasionally one may be confronted by a hexahedral or quadrilateral mesh containing doublets, two faces sharing two edges. In this case, no amount of smoothing will produce a mesh with agreeable element quality: in the planar case, one of these two faces will always have an angle of at least 180 degrees between the two edges. The authors describe a robust scheme for refining a hexahedral or quadrilateral mesh to separate such faces, so that any two faces share at most one edge. Note that this also ensures that two hexahedra share at most one face in the three dimensional case. The authors have implemented this algorithm and incorporated it into the CUBIT mesh generation environment developed at Sandia National Laboratories.

  8. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  9. A node-centered local refinement algorithm for poisson's equation in complex geometries

    SciTech Connect

    McCorquodale, Peter; Colella, Phillip; Grote, David P.; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2004-05-04

    This paper presents a method for solving Poisson's equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions on an irregular bounded three-dimensional region. The method uses a nodal-point discretization and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on Cartesian grids, and the AMR multigrid solver of Almgren. The discrete Laplacian operator at internal boundaries comes from either linear or quadratic (Shortley-Weller) extrapolation, and the two methods are compared. It is shown that either way, solution error is second order in the mesh spacing. Error in the gradient of the solution is first order with linear extrapolation, but second order with Shortley-Weller. Examples are given with comparison with the exact solution. The method is also applied to a heavy-ion fusion accelerator problem, showing the advantage of adaptivity.

  10. Exploratory research on solvent refined coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1-June 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Exploratory Research on Solvent Refined Coal Liquefaction project by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Company's Merriam Laboratory for the period April 1, 1979 through June 30, 1979. Experimental work included a number of short residence time runs, but discussion of that work has been delayed until a later report. Experimental work reported focuses on an investigation of the decline in solvent quality experienced by the Wilsonville Pilot Plant during runs in support of the SRC I Demonstration Plant. A four run series was initiated with Wilsonville solvent; both the coal used at Wilsonville (Kentucky 6/11 - Pyro Mine) and Kentucky 9/14 coal from the Colonial Mine were used. The effect of pyrite addition to the Pyro Mine coal was investigated. No solvent quality or coking problems were experienced in the Merriam runs. Significant changes in solvent composition were apparent and equilibrated solvent samples were returned to Wilsonville for solvent quality testing.

  11. Refining the site conceptual model at a former uranium mill site in Riverton, Wyoming, USA

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Dam, William; Campbell, Sam; Johnson, Ray; Looney, Brian; Denham, Miles E.; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Babits, Steven J.

    2015-07-07

    Milling activities at a former uranium mill site near Riverton, Wyoming, USA, contaminated the shallow groundwater beneath and downgradient of the site. Although the mill operated for <6 years (1958-1963), its impact remains an environmental liability. Groundwater modeling predicted that contaminant concentrations were declining steadily, which confirmed the conceptual site model (CSM). However, local flooding in 2010 mobilized contaminants that migrated downgradient from the Riverton site and resulted in a dramatic increase in groundwater contaminant concentrations. This observation indicated that the original CSM was inadequate to explain site conditions and needed to be refined. In response to the new observationsmore » after the flood, a collaborative investigation to better understand site conditions and processes commenced. This investigation included installing 103 boreholes to collect soil and groundwater samples, sampling and analysis of evaporite minerals along the bank of the Little Wind River, an analysis of evaportranspiration in the shallow aquifer, and sampling naturally organic-rich sediments near groundwater discharge areas. The enhanced characterization revealed that the existing CSM did not account for high uranium concentrations in groundwater remaining on the former mill site and groundwater plume stagnation near the Little Wind River. Observations from the flood and subsequent investigations indicate that additional characterization is still needed to continue refining the CSM and determine the viability of the natural flushing compliance strategy. Additional sampling, analysis, and testing of soil and groundwater are necessary to investigate secondary contaminant sources, mobilization of contaminants during floods, geochemical processes, contaminant plume stagnation, distribution of evaporite minerals and organic-rich sediments, and mechanisms and rates of contaminant transfer from soil to groundwater. Future data collection will be used to

  12. Refining the site conceptual model at a former uranium mill site in Riverton, Wyoming, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Dam, William; Campbell, Sam; Johnson, Ray; Looney, Brian; Denham, Miles E.; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Babits, Steven J.

    2015-07-07

    Milling activities at a former uranium mill site near Riverton, Wyoming, USA, contaminated the shallow groundwater beneath and downgradient of the site. Although the mill operated for <6 years (1958-1963), its impact remains an environmental liability. Groundwater modeling predicted that contaminant concentrations were declining steadily, which confirmed the conceptual site model (CSM). However, local flooding in 2010 mobilized contaminants that migrated downgradient from the Riverton site and resulted in a dramatic increase in groundwater contaminant concentrations. This observation indicated that the original CSM was inadequate to explain site conditions and needed to be refined. In response to the new observations after the flood, a collaborative investigation to better understand site conditions and processes commenced. This investigation included installing 103 boreholes to collect soil and groundwater samples, sampling and analysis of evaporite minerals along the bank of the Little Wind River, an analysis of evaportranspiration in the shallow aquifer, and sampling naturally organic-rich sediments near groundwater discharge areas. The enhanced characterization revealed that the existing CSM did not account for high uranium concentrations in groundwater remaining on the former mill site and groundwater plume stagnation near the Little Wind River. Observations from the flood and subsequent investigations indicate that additional characterization is still needed to continue refining the CSM and determine the viability of the natural flushing compliance strategy. Additional sampling, analysis, and testing of soil and groundwater are necessary to investigate secondary contaminant sources, mobilization of contaminants during floods, geochemical processes, contaminant plume stagnation, distribution of evaporite minerals and organic-rich sediments, and mechanisms and rates of contaminant transfer from soil to groundwater. Future data collection will be used to

  13. An enriched finite element model with q-refinement for radiative boundary layers in glass cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, M. Shadi; Seaid, Mohammed; Trevelyan, Jon; Laghrouche, Omar

    2014-02-01

    Radiative cooling in glass manufacturing is simulated using the partition of unity finite element method. The governing equations consist of a semi-linear transient heat equation for the temperature field and a stationary simplified P{sub 1} approximation for the radiation in non-grey semitransparent media. To integrate the coupled equations in time we consider a linearly implicit scheme in the finite element framework. A class of hyperbolic enrichment functions is proposed to resolve boundary layers near the enclosure walls. Using an industrial electromagnetic spectrum, the proposed method shows an immense reduction in the number of degrees of freedom required to achieve a certain accuracy compared to the conventional h-version finite element method. Furthermore the method shows a stable behaviour in treating the boundary layers which is shown by studying the solution close to the domain boundaries. The time integration choice is essential to implement a q-refinement procedure introduced in the current study. The enrichment is refined with respect to the steepness of the solution gradient near the domain boundary in the first few time steps and is shown to lead to a further significant reduction on top of what is already achieved with the enrichment. The performance of the proposed method is analysed for glass annealing in two enclosures where the simplified P{sub 1} approximation solution with the partition of unity method, the conventional finite element method and the finite difference method are compared to each other and to the full radiative heat transfer as well as the canonical Rosseland model.

  14. Characterization report. Polish petroleum refining sector. A sector overview of capability, energy consumption, environmental impacts, May 1992. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of the report is to provide data that will serve as a basis for the modernization and optimization of the economic performance of the petroleum refining industry of Poland. The report addresses the current status of the petroleum refining industry so that recommendations providing low cost economies to improve energy efficiency and environmental control at each refinery can be prepared. Following the collection of data on operating variables, equipment, and refinery impact on the environment, a computerized database was prepared which is the subject of a separate report.

  15. Evaluation of heavy oil upgrading/refining process designs for HRI Dynacracking and UOP Aurabon Process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.; Adams, D.G.; Fox, J.V.

    1984-04-01

    The process designs examined consist of two non-commercialized heavy oil upgrading processes; namely, the Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) Dynacracking Process and the UOP Process Division (UOP) Aurabon Process. The latter process design includes, besides the Aurabon Process, an integrated hydrotreating section which does have commercial stature. The Dynacracking Process designs cover six cases involving three heavy crude feedstocks. The Aurabon Complex designs are based on four cases, two for each of two heavy crude feedstocks. The engineering support services involved engineering review and assessment of data, drawings, reports and other information generated by the two process designers. Background information, the review and assessment methodology employed for evaluating the process designs, and a detailed discussion of the process design data generated by both process contractors are presented in this report. Significant findings for both processes may be summarized as follows: (1) The process designs were executed using sound engineering principles and practices; (2) Both processes may be deemed to perform in accordance with their process design; (3) a wide variety of heavy oil charge stocks can be upgraded by either process to products generally suitable for further refinery processing; (4) no insurmountable operating or environmental problems are anticipated; (5) the estimated capital investments and operating utility requirements are indicative of the increased cost to process contaminated heavy crudes; (6) the cost differential between the higher quantity lighter crudes and the poorer quality heavy crudes must be sufficient to justify these higher expenditures; and (7) both processes merit consideration by refiners contemplating contaminated heavy oil upgrading. 53 references, 40 tables.

  16. Coal Reserves Data Base report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.W.; Glass, G.B.

    1991-12-05

    The Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program is a cooperative data base development program sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The objective of the CRDB Program is to involve knowledgeable coal resource authorities from the major coal-bearing regions in EIA's effort to update the Nation's coal reserves data. This report describes one of two prototype studies to update State-level reserve estimates. The CRDB data are intended for use in coal supply analyses and to support analyses of policy and legislative issues. They will be available to both Government and non-Government analysts. The data also will be part of the information used to supply United States energy data for international data bases and for inquiries from private industry and the public. (VC)

  17. Biocide usage in cooling towers in the electric power and petroleum refining industries

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.; Rice, J.K.; Raivel, M.E.S.

    1997-11-01

    Cooling towers users frequently apply biocides to the circulating cooling water to control growth of microorganisms, algae, and macroorganisms. Because of the toxic properties of biocides, there is a potential for the regulatory controls on their use and discharge to become increasingly more stringent. This report examines the types of biocides used in cooling towers by companies in the electric power and petroleum refining industries, and the experiences those companies have had in dealing with agencies that regulate cooling tower blowdown discharges. Results from a sample of 67 electric power plants indicate that the use of oxidizing biocides (particularly chlorine) is favored. Quaternary ammonia salts (quats), a type of nonoxidizing biocide, are also used in many power plant cooling towers. The experience of dealing with regulators to obtain approval to discharge biocides differs significantly between the two industries. In the electric power industry, discharges of any new biocide typically must be approved in writing by the regulatory agency. The approval process for refineries is less formal. In most cases, the refinery must notify the regulatory agency that it is planning to use a new biocide, but the refinery does not need to get written approval before using it. The conclusion of the report is that few of the surveyed facilities are having any difficulty in using and discharging the biocides they want to use.

  18. Refined rotational period, pole solution, and shape model for (3200) Phaethon

    SciTech Connect

    Ansdell, Megan; Meech, Karen J.; Kaluna, Heather; Hainaut, Olivier; Buie, Marc W.; Bauer, James; Dundon, Luke

    2014-09-20

    (3200) Phaethon exhibits both comet- and asteroid-like properties, suggesting it could be a rare transitional object such as a dormant comet or previously volatile-rich asteroid. This justifies detailed study of (3200) Phaethon's physical properties as a better understanding of asteroid-comet transition objects can provide insight into minor body evolution. We therefore acquired time series photometry of (3200) Phaethon over 15 nights from 1994 to 2013, primarily using the Tektronix 2048 2048 pixel CCD on the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope. We utilized light curve inversion to (1) refine (3200) Phaethon's rotational period to P = 3.6032 0.0008 hr; (2) estimate a rotational pole orientation of ? = +85 13 and ? = 20 10; and (3) derive a shape model. We also used our extensive light curve data set to estimate the slope parameter of (3200) Phaethon's phase curve as G ? 0.06, consistent with C-type asteroids. We discuss how this highly oblique pole orientation with a negative ecliptic latitude supports previous evidence for (3200) Phaethon's origin in the inner main asteroid belt as well as the potential for deeply buried volatiles fueling impulsive yet rare cometary outbursts.

  19. Refinement, Validation and Application of Cloud-Radiation Parameterization in a GCM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Graeme L. Stephens

    2009-04-30

    The research performed under this award was conducted along 3 related fronts: (1) Refinement and assessment of parameterizations of sub-grid scale radiative transport in GCMs. (2) Diagnostic studies that use ARM observations of clouds and convection in an effort to understand the effects of moist convection on its environment, including how convection influences clouds and radiation. This aspect focuses on developing and testing methodologies designed to use ARM data more effectively for use in atmospheric models, both at the cloud resolving model scale and the global climate model scale. (3) Use (1) and (2) in combination with both models and observations of varying complexity to study key radiation feedback Our work toward these objectives thus involved three corresponding efforts. First, novel diagnostic techniques were developed and applied to ARM observations to understand and characterize the effects of moist convection on the dynamical and thermodynamical environment in which it occurs. Second, an in house GCM radiative transfer algorithm (BUGSrad) was employed along with an optimal estimation cloud retrieval algorithm to evaluate the ability to reproduce cloudy-sky radiative flux observations. Assessments using a range of GCMs with various moist convective parameterizations to evaluate the fidelity with which the parameterizations reproduce key observable features of the environment were also started in the final year of this award. The third study area involved the study of cloud radiation feedbacks and we examined these in both cloud resolving and global climate models.

  20. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1979-June 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Project for the period March 25, 1979, through June 24, 1979. SRC-I turnaround activities at the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant and several other problems delayed successful startup until April 11. Slurry was injected to the Lummus Deashing Unit for the first time April 12. After approximately eight days, slurry feed was diverted because of indications that solids were accumulating in the settler vessel. The Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down from April 28 to May 12, 1979, while the Lummus Unit settler vessel was hydroblasted. Cleaning of the settler vessel was complete May 10. Modifications to the unit were nearly complete at the end of the reporting period. Slurry feed to the Lummus Unit was reestablished June 15. To date, continuous production of specification product at design rates has not been achieved. One material balance run, MBR 79-1, was completed using Kentucky No. 9/14 coal at proposed design conditions for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Process Development Unit P-99 was on-stream for all of the second quarter of 1979, with the exception of a two-week scheduled turn-around. Six different run conditions were tested feeding Pittsburgh Seam coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine.

  1. Aluminum doped zirconia nanopowders: Wet-chemical synthesis and structural analysis by Rietveld refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Srdic, Vladimir V. Rakic, Srdan; Cvejic, Zeljka

    2008-10-02

    Alumina/zirconia nanopowders, with up to 20 mol% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, were prepared by wet-chemical synthesis technique, using controlled hydrolysis of alkoxides. The as-synthesized powders are amorphous, have very high specific surface area and the corresponding particle size smaller than 4 nm. Amorphous powders with 0, 10 and 20 mol% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallize at 460, 692 and 749 deg. C, respectively, as a single-phase tetragonal zirconia, without any traces of alumina phases. Rietvled refinement of X-ray diffraction data, used for the detailed structural analysis of annealed nanopowders, showed that the high-temperature zirconia phase is stabilized due to the formation of ZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solid solutions. High solubility of alumina in the tetragonal zirconia (up to 28.6 at% Al{sup 3+}) and stabilization of tetragonal zirconia solid solution up to high temperature (as high as 1150 deg. C) were also confirmed.

  2. Dimensional reduction as a tool for mesh refinement and trackingsingularities of PDEs

    SciTech Connect

    Stinis, Panagiotis

    2007-06-10

    We present a collection of algorithms which utilizedimensional reduction to perform mesh refinement and study possiblysingular solutions of time-dependent partial differential equations. Thealgorithms are inspired by constructions used in statistical mechanics toevaluate the properties of a system near a critical point. The firstalgorithm allows the accurate determination of the time of occurrence ofa possible singularity. The second algorithm is an adaptive meshrefinement scheme which can be used to approach efficiently the possiblesingularity. Finally, the third algorithm uses the second algorithm untilthe available resolution is exhausted (as we approach the possiblesingularity) and then switches to a dimensionally reduced model which,when accurate, can follow faithfully the solution beyond the time ofoccurrence of the purported singularity. An accurate dimensionallyreduced model should dissipate energy at the right rate. We construct twovariants of each algorithm. The first variant assumes that we have actualknowledge of the reduced model. The second variant assumes that we knowthe form of the reduced model, i.e., the terms appearing in the reducedmodel, but not necessarily their coefficients. In this case, we alsoprovide a way of determining the coefficients. We present numericalresults for the Burgers equation with zero and nonzero viscosity toillustrate the use of the algorithms.

  3. Decontamination of metals by melt refinings/slagging: An annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Mizia, R.E.; Worcester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.

    1993-07-01

    As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult, the problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste storage problems, Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small scale melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of large scale melting demonstrations (100--500 lbs) to be conducted at selected facilities. The program will support recycling and decontaminating stainless steel RSM for use in waste canisters for Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility densified high level waste. This report is the result of the literature search conducted to establish a basis for experimental melt/slag program development.

  4. OPEC and lower oil prices: Impacts on production capacity, export refining, domestic demand and trade balances

    SciTech Connect

    Fesharaki, F.; Fridley, D.; Isaak, D.; Totto, L.; Wilson, T.

    1988-12-01

    The East-West Center has received a research grant from the US Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis to study the impact of lower oil prices on OPEC production capacity, on export refineries, and petroleum trade. The project was later extended to include balance-of-payments scenarios and impacts on OPEC domestic demand. As the study progressed, a number of preliminary presentations were made at the US Department of Energy in order to receive feedback from DOE officials and to refine the focus of our analysis. During one of the presentations on June 4, 1987, the then Director of Division of Oil and Gas, John Stanley-Miller, advised us to focus our work on the Persian Gulf countries, since these countries were of special interest to the United States Government. Since then, our team has visited Iran, the United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia and obtained detailed information from other countries. The political turmoil in the Gulf, the Iran/Iraq war, and the active US military presence have all worked to delay the final submission of our report. Even in countries where the United States has close ties, access to information has been difficult. In most countries, even mundane information on petroleum issues are treated as national secrets. As a result of these difficulties, we requested a one-year no cost extension to the grant and submitted an Interim Report in May 1988. As part of our grant extension request, we proposed to undertake additional tasks which appear in this report. 20 figs., 21 tabs.

  5. Petropower energia project under way in Chile promises refiner better economics at lower cost

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Construction of the Republic of Chile`s first public/private industrial partnership project is well under way. Ground was broken for the $232-million Petropower Energia Limitada project early this year, shortly after the final contract between the parties - Foster Wheeler Power Systems, Inc. (FWPS); Petrox S.A. Refineria de Petroleo and Empresa Nacional del Petroleo (ENAP) - was signed. The Petropower project, located adjacent to Petrox`s 84,000-b/d refinery in Talcahuano, represents the first project ever to combine petroleum coking technology with cogeneration technology in a single project financing. Petropower is 85% owned by FWPS, 7.5% by ENAP, the Chilean national oil company and parent of Petrox S.A. When completed in mid-1998, the Petropower project will enable Petrox to refine heavier crudes and enhance the refinery`s flexibility and economics. The project will consist of a delayed coking facility (a 12,000-b/d delayed coking unit and a 7,000-b/d hydrotreating plant) and a 67-MW (59 MW net) cogeneration plant. The coke produced will fuel a Foster Wheeler proprietary-design circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) boiler which will generate all the high-pressure steam and electric power needs of the Petrox refinery. This unit will be the first circulating fluidized-bed boiler to be built in Latin America. The cogeneration facility, using limestone as a reagent and equipped with a baghouse, will control SO{sub x} emissions from combustion of the green coke fuel and easily meet all Chilean environmental standards. Moreover, by constructing the cogeneration facility, Petrox will not have to proceed with capital improvements to existing facilities to ensure a reliable source of steam and electricity, resulting in substantial savings for Petrox. The cogeneration plant provides a permanent {open_quotes}disposal{close_quotes} for all coke produced by the delayed coker, thereby solving any future problems of unwanted or excess coke.

  6. Study of deactivation and regeneration of catalysts used in the LC-fining of solvent refined coal

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W. (Auburn Univ., AL); Guin, J.A.; Nalitham, R.; mohsin, A.; Tarrer, A.R.; Potts, J.D.; Hastings, K.E.

    1981-03-29

    Batch experiments as well as results from LC-Fining catalytic upgrading of coal extracts indicate deactivation of the Shell 324 Ni/Mo catalyst in the presence of solvent refined coal (SRC). At increased levels of SRC loading, deactivation increases. The chief cause of catalyst deactivation appears to be coking. The Shell 324 catalyst can be substantially regenerated after the upgrading reaction by medium temperature ashing followed by presulfiding.

  7. Techno-Economic Analysis of the Deacetylation and Disk Refining Process. Characterizing the Effect of Refining Energy and Enzyme Usage on Minimum Sugar Selling Price and Minimum Ethanol Selling Price

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaowen; Shekiro, Joseph; Pschorn, Thomas; Sabourin, Marc; Tucker, Melvin P.; Tao, Ling

    2015-10-29

    A novel, highly efficient deacetylation and disk refining (DDR) process to liberate fermentable sugars from biomass was recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The DDR process consists of a mild, dilute alkaline deacetylation step followed by low-energy-consumption disk refining. The DDR corn stover substrates achieved high process sugar conversion yields, at low to modest enzyme loadings, and also produced high sugar concentration syrups at high initial insoluble solid loadings. The sugar syrups derived from corn stover are highly fermentable due to low concentrations of fermentation inhibitors. The objective of this work is to evaluate the economic feasibility of the DDR process through a techno-economic analysis (TEA). A large array of experiments designed using a response surface methodology was carried out to investigate the two major cost-driven operational parameters of the novel DDR process: refining energy and enzyme loadings. The boundary conditions for refining energy (128–468 kWh/ODMT), cellulase (Novozyme’s CTec3) loading (11.6–28.4 mg total protein/g of cellulose), and hemicellulase (Novozyme’s HTec3) loading (0–5 mg total protein/g of cellulose) were chosen to cover the most commercially practical operating conditions. The sugar and ethanol yields were modeled with good adequacy, showing a positive linear correlation between those yields and refining energy and enzyme loadings. The ethanol yields ranged from 77 to 89 gallons/ODMT of corn stover. The minimum sugar selling price (MSSP) ranged from $0.191 to $0.212 per lb of 50 % concentrated monomeric sugars, while the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) ranged from $2.24 to $2.54 per gallon of ethanol. The DDR process concept is evaluated for economic feasibility through TEA. The MSSP and MESP of the DDR process falls within a range similar to that found with the deacetylation/dilute acid pretreatment process modeled in NREL’s 2011 design report. The DDR

  8. Techno-Economic Analysis of the Deacetylation and Disk Refining Process. Characterizing the Effect of Refining Energy and Enzyme Usage on Minimum Sugar Selling Price and Minimum Ethanol Selling Price

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Chen, Xiaowen; Shekiro, Joseph; Pschorn, Thomas; Sabourin, Marc; Tucker, Melvin P.; Tao, Ling

    2015-10-29

    A novel, highly efficient deacetylation and disk refining (DDR) process to liberate fermentable sugars from biomass was recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The DDR process consists of a mild, dilute alkaline deacetylation step followed by low-energy-consumption disk refining. The DDR corn stover substrates achieved high process sugar conversion yields, at low to modest enzyme loadings, and also produced high sugar concentration syrups at high initial insoluble solid loadings. The sugar syrups derived from corn stover are highly fermentable due to low concentrations of fermentation inhibitors. The objective of this work is to evaluate the economic feasibilitymore » of the DDR process through a techno-economic analysis (TEA). A large array of experiments designed using a response surface methodology was carried out to investigate the two major cost-driven operational parameters of the novel DDR process: refining energy and enzyme loadings. The boundary conditions for refining energy (128–468 kWh/ODMT), cellulase (Novozyme’s CTec3) loading (11.6–28.4 mg total protein/g of cellulose), and hemicellulase (Novozyme’s HTec3) loading (0–5 mg total protein/g of cellulose) were chosen to cover the most commercially practical operating conditions. The sugar and ethanol yields were modeled with good adequacy, showing a positive linear correlation between those yields and refining energy and enzyme loadings. The ethanol yields ranged from 77 to 89 gallons/ODMT of corn stover. The minimum sugar selling price (MSSP) ranged from $0.191 to $0.212 per lb of 50 % concentrated monomeric sugars, while the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) ranged from $2.24 to $2.54 per gallon of ethanol. The DDR process concept is evaluated for economic feasibility through TEA. The MSSP and MESP of the DDR process falls within a range similar to that found with the deacetylation/dilute acid pretreatment process modeled in NREL’s 2011 design report. The

  9. Monitoring objects orbiting earth using satellite-based telescopes

    DOEpatents

    Olivier, Scot S.; Pertica, Alexander J.; Riot, Vincent J.; De Vries, Willem H.; Bauman, Brian J.; Nikolaev, Sergei; Henderson, John R.; Phillion, Donald W.

    2015-06-30

    An ephemeris refinement system includes satellites with imaging devices in earth orbit to make observations of space-based objects ("target objects") and a ground-based controller that controls the scheduling of the satellites to make the observations of the target objects and refines orbital models of the target objects. The ground-based controller determines when the target objects of interest will be near enough to a satellite for that satellite to collect an image of the target object based on an initial orbital model for the target objects. The ground-based controller directs the schedules to be uploaded to the satellites, and the satellites make observations as scheduled and download the observations to the ground-based controller. The ground-based controller then refines the initial orbital models of the target objects based on the locations of the target objects that are derived from the observations.

  10. Refinement of Modeling Techniques for the Structural Evaluation of Hanford Single-Shell Nuclear Waste Storage Tanks - 12288

    SciTech Connect

    Karri, Naveen K.; Rinker, Michael W.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Bapanapalli, Satish K.

    2012-07-01

    The single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site (in Washington State, USA) were constructed between 1943 and 1964 and are well beyond their estimated 25 year design life. This article discusses the structural analysis approach and modeling challenges encountered during the ongoing analysis of record for evaluating the structural integrity of the single-shell tanks. There are several geometrical and material nonlinearities and uncertainties to be dealt with while performing the modern finite element analysis of these tanks. The analysis takes into account the temperature history of the tanks and allowable mechanical operating loads for proper estimation of creep strains and thermal degradation of material properties. The loads prescribed in the analysis of record models also include anticipated loads that may occur during waste retrieval and closure. Due to uncertainty in a number of modeling details, sensitivity studies were conducted to address questions related to boundary conditions that realistically or conservatively represent the influence of surrounding tanks in a tank farm, the influence of backfill excavation slope, the extent of backfill and the total extent of undisturbed soil surrounding the backfill. Because of the limited availability of data on the thermal and operating history for many of the individual tanks, some of the data was assumed or interpolated. However, the models developed for the analysis of record represent the bounding scenarios and include the loading conditions that the tanks were subjected to or anticipated. The modeling refinement techniques followed in the analysis of record resulted in conservative estimates for force and moment demands at various sections in the concrete tanks. This article discusses the modeling aspects related to Type-II and Type-III single-shell tanks. The modeling techniques, methodology and evaluation criteria developed for evaluating the structural integrity of single-shell tanks at Hanford are in general

  11. A Freestream-Preserving High-Order Finite-Volume Method for Mapped Grids with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, S; McCorquodale, P; Colella, P

    2011-12-16

    A fourth-order accurate finite-volume method is presented for solving time-dependent hyperbolic systems of conservation laws on mapped grids that are adaptively refined in space and time. Novel considerations for formulating the semi-discrete system of equations in computational space combined with detailed mechanisms for accommodating the adapting grids ensure that conservation is maintained and that the divergence of a constant vector field is always zero (freestream-preservation property). Advancement in time is achieved with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method.

  12. ,"U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales Volumes"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales Volumes",4,"Monthly","8/2016","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","11/1/2016" ,"Next Release

  13. Interdisciplinary Economist/Operations Research Analyst/Survey Statistician

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located within Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Statistics, Assistant Administrator for Energy Statistics, U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) The Office of...

  14. Analyst-Driven Knowledge Enhancement & Analysis version 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2008-06-27

    AKEA provides tools for the creation, maintenance, visualization, and analysis of information expressed in semantic graph form. It is capable of taking information expressed in unstructured text documents or structured data documents (e.g., spreadsheets, databases), ingesting it and extracting entities and relationships of interest, then presenting said information in graphical form. In addition, it contains tools for applying traditional social network analysis algorithms to the generated graphs in order to identify key players or entitiesmorewith particular characteristics, geospatial and temporal visualization of said data, and user-controlled storage of information to support future analysis needs.less

  15. Analyst-Driven Knowledge Enhancement & Analysis version 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2008-06-27

    AKEA provides tools for the creation, maintenance, visualization, and analysis of information expressed in semantic graph form. It is capable of taking information expressed in unstructured text documents or structured data documents (e.g., spreadsheets, databases), ingesting it and extracting entities and relationships of interest, then presenting said information in graphical form. In addition, it contains tools for applying traditional social network analysis algorithms to the generated graphs in order to identify key players or entitiesmore » with particular characteristics, geospatial and temporal visualization of said data, and user-controlled storage of information to support future analysis needs.« less

  16. Analyst-Driven Knowledge Enhancement & Analysis version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-27

    AKEA provides tools for the creation, maintenance, visualization, and analysis of information expressed in semantic graph form. It is capable of taking information expressed in unstructured text documents or structured data documents (e.g., spreadsheets, databases), ingesting it and extracting entities and relationships of interest, then presenting said information in graphical form. In addition, it contains tools for applying traditional social network analysis algorithms to the generated graphs in order to identify key players or entities with particular characteristics, geospatial and temporal visualization of said data, and user-controlled storage of information to support future analysis needs.

  17. Sr. Business Analyst - Supply Chain Mgmt. (Term Position) | Princeton...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Supply Chain Mgmt. (Term Position) Department: Business Operations Supervisor(s): Jaclyn Pursell Staff: AM 5 Requisition Number: 1500993 Princeton Plasma Physics Lab (PPPL) is...

  18. Cost/Price Analyst | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    subcontracts. *Act as a consultant and provide advice to Cost Compliance personnel on the pricing of complex contracts andor agreements. *Perform analysis and provide assistance...

  19. 10 Questions for a Wind & Solar Integration Analyst: Kirsten Orwig

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Kirsten Orwig shares how her experiences in storm chasing led her to this position at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and why understanding meteorology is important for advancing reliable solar and wind energy.

  20. On the Use of ARM Data in the Validation and Refinement of a...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    48, 3391-3409. Stephens, G. L., et al., 2003: The CloudSat mission and the A-Train: A new dimension of space-based observations of clouds and precipitation. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc.,...

  1. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC GRID ADAPTATION IN A GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC MODEL: APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Gutowski, William J.; Prusa, Joseph M.; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.

    2012-05-08

    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG's advanced dynamics core with the "physics" of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer-reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited. 3a. EULAG Advances EULAG is a non-hydrostatic, parallel computational model for all-scale geophysical flows. EULAG's name derives from its two computational options: EULerian (flux form) or semi-LAGrangian (advective form). The model combines nonoscillatory forward-in-time (NFT) numerical algorithms with a robust elliptic Krylov solver. A signature feature of EULAG is that it is formulated in generalized time-dependent curvilinear coordinates. In particular, this enables grid adaptivity. In total, these features give EULAG novel advantages over many existing dynamical cores. For EULAG itself, numerical advances included refining boundary conditions and filters for optimizing model performance in polar regions. We also added flexibility to the model's underlying formulation, allowing it to work with the pseudo-compressible equation set of Durran in addition to EULAG's standard anelastic formulation. Work in collaboration with others also extended the demonstrated range of

  2. Refining and end use study of coal liquids II - linear programming analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, C.; Tam, S.

    1995-12-31

    A DOE-funded study is underway to determine the optimum refinery processing schemes for producing transportation fuels that will meet CAAA regulations from direct and indirect coal liquids. The study consists of three major parts: pilot plant testing of critical upgrading processes, linear programming analysis of different processing schemes, and engine emission testing of final products. Currently, fractions of a direct coal liquid produced form bituminous coal are being tested in sequence of pilot plant upgrading processes. This work is discussed in a separate paper. The linear programming model, which is the subject of this paper, has been completed for the petroleum refinery and is being modified to handle coal liquids based on the pilot plant test results. Preliminary coal liquid evaluation studies indicate that, if a refinery expansion scenario is adopted, then the marginal value of the coal liquid (over the base petroleum crude) is $3-4/bbl.

  3. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Annual technical progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This report discusses the effects on SRC yields of seven process variables (reactor temperature, SRT, hydrogen partial pressure, recycle ash and coal concentrations, gas velocity and coal type) predicted by second-order regression models developed from a data base containing pilot plant data with both Kentucky and Powhatan coals. The only effect of coal type in the model is a shift in each yield by a constant factor. Although some differences were found between the models developed from the Kentucky data base (1) (which we call Kentucky models) and the pooled coal models, the general conclusions of the previous report are confirmed by the new models and the assumption of similar behavior of the two coals appears to be justified. In some respects the dependence of the yields (MAF coal basis) on variables such as pressure and temperature are clearer than in the previous models. The principal trends which emerge are discussed.

  4. Carbide/nitride grain refined rare earth-iron-boron permanent magnet and method of making

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R. William; Branagan, Daniel J.

    1996-01-23

    A method of making a permanent magnet wherein 1) a melt is formed having a base alloy composition comprising RE, Fe and/or Co, and B (where RE is one or more rare earth elements) and 2) TR (where TR is a transition metal selected from at least one of Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, and Al) and at least one of C and N are provided in the base alloy composition melt in substantially stoichiometric amounts to form a thermodynamically stable compound (e.g. TR carbide, nitride or carbonitride). The melt is rapidly solidified in a manner to form particulates having a substantially amorphous (metallic glass) structure and a dispersion of primary TRC, TRN and/or TRC/N precipitates. The amorphous particulates are heated above the crystallization temperature of the base alloy composition to nucleate and grow a hard magnetic phase to an optimum grain size and to form secondary TRC, TRN and/or TRC/N precipitates dispersed at grain boundaries. The crystallized particulates are consolidated at an elevated temperature to form a shape. During elevated temperature consolidation, the primary and secondary precipitates act to pin the grain boundaries and minimize deleterious grain growth that is harmful to magnetic properties.

  5. Carbide/nitride grain refined rare earth-iron-boron permanent magnet and method of making

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R.W.; Branagan, D.J.

    1996-01-23

    A method of making a permanent magnet is disclosed wherein (1) a melt is formed having a base alloy composition comprising RE, Fe and/or Co, and B (where RE is one or more rare earth elements) and (2) TR (where TR is a transition metal selected from at least one of Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, and Al) and at least one of C and N are provided in the base alloy composition melt in substantially stoichiometric amounts to form a thermodynamically stable compound (e.g. TR carbide, nitride or carbonitride). The melt is rapidly solidified in a manner to form particulates having a substantially amorphous (metallic glass) structure and a dispersion of primary TRC, TRN and/or TRC/N precipitates. The amorphous particulates are heated above the crystallization temperature of the base alloy composition to nucleate and grow a hard magnetic phase to an optimum grain size and to form secondary TRC, TRN and/or TRC/N precipitates dispersed at grain boundaries. The crystallized particulates are consolidated at an elevated temperature to form a shape. During elevated temperature consolidation, the primary and secondary precipitates act to pin the grain boundaries and minimize deleterious grain growth that is harmful to magnetic properties. 33 figs.

  6. Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) and Its Application to Grain Refinement of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Tekeli, Sueleyman; Gueral, Ahmet

    2011-12-10

    Microstructure of a metal can be considerably changed by severe plastic deformation techniques such as high pressure torsion, extrusion and equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP). Among these methods, ECAP is particularly attractive because it has a potential for introducing significant grain refinement and homogeneous microstructure into bulk materials. Typically, it reduces the grain size to the submicrometer level or even nanometer range and thus produces materials that are capable of exhibiting unusual mechanical properties. In the present study, a test unites for equal channel angular pressing was constructed and this system was used for Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. After the optimization tests, it was seen that the most effective lubricant for the dies was MoS{sub 2}, the pressing pressure was around 25-35 ton and the pressing speed was 2 mm/s. By using these parameters, the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy was successfully ECAPed up to 14 passes at 200 deg. C using route C. After ECAP tests, the specimens were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), hardness and macrostructural investigations. It was seen that the plastic deformation in the ECAPed specimens occurred from edge to the centre like whirlpool. In addition, the deformation intensity increased with increasing pass number. The grain size of the specimens effectively also decreased with increasing pass number. That is, while the grain size of unECAPed specimen was 10 {mu}m, this value decreased to 300 nm after 14 passes. At the beginning, while there was a banding tendency in the grains toward deformation direction, homogeneous and equiaxed grains were formed with increasing pass number. This grain refinement was as a result of an interaction between shear strain and thermal recovery during ECAP processing. Hardness measurements showed that the hardness values increased up to 4 passes, decreased effectively at 6th pass, again increased at 8th pass and after this pass, the hardness again decreased due to

  7. Lignin-Derived Carbon Fiber as a Co-Product of Refining Cellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Langholtz, Matthew H.; Downing, Mark; Graham, Robin Lambert; Baker, Fred S.; Compere, Alicia L.; William L. Griffith; Boeman, Raymond G.; Keller, Martin

    2014-01-15

    Lignin by-products from biorefineries has the potential to provide a low-cost alternative to petroleum-based precursors to manufacture carbon fiber, which can be combined with a binding matrix to produce a structural material with much greater specific strength and specific stiffness than conventional materials such as steel and aluminum. The market for carbon fiber is universally projected to grow exponentially to fill the needs of clean energy technologies such as wind turbines and to improve the fuel economies in vehicles through lightweighting. In addition to cellulosic biofuel production, lignin-based carbon fiber production coupled with biorefineries may provide $2,400 to $3,600 added value dry Mg-1 of biomass for vehicle applications. Compared to producing ethanol alone, the addition of lignin-derived carbon fiber could increase biorefinery gross revenue by 30% to 300%. Using lignin-derived carbon fiber in 15 million vehicles per year in the US could reduce fossil fuel consumption by 2-5 billion liters year-1, reduce CO2 emissions by about 6.7 million Mg year-1, and realize fuel savings through vehicle lightweighting of $700 to $1,600 per Mg biomass processed. The value of fuel savings from vehicle lightweighting becomes economical at carbon fiber price of $6.60 kg-1 under current fuel prices, or $13.20 kg-1 under fuel prices of about $1.16 l-1.

  8. Scheduler for monitoring objects orbiting earth using satellite-based telescopes

    DOEpatents

    Olivier, Scot S; Pertica, Alexander J; Riot, Vincent J; De Vries, Willem H; Bauman, Brian J; Nikolaev, Sergei; Henderson, John R; Phillion, Donald W

    2015-04-28

    An ephemeris refinement system includes satellites with imaging devices in earth orbit to make observations of space-based objects ("target objects") and a ground-based controller that controls the scheduling of the satellites to make the observations of the target objects and refines orbital models of the target objects. The ground-based controller determines when the target objects of interest will be near enough to a satellite for that satellite to collect an image of the target object based on an initial orbital model for the target objects. The ground-based controller directs the schedules to be uploaded to the satellites, and the satellites make observations as scheduled and download the observations to the ground-based controller. The ground-based controller then refines the initial orbital models of the target objects based on the locations of the target objects that are derived from the observations.

  9. Issues affecting the refining sector of the petroleum industry. Hearings before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, May 19, 1992 and May 28, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    The purpose of this hearing is to look at the challenges facing the petroleum refining industry that are a direct result of recent Federal Government policy changes. A major challenge is the form of compliance with the new Federal environmental laws. The biggest challenge will be the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Compliance will require the refining industry to change both the way it operates and the motor fuels that it produces. The witnesses first address how these new laws affect refinery operations, refinery output, and the distribution of refined products. Secondly, what will it cost the refining industry to implement these laws and how will this affect the cost of refined products. Thirdly, how will these laws affect the structure and competitiveness of the refining industry. Statements of various senators and industry representatives are included in the hearing. Statistical data for 1989 is presented showing the scope of industry activities. 8 figs., 16 refs., 32 tabs.

  10. Catalytic multi-stage process for hydroconversion and refining hydrocarbon feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Comolli, Alfred G.; Lee, Lap-Keung

    2001-01-01

    A multi-stage catalytic hydrogenation and hydroconversion process for heavy hydrocarbon feed materials such as coal, heavy petroleum fractions, and plastic waste materials. In the process, the feedstock is reacted in a first-stage, back-mixed catalytic reactor with a highly dispersed iron-based catalyst having a powder, gel or liquid form. The reactor effluent is pressure-reduced, vapors and light distillate fractions are removed overhead, and the heavier liquid fraction is fed to a second stage back-mixed catalytic reactor. The first and second stage catalytic reactors are operated at 700-850.degree. F. temperature, 1000-3500 psig hydrogen partial pressure and 20-80 lb./hr per ft.sup.3 reactor space velocity. The vapor and light distillates liquid fractions removed from both the first and second stage reactor effluent streams are combined and passed to an in-line, fixed-bed catalytic hydrotreater for heteroatom removal and for producing high quality naphtha and mid-distillate or a full-range distillate product. The remaining separator bottoms liquid fractions are distilled at successive atmospheric and vacuum pressures, low and intermediate-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products are withdrawn, and heavier distillate fractions are recycled and further upgraded to provide additional low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products. This catalytic multistage hydrogenation process provides improved flexibility for hydroprocessing the various carbonaceous feedstocks and adjusting to desired product structures and for improved economy of operations.

  11. Identifying high energy density stream-reaches through refined geospatial resolution in hydropower resource assessment

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Pasha, M. Fayzul K.; Yang, Majntxov; Yeasmin, Dilruba; Saetern, Sen; Kao, Shih -Chieh; Smith, Brennan T.

    2016-01-07

    Benefited from the rapid development of multiple geospatial data sets on topography, hydrology, and existing energy-water infrastructures, the reconnaissance level hydropower resource assessment can now be conducted using geospatial models in all regions of the US. Furthermore, the updated techniques can be used to estimate the total undeveloped hydropower potential across all regions, and may eventually help identify further hydropower opportunities that were previously overlooked. To enhance the characterization of higher energy density stream-reaches, this paper explored the sensitivity of geospatial resolution on the identification of hydropower stream-reaches using the geospatial merit matrix based hydropower resource assessment (GMM-HRA) model. GMM-HRAmore » model simulation was conducted with eight different spatial resolutions on six U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 8-digit hydrologic units (HUC8) located at three different terrains; Flat, Mild, and Steep. The results showed that more hydropower potential from higher energy density stream-reaches can be identified with increasing spatial resolution. Both Flat and Mild terrains exhibited lower impacts compared to the Steep terrain. Consequently, greater attention should be applied when selecting the discretization resolution for hydropower resource assessments in the future study.« less

  12. Retrocausal Effects as a Consequence of Quantum Mechanics Refined to Accommodate the Principle of Sufficient Reason

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-05-10

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at the pragmatic level, in cases where the reason behind nature's choice of response is unknown, but that the usual statistics can become biased in an empirically manifest way when the reason for the choice is empirically identifiable. It is shown here that if the statistical laws of quantum mechanics were to be biased in this way then the basically forward-in-time unfolding of empirical reality described by orthodox quantum mechanics would generate the appearances of backward-time-effects of the kind that have been reported in the scientific literature.

  13. Surface Protonation at the Rutile (110) Interface: Explicit Incorporation of Solvation Structure within the Refined MUSIC Model Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Machesky, Michael L.; Predota, M.; Wesolowski, David J

    2008-11-01

    The detailed solvation structure at the (110) surface of rutile ({alpha}-TiO{sub 2}) in contact with bulk liquid water has been obtained primarily from experimentally verified classical molecular dynamics (CMD) simulations of the ab initio-optimized surface in contact with SPC/E water. The results are used to explicitly quantify H-bonding interactions, which are then used within the refined MUSIC model framework to predict surface oxygen protonation constants. Quantum mechanical molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations in the presence of freely dissociable water molecules produced H-bond distributions around deprotonated surface oxygens very similar to those obtained by CMD with nondissociable SPC/E water, thereby confirming that the less computationally intensive CMD simulations provide accurate H-bond information. Utilizing this H-bond information within the refined MUSIC model, along with manually adjusted Ti-O surface bond lengths that are nonetheless within 0.05 {angstrom} of those obtained from static density functional theory (DFT) calculations and measured in X-ray reflectivity experiments (as well as bulk crystal values), give surface protonation constants that result in a calculated zero net proton charge pH value (pHznpc) at 25 C that agrees quantitatively with the experimentally determined value (5.4 {+-} 0.2) for a specific rutile powder dominated by the (110) crystal face. Moreover, the predicted pH{sub znpc} values agree to within 0.1 pH unit with those measured at all temperatures between 10 and 250 C. A slightly smaller manual adjustment of the DFT-derived Ti-O surface bond lengths was sufficient to bring the predicted pH{sub znpc} value of the rutile (110) surface at 25 C into quantitative agreement with the experimental value (4.8 {+-} 0.3) obtained from a polished and annealed rutile (110) single crystal surface in contact with dilute sodium nitrate solutions using second harmonic generation (SHG) intensity measurements as a function of ionic

  14. Technology demonstration for reducing mercury emissions from small-scale gold refining facilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Habegger, L. J.; Fernandez, L. E.; Engle, M.; Bailey, J. L.; Peterson, D. P.; MacDonell, M. M.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2008-06-30

    coagulation and collection of the mercury aerosols in exhaust ducts, which is dependent on the hood and collector configuration, was also evaluated. Prototype demonstration tests verified the theoretical basis for mercury aerosol capture that can be used to optimize the baffle plate design, flow rates, and hood exhaust ducts and plenum to achieve 80% or higher removal efficiencies. Results indicated that installation configuration significantly influences a system's capture efficiency. Configurations that retained existing inlet ducts resulted in system efficiencies of more than 80%, whereas installation configurations without inlet ducts significantly reduced capture efficiency. As an alternative to increasing the volume of inlet ducts, the number of baffle plates in the system baffle assembly could be doubled to increase efficiency. Recommended installation and operation procedures were developed on the basis of these results. A water-based mercury capture system developed in Indonesia for installation in smaller shops was also tested and shown to be effective for certain applications. The cost of construction and installation of the baffle plate prototype was approximately US$400. These costs were reported as acceptable by local gold shop owners and government regulators, and were significantly lower than the cost of an alternate charcoal/copper mesh mercury filter available in the region, which costs about US$10,000. A sampling procedure that consists of a particle filter combined with a vapor analyzer was demonstrated as an effective procedure for analyzing both the aerosol and vapor components of the mercury concentrations. Two key findings for enhancing higher mercury collection were identified. First, the aerosol/vapor mercury emissions must be given sufficient time for the mercury particles to coagulate to a size that can be readily captured by the baffle plates. An interval of at least 6 seconds of transit time between the point of evaporation and contact with the

  15. A top-down assessment of energy, water and land use in uranium mining, milling, and refining

    SciTech Connect

    E. Schneider; B. Carlsen; E. Tavrides; C. van der Hoeven; U. Phathanapirom

    2013-11-01

    Land, water and energy use are key measures of the sustainability of uranium production into the future. As the most attractive, accessible deposits are mined out, future discoveries may prove to be significantly, perhaps unsustainably, more intensive consumers of environmental resources. A number of previous attempts have been made to provide empirical relationships connecting these environmental impact metrics to process variables such as stripping ratio and ore grade. These earlier attempts were often constrained by a lack of real world data and perform poorly when compared against data from modern operations. This paper conditions new empirical models of energy, water and land use in uranium mining, milling, and refining on contemporary data reported by operating mines. It shows that, at present, direct energy use from uranium production represents less than 1% of the electrical energy produced by the once-through fuel cycle. Projections of future energy intensity from uranium production are also possible by coupling the empirical models with estimates of uranium crustal abundance, characteristics of new discoveries, and demand. The projections show that even for the most pessimistic of scenarios considered, by 2100, the direct energy use from uranium production represents less than 3% of the electrical energy produced by the contemporary once-through fuel cycle.

  16. Structure of 2 molar NaOH in aqueous solution from neutron diffraction and empirical potential structure refinement

    SciTech Connect

    McLain, Sylvia E.; Imberti, Silvia; Soper, Alan K.; Botti, Alberto; Bruni, Fabio; Ricci, Maria Antonietta

    2006-09-01

    Neutron diffraction with isotopic substitution has been used to investigate aqueous solutions of 2M NaOH in the liquid state. The data were modeled using empirical potential structure refinement which allows for the extraction of the ion-water and water-water correlations. The data show that the ion-water radial distribution functions are in accordance with those found by previous studies on NaOH solutions and follow a trend which is dependent on the concentration of the solute. In particular, the shape of the hydroxide hydration shell is found to be concentration independent, but the number of water molecules occupying this shell increases with dilution. Additionally, the water-water correlations show that there is still a measurable effect on water structure with the addition of ions at this concentration, as the second shell in the water oxygen radial distribution function is compressed relative to the first shell. The data are also used to discuss the recent claims that the published radial distribution functions of water are unreliable, showing that data taken at different neutron sources, with different diffraction geometry and systematic errors lead to the same structural information when analyzed via a realistic modeling regime.

  17. Summary of Findings from the Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI): Corn Stover Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Elander, R. T.; Dale, B. E.; Holtzapple, M.; Ladisch, M. R.; Lee, Y. Y.; Mitchinson, C.; Saddler, J. N.; Wyman, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    The Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation, with members from Auburn University, Dartmouth College, Michigan State University, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Purdue University, Texas A&M University, the University of British Columbia, and the University of California at Riverside, has developed comparative data on the conversion of corn stover to sugars by several leading pretreatment technologies. These technologies include ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment, ammonia recycle percolation pretreatment, dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment, flowthrough pretreatment (hot water or dilute acid), lime pretreatment, controlled pH hot water pretreatment, and sulfur dioxide steam explosion pretreatment. Over the course of two separate USDA- and DOE-funded projects, these pretreatment technologies were applied to two different corn stover batches, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the remaining solids from each pretreatment technology using identical enzyme preparations, enzyme loadings, and enzymatic hydrolysis assays. Identical analytical methods and a consistent material balance methodology were employed to develop comparative sugar yield data for each pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Although there were differences in the profiles of sugar release, with the more acidic pretreatments releasing more xylose directly in the pretreatment step than the alkaline pretreatments, the overall glucose and xylose yields (monomers + oligomers) from combined pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis process steps were very similar for all of these leading pretreatment technologies. Some of the water-only and alkaline pretreatment technologies resulted in significant amounts of residual xylose oligomers still remaining after enzymatic hydrolysis that may require specialized enzyme preparations to fully convert xylose oligomers to monomers.

  18. Coal Reserves Data Base report. Final report on the Demonstrated Reserve Base (DRB) of coal in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.W.; Glass, G.B.

    1991-12-05

    The Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program is a cooperative data base development program sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The objective of the CRDB Program is to involve knowledgeable coal resource authorities from the major coal-bearing regions in EIA`s effort to update the Nation`s coal reserves data. This report describes one of two prototype studies to update State-level reserve estimates. The CRDB data are intended for use in coal supply analyses and to support analyses of policy and legislative issues. They will be available to both Government and non-Government analysts. The data also will be part of the information used to supply United States energy data for international data bases and for inquiries from private industry and the public. (VC)

  19. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-07-16

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  20. Method for mercury refinement

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; Speer, Richard; George, William A.

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the .sup.196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering.

  1. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; Speer, Richard; George, William A.

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the .sup.196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering.

  2. Method for mercury refinement

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-04-09

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  3. Weekly Refiner Net Production

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Finished Motor Gasoline 1,393 1,411 1,540 1,466 1,508 1,516 2010-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) ... Notes: Finished motor gasoline does not include adjustments for fuel ethanol and motor ...

  4. Refining climate models

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Jeff; Iversen, Colleen; Brooks, Jonathan; Ricciuto, Daniel

    2012-10-31

    Using dogwood trees, Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers are gaining a better understanding of the role photosynthesis and respiration play in the atmospheric carbon dioxide cycle. Their findings will aid computer modelers in improving the accuracy of climate simulations.

  5. Refining climate models

    ScienceCinema

    Warren, Jeff; Iversen, Colleen; Brooks, Jonathan; Ricciuto, Daniel

    2016-07-12

    Using dogwood trees, Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers are gaining a better understanding of the role photosynthesis and respiration play in the atmospheric carbon dioxide cycle. Their findings will aid computer modelers in improving the accuracy of climate simulations.

  6. ,"Weekly Refiner Net Production"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...2,4636,4056,98,482,3,1609,568 41082,2437,159,766,1005,226,280,122,103,19,2315,368,368,0,1947,4465,3923,138,404,-15,1577,528 41089,2342,143,828,865,225,281,107,90,17,2235,383,383,0,...

  7. Refinement of Modeling Techniques for the Structural Evaluation of Hanford Single-Shell Nuclear Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Karri, Naveen K.; Rinker, Michael W.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Bapanapalli, Satish K.

    2012-03-01

    Abstract: A total of 149 tanks out of 177 at the Hanford Site (in Washington State, USA) belong to the first generation of underground nuclear waste storage tanks known as single shell tanks (SSTs). These tanks were constructed between 1943 and 1964 and are well beyond their design life. All the SSTs had been removed from active service by November 1980 and have been later interim stabilized by removing the pumpable liquids. The remaining waste in the tanks is in the form of salt cake and sludge awaiting r permanent disposal.. The evaluation of the structural integrity of these tanks is of utmost importance not only for the continued safe storage of the waste until waste retrieval and closure, but also to assure safe retrieval and closure operations. This article discusses the structural analysis approach, modeling challenges and issues encountered during the ongoing analysis of record (AOR) for evaluating the structural integrity of the SSTs. There are several geometrical and material nonlinearities and uncertainties to be dealt with while performing the modern finite element analysis of these tanks. Several studies were conducted to refine the models in order to minimize modeling artifacts introduced by soil arching, boundary effects, concrete cracking, and concrete-soil interface behavior. The analysis takes into account the temperature history of the tanks and allowable mechanical operating loads of these tanks for proper estimation of creep strains and thermal degradation of material properties. The loads imposed in the AOR models also include anticipated loads that these tanks may see during waste retrieval and closure. Due to uncertainty in a number of inputs to the models, sensitivity studies were conducted to address questions related to the boundary conditions to realistically or conservatively represent the influence of surrounding tanks in a tank farm, the influence of backfill excavation slope, the extent of backfill and the total extent of undisturbed

  8. Refinement of Modeling Techniques for the Structural Evaluation of Hanford Single-Shell Nuclear Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Karri, Naveen K.; Rinker, Michael W.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Bapanapalli, Satish K.

    2012-11-10

    ABSTRACT Several tanks at the Hanford Site (in Washington State, USA) belong to the first generation of underground nuclear waste storage tanks known as single shell tanks (SSTs). These tanks were constructed between 1943 and 1964 and are well beyond their design life. This article discusses the structural analysis approach and modeling challenges encountered during the ongoing analysis of record (AOR) for evaluating the structural integrity of the SSTs. There are several geometrical and material nonlinearities and uncertainties to be dealt with while performing the modern finite element analysis of these tanks. The analysis takes into account the temperature history of the tanks and allowable mechanical operating loads of these tanks for proper estimation of creep strains and thermal degradation of material properties. The loads prescribed in the AOR models also include anticipated loads that these tanks may see during waste retrieval and closure. Due to uncertainty in a number of inputs to the models, sensitivity studies were conducted to address questions related to the boundary conditions to realistically or conservatively represent the influence of surrounding tanks in a tank farm, the influence of backfill excavation slope, the extent of backfill and the total extent of undisturbed soil surrounding the backfill. Because of the limited availability of data on the thermal and operating history for many of the individual tanks, some of the data was assumed or interpolated. However, the models developed for the analysis of record represent the bounding scenarios and include the loading conditions that the tanks were subjected to or anticipated. The modeling refinement techniques followed in the AOR resulted in conservative estimates for force and moment demands at various sections in the concrete tanks. This article discusses the modeling aspects related to Type-II and Type-III SSTs. The modeling techniques, methodology and evaluation criteria developed for

  9. Chemical coal cleaning process and costs refinement for coal-water slurry manufacture. Semi-annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bhasin, A.K.; Berggren, M.H.; Smit, F.J.; Ames, L.B.; Ronzio, N.J.

    1985-03-01

    The Department of Energy, through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), has initiated a program to determine the feasibility and potential applications for direct firing of coal and coal-derived fuels in heat engines, specifically gas turbines and diesel engines. AMAX Extractive Research and Development, Inc. supplied METC with two lots of highly beneficiated coal slurry fuel for use in the Heat Engines programs. One of the lots was of ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (UCCSF) for which a two-stage caustic and acid leaching procedure was developed to chemically clean the coal. As a part of the contract, AMAX R and D developed a conceptual design and preliminary cost estimate for a commercial-scale process for UCCSF manufacture. The contract was extended to include the following objectives: define chemical cleaning and slurry preparation process conditions and costs more precisely; investigate methods to reduce the product cost; and determine the relationship, in dollars per million Btu, between product cost and fuel quality. Laboratory investigations have been carried out to define the chemical cleaning process conditions required to generate fuels containing from 0.17 to 1.0% ash. Capital and operating cost refinements are to be performed on the basis of the preferred process operating conditions identified during the laboratory investigations. Several such areas for cost reductions have been identified. Caustic strengths from 2 to 7% NaOH are currently anticipated while 25% NaOH was used as the basis for the preliminary cost estimate. In addition, leaching times for each of the process steps have been reduced to half or less of the times used for the preliminary cost estimate. Improvement of fuel quality has been achieved by use of a proprietary hot-water leaching step to reduce the residual alkali content to less than 250 ppM (Na/sub 2/O plus K/sub 2/O) on a dry coal basis. 2 refs., 3 figs., 24 tabs.

  10. A recombination outside the BB deletion refines the location of the X-linked retinitis pigmentosa locus RP3

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, R.; Bingham, E.; Forsythe, P.; McHenry, C.

    1996-07-01

    Genetic loci for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) have been mapped between Xp11.22 and Xp22.13 (RP2, RP3, RP6, and RP15). The RP3 gene, which is responsible for the predominant form of XLRP in most Caucasian populations, has been localized to Xp21.1 by linkage analysis and the map positions of chromosomal deletions associated with the disease. Previous linkage studies have suggested that RP3 is flanked by the markers DXS1110 (distal) and OTC (proximal). Patient BB was though to have RP because of a lesion at the RP3 locus, in addition to chronic granulomatous disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), mild mental retardation, and the McLeod phenotype. This patient carried a deletion extending {approximately}3 Mb from DMD in Xp21.3 to Xp21.1, with the proximal breakpoint located {approximately}40 kb centromeric to DXS1110. The RP3 gene, therefore, is believed to reside between DXS1110 and the proximal breakpoint of the BB deletion. In order to refine the location of RP3 and to ascertain patients with RP3, we have been analyzing several XLRP families for linkage to Xp markers. Linkage analysis in an American family of 27 individuals demonstrates segregation of XLRP with markers in Xp21.1, consistent with the RP3 subtype. One affected male shows a recombination event proximal to DXS1110. Additional markers within the DXS1110-OTC interval show that the crossover is between two novel polymorphic markers, DXS8349 and M6, both of which are present in BB DNA and lie centromeric to the proximal breakpoint. This recombination places the XLRP mutation in this family outside the BB deletion and redefines the location of RP3. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Decontamination of metals by melt refining/slagging. An annotated bibliography: Update on stainless steel and steel

    SciTech Connect

    Worchester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.; Mizia, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The following presentation is an update to a previous annotation, i.e., WINCO-1138. The literature search and annotated review covers all metals used in the nuclear industries but the emphasis of this update is directed toward work performed on mild steels. As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult, the problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste problems, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co (LITCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small wide melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of large scale melting demonstrations (100--2,000 lbs) to be conducted at selected facilities. The program will support recycling and decontaminating stainless steel RSM for use in waste canisters for Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility densified high level waste and Pit 9/RWMC boxes. This report is the result of the literature search conducted to establish a basis for experimental melt/slag program development. The program plan will be jointly developed by Montana Tech and LITCO.

  12. Simultaneous use of solution NMR and X-ray data in REFMAC5 for joint refinement/detection of structural differences

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldelli, Mauro; Ravera, Enrico; Calderone, Vito; Parigi, Giacomo; Murshudov, Garib N.; Luchinat, Claudio

    2014-04-01

    Paramagnetic NMR data (pseudocontact shifts and self-orientation residual dipolar couplings) and diamagnetic residual dipolar couplings can now be used in the program REFMAC5 from CCP4 as structural restraints together with X-ray crystallographic data. These NMR restraints can reveal differences between solid state and solution conformations of molecules or, in their absence, can be used together with X-ray crystallographic data for structural refinement. The program REFMAC5 from CCP4 was modified to allow the simultaneous use of X-ray crystallographic data and paramagnetic NMR data (pseudocontact shifts and self-orientation residual dipolar couplings) and/or diamagnetic residual dipolar couplings. Incorporation of these long-range NMR restraints in REFMAC5 can reveal differences between solid-state and solution conformations of molecules or, in their absence, can be used together with X-ray crystallographic data for structural refinement. Since NMR and X-ray data are complementary, when a single structure is consistent with both sets of data and still maintains reasonably ideal geometries, the reliability of the derived atomic model is expected to increase. The program was tested on five different proteins: the catalytic domain of matrix metalloproteinase 1, GB3, ubiquitin, free calmodulin and calmodulin complexed with a peptide. In some cases the joint refinement produced a single model consistent with both sets of observations, while in other cases it indicated, outside the experimental uncertainty, the presence of different protein conformations in solution and in the solid state.

  13. Final Report for Collaborative Project: Sensitivity of Atmospheric Parametric Formulations to Regional Mesh Refinement in Global Climate Simulations Using CESM-HOMME

    SciTech Connect

    Neale, Richard B.

    2015-12-01

    In this project we analyze climate simulations using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in order to determine the modeled response and sensitivity to horizontal resolution. Simple aqua-planet configurations were used to provide a clean comparison of the response to resolution in CESM. This enables us to easily examine all aspects of the model sensitivity to resolution including mean quantities, variability and physical parameterization tendencies: the chief reflection of resolution sensitivity. An extension to the global resolution sensitivity study is the examination of regional grid refinement where resolution changes are prescribed in a single global simulation. We examine the relevance of the global resolution sensitivity results as applied to these regional refinement simulations. In particular we examine how variations in the grid resolution, centered on different parts of the globe, lead to differences in the parameterized response and the potential to generate residual circulations as a result. Given the potential to generate this resolution sensitivity we examine simple modifications to the parameterized physics that are able to moderate any residual circulations. Finally, we transfer the framework to the standard AMIP configuration to examine the resolution sensitivity in the presence of compounding effects such as land-sea distributions, orography and seasonal variation.

  14. An economic feasibility analysis of distributed electric power generation based upon the natural gas-fired fuel cell: a model of a central utility plant.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-30

    This central utilities plant model details the major elements of a central utilities plant for several classes of users. The model enables the analyst to select optional, cost effective, plant features that are appropriate to a fuel cell application. These features permit the future plant owner to exploit all of the energy produced by the fuel cell, thereby reducing the total cost of ownership. The model further affords the analyst an opportunity to identify avoided costs of the fuel cell-based power plant. This definition establishes the performance and capacity information, appropriate to the class of user, to support the capital cost model and the feasibility analysis. It is detailed only to the depth required to identify the major elements of a fuel cell-based system. The model permits the choice of system features that would be suitable for a large condominium complex or a residential institution such as a hotel, boarding school or prison. The user may also select large office buildings that are characterized by 12 to 16 hours per day of operation or industrial users with a steady demand for thermal and electrical energy around the clock.

  15. Refinements and Tests of an Advanced Controller to Mitigate Fatigue Loads in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A.; Fleming, P.

    2010-12-01

    Wind turbines are complex, nonlinear, dynamic systems forced by aerodynamic, gravitational, centrifugal, and gyroscopic loads. The aerodynamics of wind turbines are nonlinear, unsteady, and complex. Turbine rotors are subjected to a complicated 3-D turbulent wind inflow field, with imbedded coherent vortices that drive fatigue loads and reduce lifetime. Design of control algorithms for wind turbines must account for multiple control objectives. Future large multi-megawatt turbines must be designed with lighter weight structures, using active controls to mitigate fatigue loads, while maximizing energy capture. Active damping should be added to these dynamic structures to maintain stability for operation in a complex environment. At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), we have designed, implemented, and tested advanced controls to maximize energy extraction and reduce structural dynamic loads. These control designs are based on linear models of the turbine that are generated by specialized modeling software. In this paper, we present field test results of an advanced control algorithm to mitigate blade, tower, and drivetrain loads in Region 3.

  16. SPR-8 multi-mega watt space power system (MMW-SPS) concept description and concept refinement plan

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, C.E.

    1985-04-15

    The SPR-8 MMW-SPS concept can satisfy both continuous and burst mode power requirements. At 10 MWe continuous mode power for 5 yr and 75 MWe burst mode power for 200 sec, the SPR-8 concept can power radar systems for detecting ballistic missile launchings and for discriminating between warheads and decoys. When enemy action is detected the SPR-8 MMW-SPS can power a rail gun, free electron laser, or particle beam and destroy the missile in the boost phase or warheads in space flight. The SPR-8 concept is based on the SPR-6 system (ref. 1) for providing continuous mode power. The system uses a fast UN-fueled, lithium-cooled reactor. Heat is transferred from the lithium coolant to potassium in a shell and tube heat exchanger-boiler. Potassium vapor is expanded through a turbine in a saturated Rankine cycle. After passing through the turbine the potassium is condensed in a compact heat exchanger by transferring heat to the radiator working fluid. An advanced radiator design is envisioned. Much work will be required in radiator technology to achieve low mass and plan form. For completeness of the SPR-8 system concept, a charged liquid droplet radiator is assumed but other types should be considered. Mechanical pumps are used for simplicity, but other types should be considered. A block diagram of the SPR-8 system is given.

  17. Evaluation of select trade-offs between ground-water remediation and waste minimization for petroleum refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, C.D.; McTernan, W.F.; Willett, K.K.

    1996-08-01

    An investigation comparing environmental remediation alternatives and attendant costs for a hypothetical refinery site located in the Arkansas River alluvium was completed. Transport from the land`s surface to and through the ground water of three spill sizes was simulated, representing a base case and two possible levels of waste minimization. Remediation costs were calculated for five alternative remediation options, for three possible regulatory levels and alternative site locations, for four levels of technology improvement, and for eight different years. It is appropriate from environmental and economic perspectives to initiate significant efforts and expenditures that are necessary to minimize the amount and type of waste produced and disposed during refinery operations; or conversely, given expected improvements in technology, is it better to wait until remediation technologies improve, allowing greater environmental compliance at lower costs? The present work used deterministic models to track a light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) spill through the unsaturated zone to the top of the water table. Benzene leaching from LNAPL to the ground water was further routed through the alluvial aquifer. Contaminant plumes were simulated over 50 yr of transport and remediation costs assigned for each of the five treatment options for each of these years. The results of these efforts show that active remediation is most cost effective after a set point or geochemical quasi-equilibrium is reached, where long-term improvements in technology greatly tilt the recommended option toward remediation. Finally, the impacts associated with increasingly rigorous regulatory levels present potentially significant penalties for the remediation option, but their likelihood of occurrence is difficult to define.

  18. S. 42: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to impose a fee on the importation of crude oil and refined petroleum products. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, January 25, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    S. 42 is a bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to impose a fee on the importation of crude oil and refined petroleum products.

  19. Savannah River Site generic data base development

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard , A.

    2000-01-04

    This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River Site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values. A representative list of components and failure modes for SRS risk models was generated by reviewing existing safety analyses and component failure data bases and from suggestions from SRS safety analysts. Then sources of data or failure rate estimates were identified and reviewed for applicability. A major source of information was the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability, or NUCLARR. This source includes an extensive collection of failure data and failure rate estimates for commercial nuclear power plants. A recent Idaho National Engineering Laboratory report on failure data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was also reviewed. From these and other recent sources, failure data and failure rate estimates were collected for the components and failure modes of interest. For each component failure mode, this information was aggregated to obtain a recommended generic failure rate distribution (mean and error factor based on a lognormal distribution). Results are presented in a table in this report. A major difference between generic database and previous efforts is that this effort estimates failure rates based on actual data (failure events) rather than on existing failure rate estimates. This effort was successful in that over 75% of the results are now based on actual data. Also included is a section on guidelines for more advanced applications of failure rate data. This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values.

  20. Refinement of the experimental dynamic structure factor for liquid para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium using semi-classical quantum simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Kyle K. G. Rossky, Peter J.; Poulsen, Jens Aage; Cunsolo, A.

    2014-01-21

    The dynamic structure factor of liquid para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium in corresponding thermodynamic states (T = 20.0?K, n = 21.24?nm{sup ?3}) and (T = 23.0?K, n = 24.61?nm{sup ?3}), respectively, has been computed by both the Feynman-Kleinert linearized path-integral (FK-LPI) and Ring-Polymer Molecular Dynamics (RPMD) methods and compared with Inelastic X Ray Scattering spectra. The combined use of computational and experimental methods enabled us to reduce experimental uncertainties in the determination of the true sample spectrum. Furthermore, the refined experimental spectrum of para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium is consistently reproduced by both FK-LPI and RPMD results at momentum transfers lower than 12.8?nm{sup ?1}. At larger momentum transfers the FK-LPI results agree with experiment much better for ortho-deuterium than for para-hydrogen. More specifically we found that for k ? 20.0 nm{sup ?1} para-hydrogen provides a test case for improved approximations to quantum dynamics.

  1. Synthesis, structure refinement at 296 K and physico-chemical characterizations of KMnHP{sub 3}O{sub 10}

    SciTech Connect

    Mechergui, J.; Belam, W.

    2008-12-01

    Potassium manganese(III) monohydrogentriphosphate KMnHP{sub 3}O{sub 10} was synthesized by flux method and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, crystallizes in the monoclinic system with centric space group C2/c. The parameters of the unit cell are a = 12.104(1), b = 8.287(1). c = 9.150(1) A, {beta} = 110.97(1) deg. and Z = 4. The structure was solved at 296 K using 893 independent reflections and refined until R(F) = 0.022; wR(F{sup 2}) = 0.045. The atomic arrangement of the title compound consists of MnO{sub 6} octahedra linked by hydrogentriphosphate anions to form a three-dimensional framework containing tunnels parallel to the c-axis where the K{sup +} cations are inserted. The structure of KMnHP{sub 3}O{sub 10} contains a single Mn site which is surrounded by typical Jahn-Teller [2 + 2 + 2] distorted octahedron. The title material has been also characterized by different physico-chemical techniques: powder X-ray diffraction, IR, NMR and CI spectroscopies and DTA-TGA-DSC thermal analysis.

  2. Electronic structure of superconductivity refined

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    667-7000 LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, July 10, 2008- A team of physicists, including Neil Harrison and Charles Mielke from Los Alamos National Laboratory, propose a new model that...

  3. Carbon Emissions: Petroleum Refining Industry

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Contact: Stephanie Battles Stephanie.Battles@eia.doe.gov (Phone: (202) 586-7237) FAX: 202-586-0018 Contact Us URL: http:www.eia.govemeuefficiencycarbonemissionspetroleum...

  4. Effect of hydroprocessing on lubricant base stock composition and product performance

    SciTech Connect

    Galiano-Roth, A.S.; Page, N.M.

    1994-08-01

    Conventional lubricant base stock manufacture via solvent refining involves the physical separation of lube molecules while hydroprocessing changes the chemical structures of these molecules. Sulfur, nitrogen, and aromatic compounds are reduced to very low levels, compared to conventional refining. These changes in composition naturally affect product performance. Lube oil oxidation stability is increased but inferior solvency characteristics are apparent. This paper summarizes the effect of hydroprocessing unit configuration (one vs. two stage), hydrogen pressure, and hydrotreating temperature on lube base stock composition (sulfur, nitrogen and aromatics). Base stock aromatic composition, as evaluated by ultraviolet spectroscopy, is related to lube oil oxidation stability in a phenol-based antioxidant formulation. Solvency problems observed for the formulated products can be improved with additive modifications. 8 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Parametric and kinetic studies on deactivation and regeneration of hydrotreating catalysts in solvent refined coal upgrading process and an evaluation of the liquid vaporization effects on hydrotreater performance

    SciTech Connect

    Nalitham, R.V.

    1983-01-01

    Catalysts used in hydrotreating the solvent refined coal were rapidly deactivated during the initial stages of processing. The major cause of deactivation appears to be the deposition of carbonaceous material on the catalyst. A simulated aging technique involving a series of reactions on the same batch of catalyst and a model compound activity test were developed and used to study the effects of process conditions, feedstock characteristics, catalyst properties, and catalyst pretreatment on initial catalyst deactivation. The variables shown to increase the rate of deactivation are: increased catalyst loading, high reaction temperature, low hydrogen pressure, unsulfiding the catalyst, and high concentrations of preasphaltenes and insoluble organic matter in the feedstock. The loss in catalyst surface area during the aging process was substantial, being as high as 95%. A simple kinetic model, including a first-order catalyst deactivation rate, was applied to upgrading of two-coal derived feedstocks. A catalyst deactivation mechanism was proposed which involves the adsorption and surface reaction of coke precursors on catalytic active sites. Catalyst regeneration of aged catalysts from the LC-Finer and the ITSL process has been accomplished through oxidative treatment followed by presulfiding. A parametric study has been performed to identify the optimum regeneration conditions. The degree of regeneration appears to be dependent on the feed material and reaction history of the catalyst. Liquid vaporization affects the hydrotreater performance significantly. The hydrotreater is simulated to study the effects of the solvent volatility, hydrogen flow rate, feed concentration, temperature, and pressure. A gradientless reactor system was designed, built, and used to verify the key result ofthe simulation study.

  6. Carbon Disclosure Project Webinar: Climate Change: A Challenge for Bond Analysts

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the Carbon Disclosure Project, this webinar will cover climate change and how its impacts can present significant risks for municipalities and municipal bond investors.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-05

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. It presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include domestic first purchase price, f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude, and refiners` acquisition cost of crude. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  8. Monoclinically distorted perovskites, A{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6} (A=Pr, Gd): Rietveld refinement, and dielectric studies

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Nibedita; Nath, Masood A.; Thakur, Gohil S.; Thirumal, M.; Ganguli, Ashok K.

    2015-09-15

    Double perovskite related oxide A{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6}A=Pr, Gd were synthesized by the solid state reaction method at 1523 K. The structure and microstructure of the compounds were studied by X-ray, SAED and FESEM. Rietveld refinement of the powder X-ray analysis shows that the compounds crystallizes in monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/n (a{sup +}b{sup −}b{sup −}) with unit cell parameter √2a{sub p}×√2a{sub p}×2a{sub p} (a=5.5026(1) Å, b=5.6305(1) Å, c=7.8149(1) Å, β=90.02(1)° for Pr{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6} and a=5.3621(1) Å, b=5.6565(2) Å, c=7.6779(2) Å and β=90.264(2)° for Gd{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6}. Electron diffraction study confirms P2{sub 1}/n symmetry of the oxides. The monoclinic distortion is larger in Gd{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6} than Pr{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6} which is associated with the tolerance factor and the tilting angle of ZnO{sub 6} and TiO{sub 6} octahedra (ϕ=13.64° for Pr{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6} and 16.51° for Gd{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6}). The compounds are highly ordered. The charge and size difference between B site cations are the driving force for the ordering of the B′O{sub 6} and B″O{sub 6} octahedra. Pr{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6} shows a dielectric constant of 27 and dielectric loss of 0.003 while Gd{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6} has a dielectric constant of 17 and dielectric loss of 0.005 measured at 1 MHz. - Graphical abstract: Synthesis of new double perovskite dielectric material with very low dielectric loss. - Highlights: • Synthesis of new monoclinically distorted double perovskite (Pr{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6}). • Synthesis of monoclinically distorted double perovskite (Gd{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6}). • Selected area electron diffraction study of A{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6} (A=Pr, Gd). • Study of dielectric properties of A{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6} (A=Pr, Gd)

  9. Development of a statistically based access delay timeline methodology.

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, W. Gary; Robinson, David Gerald; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2013-02-01

    The charter for adversarial delay is to hinder access to critical resources through the use of physical systems increasing an adversary's task time. The traditional method for characterizing access delay has been a simple model focused on accumulating times required to complete each task with little regard to uncertainty, complexity, or decreased efficiency associated with multiple sequential tasks or stress. The delay associated with any given barrier or path is further discounted to worst-case, and often unrealistic, times based on a high-level adversary, resulting in a highly conservative calculation of total delay. This leads to delay systems that require significant funding and personnel resources in order to defend against the assumed threat, which for many sites and applications becomes cost prohibitive. A new methodology has been developed that considers the uncertainties inherent in the problem to develop a realistic timeline distribution for a given adversary path. This new methodology incorporates advanced Bayesian statistical theory and methodologies, taking into account small sample size, expert judgment, human factors and threat uncertainty. The result is an algorithm that can calculate a probability distribution function of delay times directly related to system risk. Through further analysis, the access delay analyst or end user can use the results in making informed decisions while weighing benefits against risks, ultimately resulting in greater system effectiveness with lower cost.

  10. Rietveld refinement and ionic conductivity of Ca{sub 8.4}Bi{sub 1.6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 1.8}

    SciTech Connect

    Tmar Trabelsi, I.; Madani, A.; Mercier, A.M.; Toumi, M.

    2013-01-15

    The structure of Ca{sub 8.4}Bi{sub 1.6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 1.8}, isostructural with Fluoroapatite, was determined by X-ray powder diffraction methods. The results of Rietveld refinement revealed that the formula of this compound is [Ca{sub 4}]{sup 4f}[Ca{sub 4.4}Bi{sub 1.6}]{sup 6h}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}[O{sub 1.8}]{sup 2a}, space group P63/m (a=9.468 (3) A, c=6.957 (3) A). A total substitution of Bi{sup 3+} ions in the (6h) sites was related particularly to the high polarizability of the Bi{sup 3+} ion compared to Ca{sup 2+}. The observed frequencies in the Raman and infrared spectra were explained and discussed on the basis of unit-cell group analyses and in comparison with Fluoroapatite and other oxyapatites. The ionic conductivity over a wide range of temperature was investigated according to the complex impedance method. The highest overall conductivity values were found at {sigma}{sub 700 Degree-Sign C} =5.03 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} S cm{sup -1} and E{sub a}=0.50 eV. - Graphical abstract: The final Rietveld refinement plot of the Ca{sub 8.4}Bi{sub 1.6} (PO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 1.8}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Rietveld refinement revealed that the formula of this compound is Ca{sub 8.4}Bi{sub 1.6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 1.8}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vibrational spectroscopy supports the high symmetry P63/m space group for this apatite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This apatite contained channels where oxygen ions were located in 2a sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possibility of anionic conduction along these channels was considered.

  11. Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, Nate; Cory, Karlynn; Hand, Maureen; Parkhill, Linda; Speer, Bethany; Stehly, Tyler; Feldman, David; Lantz, Eric; Augusting, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O'Connor, Patrick

    2015-07-08

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  12. Rietveld refinement and dielectric studies of Bi{sub 0.8}Ba{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.95}V{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Priyanka, Agarwal, A. Ahlawat, N. Sanghi, S. Rani, S.

    2014-04-24

    Polycrystalline Bi{sub 0.8}Ba{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.95}V{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} ceramic has been prepared by the conventional solid state reaction technique. The Rietveld refinement of x-ray powder diffraction revealed that the sample has a rhombohedral crystal structure (space group R3c) with average particle size of 29 nm. The values of dielectric constant (ε′) and dielectric loss (tan δ) increases with increasing temperature at different frequencies which may be the result of increase in the number of charge carriers and their mobilities due to the thermal activation. The Jonscher’s universal power law used to analyze the ac conductivity. In the measured temperature range, the values of frequency exponent ‘s’ are less than one and shows a continous decrease which is attributed to the short range translational hopping assisted by large polaron hopping mechanisms.

  13. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly May 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Monthly May 2014 iii May 2014 Preface The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners'

  14. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process: trace elements. Research and development report No. 53, interim report No. 31, August 1976-July 1977. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 6. [Fate of 36 trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    1980-03-01

    Results are presented on a study of the distribution and fate of 34 trace elements in the Solvent Refined Coal Process at the pilot plant located at Fort Lewis, Washington, and operated by The Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. under contract with the US Department of Energy. Neutron activation analysis was used to determine Ti, V, Ca, Mg, Al, Cl, Mn, As, Sb, Se, Hg, Br, Co, Ni, Cr, Fe, Na, Rb, Cs, K, Sc, Tb, Eu, Sm, Ce, La, Sr, Ba, Th, Hf, Ta, Ga, Zr, and Cu in feed coals, process solvent, Solvent Refined Coal (SRC), mineral residues, wet filter cake, by-product solvents, process and effluent waters and by-product sulfur. The sample points were chosen such that the major process streams were adequately described and that the major input and output materials were included. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure the toxic elements Pb, Cd, Be in plant-derived solvents, effluent water and Hamer Marsh water. Specific methods were developed for analysis of a wide range of material compositions. The neutron activation analysis procedures were divided into short and long irradiation procedures for elements with short half lives (less than 3 hours) and intermediate to long half lives ( 8 hours to 5.2 years). Data are presented for a third equilibrium set of samples from the SRC-I process and compared to two similar sets analyzed previously. A material balance (or budget) was calculated for each element from the concentration data and the yields of each process fraction. Data are also presented on a study of carbon monoxide addition to the hydrogen stream and its effect on trace elements, and trace element data on a study of thirty-six plant effluent water samples taken during an SRC-I production run.

  15. H. R. 4662: a bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 to impose a fee on the importation of crude oil and refined petroleum products. Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, April 22, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 to impose a fee on the importation of crude oil and refined petroleum products was introduced and referred to the House Ways and Means Committee. The fee would apply to the first sale of crude or refined petroleum products following importation into the US and the first use. It exempts certain exports, but requires proof of eligibility for exemption. Sections of the bill outline procedures for determining prices and adjustments, the registration of affected parties, and penalties for non-compliance.

  16. S. 65: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to impose a fee on the importation of crude oil and refined petroleum products. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, January 21, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    S. 65 may be cited as the [open quotes]Domestic Petroleum Security Act of 1993.[close quotes] This Bill proposes a fee on imported crude oil or refined petroleum products. In general, Subtitle E of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is to be amended by adding at the end thereof the following new chapter: [open quotes]Chapter 55--Imported Crude Oil of Refined Petroleum Products.[close quotes] Section 5891 will be Imposition of Tax; Section 5892, Definitions; Section 5893, Registration; and Section 5894, Procedures, Returns, and Penalties.

  17. H. R. 838: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to impose a fee on the importation of crude oil or refined petroleum products. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, February 4, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    H.R. 838 may be cited as the [open quotes]Energy Security Tax Act.[close quotes] The purpose of this Bill is to impose a fee on imported crude oil or refined petroleum products. In general, Subtitle E of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is to be amended by adding at the end thereof the following new chapter: [open quotes]Chapter 55--Imported Crude Oil, Refined Petroleum Products, and Petrochemical Feedstocks or Derivatives.[close quotes] Section 5886 will be concerned with Imposition of Tax; Section 5887 with Definitions; Section 5888 with Procedures, Returns, and Penalties; and Section 5890 with Adjustment for inflation.

  18. A summary of recent refinements to the WAKE dispersion model, a component of the HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6} model suite

    SciTech Connect

    Yambert, M.W.; Lombardi, D.A.; Goode, W.D. Jr.; Bloom, S.G.

    1998-08-01

    The original WAKE dispersion model a component of the HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6} model suite, is based on Shell Research Ltd.`s HGSYSTEM Version 3.0 and was developed by the US Department of Energy for use in estimating downwind dispersion of materials due to accidental releases from gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) process buildings. The model is applicable to scenarios involving both ground-level and elevated releases into building wake cavities of non-reactive plumes that are either neutrally or positively buoyant. Over the 2-year period since its creation, the WAKE model has been used to perform consequence analyses for Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) associated with gaseous diffusion plants in Portsmouth (PORTS), Paducah (PGDP), and Oak Ridge. These applications have identified the need for additional model capabilities (such as the treatment of complex terrain and time-variant releases) not present in the original utilities which, in turn, has resulted in numerous modifications to these codes as well as the development of additional, stand-alone postprocessing utilities. Consequently, application of the model has become increasingly complex as the number of executable, input, and output files associated with a single model run has steadily grown. In response to these problems, a streamlined version of the WAKE model has been developed which integrates all calculations that are currently performed by the existing WAKE, and the various post-processing utilities. This report summarizes the efforts involved in developing this revised version of the WAKE model.

  19. A REFINED ESTIMATE OF THE IONIZING EMISSIVITY FROM GALAXIES AT z {approx_equal} 3: SPECTROSCOPIC FOLLOW-UP IN THE SSA22a FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Nestor, Daniel B.; Shapley, Alice E.; Kornei, Katherine A.; Steidel, Charles C.; Siana, Brian

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the contribution of star-forming galaxies to the ionizing background at z {approx} 3, building on previous work based on narrowband (NB3640) imaging in the SSA22a field. We use new Keck/LRIS spectra of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) and narrowband-selected Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) to measure redshifts for 16 LBGs and 87 LAEs at z > 3.055, such that our NB3640 imaging probes the Lyman-continuum (LyC) region. When we include the existing set of spectroscopically confirmed LBGs, our total sample with z > 3.055 consists of 41 LBGs and 91 LAEs, of which 9 LBGs and 20 LAEs are detected in our NB3640 image. With our combined imaging and spectroscopic data sets, we critically investigate the origin of NB3640 emission for detected LBGs and LAEs. We remove from our samples three LBGs and three LAEs with spectroscopic evidence of contamination of their NB3640 flux by foreground galaxies and statistically model the effects of additional, unidentified foreground contaminants. The resulting contamination and LyC-detection rates, respectively, are 62% {+-} 13% and 8% {+-} 3% for our LBG sample, and 47% {+-} 10% and 12% {+-} 2% for our LAE sample. The corresponding ratios of non-ionizing UV to LyC flux density, corrected for intergalactic medium (IGM) attenuation, are 18.0{sup +34.8} {sub -7.4} for LBGs and 3.7{sup +2.5} {sub -1.1} for LAEs. We use these ratios to estimate the total contribution of star-forming galaxies to the ionizing background and the hydrogen photoionization rate in the IGM, finding values larger than, but consistent with, those measured in the Ly{alpha} forest. Finally, the measured UV to LyC flux-density ratios imply model-dependent LyC escape fractions of f {sup LyC} {sub esc} {approx} 5%-7% for our LBG sample and f {sup LyC} {sub esc} {approx} 10%-30% for our fainter LAE sample.

  20. Web-Based Geographic Information System Tool for Accessing Hanford Site Environmental Data

    SciTech Connect

    Triplett, Mark B.; Seiple, Timothy E.; Watson, David J.; Charboneau, Briant L.; Morse, John G.

    2014-11-15

    Data volume, complexity, and access issues pose severe challenges for analysts, regulators and stakeholders attempting to efficiently use legacy data to support decision making at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hanford Site. DOE has partnered with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the PHOENIX (PNNL-Hanford Online Environmental Information System) project, which seeks to address data access, transparency, and integration challenges at Hanford to provide effective decision support. PHOENIX is a family of spatially-enabled web applications providing quick access to decades of valuable scientific data and insight through intuitive query, visualization, and analysis tools. PHOENIX realizes broad, public accessibility by relying only on ubiquitous web-browsers, eliminating the need for specialized software. It accommodates a wide range of users with intuitive user interfaces that require little or no training to quickly obtain and visualize data. Currently, PHOENIX is actively hosting three applications focused on groundwater monitoring, groundwater clean-up performance reporting, and in-tank monitoring. PHOENIX-based applications are being used to streamline investigative and analytical processes at Hanford, saving time and money. But more importantly, by integrating previously isolated datasets and developing relevant visualization and analysis tools, PHOENIX applications are enabling DOE to discover new correlations hidden in legacy data, allowing them to more effectively address complex issues at Hanford.

  1. Single-crystal structure refinement of four compounds in the Y{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Pr{sub {ital x}}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3{minus}{ital y}}Al{sub {ital y}}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} system

    SciTech Connect

    Meden, A.; Holzinger-Schweiger, E.; Leising, G.; Pejovnik, S.; Golic, L.

    1996-12-01

    X-ray single crystal diffraction data were used for structural refinement of the title compounds with different {ital x} (0.15, 0.27, 0.49 and 0.89). Crystals were grown in alumina crucibles using self-flux method. Aluminum, which originates from the crucibles, substitutes only Cu(1), and thus induces tetragonal symmetry which was observed in all four crystals. The main structural effect of praseodymium is an increased separation of superconducting layers. Substituent concentrations ({ital x} and {ital y} in the formula) have been refined and compared with the values obtained by EDX (energy dispersive x-ray analysis) in an electron microscope. It was indicated that the refined values of Y:Pr ratio and the oxygen content are more reliable than those obtained by EDX while the refinement is less sensitive for Cu(1):Al ratio and this value is more uncertain. This is in accordance with the result of wet chemical analysis. {copyright} {ital 1996 Materials Research Society.}

  2. S. 2886: a bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 to impose a fee on the importation of crude oil or refined petroleum products. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, September 27, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This bill amends Subtitle E of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 to impose a fee on the importation of crude oil or refined petroleum products. The bill inserts Chapter 54, which defines the rate of tax, procedures for its payment and for registration, and imposes penalties for non-compliance.

  3. S. 254: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to impose a fee on the importation of crude oil or refined petroleum products. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, January 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This is the text of a bill to impose import taxes on crude oil and refined petroleum products, petrochemical feedstock or petrochemical derivatives. Taxes will be paid by the first person who sells the product within the U.S. and by the person who uses the product.

  4. EPICS BASE

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    002230MLTPL00 Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System BASE http://www.aps.anl.gov/epics

  5. DMR (deacetylation and mechanical refining) processing of corn stover achieves high monomeric sugar concentrations (230 g L-1) during enzymatic hydrolysis and high ethanol concentrations (>10% v/v) during fermentation without hydrolysate purification or concentration

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Chen, Xiaowen; Kuhn, Erik; Jennings, Edward W.; Nelson, Robert; Tao, Ling; Zhang, Min; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2016-04-01

    Distilling and purifying ethanol and other products from second generation lignocellulosic biorefineries adds significant capital and operating costs to biofuel production. The energy usage associated with distillation negatively affects plant gate costs and causes environmental and life-cycle impacts, and the lower titers in fermentation caused by lower sugar concentrations from pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis increase energy and water usage and ethanol production costs. In addition, lower ethanol titers increase the volumes required for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation vessels increase capital expenditure (CAPEX). Therefore, increasing biofuel titers has been a research focus in renewable biofuel production for several decades. In thismore » work, we achieved approximately 230 g L-1 of monomeric sugars after high solid enzymatic hydrolysis using deacetylation and mechanical refining (DMR) processed corn stover substrates produced at the 100 kg per day scale. The high sugar concentrations and low chemical inhibitor concentrations achieved by the DMR process allowed fermentation to ethanol with titers as high as 86 g L-1, which translates into approximately 10.9% v/v ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time that titers greater than 10% v/v ethanol in fermentations derived from corn stover without any sugar concentration or purification steps have been reported. As a result, the potential cost savings from high sugar and ethanol titers achieved by the DMR process are also reported using TEA analysis.« less

  6. Precipitate size refinement by CeO{sub 2} and Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} additions in directionally solidified YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect

    Vilalta, N.; Sandiumenge, F.; Pinol, S.; Obradors, X.

    1997-01-01

    Directional solidification of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} has been carried out through a Bridgman technique, and the influence of Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} and CeO{sub 2} additives on the size of Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} precipitates has been investigated. It is demonstrated in this work that the most efficient procedure to reduce the size of the Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} precipitates is to increase the concentration of nucleation centers present in the peritectic decomposition of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x}. A small concentration (0.3{endash}1 wt.{percent}) of CeO{sub 2} has a strong influence on the solidification process and on the size of Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} precipitates. It is shown that when CeO{sub 2} is added, further refinement of the size of precipitates results from the formation of nanometric Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles which further enhance the multinucleation effect. We have also observed that coarsening effects are avoided with CeO{sub 2} additives. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  7. Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil - Composite

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 59.29 76.69 101.87 100.93 100.49 92.02 1968-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 61.63 79.91 111.01 111.50 106.80 96.70 2004-2014 Midwest (PADD...

  8. Petroleum Refining Footprint, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-10-17

    Manufacturing energy and carbon footprints map energy consumption and losses, as well as greenhouse gas emissions from fuel consumption, for fifteen individual U.S. manufacturing sectors (representing 94% of all manufacturing energy use) and for the entire manufacturing sector. By providing energy consumption and emissions figures broken down by end use, the footprints allow for comparisons of energy use and emissions sources both within and across sectors. The footprints portray a large amount of information for each sector, including: * Comparison of the energy generated offsite and transferred to facilities versus that generated onsite * Nature and amount of energy consumed by end use within facilities * Magnitude of the energy lost both outside and inside facility boundaries * Magnitude of the greenhouse gas emissions released as a result of manufacturing energy use. Energy losses indicate opportunities to improve efficiency by implementing energy management best practices, upgrading energy systems, and developing new technologies. Footprints are available below for each sector. Data is presented in two levels of detail. The first page provides a high- level snapshot of the offsite and onsite energy flow, and the second page shows the detail for onsite generation and end use of energy. The principle energy use data source is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), for consumption in the year 2006, when the survey was last completed.

  9. U.S. Refiner Petroleum Product Prices

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New England (PADD 1A) Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Vermont Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) Delaware District of Columbia Maryland New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) Florida Georgia North Carolina South Carolina Virginia West Virginia Midwest (PADD 2) Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma South Dakota Tennessee Wisconsin Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Alabama

  10. The Common Sense Initiative: Petroleum refining sector

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, M.M.

    1995-12-31

    The Common Sense Initiative is trying to answer three questions: (1) ``How does one leverage the change in corporate attitudes for more efficient compliance with pollution prevention and greater use of innovative technologies?`` (2) ``How does one incorporate new approaches into the traditional menu of EPA compliance tools?`` (3) ``How can one accomplish cleaner, cheaper, smarter results?`` One answer is to create a process that includes all stakeholders that have to either implement or live with EPA decisions. This is being done by creating stake-holder groups representing labor, communities, national and grassroots environmental organization, industries and States. The focus is on realizing improvements in: pollution prevention; innovative technologies; permitting; regulations; compliance; and reporting and recordkeeping.

  11. Solvent refined coal reactor quench system

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, R.M.

    1983-11-08

    There is described an improved SRC reactor quench system using a condensed product which is recycled to the reactor and provides cooling by evaporation. In the process, the second and subsequent reactors of a series of reactors are cooled by the addition of a light oil fraction which provides cooling by evaporation in the reactor. The vaporized quench liquid is recondensed from the reactor outlet vapor stream. 1 fig.

  12. Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil - Composite

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Acquisition Type: Composite Domestic Imported Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show ...

  13. Refiners Switch to RFG Complex Model

    Reports and Publications

    1998-01-01

    On January 1, 1998, domestic and foreign refineries and importers must stop using the "simple" model and begin using the "complex" model to calculate emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), toxic air pollutants (TAP), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from motor gasoline. The primary differences between application of the two models is that some refineries may have to meet stricter standards for the sulfur and olefin content of the reformulated gasoline (RFG) they produce and all refineries will now be held accountable for NOx emissions. Requirements for calculating emissions from conventional gasoline under the anti-dumping rule similarly change for exhaust TAP and NOx. However, the change to the complex model is not expected to result in an increase in the price premium for RFG or constrain supplies.

  14. REFINING PROGRAM HELPS REENERGIZE NEBRASKA UPGRADES | Department...

    Energy Saver

    Nebraska's two largest cities-Omaha and Lincoln-took on the challenge of ... The initial program design focused on "start zones" in Omaha and Lincoln, chosen for the ...

  15. Petroleum Refining Footprint, December 2010 (MECS 2006)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-06-01

    Manufacturing energy and carbon footprints map fuel energy consumption and losses, as well as greenhouse gas emissions from fuel consumption, for fifteen individual U.S. manufacturing sectors (representing 94% of all manufacturing energy use) and for the entire manufacturing industry sector. By providing energy consumption and emissions figures broken down by end use, the footprints allow for comparisons of energy use and emissions sources both within and across sectors. The footprints portray a large amount of information for each sector, including: * Comparison of the energy generated offsite and transferred to facilities versus that generated onsite * Nature and amount of energy consumed by end use within facilities * Magnitude of the energy lost both outside and inside facility boundaries * Magnitude of the greenhouse gas emissions released due to the combustion of fuel. Energy losses indicate opportunities to improve efficiency by implementing energy management best practices, upgrading energy systems, and developing new technologies. Footprints are available below for each sector. Data is presented in two levels of detail. The first page provides a high-level snapshot of the offsite and onsite energy flow, and the second page shows the detail for onsite generation and end use of energy. The energy data is primarily provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), and therefore reflects consumption in the year 2006, when the survey was last completed.

  16. Valero Refining Company - NJ | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a1 EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 56325 Utility Location Yes Ownership R Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes This...

  17. Solvent refined coal reactor quench system

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved SRC reactor quench system using a condensed product which is recycled to the reactor and provides cooling by evaporation. In the process, the second and subsequent reactors of a series of reactors are cooled by the addition of a light oil fraction which provides cooling by evaporation in the reactor. The vaporized quench liquid is recondensed from the reactor outlet vapor stream.

  18. Prices of Refiner Kerosene Sales for Resale

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History U.S. 1.208 1.193 1.327 1.445 1.297 1.408 1983-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) 1.438 1.349 W 1.597 W 1.499 1983-2016 New England (PADD 1A) - W - - - - 1983-2016 Connecticut - W - - - - 1984-2016 Maine - - - - - - 1984-2016 Massachusetts - - - - - - 1984-2016 New Hampshire - - - - - - 1984-2016 Rhode Island - - - - - - 1984-2016 Vermont - - - - - - 1984-2016 Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) 1.419 W W 1.589 W 1.486 1983-2016 Delaware - - - - - - 1984-2016

  19. Philippine refiner completes diesel desulfurization project

    SciTech Connect

    Candido, S.S.; Crisostomo, E.V.

    1997-01-27

    In anticipation of tightening sulfur specifications on diesel fuel, Petron Corp. built a new 18,000 b/sd gas oil desulfurization unit (GODU) at its refinery in Bataan, Philippines. The GODU gives Petron sufficient diesel oil desulfurization capacity to meet demand for lower-sulfur diesel in the country. The project places the refinery in a pacesetter position to comply with the Philippine government`s moves to reduce air pollution, especially in urban centers, by reducing the sulfur specification for diesel to 0.5 wt% in 1996 from 0.7 wt% at the start of the project. Performance tests and initial operations of the unit have revealed a desulfurization efficiency of 91% vs. a guaranteed efficiency of 90%. A feed sulfur content of 1.33 wt% is reduced to 0.12 wt% at normal operating conditions. Operating difficulties during start-up were minimized through use of a detailed prestartup check conducted during the early stages of construction work.

  20. A new phase in rapidly solidified Ti[sub 3]Al-based alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Rui; Xu Daming; Li Qingchun . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Li Dong; Cui Yuyou; Hu Zhuangqi . State Key Lab. for RSA)

    1995-01-15

    Rapid solidification processing has been developed to improve the properties of alloys through refining microstructures, disordering and forming metastable phases. The as-melt spun Ti[sub 3]Al-based alloy with Nb additions above 5-at%, which consist of [alpha][sub 2] and [beta][sub 0] phases in a normal condition, exhibited as single [beta][sub 0] structure. Jackson et al have carried out a comparative study of I/M and RS Ti[sub 3]Al-1 Zr(at%) alloy. Their study revealed that considerable refinement of grains and anti-phase domains was achieved in the rapidly solidified material prepared by the pendant drop melt extraction process (PDME). It is suggested that rapid solidification processing can reduce the ordering of the Ti[sub 3]Al-based alloy. In the past years, it was found that the Ti[sub 3]Al-based alloy with alloying additions (mainly Nb) has been studied extensively, and some new phases such as T and O have been observed in the alloys, but less attention has been given to alloys with low Nb additions. The RS Ti[sub 3]Al-base alloys with Nb below 5-at% have been investigated systematically and a new metastable phase, ordering martensite [alpha][double prime][sub 0] (orthogonal), has been observed in these alloys.