National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for rat neth er

  1. Protein folding in the ER.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, F. J.; Argon, Y.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Chicago

    1999-10-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a major protein folding compartment for secreted, plasma membrane and organelle proteins. Each of these newly-synthesized polypeptides folds in a deterministic process, affected by the unique conditions that exist in the ER. An understanding of protein folding in the ER is a fundamental biomolecular challenge at two levels. The first level addresses how the amino acid sequence programs that polypeptide to efficiently arrive at a particular fold out of a multitude of alternatives, and how different sequences obtain similar folds. At the second level are the issues introduced by folding not in the cytosol, but in the ER, including the risk of aggregation in a molecularly crowded environment, accommodation of post-translational modifications and the compatibility with subsequent intracellular trafficking. This review discusses both the physicochemical and cell biological constraints of folding, which are the challenges that the ER molecular chaperones help overcome.

  2. Electronic state of Er in sputtered AlN:Er films determined by magnetic measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narang, V.; Seehra, M. S.; Korakakis, D.

    2014-12-07

    The optoelectronic and piezoelectric properties of AlN:Er thin films have been of great recent interest for potential device applications. In this work, the focus is on the electronic state of Er in AlN:Er thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering on (001) p-type Si substrate. X-ray diffraction shows that Er doping expands the lattice and the AlN:Er film has preferential c-plane orientation. To determine whether Er in AlN:Er is present as Er metal, Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, or Er{sup 3+} substituting for Al{sup 3+}, detailed measurements and analysis of the temperature dependence (2 K–300 K) of the magnetization M at a fixed magnetic field H along with the M vs. H data at 2 K up to H = 90 kOe are presented. The presence of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Er metal is ruled out since their characteristic magnetic transitions are not observed in the AlN:Er sample. Instead, the observed M vs. T and M vs. H variations are consistent with Er present as Er{sup 3+} substituting for Al{sup 3+} in AlN:Er at a concentration x = 1.08% in agreement with x = 0.94% ± 0.20% determined using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The larger size of Er{sup 3+} vs. Al{sup 3+}explains the observed lattice expansion of AlN:Er.

  3. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

  4. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

  5. Environmental release summary (ERS) database CY 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1998-07-01

    This report discusses the Environmental Release Summary (ERS) database. The current needs of the Effluent and Environmental database is continually modified to fulfill monitoring (EEM) program (managed by Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Incorporated, Air and Water Services Organization). Changes are made to accurately calculate current releases, to affect how past releases are calculated. This document serves as a snap-shot of the database and software for the CY-1997 data and releases. This document contains all of the relevant data for calculating radioactive-airborne and liquid effluent. The ERS database is the official repository for the CY-1997 ERS release reports and the settings used to generate those reports. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, FDH is committed to provide a hard copy of the ERS database for Washington State Department of Ecology, upon request. This document also serves as that hard copy for the last complete calendar year.

  6. ErSol Thin Film GmbH formerly ErSol New Technologies GmbH ENT...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    ErSol Thin Film GmbH formerly ErSol New Technologies GmbH ENT Jump to: navigation, search Name: ErSol Thin Film GmbH (formerly ErSol New Technologies GmbH (ENT)) Place: Germany...

  7. ARM CLASIC ER2 CRS/EDOP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald Heymsfield

    2010-12-20

    Data was taken with the NASA ER-2 aircraft with the Cloud Radar System and other instruments in conjunction with the DOE ARM CLASIC field campaign. The flights were near the SGP site in north Central Oklahoma and targeted small developing convection. The CRS is a 94 GHz nadir pointing Doppler radar. Also on board the ER-2 was the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Seven science flights were conducted but the weather conditions did not cooperate in that there was neither developing convection, or there was heavy rain.

  8. Low temperature properties of some Er-rich intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.A. Gshneidner,jr; A.O. Pecharsky; L.Hale; V.K. Pecharsky

    2004-09-30

    The low temperature volumetric heat capacity ({approx}3.5 to 350 K) and magnetic susceptibility ({approx}4 to 320 K) of Er{sub 3}Rh, Er{sub 3}Ir, Er{sub 3}Pt, Er{sub 2}Al, and Er{sub 2}Sn have been measured. All of the compounds order antiferromagnetically (or ferrimagnetically), and most exhibit more than one magnetic ordering transition. The volumetric heat capacities in general are smaller than those of the prototype magnetic regenerator materials, except for Er{sub 3}Ir in the 12 to 14 K temperature range.

  9. DOE-ER-STD-6001-92

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Implementation Guide for Quality Assurance Programs for Basic and Applied Research Canceled (January, 2003) This Implementation Guide is intended to assist management at DOE-ER sponsored facilities in the process of developing and implementing Quality Assurance Programs (QAPs) that satisfy the requirements of DOE Order 5700.6C.

  10. ER-12-1 completion report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, C.E.; Gillespie, D.; Cole, J.C.; Drellack, S.L.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of drillhole ER-12-1 was to determine the hydrogeology of paleozoic carbonate rocks and of the Eleana Formation, a regional aquitard, in an area potentially downgradient from underground nuclear testing conducted in nearby Rainier Mesa. This objective was addressed through the drilling of well ER-12-1 at N886,640.26 E640,538.85 Nevada Central Coordinates. Drilling of the 1094 m (3588 ft) well began on July 19, 1991 and was completed on October 17, 1991. Drilling problems included hole deviation and hole instability that prevented the timely completion of this borehole. Drilling methods used include rotary tri-cone and rotary hammer drilling with conventional and reverse circulation using air/water, air/foam (Davis mix), and bentonite mud. Geologic cuttings and geophysical logs were obtained from the well. The rocks penetrated by the ER-12-1 drillhole are a complex assemblage of Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian sedimentary rocks that are bounded by numerous faults that show substantial stratigraphic offset. The final 7.3 m (24 ft) of this hole penetrated an unusual intrusive rock of Cretaceous age. The geology of this borehole was substantially different from that expected, with the Tongue Wash Fault encountered at a much shallower depth, paleozoic rocks shuffled out of stratigraphic sequence, and the presence of an altered biotite-rich microporphyritic igneous rock at the bottom of the borehole. Conodont CAI analyses and rock pyrolysis analyses indicate that the carbonate rocks in ER-12-1, as well as the intervening sheets of Eleana siltstone, have been thermally overprinted following movement on the faults that separate them. The probable source of heat for this thermal disturbance is the microporphyritic intrusion encountered at the bottom of the hole, and its age establishes that the major fault activity must have occurred prior to 102.3+0.5 Ma (middle Cretaceous).

  11. On the Use of an ER-213 Detonator to Establish a Baseline for the ER-486

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Keith A.; Liechty, Gary H.; Jaramillo, Dennis C.; Munger, Alan C.; McHugh, Douglas C.; Kennedy, James E.

    2014-08-19

    This report documents a series of tests using a TSD-115 fireset coupled with an ER-213, a gold exploding bridgewire (EBW) detonator. These tests were designed to fire this EBW with a smaller fireset to obtain current and voltage data as well as timing information at voltage levels below, above, and throughout the threshold firing region. This study could then create a database for comparison to our current ER-486 EBW development, which is designed to be a lower voltage (<500V) device.

  12. Dali Yang er Hydropower Development Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Yang er Hydropower Development Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dali Yanger Hydropower Development Co Ltd Place: Dali Prefecture, Dali, Yunnan Province, China Zip: 625000...

  13. Final Technical Report for Award # ER64999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metcalf, William W.

    2014-10-08

    This report provides a summary of activities for Award # ER64999, a Genomes to Life Project funded by the Office of Science, Basic Energy Research. The project was entitled "Methanogenic archaea and the global carbon cycle: a systems biology approach to the study of Methanosarcina species". The long-term goal of this multi-investigator project was the creation of integrated, multiscale models that accurately and quantitatively predict the role of Methanosarcina species in the global carbon cycle under dynamic environmental conditions. To achieve these goals we pursed four specific aims: (1) genome sequencing of numerous members of the Order Methanosarcinales, (2) identification of genomic sources of phenotypic variation through in silico comparative genomics, (3) elucidation of the transcriptional networks of two Methanosarcina species, and (4) development of comprehensive metabolic network models for characterized strains to address the question of how metabolic models scale with genetic distance.

  14. Green, red and infrared Er-related emission in implanted GaN:Er and GaN:Er,O samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monteiro, T.; Soares, J.; Correia, M. R.; Alves, E.

    2001-06-01

    Er-related luminescence near 1.54 {mu}m ({similar_to}805 meV) is observed under below band gap excitation at 4.2 K in GaN:Er and GaN:Er,O implanted samples. The spectrum of the recovered damage samples is a multiline structure. So far, these lines are the sharpest ones reported for GaN. Well-resolved green and red luminescences are observed in implanted samples. The dependence of luminescence on the excitation energy as well as the influence of different nominal fluence and annealing conditions is discussed. Combining the results obtained from photoluminescence and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, different lattice sites for the optical active Er-related centers are identified. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  15. Audit Report: ER-B-96-02 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Audit Report: ER-B-96-02 Audit Report: ER-B-96-02 June 11, 1996 Audit of Groundwater Remediation Plans at Savannah River PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-96-02 More Documents &...

  16. Ammonia synthesis and ER-MCFC-technology - a profitable combination?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dijkema, G.P.J.; Vervoort, J.; Daniels, R.J.E.; Luteijn, C.P.

    1996-12-31

    Similar to stand-alone ER-MCFC power systems industrial ammonia production facilities include hydrogen-rich synthesis-gas production. Therefore, integration of ER-MCFC stacks in a conventional industrial ammonia plant was investigated. By preliminary process design calculations three promising process structures were evaluated: (1) ER-MCFC is fed by the ammonia plant`s steam-reformer; anode off-gas to firing (2) similar to structure 1; in this case the anode off-gas is redirected to the ammonia process (3) ER-MCFC is fed by ammonia-synthesis purge gas The results indicate that for options 1 and 3 a return-on-investment for the ER-MCFC of around 8% is achievable at a stack cost of $250/kW and a revenue of 7c/kWh. Option 2 is not profitable, because of the associated reduction in ammonia production. The degree of hydrogen-utilization in the ER-MCFC to be selected for maximum profit varies with the process structure and indicates that there is scope for ER-MCFC stacks which operate at low hydrogen-utilization.

  17. ER2 Instrumentation and Measurements for CLASIC (Cloud Land Surface...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ER2 Desired Measurements for CLASIC June 2007 SGP May 31, 2007 1 MEASUREMENT SOURCE DESIRED MEASUREMENTS AND PRODUCTS INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS Cloud Radar System (CRS), W-Band (95 GHz)...

  18. Coordination of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Signaling During Maize Seed Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boston, Rebecca S.

    2010-11-20

    Seed storage reserves represent one of the most important sources of renewable fixed carbon and nitrogen found in nature. Seeds are well-adapted for diverting metabolic resources to synthesize storage proteins as well as enzymes and structural proteins needed for their transport and packaging into membrane bound storage protein bodies. Our underlying hypothesis is that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response provides the critical cellular control of metabolic flux required for optimal accumulation of storage reserves in seeds. This highly conserved response is a cellular mechanism to monitor the protein folding environment of the ER and restore homeostasis in the presence of unfolded or misfolded proteins. In seeds, deposition of storage proteins in protein bodies is a highly specialized process that takes place even in the presence of mutant proteins that no longer fold and package properly. The capacity of the ER to deposit these aberrant proteins in protein bodies during a period that extends several weeks provides an excellent model for deconvoluting the ER stress response of plants. We have focused in this project on the means by which the ER senses and responds to functional perturbations and the underlying intracellular communication that occurs among biosynthetic, trafficking and degradative pathways for proteins during seed development.

  19. ARM - Field Campaign - AERI-ER Intercomparison IOP

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsAERI-ER Intercomparison IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : AERI-ER Intercomparison IOP 2004.01.12 - 2006.06.29 Lead Scientist : David Turner Data Availability Data were collected and submitted to the ARM Archive for IOPs. For data sets, see below. Summary There were three, potentially four, phases to this experiment. The length of time required for each phase was the time

  20. Pahute Mesa Well Development and Testing Analyses for Wells ER-20-7, ER-20-8 #2, and ER-EC-11, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Ruskauff

    2011-12-01

    This report analyzes the following data collected from ER-20-7, ER-20-8 No.2, and ER-EC-11 during WDT operations: (1) Chemical indicators of well development (Section 2.0); (2) Static hydraulic head (Section 3.0); (3) Radiochemistry and geochemistry (Section 4.0); (4) Drawdown observed at locations distal to the pumping well (Section 5.0); and (5) Drilling water production, flow logs, and temperature logs (Section 6.0). The new data are further considered with respect to existing data as to how they enhance or change interpretations of groundwater flow and transport, and an interim small-scale conceptual model is also developed and compared to Phase I concepts. The purpose of well development is to remove drilling fluids and drilling-associated fines from the formation adjacent to a well so samples reflecting ambient groundwater water quality can be collected, and to restore hydraulic properties near the well bore. Drilling fluids can contaminate environmental samples from the well, resulting in nonrepresentative measurements. Both drilling fluids and preexisting fines in the formation adjacent to the well can impede the flow of water from the formation to the well, creating artifacts in hydraulic response data measured in the well.

  1. Completion report for Well Cluster ER-20-6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-01

    The Well Cluster ER-20-6 drilling and completion project was conducted during February, March, and April of 1996 in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This project is part of the DOE`s Underground Test Area (UGTA) subproject at the NTS. The primary UGTA tasks include collecting geological, geophysical, and hydrological data from new and existing wells to define groundwater quality as well as pathways and rates of groundwater migration at the NTS. A program of drilling wells near the sites of selected underground nuclear tests (near-field drilling) was implemented as part of the UGTA subproject to obtain site-specific data on the nature and extent of migration of radionuclides produced by an underground nuclear explosion. The ER-20-6 near-field drilling project was originally planned to be very similar to that recently conducted at Well Cluster ER-20-5, which was designed to obtain data on the existing hydrologic regime near the site of an underground nuclear explosion (IT, 1995; IT, 1996a). However, after further consideration of the goals of the near-field drilling program and the characteristics of the BULLION site, the TWG recommended that the ER-20-6 project be redesigned to accommodate a forced-gradient experiment. This proposed experiment is expected to yield more realistic estimates of transport parameters than can be deduced from sampling and testing natural groundwater flow systems.

  2. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, V.; Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C.; Cascio, W.E.; Phillips, P.M.; Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C.; Andrews, D.; Miller, D.; Doerfler, D.L.; Kodavanti, U.P.

    2013-12-15

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased ?{sub 2}-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. Ozone metabolic effects

  3. Inner Mongolia Bayannao er Fuhui Wind Power Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Bayannao er Fuhui Wind Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Bayannao'er Fuhui Wind Power Co Ltd Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Sector: Wind...

  4. USACE ER 200-2-2 Procedures for Implementing NEPA | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    ER 200-2-2 Procedures for Implementing NEPA Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: USACE ER 200-2-2...

  5. Audit Report: ER-FS-99-03 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    3 Audit Report: ER-FS-99-03 May 25, 1999 Matters Identified at the Savannah River ... Audit Report: ER-FS-99-03 (19.56 KB) More Documents & Publications Audit Report: ...

  6. Audit Report: ER-B-97-03 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    3 Audit Report: ER-B-97-03 June 5, 1997 Audit of Proposal to Acquire Land at the Fernald Environmental Management Project PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-97-03 More Documents & ...

  7. Magnetic properties of Er1-xDyxAl2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) compounds...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Er1-xDyxAl2 (0 x 1) compounds in low applied fields Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic properties of Er1-xDyxAl2 (0 x 1) compounds in low applied ...

  8. Bosch Solar Energy AG former ErSol Solar Energy AG | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    AG former ErSol Solar Energy AG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Bosch Solar Energy AG (former ErSol Solar Energy AG) Place: Erfurt, Germany Zip: D-99099 Product: Germany-based...

  9. Final Report: DOE award: ER64516-1031199-0013966 2007-2011 Genomic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Final Report: DOE award: ER64516-1031199-0013966 2007-2011 Genomic ... Title: Final Report: DOE award: ER64516-1031199-0013966 2007-2011 Genomic Structure, ...

  10. FINAL REPORT DE-FG02-07ER15894 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: FINAL REPORT DE-FG02-07ER15894 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: FINAL REPORT DE-FG02-07ER15894 One of the greatest technological hurdles to deployment ...

  11. Curcumin attenuates glutamate neurotoxicity in the hippocampus by suppression of ER stress-associated TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation in a manner dependent on AMPK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ying; Li, Jia; Li, Shanshan; Li, Yi; Wang, Xiangxiang; Liu, Baolin; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Shiping

    2015-07-01

    Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound in Curcuma longa with beneficial effects on neuronal protection. This study aims to investigate the action of curcumin in the hippocampus subjected to glutamate neurotoxicity. Glutamate stimulation induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation, leading to damage in the hippocampus. Curcumin treatment in the hippocampus or SH-SY5Y cells inhibited IRE1α and PERK phosphorylation with suppression of intracellular ROS production. Curcumin increased AMPK activity and knockdown of AMPKα with specific siRNA abrogated its inhibitory effects on IRE1α and PERK phosphorylation, indicating that AMPK activity was essential for the suppression of ER stress. As a result, curcumin reduced TXNIP expression and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation by downregulation of NLRP3 and cleaved caspase-1 induction, and thus reduced IL-1β secretion. Specific fluorescent probe and flow cytometry analysis showed that curcumin prevented mitochondrial malfunction and protected cell survival from glutamate neurotoxicity. Moreover, oral administration of curcumin reduced brain infarct volume and attenuated neuronal damage in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Immunohistochemistry showed that curcumin inhibited p-IRE1α, p-PERK and NLRP3 expression in hippocampus CA1 region. Together, these results showed that curcumin attenuated glutamate neurotoxicity by inhibiting ER stress-associated TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation via the regulation of AMPK, and thereby protected the hippocampus from ischemic insult. - Highlights: • Curcumin attenuates glutamate neurotoxicity in the hippocampus. • Curcumin suppresses ER stress in glutamate-induced hippocampus slices. • Curcumin inhibits TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation. • Regulation of AMPK by curcumin contributes to suppressing ER stress.

  12. Exposure of Jurkat cells to bis (tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TBTO) induces transcriptomics changes indicative for ER- and oxidative stress, T cell activation and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katika, Madhumohan R.; Hendriksen, Peter J.M.; Loveren, Henk van; Peijnenburg, Ad

    2011-08-01

    Tributyltin oxide (TBTO) is an organotin compound that is widely used as a biocide in agriculture and as an antifouling agent in paints. TBTO is toxic for many cell types, particularly immune cells. The present study aimed to identify the effects of TBTO on the human T lymphocyte cell line Jurkat. Cells were treated with 0.2 and 0.5 {mu}M TBTO for 3, 6, 12 and 24 h and then subjected to whole genome gene expression microarray analysis. The biological interpretation of the gene expression profiles revealed that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is among the earliest effects of TBTO. Simultaneously or shortly thereafter, oxidative stress, activation of NFKB and NFAT, T cell activation, and apoptosis are induced. The effects of TBTO on genes involved in ER stress, NFAT pathway, T cell activation and apoptosis were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Activation and nuclear translocation of NFATC1 and the oxidative stress response proteins NRF2 and KEAP1 were confirmed by immunocytology. Taking advantage of previously published microarray data, we demonstrated that the induction of ER stress, oxidative stress, T cell activation and apoptosis by TBTO is not unique for Jurkat cells but does also occur in mouse thymocytes both ex vivo and in vivo and rat thymocytes ex vivo. We propose that the induction of ER stress leading to a T cell activation response is a major factor in the higher sensitivity of immune cells above other types of cells for TBTO. - Research Highlights: > The human T lymphocyte cell line Jurkat was exposed to TBTO. > Whole-genome microarray experiments were performed. > Data analysis revealed the induction of ER stress and activation of NFAT and NFKB. > Exposure to TBTO also led to T cell activation, oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  13. Audit Report: ER-B-96-01 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    1 Audit Report: ER-B-96-01 April 23, 1996 Force Restructuring at the Fernald Environmental Management Project Audit Report: ER-B-96-01 (72.18 KB) More Documents & Publications Audit Report: ER-B-98-06 Semiannual Report to Congress: April 1, 1996 - September 30, 1996 Draft Policy and Planning Guidance for Community Transition Activities

  14. Completion report for well ER-30-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    Well ER-30-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada Operations Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). IT Corporation (IT) was the principal environmental contractor for the project. The roles and responsibilities of IT and other contractors involved in the project are described in the Raytheon Services Nevada (RSN) Drilling and Completion Programs and the Underground Test Area Operable Unit Project Management Plan. The Well ER-30-1 investigation is part of the DOE`s Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project at the NTS, the goals of which include collecting geological, geophysical, hydrological, and water-chemistry data from new and existing wells to define groundwater migration pathways, rates of migration, and groundwater quality at the NTS. The well will become part of the UGTA monitoring well network.

  15. Grant No. DE=FG03=86ER113469

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Report, 1993 Grant No. DE=FG03=86ER113469 "Research in Chemical Kinetics" Principal Ihvestigator, F. S. Rowland This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or use- fulness of any information, apparatus, product,

  16. 02-10ER85986 | netl.doe.gov

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Swellable Organosilica Materials to Clean Produced Water Last Reviewed 6/3/2016 02-10ER85986 Goal The project is targeted at a more general solution of improving refinery wastewater treatment. Successful completion of the revised Phase IIB goals will allow ABS Materials to provide a more applicable technology solution by capturing a broad range of organic compounds from a variety of refinery process waste streams. Some of these organics are valuable feedstock, so the capture and return function

  17. ER85357_Phase2_Eltron | netl.doe.gov

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Unconventional High Temperature Nanofiltration for Produced Water Treatment Last Reviewed 6/25/2013 DE-10ER85357 Goal The project goal is to further develop a proprietary, high-temperature nanofiltration (NF) technology (DurafluxTM) to remove salt and other dissolved solids from produced water originating from domestic oil and gas production. Treated water can be re-used in the extraction process without cooling/re-heating costs or can be recycled as an acceptable supply of source water. Project

  18. Final Report DE-FG02-07ER64416

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour, Joseph D.

    2014-02-01

    The document provides the Final Report for DE-FG02-07ER64416 on the use of magnetic resonance (MR) methods to quantify transport in porous media impacted by biological and chemical processes. Products resulting from the research in the form of peer reviewed publications and conference presentations are presented. The research correlated numerical simulations and MR measurements to test simulation methodology. Biofilm and uranium detection by MR was demonstrated.

  19. Tunable, diode side-pumped Er: YAG laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Charles E.; Furu, Laurence H.

    1997-01-01

    A discrete-element Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a 220 Watt peak-power InGaAs diode array, generates >500 mWatts at 2.94 .mu.m, and is tunable over a 6 nm range near about 2.936 .mu.m. The oscillator is a plano-concave resonator consisting of a concave high reflector, a flat output coupler, a Er:YAG crystal and a YAG intracavity etalon, which serves as the tuning element. The cavity length is variable from 3 cm to 4 cm. The oscillator uses total internal reflection in the Er:YAG crystal to allow efficient coupling of the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. With the tuning element removed, the oscillator produces up to 1.3 Watts of average power at 2.94 .mu.m. The duty factor of the laser is 6.5% and the repetition rate is variable up to 1 kHz. This laser is useful for tuning to an atmospheric transmission window at 2.935 .mu.m (air wavelength). The laser is also useful as a spectroscopic tool because it can access several infrared water vapor transitions, as well as transitions in organic compounds. Other uses include medical applications (e.g., for tissue ablation and uses with fiber optic laser scalpels) and as part of industrial effluent monitoring systems.

  20. Tunable, diode side-pumped Er:YAG laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamilton, C.E.; Furu, L.H.

    1997-04-22

    A discrete-element Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a 220 Watt peak-power InGaAs diode array, generates >500 mWatts at 2.94 {micro}m, and is tunable over a 6 nm range near about 2.936 {micro}m. The oscillator is a plano-concave resonator consisting of a concave high reflector, a flat output coupler, a Er:YAG crystal and a YAG intracavity etalon, which serves as the tuning element. The cavity length is variable from 3 cm to 4 cm. The oscillator uses total internal reflection in the Er:YAG crystal to allow efficient coupling of the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. With the tuning element removed, the oscillator produces up to 1.3 Watts of average power at 2.94 {micro}m. The duty factor of the laser is 6.5% and the repetition rate is variable up to 1 kHz. This laser is useful for tuning to an atmospheric transmission window at 2.935 {micro}m (air wavelength). The laser is also useful as a spectroscopic tool because it can access several infrared water vapor transitions, as well as transitions in organic compounds. Other uses include medical applications (e.g., for tissue ablation and uses with fiber optic laser scalpels) and as part of industrial effluent monitoring systems. 4 figs.

  1. Completion Report for Well Cluster ER-5-4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2005-02-01

    Well Cluster ER-5-4 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The cluster consists of two wells, positioned about 30 meters apart on the same drill pad, constructed as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments for the well cluster are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 156 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 192 meters in both boreholes, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 122 samples. Well ER-5-4 penetrated approximately 1,120 meters of Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium before reaching total depth in Tertiary volcanic rocks at 1,137.5 meters. The deeper Well ER-5-4 No.2 penetrated 1,120.4 meters of alluvial sediments, and was terminated within Tertiary volcanic rocks at a depth of 2,133.6 meters, indicating that Paleozoic rocks are deeper than expected at this site.

  2. Completion Report for Well Cluster ER-6-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    Well Cluster ER-6-1 was constructed for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Division at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This work was initiated as part of the Groundwater Characterization Project, now known as the Underground Test Area Project. The well cluster is located in southeastern Yucca Flat. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments for Well Cluster ER-6-1 are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and conventional core samples taken below 639 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 11 samples to resolve complex interrelationships between several of the Tertiary tuff units. Additionally, paleontological analyses by the U.S. Geological Survey confirmed the stratigraphic assignments below 539 meters within the Paleozoic sedimentary section. All three wells in the Well ER-6-1 cluster were drilled within the Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium section, the Tertiary volcanic section, and into the Paleozoic sedimentary section.

  3. X-ray and neutron diffraction of Er-hydride films.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Mark Andrew

    2004-10-01

    The outline of this report is: (1) structures of hexagonal Er meal, ErH{sub 2} fluorite, and molybdenum; (2) texture issues and processing effects; (3) idea of pole figure integration; and (4) promising neutron diffraction work. Summary of this report are: (1) ErD{sub 2} and ErT{sub 2} film microstructures are strongly effected by processing conditions; (2) both x-ray and neutron diffraction are being pursued to help diagnose structure/property issues regarding ErT{sub 2} films and these correlations to He retention/release; (3) texture issues are great challenges for determination of site occupancy; and (4) work on pole-figure-integration looks to have promise addressing texture issues in ErD{sub 2} and ErT{sub 2} films.

  4. COMPLETION REPORT FOR WELL CLUSTER ER-5-3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-12-01

    Well Cluster ER-5-3 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This cluster of 3 wells was drilled in 2000 and 2001 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program in Frenchman Flat. The first borehole in the cluster, Well ER-5-3, was drilled in February and March 2000. A 47.0-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 374.8 meters. The hole diameter was decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 794.3 meters within welded ash-flow tuff. A piezometer string with 1 slotted interval was installed in the annulus of the surface casing, open to the saturated alluvium. A completion string with 2 slotted intervals was installed in the main hole, open to saturated alluvium and to the welded tuff aquifer. A second piezometer string with 1 slotted interval open to the welded-tuff aquifer was installed outside the completion string. Well ER-5-3 No.2 was drilled about 30 meters west of the first borehole in March 2000, and was recompleted in March 2001. A 66.0-centimeter hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 613.8 meters. The hole diameter was decreased to 44.5 centimeters and the borehole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 849.0 meters. The hole diameter was decreased once more to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,732.2 meters in dolomite. A completion string open to the dolomite (lower carbonate aquifer) was installed. Well ER-5-3 No.3 was drilled approximately 30 meters north of the first 2 boreholes in February 2001. A 66.0-centimeter hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 36.6 meters, then the main 25.1-centimeter-diameter hole was drilled to a total depth of 548.6 meters in alluvium. A slotted stainless-steel tubing string was installed in the saturated alluvium. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at

  5. Grant No. DE-FG03-86ER-13469

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Report, 1994 Grant No. DE-FG03-86ER-13469 "Research in Chemical Kinetics'' Principal Investigator, F. S. Rowland DISCLAIMER T h i s report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or use- fulness of any information, apparatus, product,

  6. Audit Report: ER-B-95-06 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    6 Audit Report: ER-B-95-06 August 3, 1995 Audit of Work Force Restructuring at the Oak Ridge Operations Office Audit Report: ER-B-95-06 (103.77 KB) More Documents & Publications Audit Report: ER-B-96-01 Draft Policy and Planning Guidance for Community Transition Activities Authorize_Changes_Contractor_Work_Force_Restructuring_Policy.pdf

  7. ER Consolidated Qtrly Rpt_July-September 2015_January 2016

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, John R.

    2016-01-01

    This Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) provides the status of ongoing corrective action activities being implemented by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) for the July, August, and September 2015 quarterly reporting period. The Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) identified for corrective action at SNL/NM are listed in Table I-1. The work completed during this quarter is reported below in Sections I.2.1 and I.2.2. Section I.2.1 summarizes the quarterly activities at sites undergoing corrective action field activities (SWMUs 8 and 58, 68, 149, 154, and 502, and three groundwater AOCs). Section I.2.2 summarizes quarterly activities at sites where the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) has issued a certificate of completion and the site is in the corrective action complete (CAC) regulatory process. Currently, the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL, SWMU 76) is the only site in the CAC regulatory process. Corrective action activities have been deferred at the Long Sled Track (SWMU 83), the Gun Facilities (SWMU 84), and the Short Sled Track (SWMU 240) because these are active mission facilities.

  8. Completion Report for Well ER-8-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-11-01

    Well ER-8-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in October and November of 2002 as part of a Hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit in the northeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site. Well ER-8-1 is located at the north end of Yucca Flat approximately 580 meters south-southeast of the surface exposure of the Climax granitic intrusive. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters, and 21 sidewall samples taken at various depths between 351.1 and 573.0 meters, supplemented by incomplete geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, geochemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 22 samples of drill cuttings. Drilling began in tuffaceous alluvium, and the borehole penetrated Tertiary age bedded tuffs of the Volcanics of Oak Spring Butte and carbonate sediments of Paleozoic age, which were encountered at a depth of 334 meters. The borehole unexpectedly penetrated granite at the depth of 538.9 meters in which drilling was stopped. Contact metamorphic rocks and intrusive dikes associated with the Cretaceous-age granitic intrusive and at least one significant fault zone were encountered.

  9. Completion Report for Well ER-2-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    Well ER-2-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (formerly Nevada Operations Office), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in February and March of 2003, as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit in the northeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site. Well ER-2-1 was drilled as part of the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit Phase I drilling initiative. The well is located in north central Yucca Flat within Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site, and provided information regarding the radiological and physical environment near underground nuclear tests conducted in a saturated volcanic aquifer setting. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 83 sidewall samples taken at various depths between 113.7 and 754.4 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 27 samples of drill cuttings. The well was collared in tuffaceous alluvium, and penetrated Tertiary-age tuffs of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush Groups, Calico Hills and Wahmonie Formations, Crater Flat Group, Grouse Canyon Formation, before reaching total depth in the Tunnel Bed Formation.

  10. Environmental Release Summary (ERS) database CY 1995 releases and supporting data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleckler, B.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-05

    This document is a hard copy of the CY 1995 airborne and liquid effluent data contained in the Environmental Release Summary (ERS) computer database.

  11. Final Technical Report for DOE Grant, number DE-FG02-05ER15701...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Final Technical Report for DOE Grant, number DE-FG02-05ER15701; Probing Surface Chemistry Under Catalytic Conditions: Olefin Hydrogenation,Cyclization and ...

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of ErCrO{sub 4} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundarayya, Y. Kumar, K. Ashwini Sondge, Rajesh Srinath, S. Kaul, S. N.

    2014-04-24

    Homogeneous single phase ErCrO{sub 4} nanoparticles have been synthesized by a modified sol-gel followed by hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction reveals that the compound crystallizes into tetragonal structure with space group I41/amd. The average crystallite size was estimated to be 21(1) nm. Morphological analysis of the sample confirms uniform particles of size 20 nm. DC magnetic measurements show that ErCrO{sub 4} undergoes a paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition at 16 K, due to the superexchange Er-O-Cr-O-Er antiferromagnetic interactions.

  13. PO*WW*ER mobile treatment unit process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, R.B.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this report is to demonstrate that a thorough assessment of the risks associated with the operation of the Rust Geotech patented PO*WW*ER mobile treatment unit (MTU) has been performed and documented. The MTU was developed to treat aqueous mixed wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office sites. The MTU uses evaporation to separate organics and water from radionuclides and solids, and catalytic oxidation to convert the hazardous into byproducts. This process hazards analysis evaluated a number of accident scenarios not directly related to the operation of the MTU, such as natural phenomena damage and mishandling of chemical containers. Worst case accident scenarios were further evaluated to determine the risk potential to the MTU and to workers, the public, and the environment. The overall risk to any group from operation of the MTU was determined to be very low; the MTU is classified as a Radiological Facility with low hazards.

  14. Completion Report for Well ER-18-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2003-09-01

    Well ER-18-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well, located on Buckboard Mesa in the western part of the Nevada Test Site, was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth 408.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 762.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 369.7 meters approximately two months after the completion string was installed. One completion string with three isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 15 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 420 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data and results of detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples. The upper part of the well penetrated Tertiary-age basalt, underlain by tuffaceous moat-filling sediments interbedded with ash-flow tuff units of the Thirsty Canyon Group and the Beatty Wash Formation. The lower half of the drill hole penetrated ash-flow tuff of the mafic-rich Ammonia Tanks Tuff. The geologic interpretation of data from Well ER-18-2 indicates that this site is located inside the structural margin of the Ammonia Tanks caldera.

  15. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, M.J.

    2000-12-01

    Well ER-EC-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth 675.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,524.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 566.3 meters prior to installation of the completion string. One completion string with three isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 31 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 680 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples are in progress. The well penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Timber Mountain Group, the Paintbrush Group, the Calico Hills Formation, the Crater Flat Group, and the Volcanics of Quartz Mountain. The preliminary geologic interpretation of data from Well ER-EC-1 indicates the presence of a structural trough or bench filled with a thick section of post-Rainier Mesa lava. These data also suggest that this site is located on a buried structural ridge that may separate the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes.

  16. Audit Report: ER-B-95-05 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    5 Audit Report: ER-B-95-05 July 14, 1995 Audit of Acquisition of Scientific Research at Ames Laboratory Audit Report: ER-B-95-05 (57.27 KB) More Documents & Publications Audit Report: OAS-M-05-05 Semiannual Report to Congress: April 1 to September 30, 2000 Audit Report: WR-B-96-08

  17. Audit Report: ER-B-97-01 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    1 Audit Report: ER-B-97-01 October 22, 1996 Audit of Economic Development Grants and a Cooperative Agreement with East Tennessee Not-For-Profit Organizations Audit Report: ER-B-97-01 (64.63 KB) More Documents & Publications Audit Report: CR-B-97-01 Audit Report: IG-0609 Semiannual Report to Congress: March 31, 1997

  18. Carrier transfer from InAs quantum dots to ErAs metal nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haughn, C. R.; Chen, E. Y.; Zide, J. M. O.; Doty, M. F.; Steenbergen, E. H.; Bissell, L. J.; Eyink, K. G.

    2014-09-08

    Erbium arsenide (ErAs) is a semi-metallic material that self-assembles into nanoparticles when grown in GaAs via molecular beam epitaxy. We use steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence to examine the mechanism of carrier transfer between indium arsenide (InAs) quantum dots and ErAs nanoparticles in a GaAs host. We probe the electronic structure of the ErAs metal nanoparticles (MNPs) and the optoelectronic properties of the nanocomposite and show that the carrier transfer rates are independent of pump intensity. This result suggests that the ErAs MNPs have a continuous density of states and effectively act as traps. The absence of a temperature dependence tells us that carrier transfer from the InAs quantum dots to ErAs MNPs is not phonon assisted. We show that the measured photoluminescence decay rates are consistent with a carrier tunneling model.

  19. Completion Report for Well ER-7-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-11-01

    Well ER-7-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in January and February 2003, as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program in Yucca Flat. A 47.0-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 541.0 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.8 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 762.0 meters. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 62 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 85.3 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies were conducted on 22 samples of cuttings. The well was collared in Quaternary surficial deposits and penetrated a thick section of Tertiary-age volcanic deposits before terminating in carbonate rocks of Paleozoic-age.

  20. Completion Report for Wells ER-20-8 and ER-20-8#2 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-02-28

    Wells ER-20-8 and ER-20-8#2 were drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The holes were drilled in July and August 2009, as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of these wells was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model. They may also be used as long-term monitoring wells.

  1. Audit Report: ER-B-98-02 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Audit Report: ER-B-98-02 October 24, 1997 Audit of Environmental Monitoring and Health Physics Laboratories at the Savannah River Site The Environmental Monitoring and Health...

  2. Award DE-FG02-04ER52655 Final Technical Report: Interior Point...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Final Technical Report: Interior Point Algorithms for Optimization Problems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Award DE-FG02-04ER52655 Final Technical Report: Interior ...

  3. Audit Report: ER-B-95-04 | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    26, 1995 Audit of the Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator at Savannah River PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-95-04 More Documents & Publications Inspection Report: INS-O-97-01 ...

  4. Audit Report: ER-B-98-04 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    4 Audit Report: ER-B-98-04 November 24, 1997 Audit Of Selected Government-Funded Grants And Contracts At Princeton University As the cognizant audit agency for Princeton University ...

  5. Audit Report: ER-B-98-05 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    5 Audit Report: ER-B-98-05 December 10, 1997 Audit Of The Department Of Energy's Contracts With Envirocare Of Utah, Inc The Department of Energy (Department) is responsible for ...

  6. Audit Report: ER-B-98-03 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    3 Audit Report: ER-B-98-03 November 7, 1997 Audit of the Union Valley Sample Preparation Facility at Oak Ridge In 1991, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems) determined ...

  7. Audit Report: ER-B-98-01 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    1 Audit Report: ER-B-98-01 October 23, 1997 Audit of the Deactivation, Decontamination, and Disposal of Surplus Facilities at the Savannah River Site Westinghouse Savannah River ...

  8. Audit Report: ER-B-99-06 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    6 Audit Report: ER-B-99-06 April 14, 1999 Bechtel Jacobs Payroll Creation The Oak Ridge Operations Office (Operations Office) awarded a contract to the Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC...

  9. Audit Report: ER-B-99-07 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    7 Audit Report: ER-B-99-07 May 4, 1999 Maintenance Activities at the Y-12 Plant Department of Energy (Department) policy requires the use of performance measures to assess the...

  10. Audit Report: ER-B-99-02 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    submit offers. PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-99-02 More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - al2004-03.doc Chapter 19 - Small Business Programs Acquisition Letter: AL2005-08...

  11. Structural and photoluminescence properties of Ce, Dy, Er-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayachandraiah, C.; Kumar, K. Siva; Krishnaiah, G.

    2015-06-24

    Undoped ZnO and rare earth elements (Ce, Dy and Er with 2 at. %) doped nanoparticles were synthesized by wet chemical co-precipitation method at 90°C with Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as capping agent. The structural, morphological, compositional and photoluminescence studies were performed with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), FTIR spectroscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) respectively. XRD results revealed hexagonal wurtzite structure with average particle size around 18 nm - 14 nm and are compatible with TEM results. EDS confirm the incorporation of Ce, Dy and Er elements into the host ZnO matrix and is validated by FTIR analysis. PL studies showed a broad intensive emission peak at 558 nm in all the samples. The intensity for Er- doped ZnO found maximum with additional Er shoulder peaks at 516nm and 538 nm. No Ce, Dy emission centers were found in spectra.

  12. Audit Report: ER-B-96-02 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    at Savannah River PDF icon Audit Report: ER-B-96-02 More Documents & Publications EIS-0120: Wetland Assessment Audit Report: IG-0655 EIS-0303: Draft Environmental Impact Statement

  13. Final Technical Report for DOE DE-FG02-05ER54831 "Laboratory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The device works like a magnetic fi12;eld ampli12;er with a feedback circuit: the ... What is remarkable is that the same type of circuit may be achieved in a flowing ...

  14. DOE-ER-STD-6001-92; Implementation Guide for Quality Assurance...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    the concepts and requirements of DOE 5700.6C into the language and practices that are ... reasonably implement the full intent of 5700.6C in the ER research community and yet ...

  15. Final Technical Report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-91ER20038 (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Final Technical Report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-91ER20038 The existence of species within the plant genus Flaveria with differing leaf cell arrangements and photosynthetic ...

  16. FINAL REPORT Plant Physiological Aspects of Silicon DE-FG03-94ER20151

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    FINAL REPORT Plant Physiological Aspects of Silicon DE-FG03-94ER20151 Emanuel Epstein, ... Images are produced from the best available original document. Plant Physiological Aspects ...

  17. Final Technical Report: DE-FG02-08ER41562

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report: DE-FG02-08ER41562 (2008-2010) Discovering the Nature of Dark Energy: Towards ... R. Gibson, K. Gilmore, E. A. Grace, R. F. Green, W. J. Gressler, C. J. Grill- mair, S. ...

  18. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-2A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. J. Townsend

    2002-03-01

    Well ER-EC-2A was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in January and February of 2000 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program in the Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 412.9 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,516.1 meters. One completion string with three isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 228.0 meters, approximately two months after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 81 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 212 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 30 samples. The well was collared in rhyolite lava and penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Volcanics of Fortymile Canyon and the Timber Mountain Group. The preliminary geologic interpretation of borehole data indicates that this well was drilled within the margins of the buried Rainier Mesa and Ammonia Tanks calderas, and that caldera collapse in this area was deeper than expected, resulting in a section of Volcanics of Fortymile Canyon (caldera-filling deposit) that is much thicker than expected.

  19. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    Well ER-EC-5 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the summer of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 342.6 meters below ground surface. The borehole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 762.0 meters. One completion string with three isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 309.9 meters, 40 days after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 18 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 349.6 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data and results from detailed chemical and mineralogical analyses of rock samples. The well penetrated Tertiary-age tuffs of the Thirsty Canyon Group, caldera moat-filling sedimentary deposits, lava of the Beatty Wash Formation, and landslide breccia and tuffs of the Timber Mountain Group. The well reached total depth in welded ashflow tuff of the Ammonia Tanks Tuff after penetrating 440.1 meters of this unit, which is also the main water-producing unit in the well. The geologic interpretation of data from this well constrains the western margin of the Ammonia Tanks caldera to the west of the well location.

  20. Completion Report for Well ER-12-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-11-01

    Well ER-12-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled from November 2002 to January 2003 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit. The overall purpose of the well was to gather subsurface data to better characterize the hydrogeology in the northwestern portion of Yucca Flat. The well was drilled to total measured depth of 2,097.9 meters. The 131.1-centimeter-diameter borehole was left open (i.e., uncased) below the base of the intermediate casing at 901.6 meters. A piezometer string was installed outside the surface casing to a depth of 176.4 meters to monitor a zone of perched water. Data gathered during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters, sidewall core samples from 7 depths, various geophysical logs, and water level measurements. These data indicate that the well penetrated, in descending order, 137.5 meters of Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium, 48.8 meters of Tertiary volcanic rocks, 289.6 meters of Mississippian Chainman Shale, and 1,622.5 meters of Mississippian and Upper Devonian Eleana Formation consisting of shale, argillite, sandstone, quartzite, and limestone. Forty-seven days after the well was drilled the water level inside the main hole was tagged at the depth of 65.43 meters, and the water level inside the piezometer string was tagged at 127.14 meters.

  1. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. J. Townsend

    2000-09-01

    Well ER-EC-4 was drilled for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the summer of 1999 as part of the U.S Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 263.7 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,062.8 meters. One completion string with three isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of 228.3 meters, two months after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 35 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 286.5 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples are in progress. The well was collared in basalt and penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Thirsty Canyon Group, the Volcanics of Fortymile Canyon, and the Timber Mountain Group. The preliminary geologic interpretation of data from this well helps pinpoint the location of the western margin of the Timber Mountain caldera complex in the southern Nevada volcanic field.

  2. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    Well ER-EC-7 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the summer of 1999 as part of the Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 265.8 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 422.5 meters. The planned depth of 762 meters was not reached due to borehole stability problems. One completion string with two isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of 227.8 meters, 20 days after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings, supplemented by geophysical log data, and incorporating data from detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples. Beneath a thin alluvial deposit, the well penetrated 410 meters of lava and bedded tuff of the Volcanics of Fortymile Canyon Group, deposited in the Timber Mountain caldera moat after caldera collapse. The geologic interpretation of data from this well provides information on the thickness, lithologic composition, and hydrogeologic character of moat-filling rocks in the southern portion of the Timber Mountain caldera complex in the southwestern Nevada volcanic field.

  3. Completion report for Well ER-EC-6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. J. Townsend

    2000-05-01

    Well ER-EC-6 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the DOE's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 66-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 485.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,524.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 434.6 meters prior to installation of the completion string. One completion string with four isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 33 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 504.4 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples are in progress. The well penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Timber Mountain Group, the Paintbrush Group, the Calico Hills Formation, and the Volcanics of Quartz Mountain. Intense hydrothermal alteration was observed below the depth of 640 m. The preliminary geologic interpretation indicates that this site may be located on a buried structural ridge that separates the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes.

  4. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    Well ER-EC-8 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the summer of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 129.8 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 609.6 meters. One completion string with three isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 98.4 meters, 24 days after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on evaluation of composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 20 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 157.9 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data and results of detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples. Drilling began in Tertiary-age tuff of the Thirsty Canyon Group, and penetrated tuffs of the Beatty Wash Formation, tuff of Buttonhook Wash, and the upper portion of the Ammonia Tanks Tuff. The geologic interpretation of data from this well helps define the location of the western margin of the Timber Mountain caldera complex in the southwestern Nevada volcanic field. Geologic and hydrologic data from the well will aid in development of models to predict groundwater flow and contaminant migration within and near the Nevada Test Site.

  5. DYNAMICAL STABILITY AND QUANTUM CHAOS OF IONS IN A LINEAR TRAP (1999002ER).

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: DYNAMICAL STABILITY AND QUANTUM CHAOS OF IONS IN A LINEAR TRAP (1999002ER). Citation Details In-Document Search Title: DYNAMICAL STABILITY AND QUANTUM CHAOS OF IONS IN A LINEAR TRAP (1999002ER). The realization of a paradigm chaotic system, namely the harmonically driven oscillator, in the quantum domain using cold trapped ions driven by lasers is theoretically investigated. The simplest characteristics of regular and chaotic dynamics

  6. IMG ER: A System for Microbial Genome Annotation Expert Review and Curation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markowitz, Victor M.; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Chen, I-Min A.; Chu, Ken; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2009-05-25

    A rapidly increasing number of microbial genomes are sequenced by organizations worldwide and are eventually included into various public genome data resources. The quality of the annotations depends largely on the original dataset providers, with erroneous or incomplete annotations often carried over into the public resources and difficult to correct. We have developed an Expert Review (ER) version of the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system, with the goal of supporting systematic and efficient revision of microbial genome annotations. IMG ER provides tools for the review and curation of annotations of both new and publicly available microbial genomes within IMG's rich integrated genome framework. New genome datasets are included into IMG ER prior to their public release either with their native annotations or with annotations generated by IMG ER's annotation pipeline. IMG ER tools allow addressing annotation problems detected with IMG's comparative analysis tools, such as genes missed by gene prediction pipelines or genes without an associated function. Over the past year, IMG ER was used for improving the annotations of about 150 microbial genomes.

  7. Pahute Mesa Well Development and Testing Analyses for Wells ER-20-8 and ER-20-4, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Ruskauff and Sam Marutzky

    2012-09-01

    Wells ER-20-4 and ER-20-8 were drilled during fiscal year (FY) 2009 and FY 2010 (NNSA/NSO, 2011a and b). The closest underground nuclear test detonations to the area of investigation are TYBO (U-20y), BELMONT (U-20as), MOLBO (U-20ag), BENHAM (U-20c), and HOYA (U-20 be) (Figure 1-1). The TYBO, MOLBO, and BENHAM detonations had working points located below the regional water table. The BELMONT and HOYA detonation working points were located just above the water table, and the cavity for these detonations are calculated to extend below the water table (Pawloski et al., 2002). The broad purpose of Wells ER-20-4 and ER-20-8 is to determine the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater, the geologic formations, groundwater geochemistry as an indicator of age and origin, and the water-bearing properties and hydraulic conditions that influence radionuclide migration. Well development and testing is performed to determine the hydraulic properties at the well and between other wells, and to obtain groundwater samples at the well that are representative of the formation at the well. The area location, wells, underground nuclear detonations, and other features are shown in Figure 1-1. Hydrostratigraphic cross sections A-A, B-B, C-C, and D-D are shown in Figures 1-2 through 1-5, respectively.

  8. Excitation mechanisms of Er optical centers in GaN epilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, D. K.; Hawkins, M. D.; McLaren, M.; Vinh, N. Q.; Jiang, H. X.; Lin, J. Y.; Zavada, J. M.

    2015-10-26

    We report direct evidence of two mechanisms responsible for the excitation of optically active Er{sup 3+} ions in GaN epilayers grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. These mechanisms, resonant excitation via the higher-lying inner 4f shell transitions and band-to-band excitation of the semiconductor host, lead to narrow emission lines from isolated and the defect-related Er optical centers. However, these centers have different photoluminescence spectra, local defect environments, decay dynamics, and excitation cross sections. The photoluminescence at 1.54 μm from the isolated Er optical center which can be excited by either mechanism has the same decay dynamics, but possesses a much higher excitation cross-section under band-to-band excitation. In contrast, the photoluminescence at 1.54 μm from the defect-related Er optical center can only be observed through band-to-band excitation but has the largest excitation cross-section. These results explain the difficulty in achieving gain in Er doped GaN and indicate approaches for realization of optical amplification, and possibly lasing, at room temperature.

  9. The photoluminescence properties of Er{sup 3+}-doped ZrO{sub 2} nanotube arrays prepared by anodization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xixin; Zhao, Jianling; Du, Peng; Guo, Limin; Xu, Xuewen; Tang, Chengchun

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Er{sup 3+}-doped ZrO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were prepared by anodization of ZrEr alloy. ? Small tetragonal zirconia crystallites are tended to be formed due to the doping of Er{sup 3+}. ? Under excitation at 317 nm, the ZrO{sub 2} nantube arrays have strongest photoluminescence intensity. -- Abstract: Er{sup 3+}-doped ZrO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were prepared by anodization of ZrEr alloy which was obtained by melting zirconium with 1.0 wt% erbium. The morphology, structure and photoluminescence properties were studied through scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence analyzer. X-ray diffraction results indicate that doping of Er{sup 3+} affects the crystal structure and grain size obviously and the Er{sup 3+}-doped samples tend to form small tetragonal grains. Photoluminescence analyses show that when Er{sup 3+}-doped zirconia nanotube arrays are excited at 317 nm, there are two strong photoluminescence emission peaks at 373 nm and 415 nm. When the excitation wavelength is 257 nm, a photoluminescence emission peak appears at 363 nm. Under same measurement conditions, emission peaks of the undoped ZrO{sub 2} nanotube arrays are very weak.

  10. Final Report on Research Conducted under Grant DE-FG02-98ER14857

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, Barry,K.; Davis, H., Floyd

    2008-01-28

    Work in the Carpenter laboratory under the aegis of grant DE-FG02-98ER14857 concerned the formation, properties, and reactions of organic free radicals known or believed to be important in hydrocarbon combustion. Both computational and experimental methods were employed in these studies.

  11. FOEU-iERLY UTILIZED SITES REKEDIAL ACTION PROG%AM ELIMINATION REPORT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    y ((-' q ' c - ,' .* FOEU-iERLY UTILIZED SITES REKEDIAL ACTION PROG%AM ELIMINATION REPORT FORMERERATOOLAND ENGINEERING COMPANY 4555 UEST ADDISON STREET CHICAGO, ILLINOIS NOVEMBER 14, 1989 Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology Facility and Site Decommissioning . . CONTENTS Page INTRODU~ION......................... 1 BAcI(GROuND.......................... 1 Site Function. ...................... 1 Site Description ..................... 2

  12. Effect of Er doping on the structural and magnetic properties of cobalt-ferrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prathapani, Sateesh; Vinitha, M.; Das, D.; Jayaraman, T. V.

    2014-05-07

    Nanocrystalline particulates of Er doped cobalt-ferrites CoFe{sub (2−x)}Er{sub x}O{sub 4} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.04), were synthesized, using sol-gel assisted autocombustion method. Co-, Fe-, and Er- nitrates were the oxidizers, and malic acid served as a fuel and chelating agent. Calcination (400–600 °C for 4 h) of the precursor powders was followed by sintering (1000 °C for 4 h) and structural and magnetic characterization. X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of single phase of spinel for the compositions x = 0, 0.01, and 0.02; and for higher compositions an additional orthoferrite phase formed along with the spinel phase. Lattice parameter of the doped cobalt-ferrites was higher than that of pure cobalt-ferrite. The observed red shift in the doped cobalt-ferrites indicates the presence of induced strain in the cobalt-ferrite matrix due to large size of the Er{sup +3} compared to Fe{sup +3}. Greater than two-fold increase in coercivity (∼66 kA/m for x = 0.02) was observed in doped cobalt-ferrites compared to CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (∼29 kA/m)

  13. Population dynamics in epitaxial Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films grown on Si(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tawara, T.; Omi, H.; Hozumi, T.; Kaji, R.; Adachi, S.; Gotoh, H.; Sogawa, T.

    2013-06-17

    We grow single crystal erbium-oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) epitaxially on a Si (111) substrate by using molecular beam epitaxy and investigate the population dynamics in Er{sup 3+} ions for the coherent manipulation of the population in Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Sharp and discrete Stark energy levels of the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} manifold as small as 200 {mu}eV are observed with inhomogeneous broadening caused by the uniform crystal field of the epitaxial Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}. We also experimentally determine the time constant of the resonant population transfer between spatially distant Er{sup 3+}-ion sites, which is limited to the manipulation time of the population in the Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals. Using selective excitation of the Stark level in the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} manifold, we obtain the energy transfer times between spatially distant Er{sup 3+} ions, and they are about 2 {mu}s between sites whose crystallographic symmetry is different and 10 {mu}s between sites whose symmetry is the same.

  14. Photonic crystal light emitting diode based on Er and Si nanoclusters co-doped slot waveguide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo Savio, R.; Galli, M.; Liscidini, M.; Andreani, L. C.; Franz, G.; Iacona, F.; Miritello, M.; Irrera, A.; Sanfilippo, D.; Piana, A.; Priolo, F.

    2014-03-24

    We report on the design, fabrication, and electro-optical characterization of a light emitting device operating at 1.54??m, whose active layer consists of silicon oxide containing Er-doped Si nanoclusters. A photonic crystal (PhC) is fabricated on the top-electrode to enhance the light extraction in the vertical direction, and thus the external efficiency of the device. This occurs if a photonic mode of the PhC slab is resonant with the Er emission energy, as confirmed by theoretical calculations and experimental analyses. We measure an increase of the extraction efficiency by a factor of 3 with a high directionality of light emission in a narrow vertical cone. External quantum efficiency and power efficiency are among the highest reported for this kind of material. These results are important for the realization of CMOS-compatible efficient light emitters at telecom wavelengths.

  15. Audit Report: ER-B-98-02 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    2 Audit Report: ER-B-98-02 October 24, 1997 Audit of Environmental Monitoring and Health Physics Laboratories at the Savannah River Site The Environmental Monitoring and Health Physics Laboratories at the Department of Energy's (Department) Savannah River Site are over 40 years old and are approaching the end of their useful lives. The managing and operating contractor, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (Westinghouse), and the Savannah River Operations Office (Operations Office) proposed to

  16. Audit Report: ER-B-98-09 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    9 Audit Report: ER-B-98-09 July 15, 1998 Disposal of Tritium Residues at the Los Alamos National Laboratory In 1991 the Secretary of Energy directed the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health to form a Task Group to review tritium facility management practices and identify measures to improve tritium operations. The Task Group issued a report in October 1991 stating that there was an overall lack of attention to managing tritium residues throughout the Department of Energy

  17. Audit Report: ER-B-00-03 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    3 Audit Report: ER-B-00-03 June 19, 2000 Waste Characterization at Oak Ridge Waste characterization is a series of steps performed to determine the weight, volume, and physical characteristics of radioactive waste. The Department of Energy (Department) uses data obtained from waste characterization to evaluate treatment and disposal options for the waste. The characterization process begins when the generator of the waste prepares a general description of the waste produced. The extent of work

  18. Microsoft Word - DOE-ER-0670T_6.09_Final.doc

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ER-0670T UC-402 Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) February 1996 United States Department of Energy Office of Energy Research Office of Health and Environmental Research Environmental Sciences Division Washington, DC 20585 ARM Science Plan iii Executive Summary The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE's programmatic objectives for ARM, based

  19. Audit Report: ER-B-98-06 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    8-06 Audit Report: ER-B-98-06 April 1, 1998 Fluor Daniel Fernald's Use of Temporary Service Subcontractors The Department of Energy (Department) and Fluor Daniel Fernald (Fluor Daniel) implemented two work force restructurings at the Fernald Environmental Management Project between Fiscal Years (FY) 1994 and 1996. During the restructurings, the Department's cost for temporary service subcontracts increased from $2.8 million to $9.8 million annually. The objective of this audit was to determine

  20. Audit Report: ER-B-99-03 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    3 Audit Report: ER-B-99-03 January 25, 1999 Westinghouse Savannah River Company's Health Benefit Plan Westinghouse Savannah River Company (Westinghouse) manages and operates the Savannah River Site, located in Aiken, South Carolina, for the U.S. Department of Energy (Department). Westinghouse was self-insured for health benefits and contracted with Aetna Insurance to administer the plan (service payments to providers) from Calendar Year (CY) 1989 through 1996. Westinghouse's administrative

  1. Audit Report: ER-B-99-05 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    5 Audit Report: ER-B-99-05 April 8, 1999 Westinghouse Savannah River Company's Withdrawal of Fees As the operator of the Department's Savannah River Site, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (Westinghouse) receives three types of fees: (1) award fees commensurate with the overall performance rating, (2) Performance Based Incentive (PBI) fees for achieving measurable goals or defined tasks as specified in annual operating plans, and (3) Cost Reduction Incentive Program (CRIP) fees for making

  2. Audit Report: ER-B-99-08 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    8 Audit Report: ER-B-99-08 May 12, 1999 Health Physics Technician Subcontracts at Brookhaven National Laboratory To supplement its health physics staff, Brookhaven National Laboratory (Brookhaven) subcontracted with a support service business (the subcontractor) to obtain the services of health physics technicians. During the performance of these subcontracts, certain issues arose concerning per diem payments to the subcontractor for local technicians. The objective of this audit was to

  3. Audit Report: ER-L-02-01 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    L-02-01 Audit Report: ER-L-02-01 February 7, 2002 The Department of Energy's Strategy for Disposal of Plutonium In September 2000, the United States and the Russian Federation entered into an agreement stipulating that each country will irreversibly transform 34 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium into forms which could not be used for weapons purposes. To meet the United States' commitment, the Department of Energy planned activities at its Savannah River Site; specifically, to immobilize

  4. Cw laser action of Er/sup 3 +/ in double sensitized fluoroaluminate glass at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heumann, E.; Ledig, M.; Ehrt, D.; Seeber, W.; Duczynski, E.W.; Heide, H.v.; Huber, G.

    1988-01-25

    cw lasing at 1.6 ..mu..m was obtained for the first time in Cr, Yb, Er:fluoroaluminate glass. Double step pumping via Cr/sup 3 +/ and Yb/sup 3 +/ with a krypton laser yields a threshold pump power of 80 mW. Efficient lasing can be expected using glass samples of optimized dopant concentration and improved optical quality.

  5. Fluoride-elicited developmental testicular toxicity in rats: Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammatory response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shun; Jiang, Chunyang; Liu, Hongliang; Guan, Zhizhong; Zeng, Qiang; Zhang, Cheng; Lei, Rongrong; Xia, Tao; Gao, Hui; Yang, Lu; Chen, Yihu; Wu, Xue; Zhang, Xiaofei; Cui, Yushan; Yu, Linyu; Wang, Zhenglun; Wang, Aiguo

    2013-09-01

    Long-term excessive fluoride intake is known to be toxic and can damage a variety of organs and tissues in the human body. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fluoride-induced male reproductive toxicity are not well understood. In this study, we used a rat model to simulate the situations of human exposure and aimed to evaluate the roles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammatory response in fluoride-induced testicular injury. SpragueDawley rats were administered with sodium fluoride (NaF) at 25, 50 and 100 mg/L via drinking water from pre-pregnancy to gestation, birth and finally to post-puberty. And then the testes of male offspring were studied at 8 weeks of age. Our results demonstrated that fluoride treatment increased MDA accumulation, decreased SOD activity, and enhanced germ cell apoptosis. In addition, fluoride elevated mRNA and protein levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), inositol requiring ER-to-nucleus signal kinase 1 (IRE1), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), indicating activation of ER stress signaling. Furthermore, fluoride also induced testicular inflammation, as manifested by gene up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in a nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B)-dependent manner. These were associated with marked histopathological lesions including injury of spermatogonia, decrease of spermatocytes and absence of elongated spermatids, as well as severe ultrastructural abnormalities in testes. Taken together, our results provide compelling evidence that ER stress and inflammation would be novel and significant mechanisms responsible for fluoride-induced disturbance of spermatogenesis and germ cell loss in addition to oxidative stress. - Highlights: We used a rat model to simulate the situations of human fluoride (F) exposure. Developmental F exposure induces testicular damage related with oxidative stress. Endoplasmic

  6. Water-assisted pulsed Er:YAG laser interaction with silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jaehun; Ki, Hyungson

    2015-07-07

    Silicon is virtually transparent to the Er:YAG laser with a wavelength of 2.94 μm. In this study, we report that moderately doped silicon (1–10 Ω cm) can be processed by a pulsed Er:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 350 μs and a peak laser intensity of 1.7 × 10{sup 5} W/cm{sup 2} by applying a thin water layer on top of silicon as a light absorbing medium. In this way, water is heated first by strongly absorbing the laser energy and then heats up the silicon wafer indirectly. As the silicon temperature rises, the free carrier concentration and therefore the absorption coefficient of silicon will increase significantly, which may enable the silicon to get directly processed by the Er:YAG laser when the water is vaporized completely. We also believe that the change in surface morphology after melting could contribute to the increase in the laser beam absorptance. It was observed that 525 nm-thick p-type wafer specimens were fully penetrated after 15 laser pulses were irradiated. Bright yellow flames were observed during the process, which indicates that the silicon surface reached the melting point.

  7. Analysis of Well ER-EC-6 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-6 during the Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-6 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  8. Analysis of Well ER-EC-2a Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-2a during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-2a Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  9. Analysis of well ER-18-2 testing, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley FY 2000 testing program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-18-2 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-18-2 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  10. Structural basis for a hand-like site in the calcium sensor CatchER with fast kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ying; Reddish, Florence; Tang, Shen; Zhuo, You; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Yang, Jenny J.; Weber, Irene T.

    2013-12-01

    High-resolution crystal structures of the designed calcium sensor CatchER revealed snapshots of calcium and gadolinium ions binding within the designed site in agreement with its fast kinetics. Calcium ions, which are important signaling molecules, can be detected in the endoplasmic reticulum by an engineered mutant of green fluorescent protein (GFP) designated CatchER with a fast off-rate. High resolution (1.78–1.20 Å) crystal structures were analyzed for CatchER in the apo form and in complexes with calcium or gadolinium to probe the binding site for metal ions. While CatchER exhibits a 1:1 binding stoichiometry in solution, two positions were observed for each of the metal ions bound within the hand-like site formed by the carboxylate side chains of the mutated residues S147E, S202D, Q204E, F223E and T225E that may be responsible for its fast kinetic properties. Comparison of the structures of CatchER, wild-type GFP and enhanced GFP confirmed that different conformations of Thr203 and Glu222 are associated with the two forms of Tyr66 of the chromophore which are responsible for the absorbance wavelengths of the different proteins. Calcium binding to CatchER may shift the equilibrium for conformational population of the Glu222 side chain and lead to further changes in its optical properties.

  11. Audit Report: ER-B-99-01 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    9-01 Audit Report: ER-B-99-01 December 21, 1998 Decontamination and Decommissioning at the East Tennessee Technology Park The East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) contains about 400 buildings with approximately 14.4 million square feet of space. Almost 90 percent of the space is comprised of buildings that are currently undergoing or are planned for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). Departmental policy requires that D&D projects be prioritized based on employee and public

  12. Audit Report: ER-B-99-04 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    4 Audit Report: ER-B-99-04 March 15, 1999 Credit Card Usage at the Ohio Field Office and the Fernald and Miamisburg Environmental Management Projects The Department of Energy (Department) obtained the services of Rocky Mountain BankCard System, through the use of a General Services Administration contract, as a means for the Department and its contractors to make small purchases. The Ohio Field Office (Field Office) uses the credit card system and oversees usage by the Fernald and Miamisburg

  13. Progress Report- DE-FG02-03ER46078-University of Houston

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Final Report- DE-FG02-08ER46486-University of Houston Neutron Compton Scattering as a Probe of Hydrogen Bonded (and other) Systems George Reiter December 22, 2010 Period: Feb 1, 2010-Jan 31, 2011 Summary of work: 3-D Measurements of Born-Oppenheimer Potential Measurements of the momentum distribution of Rb3H(SO4)2 at 120K and 170K have been analyzed, and a paper submitted to PRB. It is now in the review process. The import of the paper is that the effective Born Oppenheimer potential for the

  14. US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DEI'ER1IllNATION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DEI'ER1IllNATION Page I of3 RECIPIENT:Verdant Power, Inc. STATE: NY PROJECT TITLE : Advancement of the Kinetic Hydropower System (KHPS) to DOE TRL 7/8 Funding Opportunity Announcement Number DE-FOA-OOOO293 Procurement Instrument Number NEPA Control Number CID Number DE-EEOOO5929 GF0-0005929-OO1 EE5929 Based on my review of the information concerning the proposed action, as NEPA Compliance Officer (authorized under DOE Order 451.1A), I have made the following

  15. Electrical Properties of Er-doped In0.53Ga0.47As

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, Peter G.; Lu, Hong; Rudawski, Nicholas G.; Stemmer, Susanne; Gossard, Arthur C.; Bahk, Je-Hyeong; Bowers, John E.

    2011-03-03

    The electrical properties of In0.53Ga0.47As As thin films Er-doped to concentrations of 1.51017 7.21020 cm-3 grown by molecular beam epitaxy at 490 C on (001) InP substrates were studied. Electrical conductivity, carrier density, and carrier mobility as a function of Er doping were measured by Hall effect at temperatures of 20750 K. Additionally, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and infrared absorption spectroscopy confirmed the presence of epitaxially embedded ErAs nanoparticles at Er concentrations ?81019 cm-3. The observed electrical properties are discussed in terms of the dependence of ErAs nanoparticle formation with Er doping.

  16. Absence of exchange interaction between localized magnetic moments and conduction-electrons in diluted Er{sup 3+} gold-nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesseux, G. G. Urbano, R. R.; Iwamoto, W.; Garca-Flores, A. F.; Rettori, C.

    2014-05-07

    The Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) of diluted Er{sup 3+} magnetic ions in Au nanoparticles (NPs) is reported. The NPs were synthesized by reducing chloro triphenyl-phosphine gold(I) and erbium(III) trifluoroacetate. The Er{sup 3+} g-value along with the observed hyperfine splitting indicate that the Er{sup 3+} impurities are in a local cubic symmetry. Furthermore, the Er{sup 3+} ESR spectra show that the exchange interaction between the 4f and the conduction electrons (ce) is absent or negligible in Au{sub 1x}Er{sub x} NPs, in contrast to the ESR results in bulk Au{sub 1x}Er{sub x}. Therefore, the nature of this interaction needs to be reexamined at the nano scale range.

  17. Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+}co-doped bismuth molybdate nanosheets upconversion photocatalyst with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikari, Rajesh; Gyawali, Gobinda; Cho, Sung Hun; Narro-Garca, R.; Sekino, Tohru; Lee, Soo Wohn

    2014-01-15

    In this paper, we report the microwave hydrothermal synthesis of Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} upconversion photocatalyst. Crystal structure, morphology, elemental composition, optical properties and BET surface area were analyzed in detail. Infrared to visible upconversion luminescence at 532 nm and 546 nm of the co-doped samples was investigated under excitation at 980 nm. The results revealed that the co-doping of Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} into Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity for the decomposition of rhodamine B under simulated solar light irradiation. Enhanced photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the energy transfer between Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} and Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} via infrared to visible upconversion from Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} ion and higher surface area of the Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} nanosheets. Therefore, this synthetic approach may exhibit a better alternative to fabricate upconversion photocatalyst for integral solar light absorption. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the upconversion photocatalysis. Display Omitted - Highlights: Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} upconversion photocatalyst is successfully synthesized. We obtained the nanosheets having high surface area. Upconversion of IR to visible light was confirmed. Upconversion phenomena can be utilized for effective photocatalysis.

  18. Effect of nonmagnetic impurities on the residual electron-spin-resonance linewidth of Er:Ag dilute alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlberg, E.D.; Souletie, J.; Dodds, S.A.; Chock, E.P.; Orbach, R.L. )

    1990-06-01

    We have undertaken a systematic investigation of the effect of nonmagnetic impurities on the residual ({ital T}{r arrow}0 K) electron-spin-resonance linewidth of erbium in dilute (200 parts per million atomic (ppm)) Er:Ag alloys. The nonmagnetic impurities used were In, Sn, Sb, Y, and Lu in the concentration range of 500--4600 ppm. The linewidth broadening caused by these impurities was found to be 0.2{plus minus}0.11, 0.49{plus minus}0.1, 0.51{plus minus}0.11, 1.4{plus minus}0.18, and 1.37{plus minus}0.32 G/1000 ppm atomic frequency (GHz) for In, Sn, Sb, Y, and Lu, respectively. The most reasonable source of the Er line broadening is the mixing of the crystal-field levels of the Er by the Kohn-Vosko oscillations in the charge density. The broadening of the Er resonance line due to In, Sn, and Sb doping is consistent with the expected form of the oscillations. Also, Y and Lu are equivalent in the broadening of the Er line, as expected. However, the scaling of the Y and Lu broadening compared to that due to the In, Sn, and Sb is not consistent. The reasons for this are not understood.

  19. The role of Nb in intensity increase of Er ion upconversion luminescence in zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smits, K. Sarakovskis, A.; Grigorjeva, L.; Millers, D.; Grabis, J.

    2014-06-07

    It is found that Nb co-doping increases the luminescence and upconversion luminescence intensity in rare earth doped zirconia. Er and Yb-doped nanocrystalline samples with or without Nb co-doping were prepared by sol-gel method and thermally annealed to check for the impact of phase transition on luminescence properties. Phase composition and grain sizes were examined by X-ray diffraction; the morphology was checked by scanning- and high-resolution transmission electron microscopes. Both steady-state and time-resolved luminescence were studied. Comparison of samples with different oxygen vacancy concentrations and different Nb concentrations confirmed the known assumption that oxygen vacancies are the main agents for tetragonal or cubic phase stabilization. The oxygen vacancies quench the upconversion luminescence; however, they also prevent agglomeration of rare-earth ions and/or displacement of rare-earth ions to grain surfaces. It is found that co-doping with Nb ions significantly (>20 times) increases upconversion luminescence intensity. Hence, ZrO{sub 2}:Er:Yb:Nb nanocrystals may show promise for upconversion applications.

  20. Development of bubble microstructure in ErT2 films during aging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, Gillian; Snow, Clark

    2010-01-01

    Helium bubbles form in metal tritide films as tritium decays into 3He, influencing mechanical properties and long-term film stability. The bubble nucleation and growth mechanisms comprise an active research area, but there has been only one previous systematic experimental study of helium bubble growth in metal tritides, on zirconium tritides. There have been no such studies on tritides such as ErT2 that form plate-like bubbles and lack a secondary bubble population on a network of line dislocations, and yet such a study is needed to inform the modeling of helium-bubble microstructure development in a broader range of metal tritides. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used to study the growth and evolution of helium bubbles in ErT2 films over a four-year period. The results have been used to test the present models of helium bubble nucleation and growth in metal tritides, particularly those forming plate-like bubbles. The results support the models of Trinkaus and Cowgill. The observations of non-uniform bubble thicknesses and the pattern of grain-boundary bubble formation, however, indicate that these models could be strengthened by closer attention to details of interfacial energy. It is strongly recommended that efforts be made (either experimentally or by calculation) to determine anisotropy of tritide/helium interfacial energy, both for clean, stoichiometric interfaces, and also allowing for such factors as non-stoichiometry and segregation.

  1. Final Technical Report DE-FG02-08ER41540. Establishing the Transport Properties of QCD With Heavy Ion Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teaney, Derek

    2015-03-17

    We review the results of the DE-FG02-08ER41540, "Establishing the transport properties of QCD with heavy ion reactions"

  2. Evidence of energy transfer in an aluminosilicate glass codoped with Si nanoaggregates and Er{sup 3+} ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enrichi, F.; Mattei, G.; Sada, C.; Trave, E.; Pacifici, D.; Franzo, G.; Priolo, F.; Iacona, F.; Prassas, M.; Falconieri, M.; Borsella, E.

    2004-10-01

    The enhancement of the Er{sup 3+} ions' photoluminescence (PL) emission at 1.54 {mu}m in a Si and Er coimplanted aluminosilicate glass is investigated in detail. A postimplantation thermal treatment has been performed to recover the damage induced by the implantation process and to promote Si aggregation. It will be shown that 1 h treatment in N{sub 2} atmosphere is not sufficient to induce Si precipitation for temperatures up to 500 deg. C. Nevertheless, the most intense Er{sup 3+} PL emission at 1.54 {mu}m is achieved after a thermal treatment at 400 deg. C. Such emission has been investigated by pumping in and out of resonance, showing a very efficient energy transfer process in the whole excitation wavelength range (360-515 nm). These results suggest that good energy transfer mediators could be small Si aggregates and not only crystalline clusters. For the best performing sample, the effective Er excitation cross section has been measured to be higher than 10{sup -17} cm{sup 2} at 379 and 390 nm and about 2x10{sup -16} cm{sup 2} at 476 nm, that is, several orders of magnitude higher than the Er direct absorption cross section (of the order of 10{sup -21} cm{sup 2} in this glass). Moreover the coefficient of cooperative upconversion has been evaluated to be 2.7x10{sup -18} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}. The structural and optical properties of this material are discussed and compared to those found for Si and Er codoped silica.

  3. Closeout of the award DE-FG02-05ER46223. Trustees of the University of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pennsylvania. Project title- "Modular Designed Protein Constructions for Solar Generated H2 From Water (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Closeout of the award DE-FG02-05ER46223. Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania. Project title- "Modular Designed Protein Constructions for Solar Generated H2 From Water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Closeout of the award DE-FG02-05ER46223. Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania. Project title- "Modular Designed

  4. Final Technical Report for Grant DE-FG02-04ER54795

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merlino, Robert L

    2015-10-02

    This is the final technical report for DOE Grant #DE-FG02-04ER54795-Experimental Investigations of Fundamental Processes in Dusty Plasmas. A plasma is an ionized gas, and a dusty plasmas is a plasma that contains, in addition to electrons and ions, micron-sized dust particles. The dust particles acquire and electric charge in the plasma by collecting electrons and ions. The electrons move more rapidly than the ions, so the dust charge is negative. A 1 micron dust particle in a typical low temperature plasma has a charge corresponding to approximately 2000 electrons. Dusty plasmas are naturally found in astrophysical plasmas, planetary rings, technological plasmas, and magnetic fusion plasmas. The goal of this project was to study in the laboratory, the basic physical processes that occur in dusty plasmas. This report provides a summary of the major scientific products and activities of this award.

  5. Completion Report for Model Evaluation Well ER-11-2: Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Underground Test Area and Boreholes Programs and Operations

    2013-01-22

    Model Evaluation Well ER-11-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of Nevada Environmental Management Operations at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site). The well was drilled in August 2012 as part of a model evaluation program in the Frenchman Flat area of Nye County, Nevada. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed geologic, hydrogeologic, chemical, and radionuclide data that can be used to test and build confidence in the applicability of the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit flow and transport models for their intended purpose. In particular, this well was designed to provide data to evaluate the uncertainty in model forecasts of contaminant migration from the upgradient underground nuclear test PIN STRIPE, conducted in borehole U-11b in 1966. Well ER-11-2 will provide information that can be used to refine the Phase II Frenchman Flat hydrostratigraphic framework model if necessary, as well as to support future groundwater flow and transport modeling. The main 31.1-centimeter (cm) hole was drilled to a total depth of 399.6 meters (m). A completion casing string was not set in Well ER-11-2. However, a piezometer string was installed in the 31.1-cm open hole. The piezometer is composed of 7.3-cm stainless-steel tubing hung on 6.0-cm carbon-steel tubing via a crossover sub. The piezometer string was landed at 394.5 m, for monitoring the lower tuff confining unit. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 m, various geophysical logs, water quality (including tritium and other test-related radionuclides) measurements, and water level measurements. The well penetrated 42.7 m of Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium and 356.9 m of Tertiary volcanic rock. The water-level measured in the piezometer string on September 25, 2012, was 353.8 m below ground surface. No

  6. Concentration effect of Er{sup 3+} ions on structural and spectroscopic properties of CdNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghafouri, Sanaz Aian; Erdem, Murat; Ekmeki, M. Kaan; Mergen, Ayhan; zen, Gnl

    2014-12-15

    Excitation and emission spectra of a visible room-temperature Er{sup 3+} ions luminescence from powders. - Highlights: This is the first report on spectroscopic properties of CdNb{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Er{sup 3+}. The crystalline sizes are affected as the concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions increased. Quenching of the luminescence was observed to be above 1.0 mol% Er{sup 3+}. - Abstract: This study is focused on the synthesis and characterization of CdNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} compounds doped with of Er{sup 3+} ions. Powders were synthesized by using the molten salt method and annealed at 900 C for 4 h. The synthesized particles were structurally characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy. A single phase of the CdNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} was determined and the size of the particles was found to be affected by the presence and the concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions. Luminescence properties of each sample were investigated by measuring accurately the emission and excitation spectra at room temperature in the wavelength range of 2001700 nm by exciting the Er{sup 3+} ions at 379 nm and 805 nm. Quenching of the luminescence in both visible and near infrared spectral regions was observed to be above 1.0 mol% Er{sup 3+} concentration.

  7. The structural and magnetic properties of Pr{sub 1−x}Er{sub x}Al{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Gschneidner, K. A.; Pecharsky, V. K.

    2015-05-07

    We report on the effect of Er addition to PrAl{sub 2} on the lattice parameters, magnetic behavior, heat capacity, and magnetocaloric effect by using x-ray diffraction, magnetization, and heat capacity measurements. Unlike Pr{sub 0.6}Er{sub 0.4}Al{sub 2}, other alloys we studied in the pseudobinary (Pr{sub 1−x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} system do not exhibit a sharp peak in heat capacity with the application of magnetic field. Both the cubic lattice parameter and the Curie temperature decrease with increasing Er concentration. The nuclear specific heat coefficient decreases from 660 mJ K mol{sup −1} for x = 0.05 to a nearly negligible value for x = 0.95. The magnetic entropy and adiabatic temperature change varies from 2 to 4 J mol{sup −1} K{sup −1} and 2.5 to 5 K at ΔH = 20 kOe for x = 0.05 to 0.95, respectively. These values of the magnetocaloric effect are comparable to those of the other rare-earth dialuminides systems.

  8. The crystal structure of {pi}-ErBO{sub 3}: New single-crystal data for an old problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitscheider, Almut [Institut fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Kaindl, Reinhard [Institut fuer Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Oeckler, Oliver [Department Chemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Butenandtstrasse 5-13, D-81377 Muenchen (Germany); Huppertz, Hubert, E-mail: Hubert.Huppertz@uibk.ac.a [Institut fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2011-01-15

    Single crystals of the orthoborate {pi}-ErBO{sub 3} were synthesized from Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3} under high-pressure/high-temperature conditions of 2 GPa and 800 {sup o}C in a Walker-type multianvil apparatus. The crystal structure was determined on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data, collected at room temperature. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic pseudowollastonite-type structure, space group C2/c, with the lattice parameters a=1128.4(2) pm, b=652.6(2) pm, c=954.0(2) pm, and {beta}=112.8(1){sup o} (R{sub 1}=0.0124 and wR{sub 2}=0.0404 for all data). -- graphical abstract: The first satisfying single-crystal structure determination of {pi}-ErBO{sub 3} sheds light on the extensively discussed structure of {pi}-orthoborates. The application of light pressure during the solid state synthesis yielded in high-quality crystals, due to pressure-induced crystallization. Research highlights: {yields} High-quality single crystals of {pi}-ErBO{sub 3} were prepared via high-pressure-induced crystallization. {yields} At least five different space groups for the rare-earth {pi}-orthoborates are reported. {yields} {pi}-ErBO{sub 3} is isotypic to the pseudowollastonite-type CaSiO{sub 3}. {yields} Remaining ambiguities regarding the structure of the rare-earth {pi}-orthoborates are resolved.

  9. The protein pheromone Er-1 of the ciliate Euplotes raikovi stimulates human T-cell activity: Involvement of interleukin-2 system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cervia, Davide; Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Luigi Sacco University Hospital, University of Milan, Milano ; Catalani, Elisabetta; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina; Perrotta, Cristiana; Picchietti, Simona; Alimenti, Claudio; Casini, Giovanni; Fausto, Anna Maria; Vallesi, Adriana

    2013-02-01

    Water-soluble protein signals (pheromones) of the ciliate Euplotes have been supposed to be functional precursors of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cellcell interaction in multi-cellular eukaryotes. This work provides evidence that native preparations of the Euplotes raikovi pheromone Er-1 (a helical protein of 40 amino acids) specifically increases viability, DNA synthesis, proliferation, and the production of interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-2, and IL-13 in human Jurkat T-cells. Also, Er-1 significantly decreases the mRNA levels of the ? and ? subunits of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), while the mRNA levels of the ? subunit appeared to be not affected. Jurkat T-cell treatments with Er-1 induced the down-regulation of the IL-2R? subunit by a reversible and time-dependent endocytosis, and increased the levels of phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). The cell-type specificity of these effects was supported by the finding that Er-1, although unable to directly influence the growth of human glioma U-373 cells, induced Jurkat cells to synthesize and release factors that, in turn, inhibited the U-373 cell proliferation. Overall, these findings imply that Er-1 coupling to IL-2R and ERK immuno-enhances T-cell activity, and that this effect likely translates to an inhibition of glioma cell growth. -- Highlights: ? Euplotes pheromone Er-1 increases the growth of human Jurkat T-cells. ? Er-1 increases the T-cell production of specific cytokines. ? Er-1 activates interleukin-2 receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. ? The immuno-enhancing effect of Er-1 on Jurkat cells translates to an inhibition of human glioma cell growth.

  10. Final Technical Report for Award DE-FG02-98ER41080

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Alan

    2014-11-14

    The prime motivation of the project at McMaster University was to carry out the critical evaluation and compilation of Nuclear Structure and Decay data, and of nuclear astrophysics data with continued participation in the United States Nuclear Data Program (US-NDP). A large body of evaluated and compiled structure data were supplied for databases such as ENSDF, XUNDL, NSR, etc. residing on webpage of National Nuclear Data Center of the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, USA. Thermonuclear reaction rates of importance to stellar explosions, such as novae, x-ray bursts and supernovae, were evaluated as well. This effort was closely coupled to our ongoing experimental effort, which took advantage of radioactive ion beam and stable beam facilities worldwide to study these key reaction rates. This report contains brief descriptions of the various activities together with references to all the publications in peer-reviewed journals which were the result of work carried out with the award DE-FG02-98-ER41080, during 1998-2013.

  11. THERMODYNAMIC AND KINETIC MODELING OF ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUELS - FINAL LDRD-ER REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, P

    2011-11-28

    This project enhanced our theoretical capabilities geared towards establishing the basic science of a high-throughput protocol for the development of advanced nuclear fuel that should couple modern computational materials modeling and simulation tools, fabrication and characterization capabilities, and targeted high throughput performance testing experiments. The successful conclusion of this ER project allowed us to upgrade state-of-the-art modeling codes, and apply these modeling tools to ab initio energetics and thermodynamic assessments of phase diagrams of various mixtures of actinide alloys, propose a tool for optimizing composition of complex alloys for specific properties, predict diffusion behavior in diffusion couples made of actinide and transition metals, include one new equation in the LLNL phase-field AMPE code, and predict microstructure evolution during alloy coring. In FY11, despite limited funding, the team also initiated an experimental activity, with collaboration from Texas A&M University by preparing samples of nuclear fuels in bulk forms and for diffusion couple studies and metallic matrices, and performing preliminary characterization.

  12. Particle detection through the quantum counter concept in YAG:Er{sup 3+}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borghesani, A. F.; Braggio, C. Carugno, G.; Chiossi, F.; Guarise, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Tonelli, M.; Ruoso, G.

    2015-11-09

    We report on a scheme for particle detection based on the infrared quantum counter concept. Its operation consists of a two-step excitation process of a four level system, which can be realized in rare earth-doped crystals when a cw pump laser is tuned to the transition from the second to the fourth level. The incident particle raises the atoms of the active material into a low lying, metastable energy state, triggering the absorption of the pump laser to a higher level. Following a rapid non-radiative decay to a fluorescent level, an optical signal is observed with a conventional detector. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of such a scheme, we have investigated the emission from the fluorescent level {sup 4}S{sub 3∕2} (540 nm band) in an Er{sup 3+}-doped YAG crystal pumped by a tunable titanium sapphire laser when it is irradiated with 60 keV electrons delivered by an electron gun. We have obtained a clear signature that this excitation increases the {sup 4}I{sub 13∕2} metastable level population that can efficiently be exploited to generate a detectable optical signal.

  13. Helium release and microstructural changes in Er(D,T)2-x3Hex films).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelles, D. S.; Browning, James Frederick; Snow, Clark Sheldon; Banks, James Clifford; Mangan, Michael A.; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Brewer, Luke N.; Kotula, Paul Gabriel

    2007-12-01

    Er(D,T){sub 2-x} {sup 3}He{sub x}, erbium di-tritide, films of thicknesses 500 nm, 400 nm, 300 nm, 200 nm, and 100 nm were grown and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Ion Beam Analysis to determine variations in film microstructure as a function of film thickness and age, due to the time-dependent build-up of {sup 3}He in the film from the radioactive decay of tritium. Several interesting features were observed: One, the amount of helium released as a function of film thickness is relatively constant. This suggests that the helium is being released only from the near surface region and that the helium is not diffusing to the surface from the bulk of the film. Two, lenticular helium bubbles are observed as a result of the radioactive decay of tritium into {sup 3}He. These bubbles grow along the [111] crystallographic direction. Three, a helium bubble free zone, or 'denuded zone' is observed near the surface. The size of this region is independent of film thickness. Four, an analysis of secondary diffraction spots in the Transmission Electron Microscopy study indicate that small erbium oxide precipitates, 5-10 nm in size, exist throughout the film. Further, all of the films had large erbium oxide inclusions, in many cases these inclusions span the depth of the film.

  14. Letter Report: Borehole Flow and Horizontal Hydraulic Conductivity with Depth at Well ER-12-4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phil L. Oberlander; Charles E. Russell

    2005-12-31

    Borehole flow and fluid temperature during pumping were measured at well ER-12-4 at the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. This well was constructed to characterize the carbonate aquifer. The well is cased from land surface to the total depth at 1,132 m (3,713 ft bgs) below ground surface (bgs). The screened section of the well consists of alternating sections of slotted well screen and blank casing from 948 to 1,132 m bgs (3,111 to 3,713 ft bgs). Borehole flow velocity (LT-1) with depth was measured with an impeller flowmeter from the top of the screened section to the maximum accessible depth while the well was pumped and under ambient conditions. A complicating factor to data interpretation is that the well was not filter packed and there is upward and downward vertical flow in the open annulus under ambient and pumping conditions. The open annulus in the well casing likely causes the calculated borehole flow rates being highly nonrepresentative of inflow from the formation. Hydraulic conductivities calculated under these conditions would require unsupportable assumptions and would be subject to very large uncertainties. Borehole hydraulic conductivities are not presented under these conditions.

  15. Analysis of Well ER-6-2 Testing, Yucca Flat FY 2004 Testing Program, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Ruskauff

    2005-07-01

    This report documents the analysis of data collected for Well ER-6-2 during fiscal year (FY) 2004 Yucca Flat well development and testing program (herein referred to as the ''testing program''). Participants in Well ER-6-2 field development and hydraulic testing activities were: Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), Bechtel Nevada (BN), Desert Research Institute (DRI), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the University of Nevada, Las Vegas-Harry Reid Center (UNLV-HRC). The analyses of data collected from the Well ER-6-2 testing program were performed by the SNJV.

  16. Completion Report for the Well ER-6-2 Site Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat - Climax Mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-03-01

    Well ER-6-2 and its satellite hole, Well ER-6-2 No.1, were drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Well ER-6-2 was drilled in two stages in 1993 and 1994; the satellite hole, Well ER-6-2 No.1 was drilled nearby in 1993 but was abandoned. The wells were drilled as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit Number 97, in the northeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site. The wells are located in Yucca Flat, within Area 6 of the Nevada Test Site. The wells provided information regarding the radiological and hydrogeological environment in a potentially down-gradient position from tests conducted in northern and central Yucca Flat. Construction of Well ER-6-2 began with a 1.2-meter-diameter surface conductor hole, which was drilled and cased off to a depth of 30.8 meters below the surface. A 50.8-centimeter diameter surface hole was then rotary drilled to the depth of 578.5 meters and cased off to the depth of 530.4 meters. The hole diameter was then reduced to 27.0 centimeters, and the borehole was advanced to a temporary depth of 611.4 meters. The borehole was conventionally cored to a total depth of 1,045 meters with a diameter of 14.0 centimeters. Borehole sloughing required cementing and re-drilling of several zones. The open-hole completion accesses the lower carbonate aquifer, the CP thrust fault, and the upper clastic confining unit. A fluid level depth of 543.2 meters was most recently measured in the open borehole in September 2007. No radionuclides were encountered during drilling. The satellite hole Well ER-6-2 No.1 was drilled approximately 15.2 meters north of Well ER-6-2 on the same drill pad. This was planned to be used as an observation well during future hydrologic testing at Well ER-6-2; however, the satellite hole was abandoned at

  17. Spatially resolved penetration depth measurements and vortex manipulation in the ferromagnetic superconductor ErNi2B2C

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Wulferding, Dirk; Yang, Ilkyu; Yang, Jinho; Lee, Minkyung; Choi, Hee Cheul; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Yeom, Han Woong; Kim, Jeehoon

    2015-07-31

    We present a local probe study of the magnetic superconductor ErNi2B2C, using magnetic force microscopy at sub-Kelvin temperatures. ErNi2B2C is an ideal system to explore the effects of concomitant superconductivity and ferromagnetism. At 500 mK, far below the transition to a weakly ferromagnetic state, we directly observe a structured magnetic background on the micrometer scale. We determine spatially resolved absolute values of the magnetic penetration depth λ and study its temperature dependence as the system undergoes magnetic phase transitions from paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic, and to weak ferromagnetic, all within the superconducting regime. We estimate the absolute pinning force of Abrikosovmore » vortices, which shows a position dependence and temperature dependence as well, and discuss the possibility of the purported spontaneous vortex formation.« less

  18. Prenatal PCBs disrupt early neuroendocrine development of the rat hypothalamus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickerson, Sarah M.; Cunningham, Stephanie L.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2011-04-01

    Neonatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can interfere with hormone-sensitive developmental processes, including brain sexual differentiation. We hypothesized that disruption of these processes by gestational PCB exposure would be detectable as early as the day after birth (postnatal day (P) 1) through alterations in hypothalamic gene and protein expression. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected twice, once each on gestational days 16 and 18, with one of the following: DMSO vehicle; the industrial PCB mixture Aroclor 1221 (A1221); a reconstituted mixture of the three most prevalent congeners found in humans, PCB138, PCB153, and PCB180; or estradiol benzoate (EB). On P1, litter composition, anogenital distance (AGD), and body weight were assessed. Pups were euthanized for immunohistochemistry of estrogen receptor {alpha} (ER{alpha}) or TUNEL labeling of apoptotic cells or quantitative PCR of 48 selected genes in the preoptic area (POA). We found that treatment with EB or A1221 had a sex-specific effect on developmental apoptosis in the neonatal anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), a sexually dimorphic hypothalamic region involved in the regulation of reproductive neuroendocrine function. In this region, exposed females had increased numbers of apoptotic nuclei, whereas there was no effect of treatment in males. For ER{alpha}, EB treatment increased immunoreactive cell numbers and density in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) of both males and females, while A1221 and the PCB mixture had no effect. PCR analysis of gene expression in the POA identified nine genes that were significantly altered by prenatal EDC exposure, in a manner that varied by sex and treatment. These genes included brain-derived neurotrophic factor, GABA{sub B} receptors-1 and -2, IGF-1, kisspeptin receptor, NMDA receptor subunits NR2b and NR2c, prodynorphin, and TGF{alpha}. Collectively, these results suggest that the

  19. Gain dynamics in a soft X-ray laser ampli er perturbed by a strong injected X-ray eld

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Shoujun; Oliva, E; Lu, L; Berrill, Mark A; Yin, Liang; Nejdl, J; Luther, Brad; Proux, C; Le, T. T.; Dunn, James; Ros, D; Zeitoun, Philippe; Rocca, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Seeding soft X-ray plasma ampli ers with high harmonics has been demonstrated to generate high-brightness soft X-ray laser pulses with full spatial and temporal coherence. The interaction between the injected coherent eld and the swept-gain medium has been modelled. However, no exper- iment has been conducted to probe the gain dynamics when perturbed by a strong external seed eld. Here, we report the rst X-ray pump X-ray probe measurement of the nonlinear response of a plasma ampli er perturbed by a strong soft X-ray ultra-short pulse. We injected a sequence of two time-delayed high-harmonic pulses (l518.9 nm) into a collisionally excited nickel-like molybdenum plasma to measure with femto-second resolution the gain depletion induced by the saturated ampli cation of the high-harmonic pump and its subsequent recovery. The measured fast gain recovery in 1.5 1.75 ps con rms the possibility to generate ultra-intense, fully phase-coherent soft X-ray lasers by chirped pulse ampli cation in plasma ampli ers.

  20. Close-Out Report of DOE Grant DE-FG02-91ER40682 for November 1, 2009 - April 30, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulini, Manfred

    2013-07-20

    This document is the close-out report of Grant DE-FG02-91ER40682 from the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) High-Energy Physics (HEP) Group to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  1. Completion Report for Model Evaluation Well ER-5-5: Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Underground Test Area and Boreholes Programs and Operations

    2013-01-18

    Model Evaluation Well ER-5-5 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of Nevada Environmental Management Operations at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site). The well was drilled in July and August 2012 as part of a model evaluation well program in the Frenchman Flat area of Nye County, Nevada. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed geologic, hydrogeologic, chemical, and radiological data that can be used to test and build confidence in the applicability of the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit flow and transport models for their intended purpose. In particular, this well was designed to obtain data to evaluate the uncertainty in model forecasts of contaminant migration from the upgradient underground nuclear test MILK SHAKE, conducted in Emplacement Hole U-5k in 1968, which were considered to be uncertain due to the unknown extent of a basalt lava-flow aquifer present in this area. Well ER-5-5 is expected to provide information to refine the Phase II Frenchman Flat hydrostratigraphic framework model, if necessary, as well as to support future groundwater flow and transport modeling. The 31.1-centimeter (cm) diameter hole was drilled to a total depth of 331.3 meters (m). The completion string, set at the depth of 317.2 m, consists of 16.8-cm stainless-steel casing hanging from 19.4-cm carbon-steel casing. The 16.8-cm stainless-steel casing has one slotted interval open to the basalt lava-flow aquifer and limited intervals of the overlying and underlying alluvial aquifer. A piezometer string was also installed in the annulus between the completion string and the borehole wall. The piezometer is composed of 7.3-cm stainless-steel tubing suspended from 6.0-cm carbon-steel tubing. The piezometer string was landed at 319.2 m, to monitor the basalt lava-flow aquifer. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include

  2. Analysis of in-situ electrical conductivity data from the HFIR TRIST-ER1 experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L.; Shikama, T.

    1997-08-01

    The current vs. applied voltage data generated from the HFIR TRIST-ER1 experiment have been analyzed to determine the electrical conductivity of the 15 aluminum oxide specimens and the MgO-insulated electrical cables as a function of irradiation dose. With the exception of the 0.05%Cr-doped sapphire (ruby) specimen, the electrical conductivity of the alumina specimens remained at the expected radiation induced conductivity (RIC) level of <10{sup -6} S/m during full-power reactor irradiation (10-16 kGy/s) at 450-500{degrees}C up to a maximum dose of {approximately}3 dpa. The ruby specimen showed a rapid initial increase in conductivity to {approximately}2 x 10{sup -4} S/m after {approximately}0.1 dpa, followed by a gradual decrease to <1 x 10{sup -6} S/m after 2 dpa. Nonohmic electrical behavior was observed in all of the specimens, and was attributed to preferential attraction of ionized electrons in the capsule gas to the unshielded low-side bare electrical leads emanating from the subcapsules. The electrical conductivity was determined from the slope of the specimen current vs. voltage curve at negative voltages, where the gas ionization effect was minimized. Dielectric breakdown tests performed on unirradiated mineral-insulated coaxial cables identical to those used in the high voltage coaxial cables during the 3-month irradiation is attributable to thermal dielectric breakdown in the glass seals at the end of the cables, as opposed to a radiation-induced electrical degradation (RIED) effect.

  3. Completion Report for Well ER-12-3 Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa - Shoshone Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada Corporation

    2006-05-01

    Well ER-12-3 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in March and April 2005 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit. The overall purpose of the well was to gather subsurface data to better characterize the hydrogeology of central Rainier Mesa, especially in the older Tertiary volcanic rocks and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. The main 47.0-centimeter hole was drilled to a depth of 799.2 meters and cased with 33.97-centimeter casing to 743.1 meters. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters, and the well was drilled to a total depth of 1,496.0 meters. The completion string consisted of 13.97-centimeter stainless steel casing, with two slotted intervals open to the lower carbonate aquifer, suspended from 19.37-centimeter carbon steel casing. A piezometer string was installed outside the 33.97-centimeter casing to a depth of 467.1 meters to monitor a zone of perched water within the Tertiary volcanic section. Data gathered during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters (extra cuttings samples were collected from the Paleozoic rocks for paleontological analyses), sidewall core samples from 35 depths, various geophysical logs, and water level measurements. These data indicate that the well penetrated 674.2 meters of Tertiary volcanic rocks and 821.7 meters of Paleozoic dolomite and limestone. Forty-nine days after the well was completed, but prior to well development and testing, the water level inside the main hole was tagged at the depth of 949.1 meters, and the water level inside the piezometer string was tagged at 379.9 meters.

  4. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF) is a facility safety reference document for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) environmental restoration activities. The BSAF contains information and guidance for safety analysis documentation required by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for environmental restoration (ER) activities, including: Characterization of potentially contaminated sites. Remedial investigations to identify and remedial actions to clean up existing and potential releases from inactive waste sites Decontamination and dismantlement of surplus facilities. The information is INEL-specific and is in the format required by DOE-EM-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports. An author of safety analysis documentation need only write information concerning that activity and refer to BSAF for further information or copy applicable chapters and sections. The information and guidance provided are suitable for: {sm_bullet} Nuclear facilities (DOE Order 5480-23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports) with hazards that meet the Category 3 threshold (DOE-STD-1027-92, Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports) {sm_bullet} Radiological facilities (DOE-EM-STD-5502-94, Hazard Baseline Documentation) Nonnuclear facilities (DOE-EM-STD-5502-94) that are classified as {open_quotes}low{close_quotes} hazard facilities (DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System). Additionally, the BSAF could be used as an information source for Health and Safety Plans and for Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) for nuclear facilities with hazards equal to or greater than the Category 2 thresholds, or for nonnuclear facilities with {open_quotes}moderate{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} hazard classifications.

  5. Final Report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-06ER64160 Retrieval of Cloud Properties and Direct Testing of Cloud and Radiation Parameterizations using ARM Observations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donovan, David Patrick

    2013-07-26

    This report briefly summaries the work performed at KNMI under DOE Grant DE-FG02-06ER64160 which, in turn was conducted in support of DOE Grant DE-FG02-90ER61071 lead by E. Clothieux of Penn. State U. The specific work at KNMI revolved around the development and application of the EarthCARE simulator to ground-based multi-sensor simulations.

  6. Long-range ferromagnetic order induced by a donor impurity band exchange in SnO{sub 2}:Er{sup 3+} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aragn, F. H.; Coaquira, J. A. H.; Chitta, V. A.; Hidalgo, P.; Brito, H. F.

    2013-11-28

    In this work, the structural and magnetic properties of Er-doped SnO{sub 2} (SnO{sub 2}:Er) nanoparticles are reported. The SnO{sub 2}:Er nanoparticles have been synthesized by a polymer precursor method with Er content from 1.0% to 10.0%. X-ray diffraction results indicate the formation of only the rutile-type structure in all samples. The estimated mean crystallite size shows a decrease from ?10 to ?4?nm when the Er content is increased from 1.0% to 10.0%. The particle size values have been corroborated by transmission electron microscopy technique. The thermal dependence of the magnetization is consistent with the 3+ oxidation state of erbium ions for all samples. A strong paramagnetic-like behavior coexisting with a ferromagnetic phase has been determined for samples with Er content below 5.0%. Above this concentration, only a paramagnetic behavior has been determined. Isothermal magnetization curves are consistent with the occurrence of long-range ferromagnetic order mediated by donor electrons forming bound magnetic polarons which overlap to produce a spin-split impurity band.

  7. Completion Report for Well ER-16-1 Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa - Shoshone Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Geology Services

    2006-12-01

    Well ER-16-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in June and July 2005 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit, Number 99. The overall purpose of the well was to gather subsurface data to better characterize the hydrogeology of the Shoshone Mountain area, especially in the older Tertiary and pre-Tertiary strata. The main 46.99-centimeter hole was drilled to a depth of 702.9 meters and cased with 33.97-centimeter casing to 663.7 meters. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters, and the well was drilled to total depth of 1,220.7 meters. A completion string set at the depth of 1,162.4 meters consisted of 13.97-centimeter stainless-steel casing, with one continuous slotted interval open to the lower carbonate aquifer. The fluid level in the borehole soon dropped, so the borehole was deepened in July 2006. To deepen the borehole, the slotted section was cemented and a 12.1-centimeter hole was drilled through the bottom of the completion string to the new total depth of 1,391.7 meters, which is 171.0 meters deeper than the original borehole. A string of 6.03-centimeter carbon-steel tubing with one continuous slotted interval at 1,361.8 to 1,381.4 meters, and open to the lower carbonate aquifer, was installed in the well with no gravel packing or cement, to serve as a monitoring string. Data gathered during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters (extra cuttings samples were collected from the Paleozoic rocks for paleontological analyses), sidewall core samples from 37 depths, various geophysical logs, and water level measurements. These data indicate that the well penetrated 646.8 meters of Tertiary volcanic rocks and 744.9 meters

  8. Fractionated Radiation Exposure of Rat Spinal Cords Leads to...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fractionated Radiation Exposure of Rat Spinal Cords Leads to Latent Neuro-Inflammation in ... of Rat Spinal Cords Leads to Latent Neuro-Inflammation in Brain, Cognitive Deficits, ...

  9. Negative to positive magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric effect in Pr0.6Er0.4Al2

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Gschneidner, Jr., K. A.; Pecharsky, V. K.

    2014-10-13

    We report on the magnetic, magnetocaloric and magnetotransport properties of Pr0.6Er0.4Al2. The title compound exhibits a large positive magnetoresistance (MR) for H ≥ 40 kOe and a small but non negligible negative MR for H ≤ 30 kOe. The maximum positive MR reaches 13% at H = 80 kOe. The magnetic entropy and adiabatic temperature changes as functions of temperature each show two anomalies: a broad dome-like maximum below 20 K and a relatively sharp peak at higher temperature. As a result, observed behaviors are unique among other binary and mixed lanthanide compounds.

  10. Final Report for DOE grant project FG02-07ER41458 [Dense Quark Matter in Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Incera, Vivian

    2012-01-24

    Final Report for DOE grant DE-FG02-07ER41458. This grant was originally a three-year project. However, this final report summarizes the results of the first two years, as at the end of the second year of the grant the PIs moved to a new university and the grant was closed. The work done under the first two years of the DOE grant led to several papers and presentations. It also served to train one undergraduate and three graduate students.

  11. Completion Report for Well ER-20-4 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-04-30

    Well ER-20-4 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in August and September 2010 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to investigate the possibility of radionuclide transport from up-gradient underground nuclear tests conducted in central Pahute Mesa. This well also provided detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section that will help reduce uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model.

  12. Increased efficiency in multijunction solar cells through the incorporation of semimetallic ErAs nanoparticles into the tunnel junction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zide, J.M.O.; Kleiman-Shwarsctein, A.; Strandwitz, N.C.; Zimmerman, J.D.; Steenblock-Smith, T.; Gossard, A.C.; Forman, A.; Ivanovskaya, A.; Stucky, G.D.

    2006-04-17

    We report the molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/GaAs multijunction solar cells with epitaxial, semimetallic ErAs nanoparticles at the interface of the tunnel junction. The states provided by these nanoparticles reduce the bias required to pass current through the tunnel junction by three orders of magnitude, and therefore drastically reduce the voltage losses in the tunnel junction. We have measured open-circuit voltages which are 97% of the sum of the constituent cells, which result in nearly double the efficiency of our multijunction cell with a conventional tunnel junction.

  13. Final Technical Report DOE Award DE-FG02-07ER41515 QUEST Camera Short Term Maintenance

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Award DE-FG02-07ER41515 QUEST Camera Short Term Maintenance PI: Charles Baltay, Yale University The QUEST large area astronomical camera was installed at the prime focus of the Oschin Schmidt Telescope at the Palomar Observatory in California. The camera was used to carry out a survey of low redshift Type 1a supernovae which are the distance indicators used in the measurement of the expansion history of the universe and thus provided a method to study the nature of the recently discovered

  14. Technical support to the ER program subsurface technologies team leader. Final report, March 15, 1993--March 15, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-01

    This research included development of a new geologic sample management facility and associated quality assurance systems for the LANL Environmental Restoration Program. Additional work with the LANL Environmental Restoration Program included the development of Sampling and Analysis Plans (SAP) for various Operable Units for the Laboratory. The PI (Davidson) served as the sample curation/sample management specialist on the ER program Subsurface Studies Technical Team. Specialization in Field Unit Data Base systems was the focus of the work towards the end of the contract. A document is included which provides the Statement of Policy for the management of borehole samples collected during environmental restoration activities at LANL.

  15. FInal Report: DE-FG02-04ER41310 "Elementary Particle Physics"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izen, Joseph M.; Ishak-Boushaki, Mustapha

    2013-10-18

    Computing Operations Shifts (ADCoS) During Summer 2012, UTD joined upgrade activities in preparation for LS1. We took a major role in the testing of Electro-Readout (ER) Bundle testing for new Service Quarter Panels (nSQP?s), and we developed two utilities to measure the timing jitter and bit error rate of the Pixel readout chain for use commissioning Pixel detector upgrades. During BABAR?s heyday, the UTD group pioneered the use of e^+ e^- annihilation events with hard Initial State Radiation (ISR) to study the charm threshold region, and we carried out the first BABAR double-cc analysis. Our most recent ISR paper, written in collaboration with A. Palano (Bari) is Exclusive Production of Ds^+ Ds^-, D_S^(*+) Ds^-, and Ds^(*+) Ds^(*-) via e+ e- Annihilation with Initial-State-Radiation was published in Physical Review D 82, 052004 (2010). Work continues on a study of ISR Λc^+ Λc^- production, and a new search to establish and study double-ss production is starting.

  16. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-14, Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-03-05

    Well ER-EC-14 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Management Operations Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS; formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in September and October 2012, as part of the Central and Western Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Unit Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information for the Fortymile Canyon composite hydrostratigraphic unit in the Timber Mountain moat area, within the Timber Mountain caldera complex, that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model. The main 55.9-centimeter (cm) hole was drilled to a total depth of 325.5 meters (m) and cased with 40.6-cm casing to 308.1 m. The hole diameter was then decreased to 37.5 cm, and drilling continued to a total depth of 724.8 m. The completion casing string, set to the depth of 690.9 m, consists of 16.8-cm stainless-steel casing hanging from 19.4-cm carbon-steel casing. The stainless-steel casing has two slotted intervals open to the Rainier Mesa Tuff. Two piezometer strings were installed in Well ER-EC-14. Both piezometer strings, each with one slotted interval, consist of 6.0-cm carbon-steel tubing at the surface, then cross over to 7.3-cm stainless-steel tubing just above the water table. The shallow piezometer string was landed at 507.8 m, and the deep piezometer string was landed at 688.6 m. Both piezometer strings are set to monitor groundwater within moderately to densely welded Rainier Mesa Tuff. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 m, various geophysical logs, water quality (including tritium and other radionuclides) measurements, and water level measurements. The well penetrated 15.2 m of alluvium and

  17. In-situ time-of-flight neutron diffraction of ErD2 (beta phase) formation during D2 loading.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Browning, James Frederick; Llobet, Anna; Snow, Clark Sheldon; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Wixom, Ryan R.

    2008-06-01

    In an effort to better understand the structural changes occurring during hydrogen loading of erbium target materials, we have performed D{sub 2} loading of erbium metal (powder) with simultaneous neutron diffraction analysis. This experiment tracked the conversion of Er metal to the {alpha} erbium deuteride (solid-solution) phase and then on to the {beta} (fluorite) phase. Complete conversion to ErD{sub 2.0} was accomplished at 10 Torr D{sub 2} pressure with deuterium fully occupying the tetrahedral sites in the fluorite lattice. Increased D{sub 2} pressure (up to 500 Torr at 450 C) revealed {approx}10 % deuterium occupation of the octahedral sites. Subsequent vacuum pumping of the sample at 450 C removed octahedral site occupancy while maintaining tetrahedral deuterium occupancy, thereby yielding stoichiometric ErD{sub 2.0} {beta} phase.

  18. Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effects of Gd{sub x}Er{sub 1−x}Ga (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, X. Q.; Wang, L. C.; Wu, R. R.; Hu, F. X.; Sun, J. R.; Shen, B. G.; Chen, J.

    2014-05-07

    We carefully studied the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect of Gd{sub x}Er{sub 1-x}Ga (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) compounds. The Gd{sub x}Er{sub 1-x}Ga compounds undergo two magnetic transitions with temperature increasing: spin-reorientation or antiferromagnetic-to-ferromagnetic (FM) transition and FM-to-paramagnetic transition. As the content of Gd increases from 0 to 1, the transition temperature in low temperature region changes from 15 K to 66 K and the Curie temperature increases obviously from 30 K to 181.9 K. Although the maximum value of magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub M}) for Gd{sub x}Er{sub 1−x}Ga decreases with the increase of x, the refrigerant capacity (RC) improves remarkably compared with that of ErGa compound. Table-like ΔS{sub M} curves are observed for the compounds with x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4, which are very useful for real cooling applications. And Gd{sub 0.2}Er{sub 0.8}Ga and Gd{sub 0.3}Er{sub 0.7}Ga compounds show better magnetocaloric features than others in this series under considerations of both ΔS{sub M} and RC. The results of this series of compounds show us a possible way to design and improve the magnetic refrigerant materials by making some substitutions.

  19. Characterization of rat serum amyloid A4 (SAA4): A novel member of the SAA superfamily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossmann, Christine; Windpassinger, Christian; Brunner, Daniela; Kovacevic, Alenka; Schweighofer, Natascha; Malli, Roland; Schuligoi, Rufina; Prokesch, Andreas; Kluve-Beckerman, Barbara; Graier, Wolfgang F.; Kratky, Dagmar; Sattler, Wolfgang; Malle, Ernst

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • The full length rat SAA4 (rSAA4) mRNA was characterized by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. • rSAA4 mRNA has 1830 bases including a GA dinucleotide tandem repeat in the 5′UTR. • Three consecutive C/EBP promoter elements are crucial for transcription of rSAA4. • rSAA4 is abundantly expressed in the liver on mRNA and protein level. - Abstract: The serum amyloid A (SAA) family of proteins is encoded by multiple genes, which display allelic variation and a high degree of homology in mammals. The SAA1/2 genes code for non-glycosylated acute-phase SAA1/2 proteins, that may increase up to 1000-fold during inflammation. The SAA4 gene, well characterized in humans (hSAA4) and mice (mSaa4) codes for a SAA4 protein that is glycosylated only in humans. We here report on a previously uncharacterized SAA4 gene (rSAA4) and its product in Rattus norvegicus, the only mammalian species known not to express acute-phase SAA. The exon/intron organization of rSAA4 is similar to that reported for hSAA4 and mSaa4. By performing 5′- and 3′RACE, we identified a 1830-bases containing rSAA4 mRNA (including a GA-dinucleotide tandem repeat). Highest rSAA4 mRNA expression was detected in rat liver. In McA-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells, rSAA4 transcription was significantly upregulated in response to LPS and IL-6 while IL-1α/β and TNFα were without effect. Luciferase assays with promoter-truncation constructs identified three proximal C/EBP-elements that mediate expression of rSAA4 in McA-RH7777 cells. In line with sequence prediction a 14-kDa non-glycosylated SAA4 protein is abundantly expressed in rat liver. Fluorescence microscopy revealed predominant localization of rSAA4-GFP-tagged fusion protein in the ER.

  20. DE-FG02-08ER64658 (OASIS) - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharman, Jonathan

    2013-09-05

    Project OASIS (Operation of Advanced Structures, Interfaces and Sub-components for MEAs) was a 12 month project that ran from 1st September 2008 to 31st August 2009, and was managed by the Department of Energy Office of Science, Chicago Office, as Award No DE-FG02-08ER64658, with Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells Inc. as the sole contractor. The project was completed on schedule, with technical successes (details below) and payment of the full grant award made by DOE. The aim of the project was the development of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for H2/air polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells that would give higher performance under hot/dry and dry operating conditions, ideally with no loss of performance under wet conditions. Reducing or eliminating the need for humidifying the incoming gases will allow significant system cost and size reduction for many fuel cell applications including automotive, stationary and back-up power, and portable systems. Portable systems are also of particular interest in military markets. In previous work Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells had developed very stable, corrosion-resistant catalysts suitable for resisting degradation by carbon corrosion in particular. These materials were applied within the OASIS project as they are considered necessary for systems such as automotive where multiple start-stop events are experienced. These catalysts were contrasted with more conventional materials in the design of catalyst layers and novel microporous layers (MPLs) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) combinations were also explored. Early on in the work it was shown how much more aggressive high temperature operation is than dry operation. At the same humidity, tests at 110?C caused much more dehydration than tests at 80?C and the high temperature condition was much more revealing of improvements made to MEA design. Alloy catalysts were introduced and compared with Pt catalysts with a range of particle sizes. It was apparent that the larger

  1. CHARGE-IMBALANCE RELAXATION IN THE PRESENCE OF A PAIR-BREAKING INTERACTION IN SUPERCONDUCTING AlEr FILMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemberger, T.R.; Clarke, J.

    1980-07-01

    The charge-imbalance relaxation rate, 1/F*{sub T{sub Q*}}, has been measured in dirty superconducting AlEr films in which Er is a pair-breaking magnetic impurity that induces charge relaxation through elastic exchange scattering. Measurements were made in the range 0.1 {approx}< {Delta}(T)/k{sub B}T{sub c} {approx}< 1.4 for Er concentrations varying from 21 to 1660 at. ppm that produced estimated exchange scattering rates, {tau}{sub S}{sup -1}, from about 10{sup 9} sec{sup -1} to 5 x 10{sup 10} sec{sup -1}. Measured values of 1/F*{sub T{sub Q*}} were in good agreement with the Schmid-Schoen expression, 1/F*{sub T{sub Q*}}=({pi}{Delta}/4k{sub B}T{sub c}{tau}{sub E}) x (1+2{tau}{sub E}/{tau}{sub S}){sup 1/2}, for {Delta}/k{sub B}T{sub c} {approx}< 0.8, where {tau}{sub E}{sup -1} is the electron-phonon scattering rate estimated from the measured transition temperature. For larger values of {Delta}/k{sub B}T{sub c}, the relaxation rate increased less rapidly with {Delta}. The appropriate Boltzmann equation was solved on a computer to obtain values for 1/F*{sub T{sub Q*}} in the range 0.5 {approx}< T/T{sub c} {approx}< 0.999999. The computed values of 1/F*{sub T{sub Q*}} agreed with several analytic expressions valid for {Delta}/k{sub B}T{sub c} << 1, but not with the experimental data: The computed curves increased more rapidly than linearly with {Delta}/k{sub B}T{sub c} near T{sub c}, and the shape of the 1/F*{sub T{sub Q*}} vs {Delta}/k{sub B}T{sub c} curves was qualitatively different. This discrepancy suggests that either the generally accepted expression for exchange charge relaxation is incorrect, or that the Boltzmann equation is inappropriate for these calculations.

  2. Relativistic energy density functionals: Low-energy collective states of {sup 240}Pu and {sup 166}Er

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z. P.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.; Meng, J.

    2010-06-15

    The empirical relativistic density-dependent, point-coupling energy density functional, adjusted exclusively to experimental binding energies of a large set of deformed nuclei with Aapprox =150-180 and Aapprox =230-250, is tested with spectroscopic data for {sup 166}Er and {sup 240}Pu. Starting from constrained self-consistent triaxial relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov calculations of binding energy maps as functions of the quadrupole deformation in the beta-gamma plane, excitation spectra and E2 transition probabilities are calculated as solutions of the corresponding microscopic collective Hamiltonian in five dimensions for quadrupole vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom and compared with available data on low-energy collective states.

  3. Magnetic and dielectric behavior of the spin-chain compound Er?BaNiO? well below its Nel temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Tathamay; Singh, Kiran; Sampathkumaran, E. V.; Mohapatra, N.

    2014-09-21

    We have recently reported that the Haldane spin-chain system, Er?BaNiO?, undergoing antiferromagnetic order below (T{sub N}=) 32 K, is characterized by the onset of ferroelectricity near 60 K due to magnetoelectric coupling induced by short-range magnetic-order within spin-chains. We have carried out additional magnetic and dielectric studies to understand the properties well below T{sub N}. We emphasize here on the following: (i) A strong frequency dependent behaviors of ac magnetic susceptibility and complex dielectric properties have been observed at much lower temperatures (<8 K), that is, reentrant multiglass-like phenomenon, naturally suggesting the existence of an additional transition well below T{sub N}. (ii) Magnetoelectric phase coexistence is observed at very low temperature (e.g., T=2 K), where the high-field magnetoelectric phase is partially arrested on returning to zero magnetic field after a cycling through metamagnetic transition.

  4. Completion Report for Well ER-12-4, Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa - Shoshone Mountain (includes Errata Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2006-05-01

    Well ER-12-4 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in May 2005, as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit in the north-central portion of the Nevada Test Site. The well is located on Rainier/Aqueduct Mesa, northwest of Yucca Flat, within Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site. The well provided information regarding the radiological and physical environment near underground nuclear tests conducted in U12t Tunnel, information on the pre-Tertiary rocks in the area, and depth to the regional water table.

  5. Well Completion Report for Well ER-20-11, Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2013-02-27

    Well ER-20-11 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Management Operations Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in September 2012 as part of the Central and Western Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Unit Phase II drilling program. Well ER-20-11 was constructed to further investigate the nature and extent of radionuclidecontaminated groundwater encountered in two nearby UGTA wells, to help define hydraulic and transport parameters for the contaminated Benham aquifer, and to provide data for the UGTA hydrostratigraphic framework model. The 44.5-centimeter (cm) surface hole was drilled to a depth of 520.0 meters (m) and cased with 34.0-cm casing to 511.5 m. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 cm, and the borehole was drilled to a total depth of 915.6 m. The hole was completed to allow access for hydrologic testing and sampling in the target aquifer, which is a lava-flow aquifer known as the Benham aquifer. The completion casing string, set to the depth of 904.3 m, consists of a string of 6 5/8-inch (in.) stainless-steel casing hanging from a string of 7 5/8-in. carbon-steel casing. The stainless-steel casing has one slotted interval at 796.3 to 903.6 m. One piezometer string was installed, which consists of 2 7/8-in. stainless-steel tubing that hangs from 2 3/8-in. carbon-steel tubing via a crossover sub. This string was landed at 903.8 m and is slotted in the interval 795.3 to 903.1 m. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 m, various geophysical logs, fluid samples (for groundwater chemistry analysis and tritium measurements), and water-level measurements. The well penetrated 915.6 m of Tertiary volcanic rock, including one saturated lava flow aquifer. Measurements on

  6. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-12 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-04-30

    Well ER-EC-12 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in June and July 2010 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section in the area between Pahute Mesa and the Timber Mountain caldera complex that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic model. In particular, the well was intended to help define the structural position and hydraulic parameters for volcanic aquifers potentially down-gradient from historic underground nuclear tests on Pahute Mesa. It may also be used as a long-term monitoring well.

  7. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-15 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-05-31

    Well ER-EC-15 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in October and November 2010, as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section in the area between Pahute Mesa and the Timber Mountain caldera complex that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic model. In particular, the well was intended to help define the structural position and hydraulic parameters of volcanic aquifers potentially down-gradient from underground nuclear tests on Pahute Mesa. It may also be used as a long-term monitoring well.

  8. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-13 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-05-31

    Well ER-EC-13 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in October 2010 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. A main objective was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information for the Fortymile Canyon composite unit hydrostratigraphic unit in the Timber Mountain moat area, within the Timber Mountain caldera complex, that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model. This well may also be used as a long-term monitoring well.

  9. Single and two-photon fluorescence control of Er{sup 3+} ions by phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shian Ding, Jingxin; Lu, Chenhui; Jia, Tianqing; Sun, Zhenrong; Xu, Shuwu; Qiu, Jianrong

    2014-01-06

    We experimentally demonstrate the control of the single and two-photon fluorescence (SPF and TPF) in Er{sup 3+} ions by shaping the femtosecond laser pulse with a π or square phase modulation. With the low laser intensity (8.4 × 10{sup 10} W/cm{sup 2}), SPF keeps a constant while TPF is effectively suppressed by the two control schemes. With the high laser intensity (1.2 × 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}), both SPF and TPF are simultaneously enhanced or suppressed by the π phase modulation, and SPF is enhanced while TPF is effectively suppressed by the square phase modulation. The up/down-conversion fluorescence enhancement, suppression, or tuning by the optical control method can greatly expand its applications in various related fields.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of R{sub 2}MnTiO{sub 7} (R = Y and Er) pyrochlores oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martnez-Coronado, R.; Alonso, J.A.; Fernndez, M.T.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: New pyrochlore-like phases of composition R{sub 2}MnTiO{sub 7} (R = Er and Y) have been synthesized by a soft-chemistry procedure involving citrates of the different metal ions followed by thermal treatments at moderate temperatures (850 C for 12 h in air). A characterization by X-ray diffraction and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) has been carried out in order to determine the crystal structure features: these phyrochlores are cubic, space group Fd-3m, defining an intrinsically frustrated three-dimensional system. The Rietveld-refinement from NPD data at room temperature evidences an antisite cation disorder (distribution of Mn between A and B positions) that is accompanied by an increment of the oxygen-vacancy concentration due to the reduction of Mn{sup 4+} at the B position to Mn{sup 2+} at the A position. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was useful to evaluate the stability of these oxides in reducing conditions up to 500 C. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate a ferromagnetic behavior, due to the random distribution of Mn{sup 4+} ions in the octahedral sublattice. At lower temperatures there is a polarization of the R{sup +3} magnetic moments, which also participate in the magnetic structure. Aiming to evaluate these materials as possible electrodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) we determined that the thermal expansion coefficients between 100 and 900 C perfectly match with those of the usual electrolytes; however, these pyrochlore oxides display a semiconductor-like behavior with poor conductivity values, e.g. 6 10{sup ?3} cm{sup ?1} at 850 C for Er, which would prevent its use as MIEC (mixed ionic-electronic conductors) oxides in SOFC devices.

  11. Final Report for Grant DE-FG02-91ER40690 for the period 12/1/2010 to 4/30/2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durkin, Stan; Hill, Chris; Kass, Richard; Braaten, Eric; Mathur, Samir; Raby, Stuart; Shigemitsu, Junko; Gan, K. K.; Kagan, Harris; Hughes, Richard E.; Winer, Brian L.; Honscheid, Klaus

    2014-07-22

    This is the #12;final report for The Ohio State University high energy physics grant DE-FG02- 91ER40690. The activities of the various Tasks are briefy summarized over the previous grant period. The support from the Department of Energy is greatly appreciated.

  12. Up-regulation of K{sub ir}2.1 by ER stress facilitates cell death of brain capillary endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kito, Hiroaki; Yamazaki, Daiju; Department of Biological Chemistry, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto; Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya ; Ohya, Susumu; Yamamura, Hisao; Asai, Kiyofumi; Imaizumi, Yuji

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} We found that application of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with tunicamycin to brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) induced cell death. {yields} The ER stress facilitated the expression of inward rectifier K{sup +} channel (K{sub ir}2.1) and induced sustained membrane hyperpolarization. {yields} The membrane hyperpolarization induced sustained Ca{sup 2+} entry through voltage-independent nonspecific cation channels and consequently facilitated cell death. {yields} The K{sub ir}2.1 up-regulation by ER stress is, at least in part, responsible for cell death of BCECs under pathological conditions. -- Abstract: Brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) form blood brain barrier (BBB) to maintain brain homeostasis. Cell turnover of BCECs by the balance of cell proliferation and cell death is critical for maintaining the integrity of BBB. Here we found that stimuli with tunicamycin, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer, up-regulated inward rectifier K{sup +} channel (K{sub ir}2.1) and facilitated cell death in t-BBEC117, a cell line derived from bovine BCECs. The activation of K{sub ir} channels contributed to the establishment of deeply negative resting membrane potential in t-BBEC117. The deep resting membrane potential increased the resting intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration due to Ca{sup 2+} influx through non-selective cation channels and thereby partly but significantly regulated cell death in t-BBEC117. The present results suggest that the up-regulation of K{sub ir}2.1 is, at least in part, responsible for cell death/cell turnover of BCECs induced by a variety of cellular stresses, particularly ER stress, under pathological conditions.

  13. Mixture formation of Er{sub x}Yb{sub 2-x}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Er{sub x}Yb{sub 2-x}O{sub 3} on Si for broadening the C-band in an optical amplifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omi, Hiroo; Tawara, Takehiko; Abe, Yoshiyuki; Anagnosti, Maria

    2013-04-15

    Thin films composed of polycrystalline Er{sub x}Yb{sub 2-x}O{sub 3} grains and crystalline Er{sub x}Yb{sub 2-x}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} layers were formed on a Si(111) substrate by RF - sputtering and subsequent thermal annealing in Ar gas ambient up to 1100 Degree-Sign C. The films were characterized by synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, cross-sectional transmission microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and micro photoluminescence measurements. In the annealed film of 950 Degree-Sign C it is observed that the I{sub 15/2} - I{sub 13/2} Er{sup 3+} photoluminescent transition exhibits simultaneously maximum intensity and peak width at room temperature. This effect satisfies the requirements for broadening the C-band of an optical amplifier on Si.

  14. Completion Report for Well ER-20-7: Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-04-28

    Well ER-20-7 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in June 2009 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to further investigate migration of radionuclides from the nearby, up-gradient TYBO and BENHAM underground nuclear tests, which originally was discovered at Well Cluster ER-20-5. This well also provided detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section that will reduce uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model. The main 44.45-centimeter hole was drilled to a depth of 681.8 meters and cased with 33.97-centimeter casing to 671.7 meters. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.12 centimeters, and the well was drilled to total depth of 894.9 meters. The completion string, set to the depth of 890.0 meters, consists of 14.13-centimeter stainless-steel casing hanging from 19.37-centimeter carbon-steel casing. The 14.13-centimeter stainless-steel casing has one continuous slotted interval open to the Topopah Spring aquifer. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 meters, sidewall core samples from 20 depth intervals, various geophysical logs, water quality (primarily tritium) measurements, and water level measurements. The well penetrated 894.9 meters of Tertiary volcanic rock, including two saturated welded-tuff aquifers. A fluid level measurement was obtained during open-hole geophysical well logging for the upper, Tiva Canyon, aquifer at the depth of 615.7 meters on June 19, 2009. The fluid level measured in the open hole on June 27, 2009,after the total depth was reached and the upper aquifer was cased off, was also at the depth of 615.7 meters. Preliminary field measurements indicated 1

  15. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-11 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-12-01

    Well ER-EC-11 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in September and October 2009 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. A main objective was to investigate radionuclide migration down-gradient from Well Cluster ER-20-5 and Well ER-20-7 and across the northern Timber Mountain moat structural zone into the area referred to as the Bench, between Pahute Mesa and the Timber Mountain caldera complex. A secondary purpose of the well was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information for the shallow- to intermediate-depth Tertiary volcanic section in the Bench area. This well also provided detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section to reduce uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model (Bechtel Nevada, 2002). The main 52.1-centimeter hole was drilled to a depth of 507.5 meters and then opened to a diameter of 66.0 centimeters. It was cased with 50.8-centimeter casing to 504.9 meters. The hole diameter was then decreased to 47.0 centimeters, and drilling continued to a total depth of 979.3 meters. It was then cased with 34.0-centimeter casing set at 965.5 meters. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters and the borehole was drilled to a total depth of 1,264.3 meters. The completion casing string, set to the depth of 1,262.5 meters, consists of 19.4-centimeter stainless-steel casing hanging from 19.4-centimeter carbon-steel casing. The stainless-steel casing has two slotted intervals open to the Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring aquifers. Four piezometer strings were installed in Well ER-EC-11. A string of carbon-steel 6.0-centimeter tubing with one slotted interval was inserted outside the 50.8-centimeter casing, within the 66.0-centimeter borehole

  16. NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} core/shell nanocomposite: A highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst utilizing upconversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Wang, Wenzhong Sun, Songmei; Zhang, Ling

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: Design and synthesis of NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} based on upconversion. NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} nanocomposite was prepared for the first time. Coreshell structure benefits the properties. Upconversion contributed to the enhanced photocatalytic activity. Helps to understand the functionality of new type photocatalysts. - Abstract: NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} core/shell nanocomposite was designed and prepared for the first time based on upconversion. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The results revealed that the as-synthesized NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} consisted of spheres with a core diameter of about 26 nm and a shell diameter of around 6 nm. The core was upconversion illuminant NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb and the shell was Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} around the core, which was confirmed by EDS. The NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for the photodecomposition of Rhodamine B (RhB) under the irradiation of Xe lamp and green light emitting diode (g-LED). The mechanism of the high photocatalytic activity was discussed by photoluminescence spectra (PL), which is mainly attributed to upconversion of NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb in the NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} nanocomposite and the coreshell structure.

  17. DOE/ER-0442

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Executive Summary: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Plan ARM Program Plan Foreword In 1978 the Department of Energy initiated the Carbon Dioxide Research Program to address climate change from the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Over the years the Program has studied the many facets of the issue, from the carbon cycle, the climate diagnostics, the vegetative effects, to the societal impacts. The Program is presently the Department's principal entry in the

  18. OoEr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    are as follows: 0 0 0 0 l 0 0 0 0 0 l 0 l l -0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 American Machine and Metals, E. Holine, IL .a4 American Steel Foundries, Clncinnatl, OHe3b Bendix Aviation Corp.. ...

  19. DJS CLAIM ER

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    available original document. L -1- e ' c -2 - MDDC a42 - Physically sodium hydride is a grey or white powder with a density of 0.92 gmscm3. It is extremely active towards water or...

  20. Pumping-route-dependent concentration quenching and temperature effect of green up- and down-conversion luminescence in Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jingjing; Sun, Jiashi [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China); Liu, Jutao [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China); Li, Xiangping; Zhang, Jinsu [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China); Tian, Yue [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China); College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China); Fu, Shaobo; Cheng, Lihong; Zhong, Haiyang [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China); Xia, Haiping [Key laboratory of Photo-electronic Materials, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Chen, Baojiu, E-mail: chenmbj@sohu.com [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China)

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: A comparative study on the concentration quenching behaviors of green down- and up-conversion emissions was carried out for the first time, and the different concentration quenching mechanisms were analyzed. Secondly, the thermal effect induced by 980 nm LD irradiation was investigated, it was observed that the equilibrium temperature of Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} sample was decided by both the excitation power and Er{sup 3+} doping concentration. Highlights: ? Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er/Yb phosphors were prepared via a co-precipitation reaction. ? Morphology and structure of the phosphors were characterized by XRD and SEM. ? Concentration quenching mechanisms for down and up emissions were studied. ? Thermal effect induced by laser irradiation was studied via temperature sensing tech. - Abstract: Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} phosphors with various Er{sup 3+} concentrations and fixed Yb{sup 3+} concentration were synthesized via a co-precipitation method, and their crystal structure and morphology were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The concentration quenching behaviors of green up- and down-conversion emissions of Er{sup 3+} were analyzed, and it was confirmed that the difference between quenching concentration for up- and down-conversion emissions resulted from the different population routes. The temperature sensing properties of the Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} phosphors were studied, and it was found that the Er{sup 3+} doping concentration slightly affected the sensitivity, and Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} phosphors could be used in a broad temperature region for detecting temperature. Finally, the thermal effect induced by 980 nm LD irradiation was investigated, it was observed that the equilibrium temperature of Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} sample was decided by both the excitation power and Er

  1. Well ER-6-1 Tracer Test Analysis: Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Ruskauff

    2006-09-01

    The ER-6-1 multiple-well aquifer test-tracer test (MWAT-TT) investigated groundwater flow and transport processes relevant to the transport of radionuclides from sources on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) through the lower carbonate aquifer (LCA) hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU). The LCA, which is present beneath much of the NTS, is the principal aquifer for much of southern Nevada. This aquifer consists mostly of limestone and dolomite, and is pervasively fractured. Groundwater flow in this aquifer is primarily in the fractures, and the hydraulic properties are primarily related to fracture frequency and fracture characteristics (e.g., mineral coatings, aperture, connectivity). The objective of the multiple-well aquifer test (MWAT) was to determine flow and hydraulic characteristics for the LCA in Yucca Flat. The data were used to derive representative flow model and parameter values for the LCA. The items of specific interest are: Hydraulic conductivity; Storage parameters; Dual-porosity behavior; and Fracture flow characteristics. The objective of the tracer transport experiment was to evaluate the transport properties and processes of the LCA and to derive representative transport parameter values for the LCA. The properties of specific interest are: Effective porosity; Matrix diffusion; Longitudinal dispersivity; Adsorption characteristics; and Colloid transport characteristics. These properties substantially control the rate of transport of contaminants in the groundwater system and concentration distributions. To best support modeling at the scale of the corrective action unit (CAU), these properties must be investigated at the field scale. The processes represented by these parameters are affected by in-situ factors that are either difficult to investigate at the laboratory scale or operate at a much larger scale than can be reproduced in the laboratory. Measurements at the field scale provide a better understanding of the effective average parameter values. The

  2. Phytoestrogens in menopausal supplements induce ER-dependent cell proliferation and overcome breast cancer treatment in an in vitro breast cancer model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duursen, Majorie B.M. van; Smeets, Evelien E.J.W.; Rijk, Jeroen C.W.; Nijmeijer, Sandra M.; Berg, Martin van den

    2013-06-01

    Breast cancer treatment by the aromatase inhibitor Letrozole (LET) or Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Tamoxifen (TAM) can result in the onset of menopausal symptoms. Women often try to relieve these symptoms by taking menopausal supplements containing high levels of phytoestrogens. However, little is known about the potential interaction between these supplements and breast cancer treatment, especially aromatase inhibitors. In this study, interaction of phytoestrogens with the estrogen receptor alpha and TAM action was determined in an ER-reporter gene assay (BG1Luc4E2 cells) and human breast epithelial tumor cells (MCF-7). Potential interactions with aromatase activity and LET were determined in human adrenocorticocarcinoma H295R cells. We also used the previously described H295R/MCF-7 co-culture model to study interactions with steroidogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. In this model, genistein (GEN), 8-prenylnaringenin (8PN) and four commercially available menopausal supplements all induced ER-dependent tumor cell proliferation, which could not be prevented by physiologically relevant LET and 4OH-TAM concentrations. Differences in relative effect potencies between the H295R/MCF-7 co-culture model and ER-activation in BG1Luc4E2 cells, were due to the effects of the phytoestrogens on steroidogenesis. All tested supplements and GEN induced aromatase activity, while 8PN was a strong aromatase inhibitor. Steroidogenic profiles upon GEN and 8PN exposure indicated a strong inhibitory effect on steroidogenesis in H295R cells and H295R/MCF-7 co-cultures. Based on our in vitro data we suggest that menopausal supplement intake during breast cancer treatment should better be avoided, at least until more certainty regarding the safety of supplemental use in breast cancer patients can be provided. - Highlights: Supplements containing phytoestrogens are commonly used by women with breast cancer. Phytoestrogens alter steroidogenesis in a co-culture breast cancer

  3. As you may kn&<' the~de&tment of &~er& (D&j 1s involved'in'a pronram

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    As you may kn&<' the~de&tment of &~er& (D&j 1s involved'in'a pronram '. to'chiiracterlze the radjologital cbndif~on of ,sites formerly used byythe . . . ., Manhattan Engineer Dlstrlct (NED) and/or Atomjc Energy Co$n~~lssiqq (AEC); in.. the development of 'nuclear energy.. As part..of this -programi' DOE is 1~ I+ preparing, ,a' series of. brJef~ summaries ,-of .the' history:. of' tho ,#D/AEC~ : : ..; 'i ..relatecl activities and 'Conditions at .thc. sneclfic. sites. The

  4. Preparation and thermophysical properties of (Sm{sub 1?x}Er{sub x}){sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxides for thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaoge, Chen; Shusen, Yang; Hongsong, Zhang; Gang, Li; Zhenjun, Li.; Bo, Ren; Xudan, Dang; Haoming, Zhang; An, Tang

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: These ceramic materials with fluorite structure were synthesized. Defect points lead to their lower thermal conductivities. The lower ionic radius of Er{sup 3+} ion leads to the reduction of thermal expansion coefficient of (Sm{sub 1?x}Er{sub x}){sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxides. - Abstract: (Sm{sub 1?x}Er{sub x}){sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7} ceramics were synthesized by solgel method and sintered at 1600 C for 10 h in air. The influence of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}-substitution on the phase structure and thermophysical properties of Sm{sub 2}Ce{sub 2}O{sub 7} was investigated. The phase structures of these ceramics were identified by X-ray diffraction showing that all synthesized ceramics have fluorite-type structure. The measurements for thermophysical properties of these ceramics show that their thermal conductivities and thermal expansion coefficients remarkably decreased through Er-substitution. However, the thermal expansion coefficients were higher than that of YSZ and their thermal conductivities were much lower than that of 8YSZ. The excellent thermophysical property implies that these solid solutions are potential materials for the ceramics layer in thermal barrier coatings.

  5. Final Technical Report for DOE DE-FG02-05ER54831 "Laboratory Studies of Dynamos."

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forest, Cary B.

    2014-11-06

    Laboratory Studies of Dynamos: Executive Summary. The self-generation of magnetic fields by astrophysical bodies like planets, stars, accretion disks, galaxies, and even galaxy clusters arises due to a mechanism referred to as a homogeneous dynamo. It is quite simple to demonstrate the generation of a magnetic fi eld from a rotating copper disk coupled with a coil of wire, a device known as the homopolar dynamo. The device works like a magnetic fi eld ampli er with a feedback circuit: the differential rotation of a metal disk past an infinitesimally small seed magnetic field induces currents in the disk which, when coupled to a coil winding, can amplify the field until it becomes strong enough to slow the rotation of the disk. What is remarkable is that the same type of circuit may be achieved in a flowing conducting fluid such as a liquid metal in the case of planetary dynamos or a plasma in the case of astrophysical dynamos. The complexity of describing planetary and stellar dynamos despite their ubiquity and the plethora of observational data from the Earth and the Sun motivates the demonstration of a laboratory homogenous dynamo. To create a homogenous dynamo, one first needs a su fficiently large, fast flow of a highly conducting fluid that the velocity shear in the fluid can bend magnetic field lines. With a high Rm-flow, the magnetic fi eld can be ampli ed by the stretching action provided by di fferential rotation. The other critical ingredient is a flow geometry that provides feedback so that the ampli ed eld reinforces the initial in nitesimal seed field - a mechanism that recreates the feedback provided by the coil of wire in the homopolar dynamo. In the Madison Dynamo Experiment, this combination of magnetic ampli cation and feedback is feasible in the simple geometry of two counter-rotating helical vortices in a 1 meter-diameter spherical vessel lled with liquid sodium. For an optimal helical pitch of the flow the threshold for exciting a dynamo is

  6. A co-precipitation preparation, crystal structure and photoluminescent properties of Er5%:Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boopathi, G. Mohan, R.; Raj, S. Gokul; Kumar, G. Ramesh

    2015-06-24

    An inexpensive preparation method is being reported for obtaining erbium doped gadolinium oxide (Er5%:Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoscale rods. The elongated nanoscale systems, as-formed through a co-precipitation process, are characterized by using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) mapping, Ultra Violet-visible (UV-vis.) absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. In addition, the Williamson–Hall (W–H) plot is also performed to distinguish the effect of crystalline size-induced broadening and strain-induced broadening at full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the XRD profile. The XRD patterns of as-formed and calcined products show that the phase confirmation. As revealed from the SEM micrographs, the morphology of the products show that the rod-like nanoparticles. The EDX micrographs show that the presence of elements in our samples. The band gap values in calcined samples are found to be in the range of 3.569 eV. Upon 230 nm excitation on calcined samples, three broad emission peaks are observed from PL studies. The possible mechanism for the formation of Er5%:Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods is briefly discussed.

  7. The breakdown of de Gennes Scaling in TbxEr1-xNi2B2C and its mean field theory explanation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Chunwang

    2005-05-01

    The Neel temperatures, T{sub N}, of Tb{sub x}Er{sub 1-x}Ni{sub 2}B{sub 2}C samples have been determined from the temperature dependence of magnetization measurements. A breakdown of the de Gennes scaling of T{sub N} with a clear turning point around x = 0.45 has been observed. The T{sub N} values of Tb{sub x}Er{sub 1-x}Ni{sub 2}B{sub 2}C do not change much within the range of O < x < 0.45 and then, for larger x they increase almost linearly with concentration until T{sub N} = 14.9K is reached for x = 1, TbNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C. The clear change in the x-dependence of T{sub N} around x = 0.45 can be linked to a change in the local moment ordering direction from transverse to longitudinal, a change which is consistent with recent resonant X-ray scattering data. These features in T{sub N}(x) can be explained using a mean field model.

  8. Isoproterenol effects evaluated in heart slices of human and rat in comparison to rat heart in vivo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmann, Julia E.; Heale, Jason; Bieraugel, Mike; Ramos, Meg; Fisher, Robyn L.; Vickers, Alison E.M.

    2014-01-15

    Human response to isoproterenol induced cardiac injury was evaluated by gene and protein pathway changes in human heart slices, and compared to rat heart slices and rat heart in vivo. Isoproterenol (10 and 100 μM) altered human and rat heart slice markers of oxidative stress (ATP and GSH) at 24 h. In this in vivo rat study (0.5 mg/kg), serum troponin concentrations increased with lesion severity, minimal to mild necrosis at 24 and 48 h. In the rat and the human heart, isoproterenol altered pathways for apoptosis/necrosis, stress/energy, inflammation, and remodeling/fibrosis. The rat and human heart slices were in an apoptotic phase, while the in vivo rat heart exhibited necrosis histologically and further progression of tissue remodeling. In human heart slices genes for several heat shock 70 kD members were altered, indicative of stress to mitigate apoptosis. The stress response included alterations in energy utilization, fatty acid processing, and the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, a marker of increased oxidative stress in both species. Inflammation markers linked with remodeling included IL-1α, Il-1β, IL-6 and TNFα in both species. Tissue remodeling changes in both species included increases in the TIMP proteins, inhibitors of matrix degradation, the gene/protein of IL-4 linked with cardiac fibrosis, and the gene Ccl7 a chemokine that induces collagen synthesis, and Reg3b a growth factor for cardiac repair. This study demonstrates that the initial human heart slice response to isoproterenol cardiac injury results in apoptosis, stress/energy status, inflammation and tissue remodeling at concentrations similar to that in rat heart slices. - Highlights: • Human response to isoproterenol induced cardiac injury evaluated in heart slices. • Isoproterenol altered apoptosis, energy, inflammation and remodeling pathways. • Human model verified by comparison to rat heart slices and rat heart in vivo. • Human and rat respond to isoproterenol

  9. Effect of Mn doping on structural and magnetic susceptibility of C-type rare earth nano oxides Er{sub 2?x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiba, Zein K.; Taif University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department ; Mohamed, Mohamed Bakr; Fuess, H.

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Er{sub 2?x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} (0.0 ? x ? 0.20) prepared by solgel method. ? The change in lattice parameter is not linear with x due to the change in crystallite size with doping. ? Anomalous concentration dependence is found in magnetic susceptibility. ? The effective magnetic moment ?{sub eff} is found to decrease with composition parameter x. ? Superexchange interactions between Er ions depending on the amount of Mn or Er in different sites. -- Abstract: The manganese doped rare earth oxides Er{sub 2?x}Mn{sub x} O{sub 3} (0.0 ? x ? 0.20) were synthesized by a solgel process and analyzed by X-ray diffraction using Rietveld refinement methods. A single phase solid solution is formed up to x = 0.15 while for x ? 0.2 a manganese oxide phase appears in the diffraction pattern. Preferential cationic distribution between the non-equivalent sites 8b and 24d of space group Ia3{sup } is found for all samples but to a different extent. The octahedral volume and average bond length of Er{sub 1}-O for 8b site decrease while both octahedral volume and bond length of Er{sub 2}-O for 24d site increase. Magnetization measurements were done in the temperature range 5300 K. The effective magnetic moment ?{sub eff} is found to decrease with composition parameter x, except for sample x = 0.05 where the magnetization is enhanced. The Curie-Weiss paramagnetic temperatures indicate antiferromagnetic interaction.

  10. Laser-induced magnetic fields in ICF capsules, Final Report, DE-FG02-08ER85128, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindman, Erick L

    2009-11-05

    Laser-induced magnetic fields in ICF capsules Final Report, DE-FG02-08ER85128, Phase 1 E. L. LINDMAN, Otowi Technical Services, Los Alamos, NM. The performance of an inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) capsule can be improved by inserting a magnetic field into it before compressing it [Kirkpatrick, et al., Fusion Technol. 27, 205 (1995)]. To obtain standoff in an ICF power generator, a method of inserting the field without the use of low-inductance leads attached to the capsule is desired. A mechanism for generating such a field using a laser was discovered in Japan [Sakagami, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 839 (1979), Kolodner and Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1402 (1979)] and studied at Los Alamos in the 1980s [M. A. Yates, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1702 (1982); Forslund and Brackbill, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1614 (1982)]. In this mechanism, a p-polarized laser beam strikes a solid target producing hot electrons that are accelerated away from the target surface by resonant absorption. An electric field is created that returns the hot electrons to the target. But, they do not return to the target along the same trajectory on which they left. The resulting current produces a toroidal magnetic field that was observed to spread over a region outside the hot spot with a radius of a millimeter. No experimental measurements of the magnetic field strength were performed. Estimates from computer simulation suggest that field strengths in the range of 1 to 10 Mega gauss (100 to 1000 Tesla) were obtained outside of the laser spot. To use this mechanism to insert a magnetic field into an ICF capsule, the capsule must be redesigned. In one approach, a central conductor is added, a toroidal gap is cut in the outer wall and the DT fuel is frozen on the inner surface of the capsule. The capsule is dropped into the reaction chamber and struck first with the laser that generates the magnetic field. The laser hot spot is positioned at the center of the toroidal gap. As the

  11. Negative to positive magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric effect in Pr0.6Er0.4Al2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Gschneidner, Jr., K. A.; Pecharsky, V. K.

    2014-10-13

    We report on the magnetic, magnetocaloric and magnetotransport properties of Pr0.6Er0.4Al2. The title compound exhibits a large positive magnetoresistance (MR) for H ≥ 40 kOe and a small but non negligible negative MR for H ≤ 30 kOe. The maximum positive MR reaches 13% at H = 80 kOe. The magnetic entropy and adiabatic temperature changes as functions of temperature each show two anomalies: a broad dome-like maximum below 20 K and a relatively sharp peak at higher temperature. As a result, observed behaviors are unique among other binary and mixed lanthanide compounds.

  12. High-resolution study of 0{sup +} and 2{sup +} excitations in {sup 168}Er with the (p,t) reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucurescu, D. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, R-76900 Bucharest (Romania); Graw, G.; Hertenberger, R. [Sektion Physik, Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Wirth, H.-F.; Faestermann, T.; Kruecken, R.; Mahgoub, M. [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lo Iudice, N. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli 'Federico II' and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Monte S Angelo, Via Cintia I-80126 Naples (Italy); Sushkov, A.V.; Shirikova, N.Yu. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Sun, Y. [Department of Physics and Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Physics, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221009 (China); Jolie, J.; Brentano, P. von; Braun, N.; Heinze, S.; Moeller, O.; Muecher, D.; Scholl, C. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937 Cologne (Germany); Casten, R.F.; Meyer, D.A. [Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8124 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Excited states in the deformed nucleus {sup 168}Er have been studied with high-energy resolution, in the (p,t) reaction, with the Munich Q3D spectrograph. A number of 25 excited 0{sup +} states (four tentative) and 63 2{sup +} states have been assigned up to 4.0 MeV excitation energy. This unusually rich characterization of the 0{sup +} and 2{sup +} states in a deformed nucleus, close to a complete level scheme, offers a unique opportunity to check, in detail, models of nuclear structure that incorporate many excitation modes. A comparison of the experimental data is made with two such models: the quasiparticle-phonon model (QPM), and the projected shell model (PSM). The PSM wave functions appear to contain fewer correlations than those of the QPM and than required by the data.

  13. Lifetime of the K{sup pi} = 8{sup -} isomer in the neutron-rich nucleus, {sup 174}Er and N = 106 E1 systematics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dracoulis, G. D.; Lane, G. J.; Kondev, F. G.; Watanabe, H.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; McCutchan, E. A.; Stefanescu, I.; Australian National Univ.; RIKEN; Univ. of Maryland

    2009-06-01

    Chopped-beam techniques and {gamma}-ray spectroscopy with Gammasphere have been used to measure the lifetime of the 1112-keV 8{sup -} isomeric state in {sup 174}Er. The value obtained of {tau} = 5.8(4) s corresponds to a reduced hindrance of f{sub {nu}} = 98 for the 163-keV E1 transition to the 8{sup +} state of the ground-state band, in good agreement with the systematics of the corresponding E1 strengths in the N = 106 isotones. The K-mixing in the 8{sup -} states is calculated in the context of the particle-rotor model and used to extract the underlying reduced hindrances.

  14. Lifetime of the K{sup {pi}}=8{sup -} isomer in the neutron-rich nucleus {sup 174}Er, and N=106 E1 systematics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dracoulis, G. D.; Lane, G. J.; Kondev, F. G.; Chiara, C. J.; Watanabe, H.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; McCutchan, E. A.; Stefanescu, I.

    2009-06-15

    Chopped-beam techniques and {gamma}-ray spectroscopy with Gammasphere have been used to measure the lifetime of the 1112-keV 8{sup -} isomeric state in {sup 174}Er. The value obtained of {tau}=5.8(4) s corresponds to a reduced hindrance of f{sub {nu}}=98 for the 163-keV E1 transition to the 8{sup +} state of the ground-state band, in good agreement with the systematics of the corresponding E1 strengths in the N=106 isotones. The K-mixing in the 8{sup -} states is calculated in the context of the particle-rotor model and used to extract the underlying reduced hindrances.

  15. Effects of carboxymethyl chitosan on the blood system of rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Dawei; Han, Baoqin; Dong, Wen; Yang, Zhao; Lv, You; Liu, Wanshun

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} We report, for the first time, the safety of carboxymethyl chitosan in blood system. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on coagulation function of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on anticoagulation performance of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on fibrinolytic function of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on hemorheology of rats. -- Abstract: Carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan), a derivative of chitosan, was extensively studied in the biomedical materials field for its beneficial biological properties of hemostasis and stimulation of healing. However, studies examining the safety of CM-chitosan in the blood system are lacking. In this study CM-chitosan was implanted into the abdominal cavity of rats to determine blood indexes at different times and to evaluate the effects of CM-chitosan on the blood system of rats. Coagulation function was reflected by thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet factor 4 (PF4) indexes; anti-coagulation performance was assessed by the index of antithrombinIII (ATIII); fibrinolytic function was reflected by plasminogen (PLG) and fibrin degradation product (FDP) indexes; and blood viscosity (BV) and plasma viscosity (PV) indexes reflected hemorheology. Results showed that CM-chitosan has no significant effects on the blood system of rats, and provides experimental basis for CM-chitosan to be applied in the field of biomedical materials.

  16. Rare-earth-rich tellurides: Gd{sub 4}NiTe{sub 2} and Er{sub 5}M{sub 2}Te{sub 2} (M=Co, Ni)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magliocchi, Carmela; Meng, Fanqin; Hughbanks, Timothy . E-mail: trh@mail.chem.tamu.edu

    2004-11-01

    Three new rare earth metal-rich compounds, Gd{sub 4}NiTe{sub 2}, and Er{sub 5}M{sub 2}Te{sub 2} (M=Ni, Co), were synthesized in direct reactions using R, R{sub 3}M, and R{sub 2}Te{sub 3} (R=Gd, Er; M=Co, Ni) and single-crystal structures were determined. Gd{sub 4}NiTe{sub 2} is orthorhombic and crystallizes in space group Pnma with four formula units per cell. Lattice parameters at 110(2)K are a=15.548(9), b=4.113(2), c=11.7521(15)A. Er{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}Te{sub 2} and Er{sub 5}Co{sub 2}Te{sub 2} are isostructural and crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Cmcm with two formula units per cell. Lattice parameters at 110(2)K are a=3.934(1), b=14.811(4), c=14.709(4)A, and a=3.898(1), b=14.920(3), c=14.889(3)A, respectively. Metal-metal bonding correlations were analyzed using the empirical Pauling bond order concept.

  17. The neurological effects of brevetoxin on neonatal rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tapley, S.R.; Ramsdell, J.S.; Xi, D.

    1994-12-31

    We have investigated the neuroexcitatory and neurodegenerative effects of brevetoxin on neonatal rats. Brevetoxin, a marine-biotoxin that has been implicated in several seafood poisoning incidents, is produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium brevis. Four studies were done: dose response, northern analysis, immunohistochemistry and neurodegeneration. We found that neonatal rats are much more sensitive to brevetoxin than adult rats. The effectiveness of c-fos as a biomarker is being investigated, because of the high basal expression in young animals. The neurodegeneration, although not available yet, should provide valuable information.

  18. Up-conversion luminescent properties of La{sub (0.80−x)}VO{sub 4}:Yb{sub x}, Er{sub 0.20} phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Dong Hwa; Kang, Deok Hwa; Yi, Soung Soo; Jang, Kiwan; Jeong, Jung Hyun

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • A novel green and red emitting LaVO{sub 4}:Yb{sub x}{sup 3+}, Er{sub 0.20}{sup 3+} phosphors were synthesized. • Their structures, luminescent properties have also been investigated. • Major laser transition for Er{sup 3+} ion is {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} (525 nm). • These results suggest the possibility as photonic devices. - Abstract: Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} co-doped LaVO{sub 4} phosphors were synthesized by solid state reaction method. Yb{sup 3+} concentrations were changed from 0.01 to 0.20 mol for the fixed Er{sup 3+} concentration at 0.2 mol. The crystalline structure of samples was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The composition was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The surface morphology was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The red and green up-conversion emissions were observed in Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} co-doped LaVO{sub 4} phosphors under the excitation of 980 nm laser diode. Several emissions in green and red regions of the spectrum were observed near 525 nm, 553 nm and 659 nm radiated by {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, and {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transitions, respectively.

  19. Induction of taxol metabolism in the rat by dexamethasone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, C.D.; Gondi, K.N.; Walle, T.

    1994-12-31

    The antitumor drug taxol was metabolized to two major metabolites (RM1 and RM2) in adult male and female rat liver microsomes. The male rats produced RM1 2.6 fold faster than the females, and they produced RM2 3 fold faster than the females. This correlated well with the sex differences noticed in liver microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A content (4.4 fold greater in male) and 6{beta}-hydroxylation of testosterone (2.4 fold greater in male). Taxol was metabolized to three major metabolites (RM1, RM2, and RM3) in adult male and female rat liver microsomes from rats pretreated with dexamethasone. Production of RM1 and RM2 was increased in these rats (2.3 and 3.3 fold respectively in males; 6.5 and 8.7 fold respectively in females) as compared to the untreated rats. These results compared well with the induction of CYP 3A proteins (3.5 fold in male, 10 fold in female) and induction of 6{beta}-hydroxylation (1.9 fold in males, 3.8 fold in females). RM3, which was produced only by the rats pretreated with dexamethasone, had a retention time of 0.58 relative to taxol which corresponds to 6{alpha}- hydroxytaxol, the major human metabolite of taxol. This study indicates that taxol metabolism in the rat is likely due to CYP 3A enzymes. Although the evidence points toward CYP 3A1 as the major isoform involved, it does not rule out others. The findings also suggest that CYP 3A1 is responsible for the induced metabolite, RM3.

  20. Sexually dimorphic gene regulation in brain as a target for endocrine disrupters: Developmental exposure of rats to 4-methylbenzylidene camphor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maerkel, Kirsten [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology and GREEN Tox, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Durrer, Stefan [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology and GREEN Tox, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Henseler, Manuel [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology and GREEN Tox, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Schlumpf, Margret [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology and GREEN Tox, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Lichtensteiger, Walter [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology and GREEN Tox, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Walter.Lichtensteiger@access.unizh.ch

    2007-01-15

    The developing neuroendocrine brain represents a potential target for endocrine active chemicals. The UV filter 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) exhibits estrogenic activity, but also interferes with the thyroid axis. We investigated effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to 4-MBC in the same rat offspring at brain and reproductive organ levels. 4-MBC (7, 24, 47 mg/kg/day) was administered in chow to the parent generation before mating, during gestation and lactation, and to the offspring until adulthood. mRNA of estrogen target genes involved in control of sexual behavior and gonadal functions was measured by real-time RT-PCR in ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and medial preoptic area (MPO) of adult offspring. 4-MBC exposure affected mRNA levels of ER alpha, progesterone receptor (PR), preproenkephalin (PPE) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in a sex- and region-specific manner. In order to assess possible changes in sensitivity of target genes to estrogens, offspring were gonadectomized on day 70, injected with estradiol (E2, 10 or 50 {mu}g/kg s.c.) or vehicle on day 84, and sacrificed 6 h later. The acute induction of PR mRNA, and repression (at 6 h) of PPE mRNA by E2 was enhanced by 4-MBC in male and female VMH and female MPO, whereas male MPO exhibited reduced responsiveness of both genes. Steroid receptor coactivator SRC-1 mRNA levels were increased in female VMH and MPO. The data indicate profound sex- and region-specific alterations in the regulation of estrogen target genes at brain level. Effect patterns in baseline and E2-induced gene expression differ from those in uterus and prostate.

  1. Q-switched and mode-locked Er{sup 3+}-doped fibre laser using a single-multi-single fibre filter and piezoelectric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji Wang; Yunjun Zhang; Aotuo Dong; Xiaoxin Xu; Youlun Ju; Baoquan Yao

    2014-04-28

    The active Q-switched and passive mode-locked Er{sup 3+}-doped all-fibre laser is presented. The fibre laser centre wavelength is located at 1563 nm and determined by the homemade singlemulti- single (SMS) in-line fibre filter. The laser spectrum width is nearly 0.1 nm. The active Q-switched mechanism relies on the polarisation state control using a piezoelectric to press a segment of passive fibre on the circular cavity. The nonlinear polarisation rotation technology is used to realise the passive self-started modelocked operation. In the passive mode-locked regimes, the output average power is 2.1 mW, repetition frequency is 11.96 MHz, and single pulse energy is 0.18 nJ. With the 100-Hz Q-switched regimes running, the output average power is 1.5 mW. The total Q-switched pulse width is 15 μs, and every Q-switched pulse is made up by several tens of mode-locked peak pulses. The calculated output pulse energy of the Q-switched fibre laser is about 15 μJ, and the energy of every mode-locked pulse is about 64–68 nJ during a Q-switched pulse taking into account the power fraction propagating between pulses. (lasers)

  2. Radiation leukaemogenesis at low doses DE-FG02-05 ER 63947 Final Technical Report 15 May 2005 ?? 14 May 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon Bouffler; Christophe Badie; Natalie Brown; Rosemary Finnon

    2010-07-28

    This report provides a full summary of the results obtained under grant DE-FG02-05ER63947, Radiation Leukaemogenesis at low doses. The studies employed an experimental model of radiation leukaemogenesis with the main aim of identifying key events that convert normal cells into leukaemic cells follwoing exposure to radiation. Important aspect of the work was to understand dose-response relationships and time course relationships for leakaemogenis events. The studies performed provided evidence for direct radiation-induced losses of the Sfpi1/PU.1 gene being critical for induction of the disease. No threshold below 0.1 Gy in the induction of the gene losses was observed. The critical cell type in which the myeloid lekaemias arise has been identified and point mutations in the Sfpi1/PU.1 gene are common in leukaemias. The consequences of the genetic losses and mutation have been examined and these provide evidence of a disruption of differentiation in leukaemic cells. Additional pathways to leukaemogenesis have been identified also. Overall the study provides quantitiative data suitable for testing approaches to modelling of leukaemia rosk at low doses.

  3. Developing a Biosensor for Estrogens in Water Samples: Study ofthe Real-time Response of Live Cells of the Estrogen-sensitive YeastStrain RMY/ER-ERE using Fluorescence Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wozei, E.; Hermanowicz, S.W.; Holman, H-Y.N.

    2006-01-01

    Using a fluorescein di-{beta}-d-galactopyranoside (FDG) substrate we show that in live cells of an estrogen-sensitive yeast strain RMY/ER-ERE with human estrogen receptor (ER{alpha}) gene and the lacZ gene which encodes {beta}-galactosidase, the uptake of 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) and the subsequent production of {beta}-galactosidase enzyme occur quite rapidly, with maximal enzyme-catalyzed product formation evident after about 30 min of exposure to E2. This finding which agrees with the well-known rates of enzyme-catalyzed reactions could have implications for shortening the duration of environmental sample screening and monitoring regimes using yeast-based estrogen assays, and the development of biosensors for environmental estrogens to complement quantification methods.

  4. Developing a Biosensor for Estrogens in Water Samples: Study ofthe Real-time Response of Live Cells of the Estrogen-sensitive YeastStrain RMY/ER-ERE using Fluorescence Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wozei, E.; Hermanowicz, S.W.; Holman, H-Y.N.

    2005-07-13

    Using a fluorescein di-{beta}-D-galactopyranoside (FDG) substrate we show that in live cells of an estrogen-sensitive yeast strain RMY/ER-ERE with human estrogen receptor (ER{alpha}) gene and the lacZ gene which encodes {beta}-galactosidase, the uptake of 17 {beta}-estradiol (E2) and the subsequent production of {beta}-galactosidase enzyme occur quite rapidly, with maximal enzyme-catalyzed product formation evident after about 30 minutes of exposure to E2. This finding which agrees with the well-known rates of enzyme-catalyzed reactions could have implications for shortening the duration of environmental sample screening and monitoring regimes using yeast-based estrogen assays, and the development of biosensors for environmental estrogens to complement quantification methods.

  5. Thermoelectric power generator module of 16x16 Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and 0.6%ErAs:(InGaAs){sub 1-x}(InAlAs){sub x} segmented elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng Gehong; Bahk, Je-Hyeong; Bowers, John E.; Lu Hong; Gossard, Arthur C.; Singer, Suzanne L.; Majumdar, Arun; Bian, Zhixi; Zebarjadi, Mona; Shakouri, Ali

    2009-08-24

    We report the fabrication and characterization of thermoelectric power generator modules of 16x16 segmented elements consisting of 0.8 mm thick Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and 50 {mu}m thick ErAs:(InGaAs){sub 1-x}(InAlAs){sub x} with 0.6% ErAs by volume. An output power up to 6.3 W was measured when the heat source temperature was at 610 K. The thermoelectric properties of (InGaAs){sub 1-x}(InAlAs){sub x} were characterized from 300 up to 830 K. The finite element modeling shows that the performance of the generator modules can further be enhanced by improving the thermoelectric properties of the element materials, and reducing the electrical and thermal parasitic losses.

  6. Fine tunable red-green upconversion luminescence from glass ceramic containing 5%Er{sup 3+}:NaYF{sub 4} nanocrystals under excitation of two near infrared femtosecond lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, Xiaoying; Cheng, Wenjing; Zhou, Kan; Ma, Jing; Feng, Donghai; Zhang, Shian; Sun, Zhenrong; Jia, Tianqing; Chen, Ping; Qiu, Jianrong

    2014-08-14

    In this paper, we report fine tunable red-green upconversion luminescence of glass ceramic containing 5%Er{sup 3+}: NaYF{sub 4} nanocrystals excited simultaneously by two near infrared femtosecond lasers. When the glass ceramic was irradiated by 800 nm femtosecond laser, weak red emission centered at 670 nm was detected. Bright red light was observed when the fs laser wavelength was tuned to 1490 nm. However, when excited by the two fs lasers simultaneously, the sample emitted bright green light centered at 550 nm, while the red light kept the same intensity. The dependences of the red and the green light intensities on the two pump lasers are much different, which enables us to manipulate the color emission by adjusting the two pump laser intensities, respectively. We present a theoretical model of Er{sup 3+} ions interacting with two fs laser fields, and explain well the experimental results.

  7. Photoluminescence and compositional-structural properties of ion-beam sputter deposited Er-doped TiO{sub 2−x}N{sub x} films: Their potential as a temperature sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scoca, D. Morales, M.; Merlo, R.; Alvarez, F.; Zanatta, A. R.

    2015-05-28

    Er-doped TiO{sub 2−x}N{sub x} films were grown by Ar{sup +} ion-beam sputtering a Ti + Er target under different N{sub 2} + O{sub 2} high-purity atmospheres. The compositional-structural properties of the samples were investigated after thermal annealing the films up to 1000 °C under a flow of oxygen. Sample characterization included x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence experiments. According to the experimental data, both composition and atomic structure of the samples were very sensitive to the growth conditions and annealing temperature. In the as-deposited form, the N-rich TiO{sub 2−x}N{sub x} films presented TiN crystallites and no photoluminescence. As the thermal treatments proceed, the films were transformed into TiO{sub 2} and Er{sup 3+}-related light emission were observed in the visible and near-infrared ranges at room-temperature. Whereas the development of TiO{sub 2} occurred due to the insertion-diffusion of oxygen in the films, light emission originated because of optical bandgap widening and/or structural-chemical variations in the vicinity of the Er{sup 3+} ions. Finally, the photoluminescence results in the visible range suggested the potential of the present samples in producing an optically based temperature sensor in the ∼150–500 K range.

  8. Bifunction in Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped BaTi{sub 2}O{sub 5}Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Minghui; Yu, Jianding; Pan, Xiuhong; Cheng, Yuxing; Liu, Yan

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Novel BaTi{sub 2}O{sub 5}Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} based glasses have been prepared by aerodynamic levitation. The obtained glasses show high thermal stability with T{sub g} = 763.3 C. Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glasses show strong upconversion based on a two-photon process. Red emission is stronger than green emissions for EBT by high Yb{sup 3+} concentration. Magnetic ions are paramagnetic and the distribution is homogeneous in the glasses. - Abstract: Novel Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped BaTi{sub 2}O{sub 5}Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} spherical glasses have been fabricated by aerodynamic levitation method. The thermal stability, upconversion luminescence, and magnetic properties of the present glass have been studied. The glasses show high thermal stability with 763.3 C of the onset temperature of the glass transition. Red and green emissions centered at 671 nm, 548 nm and 535 nm are obtained at 980 nm excitation. The upconversion is based on a two-photon process by energy transfer, excited-state absorption, and energy back transfer. Yb{sup 3+} ions are more than Er{sup 3+} ions in the glass, resulting in efficient energy back transfer from Er{sup 3+} to Yb{sup 3+}. So the red emission is stronger than the green emissions. Magnetization curves indicate that magnetic rare earth ions are paramagnetic and the distribution is homogeneous and random in the glass matrix. Aerodynamic levitation method is an efficient way to prepare glasses with homogeneous rare earth ions.

  9. Analysis of Hydraulic Responses from the ER-6-1 Multiple-Well Aquifer Test, Yucca Flat FY 2004 Testing Program, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Ruskauff

    2005-06-01

    This report documents the interpretation and analysis of the hydraulic data collected for the Fiscal Year (FY) 2004 Multiple-Well Aquifer Test-Tracer Test (MWAT-TT) conducted at the ER-6-1 Well Cluster in Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 97, on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The MWAT-TT was performed to investigate CAU-scale groundwater flow and transport processes related to the transport of radionuclides from sources on the NTS through the Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA) Hydrostratigraphic Unit (HSU). The ER-6-1 MWAT-TT was planned and executed by contractor participants for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project of the Environmental Restoration (ER) program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). Participants included Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), the Environmental Engineering Services Contractor; Bechtel Nevada (BN); the Desert Research Institute (DRI); Los Alamos National Laboratory; and the University of Nevada, Las Vegas-Harry Reid Center. The SNJV team consists of the S.M. Stoller Corporation, Navarro Research and Engineering, Battelle Memorial Institute, INTERA Inc., and Weston Solutions, Inc. The MWAT-TT was implemented according to the ''Underground Test Area Project, ER-6-1 Multi-Well Aquifer Test - Tracer Test Plan'' (SNJV, 2004a) issued in April 2004. The objective of the aquifer test was to determine flow processes and local hydraulic properties for the LCA through long-term constant-rate pumping at the well cluster. This objective was to be achieved in conjunction with detailed sampling of the composite tracer breakthrough at the pumping well, as well as with depth-specific sampling and logging at multiple wells, to provide information for the depth-discrete analysis of formation hydraulic properties, particularly with regard to fracture properties.

  10. Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect in the RCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and RCu{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} (R = Ho, Er) compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mo, Zhao-Jun; Shen, Jun E-mail: tangcc@hebut.edu.cn; Wu, Jian-Feng; Yan, Li-Qin; Wang, Li-Chen; Sun, Ji-rong; Shen, Bao-Gen; Gao, Xin-Qiang; Tang, Cheng-Chun E-mail: tangcc@hebut.edu.cn

    2014-02-21

    The magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in RCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and RCu{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} (R = Ho, Er) compounds have been investigated. All these compounds possess an antiferromagnetic (AFM)-paramagnetic (PM) transition around their respective Neel temperatures. The RCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} compounds undergo spin-glassy behavior above Neel temperature. Furthermore, a field-induced metamagnetic transition from AFM to ferromagnetic (FM) states is observed in these compounds. The calculated magnetic entropy changes show that all RCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and RCu{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} (R = Ho, Er) compounds, especially, ErCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} exhibits large MCEs with no thermal hysteresis and magnetic hysteresis loss. The value of −ΔS{sub M}{sup max} reaches 22.8 J/Kg K for magnetic field changes from 0 to 5 T. In particular, for field changes of 1 and 2 T, the giant reversible magnetic entropy changes −ΔS{sub M}{sup max} are 8.3 and 15.8 J/kg K at 2.5 K, which is lower than the boiling point of helium. The low-field giant magnetic entropy change, together with ignorable thermal hysteresis and field hysteresis loss of ErCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} compound is expected to have effective applications in low temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  11. Genetic maps of polymorphic DNA loci on rat chromosome 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Yan-Ping; Remmers, E.F.; Longman, R.E.

    1996-09-01

    Genetic linkage maps of loci defined by polymorphic DNA markers on rat chromosome 1 were constructed by genotyping F2 progeny of F344/N x LEW/N, BN/SsN x LEW/N, and DA/Bkl x F344/Hsd inbred rat strains. In total, 43 markers were mapped, of which 3 were restriction fragment length polymorphisms and the others were simple sequence length polymorphisms. Nineteen of these markers were associated with genes. Six markers for five genes, {gamma}-aminobutyric acid receptor {beta}3 (Gabrb3), syntaxin 2 (Stx2), adrenergic receptor {beta}3 (Gabrb3), syntaxin 2 (Stx2), adrenergic receptor {beta}1 (Adrb1), carcinoembryonic antigen gene family member 1 (Cgm1), and lipogenic protein S14 (Lpgp), and 20 anonymous loci were not previously reported. Thirteen gene loci (Myl2, Aldoa, Tnt, Igf2, Prkcg, Cgm4, Calm3, Cgm3, Psbp1, Sa, Hbb, Ins1, and Tcp1) were previously mapped. Comparative mapping analysis indicated that the large portion of rat chromosome 1 is homologous to mouse chromosome 7, although the homologous to mouse chromosome 7, although the homologs of two rat genes are located on mouse chromosomes 17 and 19. Homologs of the rat chromosome 1 genes that we mapped are located on human chromosomes 6, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, and 19. 38 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Gallium arsenide in mice and rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mast, T.J.; Greenspan, B.J.; Dill, J.A.; Stoney, K.H.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    Gallium arsenide is a crystalline compound used extensively in the semiconductor industry. Workers preparing solar cells and gallium arsenide ingots and wafers are potentially at risk from the inhalation of gallium arsenide dust. The potential for gallium arsenide to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague- Dawley rats and CD-1 (Swiss) mice exposed to 0, 10, 37, or 75 mg/m{sup 3} gallium arsenide, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and {approx}30 positively mated rats or {approx}24 positively mated mice. Mice were exposed on 4--17 days of gestation (dg), and rats on 4--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Gallium and arsenic concentrations were determined in the maternal blood and uterine contents of the rats (3/group) at 7, 14, and 20 dg. 37 refs., 11 figs., 30 tabs.

  13. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Acetonitrile in rats. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mast, T.J.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.; Boyd, P.J.; Hayden, B.K.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    The potential for acetonitrile to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 100, 400, or 1200 ppM acetonitrile, 6 hours/day, 7 days/week. Exposure of rats to these concentrations of acetonitrile resulted in mortality in the 1200 ppM group (2/33 pregnant females; 1/10 non-pregnant females). However, there were no treatment-related effects upon body weights or reproduction indices at any exposure level, nor was there a significant increase in the incidence of fetal malformations or variations. The only effect observed in the fetuses was a slight, but not statiscally significant, exposure-correlated increase in the incidence of supernumerary ribs. Determination of acetonitrile and cyanide concentrations in maternal rat blood showed that acetonitrile concentration in the blood increased with exposure concentration for all exposed maternal rats. Detectable amounts of cyanide in the blood were found only in the rats exposed to 1200 ppM acetonitrile ({approximately}2 {mu}g cyanide/g of blood).

  14. Final report (Grant No. DOE DE-FG02-97ER62366) [Retrieval of cloud fraction and type using broadband diffuse and total shortwave irradiance measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clothiaux, Eugene

    2001-05-17

    The primary research effort supported by Grant No. DOE DEFG02-97ER62366 titled ''Retrieval of Cloud Fraction and Type Using Broadband Diffuse and Total Shortwave Irradiance Measurements'' was application of clear-sky identification and cloud fraction estimation algorithms developed by Charles N. Long and Thomas P. Ackerman to the downwelling total, direct and diffuse shortwave irradiance measurements made at all of the central, boundary, and extended facilities of the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SOP) site. Goals of the research were finalization and publication of the two algorithms in the peer-reviewed literature and operational application of them to all of aforementioned data streams from the ARM SGP site. The clear-sky identification algorithm was published as Long and Ackerman (2000) in the Journal of Geophysical Research, while a description of the cloud fraction estimation algorithm made it to the scientific literature as Long et al. (1999) in the Proceedings of the 10th American Meteorological Association Conference on Atmospheric Radiation held in Madison, Wisconsin. The cloud fraction estimation algorithm relies on empirical relationships between the outputs of the clear-sky identification algorithm and cloud fraction; as such, the cloud fraction estimation algorithm requires significant amounts of data both to properly develop the empirical relationships and to thoroughly test them. With this perspective in mind the major focus of our research efforts in the later half of the project became the operational implementation of the clear-sky identification algorithm on DOE ARM SGP data so that we could develop the data set necessary for final tuning of the cloud fraction estimation algorithm in research extending beyond the lifetime of the project.

  15. miller-er-99.PDF

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Correction for Dry Bias in Vaisala Radiosonde RH Data E. R. Miller, J. Wang, and H. L. Cole National Center for Atmospheric Research Atmospheric Technology Division Boulder, Colorado Abstract Extensive data analysis of sounding data from the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere-Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA-COARE) and other research projects coupled with supporting evidence from other sources have lead to the conclusion that there is a dry bias in Vaisala radiosonde relative

  16. Final Report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-03ER25579; Development of High-Order Accurate Interface Tracking Algorithms and Improved Constitutive Models for Problems in Continuum Mechanics with Applications to Jetting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puckett, Elbridge Gerry; Miller, Gregory Hale

    2012-10-14

    Much of the work conducted under the auspices of DE-FG02-03ER25579 was characterized by an exceptionally close collaboration with researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). For example, Andy Nonaka, one of Professor Miller's graduate students in the Department of Applied Science at U. C. Davis (UCD) wrote his PhD thesis in an area of interest to researchers in the Applied Numerical Algorithms Group (ANAG), which is a part of the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC) at LBNL. Dr. Nonaka collaborated closely with these researchers and subsequently published the results of this collaboration jointly with them, one article in a peer reviewed journal article and one paper in the proceedings of a conference. Dr. Nonaka is now a research scientist in the Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering (CCSE), which is also part of the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC) at LBNL. This collaboration with researchers at LBNL also included having one of Professor Puckett's graduate students in the Graduate Group in Applied Mathematics (GGAM) at UCD, Sarah Williams, spend the summer working with Dr. Ann Almgren, who is a staff scientist in CCSE. As a result of this visit Sarah decided work on a problem suggested by the head of CCSE, Dr. John Bell, for her PhD thesis. Having finished all of the coursework and examinations required for a PhD, Sarah stayed at LBNL to work on her thesis under the guidance of Dr. Bell. Sarah finished her PhD thesis in June of 2007. Writing a PhD thesis while working at one of the University of California (UC) managed DOE laboratories is long established tradition at UC and Professor Puckett has always encouraged his students to consider doing this. Another one of Professor Puckett's graduate students in the GGAM at UCD, Christopher Algieri, was partially supported with funds from DE-FG02-03ER25579 while he wrote his MS thesis in which he analyzed and extended work originally published by Dr

  17. Final Technical Report "Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation" Grant number : DE-FG02-86ER13615

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayland, B.B.

    2009-08-31

    Title: Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER13615 PI: Wayland, B. B. (wayland@sas.upenn.edu) Abstract Development of new mechanistic strategies and catalyst materials for activation of CO, H2, CH4, C2H4, O2, and related substrates relevant to the conversion of carbon monoxide, alkanes, and alkenes to organic oxygenates are central objectives encompassed by this program. Design and synthesis of metal complexes that manifest reactivity patterns associated with potential pathways for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide through metallo-formyl (M-CHO), dimetal ketone (M-C(O)-M), and dimetal dionyl (M-C(O)-C(O)-M) species is one major focus. Hydrocarbon oxidation using molecular oxygen is a central goal for methane activation and functionalization as well as regioselective oxidation of olefins. Discovery of new reactivity patterns and control of selectivity are pursued through designing new metal complexes and adjusting reaction conditions. Variation of reaction media promotes distinct reaction pathways that control both reaction rates and selectivities. Dimetalloradical diporphyrin complexes preorganize transition states for substrate reactions that involve two metal centers and manifest large rate increases over mono-metalloradical reactions of hydrogen, methane, and other small molecule substrates. Another broad goal and recurring theme of this program is to contribute to the thermodynamic database for a wide scope of organo-metal transformations in a range of reaction media. One of the most complete descriptions of equilibrium thermodynamics for organometallic reactions in water and methanol is emerging from the study of rhodium porphyrin substrate reactions in aqueous and alcoholic media. Water soluble group nine metalloporphyrins manifest remarkably versatile substrate reactivity in aqueous and alcoholic media which includes producing rhodium formyl (Rh-CHO) and hydroxy methyl (Rh-CH2OH) species. Exploratory

  18. Syntheses, structure and rare earth metal photoluminescence of new and known isostructural A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Ce, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohitkar, Shrikant A.; Kalpana, G.; Vidyasagar, K.

    2011-04-15

    Nine new A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Ce, Pr, Eu, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) compounds have been synthesized by solid-state reactions. They are isostructural with six reported analogues of yttrium and other lanthanides and the monoclinic unit cell parameters of all fifteen of them vary linearly with the size of A{sup 3+} ion. Single crystal X-ray structures of eight A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Ce, Pr, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm) compounds have been determined. Neat A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) compounds exhibit characteristic rare earth metal photoluminescence. -- Graphical abstract: Among the fifteen isostructural A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=rare earth metal) molybdoantimonites, eight (A=Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) compounds exhibit neat characteristic lanthanide photoluminescence in the 200-800 nm range at room temperature. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Syntheses of nine new A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Ce, Pr, Eu, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) compounds. {yields} X-ray structures of eight A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Ce, Pr, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm) compounds. {yields} Photoluminescence of neat A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) compounds.

  19. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Liquid-Solid and Liquid-Vapor Interfaces of Metals and Alloys, Grant DE-FG02-06ER46321

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, Stuart

    2012-09-27

    The research supported by ER46321 was designed to understand in microscopic detail the structures of the interfaces between liquid metals and alloys and solid media. The system chosen for study, because of detailed knowledge of the structure of the corresponding liquid alloy-vapor interface, was the interface between a Si crystal and a dilute alloy of Pb in Ga. Experimental study of the Si:PbGa interface was anticipated to be very difficult; it requires preparation of an interface between a liquid metal and a solid surface that is flat to better than a nanometer on the scale length of the x-ray coherence, alignment of the x-ray beam and the surface in the sub-micro radian regime, and the use of high energy x-rays to penetrate the window and reach the interface without disastrous loss of intensity. The experimental design was subject to compromises forced by the limit to the highest x-ray energy available at the ChemMatCARS beam-line, namely 30 keV, which reduced the scattered signal relative to what can be obtained with higher x-ray energy. Although considerable progress was achieved during the support period and its no-cost extension, the difficulties encountered prevented completion of the studies and the data collected are incomplete. These data hint at the existence of unexpected structural features of the interface, in particular that Pb dimers play an important role in the interfacial structure. These data provide a different picture of the interface from the pentagonal structure inferred to be present in the interface between pure Pb and Si 001 (Nature 408, 839 (2000)), but much like the Ga dimers in the interface between liquid Ga and the 100 face of diamond (Nature 390, 379 (1997), J. Chem. Phys. 123, 104703 (2005)). However, during the latter part of the support period significant progress was made in the theoretical description of the liquid metal-crystal interface. In particular, stimulated by the results of an experimental study of the interface

  20. PyRAT (python radiography analysis tool): overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Jerawan C; Temple, Brian A; Buescher, Kevin L

    2011-01-14

    PyRAT was developed as a quantitative tool for robustly characterizing objects from radiographs to solve problems such as the hybrid nonlinear inverse problem. The optimization software library that was used is the nonsmooth optimization by MADS algorithm (NOMAD). Some of PyRAT's features are: (1) hybrid nonlinear inverse problem with calculated x-ray spectrum and detector response; (2) optimization based inversion approach with goal of identifying unknown object configurations - MVO problem; (3) using functionalities of Python libraries for radiographic image processing and analysis; (4) using the Tikhonov regularization method of linear inverse problem to recover partial information of object configurations; (5) using a priori knowledge of problem solutions to define feasible region and discrete neighbor for the MVO problem - initial data analysis + material library {yields} a priori knowledge; and (6) using the NOMAD (C++ version) software in the object.

  1. Sex difference in the principal cytochrome P-450 for tributyltin metabolism in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohhira, Shuji . E-mail: s-ohhira@dokkyomed.ac.jp; Enomoto, Mitsunori; Matsui, Hisao

    2006-01-15

    Tributyltin is metabolized by cytochrome P-450 (CYP) system enzymes, and its metabolic fate may contribute to the toxicity of the chemical. In the present study, it is examined whether sex differences in the metabolism of tributyltin exist in rats. In addition, the in vivo and in vitro metabolism of tributyltin was investigated using rat hepatic CYP systems to confirm the principal CYP involved. A significant sex difference in metabolism occurred both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that one of the CYPs responsible for tributyltin metabolism in rats is male specific or predominant at least. Eight cDNA-expressed rat CYPs, including typical phenobarbital (PB)-inducible forms and members of the CYP2C subfamily, were tested to determine their capability for tributyltin metabolism. Among the enzymes studied, a statistically significant dealkylation of tributyltin was mediated by CYP2C6 and 2C11. Furthermore, the sex difference in metabolism disappeared in vitro after anti-rat CYP2C11 antibody pretreatment because CYP2C11 is a major male-specific form in rats. These results indicate that CYP2C6 is the principal CYP for tributyltin metabolism in female rats, whereas CYP2C11 as well as 2C6 is involved in tributyltin metabolism in male rats, and it is suggested that CYP2C11 is responsible for the significant sex difference in the metabolism of tributyltin observed in rats.

  2. PyRAT - python radiography analysis tool (u)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temple, Brian A; Buescher, Kevin L; Armstrong, Jerawan C

    2011-01-14

    PyRAT is a radiography analysis tool used to reconstruction images of unknown 1-0 objects. The tool is written in Python and developed for use on LINUX and Windows platforms. The tool is capable of performing nonlinear inversions of the images with minimal manual interaction in the optimization process. The tool utilizes the NOMAD mixed variable optimization tool to perform the optimization.

  3. Luminescence properties of light-emitting diodes based on GaAs with the up-conversion Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Er,Yb luminophor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruzintsev, A. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Problems of Microelectronics Technology (Russian Federation)], E-mail: gran@ipmt-hpm.ac.ru; Barthou, C.; Benalloul, P. [Institute des NanoSciences (France)

    2008-03-15

    Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S luminophors doped with Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} ions are produced by means of solid-phase synthesis and deposited onto standard AL123A infrared light-emitting diodes. When excited with 940 nm radiation from a light-emitting diode, the structures exhibit intense visible up-conversion luminescence. A maximal brightness of 2340 cd/m{sup 2} of green and red up-conversion luminescence at corresponding wavelengths around 550 and 600 nm is observed for the Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S compound doped with 2 at % Er{sup 3+} ions and 6 at % Yb{sup 3+} ions. The ratio of the intensity of green (or red) up-conversion luminescence to the intensity of infrared Stokes luminescence increases with increasing applied voltage. The efficiency of visible emission of the light-emitting diode structures is {eta} = 1.2 lm/W at an applied voltage of 1.5 V.

  4. Proteomic analysis of rat cerebral cortex following subchronic acrolein toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rashedinia, Marzieh; Lari, Parisa; Abnous, Khalil; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2013-10-01

    Acrolein, a member of reactive ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes, is a major environmental pollutant. Acrolein is also produced endogenously as a toxic by-product of lipid peroxidation. Because of high reactivity, acrolein may mediate oxidative damages to cells and tissues. It has been shown to be involved in a wide variety of pathological states including pulmonary, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we employed proteomics approach to investigate the effects of subchronic oral exposures to 3 mg/kg of acrolein on protein expression profile in the brain of rats. Moreover effects of acrolein on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were investigated. Our results revealed that treatment with acrolein changed levels of several proteins in diverse physiological process including energy metabolism, cell communication and transport, response to stimulus and metabolic process. Interestingly, several differentially over-expressed proteins, including ?-synuclein, enolase and calcineurin, are known to be associated with human neurodegenerative diseases. Changes in the levels of some proteins were confirmed by Western blot. Moreover, acrolein increases the level of MDA, as a lipid peroxidation biomarker and decreased GSH concentrations, as a non-enzyme antioxidant in the brain of acrolein treated rats. These findings suggested that acrolein induces the oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in the brain, and so that may contribute to the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. - Highlights: Acrolein intoxication increased lipid peroxidation and deplete GSH in rat brain. Effect of acrolein on protein levels of cerebral cortex was analyzed by 2DE-PAGE. Levels of a number of proteins with different biological functions were increased.

  5. Effect of co-exposure and cadmium in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tandon, S.K.; Tewari, P.C.

    1987-10-01

    Metabolism and toxicity of heavy metals may be influenced by certain factors such as protein malnutrition, essential element deficiency or alcoholism. Ethanol has been found to enhance the absorption of lead in body and alcoholics have been reported to be more susceptible to lead intoxication. As alcoholism may be common among industry workers and a significant section of population, who may be exposed to cadmium, it was considered of interest to investigate the influence of ethanol-cadmium co-exposure on cadmium sensitive hepatic, renal and serum enzymes, tissue accumulation of cadmium, essential trace element status and cadmium induced hepatic metallothione in synthesis in rats.

  6. BPA uptake in rat tissues after partial hepatectomy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slatkin, D.N.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Coderre, J.A.; Fisher, C.D.; Joel, D.D.; Lombardo, D.T.; Micca, P.L.

    1996-12-31

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), boron given as boronophenylalanine (BPA) accumulates transiently not only in tumors but also in normal tissues. Average boron concentrations in transplanted 9L gliosarcoma tumors of 20 rats were 2.5 to 3.7 times concentrations found in blood. Although boron levels in a variety of tissues were also higher than blood the concentrations were less than the lowest found in the tumor. Further note than although BPA is a structural analogue of phenylalanine (Phe), the pathway of BPA uptake into regenerating liver may not be linked to Phe uptake mechanisms.

  7. Final report for Texas A&M University Group Contribution to DE-FG02-09ER25949/DE-SC0002505: Topology for Statistical Modeling of Petascale Data (and ASCR-funded collaboration between Sandia National Labs, Texas A&M University and University of Utah)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rojas, Joseph Maurice

    2013-02-27

    We summarize the contributions of the Texas A\\&M University Group to the project (DE-FG02-09ER25949/DE-SC0002505: Topology for Statistical Modeling of Petascale Data - an ASCR-funded collaboration between Sandia National Labs, Texas A\\&M U, and U Utah) during 6/9/2011 -- 2/27/2013.

  8. SU-E-T-492: Implementing a Method for Brain Irradiation in Rats Utilizing a Commercially Available Radiosurgery Irradiator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cates, J; Drzymala, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to implement a method for accurate rat brain irradiation using the Gamma Knife Perfexion unit. The system needed to be repeatable, efficient, and dosimetrically and spatially accurate. Methods: A platform (“rat holder”) was made such that it is attachable to the Leskell Gamma Knife G Frame. The rat holder utilizes two ear bars contacting bony anatomy and a front tooth bar to secure the rat. The rat holder fits inside of the Leskell localizer box, which utilizes fiducial markers to register with the GammaPlan planning system. This method allows for accurate, repeatable setup.A cylindrical phantom was made so that film can be placed axially in the phantom. We then acquired CT image sets of the rat holder and localizer box with both a rat and the phantom. Three treatment plans were created: a plan on the rat CT dataset, a phantom plan with the same prescription dose as the rat plan, and a phantom plan with the same delivery time as the rat plan. Results: Film analysis from the phantom showed that our setup is spatially accurate and repeatable. It is also dosimetrically accurate, with an difference between predicted and measured dose of 2.9%. Film analysis with prescription dose equal between rat and phantom plans showed a difference of 3.8%, showing that our phantom is a good representation of the rat for dosimetry purposes, allowing for +/- 3mm diameter variation. Film analysis with treatment time equal showed an error of 2.6%, which means we can deliver a prescription dose within 3% accuracy. Conclusion: Our method for irradiation of rat brain has been shown to be repeatable, efficient, and accurate, both dosimetrically and spatially. We can treat a large number of rats efficiently while delivering prescription doses within 3% at millimeter level accuracy.

  9. Secondary structure of rat and human amylin across force fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffmann, Kyle Quynn; McGovern, Michael; Chiu, Chi -cheng; de Pablo, Juan J.; Paci, Emanuele

    2015-07-29

    The aggregation of human amylin has been strongly implicated in the progression of Type II diabetes. This 37-residue peptide forms a variety of secondary structures, including random coils, α-helices, and β-hairpins. The balance between these structures depends on the chemical environment, making amylin an ideal candidate to examine inherent biases in force fields. Rat amylin differs from human amylin by only 6 residues; however, it does not form fibrils. Therefore it provides a useful complement to human amylin in studies of the key events along the aggregation pathway. In this work, the free energy of rat and human amylin was determined as a function of α-helix and β-hairpin content for the Gromos96 53a6, OPLS-AA/L, CHARMM22/CMAP, CHARMM22*, Amberff99sb*-ILDN, and Amberff03w force fields using advanced sampling techniques, specifically bias exchange metadynamics. This work represents a first systematic attempt to evaluate the conformations and the corresponding free energy of a large, clinically relevant disordered peptide in solution across force fields. The NMR chemical shifts of rIAPP were calculated for each of the force fields using their respective free energy maps, allowing us to quantitatively assess their predictions. We show that the predicted distribution of secondary structures is sensitive to the choice of force-field: Gromos53a6 is biased towards β-hairpins, while CHARMM22/CMAP predicts structures that are overly α-helical. OPLS-AA/L favors disordered structures. Amberff99sb*-ILDN, AmberFF03w and CHARMM22* provide the balance between secondary structures that is most consistent with available experimental data. In contrast to previous reports, our findings suggest that the equilibrium conformations of human and rat amylin are remarkably similar, but that subtle differences arise in transient alpha-helical and beta-strand containing structures that the human peptide can more readily adopt. We hypothesize that these transient states enable

  10. Secondary structure of rat and human amylin across force fields

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, Kyle Quynn; McGovern, Michael; Chiu, Chi -cheng; de Pablo, Juan J.; Paci, Emanuele

    2015-07-29

    The aggregation of human amylin has been strongly implicated in the progression of Type II diabetes. This 37-residue peptide forms a variety of secondary structures, including random coils, α-helices, and β-hairpins. The balance between these structures depends on the chemical environment, making amylin an ideal candidate to examine inherent biases in force fields. Rat amylin differs from human amylin by only 6 residues; however, it does not form fibrils. Therefore it provides a useful complement to human amylin in studies of the key events along the aggregation pathway. In this work, the free energy of rat and human amylin wasmore » determined as a function of α-helix and β-hairpin content for the Gromos96 53a6, OPLS-AA/L, CHARMM22/CMAP, CHARMM22*, Amberff99sb*-ILDN, and Amberff03w force fields using advanced sampling techniques, specifically bias exchange metadynamics. This work represents a first systematic attempt to evaluate the conformations and the corresponding free energy of a large, clinically relevant disordered peptide in solution across force fields. The NMR chemical shifts of rIAPP were calculated for each of the force fields using their respective free energy maps, allowing us to quantitatively assess their predictions. We show that the predicted distribution of secondary structures is sensitive to the choice of force-field: Gromos53a6 is biased towards β-hairpins, while CHARMM22/CMAP predicts structures that are overly α-helical. OPLS-AA/L favors disordered structures. Amberff99sb*-ILDN, AmberFF03w and CHARMM22* provide the balance between secondary structures that is most consistent with available experimental data. In contrast to previous reports, our findings suggest that the equilibrium conformations of human and rat amylin are remarkably similar, but that subtle differences arise in transient alpha-helical and beta-strand containing structures that the human peptide can more readily adopt. We hypothesize that these transient states

  11. LANL12-RS-107J PYTHON Radiography Analysis Tool (PyRAT). Mid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and is titled "Add the ability to read in more types of image file formats in PyRAT". ... Subject: 97 MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTING; IMAGES; PROGRESS REPORTS; P CODES; DATA PROCESSING ...

  12. Antimuscarinic effects of chloroquine in rat pancreatic acini

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habara, Y.; Williams, J.A.; Hootman, S.R.

    1986-06-13

    Chloroquine inhibited carbachol-induced amylase release in a dose-dependent fashion in rat pancreatic acini; cholecystokinin- and bombesin-induced secretory responses were almost unchanged by the antimalarial drug. The inhibition of carbachol-induced amylase release by chloroquine was competitive in nature with a K/sub i/ of 11.7 ..mu..M. Chloroquine also inhibited (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine binding to acinar muscarinic receptors. The IC/sub 50/ for chloroquine inhibition of (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine binding was lower than that for carbachol or the other antimalarial drugs, quinine and quinidine. These results demonstrate that chloroquine is a muscarinic receptor antagonist in the exocrine pancreas.

  13. Linkage maps of rat chromosomes 15, 16, 17, 19, and X

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Ying; Remmers, E.F.; Goldmuntz, E.A.

    1996-02-15

    This article reports on novel linkage maps of rat chromosomes 15, 16, 17, 19, and X. Such a map is needed to further the usefulness of the rat as a biological model in hereditary diseases. The linkage map results produced polymorphic markers which were associated with eight known genes and fourteen anonymous loci. This was accomplished using PCR analysis of somatic cell hybrids or previously listed loci locations. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Palmitate attenuates osteoblast differentiation of fetal rat calvarial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C.; Ford, Jeffery J.; Lee, John C.; Adamo, Martin L.

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Palmitate inhibits osteoblast differentiation. • Fatty acid synthase. • PPARγ. • Acetyl Co-A carboxylase inhibitor TOFA. • Fetal rat calvarial cell culture. - Abstract: Aging is associated with the accumulation of ectopic lipid resulting in the inhibition of normal organ function, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, elevation in fatty acid levels may produce an increase in osteoclast activity and a decrease in osteoblast number and function, thus contributing to age-related osteoporosis. However, little is known about lipotoxic mechanisms in intramembraneous bone. Previously we reported that the long chain saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibited the expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2 and osteocalcin in fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) cultures. Moreover, the acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA blocked the inhibitory effect of palmitate on expression of these two markers. In the current study we have extended these observations to show that palmitate inhibits spontaneous mineralized bone formation in FRC cultures in association with reduced mRNA expression of RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of palmitate on osteogenic marker expression were inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate also inhibited the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and PPARγ in FRC cultures, and as with osteogenic markers, this effect was inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate had no effect on FRC cell proliferation or apoptosis, but inhibited BMP-7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that palmitate accumulation may lead to lipotoxic effects on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and that increases in fatty acid oxidation may help to prevent these lipotoxic effects.

  15. Biomaterials for the Decorporation of Sr-85 in the Rat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Curry, Terry L.; Luders, Teresa; Morris, James E.; Peterson, James M.; Thrall, Karla D.

    2010-09-01

    Although four stable isotopes of strontium occur naturally, strontium-90 is produced by nuclear fission and is present in surface soil around the world as a result of fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. It can easily transfer to man in the event of a nuclear/radiological emergency or through the plant-animal-human food chain causing long-term exposures. Strontium is chemically and biologically similar to calcium, and is incorporated primarily into bone following internal deposition. Alginic acid (alginate) obtained from seaweed (kelp) extract selectively binds ingested strontium in the GI tract blocking its systemic uptake and reducing distribution to bone in rats, while other natural polysaccharides including chitosan and hyaluronic acid had little in vivo affinity for strontium. Alginate exhibits the unique ability to discriminate between strontium and calcium and has been previously shown to reduce intestinal absorption and skeletal retention of strontium without changing calcium metabolism. In our studies, the effect of commercially available alginate on strontium intestinal absorption was examined. One problem associated with alginate treatment is its limited solubility and gel formation in water. The aqueous solubility of sodium alginate was improved in a sodium chloride/sodium bicarbonate electrolyte solution containing low molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG). Furthermore, oral administration of the combined alginate/electrolyte//PEG solution synergistically accelerated removal of internal strontium in rats when compared to treatment with individual sodium alginate/electrolyte or electrolyte/PEG solutions. Importantly, both alginate and PEG are nontoxic, readily available materials that can be easily administered orally in case of a national emergency when potentially large numbers of the population may require medical treatment for internal depositions. Our results suggest further studies to optimize in vivo decorporation performance of

  16. Adverse testicular effects of Botox in mature rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breikaa, Randa M.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Nagy, Ayman A.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.

    2014-03-01

    Botox injections are taking a consistently increasing place in urology. Intracremasteric injections, particularly, have been applied for cryptorchidism and painful testicular spasms. Studies outlining their safety for this use are, however, scanty. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating possible testicular toxicity of Botox injections and their effect on male fertility. Mature rats were given intracremasteric Botox injections (10, 20 and 40 U/kg) three times in a two-week interval. Changes in body and testes weights were examined and gonadosomatic index compared to control group. Semen quality, sperm parameters, fructose, protein, cholesterol and triglycerides contents were assessed. Effects on normal testicular function were investigated by measuring testosterone levels and changes in enzyme activities (lactate dehydrogenase-X and acid phosphatase). To draw a complete picture, changes in oxidative and inflammatory states were examined, in addition to the extent of connective tissue deposition between seminiferous tubules. In an attempt to have more accurate information about possible spermatotoxic effects of Botox, flowcytometric analysis and histopathological examination were carried out. Botox-injected rats showed altered testicular physiology and function. Seminiferous tubules were separated by dense fibers, especially with the highest dose. Flowcytometric analysis showed a decrease in mature sperms and histopathology confirmed the findings. The oxidative state was, however, comparable to control group. This study is the first to show that intracremasteric injections of Botox induce adverse testicular effects evidenced by inhibited spermatogenesis and initiation of histopathological changes. In conclusion, decreased fertility may be a serious problem Botox injections could cause. - Highlights: Botox injections are the trend nowadays, for both medical and non-medical uses. They were recently suggested for cryptorchidism and testicular spasms

  17. Ten polymorphic DNA loci, including five in the rat MHC (RT1) region, form a single linkage group on rat chromosome 20

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remmers, E.F.; Du, Y.; Zha, H.; Goldmuntz, E.A.; Wilder, R.L.

    1995-03-01

    We have described ten markers for polymorphic loci on rat chromosome 20, including five in the rat MHC (RT1) region. These markers formed a single linkage group spanning a recombination distance of 0.40. The markers identified five expressed gene loci - RT1.N1 (thymus leukemia antigen 1), Tnfa (tumor necrosis factor {alpha}), Hspa1 (heat shock protein 70), Ggt1 ({gamma} glutamyl-transferase 1), and Prkacn2 (protein kinase C catalytic subunit binding inhibitor 2), two loci with sequences that are related to expressed genes - RT1.Aw2 (sequence related to a non-RT1A class I {alpha} chain) and Mt21 (sequence related to metallothionein 2), and three anonymous loci - D20Arb548, D20Arb234, and D20Arb249. These polymorphic markers should facilitate mapping studies and genetic monitoring of inbred rat strains. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Automated whole-genome multiple alignment of rat, mouse, and human

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brudno, Michael; Poliakov, Alexander; Salamov, Asaf; Cooper, Gregory M.; Sidow, Arend; Rubin, Edward M.; Solovyev, Victor; Batzoglou, Serafim; Dubchak, Inna

    2004-07-04

    We have built a whole genome multiple alignment of the three currently available mammalian genomes using a fully automated pipeline which combines the local/global approach of the Berkeley Genome Pipeline and the LAGAN program. The strategy is based on progressive alignment, and consists of two main steps: (1) alignment of the mouse and rat genomes; and (2) alignment of human to either the mouse-rat alignments from step 1, or the remaining unaligned mouse and rat sequences. The resulting alignments demonstrate high sensitivity, with 87% of all human gene-coding areas aligned in both mouse and rat. The specificity is also high: <7% of the rat contigs are aligned to multiple places in human and 97% of all alignments with human sequence > 100kb agree with a three-way synteny map built independently using predicted exons in the three genomes. At the nucleotide level <1% of the rat nucleotides are mapped to multiple places in the human sequence in the alignment; and 96.5% of human nucleotides within all alignments agree with the synteny map. The alignments are publicly available online, with visualization through the novel Multi-VISTA browser that we also present.

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saeed, Noha M.; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M.; Algandaby, Mardi M.; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-?B expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ? Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ? MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ? MP and EP decreased TNF-? and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ? MP and EP reduced NF-?B expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ? MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  20. Ce{sub 2}AgYb{sub 5/3}Se{sub 6}, La{sub 2}CuErTe{sub 5}, and Ce{sub 2}CuTmTe{sub 5}: Three new quaternary interlanthanide chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babo, Jean-Marie; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2013-01-15

    Three new ordered quaternary interlanthanide chalcogenides, Ce{sub 2}AgYb{sub 5/3}Se{sub 6}, La{sub 2}CuErTe{sub 5}, and Ce{sub 2}CuTmTe{sub 5}, have been prepared by direct reaction of the elements in molten NaBr at 900 Degree-Sign C. Each compound forms a new structure-type. The Ce{sub 2}AgYb{sub 5/3}Se{sub 6} structure consists of {infinity}{sup 2}{l_brace} [AgYb{sub 5/6}Se{sub 6}]{sup 6-}{r_brace} layers intercalated by Ce{sup 3+} cations. These layers are composed of {infinity}{sup 1}{l_brace} [Yb{sub 5/3}Se{sub 6}]{sup 7-}{r_brace} quadruplet ribbons of [YbSe{sub 6}]{sup 9-} octahedra and infinite {infinity}{sup 1}{l_brace} [AgSe{sub 6}]{sup 11-}{r_brace} double chains of [AgSe{sub 5}]{sup 9-}. The La{sub 2}CuErTe{sub 5} structure is made of one-dimensional {infinity}{sup 1}{l_brace} [CuErTe{sub 5}]{sup 6-}{r_brace} ribbons separated by La{sup 3+} cations. These ribbons are formed by cis-edge sharing {infinity}{sup 1}{l_brace} [CuTe{sub 2}]{sup 3-}{r_brace} tetrahedral chains and trans-edge sharing {infinity}{sup 1}{l_brace} [ErTe{sub 4}]{sup 5-}{r_brace} chains. While La{sub 2}CuErTe{sub 5} crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pnma, Ce{sub 2}CuTmTe{sub 5} crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/m. The latter crystal structure is assembled from {infinity}{sup 2}{l_brace} [CuTmTe{sub 5}]{sup 6-}{r_brace} layers intercalated by Ce{sup 3+} cations. These layers consist of single {infinity}{sup 1}{l_brace} [TmTe{sub 4}]{sup 5-}{r_brace} chains connected to each other through dimers or pseudo-double chains. - Graphical abstract: [CuTe{sub 4}]{sup 7-} tetrahedra sharing cis-edges to yield chains in the La{sub 2}CuErTe{sub 5}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New ordered interlanthanide tellurides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New quaternary chalcogenides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low-dimensional lanthanide chalcogenide substructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Flux synthesis of new chalcogenides.

  1. Zinc content of selected tissues and taste perception in rats fed zinc deficient and zinc adequate rations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boeckner, L.S.; Kies, C.

    1986-03-05

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding zinc sufficient and zinc deficient rations on taste sensitivity and zinc contents of selected organs in rats. The 36 Sprague-Dawley male weanling rats were divided into 2 groups and fed zinc deficient or zinc adequate rations. The animals were subjected to 4 trial periods in which a choice of deionized distilled water or a solution of quinine sulfate at 1.28 x 10/sup -6/ was given. A randomized schedule for rat sacrifice was used. No differences were found between zinc deficient and zinc adequate rats in taste preference aversion scores for quinine sulfate in the first three trial periods; however, in the last trial period rats in the zinc sufficient group drank somewhat less water containing quinine sulfate as a percentage of total water consumption than did rats fed the zinc deficient ration. Significantly higher zinc contents of kidney, brain and parotid salivary glands were seen in zinc adequate rats compared to zinc deficient rats at the end of the study. However, liver and tongue zinc levels were lower for both groups at the close of the study than were those of rats sacrificed at the beginning of the study.

  2. DOE 5700.6C, 10CFR830.120, DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, and Covey-based TQM: A historical perspective on current issues in research environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodnarczuk, M

    1994-06-01

    Three years ago there were no standards or published guidelines for quality in research environments. Today, one standard has been published, and three guidelines documents are in final draft form and about to be published. In this paper, I describe the events that led to the writing of DOE 5700.6C, 10CFR830.120, and DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, focusing on the cultural barriers that arose (largely in the community of quality assurance professionals) during this process. I go on to describe why I believe that implementing DOE 5700.6C and 10CFR830.120 must be pushed even further toward an approach that embodies the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award and why even this is not far enough. The reason is because the most crucial aspect of successfully implementing a quality initiative is to base it on a cohesive, unified foundation of organizational and individual values and beliefs. Stephen Covey`s 7 Habits of Highly Effective People and Principle Centered Leadership provide such a foundations.

  3. Multiple temperature effects on up-conversion fluorescences of Er{sup 3+}-Y b{sup 3+}-Mo{sup 6+} codoped TiO{sub 2} and high thermal sensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, B. S.; Wu, J. L.; Wang, X. H.; He, Y. Y.; Feng, Z. Q.; Dong, B. E-mail: bscao@dlnu.edu.cn; Rino, L.

    2015-08-15

    We report multiple temperature effects on green and red up-conversion emissions in Er{sup 3+}-Y b{sup 3+}-Mo{sup 6+} codoped TiO{sub 2} phosphors. With increasing temperature, the decrease of the red emission from {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, the increase of green emission from {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} and another unchanged green emission from {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} were simultaneously observed, which are explained by steady-state rate equations analysis. Due to different evolution with temperature of the two green emissions, higher thermal sensitivity of optical thermal sensor was obtained based on the transitions with the largest fluorescence intensity ratio. Two parameters, maximum theoretical sensitivity (S{sub max}) and optimum operating temperature (T{sub max}) are given to describe thermal sensing properties of the produced sensors. The intensity ratio and energy difference ΔE of a pair of energy levels are two main factors for the sensitivity and accuracy of sensors, which should be referred to design sensors with optimized sensing properties.

  4. Final Report for U.S. DOE GRANT No. DEFG02-96ER41015 November 1, 2010 - April 30, 2013 entitled HIGH ENERGY ACCELERATOR AND COLLIDING BEAM USER GROUP at the UNIVERSITY of MARYLAND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, Nicholas; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Eno, Sarah C; Skuja, Andris; Baden, Andrew; Roberts, Douglas

    2013-07-26

    We have #12;finished the third year of a three year grant cycle with the U.S. Department of Energy for which we were given a #12;five month extension (U.S. D.O.E. Grant No. DEFG02-96ER41015). This document is the fi#12;nal report for this grant and covers the period from November 1, 2010 to April 30, 2013. The Maryland program is administered as a single task with Professor Nicholas Hadley as Principal Investigator. The Maryland experimental HEP group is focused on two major research areas. We are members of the CMS experiment at the LHC at CERN working on the physics of the Energy Frontier. We are also analyzing the data from the Babar experiment at SLAC while doing design work and R&D towards a Super B experiment as part of the Intensity Frontier. We have recently joined the LHCb experiment at CERN. We concluded our activities on the D#31; experiment at Fermilab in 2009.

  5. Spatially resolved penetration depth measurements and vortex manipulation in the ferromagnetic superconductor ErNi2B2C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wulferding, Dirk; Yang, Ilkyu; Yang, Jinho; Lee, Minkyung; Choi, Hee Cheul; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Yeom, Han Woong; Kim, Jeehoon

    2015-07-31

    We present a local probe study of the magnetic superconductor ErNi2B2C, using magnetic force microscopy at sub-Kelvin temperatures. ErNi2B2C is an ideal system to explore the effects of concomitant superconductivity and ferromagnetism. At 500 mK, far below the transition to a weakly ferromagnetic state, we directly observe a structured magnetic background on the micrometer scale. We determine spatially resolved absolute values of the magnetic penetration depth ? and study its temperature dependence as the system undergoes magnetic phase transitions from paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic, and to weak ferromagnetic, all within the superconducting regime. We estimate the absolute pinning force of Abrikosov vortices, which shows a position dependence and temperature dependence as well, and discuss the possibility of the purported spontaneous vortex formation.

  6. Spatially resolved penetration depth measurements and vortex manipulation in the ferromagnetic superconductor ErNi2B2C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wulferding, Dirk; Yang, Ilkyu; Yang, Jinho; Lee, Minkyung; Choi, Hee Cheul; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Yeom, Han Woong; Kim, Jeehoon

    2015-07-31

    We present a local probe study of the magnetic superconductor ErNi2B2C, using magnetic force microscopy at sub-Kelvin temperatures. ErNi2B2C is an ideal system to explore the effects of concomitant superconductivity and ferromagnetism. At 500 mK, far below the transition to a weakly ferromagnetic state, we directly observe a structured magnetic background on the micrometer scale. We determine spatially resolved absolute values of the magnetic penetration depth λ and study its temperature dependence as the system undergoes magnetic phase transitions from paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic, and to weak ferromagnetic, all within the superconducting regime. We estimate the absolute pinning force of Abrikosov vortices, which shows a position dependence and temperature dependence as well, and discuss the possibility of the purported spontaneous vortex formation.

  7. Hippocampal phosphoproteomics of F344 rats exposed to 1-bromopropane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenlie; Ichihara, Sahoko; Oikawa, Shinji; Chang, Jie; Zhang, Lingyi; Hu, Shijie; Huang, Hanlin; Ichihara, Gaku

    2015-01-15

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is neurotoxic in both experimental animals and human. To identify phosphorylated modification on the unrecognized post-translational modifications of proteins and investigate their role in 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity, changes in hippocampal phosphoprotein expression levels were analyzed quantitatively in male F344 rats exposed to 1-BP inhalation at 0, 400, or 1000 ppm for 8 h/day for 1 or 4 weeks. Hippocampal protein extracts were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by Pro-Q Diamond gel staining and SYPRO Ruby staining coupled with two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), respectively, as well as by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) to identify phosphoproteins. Changes in selected proteins were further confirmed by Manganese II (Mn{sup 2+})-Phos-tag SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Bax and cytochrome c protein levels were determined by western blotting. Pro-Q Diamond gel staining combined with 2D-DIGE identified 26 phosphoprotein spots (p < 0.05), and MALDI-TOF/MS identified 18 up-regulated proteins and 8 down-regulated proteins. These proteins are involved in the biological process of response to stimuli, metabolic processes, and apoptosis signaling. Changes in the expression of phosphorylated 14-3-3 θ were further confirmed by Mn{sup 2+}-Phos-tag SDS-PAGE. Western blotting showed overexpression of Bax protein in the mitochondria with down-regulation in the cytoplasm, whereas cytochrome c expression was high in the cytoplasm but low in the mitochondria after 1-BP exposure. Our results suggest that the pathogenesis of 1-BP-induced hippocampal damage involves inhibition of antiapoptosis process. Phosphoproteins identified in this study can potentially serve as biomarkers for 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity. - Highlights: • 1-BP modified hippocampal phosphoproteome in rat and 23 altered proteins were identified. • 1-BP changed phosphorylation

  8. In vitro dermal absorption of pyrethroid pesticides in human and rat skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Michael F.; Edwards, Brenda C.

    2010-07-15

    Dermal exposure to pyrethroid pesticides can occur during manufacture and application. This study examined the in vitro dermal absorption of pyrethroids using rat and human skin. Dermatomed skin from adult male Long Evans rats or human cadavers was mounted in flow-through diffusion cells, and radiolabeled bifenthrin, deltamethrin or cis-permethrin was applied in acetone to the skin. Fractions of receptor fluid were collected every 4 h. At 24 h, the skins were washed with soap and water to remove unabsorbed chemical. The skin was then solubilized. Two additional experiments were performed after washing the skin; the first was tape-stripping the skin and the second was the collection of receptor fluid for an additional 24 h. Receptor fluid, skin washes, tape strips and skin were analyzed for radioactivity. For rat skin, the wash removed 53-71% of the dose and 26-43% remained in the skin. The cumulative percentage of the dose at 24 h in the receptor fluid ranged from 1 to 5%. For human skin, the wash removed 71-83% of the dose and 14-25% remained in the skin. The cumulative percentage of the dose at 24 h in the receptor fluid was 1-2%. Tape-stripping removed 50-56% and 79-95% of the dose in rat and human skin, respectively, after the wash. From 24-48 h, 1-3% and about 1% of the dose diffused into the receptor fluid of rat and human skin, respectively. The pyrethroids bifenthrin, deltamethrin and cis-permethrin penetrated rat and human skin following dermal application in vitro. However, a skin wash removed 50% or more of the dose from rat and human skin. Rat skin was more permeable to the pyrethroids than human skin. Of the dose in skin, 50% or more was removed by tape-stripping, suggesting that permeation of pyrethroids into viable tissue could be impeded. The percentage of the dose absorbed into the receptor fluid was considerably less than the dose in rat and human skin. Therefore, consideration of the skin type used and fractions analyzed are important when using

  9. Cadmium effect on microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activity in rat livers with respect to differences in age and sex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ando, M.

    1982-04-01

    The effect of cadmium on the hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme system was investigated. Cadmium chloride caused the conversion of cytochrome P-450 to P-420 in rat liver microsomes. The destruction of cytochrome P-450 by cadmium caused the reduction of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activity and prolonged the pentobarbital sleeping time. There is a sex-related difference in the ability of cadmium to inhibit the hepatic drug metabolism in rats: male rats are more sensitive to cadmium than females. The effective period when cadmium prolonged their sleep depended upon the age of rats; older rats were more sensitive to cadmium than younger ones. The maximum increase of sleeping time depended upon the dose level of cadium, and the rate constant of the equations seems to depend upon the age of the animals.

  10. Chronic treatment with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) during pregnancy and lactation in the rat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cocchi, Daniela; Tulipano, Giovanni; Colciago, Alessandra; Sibilia, Valeria; Pagani, Francesca; Vigano, Daniela; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela; Bonfanti, Patrizia; Colombo, Anita; Celotti, Fabio

    2009-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are pollutants detected in animal tissues and breast milk. The experiments described in the present paper were aimed at evaluating whether the four PCB congeners most abundant in animal tissues (PCB-138, -153, -180 and -126), administered since fetal life till weaning, can induce long-term alterations of GH-axis activity and bone mass in the adult rat. We measured PCB accumulation in rat brain and liver, somatic growth, pituitary GH expression and plasma hormone concentrations at different ages. Finally, we studied hypothalamic somatostatin expression and bone structure in adulthood, following long-term PCB exposure. Dams were treated during pregnancy from GD15 to GD19 and during breast-feeding. A constant reduction of the growth rate in both male and female offspring from weaning to adulthood was observed in exposed animals. Long-lasting alterations on hypothalamic-pituitary GH axis were indeed observed in PCB-exposed rats in adulthood: increased somatostatin expression in hypothalamic periventricular nucleus (both males and females) and lateral arcuate nucleus (males, only) and decreased GH mRNA levels in the pituitary of male rats. Plasma IGF-1 levels were higher in PCB-exposed male and female animals as compared with controls at weaning and tended to be higher at PN60. Plasma testosterone and thyroid hormone concentrations were not significantly affected by exposure to PCBs. In adulthood, PCBs caused a significant reduction of bone mineral content and cortical bone thickness of tibiae in male rat joint to increased width of the epiphyseal cartilage disk. In conclusion, the developmental exposure to the four selected PCB compounds used in the present study induced far-reaching effects in the adult offspring, the male rats appearing more sensitive than females.

  11. Species-specific toxicity of troglitazone on rats and human by gel entrapped hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Chong; Meng, Qin; Zhang, Guoliang

    2012-01-01

    Troglitazone, despite passing preclinical trials on animals, was shortly withdrawn from market due to its severe hepatotoxicity in clinic. As rat hepatocyte monolayer consistently showed sensitive troglitazone toxicity as human hepatocyte monolayer in contrast to the species-specific toxicity in vivo, this paper utilized both hepatocytes in three-dimensional culture of gel entrapment to reflect the species difference on hepatotoxicity. Rat hepatocytes in gel entrapment did not show obvious cellular damage even under a long-term exposure for 21 days while gel entrapped human hepatocytes significantly displayed oxidative stress, steatosis, mitochondrial damage and cell death at a short exposure for 4 days. As a result, the detected species-specific toxicity of troglitazone between gel entrapped rat and human hepatocytes consisted well with the situation in vivo but was in a sharp contrast to the performance of two hepatocytes by monolayer culture. Such contradictory toxicity of rat hepatocytes between monolayer and gel entrapment culture could be explained by the fact that troglitazone was cleared more rapidly in gel entrapment than in monolayer culture. Similarly, the differential clearance of troglitazone in rat and human might also explain its species-specific toxicity. Therefore, gel entrapment of hepatocytes might serve as a platform for evaluation of drug toxicity at early stage of drug development by reducing costs, increasing the likelihood of clinical success and limiting human exposure to unsafe drugs. -- Highlights: ► Species-specific toxicity of troglitazone reflected by rat/human hepatocytes ► 3D hepatocytes in 21 days’ long-term culture used for drug hepatotoxicity ► Oversensitive toxicity in hepatocyte monolayer by slow troglitazone clearance.

  12. Unraveling the mechanism of neuroprotection of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, Pranay; Yadav, Rajesh S.; Chandravanshi, Lalit P.; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Dhuriya, Yogesh K.; Chauhan, Lalit K.S.; Dwivedi, Hari N.; Pant, Aditiya B.; Khanna, Vinay K.

    2014-09-15

    Earlier, we found that arsenic induced cholinergic deficits in rat brain could be protected by curcumin. In continuation to this, the present study is focused to unravel the molecular mechanisms associated with the protective efficacy of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic deficits. Exposure to arsenic (20 mg/kg body weight, p.o) for 28 days in rats resulted to decrease the expression of CHRM2 receptor gene associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions as evident by decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, activity of mitochondrial complexes and enhanced apoptosis both in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in comparison to controls. The ultrastructural images of arsenic exposed rats, assessed by transmission electron microscope, exhibited loss of myelin sheath and distorted cristae in the mitochondria both in the frontal cortex and hippocampus as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment with arsenic (20 mg/kg body weight, p.o) and curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o) for 28 days in rats was found to protect arsenic induced changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential and activity of mitochondrial complexes both in frontal cortex and hippocampus. Alterations in the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and ultrastructural damage in the frontal cortex and hippocampus following arsenic exposure were also protected in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin. The data of the present study reveal that curcumin could protect arsenic induced cholinergic deficits by modulating the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in the brain. More interestingly, arsenic induced functional and ultrastructural changes in the brain mitochondria were also protected by curcumin. - Highlights: • Neuroprotective mechanism of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic deficits studied • Curcumin protected arsenic induced enhanced expression of stress markers in rat brain • Arsenic compromised mitochondrial electron transport chain protected

  13. Age-dependent inhibition of pentobarbital sleeping time by ozone in mice and rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canada, A.T.; Calabrese, E.J.; Leonard, D.

    1986-09-01

    The effect of age on the metabolism of pentobarbital in mice and rats was investigated following exposure to 0.3 ppm of ozone for 3.75 hr. Young animals were 2.5 months of age and the mature were 18 months. The pentobarbital sleeping time was significantly prolonged following the ozone exposure in both the mice and rats when compared with an air control. No ozone effect on sleeping time was found in the young animals. The results indicate that there may be an age-related sensitivity to the occurrence of ozone-related inhibition of pentobarbital metabolism.

  14. NASA is operating two Lockheed ER-2

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Administration | (NNSA) NASA features LLNL star-formation simulations Friday, January 29, 2016 - 5:56pm NNSA Blog These high performance computing (HPC) simulations of star formation account for a broad range of physical processes, including: gravity, supersonic turbulence, hydrodynamics, outflows, magnetic fields, chemistry and ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Image courtesy of Pak Shing Li/ University of California, Berkeley High performance computing (HPC) simulations exploring star

  15. Final Report for DOE Award ER25756

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kesselman, Carl

    2014-11-17

    The SciDAC-funded Center for Enabling Distributed Petascale Science (CEDPS) was established to address technical challenges that arise due to the frequent geographic distribution of data producers (in particular, supercomputers and scientific instruments) and data consumers (people and computers) within the DOE laboratory system. Its goal is to produce technical innovations that meet DOE end-user needs for (a) rapid and dependable placement of large quantities of data within a distributed high-performance environment, and (b) the convenient construction of scalable science services that provide for the reliable and high-performance processing of computation and data analysis requests from many remote clients. The Center is also addressing (c) the important problem of troubleshooting these and other related ultra-high-performance distributed activities from the perspective of both performance and functionality

  16. ER85773 | netl.doe.gov

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Provide a spinoff application for downhole steam generation for enhanced recovery of heavy oil, which comprises a large fraction of unrecovered U.S. oil reserves. The benefit would ...

  17. doe-er-0494t.pdf

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

  18. Final Technical Report, DOE/ER/64323

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valocchi, Albert J. University of Illinois, Dept of Civil & Environ Engr

    2013-06-05

    The DOE SciDAC program funded a team that developed PFLOTRAN, the next-generation (â??peta-scaleâ??) massively parallel, multiphase, multicomponent reactive flow and transport code. These codes are required to improve understanding and risk management of subsurface contaminant migration and geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The important fate and transport processes occurring in the subsurface span a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and involve nonlinear interactions among many different chemical constituents. Due to the complexity of this problem, modeling subsurface processes normally requires simplifying assumptions. However, tools of advanced scientific computing that have been used in other areas such as energy and materials research can also help address challenging problems in the environmental and geoscience fields. The overall project was led by Los Alamos National Laboratory and included Argonne, Oak Ridge and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories, in addition to the University of Illinois. This report summarizes the results of the research done at the University of Illinois, which focused on improvements to the underlying physical and computational modeling of certain transport and mixing processes.

  19. DOE/ER--0547T DE92

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Lechner-Fish 1989), Historical records show that some of the minor Oak R.idge, and ... lntctive 'l'oslte, A.P., T,J. lechner-Fish, D.J, Hendren, R.D. Waste Sites, GAO...

  20. Final Scientific Report for ER41087

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiller, John R.

    2013-08-23

    The primary focus of the work was the development of methods for the nonperturbative solution of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in a form that yields wave functions for the eigenstates, from which hadronic properties can be computed. The principal approach was to use a light-front Hamiltonian formulation. In light-front coordinates, t+z/c plays the role of time, with t the ordinary time, z a space direction, and c the speed of light. This leads to a relativistic formulation that retains useful characteristics of nonrelativistic treatments. A bound state of many constituents can be represented by wave functions that define probabilities for each possible arrangement of internal momenta. These functions satisfy integral equations that can be approximated numerically to yield a matrix representation. The matrix problem can be solved by iterative methods. The approximate wave functions can then be used to compute properties of the bound state. Methods have been developed for model theories and gauge theories, including quantum electrodynamics and theories that are supersymmetric. The work has required the development of new numerical algorithms and computer codes for singular integral equations and eigenvalue problems. A key aspect of the work is the construction of practical procedures for nonperturbative regularization and renormalization. Two methods of regularization have been studied. One is the addition of heavy Pauli--Villars (PV) particles to the Lagrangian, with their metrics and couplings tuned to provide the necessary cancellations in the regularization. The other method of regularization is the addition of supersymmetric partners, to extend a theory to a supersymmetric form. The supersymmetric theories were solved by the supersymmetric discrete light-cone quantization (SDLCQ) method. The most significant accomplishments of the project were the SDLCQ calculation of direct evidence for a Maldacena duality conjecture, construction of a practical light-front quantization for QED in an arbitrary covariant gauge, and invention of the light-front coupled-cluster method, designed to eliminate the need for Fock-space truncations.

  1. Microsoft Word - westwater_er.doc

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    of ARM, a Global Positioning System operated by NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory. ... The overall integrated moisture statistics for the 30-day experiment are shown in Figure ...

  2. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of acetone in mice and rats: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-11-01

    Acetone, an aliphatic ketone, is a ubiquitous industrial solvent and chemical intermediate; consequently, the opportunity for human exposure is high. The potential for acetone to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 440, 2200, or 11000 ppm, and in Swiss (CD-1) mice exposed to 0, 440, 2200, and 6600 ppm acetone vapors, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.32 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 46 refs., 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  3. Evaluation of deltamethrin kinetics and dosimetry in the maturing rat using a PBPK model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Mirfazaelian, Ahmad; Kim, Kyu-Bong; Anand, Sathanandam S.; Kim, Hyo J.; Haines, Wendy T.; Bruckner, James V.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2010-04-15

    Immature rats are more susceptible than adults to the acute neurotoxicity of pyrethroid insecticides like deltamethrin (DLM). A companion kinetics study (Kim et al., in press) revealed that blood and brain levels of the neuroactive parent compound were inversely related to age in rats 10, 21, 40 and 90 days old. The objective of the current study was to modify a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of DLM disposition in the adult male Sprague-Dawley rat (Mirfazaelian et al., 2006), so blood and target organ dosimetry could be accurately predicted during maturation. Age-specific organ weights and age-dependent changes in the oxidative and hydrolytic clearance of DLM were modeled with a generalized Michaelis-Menten model for growth and the summary equations incorporated into the PBPK model. The model's simulations compared favorably with empirical DLM time-courses in plasma, blood, brain and fat for the four age-groups evaluated (10, 21, 40 and 90 days old). PND 10 pups' area under the 24-h brain concentration time curve (AUC{sub 0-24h}) was 3.8-fold higher than that of the PND 90 adults. Our maturing rat PBPK model allows for updating with age- and chemical-dependent parameters, so pyrethroid dosimetry can be forecast in young and aged individuals. Hence, this model provides a methodology for risk assessors to consider age-specific adjustments to oral Reference Doses on the basis of PK differences.

  4. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of isoprene in mice and rats: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Isoprene, a reactive, branched diene, is used in large quantities in the manufacture of polyisoprene and as a copolymer in the synthesis of butyl rubber. The potential for isoprene to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in rodents, by exposing four groups each of Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 280, 1400, or 7000 ppM isoprene vapors, 6 h/day, 7 day/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.30 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 31 refs., 6 figs., 19 tabs.

  5. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of tetrahydrofuran in mice and rats: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1988-08-01

    Tetrahydrofuran (THF), a four-carbon cyclic ether, is widely used as an industrial solvent. Although it has been used in large quantities for many years, few long-term toxicology studies, and no reproductive or developmental studies, have been conducted on THF. This study addresses the potential for THF to cause developmental toxicity in rodents by exposing Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 600, 1800, or 5000 ppm tetrahydrofuran (THF) vapors, 6 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.33 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6--17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as O dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 27 refs., 6 figs., 23 tabs.

  6. Gamma Knife irradiation method based on dosimetric controls to target small areas in rat brains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constanzo, Julie; Paquette, Benoit; Charest, Gabriel; Masson-Côté, Laurence; Guillot, Mathieu

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Targeted and whole-brain irradiation in humans can result in significant side effects causing decreased patient quality of life. To adequately investigate structural and functional alterations after stereotactic radiosurgery, preclinical studies are needed. The purpose of this work is to establish a robust standardized method of targeted irradiation on small regions of the rat brain. Methods: Euthanized male Fischer rats were imaged in a stereotactic bed, by computed tomography (CT), to estimate positioning variations relative to the bregma skull reference point. Using a rat brain atlas and the stereotactic bregma coordinates obtained from CT images, different regions of the brain were delimited and a treatment plan was generated. A single isocenter treatment plan delivering ≥100 Gy in 100% of the target volume was produced by Leksell GammaPlan using the 4 mm diameter collimator of sectors 4, 5, 7, and 8 of the Gamma Knife unit. Impact of positioning deviations of the rat brain on dose deposition was simulated by GammaPlan and validated with dosimetric measurements. Results: The authors’ results showed that 90% of the target volume received 100 ± 8 Gy and the maximum of deposited dose was 125 ± 0.7 Gy, which corresponds to an excellent relative standard deviation of 0.6%. This dose deposition calculated with GammaPlan was validated with dosimetric films resulting in a dose-profile agreement within 5%, both in X- and Z-axes. Conclusions: The authors’ results demonstrate the feasibility of standardizing the irradiation procedure of a small volume in the rat brain using a Gamma Knife.

  7. Sex- and dose-dependency in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of (+)-methamphetamine and its metabolite (+)-amphetamine in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milesi-Halle, Alessandra; Hendrickson, Howard P.; Laurenzana, Elizabeth M.; Gentry, W. Brooks; Owens, S. Michael . E-mail: mowens@uams.edu

    2005-12-15

    These studies investigated how (+)-methamphetamine (METH) dose and rat sex affect the pharmacological response to METH in Sprague-Dawley rats. The first set of experiments determined the pharmacokinetics of METH and its pharmacologically active metabolite (+)-amphetamine (AMP) in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats after 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg METH doses. The results showed significant sex-dependent changes in METH pharmacokinetics, and females formed significantly lower amounts of AMP. While the area under the serum concentration-time curve in males increased proportionately with the METH dose, the females showed a disproportional increase. The sex differences in systemic clearance, renal clearance, volume of distribution, and percentage of unchanged METH eliminated in the urine suggested dose-dependent pharmacokinetics in female rats. The second set of studies sought to determine the behavioral implications of these pharmacokinetic differences by quantifying locomotor activity in male and female rats after saline, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg METH. The results showed sex- and dose-dependent differences in METH-induced locomotion, including profound differences in the temporal profile of effects at higher dose. These findings show that the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile of METH (slower METH clearance and lower AMP metabolite formation) plays a significant role in the differential pharmacological response to METH in male and female rats.

  8. Nicotinic acid increases the lipid content of rat brain synaptosomes. [Ethanol effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basilio, C.; Flores, M.

    1989-02-09

    Chronic administration of nicotinic acid (NA) increase hepatic lipids and potentiates a similar effect induced by ethanol. The amethystic properties of NA promoted us to study its effects on the lipid content of brain synaptosomes of native and ethanol treated rats. Groups of 10 Sprague-Dawley female rats received i.p. either saline, ethanol (4g/kg), NA (50mg/kg), or a mixture of both compounds once a week during 3 weeks. The sleeping time (ST) of the animals receiving ethanol was recorded, brain synaptosomes of all groups were prepared and total lipids (TL) and cholesterol (Chol) content were determined. NA, ethanol and ethanol + NA markedly increased both TL and Chol of synaptosomes. Animals treated with ethanol or ethanol + NA developed tolerance. The group treated with ethanol-NA showed the highest Chol content and slept significantly less than the one treated with ethanol alone indicating that the changes induced by NA favored the appearance of tolerance.

  9. Association of brominated proteins and changes in protein expression in the rat kidney with subcarcinogenic to carcinogenic doses of bromate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolisetty, Narendrababu; Bull, Richard J.; Muralidhara, Srinivasa; Costyn, Leah J.; Delker, Don A.; Guo, Zhongxian; Cotruvo, Joseph A.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.; Cummings, Brian S.

    2013-10-15

    The water disinfection byproduct bromate (BrO{sub 3}{sup −}) produces cytotoxic and carcinogenic effects in rat kidneys. Our previous studies demonstrated that BrO{sub 3}{sup −} caused sex-dependent differences in renal gene and protein expression in rats and the elimination of brominated organic carbon in their urine. The present study examined changes in renal cell apoptosis and protein expression in male and female F344 rats treated with BrO{sub 3}{sup −} and associated these changes with accumulation of 3-bromotyrosine (3-BT)-modified proteins. Rats were treated with 0, 11.5, 46 and 308 mg/L BrO{sub 3}{sup −} in drinking water for 28 days and renal sections were prepared and examined for apoptosis (TUNEL-staining), 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxoG), 3-BT, osteopontin, Kim-1, clusterin, and p-21 expression. TUNEL-staining in renal proximal tubules increased in a dose-related manner beginning at 11.5 mg BrO{sub 3}{sup −}/L in female rats and 46 mg/L in males. Increased 8-oxoG staining was observed at doses as low as 46 mg/L. Osteopontin expression also increased in a dose-related manner after treatment with 46 mg/L, in males only. In contrast, Kim-1 expression increased in a dose-related manner in both sexes, although to a greater extent in females at the highest dose. Clusterin and p21 expression also increased in a dose-related manner in both sexes. The expression of 3-BT-modified proteins only increased in male rats, following a pattern previously reported for accumulation of α-2{sub u}-globulin. Increases in apoptosis in renal proximal tubules of male and female rats at the lowest doses suggest a common mode of action for renal carcinogenesis for the two sexes that is independent of α-2{sub u}-globulin nephropathy. - Highlights: • Bromate induced nephrotoxicity in both male and female rats by similar mechanisms. • Apoptosis was seen in both male and female rats at the lowest doses tested. • Bromate-induced apoptosis correlated to 8-oxo

  10. Thyroid organotypic rat and human cultures used to investigate drug effects on thyroid function, hormone synthesis and release pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vickers, Alison E.M.; Heale, Jason; Sinclair, John R.; Morris, Stephen; Rowe, Josh M.; Fisher, Robyn L.

    2012-04-01

    Drug induced thyroid effects were evaluated in organotypic models utilizing either a rat thyroid lobe or human thyroid slices to compare rodent and human response. An inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) function led to a perturbation in the expression of key genes in thyroid hormone synthesis and release pathways. The clinically used thiourea drugs, methimazole (MMI) and 6-n-propyl-2-thioruacil (PTU), were used to evaluate thyroid drug response in these models. Inhibition of TPO occurred early as shown in rat thyroid lobes (2 h) and was sustained in both rat (24–48 h) and human (24 h) with ≥ 10 μM MMI. Thyroid from rats treated with single doses of MMI (30–1000 mg/kg) exhibited sustained TPO inhibition at 48 h. The MMI in vivo thyroid concentrations were comparable to the culture concentrations (∼ 15–84 μM), thus demonstrating a close correlation between in vivo and ex vivo thyroid effects. A compensatory response to TPO inhibition was demonstrated in the rat thyroid lobe with significant up-regulation of genes involved in the pathway of thyroid hormone synthesis (Tpo, Dio1, Slc5a5, Tg, Tshr) and the megalin release pathway (Lrp2) by 24 h with MMI (≥ 10 μM) and PTU (100 μM). Similarly, thyroid from the rat in vivo study exhibited an up-regulation of Dio1, Slc5a5, Lrp2, and Tshr. In human thyroid slices, there were few gene expression changes (Slc5a5, ∼ 2-fold) and only at higher MMI concentrations (≥ 1500 μM, 24 h). Extended exposure (48 h) resulted in up-regulation of Tpo, Dio1 and Lrp2, along with Slc5a5 and Tshr. In summary, TPO was inhibited by similar MMI concentrations in rat and human tissue, however an increased sensitivity to drug treatment in rat is indicated by the up-regulation of thyroid hormone synthesis and release gene pathways at concentrations found not to affect human tissue. -- Highlights: ► Novel model of rat thyroid or human thyroid slices to evaluate pathways of injury. ► TPO inhibition by MMI or PTU altered

  11. Effects of Love Canal soil extracts on maternal health and fetal development in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silkworth, J.B.; Tumasonis, C.; Briggs, R.G.; Narang, A.S.; Narang, R.S.; Rej, R.; Stein, V.; McMartin, D.N.; Kaminsky, L.S.

    1986-10-01

    The effects of a solvent extract of the surface soil of the Love Canal chemical dump site, Niagara Falls, New York, and of a natural extract, or leachate, which is drained from the canal for treatment, on the maternal health and fetal development were determined in rats. The solvent extract, which was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2, 3,7,8-TCDD) at 170 ppb and numerous other chlorinated organic compounds with the primary identified components being the isomers of benzenehexachloride (BHC), was dissolved in corn oil and administered by gavage to pregnant rats at 0,25,75, or 150 mg crude extract/kg/day on Days 6-15 of gestation. A 67% mortality was observed at the highest dose. The rats were sacrificed on Day 20. Dose-related increases in relative liver weight accompanied by hepatocyte hypertrophy were observed at all dose levels. Fetal birthweight was decreased at 75 and 150 mg extract/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. Based on literature values for BHC, all of the observed toxicity could be accounted for by the BHC contaminants of the extract. The crude organic phase of the leachate was administered to pregnant rats at 0,10,100, or 250 mg/kg/day as described above. Maternal weight gain decreased at 100 and 250 mg/kg/day, accompanied by 5 and 14% maternal mortality, and 1 and 3 dead fetuses, respectively. Early resorptions and the percentage of dead implants increased whereas fetal birthweights were decreased at 250 mg/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. The primary components of the complex leachate by mass were tetrachloroethanes; however, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, which was present at 3 ppm, probably accounted for all the observed toxicity.

  12. Fenitrothion action at the endocannabinoid system leading to spermatotoxicity in Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Yuki; Tomizawa, Motohiro; Suzuki, Himiko; Okamura, Ai; Ohtani, Katsumi; Nunome, Mari; Noro, Yuki; Wang, Dong; Nakajima, Tamie; Kamijima, Michihiro

    2014-09-15

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds as anticholinesterase agents may secondarily act on diverse serine hydrolase targets, revealing unfavorable physiological effects including male reproductive toxicity. The present investigation proposes that fenitrothion (FNT, a major OP compound) acts on the endocannabinoid signaling system in male reproductive organs, thereby leading to spermatotoxicity (sperm deformity, underdevelopment, and reduced motility) in rats. FNT oxon (bioactive metabolite of FNT) preferentially inhibited the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) hydrolase, in the rat cellular membrane preparation from the testis in vitro. Subsequently, male Wistar rats were treated orally with 5 or 10 mg/kg FNT for 9 weeks and the subchronic exposure unambiguously deteriorated sperm motility and morphology. The activity-based protein profiling analysis with a phosphonofluoridate fluorescent probe revealed that FAAH was selectively inhibited among the FNT-treated cellular membrane proteome in testis. Intriguingly, testicular AEA (endogenous substrate of FAAH) levels were elevated along with the FAAH inhibition caused by the subchronic exposure. More importantly, linear regression analyses for the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity reveal a good correlation between the testicular FAAH activity and morphological indices or sperm motility. Accordingly, the present study proposes that the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity appears to be related to inhibition of FAAH leading to overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signaling system, which plays crucial roles in spermatogenesis and sperm motility acquirement. - Highlights: • Subchronic exposure to fenitrothion induces spermatotoxicity in rats. • The fatty acid amide hydrolase is a potential target for the spermatotoxicity. • Overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signal possibly leads to the spermatotoxicity.

  13. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T.; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R.; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  14. Lipidomic changes in rat liver after long-term exposure to ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernando, Harshica; Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Shakeel Ansari, G.A.

    2011-09-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a serious health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. In this study we examined the progression of ALD along with lipidomic changes in rats fed ethanol for 2 and 3 months to understand the mechanism, and identify possible biomarkers. Male Fischer 344 rats were fed 5% ethanol or caloric equivalent of maltose-dextrin in a Lieber-DeCarli diet. Animals were killed at the end of 2 and 3 months and plasma and livers were collected. Portions of the liver were fixed for histological and immunohistological studies. Plasma and the liver lipids were extracted and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A time dependent fatty infiltration was observed in the livers of ethanol-fed rats. Mild inflammation and oxidative stress were observed in some ethanol-fed rats at 3 months. The multivariate and principal component analysis of proton and phosphorus NMR spectroscopy data of extracted lipids from the plasma and livers showed segregation of ethanol-fed groups from the pair-fed controls. Significant hepatic lipids that were increased by ethanol exposure included fatty acids and triglycerides, whereas phosphatidylcholine (PC) decreased. However, both free fatty acids and PC decreased in the plasma. In liver lipids unsaturation of fatty acyl chains increased, contrary to plasma, where it decreased. Our studies confirm that over-accumulation of lipids in ethanol-induced liver steatosis accompanied by mild inflammation on long duration of ethanol exposure. Identified metabolic profile using NMR lipidomics could be further explored to establish biomarker signatures representing the etiopathogenesis, progression and/or severity of ALD. - Highlights: > Long term exposure to ethanol was studied. > A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy based lipidomic approach was used. > We examined the clustering pattern of the NMR data with principal component analysis. > NMR data were compared with histology and

  15. Oxidative stress/reactive metabolite gene expression signature in rat liver detects idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leone, Angelique; Nie, Alex; Brandon Parker, J.; Sawant, Sharmilee; Piechta, Leigh-Anne; Kelley, Michael F. Mark Kao, L.; Jim Proctor, S.; Verheyen, Geert; Johnson, Mark D.; Lord, Peter G.; McMillian, Michael K.

    2014-03-15

    Previously we reported a gene expression signature in rat liver for detecting a specific type of oxidative stress (OS) related to reactive metabolites (RM). High doses of the drugs disulfiram, ethinyl estradiol and nimesulide were used with another dozen paradigm OS/RM compounds, and three other drugs flutamide, phenacetin and sulindac were identified by this signature. In a second study, antiepileptic drugs were compared for covalent binding and their effects on OS/RM; felbamate, carbamazepine, and phenobarbital produced robust OS/RM gene expression. In the present study, liver RNA samples from drug-treated rats from more recent experiments were examined for statistical fit to the OS/RM signature. Of all 97 drugs examined, in addition to the nine drugs noted above, 19 more were identified as OS/RM-producing compounds—chlorpromazine, clozapine, cyproterone acetate, dantrolene, dipyridamole, glibenclamide, isoniazid, ketoconazole, methapyrilene, naltrexone, nifedipine, sulfamethoxazole, tamoxifen, coumarin, ritonavir, amitriptyline, valproic acid, enalapril, and chloramphenicol. Importantly, all of the OS/RM drugs listed above have been linked to idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity, excepting chloramphenicol, which does not have a package label for hepatotoxicity, but does have a black box warning for idiosyncratic bone marrow suppression. Most of these drugs are not acutely toxic in the rat. The OS/RM signature should be useful to avoid idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of drug candidates. - Highlights: • 28 of 97 drugs gave a positive OS/RM gene expression signature in rat liver. • The specificity of the signature for human idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants was 98%. • The sensitivity of the signature for human idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants was 75%. • The signature can help eliminate hepatotoxicants from drug development.

  16. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salama, Samir A.; Omar, Hany A.; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A.; AlSaeed, Mohammed S.; EL-Tarras, Adel E.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. Iron increased

  17. Life-threatening interaction between the root extract of Pueraria lobata and methotrexate in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, H.-M.; Fang, S.-H.; Wen, K.-C.; Hsiu, S.-L.; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Hou, Y.-C.; Chi, Y.-C.; Lee Chao, Pei-Dawn . E-mail: pdlee@mail.cmu.edu.tw

    2005-12-15

    Isoflavone supplements are nowadays widely used as alternative for hormone replacement therapy. However, the safety remains unanswered. This study attempted to investigate the effect of Pueraria lobata root decoction (PLRD), an isoflavone-rich herb, on the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate (MTX), a bicarboxylate antimetabolite with narrow therapeutic window. Rats were orally and intravenously given methotrexate alone and coadministered with PLRD. Blood samples were withdrawn via cardiopuncture at specific time points after drug administration. Serum methotrexate concentrations were assayed by specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartment model of WINNONLIN for both oral and intravenous data of MTX. Our results showed that coadministration of 4.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg of PLRD significantly increased the AUC{sub 0-t} by 207.8% and 127.9%, prolonged the mean residence time (MRT) by 237.8 and 155.2%, respectively, finally resulted in surprisingly high mortalities of 57.1% and 14.3% in rats. When MTX was given intravenously, the coadministration of PLRD at 4.0 g/kg significantly increased the half-life by 53.9% and decreased the clearance by 47.9%. In conclusion, the coadministration of PLRD significantly decreased the elimination and resulted in markedly increased exposure of MTX in rats.

  18. Application of metabonomics on an experimental model of fibrosis and cirrhosis induced by thioacetamide in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constantinou, Maria A.; Theocharis, Stamatios E.; Mikros, Emmanuel . E-mail: mikros@pharm.uoa.gr

    2007-01-01

    Metabonomics has already been used to discriminate different pathological states in biological fields. The metabolic profiles of chronic experimental fibrosis and cirrhosis induction in rats were investigated using {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy of liver extracts and serum combined with pattern recognition techniques. Rats were continuously administered with thioacetamide (TAA) in the drinking water (300 mg TAA/L), and sacrificed on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd month of treatment. {sup 1}H NMR spectra of aqueous and lipid liver extracts, together with serum were subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Liver portions were also subjected to histopathological examination and biochemical determination of malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis were progressively induced in TAA-treated rats, verified by the histopathological examination and the alterations of MDA levels. TAA administration revealed a number of changes in the {sup 1}H NMR spectra compared to control samples. The performance of PCA in liver extracts and serum, discriminated the control samples from the fibrotic and cirrhotic ones. Metabolic alterations revealed in NMR spectra during experimental liver fibrosis and cirrhosis induction, characterize the stage of fibrosis and could be illustrated by subsequent PCA of the spectra. Additionally, the PCA plots of the serum samples presented marked clustering during fibrosis progression and could be extended in clinical diagnosis for the management of cirrhotic patients.

  19. Physiological effects following administration of Citrus aurantium for 28 days in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Deborah K.; Pellicore, Linda S.

    2012-06-15

    Background: Since ephedra-containing dietary supplements were banned from the US market, manufacturers changed their formulations by eliminating ephedra and replacing with other botanicals, including Citrus aurantium, or bitter orange. Bitter orange contains, among other compounds, synephrine, a chemical that is chemically similar to ephedrine. Since ephedrine may have cardiovascular effects, the goal of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of various doses of bitter orange extract and pure synephrine in rats. Method: Female SpragueDawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for 28 days with synephrine from two different extracts. One extract contained 6% synephrine, and the other extract contained 95% synephrine. Doses were 10 or 50 mg synephrine/kg body weight from each extract. Additionally, caffeine was added to these doses, since many dietary supplements also contain caffeine. Telemetry was utilized to monitor heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and QT interval in all rats. Results and conclusion: Synephrine, either as the bitter orange extract or as pure synephrine, increased heart rate and blood pressure. Animals treated with 95% synephrine showed minimal effects on heart rate and blood pressure; more significant effects were observed with the bitter orange extract suggesting that other components in the botanical can alter these physiological parameters. The increases in heart rate and blood pressure were more pronounced when caffeine was added. None of the treatments affected uncorrected QT interval in the absence of caffeine.

  20. Award Information - ER64062-1025976-0011397 ID: ER64062-1025976...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific Guidance, Research, and Educational Outreach for the ARM Climate Research ... of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology and Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology. ...

  1. DOE/ER/40561- II- IN191-05-04 DOE/ER/40

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    M.M. Musakhanov Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington HN-12, Seattle, ... MODEL M.M.MUSAKHANOV Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington HN-I, ...

  2. Physiologically based kinetic modeling of bioactivation and detoxification of the alkenylbenzene methyleugenol in human as compared with rat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Subeihi, Ala' A.A.; Spenkelink, Bert; Punt, Ans; Boersma, Marelle G.; Bladeren, Peter J. van; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2012-05-01

    This study defines a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model for methyleugenol (ME) in human based on in vitro and in silico derived parameters. With the model obtained, bioactivation and detoxification of methyleugenol (ME) at different doses levels could be investigated. The outcomes of the current model were compared with those of a previously developed PBK model for methyleugenol (ME) in male rat. The results obtained reveal that formation of 1′-hydroxymethyleugenol glucuronide (1′HMEG), a major metabolic pathway in male rat liver, appears to represent a minor metabolic pathway in human liver whereas in human liver a significantly higher formation of 1′-oxomethyleugenol (1′OME) compared with male rat liver is observed. Furthermore, formation of 1′-sulfooxymethyleugenol (1′HMES), which readily undergoes desulfonation to a reactive carbonium ion (CA) that can form DNA or protein adducts (DA), is predicted to be the same in the liver of both human and male rat at oral doses of 0.0034 and 300 mg/kg bw. Altogether despite a significant difference in especially the metabolic pathways of the proximate carcinogenic metabolite 1′-hydroxymethyleugenol (1′HME) between human and male rat, the influence of species differences on the ultimate overall bioactivation of methyleugenol (ME) to 1′-sulfooxymethyleugenol (1′HMES) appears to be negligible. Moreover, the PBK model predicted the formation of 1′-sulfooxymethyleugenol (1′HMES) in the liver of human and rat to be linear from doses as high as the benchmark dose (BMD{sub 10}) down to as low as the virtual safe dose (VSD). This study shows that kinetic data do not provide a reason to argue against linear extrapolation from the rat tumor data to the human situation. -- Highlights: ► A PBK model is made for bioactivation and detoxification of methyleugenol in human. ► Comparison to the PBK model in male rat revealed species differences. ► PBK results support linear extrapolation from high to low

  3. Size and charge effects of dopant M on the unit-cell parameters of monoclinic zirconia solid solutions Zr{sub 0.98}M{sub 0.02}O{sub 2{minus}{delta}} (M = Ce, La, Nd, Sm, Y, Er, Yb, Sc, Mg, Ca)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yashima, Masatomo; Kakihana, Masato; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Hirose, Teruo; Suzuki, Yasuo

    1997-01-01

    The crystal structure of monoclinic phase [P2{sub 1}/c, Z = 4] has been refined by the Rietveld analysis of X-ray powder diffraction data to study the size and charge effects of dopant M{sup n+} on the unit-cell parameters of monoclinic ZrO{sub 2}-2 mol% MO{sub n/2} solid solutions (n = 4 for M = Ce; n = 3 for M = La, Nd, Sm, Y, Er, Yb, Sc; and n = 2 for M = Mg and Ca). For trivalent dopant (n = 3), the unit-cell parameters a{sub m}, b{sub m}, c{sub m} and unit-cell volume increase and {beta}{sub m} decreases with an increase of dopant size. Unit-cell volume increases with increasing of dopant charge n.

  4. A STUDY OF FISCHER 344 RATS EXPOSED TO SILICA DUST FOR SIX MONTHS AT CONCENTRATIONS OF 0, 2, 10 OR 20 MG / M3.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KUTZMAN,R.S.

    1984-02-01

    The major objective of this study was to relate the results of a series of functional tests to the compositional and structural alterations in the rat lung induced by subchronic exposure to silica dust. Fischer-344 rats were exposed for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 6 months to either 0, 2, 10, or 20 mg SiO{sub 2}/m{sup 3}. The general appearance of the exposed rats was not different from that of the controls. Interestingly, female rats exposed to silica dust, at all tested concentrations, gained more weight than the controls. The lung weight and the lung-to-body weight ratio was greater in the male rats exposed to the highest concentration of silica dust.

  5. LANL12-RS-107J PYTHON Radiography Analysis Tool (PyRAT). Mid-Year Deliverable Report for FY15

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temple, Brian Allen; Armstrong, Jerawan Chudoung

    2015-04-14

    This document is a mid-year report on a deliverable for the PYTHON Radiography Analysis Tool (PyRAT) for project LANL12-RS-107J in FY15. The deliverable is deliverable number 2 in the work package and is titled “Add the ability to read in more types of image file formats in PyRAT”. Right now PyRAT can only read in uncompressed TIF files (tiff files). It is planned to expand the file formats that can be read by PyRAT, making it easier to use in more situations. A summary of the file formats added include jpeg, jpg, png and formatted ASCII files.

  6. Daily treatment with {alpha}-naphthoflavone enhances follicular growth and ovulation rate in the rat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barreiro, Karina A.; Di Yorio, Maria P.; Artillo-Guida, Romina D.; Paz, Dante A.; Faletti, Alicia G.

    2011-04-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor and the first protein involved in a variety of physiological and toxicological processes, including those of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. AhR has been found in the ovary of many species and seems to mediate the ovarian toxicity of many environmental contaminants, which are AhR ligands. However, the role of AhR in the ovarian function is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the action of {alpha}-naphthoflavone ({alpha}NF), known to be an AhR antagonist, on both follicular growth and ovulation. Immature Sprague-Dawley rats were daily injected intraperitoneally with {alpha}NF (0.1-80 mg/kg) or vehicle for 12 days, and primed with gonadotrophins (eCG/hCG) to induce follicular growth and ovulation. Ovaries were obtained 20 h after hCG administration. By means of immunohistochemistry, we found that the numbers of primordial, primary and antral follicles were increased in rats treated with 80 mg/kg {alpha}NF and that there were no differences with other doses. Likewise, the ovarian weight and the ovulation rate, measured by both number of oocytes within oviducts and corpora lutea in ovarian sections, were increased when the rats received either 1 or 10 mg/kg daily. Although further studies are necessary to know the mechanism of action of {alpha}NF, it is possible that the different ovarian processes can be differentially responsive to the presence of different levels of {alpha}NF, and that the same or different endogenous AhR ligands can be involved in these ovarian processes in a cell type-dependent manner.

  7. Nucleotide sequences of three distinct clones coding for rat heavy chain class 1 major hitocompatibility antigens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Stepkowski, S.M.; Tain, L.

    1996-09-01

    Poly(A){sup +} RNAs were isolated from ConconavalinA stimulated splenocytes of BUF (RT1.A{sup b}), PVG (RT1.A{sup c}), or PVG.1U (RT1.A{sup u}) rats, respectively, using a Micro-Fast Track kit. After reverse transcription with a synthetic oligo-d(T) primer (5{sup {prime}}-CAT GAT CGA ATT CAC GCG TCT AGA TTT TTT TTT TTT TTT TTT TTT TTT TVN-3{sup {prime}}, V = A+G+C, N = A+T+G+C; Genosys, Woodland, TX), 1.6 kilobase products, which encode the entire MHC class I protein and the 3{sup {prime}} non-translated region including the poly-A tail, were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two synthetic oligonucleotide primers (Genosys). The upstream primer (5{sup {prime}}-GTC CGG GWT CTC AGA TGG GG C-3{sup {prime}}, W = A+T) was designed based upon the published rat class I sequences of eight genes: RT1.1{sup a} M31018; rat LW2 gene X70066; RT1.1{sup 1}, L26224 X79719; RT1.A{sup u} X82669, and RT1.Aw3 L40363, RT1.E{sup u} L40365, RT1.C{sup 1} L40362. The downstream primer (5{sup {prime}}) ATG ATC GAA TTC ACG CGT CTA GA-3{sup {prime}} was the portion of the oligo-d(T) primer used for reverse transcription. The purified PCR products were inserted into pCR II cloning vectors (Invitrogen). Automated sequencing of plasmid cDNAs from the positive clones obtained from three repeated PCR amplifications identified by restriction enzyme mapping were reproducible. Comparison between new sequences of the heavy chain class I genes and those available in GenBank. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Proteomic identification of carbonylated proteins in F344 rat hippocampus after 1-bromopropane exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenlie; Ichihara, Sahoko; Oikawa, Shinji; Chang, Jie; Zhang, Lingyi; Subramanian, Kaviarasan; Mohideen, Sahabudeen Sheik; Ichihara, Gaku

    2012-08-15

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is neurotoxic in both experimental animals and humans. Previous proteomic analysis of rat hippocampus implicated alteration of protein expression in oxidative stress, suggesting that oxidative stress plays a role in 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity. To understand this role at the protein level, we exposed male F344 rats to 1-BP at 0, 400, or 1000 ppm for 8 h/day for 1 week or 4 weeks by inhalation and quantitated changes in hippocampal protein carbonyl using a protein carbonyl assay, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), immunoblotting, and matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS). Hippocampal reactive oxygen species and protein carbonyl were significantly increased, demonstrating 1-BP-associated induction of oxidative stress and protein damage. MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS identified 10 individual proteins with increased carbonyl modification (p < 0.05; fold-change ≥ 1.5). The identified proteins were involved in diverse biological processes including glycolysis, ATP production, tyrosine catabolism, GTP binding, guanine degradation, and neuronal metabolism of dopamine. Hippocampal triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) activity was significantly reduced and negatively correlated with TPI carbonylation (p < 0.001; r = 0.83). Advanced glycation end-product (AGE) levels were significantly elevated both in the hippocampus and plasma, and hippocampal AGEs correlated negatively with TPI activity (p < 0.001; r = 0.71). In conclusion, 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity in the rat hippocampus seems to involve oxidative damage of cellular proteins, decreased TPI activity, and elevated AGEs. -- Highlights: ► 1-BP increases hippocampal ROS levels and hippocampal and plasma protein carbonyls. ► 1-BP increases TPI carbonylation and decreases TPI activity in the hippocampus. ► 1-BP increases hippocampal and plasma AGE levels.

  9. Differential metabolism of 4-hydroxynonenal in liver, lung and brain of mice and rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Ruijin; Dragomir, Ana-Cristina; Mishin, Vladimir; Richardson, Jason R.; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2014-08-15

    The lipid peroxidation end-product 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is generated in tissues during oxidative stress. As a reactive aldehyde, it forms Michael adducts with nucleophiles, a process that disrupts cellular functioning. Liver, lung and brain are highly sensitive to xenobiotic-induced oxidative stress and readily generate 4-HNE. In the present studies, we compared 4-HNE metabolism in these tissues, a process that protects against tissue injury. 4-HNE was degraded slowly in total homogenates and S9 fractions of mouse liver, lung and brain. In liver, but not lung or brain, NAD(P)+ and NAD(P)H markedly stimulated 4-HNE metabolism. Similar results were observed in rat S9 fractions from these tissues. In liver, lung and brain S9 fractions, 4-HNE formed protein adducts. When NADH was used to stimulate 4-HNE metabolism, the formation of protein adducts was suppressed in liver, but not lung or brain. In both mouse and rat tissues, 4-HNE was also metabolized by glutathione S-transferases. The greatest activity was noted in livers of mice and in lungs of rats; relatively low glutathione S-transferase activity was detected in brain. In mouse hepatocytes, 4-HNE was rapidly taken up and metabolized. Simultaneously, 4-HNE-protein adducts were formed, suggesting that 4-HNE metabolism in intact cells does not prevent protein modifications. These data demonstrate that, in contrast to liver, lung and brain have a limited capacity to metabolize 4-HNE. The persistence of 4-HNE in these tissues may increase the likelihood of tissue injury during oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Lipid peroxidation generates 4-hydroxynonenal, a highly reactive aldehyde. • Rodent liver, but not lung or brain, is efficient in degrading 4-hydroxynonenal. • 4-hydroxynonenal persists in tissues with low metabolism, causing tissue damage.

  10. Iron supplement prevents lead-induced disruption of the blood-brain barrier during rat development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Qiang; Luo Wenjing; Zheng Wei; Liu Yiping; Xu Hui; Zheng Gang; Dai Zhongming; Zhang Wenbin; Chen Yaoming; Chen Jingyuan . E-mail: jy_chen@fmmu.edu.cn

    2007-02-15

    Children are known to be venerable to lead (Pb) toxicity. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) in immature brain is particularly vulnerable to Pb insults. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that Pb exposure damaged the integrity of the BBB in young animals and iron (Fe) supplement may prevent against Pb-induced BBB disruption. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Three groups of rats were exposed to Pb in drinking water containing 342 {mu}g Pb/mL as Pb acetate, among which two groups were concurrently administered by oral gavage once every other day with 7 mg Fe/kg and 14 mg Fe/kg as FeSO{sub 4} solution as the low and high Fe treatment group, respectively, for 6 weeks. The control group received sodium acetate in drinking water. Pb exposure significantly increased Pb concentrations in blood by 6.6-folds (p < 0.05) and brain tissues by 1.5-2.0-folds (p < 0.05) as compared to controls. Under the electron microscope, Pb exposure in young animals caused an extensive extravascular staining of lanthanum nitrate in brain parenchyma, suggesting a leakage of cerebral vasculature. Western blot showed that Pb treatment led to 29-68% reduction (p < 0.05) in the expression of occludin as compared to the controls. Fe supplement among Pb-exposed rats maintained the normal ultra-structure of the BBB and restored the expression of occludin to normal levels. Moreover, the low dose Fe supplement significantly reduced Pb levels in blood and brain tissues. These data suggest that Pb exposure disrupts the structure of the BBB in young animals. The increased BBB permeability may facilitate the accumulation of Pb. Fe supplement appears to protect the integrity of the BBB against Pb insults, a beneficial effect that may have significant clinical implications.

  11. RatBot: anti-enumeration peer-to-peer botnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Guanhua; Eidenbenz, Stephan; Chen, Songqing

    2010-01-01

    Botnets have emerged as one of the most severe cyber threats in recent years. To obtain high resilience against a single point of failure, the new generation of botnets have adopted the peer-to-peer (P2P) structure. One critical question regarding these P2P botnets is: how big are they indeed? To address this question, researchers have proposed both actively crawling and passively monitoring methods to enumerate existing P2P botnets. In this work, we go further to explore the potential strategies that botnets may have to obfuscate their true sizes. Towards this end, this paper introduces RatBot, a P2P botnet that applies some statistical techniques to defeat existing P2P botnet enumeration methods. The key ideas of RatBot are two-fold: (1) there exist a fraction of bots that are indistinguishable from their fake identities, which are spoofing IP addresses they use to hide themselves; (2) we use a heavy-tailed distribution to generate the number of fake identities for each of these bots so that the sum of observed fake identities converges only slowly and thus has high variation. We use large-scale high-fidelity simulation to quantify the estimation errors under diverse settings, and the results show that a naive enumeration technique can overestimate the sizes of P2P botnets by one order of magnitude. We believe that our work reveals new challenges of accurately estimating the sizes of P2P botnets, and hope that it will raise the awareness of security practitioners with these challenges. We further suggest a few countermeasures that can potentially defeat RatBot's anti-enumeration scheme.

  12. Subacute effects of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) on hepatic gene expression profiles in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canton, Rocio F. [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.177, NL-3508 TD, Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: rfcanton@gmail.com; Peijnenburg, Ad A.C.M.; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Center, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H.; Ven, Leo T.M. van der [National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Laboratory for Heath Protection Research, P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Berg, Martin van den [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.177, NL-3508 TD, Utrecht (Netherlands); Heneweer, Marjoke [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Center, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2008-09-01

    Hexabromoyclododecane (HBCD), used as flame retardant (FR) mainly in textile industry and in polystyrene foam manufacture, has been identified as a contaminant at levels comparable to other brominated FRs (BFRs). HBCD levels in biota are increasing slowly and seem to reflect the local market demand. The toxicological database of HBCD is too limited to perform at present a solid risk assessment, combining data from exposure and effect studies. In order to fill in some gaps, a 28-day HBCD repeated dose study (OECD407) was done in Wistar rats. In the present work liver tissues from these animals were used for gene expression profile analysis. Results show clear gender specificity with females having a higher number of regulated genes and therefore being more sensitive to HBCD than males. Several specific pathways were found to be affected by HBCD exposure, like PPAR-mediated regulation of lipid metabolism, triacylglycerol metabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis, and phase I and II pathways. These results were corroborated with quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Cholesterol biosynthesis and lipid metabolism were especially down-regulated in females. Genes involved in phase I and II metabolism were up-regulated predominantly in males, which could explain the observed lower HBCD hepatic disposition in male rats in this 28-day study. These sex-specific differences in gene expression profiles could also underlie sex-specific differences in toxicity (e.g. decreased thyroid hormone or increased serum cholesterol levels). To our knowledge, this is the fist study that describes the changes in rat hepatic gene profiles caused by this commonly used flame retardant.

  13. Hormone-dependence of sarin lethality in rats: Sex differences and stage of the estrous cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Carl D. Wright, Linnzi K.M.; Garcia, Gregory E.; Lee, Robyn B.; Lumley, Lucille A.

    2015-09-15

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are highly toxic compounds that cause a cascade of symptoms and death, if exposed casualties are left untreated. Numerous rodent models have investigated the toxicity and mechanisms of toxicity of CWNAs, but most are limited to male subjects. Given the profound physiological effects of circulating gonadal hormones in female rodents, it is possible that the daily cyclical fluctuations of these hormones affect females' sensitivity to the lethal effects of CWNAs, and previous reports that included female subjects did not control for the stage of the hormonal cycle. The aim of the current study was to determine the 24-hour median lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) of the CWNA sarin in male, ovariectomized (OVEX) female, and female rats during different stages of the estrous cycle (diestrus, proestrus, and estrus). Additionally, baseline activity levels of plasma acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and carboxylesterase were measured to determine differences among the groups. Results indicated that females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD{sub 50} of sarin compared to OVEX and estrous females. Although some sex differences were observed in the activity levels of plasma esterases, they were not consistent and likely not large enough to significantly affect the LD{sub 50}s. These results suggest that hormonal cyclicity can influence the outcome of CWNA-related studies using female rodents, and that this variability can be minimized by controlling for the stage of the cycle. Additional research is necessary to determine the precise mechanism of the observed differences because it is unlikely to be solely explained by plasma esterase activity. - Highlights: • The LD{sub 50} of sarin was determined in female rats throughout the stages of the estrous cycle. • Females in proestrus had a significantly higher LD{sub 50} compared to estrous or ovariectomized females. • No sex differences were observed between male and female rats

  14. Response of rat brain protein synthesis to ethanol and sodium barbital

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, S.; Greenberg, S.A.; Do, K.; Grey, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) depressants such as ethanol and barbiturates under acute or chronic conditions can induce changes in rat brain protein synthesis. While these data demonstrate the individual effects of drugs on protein synthesis, the response of brain protein synthesis to alcohol-drug interactions is not known. The goal of the present study was to determine the individual and combined effects of ethanol and sodium barbital on brain protein synthesis and gain an understanding of the mechanisms by which these alterations in protein synthesis are produced. Specifically, the in vivo and in vitro effects of sodium barbital (one class of barbiturates which is not metabolized by the hepatic tissue) were examined on brain protein synthesis in rats made physically dependent upon ethanol. Using cell free brain polysomal systems isolated from Control, Ethanol and 24 h Ethanol Withdrawn rats, data show that sodium barbital, when intubated intragastrically, inhibited the time dependent incorporation of /sup 14/C) leucine into protein by all three groups of ribosomes. Under these conditions, the Ethanol Withdrawn group displayed the largest inhibition of the /sup 14/C) leucine incorporation into protein when compared to the Control and Ethanol groups. In addition, sodium barbital when added at various concentrations in vitro to the incubation medium inhibited the incorporation of /sup 14/C) leucine into protein by Control and Ethanol polysomes. The inhibitory effects were also obtained following preincubation of ribosomes in the presence of barbital but not cycloheximide. Data suggest that brain protein synthesis, specifically brain polysomes, through interaction with ethanol or barbital are involved in the functional development of tolerance. These interactions may occur through proteins or polypeptide chains or alterations in messenger RNA components associated with the ribosomal units.

  15. Effect of intranasal manganese administration on neurotransmission and spatial learning in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Piechal, Agnieszka; Joniec-Maciejak, Ilona; Pyrzanowska, Justyna; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa

    2012-11-15

    The effect of intranasal manganese chloride (MnCl{sub 2}4H{sub 2}O) exposure on spatial learning, memory and motor activity was estimated in Morris water maze task in adult rats. Three-month-old male Wistar rats received for 2 weeks MnCl{sub 2}4H{sub 2}O at two doses the following: 0.2 mg/kg b.w. (Mn0.2) or 0.8 mg/kg b.w. (Mn0.8) per day. Control (Con) and manganese-exposed groups were observed for behavioral performance and learning in water maze. ANOVA for repeated measurements did not show any significant differences in acquisition in the water maze between the groups. However, the results of the probe trial on day 5, exhibited spatial memory deficits following manganese treatment. After completion of the behavioral experiment, the regional brain concentrations of neurotransmitters and their metabolites were determined via HPLC in selected brain regions, i.e. prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. ANOVA demonstrated significant differences in the content of monoamines and metabolites between the treatment groups compared to the controls. Negative correlations between platform crossings on the previous platform position in Southeast (SE) quadrant during the probe trial and neurotransmitter turnover suggest that impairment of spatial memory and cognitive performance after manganese (Mn) treatment is associated with modulation of the serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in the brain. These findings show that intranasally applied Mn can impair spatial memory with significant changes in the tissue level and metabolism of monoamines in several brain regions. -- Highlights: ? Intranasal exposure to manganese in rats impairs spatial memory in the water maze. ? Regional changes in levels of neurotransmitters in the brain have been identified. ? Cognitive disorder correlates with modulation of 5-HT, NA and DA neurotransmission.

  16. Estrous cycle affects the neurochemical and neurobehavioral profile of carvacrol-treated female rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trabace, L.; Zotti, M.; Morgese, M.G.; Tucci, P.; Colaianna, M.; Schiavone, S.; Avato, P.; Cuomo, V.

    2011-09-01

    Carvacrol is the major constituent of essential oils from aromatic plants. It showed antimicrobial, anticancer and antioxidant properties. Although it was approved for food use and included in the chemical flavorings list, no indication on its safety has been estimated. Since the use of plant extracts is relatively high among women, aim of this study was to evaluate carvacrol effects on female physiology and endocrine profiles by using female rats in proestrus and diestrus phases. Serotonin and metabolite tissue content in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, after carvacrol administration (0.15 and 0.45 g/kg p.o.), was measured. Drug effects in behavioral tests for alterations in motor activity, depression, anxiety-related behaviors and endocrine alterations were also investigated. While in proestrus carvacrol reduced serotonin and metabolite levels in both brain areas, no effects were observed in diestrus phase. Only in proestrus phase, carvacrol induced a depressive-like behavior in forced swimming test, without accompanying changes in ambulation. The improvement of performance in FST after subchronic treatment with fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) suggested a specific involvement of serotonergic system. No differences were found across the groups with regard to self-grooming behavior. Moreover, in proestrus phase, carvacrol reduced only estradiol levels without binding hypothalamic estradiol receptors. Our study showed an estrous-stage specific effect of carvacrol on depressive behaviors and endocrine parameters, involving serotonergic system. Given the wide carvacrol use not only as feed additive, but also as cosmetic essence and herbal remedy, our results suggest that an accurate investigation on the effects of its chronic exposure is warranted. - Highlights: > Carvacrol induced a depressive-like phenotype in rats, depending on ovarian cyclicity. > Carvacrol selectively reduced serotonin content in female rats in proestrus phase. > Carvacrol reduced serotonin levels

  17. Altered cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulation during hyperosmotic stress in adult rats developmentally exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Ashini; Coburn, Cary G.; Watson-Siriboe, Abena; Whitley, Rebecca; Shahidzadeh, Anoush; Gillard, Elizabeth R.; Nichol, Robert; Leon-Olea, Martha; Gaertner, Mark; Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.

    2011-10-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the structurally similar chemicals polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) disrupt the function of multiple endocrine systems. PCBs and PBDEs disrupt the secretion of vasopressin (VP) from the hypothalamus during osmotic activation. Since the peripheral and central vasopressinergic axes are critical for osmotic and cardiovascular regulation, we examined whether perinatal PBDE exposure could impact these functions during physiological activation. Rats were perinatally dosed with a commercial PBDE mixture, DE-71. Dams were given 0 (corn oil control), 1.7 (low dose) or 30.6 mg/kg/day (high dose) in corn oil from gestational day (GD) 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21 by oral gavage. In the male offspring exposed to high dose PBDE plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels were reduced at PND 21 and recovered to control levels by PND 60 when thyroid stimulating hormone levels were elevated. At 14-18 months of age, cardiovascular responses were measured in four groups of rats: Normal (Oil, normosmotic condition), Hyper (Oil, hyperosmotic stress), Hyper PBDE low (1.7 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress), and Hyper PBDE high (30.6 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress). Systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and heart rate (HR) were determined using tail cuff sphygmomanometry and normalized to pretreatment values (baseline) measured under basal conditions. Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. Hyper PBDE low and high dose rats showed 36.1 and 64.7% greater systolic BP responses at 3 h post hyperosmotic injection relative to pretreatment baseline, respectively. No treatment effects were measured for diastolic BP and HR. Hyper and Hyper PBDE rats showed increased mean plasma osmolality values by 45 min after injection relative to normosmotic controls. In contrast to Hyper rats, Hyper PBDE (high) rats showed a further increase in mean plasma osmolality at 3

  18. Genetic effects of petrochemical pollutants on cotton rats in mesocosms at a Superfund site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBee, K.; Butchko, C.; Lochmiller, R.; Propst, T.; Burks, S.; Qualls, C.

    1995-12-31

    Equal numbers of male and female juvenile cotton rats (Siamodon hispidus) were introduced into mesocosms placed on three areas of an abandoned oil refinery now designated as a Superfund site located in southwestern Oklahoma. Cotton rats were also housed in mesocosms on three uncontaminated reference sites. After two eight-week exposure periods and one four-week exposure period, animals were examined for chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. The predominant type of aberration observed in animals from all mesocosms was chromatid breaks. During the spring eight-week exposure period animals from mesocosms on reference sites had higher numbers of aberrant cells and more 11 eight-week expo lesions per cell than did animals housed in mesocosms on the Superfund site. During the fall eight-week exposure period and a later fall four-week exposure period, animals from Superfund site mesocosms and reference mesocosms showed no differences in aberrant cells or lesions per cell. Animals from both Superfund and reference mesocosms showed significantly fewer aberrant cells and lesions per cell during the fall eight-week and fall four-week exposure periods than their counterparts from the spring eight-week exposure period.

  19. COMPARATIVE COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF AIRFLOWS AND VAPOR DOSIMETY IN THE RESPIRATORY TRACTS OF RAT, MONKEY, AND HUMAN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corley, Richard A.; Kabilan, Senthil; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Carson, James P.; Minard, Kevin R.; Jacob, Rick E.; Timchalk, Charles; Glenny, Robb W.; Pipavath, Sudhaker; Cox, Timothy C.; Wallis, Chris; Larson, Richard; Fanucchi, M.; Postlewait, Ed; Einstein, Daniel R.

    2012-07-01

    Coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models is useful for predicting site-specific dosimetry of airborne materials in the respiratory tract and elucidating the importance of species differences in anatomy, physiology, and breathing patterns. Historically, these models were limited to discrete regions of the respiratory system. CFD/PBPK models have now been developed for the rat, monkey, and human that encompass airways from the nose or mouth to the lung. A PBPK model previously developed to describe acrolein uptake in nasal tissues was adapted to the extended airway models as an example application. Model parameters for each anatomic region were obtained from the literature, measured directly, or estimated from published data. Airflow and site-specific acrolein uptake patterns were determined under steadystate inhalation conditions to provide direct comparisons with prior data and nasalonly simulations. Results confirmed that regional uptake was dependent upon airflow rates and acrolein concentrations with nasal extraction efficiencies predicted to be greatest in the rat, followed by the monkey, then the human. For human oral-breathing simulations, acrolein uptake rates in oropharyngeal and laryngeal tissues were comparable to nasal tissues following nasal breathing under the same exposure conditions. For both breathing modes, higher uptake rates were predicted for lower tracheo-bronchial tissues of humans than either the rat or monkey. These extended airway models provide a unique foundation for comparing dosimetry across a significantly more extensive range of conducting airways in the rat, monkey, and human than prior CFD models.

  20. PhyloChip microarray analysis reveals altered gastrointestinal microbial communities in a rat model of colonic hypersensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, T.A.; Holmes, S.; Alekseyenko, A.V.; Shenoy, M.; DeSantis, T.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Winston, J.; Sonnenburg, J.; Pasricha, P.J.; Spormann, A.

    2010-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, episodic gastrointestinal disorder that is prevalent in a significant fraction of western human populations; and changes in the microbiota of the large bowel have been implicated in the pathology of the disease. Using a novel comprehensive, high-density DNA microarray (PhyloChip) we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the microbial community of the large bowel in a rat model in which intracolonic acetic acid in neonates was used to induce long lasting colonic hypersensitivity and decreased stool water content and frequency, representing the equivalent of human constipation-predominant IBS. Our results revealed a significantly increased compositional difference in the microbial communities in rats with neonatal irritation as compared with controls. Even more striking was the dramatic change in the ratio of Firmicutes relative to Bacteroidetes, where neonatally irritated rats were enriched more with Bacteroidetes and also contained a different composition of species within this phylum. Our study also revealed differences at the level of bacterial families and species. The PhyloChip is a useful and convenient method to study enteric microflora. Further, this rat model system may be a useful experimental platform to study the causes and consequences of changes in microbial community composition associated with IBS.

  1. Age- and sex-related differences of organic anion-transporting polypeptide gene expression in livers of rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Wei-Yu; Xu, Shang-Fu; Zhu, Qiong-Ni; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Cheng, Xing-Guo; Liu, Jie

    2014-10-15

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (Oatps) play important roles in transporting endogenous substances and xenobiotics into the liver and are implicated in drug-drug interactions. Many factors could influence their expression and result in alterations in drug disposition, efficacy and toxicity. This study was aimed to examine the development-, aging-, and sex-dependent Oatps expression in livers of rats. The livers from SD rats during development (− 2, 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 60 d) and aging (60, 180, 540 and/or 800 d) were collected and total RNAs were extracted, purified, and subjected to real-time PCR analysis. Total proteins were extracted for western-blot analysis. Results showed that Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, Oatp1a5 and Oatp1b2 were all hardly detectable in fetal rat livers, low at birth, rapidly increased after weaning (21 d), and reached the peak at 60 d. The Oatps remained stable during the age between 60–180 d, and decreased at elderly (540 and/or 800 d). After birth, Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, and Oatp1b2 were all highly expressed in liver, in contrast, Oatp1a5 expression was low. Oatp expressions are male-predominant in rat livers. In the livers of aged rats, the Oatp expression decreased and shared a consistent ontogeny pattern at the mRNA and protein level. In conclusion, this study showed that in rat liver, Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, Oatp1a5 and Oatp1b2 gene expressions are influenced by age and gender, which could provide a basis of individual variation in drug transport, metabolism and toxicity in children, elderly and women. - Highlights: • Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, Oatp1a5 and Oatp1b2 expression in livers of rats. • Ontogenic changes of Oatps at − 2, 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 60 days. • Age-related changes of Oatps at 60, 180, 540, and 800 days. • Sex-difference of Oatps at the both mRNA and protein levels.

  2. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ergaz, Zivanit; Shoshani-Dror, Dana; Guillemin, Claire; Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza; Weksler-Zangen, Sarah; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K.; Ornoy, Asher

    2012-12-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  3. Application of computational fluid dynamics to regional dosimetry of inhaled chemicals in the upper respiratory tract of the rat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbell, J.S.; Gross, E.A.; Joyner, D.R.; Godo, M.N.; Morgan, K.T. (Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

    1993-08-01

    For certain inhaled air pollutants, such as reactive, water soluble gases, the distribution of nasal lesions observed in F344 rats may be closely related to regional gas uptake patterns in the nose. These uptake patterns can be influenced by the currents of air flowing through the upper respiratory tract during the breathing cycle. Since data on respiratory tract lesions in F344 rats are extrapolated to humans to make predictions of risk to human health, a better understanding of the factors affecting these responses is needed. To assess potential effects of nasal airflow on lesion location and severity, a methodology was developed for creation of computer simulations of steady-state airflow and gas transport using a three-dimensional finite element grid reconstructed from serial step-sections of the nasal passages of a male F344 rat. Simulations on a supercomputer used the computational fluid dynamics package FIDAP (FDI, Evanston, IL). Distinct streams of bulk flow evident in the simulations matched inspiratory streams reported for the F344 rat. Moreover, simulated regional flow velocities matched measured velocities in concurrent laboratory experiments with a hollow nasal mold. Computer-predicted flows were used in simulations of gas transport to nasal passage walls, with formaldehyde as a test case. Results from the uptake simulations were compared with the reported distribution of formaldehyde-induced nasal lesions observed in the F344 rat, and indicated that airflow-driven uptake patterns probably play an important role in determining the location of certain nasal lesions induced by formaldehyde. This work demonstrated the feasibility of applying computational fluid dynamics to airflow-driven dosimetry of inhaled chemicals in the upper respiratory tract.

  4. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Cho, J. Kim, R.; Michaelides, M.; Primeaux, S.; Bray, G.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-10-27

    Dopamine (DA) and DAD{sub 2} receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation.

  5. Proteomic analysis of hippocampal proteins of F344 rats exposed to 1-bromopropane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenlie; Ichihara, Sahoko; Oikawa, Shinji; Chang, Jie; Zhang, Lingyi; Takahashi, Masahide; Subramanian, Kaviarasan; Mohideen, Sahabudeen Sheik; Wang, Yun; Ichihara, Gaku

    2011-11-15

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is a compound used as an alternative to ozone-depleting solvents and is neurotoxic both in experimental animals and human. However, the molecular mechanisms of the neurotoxic effects of 1-BP are not well known. To identify the molecular mechanisms of 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity, we analyzed quantitatively changes in protein expression in the hippocampus of rats exposed to 1-BP. Male F344 rats were exposed to 1-BP at 0, 400, or 1000 ppm for 8 h/day for 1 or 4 weeks by inhalation. Two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) were conducted to detect and identify protein modification. Changes in selected proteins were further confirmed by western blot. 2D-DIGE identified 26 proteins with consistently altered model (increase or decrease after both 1- and 4-week 1-BP exposures) and significant changes in their levels (p < 0.05; fold change {>=} {+-} 1.2) at least at one exposure level or more compared with the corresponding controls. Of these proteins, 19 were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS. Linear regression analysis of 1-BP exposure level identified 8 differentially expressed proteins altered in a dose-dependent manner both in 1- and 4-week exposure experiments. The identified proteins could be categorized into diverse functional classes such as nucleocytoplasmic transport, immunity and defense, energy metabolism, ubiquitination-proteasome pathway, neurotransmitter and purine metabolism. Overall, the results suggest that 1-BP-induced hippocampal damage involves oxidative stress, loss of ATP production, neurotransmitter dysfunction and inhibition of ubiquitination-proteasome system. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1-BP modified hippocampal proteome in rat and 19 altered proteins were identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of Ran, TPI, HSP60, PSMA1, ECH1, TPI, B-CK and DJ-1 was changed by 1-BP. Black

  6. Peroxynitrite-induced relaxation in isolated rat aortic rings and mechanisms of action

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Jianfeng; Li Wenyan; Altura, Bella T.; Altura, Burton M. . E-mail: baltura@downstate.edu

    2005-12-15

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of peroxynitrite (ONOO{sup -}), the product of superoxide and nitric oxide, on isolated segments of rat aorta. In the absence of any vasoactive agent, ONOO{sup -} (from 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -4} M) failed to alter the basal tension. In phenylephrine (PE; 5 x 10{sup -7} M)-precontracted rat aortic rings (RAR), ONOO{sup -} elicited concentration-dependent relaxation at concentrations of from 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -4} M. The effective concentrations producing approximately 50% of maximal relaxation (ED{sub 5}) to ONOO{sup -} were 1.84 x 10{sup -5} M and 1.96 x 10{sup -5} M in intact and denuded RAR, respectively (P > 0.05). No significant differences in the relaxation responses were found between RAR with or without endothelium (P > 0.05). The presence of either 5 {mu}M methylene blue (MB) or 5 {mu}M 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-{alpha}]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) significantly inhibited the relaxations induced by ONOO{sup -}. Sildenafil (10{sup -7} M), on the other hand, significantly potentiated the ONOO{sup -}-induced relaxations. Tetraethylammonium chloride (T-2265) significantly decreased the ONOO{sup -}-induced relaxations in a concentration-dependent manner. However, ONOO{sup -} had no effect on RAR precontracted by high KCL (40 mM, n = 6, P > 0.05). Addition of calyculin A also significantly decreased the ONOO{sup -}-induced relaxation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, ONOO{sup -} significantly inhibited calcium-induced contractions of K{sup +}-depolarized aortic rings in a concentration-related manner. Lastly, a variety of other pharmacological agents and antagonists including L-NMMA, L-arginine, indomethacin, atropine, naloxone, diphenhydramine, cimetine, glibenclamide, haloperidol, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase did not influence the relaxant effects of ONOO{sup -} on RAR. Our new results suggest that ONOO{sup -}-triggered relaxation on rat aortic rings is mediated by elevation of cGMP levels

  7. In Situ Casting and Imaging of the Rat Airway Tree for Accurate 3D Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob, Rick E.; Colby, Sean M.; Kabilan, Senthil; Einstein, Daniel R.; Carson, James P.

    2013-08-01

    The use of anatomically accurate, animal-specific airway geometries is important for understanding and modeling the physiology of the respiratory system. One approach for acquiring detailed airway architecture is to create a bronchial cast of the conducting airways. However, typical casting procedures either do not faithfully preserve the in vivo branching angles, or produce rigid casts that when removed for imaging are fragile and thus easily damaged. We address these problems by creating an in situ bronchial cast of the conducting airways in rats that can be subsequently imaged in situ using 3D micro-CT imaging. We also demonstrate that deformations in airway branch angles resulting from the casting procedure are small, and that these angle deformations can be reversed through an interactive adjustment of the segmented cast geometry. Animal work was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  8. Laser speckle-imaging of blood microcirculation in the brain cortex of laboratory rats in stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vilensky, M A; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana V; Timoshina, P A; Kuznetsova, Jana V; Semyachkin-Glushkovskii, I A; Agafonov, Dmitry N; Tuchin, Valerii V

    2012-06-30

    The results of experimental approbation of the method of laser full-field speckle-imaging for monitoring the changes in blood microcirculation state of the brain cortex of laboratory rats under the conditions of developing stroke and administration of vasodilating and vasoconstrictive agents are presented. The studies aimed at the choice of the optimal conditions of speckle-image formation and recording were performed and the software implementing an adaptive algorithm for processing the data of measurements was created. The transfer of laser radiation to the probed region of the biotissue was implemented by means of a silica-polymer optical fibre. The problems and prospects of speckle-imaging of cerebral microcirculation of blood in laboratory and clinical conditions are discussed.

  9. CPEB1 modulates lipopolysaccharide-mediated iNOS induction in rat primary astrocytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Ki Chan; Hyun Joo, So; Shin, Chan Young

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} Expression and phosphorylation of CPEB1 is increased by LPS stimulation in rat primary astrocytes. {yields} JNK regulates expression and phosphorylation of CPEB1 in reactive astrocytes. {yields} Down-regulation of CPEB1 using siRNA inhibits oxidative stress and iNOS induction by LPS stimulation. {yields} CPEB1 may play an important role in regulating inflammatory responses in reactive astrocytes induced by LPS. -- Abstract: Upon CNS damage, astrocytes undergo a series of biological changes including increased proliferation, production of inflammatory mediators and morphological changes, in a response collectively called reactive gliosis. This process is an essential part of the brains response to injury, yet much is unknown about the molecular mechanism(s) that induce these changes. In this study, we investigated the role of cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1 (CPEB1) in the regulation of inflammatory responses in a model of reactive gliosis, lipopolysaccharide-stimulated astrocytes. CPEB1 is an mRNA-binding protein recently shown to be expressed in astrocytes that may play a role in astrocytes migration. After LPS stimulation, the expression and phosphorylation of CPEB1 was increased in rat primary astrocytes in a JNK-dependent process. siRNA-induced knockdown of CPEB1 expression inhibited the LPS-induced up-regulation of iNOS as well as NO and ROS production, a hallmark of immunological activation of astrocytes. The results from the study suggest that CPEB1 is actively involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses in astrocytes, which might provide new insights into the regulatory mechanism after brain injury.

  10. Atherosclerosis induced by arsenic in drinking water in rats through altering lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Tain-Junn; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye; Chang, Chia-Yu; Tsai, Wan-Chen; Chen, Kuan-Jung; Guo, How-Ran

    2011-10-15

    Arsenic in drinking water is a global environmental health problem, and the exposure may increase cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases mortalities, most likely through causing atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism of atherosclerosis formation after arsenic exposure is still unclear. To study the mechanism of atherosclerosis formation after arsenic exposure and explore the role of high cholesterol diet (HCD) in this process, we fed spontaneous hypertensive rats and Wistar Kyoto rats with basal diet or HCD and provided with them drinking water containing arsenic at different ages and orders for 20 consecutive weeks. We measured high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol, triglycerides, heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70), and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) at predetermined intervals and determined expressions of cholesteryl ester transfer protein-1 (CETP-1) and liver X receptor {beta} (LXR{beta}) in the liver. Atherosclerosis was determined by examining the aorta with hematoxylin and eosin stain. After 20 weeks, we found arsenic, alone or combined with HCD, may promote atherosclerosis formation with transient increases in HSP 70 and hs-CRP. Early combination exposure decreased the HDL-C/LDL-C ratio without changing the levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride until 30 weeks old. Both CETP-1 and LXR{beta} activities were suppressed, most significantly in early combination exposure. In conclusion, arsenic exposure may induce atherosclerosis through modifying reverse cholesterol transport in cholesterol metabolism and suppressing LXR{beta} and CEPT-1 expressions. For decreasing atherosclerosis related mortality associated with arsenic, preventing exposure from environmental sources in early life is an important element. - Highlights: > Arsenic causes cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases through atherosclerosis. > Arsenic may promote atherosclerosis with transient increase in HSP

  11. Stabilization of mitochondrial membrane potential prevents doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in isolated rat heart

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montaigne, David; Marechal, Xavier; Baccouch, Riadh; Modine, Thomas; Preau, Sebastien; Zannis, Konstantinos; Marchetti, Philippe; Lancel, Steve; Neviere, Remi

    2010-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of doxorubicin on left ventricular function and cellular energy state in intact isolated hearts, and, to test whether inhibition of mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation would prevent doxorubicin-induced mitochondrial and myocardial dysfunction. Myocardial contractile performance and mitochondrial respiration were evaluated by left ventricular tension and its first derivatives and cardiac fiber respirometry, respectively. NADH levels, mitochondrial membrane potential and glucose uptake were monitored non-invasively via epicardial imaging of the left ventricular wall of Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. Heart performance was reduced in a time-dependent manner in isolated rat hearts perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 1 muM doxorubicin. Compared with controls, doxorubicin induced acute myocardial dysfunction (dF/dt{sub max} of 105 +- 8 mN/s in control hearts vs. 49 +- 7 mN/s in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05). In cardiac fibers prepared from perfused hearts, doxorubicin induced depression of mitochondrial respiration (respiratory control ratio of 4.0 +- 0.2 in control hearts vs. 2.2 +- 0.2 in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05) and cytochrome c oxidase kinetic activity (24 +- 1 muM cytochrome c/min/mg in control hearts vs. 14 +- 3 muM cytochrome c/min/mg in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05). Acute cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin was accompanied by NADH redox state, mitochondrial membrane potential, and glucose uptake reduction. Inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening by cyclosporine A largely prevented mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, cardiac energy state and dysfunction. These results suggest that in intact hearts an impairment of mitochondrial metabolism is involved in the development of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity.

  12. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in rat receiving nilotinib

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Zhi-yong; Wan, Li-li; Yang, Quan-jun; Han, Yong-long; Li, Yan; Yu, Qi; Guo, Cheng; Li, Xiao

    2013-10-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent chemotherapy drug with a narrow therapeutic window. Nilotinib, a small-molecule Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was reported to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transmembrane transporters. The present study aimed to investigate nilotinib's affection on the steady-state pharmacokinetics, disposition and cardiotoxicity of DOX. A total of 24 male SpragueDawley rats were randomized into four groups (6 in each) and received the following regimens: saline, intravenous DOX (5 mg/kg) alone, and DOX co-administrated with either 20 or 40 mg/kg nilotinib. Blood was withdrawn at 12 time points till 72 h after DOX injection and the concentrations of DOX and its metabolite doxorubicinol (DOXol) in serum and cardiac tissue were assayed by LCMSMS method. To determine the cardiotoxicity, the following parameters were investigated: creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Histopathological examination of heart section was carried out to evaluate the extent of cardiotoxicity after treatments. The results showed that pretreatment of 40 mg/kg nilotinib increased the AUC{sub 0t} and C{sub max} of DOX and DOXol. However, their accumulation in cardiac tissue was significantly decreased when compared with the group that received DOX alone. In addition, biochemical and histopathological results showed that 40 mg/kg nilotinib reduced the cardiotoxicity induced by DOX administration. In conclusion, co-administration of nilotinib increased serum exposure, but significantly decreased the accumulation of DOX in cardiac tissue. Consistent with in vitro profile, oral dose of 40 mg/kg nilotinib significantly decreased the cardiotoxicity of DOX in rat by enhancing P-gp activity in the heart.

  13. Boldine enhances bile production in rats via osmotic and Farnesoid X receptor dependent mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cermanova, Jolana; Kadova, Zuzana; Zagorova, Marie; Hroch, Milos; Tomsik, Pavel; Nachtigal, Petr; Kudlackova, Zdenka; Pavek, Petr; Dubecka, Michaela; Ceckova, Martina; Staud, Frantisek; Laho, Tomas; Micuda, Stanislav

    2015-05-15

    Boldine, the major alkaloid from the Chilean Boldo tree, is used in traditional medicine to support bile production, but evidence to support this function is controversial. We analyzed the choleretic potential of boldine, including its molecular background. The acute- and long-term effects of boldine were evaluated in rats either during intravenous infusion or after 28-day oral treatment. Infusion of boldine instantly increased the bile flow 1.4-fold in healthy rats as well as in animals with Mrp2 deficiency or ethinylestradiol induced cholestasis. This effect was not associated with a corresponding increase in bile acid or glutathione biliary excretion, indicating that the effect is not related to stimulation of either bile acid dependent or independent mechanisms of bile formation and points to the osmotic activity of boldine itself. We subsequently analyzed bile production under conditions of changing biliary excretion of boldine after bolus intravenous administration and found strong correlations between both parameters. HPLC analysis showed that bile concentrations of boldine above 10 μM were required for induction of choleresis. Importantly, long-term pretreatment, when the bile collection study was performed 24-h after the last administration of boldine, also accelerated bile formation despite undetectable levels of the compound in bile. The effect paralleled upregulation of the Bsep transporter and increased biliary clearance of its substrates, bile acids. We consequently confirmed the ability of boldine to stimulate the Bsep transcriptional regulator, FXR receptor. In conclusion, our study clarified the mechanisms and circumstances surrounding the choleretic activity of boldine. - Highlights: • Boldine may increase bile production by direct as well as indirect mechanisms. • Biliary concentrations of boldine above 10 μM directly stimulate bile production. • Long-term oral boldine administration increases bile acid (BA) biliary secretion. • Boldine

  14. The combination of donepezil and procyclidine protects against soman-induced seizures in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haug, Kristin Huse . E-mail: k.h.haug@medisin.uio.no; Myhrer, Trond; Fonnum, Frode

    2007-04-15

    Current treatment of nerve agent poisoning consists of prophylactic administration of pyridostigmine and therapy using atropine, an oxime and a benzodiazepine. Pyridostigmine does however not readily penetrate the blood-brain barrier giving ineffective protection of Brain against centrally mediated seizure activity. In this study, we have evaluated donepezil hydrochloride, a partial reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) clinically used for treating Alzheimer's disease, in combination with procyclidine, used in treatment of Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia, as prophylaxis against intoxication by the nerve agent soman. The results demonstrated significant protective efficacy of donepezil (2.5 mg/kg) combined with procyclidine (3 or 6 mg/kg) when given prophylactically against a lethal dose of soman (1.6x LD{sub 50}) in Wistar rats. No neuropathological changes were found in rats treated with this combination 48 h after soman intoxication. Six hours after soman exposure cerebral AChE activity and acetylcholine (ACh) concentration was 5% and 188% of control, respectively. The ACh concentration had returned to basal levels 24 h after soman intoxication, while AChE activity had recovered to 20% of control. Loss of functioning muscarinic ACh receptors (17%) but not nicotinic receptors was evident at this time point. The recovery in brain AChE activity seen in our study may be due to the reversible binding of donepezil to the enzyme. Donepezil is well tolerated in humans, and a combination of donepezil and procyclidine may prove useful as an alternative to the currently used prophylaxis against nerve agent intoxication.

  15. Bone morphogenic protein-2 regulates the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs in CBDL rat serum-induced pulmonary microvascular remodeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chang; Chen, Lin; Zeng, Jing; Cui, Jian; Ning, Jiao-nin; Wang, Guan-song; Belguise, Karine; Wang, Xiaobo; Qian, Gui-sheng; Lu, Kai-zhi; Yi, Bin

    2015-08-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is characterized by an arterial oxygenation defect induced by intrapulmonary vasodilation (IPVD) that increases morbidity and mortality. In our previous study, it was determined that both the proliferation and the myogenic differentiation of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) play a key role in the development of IPVD. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the relationship between IPVD and the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs remains unknown. Additionally, it has been shown that bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP2), via the control of protein expression, may regulate cell differentiation including cardiomyocyte differentiation, neuronal differentiation and odontoblastic differentiation. In this study, we observed that common bile duct ligation (CBDL)-rat serum induced the upregulation of the expression of several myogenic proteins (SM-α-actin, calponin, SM-MHC) and enhanced the expression levels of BMP2 mRNA and protein in PMVECs. We also observed that both the expression levels of Smad1/5 and the activation of phosphorylated Smad1/5 were significantly elevated in PMVECs following exposure to CBDL-rat serum, which was accompanied by the down-regulation of Smurf1. The blockage of the BMP2/Smad signaling pathway with Noggin inhibited the myogenic differentiation of PMVECs, a process that was associated with relatively low expression levels of both SM-α-actin and calponin in the setting of CBDL-rat serum exposure, although SM-MHC expression was not affected. These findings suggested that the BMP2/Smad signaling pathway is involved in the myogenic differentiation of the PMVECs. In conclusion, our data highlight the pivotal role of BMP2 in the CBDL-rat serum-induced myogenic differentiation of PMVECs via the activation of both Smad1 and Smad5 and the down-regulation of Smurf1, which may represent a potential therapy for HPS-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling. - Highlights: • CBDL-rat serum promotes the myogenic

  16. Closeout for U.S. Department of Energy Final Technical Report for University of Arizona grant DOE Award Number DE-FG03-95ER40906 From 1 February 1995 to 31 January 2004 Grant title: Theory and Phenomenology of Strong and Weak High Energy Physics (Task A) and Experimental Elementary Particle Physics (Task B)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutherfoord, John; Toussaint, Doug; Sarcevic, Ina

    2005-03-03

    The following pages describe the high energy physics program at the University of Arizona which was funded by DOE grant DE-FG03-95ER40906, for the period 1 February 1995 to 31 January 2004. In this report, emphasis was placed on more recent accomplishments. This grant was divided into two tasks, a theory task (Task A) and an experimental task (Task B but called Task C early in the grant period) with separate budgets. Faculty supported by this grant, for at least part of this period, include, for the theory task, Adrian Patrascioiu (now deceased), Ina Sarcevic, and Douglas Toussaint., and, for the experimental task, Elliott Cheu, Geoffrey Forden, Kenneth Johns, John Rutherfoord, Michael Shupe, and Erich Varnes. Grant monitors from the Germantown DOE office, overseeing our grant, changed over the years. Dr. Marvin Gettner covered the first years and then he retired from the DOE. Dr. Patrick Rapp worked with us for just a few years and then left for a position at the University of Puerto Rico. Dr. Kathleen Turner took his place and continues as our grant monitor. The next section of this report covers the activities of the theory task (Task A) and the last section the activities of the experimental task (Task B).

  17. Transgenic rats overexpressing the human MrgX3 gene show cataracts and an abnormal skin phenotype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaisho, Yoshihiko . E-mail: Kaisho_Yoshihiko@takeda.co.jp; Watanabe, Takuya; Nakata, Mitsugu; Yano, Takashi; Yasuhara, Yoshitaka; Shimakawa, Kozo; Mori, Ikuo; Sakura, Yasufumi; Terao, Yasuko; Matsui, Hideki; Taketomi, Shigehisa

    2005-05-13

    The human MrgX3 gene, belonging to the mrgs/SNSRs (mass related genes/sensory neuron specific receptors) family, was overexpressed in transgenic rats using the actin promoter. Two animal lines showed cataracts with liquification/degeneration and swelling of the lens fiber cells. The transient epidermal desquamation was observed in line with higher gene expression. Histopathology of the transgenic rats showed acanthosis and focal parakeratosis. In the epidermis, there was an increase in cellular keratin 14, keratin 10, and loricrin, as well as PGP 9.5 in innervating nerve fibers. These phenotypes accompanied an increase in the number of proliferating cells. These results suggest that overexpression of the human MrgX3 gene causes a disturbance of the normal cell-differentiation process.

  18. NMR-based metabonomic analysis of the hepatotoxicity induced by combined exposure to PCBs and TCDD in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu Chunfeng; Wang Yimei; Sheng Zhiguo; Liu Gang; Fu Ze; Zhao Jing; Zhao Jun; Yan Xianzhong; Zhu Benzhan; Peng Shuangqing

    2010-11-01

    A metabonomic approach using {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy was adopted to investigate the metabonomic pattern of rat urine after oral administration of environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) alone or in combination and to explore the possible hepatotoxic mechanisms of combined exposure to PCBs and TCDD. {sup 1}H NMR spectra of urines collected 24 h before and after exposure were analyzed via pattern recognition by using principal component analysis (PCA). Serum biochemistry and liver histopathology indicated significant hepatotoxicity in the rats of the combined group. The PCA scores plots of urinary {sup 1}H NMR data showed that all the treatment groups could be easily distinguished from the control group, so could the PCBs or TCDD group and the combined group. The loadings plots of the PCA revealed remarkable increases in the levels of lactate, glucose, taurine, creatine, and 2-hydroxy-isovaleric acid and reductions in the levels of 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, succinate, hippurate, and trimethylamine-N-oxide in rat urine after exposure. These changes were more striking in the combined group. The changed metabolites may be considered possible biomarker for the hepatotoxicity. The present study demonstrates that combined exposure to PCBs and TCDD induced significant hepatotoxicity in rats, and mitochondrial dysfunction and fatty acid metabolism perturbations might contribute to the hepatotoxicity. There was good conformity between changes in the urine metabonomic pattern and those in serum biochemistry and liver histopathology. These results showed that the NMR-based metabonomic approach may provide a promising technique for the evaluation of the combined toxicity of EDs.

  19. Inter-strain heterogeneity in rat hepatic transcriptomic responses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, Cindy Q.; Prokopec, Stephenie D.; Watson, John D.; Pang, Renee; P'ng, Christine; Chong, Lauren C.; Harding, Nicholas J. [Informatics and Biocomputing Platform, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto (Canada)] [Informatics and Biocomputing Platform, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto (Canada); Pohjanvirta, Raimo [Laboratory of Toxicology, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland) [Laboratory of Toxicology, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland); Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, University of Helsinki (Finland); Okey, Allan B. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Boutros, Paul C., E-mail: Paul.Boutros@oicr.on.ca [Informatics and Biocomputing Platform, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-04-15

    The biochemical and toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) have been the subject of intense study for decades. It is now clear that essentially all TCDD-induced toxicities are mediated by DNAprotein interactions involving the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR). Nevertheless, it remains unknown which AHR target genes cause TCDD toxicities. Several groups, including our own, have developed rodent model systems to probe these questions. mRNA expression profiling of these model systems has revealed significant inter-species heterogeneity in rodent hepatic responses to TCDD. It has remained unclear if this variability also exists within a species, amongst rodent strains. To resolve this question, we profiled the hepatic transcriptomic response to TCDD of diverse rat strains (L-E, H/W, F344 and Wistar rats) and two lines derived from L-E H/W crosses, at consistent age, sex, and dosing (100 ?g/kg TCDD for 19 h). Using this uniquely consistent dataset, we show that the majority of TCDD-induced alterations in mRNA abundance are strain/line-specific: only 11 genes were affected by TCDD across all strains, including well-known dioxin-responsive genes such as Cyp1a1 and Nqo1. Our analysis identified two novel universally dioxin-responsive genes as well as 4 genes induced by TCDD in dioxin-sensitive rats only. These 6 genes are strong candidates to explain TCDD-related toxicities, so we validated them using 152 animals in time-course (0 to 384 h) and doseresponse (0 to 3000 ?g/kg) experiments. This study reveals that different rat strains exhibit dramatic transcriptional heterogeneity in their hepatic responses to TCDD and that inter-strain comparisons can help identify candidate toxicity-related genes.

  20. Atrazine-induced reproductive tract alterations after transplacental and/or lactational exposure in male Long-Evans rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, Jennifer L.; Enoch, Rolondo R.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Fenton, Suzanne E. . E-mail: fenton.suzanne@epa.gov

    2007-02-01

    Studies showed that early postnatal exposure to the herbicide atrazine (ATR) delayed preputial separation (PPS) and increased incidence of prostate inflammation in adult Wistar rats. A cross-fostering paradigm was used in this study to determine if gestational exposure to ATR would also result in altered puberty and reproductive tissue effects in the male rat. Timed-pregnant Long-Evans (LE) rats were dosed by gavage on gestational days (GD) 15-19 with 100 mg ATR/kg body weight (BW) or 1% methylcellulose (controls, C). On postnatal day (PND)1, half litters were cross-fostered, creating 4 treatment groups; C-C, ATR-C, C-ATR, and ATR-ATR (transplacental-milk as source, respectively). On PND4, male offspring in the ATR-ATR group weighed significantly less than the C-C males. ATR-ATR male pups had significantly delayed preputial separation (PPS). BWs at PPS for C-ATR and ATR-ATR males were reduced by 6% and 9%, respectively, from that of C-C. On PND120, lateral prostate weights of males in the ATR-ATR group were significantly increased over C-C. Histological examination of lateral and ventral prostates identified an increased distribution of inflammation in the lateral prostates of C-ATR males. By PND220, lateral prostate weights were significantly increased for ATR-C and ATR-ATR, but there were no significant changes in inflammation in either the lateral or ventral prostate. These results suggest that in LE rats, gestational ATR exposure delays PPS when male offspring suckle an ATR dam, but leads to increased lateral prostate weight via transplacental exposure alone. Inflammation present at PND120 does not increase in severity with time.

  1. Phorate-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage and transcriptional activation of p53 and caspase genes in male Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saquib, Quaiser; Attia, Sabry M.; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A.M.; Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, 12613 Giza ; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Giesy, John P.; Department of Biomedical and Veterinary Biosciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada S7N 5B3; Zoology Department and Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824 ; Musarrat, Javed; Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, AMU, Aligarh

    2012-02-15

    Male Wistar rats exposed to a systemic organophosphorus insecticide, phorate [O,O-diethyl S-[(ethylthio) methyl] phosphorothioate] at varying oral doses of 0.046, 0.092 or 0.184 mg phorate/kg bw for 14 days, exhibited substantial oxidative stress, cellular DNA damage and activation of apoptosis-related p53, caspase 3 and 9 genes. The histopathological changes including the pyknotic nuclei, inflammatory leukocyte infiltrations, renal necrosis, and cardiac myofiber degeneration were observed in the liver, kidney and heart tissues. Biochemical analysis of catalase and glutathione revealed significantly lesser activities of antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in tissues of phorate exposed rats. Furthermore, generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential in bone marrow cells confirmed phorate-induced oxidative stress. Significant DNA damage was measured through comet assay in terms of the Olive tail moment in bone marrow cells of treated animals as compared to control. Cell cycle analysis also demonstrated the G{sub 2}/M arrest and appearance of a distinctive SubG{sub 1} peak, which signified induction of apoptosis. Up-regulation of tumor suppressor p53 and caspase 3 and 9 genes, determined by quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, elucidated the activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathways in response to cellular stress. Overall, the results suggest that phorate induces genetic alterations and cellular toxicity, which can adversely affect the normal cellular functioning in rats. -- Highlights: ► This is the first report on molecular toxicity of phorate in an in vivo test system. ► Phorate induces biochemical and histological changes in liver, kidney and heart. ► Rats treated with phorate exhibited DNA damage in bone marrow cells. ► Phorate induces apoptosis, oxidative stress and alters mitochondrial fluorescence. ► Phorate induces transcriptional changes and enhanced

  2. Claudin-3 expression in radiation-exposed rat models: A potential marker for radiation-induced intestinal barrier failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shim, Sehwan; Lee, Jong-geol; Bae, Chang-hwan; Lee, Seung Bum; Jang, Won-Suk; Lee, Sun-Joo; Lee, Seung-Sook; Park, Sunhoo

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • Irradiation increased intestinal bacterial translocation, accompanied by claudin protein expression in rats. • Neurotensin decreased the bacterial translocation and restored claudin-3 expression. • Claudin-3 can be used as a marker in evaluating radiation induced intestinal injury. - Abstract: The molecular events leading to radiation-induced intestinal barrier failure are not well known. The influence of the expression of claudin proteins in the presence and absence of neurotensin was investigated in radiation-exposed rat intestinal epithelium. Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, irradiation, and irradiation + neurotensin groups, and bacterial translocation to the mesenteric lymph node and expression of claudins were determined. Irradiation led to intestinal barrier failure as demonstrated by significant bacterial translocation. In irradiated terminal ilea, expression of claudin-3 and claudin-4 was significantly decreased, and claudin-2 expression was increased. Administration of neurotensin significantly reduced bacterial translocation and restored the structure of the villi as seen by histologic examination. Among the three subtype of claudins, only claudin-3 expression was restored. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of neurotensin on the disruption of the intestinal barrier is associated with claudin-3 alteration and that claudin-3 could be used as a marker in evaluating radiation-induced intestinal injury.

  3. Amifostine, a radioprotectant agent, protects rat brain tissue lipids against ionizing radiation induced damage: An FTIR microspectroscopic imaging study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cakmak G.; Miller L.; Zorlu, F.; Severcan, F.

    2012-03-03

    Amifostine is the only approved radioprotective agent by FDA for reducing the damaging effects of radiation on healthy tissues. In this study, the protective effect of amifostine against the damaging effects of ionizing radiation on the white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) regions of the rat brain were investigated at molecular level. Sprague-Dawley rats, which were administered amifostine or not, were whole-body irradiated at a single dose of 800 cGy, decapitated after 24 h and the brain tissues of these rats were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The results revealed that the total lipid content and CH{sub 2} groups of lipids decreased significantly and the carbonyl esters, olefinic=CH and CH{sub 3} groups of lipids increased significantly in the WM and GM after exposure to ionizing radiation, which could be interpreted as a result of lipid peroxidation. These changes were more prominent in the WM of the brain. The administration of amifostine before ionizing radiation inhibited the radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in the brain. In addition, this study indicated that FTIRM provides a novel approach for monitoring ionizing radiation induced-lipid peroxidation and obtaining different molecular ratio images can be used as biomarkers to detect lipid peroxidation in biological systems.

  4. TCDD dysregulation of 13 AHR-target genes in rat liver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, John D.; Prokopec, Stephenie D.; Smith, Ashley B.; Okey, Allan B.; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Boutros, Paul C.

    2014-02-01

    Despite several decades of research, the complete mechanism by which 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other xenobiotic agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) cause toxicity remains unclear. While it has been shown that the AHR is required for all major manifestations of toxicity, the specific downstream changes involved in the development of toxic phenotypes remain unknown. Here we examine a panel of 13 genes that are AHR-regulated in many species and tissues. We profiled their hepatic mRNA abundances in two rat strains with very different sensitivities to TCDD: the TCDD-sensitive LongEvans (Turku/AB; LE) and the TCDD-resistant Han/Wistar (Kuopio; H/W). We evaluated doses ranging from 0 to 3000 ?g/kg at 19 h after TCDD exposure and time points ranging from 1.5 to 384 h after exposure to 100 ?g/kg TCDD. Twelve of 13 genes responded to TCDD in at least one strain, and seven of these showed statistically significant inter-strain differences in the time course analysis (Aldh3a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1, Cyp2a1, Fmo1, Nfe2l2 and Nqo1). Cyp2s1 did not respond to TCDD in either rat strain. Five genes exhibited biphasic responses to TCDD insult (Ahrr, Aldh3a1, Cyp1b1, Nfe2l2 and Nqo1), suggesting a secondary event, such as association with additional transcriptional modulators. Of the 12 genes that responded to TCDD during the doseresponse analysis, none had an ED{sub 50} equivalent to that of Cyp1a1, the most sensitive gene in this study, while nine genes responded to doses at least 10100 fold higher, in at least one strain (Ahrr (LE), Aldh3a1 (both), Cyp1a2 (both), Cyp1b1 (both), Cyp2a1 (LE), Inmt (both), Nfe2l2 (LE), Nqo1 (LE) and Tiparp (both)). These data shed new light on the association of the AHR target genes with TCDD toxicity, and in particular the seven genes exhibiting strain-specific differences represent strong candidate mediators of Type-II toxicities. - Highlights: NanoString measured hepatic mRNA molecules following TCDD treatment

  5. Ritonavir binds to and downregulates estrogen receptors: Molecular mechanism of promoting early atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, Jin; Wang, Ying; Su, Ke; Liu, Min; Hu, Peng-Chao; Ma, Tian; Li, Jia-Xi; Wei, Lei; Zheng, Zhongliang; Yang, Fang

    2014-10-01

    Estrogenic actions are closely related to cardiovascular disease. Ritonavir (RTV), a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor, induces atherosclerosis in an estrogen-related manner. However, how RTV induce pathological phenotypes through estrogen pathway remains unclear. In this study, we found that RTV increases thickness of coronary artery walls of Sprague Dawley rats and plasma free fatty acids (FFA) levels. In addition, RTV could induce foam cell formation, downregulate both estrogen receptor ? (ER?) and ER? expression, upregulate G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) expression, and all of them could be partially blocked by 17?-estradiol (E2), suggesting RTV acts as an antagonist for E2. Computational modeling shows a similar interaction with ER? between RTV and 2-aryl indoles, which are highly subtype-selective ligands for ER?. We also found that RTV directly bound to ER? and selectively inhibited the nuclear localization of ER?, and residue Leu536 in the hydrophobic core of ligand binding domain (LBD) was essential for the interaction with RTV. In addition, RTV did not change the secondary structure of ER?-LBD like E2, which explained how ER? lost the capacity of nuclear translocation under the treatment of RTV. All of the evidences suggest that ritonavir acts as an antagonist for 17?-estradiol in regulating ? subtype estrogen receptor function and early events of atherosclerosis. - Graphical abstract: RTV directly binds to ER? and Leu536 in the hydrophobic core of ligand binding domain is essential for the interaction. - Highlights: RTV increases the thickness of rat coronary artery wall and foam cell formation. RTV downregulates the expression of ER? and ER?. RTV inhibits ER? promoter activity. RTV directly binds to ER? and the key amino acid is Leu536. RTV inhibits the nuclear translocation of ER? and GPER.

  6. Proximal renal tubular injury in rats sub-chronically exposed to low fluoride concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crdenas-Gonzlez, Mariana C.; Del Razo, Luz M.; Barrera-Chimal, Jonatan; Jacobo-Estrada, Tania; Lpez-Bayghen, Esther; and others

    2013-11-01

    Fluoride is usually found in groundwater at a very wide range of concentration between 0.5 and 25 ppm. At present, few studies have assessed the renal effects of fluoride at environmentally relevant concentrations. Furthermore, most of these studies have used insensitive and nonspecific biomarkers of kidney injury. The aim of this study was to use early and sensitive biomarkers to evaluate kidney injury after fluoride exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations. Recently weaned male Wistar rats were exposed to low (15 ppm) and high (50 ppm) fluoride concentrations in drinking water for a period of 40 days. At the end of the exposure period, kidney injury biomarkers were measured in urine and renal mRNA expression levels were assessed by real time RT-PCR. Our results showed that the urinary kidney injury molecule (Kim-1), clusterin (Clu), osteopontin (OPN) and heat shock protein 72 excretion rate significantly increased in the group exposed to the high fluoride concentration. Accordingly, fluoride exposure increased renal Kim-1, Clu and OPN mRNA expression levels. Moreover, there was a significant dose-dependent increase in urinary ?-2-microglobulin and cystatin-C excretion rate. Additionally, a tendency towards a dose dependent increase of tubular damage in the histopathological light microscopy findings confirmed the preferential impact of fluoride on the tubular structure. All of these changes occurred at early stages in which, the renal function was not altered. In conclusion using early and sensitive biomarkers of kidney injury, we were able to found proximal tubular alterations in rats sub-chronically exposed to fluoride. - Highlights: Exposure to low concentrations of fluoride induced proximal tubular injury Increase in urinary Kim-1, Clu, OPN and Hsp72 in 50 ppm fluoride-exposed group Increase in urinary B2M and CysC in 15 and 50 ppm fluoride-exposed groups Fluoride exposure increased renal Kim, Clu and OPN mRNA expression levels. Fluoride

  7. Role of the direct and indirect pathways for glycogen synthesis in rat liver in the postprandial state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, M.T.; Veech, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    The pathway for hepatic glycogen synthesis in the postprandial state was studied in meal-fed rats chronically cannulated in the portal vein. Plasma glucose concentration in the portal vein was found to be 4.50 +/- 1.01 mM (mean +/- SE; n = 3) before a meal and 11.54 +/- 0.70 mM (mean +/- SE; n = 4) after a meal in rats meal-fed a diet consisting of 100% commercial rat chow for 7 d. The hepatic-portal difference of plasma glucose concentration showed that liver released glucose in the fasted state and either extracted or released glucose after feeding depending on plasma glucose concentration in the portal vein. The concentration of portal vein glucose at which liver changes from glucose releasing to glucose uptake was 8 mM, the Km of glucokinase. The rate of glycogen synthesis in liver during meal-feeding was found to be approximately 1 mumol glucosyl U/g wet wt/min in rats meal-fed a 50% glucose supplemented chow diet. The relative importance of the direct vs. indirect pathway for the replenishment of hepatic glycogen was determined by the incorporation of (3-/sup 3/H,U-/sup 14/C)glucose into liver glycogen. Labeled glucose was injected into the portal vein at the end of meal-feeding. The ratio of /sup 3/H//sup 14/C in the glucosyl units of glycogen was found to be 83-92% of the ratio in liver free glucose six minutes after the injection, indicating that the majority of exogenous glucose incorporated into glycogen did not go through glycolysis. The percent contribution of the direct versus indirect pathway was quantitated from the difference in the relative specific activity (RSA) of (/sup 3/H) and (/sup 14/C)-glycogen in rats infused with (3-/sup 3/H,U-/sup 14/C)glucose. No significant difference was found between the RSA of (/sup 3/H)glycogen and (/sup 14/C)glycogen, indicating further that the pathway for glycogen synthesis in liver from exogenous glucose is from the direct pathway.

  8. Phase equilibria in the quasiternary system Ag{sub 2}S–Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}–In{sub 2}S{sub 3} and optical properties of (Ga{sub 55}In{sub 45}){sub 2}S{sub 300}, (Ga{sub 54.59}In{sub 44.66}Er{sub 0.75}){sub 2}S{sub 300} single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivashchenko, I.A.; Danyliuk, I.V.; Olekseyuk, I.D.; Pankevych, V.Z.; Halyan, V.V.

    2015-07-15

    The quasiternary system Ag{sub 2}S–Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}–In{sub 2}S{sub 3} was investigated by differential thermal, X-ray diffraction analyses. The phase diagram of the Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}–In{sub 2}S{sub 3} system and nine polythermal sections, isothermal section at 820 K and the liquidus surface projection were constructed. The existence of the large solid solutions ranges of binary and ternary compounds was established. The range of the existence of the quaternary phase AgGa{sub x}In{sub 5−x}S{sub 8} (2.25≤x≤2.85) at 820 K was determined. The single crystals (Ga{sub 55}In{sub 45}){sub 2}S{sub 300} and (Ga{sub 54.59}In{sub 44.66}Er{sub 0.75}){sub 2}S{sub 300} were grown by a directional crystallization method from solution-melt. Optical absorption spectra in the 500–1600 nm range were recorded. The luminescence of the (Ga{sub 54.59}In{sub 44.66}Er{sub 0.75}){sub 2}S{sub 300} single crystal shows a maximum at 1530 nm for the excitation wavelengths of 532 and 980 nm at 80 and 300 K. - Graphical abstract: Isothermal section of the quasiternary system Ag{sub 2}S–Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}–In{sub 2}S{sub 3} at 820 K and normalized photoluminescence spectra of the single crystal (Ga{sub 54.59}In{sub 44.66}Er{sub 0.75}){sub 2}S{sub 300} at 300 K. - Highlights: • Isothermal section at 820 K, liquidus surface projection were built for Ag{sub 2}S–Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}–In{sub 2}S{sub 3}. • Optical properties of single crystals were studied.

  9. Imaging Nicotine in Rat Brain Tissue by Use of Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Thomas, Mathew; Carson, James P.; Smith, Jordan N.; Timchalk, Charles; Laskin, Julia

    2013-01-15

    Imaging mass spectrometry offers simultaneous detection of drugs, drug metabolites and endogenous substances in a single experiment. This is important when evaluating effects of a drug on a complex organ system such as the brain, where there is a need to understand how regional drug distribution impacts function. Nicotine is an addictive drug and its action in the brain is of high interest. Here we use nanospray desorption electrospray ionization, nano-DESI, imaging to discover the localization of nicotine in rat brain tissue after in vivo administration of nicotine. Nano-DESI is a new ambient technique that enables spatially-resolved analysis of tissue samples without special sample pretreatment. We demonstrate high sensitivity of nano-DESI imaging that enables detection of only 0.7 fmole nicotine per pixel in the complex brain matrix. Furthermore, by adding deuterated nicotine to the solvent, we examined how matrix effects, ion suppression, and normalization affect the observed nicotine distribution. Finally, we provide preliminary results suggesting that nicotine localizes to the hippocampal substructure called dentate gyrus.

  10. Adult rat bone marrow stromal cells express genes associated with dopamine neurons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Brian C.; Woodbury, Dale . E-mail: WOODBURYDL@AOL.COM; Black, Ira B.

    2006-05-19

    An intensive search is underway to identify candidates to replace the cells that degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD). To date, no suitable substitute has been found. We have recently found that adult rat bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) can be induced to assume a neuronal phenotype in vitro. These findings may have particular relevance to the treatment of PD. We now report that adult MSCs express multiple dopaminergic genes, suggesting that they are potential candidates for cell therapy. Using RT-PCR, we have examined families of genes that are associated with the development and/or survival of dopaminergic neurons. MSCs transcribe a variety of dopaminergic genes including patched and smoothened (components of the Shh receptor), Gli-1 (downstream mediator of Shh), and Otx-1, a gene associated with formation of the mesencephalon during development. Furthermore, Shh treatment elicits a 1.5-fold increase in DNA synthesis in cultured MSCs, suggesting the presence of a functional Shh receptor complex. We have also found that MSCs transcribe and translate Nurr-1, a nuclear receptor essential for the development of dopamine neurons. In addition, MSCs express a variety of growth factor receptors including the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored ligand-binding subunit of the GDNF receptor, GFR{alpha}1, as well as fibroblast growth factor receptors one and four. The expression of genes that are associated with the development and survival of dopamine neurons suggests a potential role for these cells in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  11. Engineered Nanostructures of Haptens Lead to Unexpected Formation of Membrane Nanotubes Connecting Rat Basophilic Leukemia Cells

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Li, Jie-Ren; Ross, Shailise S.; Liu, Yang; Liu, Ying X.; Wang, Kang-hsin; Chen, Huan-Yuan; Liu, Fu-Tong; Laurence, Ted A.; Liu, Gang-yu

    2015-06-09

    We report here on a recent finding that co-stimulation of the high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor (FcεRI) and the chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) triggered formation of membrane nanotubes among bone-marrow-derived mast cells. The co-stimulation was attained using corresponding ligands: IgE binding antigen and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP1 α), respectively. However, this approach failed to trigger formation of nanotubes among rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells due to the lack of CCR1 on the cell surface (Int. Immunol. 2010, 22 (2), 113–128). RBL cells are frequently used as a model for mast cells and are best known for antibody-mediated activation viamore » FcεRI. This work reports the successful formation of membrane nanotubes among RBLs using only one stimulus, a hapten of 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) molecules, which are presented as nanostructures with our designed spatial arrangements. This observation underlines the significance of the local presentation of ligands in the context of impacting the cellular signaling cascades. In the case of RBL, certain DNP nanostructures suppress antigen-induced degranulation and facilitate the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton to form nanotubes. We conclude that these results demonstrate an important scientific concept; engineered nanostructures enable cellular signaling cascades, where current technologies encounter great difficulties. More importantly, nanotechnology offers a new platform to selectively activate and/or inhibit desired cellular signaling cascades.« less

  12. Dissolution and clearance of titanium tritide particles in the lungs of F344/Crl rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Snipes, M.B.; Wang, Yansheng

    1995-12-01

    Metal tritides are compounds in which the radioactive isotope tritium, following adsorption onto the metal, forms a stable chemical compound with the metal. When particles of tritiated metals become airborne, they can be inhaled by workers. Because the particles may be retained in the lung for extended periods, the resulting dose will be greater than doses following exposure to tritium gas or tritium oxide (HTO). Particles of triated metals may be dispersed into the air during routine handling, disruption of contaminated metals, or as a result of spontaneous radioactive decay processes. Unlike metal hydrides and deuterides, tritides are radioactive, and the decay of the tritium atoms affects the metal. Because helium is a product of the decay, helium bubbles form within the metal tritide matrix. The pressure from these bubbles leads to respirable particles breaking off from the tritide surface. Our results show that a substantial amount of titanium tritide remains in the rat lung 10 d after intratracheal instillation, confirming results previously obtain in an in vitro dissolution study.

  13. Ethanol-induced cell damage in cultured rat antral mucosa assessed by chromium-51 release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sewell, R.B.; Ling, T.S.; Yeomans, N.D.

    1986-08-01

    We have developed an in vitro method for studying ethanol-induced injury to gastric mucosa using organ culture of rat antrum. Cell damage was assessed by measurement of the release of (/sup 51/Cr)sodium chromate from preloaded cells, a method adapted from a standard immunologic technique. This system provided rapid and highly reproducible quantitation of tissue injury as assessed by /sup 51/Cr release into the culture medium. The threshold concentration for ethanol-induced damage was between 10 and 15% v/v, similar to in vivo thresholds observed by others. /sup 51/Cr release could also be induced by very short exposure to ethanol (5-15 min), and then continued despite ethanol removal. Interestingly, after continuous ethanol exposure, a plateau of maximum /sup 51/Cr release was reached 60 min after exposure to ethanol over the concentration range 20-50%, suggesting tissue adaptation to ethanol damage. This organ culture system, which allows precise control of experimental conditions, may be useful for studying mechanisms of gastric mucosal injury and protection.

  14. Influence of copper and iron on subacute cadmium intoxication in protein-malnourished rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, P.C.; Kachru, D.N.; Tandon, S.K.

    1986-10-01

    Male albino rats maintained on low-protein (9%) diets were dosed intraperitoneally with 0.75 mg Cd/kg, as cadmium chloride, for 20 days. Groups of these animals were provided with diets supplemented with 40 ppm Cu, 400 ppm Fe or a combination of both during the exposure period. Hepatic and renal distribution of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Fe along with activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases and ribonuclease and glutathione content were studied. Uptake of Cd both in liver and in kidney was significant and was accompanied by increased Zn and depletion of Fe concentration. The Cu level remained unaltered. Dietary supplementation of Cu or Fe interacted effectively and influenced the metal distribution. Acid and alkaline phosphatases in both liver and kidney were inhibited by Cd exposure. However, Cu and/or Fe supplements could to a varying degree offset the Cd-induced inhibition. Cadmium exposure did not, however, elicit any effect on hepatic and renal ribonuclease activity of low-protein-fed animals. The glutathione concentration registered profound increase on Cd exposure, possibly to act as a defense mechanism.

  15. Effect of. cap alpha. -ketobutyrate on the metabolism of pyruvate and palmitate in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brass, E.P.

    1986-05-01

    Alpha-ketobutyrate (..cap alpha..KB), an intermediate in the catabolism of threonine and methionine, is decarboxylated to propionyl-CoA. The authors have reported that propionate (PROP) inhibits oxidative metabolism in rate hepatocytes. Based on these observations, the present study examined the effects of ..cap alpha..KB on pyruvate and palmitate metabolism in hepatocytes isolated from fed rats. Similar to PROP, ..cap alpha..KB (10mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation and this inhibition was diminished when 10mM carnitine (CN) was added (35 +/- 6% inhibition without CN, 22 +/- 8% with CN). ..cap alpha..KB inhibited the conversion of 3-/sup 14/C-pyruvate to glucose and CO/sub 2/. Inhibition of pyruvate metabolism by ..cap alpha..KB was concentration-dependent. At equal concentrations, ..cap alpha..KB inhibited pyruvate metabolism to a greater extent than PROP. Addition of CN partially reversed the effects of PROP on pyruvate metabolism, but not those of ..cap alpha..KB despite the generation of propionylcarnitine when ..cap alpha..KB and CN were included in the incubation. These results demonstrate that accumulation of ..cap alpha..KB can impair normal hepatocyte metabolism. While some of the effects of ..cap alpha..KB can be explained on the basis of propionyl-CoA formation, ..cap alpha..KB has effects on pyruvate metabolism not explainable by this mechanism.

  16. In vivo measurement of total body magnesium and manganese in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, R.Q.; Ellis, K.J. )

    1989-11-01

    Mg and Mn are essential minerals in many biological processes. Thus knowledge of their absolute amounts and how those amounts may be altered is important. In the past the in vivo measurement of Mg in animals was limited by both the poor geometry of the counting system and the requirement for multiple counts of the animal over several hours. We have developed a neutron activation technique for the direct in vivo measurement of total body Mg and Mn in the rat. The counting system adapted for the technique has a response that is relatively invariant (+/- 2.5%) to differences in body size. A least-squares curve fitting technique was developed that requires only a single 5-min count of the animal. Our in vivo values for body Mg and Mn were in excellent agreement (+/- 2.0%) with the results of total carcass analysis using atomic absorption. Longitudinal changes in total body Mg and Mn were examined in vivo in two groups of animals maintained on test diets that contained different amounts of Mg.

  17. DOE/ER-0441 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Plan - February 1990

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Plan ARM Program Plan Forward In 1978 the Department of Energy initiated the Carbon Dioxide Research Program to address climate change from the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Over the years the Program has studied the many facets of the issue, from the carbon cycle, the climate diagnostics, the vegetative effects, to the societal impacts. The Program is presently the Department's principal entry in the U.S. Global Change

  18. Microsoft Word - ER64694_FInalScientificRpt.docx

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Northwest National Laboratory Richard D. Smith Stephen J. Callister David W. Koppenaal ... J., Liberton, M., Mishra, S., Zhang, X., Nicora, C. D., Angel, T., Koppenaal, D. W., Smith...

  19. Electrorheological (ER) fluids: A research needs assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krieger, I.M.; Collins, E.A.

    1993-05-01

    This report consists of seven sections: (1) Executive Summary, (2) Introduction, (3) Overview, (4) Recommendations, (5) Panelist Reports, (6) Overseas Research and Development, and (7) Extended Bibliography. The Appendix contains the reports of site visits and contacts and other supplementary documents.

  20. final.ER41452.az.burrows.2007.pdf

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    i n a l R e p o r t o n t h e A r i z o n a P h a s e o f S c i D A C a w a r d D E - F C 0 2 - 0 6 E R 4 1 4 5 2 a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A r i z o n a A . B u r r o w s ...

  1. DOE Grant DE-FG02-01ER45931

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Nucleation of Magnetic Bubbles in Layered 2D Organic-based Magnet Fe(TCNE)(NCMe)2FeCl... Electronic Properties of Carbon-based Materials, Phoenix Park Korea, October 19, 2008. ...

  2. Audit report: ER-FS-99-02

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Matters Identified At The Oak Ridge Operations Office During the Audit Of The Department's Consolidated Fiscal Year 1998 Financial Statements

  3. Self-Assembled ErSb Nanostructures with Optical Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: solar (photovoltaic), solid state lighting, phonons, thermoelectric, bio-inspired, energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), electrodes - solar, defects, charge ...

  4. Final Technical Report for Award # ER64999 (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    global carbon cycle: a systems biology approach to the study of Methanosarcina species". ... methane; methanogenic archaea; systems biology; genomics; transcriptomics; metabolic ...

  5. Final report on DOE ASCR Grant DESC0001862 (ER25894)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tits, Andre L; O'Leary, Dianne P

    2013-08-28

    As was outlined in the proposal, the overall objective of this project is to investigate advanced optimization algorithms for solving entropy maximization problems. Entropy maximization is a general tool for reconstructing the least biased estimate of the state of a complex system, based on available information. In transport and kinetic theory, entropy maximization is used to derive closures for moment models in order to reduce the complexity of a kinetic description while maintaining many of its fundamental features. Application areas include gas dynamics, charged-particle transport, thermal radiative transfer, and neutron transport. Some such applications are of prime importance to the Department of Energy.

  6. Audit Report: ER-FS-99-01

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Results of Audit Procedures Performed at Chicago Operations Office During the Audit of the Department’s Consolidated Fiscal Year 1998 Financial Statements

  7. Audit Report: ER-FS-99-04

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Results of Audit Procedures Performed at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve During the Audit of the Department’s Consolidated Fiscal Year 1998 Financial Statements

  8. CX-00042_ER52_Fire_Station_Warning_Signals.pdf

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

  9. ER85357_Phase2_Eltron | netl.doe.gov

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Cost-effective recycling of boiler feed water used for steam injection will reduce freshwater consumption and disposal costs. Duraflux(tm) technology is also capable of treating ...

  10. Microsoft Word - ER64694_FInalScientificRpt.docx

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    as a New Model Organism for Biological Hydrogen Production 09152008-09142012 Himadri ... the cyanobacterium Cyanothece as a model organism for photobiological hydrogen production. ...

  11. ERS 14.2 Emissions Monitoring, 4/3/95

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objective of this surveillance is to verify that the contractor is monitoring emissions of radioactive materials and chemicals.  The Facility Representative will verify operability of equipment...

  12. DOE DE-FG02-07ER64341

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    radiotherapy treatment for prostate cancer were analyzed for gene expression using ... Ionizing Radiation Exposure," Clinical Cancer Research, 12, 3723-3729. Lehmann, Joerg, ...

  13. Audit Report: ER-FS-99-03

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL MATTERS IDENTIFIED AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER OPERATIONS OFFICE DURING THE AUDIT OF THE DEPARTMENT'S CONSOLIDATED FISCAL YEAR 1998 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS The office of Inspector General wants to make the distribution of its reports as customer friendly and cost effective as possible. Therefore, this report will be available electronically through the Internet at the following addresses: Department of Energy Management and Administration Home Page

  14. Audit Report: ER-FS-99-04

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    (8-89) EFG (07-90) United States Government Department of Energy Memorandum INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE The Government Management Reform Act of 1994 requires that audited financial statements covering all accounts and associated activities of the Department be submitted annually to the Office of Management and Budget. A Departmentwide audit of the consolidated Fiscal Year 1998 financial statements was conducted by examining internal controls, assessing compliance with laws and regulations,

  15. Audit Report: ER-FS-99-01

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    is to inform Chicago Operations Office management concerning matters that came to the attention of the Office of Inspector General during the audit at the Chicago Operations...

  16. HOt Water SavEr (HOWSE) Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, W.R.

    1981-12-31

    The dishwasher effluent is pumped into the flue of the exchange tank by the normal dishwasher pump (or auxiliary pump). The effluent is stored in this tank until next operation of the dishwasher. Thus, thermal equilibrium can be reached between the tank and the effluent, promoting high efficiency. The output from the exchange tank feeds the household normal hot water tank, reducing its requirement for fuel as the input water temperature is higher. Counterflow exchangers may be used for other hot water users where the flow and drain is continuous. In this case the discharged hot (or warm) water flows counter to the flow of cold water into the hot water heater. The two flows are closely coupled thermally but not in direct contract so they cannot mix. Counter flow exchangers and storage type exchangers may be used in the same installation.

  17. ER CXD-Form-2011_Ver2a.pdf

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Electro-Refining Project (4624 (Rev.1)) Y-12 Site Office Oak Ridge Anderson County Tennessee The purpose of this project is to install and turnover to operations a process...

  18. Final_report_DE-FG02-07ER64389

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    another parameter for describing new microbial species. ... for reliable diagnosis of infectious disease ... and random motility) and molecular processes (e.g., ...

  19. Final Technical Report. FG02-06ER54881

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Peter; Larbalestier, David

    2014-09-26

    For over 25 years the Applied Superconductivity Center has been integral to the successful development of superconductors for magnetic confinement fusion reactors, culminating in being a part of the “dream team” assembled by the ITER Organization to address the failure of prototype ITER cable-in-conduit conductors to pass testing in the SULTAN facility, an issue that if not addressed successfully would have limited the useful lifetime of the reactor. While being called on through the years to address the immediate needs of facility construction we also continued fundamental studies of fusion applicable superconductors so that magnet designers could make use of improved performance, reliability and cost. The annual Low Temperature Superconductors workshops, jointly organized with LBNL, became the most important meeting for dissemination of data between university laboratories, national laboratories and industry.

  20. Audit of Groundwater Remediation Plans at Savannah River, ER...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy Human Resources and Administration Home Page ... groundwater contamination that represented a risk to human health or the environment. ...

  1. Comparing the cardiovascular therapeutic indices of glycopyrronium and tiotropium in an integrated rat pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and safety model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trifilieff, Alexandre; Ethell, Brian T.; Sykes, David A.; Watson, Kenny J.; Collingwood, Steve; Charlton, Steven J.; Kent, Toby C.

    2015-08-15

    Long acting inhaled muscarinic receptor antagonists, such as tiotropium, are widely used as bronchodilator therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although this class of compounds is generally considered to be safe and well tolerated in COPD patients the cardiovascular safety of tiotropium has recently been questioned. We describe a rat in vivo model that allows the concurrent assessment of muscarinic antagonist potency, bronchodilator efficacy and a potential for side effects, and we use this model to compare tiotropium with NVA237 (glycopyrronium bromide), a recently approved inhaled muscarinic antagonist for COPD. Anaesthetized Brown Norway rats were dosed intratracheally at 1 or 6 h prior to receiving increasing doses of intravenous methacholine. Changes in airway resistance and cardiovascular function were recorded and therapeutic indices were calculated against the ED{sub 50} values for the inhibition of methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. At both time points studied, greater therapeutic indices for hypotension and bradycardia were observed with glycopyrronium (19.5 and 28.5 fold at 1 h; > 200 fold at 6 h) than with tiotropium (1.5 and 4.2 fold at 1 h; 4.6 and 5.5 fold at 6 h). Pharmacokinetic, protein plasma binding and rat muscarinic receptor binding properties for both compounds were determined and used to generate an integrated model of systemic M{sub 2} muscarinic receptor occupancy, which predicted significantly higher M{sub 2} receptor blockade at ED{sub 50} doses with tiotropium than with glycopyrronium. In our preclinical model there was an improved safety profile for glycopyrronium when compared with tiotropium. - Highlights: • We use an in vivo rat model to study CV safety of inhaled muscarinic antagonists. • We integrate protein and receptor binding and PK of tiotropium and glycopyrrolate. • At ED{sub 50} doses for bronchoprotection we model systemic M{sub 2} receptor occupancy. • Glycopyrrolate demonstrates lower M

  2. Chronic treatment with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) during pregnancy and lactation in the rat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colciago, A.; Casati, L.; Mornati, O.; Vergoni, A.V.; Santagostino, A.; Celotti, F. Negri-Cesi, P.

    2009-08-15

    The gender-specific expression pattern of aromatase and 5alpha-reductases (5alpha-R) during brain development provides neurons the right amount of estradiol and DHT to induce a dimorphic organization of the structure. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are endocrine disruptive pollutants; exposure to PCBs through placental transfer and breast-feeding may adversely affect the organizational action of sex steroid, resulting in long-term alteration of reproductive neuroendocrinology. The study was aimed at: a) evaluating the hypothalamic expression of aromatase, 5alpha-R1 and 5alpha-R2 in fetuses (GD20), infant (PN12), weaning (PN21) and young adult (PN60) male and female rats exposed to PCBs during development; b) correlating these parameters with the time of testicular descent, puberty onset, estrous cyclicity and copulatory behavior; c) evaluating possible alterations of some non reproductive behaviors (locomotion, learning and memory, depression/anxiety behavior). A reconstituted mixture of four indicator congeners (PCB 126, 138, 153 and 180) was injected subcutaneously to dams at the dose of 10 mg/kg daily from GD15 to GD19 and then twice a week till weanling. The results indicated that developmental PCB exposure produced important changes in the dimorphic hypothalamic expression of both aromatase and the 5alpha-Rs, which were still evident in adult animals. We observed that female puberty onset occurs earlier than in control animals without cycle irregularity, while testicular descent in males was delayed. A slight but significant impairment of sexual behavior and an important alteration in memory retention were also noted specifically in males. We conclude that PCBs might affect the dimorphic neuroendocrine control of reproductive system and of other neurobiological processes.

  3. Maternal exposure to cadmium during gestation perturbs the vascular system of the adult rat offspring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Montenegro, Marcela; Castillo, Paula; Urrutia, Manuel; Saez, Daniel; Hirsch, Sandra; Zepeda, Ramiro; Llanos, Miguel N.

    2011-03-01

    Several cardiovascular diseases (CVD) observed in adulthood have been associated with environmental influences during fetal growth. Here, we show that maternal exposure to cadmium, a ubiquitously distributed heavy metal and main component of cigarette smoke is able to induce cardiovascular morpho-functional changes in the offspring at adult age. Heart morphology and vascular reactivity were evaluated in the adult offspring of rats exposed to 30 ppm of cadmium during pregnancy. Echocardiographic examination shows altered heart morphology characterized by a concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Also, we observed a reduced endothelium-dependent reactivity in isolated aortic rings of adult offspring, while endothelium-independent reactivity remained unaltered. These effects were associated with an increase of hem-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression in the aortas of adult offspring. The expression of HO-1 was higher in females than males, a finding likely related to the sex-dependent expression of the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), which was lower in the adult female. All these long-term consequences were observed along with normal birth weights and absence of detectable levels of cadmium in fetal and adult tissues of the offspring. In placental tissues however, cadmium levels were detected and correlated with increased NF-{kappa}B expression - a transcription factor sensitive to inflammation and oxidative stress - suggesting a placentary mechanism that affect genes related to the development of the cardiovascular system. Our results provide, for the first time, direct experimental evidence supporting that exposure to cadmium during pregnancy reprograms cardiovascular development of the offspring which in turn may conduce to a long term increased risk of CVD.

  4. Intervention of D-glucose ameliorates the toxicity of streptozotocin in accessory sex organs of rat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vikram, A.; Tripathi, D.N.; Ramarao, P.; Jena, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ) is a naturally occurring compound isolated from Streptomyces achromogens. It is used extensively for inducing diabetes in experimental animals. Diabetes mellitus is known to have proven adverse effects on male sexual organs and their reproductive functions. The atrophy of prostate gland and other organs of the genitourinary tract were observed in experimental diabetic animals. STZ exhibits a structural resemblance to D-glucose due to the presence of sugar moiety in its structure. Pancreatic {beta}-cells mainly contain GLUT1 and GLUT2 glucose transporters. Possibly due to structural resemblance, STZ and D-glucose, share a common recognition site for entry into the {beta}-cells. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of D-glucose on STZ-induced toxicity in accessory sex organs of male rats. Animals were kept on overnight fasting. One group received vehicle and served as negative control, while all other groups were given STZ (45 mg/kg). Animals that received only STZ served as positive control. The effect of D-glucose was studied on STZ treated animals with different dosage of D-glucose (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg). Restoration of body weight, plasma glucose and plasma insulin was evident only at 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of D-glucose. The protective effect of D-glucose is evident only when it is administered simultaneously with STZ. In the present investigation, we report that simultaneous administration of D-glucose along with STZ ameliorates STZ-induced toxicity. This is evident from the restoration of accessory sex organ's weight, cellular morphology as well as insulin level.

  5. Interdisciplinary neurotoxicity inhalation studies: Carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide research in F344 rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sills, Robert C. [Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 Alexander Drive, South Campus, MD B3-08, PO Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)]. E-mail: sills@niehs.nih.gov; Harry, G. Jean [Laboratory of Neurobiology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 Alexander Drive, South Campus, PO Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Valentine, William M. [Department of Pathology and Center in Molecular Toxicology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Morgan, Daniel L. [Laboratory of Molecular Toxicology, NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Inhalation studies were conducted on the hazardous air pollutants, carbon disulfide, which targets the central nervous system (spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system (distal portions of long myelinated axons), and carbonyl sulfide, which targets the central nervous system (brain). The objectives were to investigate the neurotoxicity of these compounds by a comprehensive evaluation of function, structure, and mechanisms of disease. Through interdisciplinary research, the major finding in the carbon disulfide inhalation studies was that carbon disulfide produced intra- and intermolecular protein cross-linking in vivo. The observation of dose-dependent covalent cross-linking in neurofilament proteins prior to the onset of lesions is consistent with this process contributing to the development of the neurofilamentous axonal swellings characteristic of carbon disulfide neurotoxicity. Of significance is that valine-lysine thiourea cross-linking on rat globin and lysine-lysine thiourea cross-linking on erythrocyte spectrin reflect cross-linking events occurring within the axon and could potentially serve as biomarkers of carbon disulfide exposure and effect. In the carbonyl sulfide studies, using magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), we determined that carbonyl sulfide targets the auditory pathway in the brain. MRM allowed the examination of 200 brain slices and made it possible to identify the most vulnerable sites of neurotoxicity, which would have been missed in our traditional neuropathology evaluations. Electrophysiological studies were focused on the auditory system and demonstrated decreases in auditory brain stem evoked responses. Similarly, mechanistic studies focused on evaluating cytochrome oxidase activity in the posterior colliculus and parietal cortex. A decrease in cytochrome oxidase activity was considered to be a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of carbonyl sulfide neurotoxicity.

  6. A physiologically based biokinetic (PBBK) model for estragole bioactivation and detoxification in rat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punt, Ans Freidig, Andreas P.; Delatour, Thierry; Scholz, Gabriele; Boersma, Marelle G.; Schilter, Benoit; Bladeren, Peter J. van; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2008-09-01

    The present study defines a physiologically based biokinetic (PBBK) model for the alkenylbenzene estragole in rat based on in vitro metabolic parameters determined using relevant tissue fractions, in silico derived partition coefficients, and physiological parameters derived from the literature. The model consists of eight compartments including liver, lung and kidney as metabolizing compartments, and additional compartments for fat, arterial blood, venous blood, rapidly perfused tissue and slowly perfused tissue. Evaluation of the model was performed by comparing the PBBK predicted dose-dependent formation of the estragole metabolites 4-allylphenol and 1'-hydroxyestragole glucuronide to literature reported levels of these metabolites, which were demonstrated to be in the same order of magnitude. With the model obtained the relative extent of bioactivation and detoxification of estragole at different oral doses was examined. At low doses formation of 4-allylphenol, leading to detoxification, is observed to be the major metabolic pathway, occurring mainly in the lung and kidney due to formation of this metabolite with high affinity in these organs. Saturation of this metabolic pathway in the lung and kidney leads to a relative increase in formation of the proximate carcinogenic metabolite 1'-hydroxyestragole, occurring mainly in the liver. This relative increase in formation of 1'-hydroxyestragole leads to a relative increase in formation of 1'-hydroxyestragole glucuronide and 1'-sulfooxyestragole the latter being the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of estragole. These results indicate that the relative importance of different metabolic pathways of estragole may vary in a dose-dependent way, leading to a relative increase in bioactiviation of estragole at higher doses.

  7. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of olmesartan medoxomil ameliorate experimental colitis in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagib, Marwa M.; Tadros, Mariane G.; ELSayed, Moushira I.; Khalifa, Amani E.

    2013-08-15

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) driven through altered immune responses with production of proinflammatory cytokines. Many therapies are used, but side effects and loss of response limit long-term effectiveness. New therapeutic strategies are thus needed for patients who don't respond to current treatments. Recently, there is suggested involvement of the proinflammatory hormone angiotensin II in inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM-M), an angiotensin II receptor blocker in ameliorating ulcerative colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by administration of 5% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 5 days. OLM-M (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) was administered orally during 21 days prior to the induction of colitis, and for 5 days after. Sulfasalazine (500 mg/kg) was used as reference drug. All animals were tested for changes in colon length, disease activity index (DAI) and microscopic damage. Colon tissue concentration/activity of tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-?), myeloperoxidase (MPO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed. Results showed that the OLM-M dose-dependently ameliorated the colonic histopathological and biochemical injuries, an effect that is comparable or even better than that of the standard sulfasalazine. These results suggest that olmesartan medoxomil may be effective in the treatment of UC through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. - Highlights: Olmesartan medoximil reduced dextran sodium sulphate- induced colitis. Mechanism involved anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects dose- dependently. It suppressed malondialdehyde and restored reduced glutathione levels. It reduced inflammatory markers levels and histological changes.

  8. Uranyl nitrate-exposed rat alveolar macrophages cell death: Influence of superoxide anion and TNF ? mediators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orona, N.S.; Tasat, D.R.

    2012-06-15

    Uranium compounds are widely used in the nuclear fuel cycle, military and many other diverse industrial processes. Health risks associated with uranium exposure include nephrotoxicity, cancer, respiratory, and immune disorders. Macrophages present in body tissues are the main cell type involved in the internalization of uranium particles. To better understand the pathological effects associated with depleted uranium (DU) inhalation, we examined the metabolic activity, phagocytosis, genotoxicity and inflammation on DU-exposed rat alveolar macrophages (12.5200 ?M). Stability and dissolution of DU could differ depending on the dissolvent and in turn alter its biological action. We dissolved DU in sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3} 100 mM) and in what we consider a more physiological vehicle resembling human internal media: sodium chloride (NaCl 0.9%). We demonstrate that uranyl nitrate in NaCl solubilizes, enters the cell, and elicits its cytotoxic effect similarly to when it is diluted in NaHCO{sub 3}. We show that irrespective of the dissolvent employed, uranyl nitrate impairs cell metabolism, and at low doses induces both phagocytosis and generation of superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup ?}). At high doses it provokes the secretion of TNF? and through all the range of doses tested, apoptosis. We herein suggest that at DU low doses O{sub 2}{sup ?} may act as the principal mediator of DNA damage while at higher doses the signaling pathway mediated by O{sub 2}{sup ?} may be blocked, prevailing damage to DNA by the TNF? route. The study of macrophage functions after uranyl nitrate treatment could provide insights into the pathophysiology of uranium?related diseases. -- Highlights: ? Uranyl nitrate effect on cultured macrophages is linked to the doses and independent of its solubility. ? At low doses uranyl nitrate induces generation of superoxide anion. ? At high doses uranyl nitrate provokes secretion of TNF?. ? Uranyl nitrate induces apoptosis through all the range of

  9. Final Technical Report: DE-FG03-01ER63099/DE-FG02-01ER63099

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John H. Seinfeld

    2005-02-23

    Organic material contributes {approx}20-50% to the total fine aerosol mass at continental mid-latitudes (Saxena and Hildemann, 1996; Murphy et al., 1998; Peterson and Tyler, 2002; Putaud et al., 2004) and as much as 90% in tropical forested areas (Andreae and Crutzen, 1997; Artaxo et al., 2002). Significant amounts of carbonaceous aerosols are also observed in the free troposphere (Heald et al., 2005). A substantial fraction of the organic component of atmospheric particles consists of water-soluble, possibly multifunctional compounds (Saxena and Hildemann, 1996; Kavouras et al., 1998). It is critical that we understand how organic aerosols and their precursors are transformed in the atmosphere and the dependence of the transformation on the chemical and thermodynamic conditions of the ambient environment: (1) to accurately forecast how changing emissions will impact atmospheric organic aerosol concentrations and properties on the regional to global scale, and (2) to relate atmospheric measurements to sources. A large (but as yet unquantified) fraction of organic aerosol is formed in the atmosphere by precursor gases. In addition, both primary and secondary organic aerosol interact with other gas and aerosol species in the atmosphere so that their properties (i.e., size, hygroscopicity, light absorption and scattering sphere efficiency) can change significantly with time and distance from their source. Organic aerosols (OA) are composed of complex mixtures of different organic species from less-polar organics (n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, etc.) to highly polar organics such as dicarboxylic acids and multi-functional organic acids. Studies employing FTIR spectroscopy and NEXAFS have demonstrated the presence of different functional groups such as ketonic and carboxylic groups. Humic-like substances (HULIS) have been identified in aerosols. Field observation and laboratory smog chamber studies have demonstrated that oxidative reactions of biogenic and anthropogenic precursors in the gas phase produce low molecular weight organic acids such as oxalic and other dicarboxylic acids, dicarbonyls and multi-functional organics. Oxidation reactions in the particle phase may also produce oxygenated species, including aldehydes, organic acids, and large molecules such as HULIS. Despite this progress, a significant fraction of atmospheric OA still remains poorly characterized.

  10. The new ternary pnictides Er{sub 12}Ni{sub 30}P{sub 21} and Er...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... (c) 2010 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved. Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ...

  11. QUARTER SH OR T-T ER M EN ER GY OU TL OO K QUAR TERL Y PROJ

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ... World Oil PricesInternational Petroleum Michael Grillot Macroeconomic ...... Kay A. Smith Energy Product Prices ...... Neil Gamson Petroleum Demands ...

  12. The effects of clobazam treatment in rats on the expression of genes and proteins encoding glucronosyltransferase 1A/2B (UGT1A/2B) and multidrug resistance‐associated protein-2 (MRP2), and development of thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyawaki, Izuru Tamura, Akitoshi; Matsumoto, Izumi; Inada, Hiroshi; Kunimatsu, Takeshi; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2012-12-15

    Clobazam (CLB) is known to increase hepatobiliary thyroxine (T4) clearance in Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats, which results in hypothyroidism followed by thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy. However, the mechanism of the acceleration of T4-clearance has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we tried to clarify the roles of hepatic UDP-glucronosyltransferase (UGT) isoenzymes (UGT1A and UGT2B) and efflux transporter (multidrug resistance–associated protein-2; MRP2) in the CLB-induced acceleration of T4-clearance using two mutant rat strains, UGT1A-deficient mutant (Gunn) and MRP2-deficient mutant (EHBR) rats, especially focusing on thyroid morphology, levels of circulating hormones (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3)) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and mRNA or protein expressions of UGTs (Ugt1a1, Ugt1a6, and Ugt2b1/2) and MRP2 (Mrp). CLB induced thyroid morphological changes with increases in TSH in SD and Gunn rats, but not in EHBR rats. T4 was slightly decreased in SD and Gunn rats, and T3 was decreased in Gunn rats, whereas these hormones were maintained in EHBR rats. Hepatic Ugt1a1, Ugt1a6, Ugt2b1/2, and Mrp2 mRNAs were upregulated in SD rats. In Gunn rats, UGT1A mRNAs (Ugt1a1/6) and protein levels were quite low, but UGT2B mRNAs (Ugt2b1/2) and protein were prominently upregulated. In SD and Gunn rats, MRP2 mRNA and protein were upregulated to the same degree. These results suggest that MRP2 is an important contributor in development of the thyroid cellular hypertrophy in CLB-treated rats, and that UGT1A and UGT2B work in concert with MRP2 in the presence of MRP2 function to enable the effective elimination of thyroid hormones. -- Highlights: ► Role of UGT and MRP2 in thyroid pathology was investigated in clobazam-treated rats. ► Clobazam induced thyroid cellular hypertrophy in SD and Gunn rats, but not EHBR rats. ► Hepatic Mrp2 gene and protein were upregulated in SD and Gunn rats, but not EHBR rats. ► Neither serum thyroid hormones (T3/T4

  13. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Subchronic Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard (HD) In Rats Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasser, L. B.; Miller, R. A.; Kalkwarf, D, R.; Buschbom, R. L.; Cushing, J. A.

    1989-06-30

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard [bis(2- chlorethyl)-sulfide], a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Seventytwo Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex, 6-7 weeks old, were divided into six groups (12/group/ sex) and gavaged with either 0, 0.003 , 0.01 , 0.03 , 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg of sulfur mustard in sesame oil 5 days/week for 13 weeks. No dose-related mortality was observed. A significant decrease (P ( 0.05) in body weight was observed in both sexes of rats only in the 0.3 mg/kg group. Hematological evaluations and clinical chemistry measurements found no consistent treatment-related effects at the doses studied. The only treatment-related lesion associated with gavage exposure upon histopathologic evaluation was epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach of both sexes at 0.3 mg/kg and males at 0.1 mg/kg. The hyperplastic change was minimal and characterized by cellular disorganization of the basilar layer, an apparent increase in mitotic activity of the basilar epithelial cells, and thickening of the epithelial layer due to the apparent increase in cellularity. The estimated NOEL for HD in this 90-day study is 0.1 mg/kg/day when administered orally.

  14. Triptolide inhibits TGF-β1-induced cell proliferation in rat airway smooth muscle cells by suppressing Smad signaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ming; Lv, Zhiqiang; Huang, Linjie; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Xiaoling; Shi, Jianting; Zhang, Wei; Liang, Ruiyun; Jiang, Shanping

    2015-02-15

    Background: We have reported that triptolide can inhibit airway remodeling in a murine model of asthma via TGF-β1/Smad signaling. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of triptolide on airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) proliferation and the possible mechanism. Methods: Rat airway smooth muscle cells were cultured and made synchronized, then pretreated with different concentration of triptolide before stimulated by TGF-β1. Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay. Flow cytometry was used to study the influence of triptolide on cell cycle and apoptosis. Signal proteins (Smad2, Smad3 and Smad7) were detected by western blotting analysis. Results: Triptolide significantly inhibited TGF-β1-induced ASMC proliferation (P<0.05). The cell cycle was blocked at G1/S-interphase by triptolide dose dependently. No pro-apoptotic effects were detected under the concentration of triptolide we used. Western blotting analysis showed TGF-β1 induced Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation was inhibited by triptolide pretreatment, and the level of Smad7 was increased by triptolide pretreatment. Conclusions: Triptolide may function as an inhibitor of asthma airway remodeling by suppressing ASMCs proliferation via negative regulation of Smad signaling pathway. - Highlights: • In this study, rat airway smooth muscle cells were cultured and made synchronized. • Triptolide inhibited TGF-β1-induced airway smooth muscle cells proliferation. • Triptolide inhibited ASMCs proliferation via negative regulation of Smad signaling pathway.

  15. Strain-guided mineralization in the bone–PDL–cementum complex of a rat periodontium

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Grandfield, Kathryn; Herber, Ralf -Peter; Chen, Ling; Djomehri, Sabra; Tam, Caleb; Lee, Ji -Hyun; Brown, Evan; Woolwine III, Wood R.; Curtis, Don; Ryder, Mark; et al

    2015-04-18

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of mechanical strain by mapping physicochemical properties at periodontal ligament (PDL)–bone and PDL–cementum attachment sites and within the tissues per se. Design: Accentuated mechanical strain was induced by applying a unidirectional force of 0.06 N for 14 days on molars in a rat model. The associated changes in functional space between the tooth and bone, mineral forming and resorbing events at the PDL–bone and PDL–cementum attachment sites were identified by using micro-X-ray computed tomography (micro-XCT), atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic histomorphometry, Raman microspectroscopy, and AFM-based nanoindentation technique. Results frommore » these analytical techniques were correlated with histochemical strains specific to low and high molecular weight GAGs, including biglycan, and osteoclast distribution through tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Results: Unique chemical and mechanical qualities including heterogeneous bony fingers with hygroscopic Sharpey's fibers contributing to a higher organic (amide III — 1240 cm⁻¹) to inorganic (phosphate — 960 cm⁻¹) ratio, with lower average elastic modulus of 8 GPa versus 12 GPa in unadapted regions were identified. Furthermore, an increased presence of elemental Zn in cement lines and mineralizing fronts of PDL–bone was observed. Adapted regions containing bony fingers exhibited woven bone-like architecture and these regions rich in biglycan (BGN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) also contained high-molecular weight polysaccharides predominantly at the site of polarized bone growth. Conclusions: From a fundamental science perspective the shift in local properties due to strain amplification at the soft–hard tissue attachment sites is governed by semiautonomous cellular events at the PDL–bone and PDL–cementum sites. Over time, these strain-mediated events can alter the physicochemical properties of

  16. Investigation of Chitosan for Decorporation of 60Co in the Rat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Curry, Terry L.; Luders, Teresa; Morris, James E.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Woodstock, Angela D.; Thrall, Karla D.

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: The reported investigation is a part of our on-going research aimed at identifying effective in vivo non-toxic decorporation agents and developing new therapies to treat internal contamination with radionuclides. The non-toxic nature of chitosan makes it an especially attractive candidate for unsupervised treatment of the general population in case of radiological/nuclear emergency. In this study, chemically unmodified water-soluble chitosan oligosaccharide of low molecular weight was tested for decorporation of cobalt-60 (Co-60) using a rodent model. Methods: Affinity of chitosan oligosaccharide for Co(II) was tested in vitro under conditions of physiological pH range and ionic strength using combined spectrophotometric and potentiometric titration techniques. Fisher F344 rat model was used for in vivo studies. To evaluate effect of chitosan on ingested Co-60, animals received single oral dose of Co-60 chloride (7 – 13.2 kBq per animal) followed by oral administration of chitosan material (288 – 366 mg per kg body weight); chitosan dosing was repeated in 24 hours. Chitosan was also tested for removal of internalized Co-60. In this study, Co-60 single intravenous injection (7 – 8 kBq per animal) was followed by repetitive oral (300 mg per kg body weight) or intravenous (195 mg per kg body weight) administration of the chitosan material once daily for 5 days. Control animal groups received a single dose of Co-60 without chelator treatment. Excreta was collected daily. Tissues were collected postmortem and analyzed for radioactivity by gamma counting technique. Results: In vitro experiments confirmed binding of Co(II) by chitosan oligosaccharide, formation of mixed cobalt-chitosan-hydroxide complex species was proposed, and stability constants was calculated. Control in vivo studies indicated that about 71% of ingested Co-60 was excreted in two days predominantly through the gastrointestinal tract. For intravenously administered Co-60, urinal excretion

  17. Strain-guided mineralization in the bone–PDL–cementum complex of a rat periodontium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grandfield, Kathryn; Herber, Ralf -Peter; Chen, Ling; Djomehri, Sabra; Tam, Caleb; Lee, Ji -Hyun; Brown, Evan; Woolwine III, Wood R.; Curtis, Don; Ryder, Mark; Schuck, Jim; Webb, Samuel; Landis, William; Ho, Sunita P.

    2015-04-18

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of mechanical strain by mapping physicochemical properties at periodontal ligament (PDL)–bone and PDL–cementum attachment sites and within the tissues per se. Design: Accentuated mechanical strain was induced by applying a unidirectional force of 0.06 N for 14 days on molars in a rat model. The associated changes in functional space between the tooth and bone, mineral forming and resorbing events at the PDL–bone and PDL–cementum attachment sites were identified by using micro-X-ray computed tomography (micro-XCT), atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic histomorphometry, Raman microspectroscopy, and AFM-based nanoindentation technique. Results from these analytical techniques were correlated with histochemical strains specific to low and high molecular weight GAGs, including biglycan, and osteoclast distribution through tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Results: Unique chemical and mechanical qualities including heterogeneous bony fingers with hygroscopic Sharpey's fibers contributing to a higher organic (amide III — 1240 cm⁻¹) to inorganic (phosphate — 960 cm⁻¹) ratio, with lower average elastic modulus of 8 GPa versus 12 GPa in unadapted regions were identified. Furthermore, an increased presence of elemental Zn in cement lines and mineralizing fronts of PDL–bone was observed. Adapted regions containing bony fingers exhibited woven bone-like architecture and these regions rich in biglycan (BGN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) also contained high-molecular weight polysaccharides predominantly at the site of polarized bone growth. Conclusions: From a fundamental science perspective the shift in local properties due to strain amplification at the soft–hard tissue attachment sites is governed by semiautonomous cellular events at the PDL–bone and PDL–cementum sites. Over time, these strain-mediated events can alter the

  18. Subchronic effects of inhaled ambient particulate matter on glucose homeostasis and target organ damage in a type 1 diabetic rat model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Yuan-Horng; Charles, Chou C.-K.; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Tung, Chun-Liang; Li, Ya-Ru; Lo, Kai; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported associations between particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular effects, and diabetes mellitus (DM) patients might be susceptible to these effects. The chief chronic injuries resulting from DM are small vascular injuries (micro-vascular complications) or large blood vessel injuries (macro-vascular complications). However, toxicological data regarding the effects of PM on DM-related cardiovascular complications is limited. Our objective was to investigate whether subchronic PM exposure alters glucose homeostasis and causes cardiovascular complications in a type 1 DM rat model. We constructed a real world PM{sub 2.5} exposure system, the Taipei Air Pollution Exposure System for Health Effects (TAPES), to continuously deliver non-concentrated PM for subchronic exposure. A type 1 DM rat model was induced using streptozotocin. Between December 22, 2009 and April 9, 2010, DM rats were exposed to PM or to filtered air (FA) using TAPES in Taipei, Taiwan, 24 h/day, 7 days/week, for a total of 16 weeks. The average concentrations (mean [SD]) of PM{sub 2.5} in the exposure and control chambers of the TAPES were 13.30 [8.65] and 0.13 [0.05] μg/m{sup 3}, respectively. Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was significantly elevated after exposure to PM compared with exposure to FA (mean [SD], 7.7% [3.1%] vs. 4.7% [1.0%], P < 0.05). Interleukin 6 and fibrinogen levels were significantly increased after PM exposure. PM caused focal myocarditis, aortic medial thickness, advanced glomerulosclerosis, and accentuation of tubular damage of the kidney (tubular damage index: 1.76 [0.77] vs. 1.15 [0.36], P < 0.001). PM exposure might induce the macro- and micro-vascular complications in DM through chronic hyperglycemia and systemic inflammation. - Highlights: • The study demonstrated cardiovascular and renal effects of PM in a rat model of DM. • TAPES is a continuous, real world, long-term PM exposure system. • HbA1c, a marker of glycemic

  19. Phase equilibria in the quasi-ternary system Ag{sub 2}Se–Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3}–In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and physical properties of (Ga{sub 0.6}In{sub 0.4}){sub 2}Se{sub 3}, (Ga{sub 0.594}In{sub 0.396}Er{sub 0.01}){sub 2}Se{sub 3} single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivashchenko, I.A.; Danyliuk, I.V.; Olekseyuk, I.D.; Halyan, V.V.

    2014-02-15

    The quasi-ternary system Ag{sub 2}Se–Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3}–In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} was investigated by differential thermal, X-ray phase, X-ray structure, microstructure analysis and microhardness measurements. Five quasi-binary phase diagrams, six polythermal sections, isothermal section at 820 K and the liquidus surface projection were constructed. The character and temperature of the invariant processes were determined. The specific resistance of the single crystals (Ga{sub 0.6}In{sub 0.4}){sub 2}Se{sub 3}, (Ga{sub 0.594}In{sub 0.396}Er{sub 0.01}){sub 2}Se{sub 3} was measured, 7.5×10{sup 5} and 3.15×10{sup 5} Ω m, respectively, optical absorption spectra in the 600–1050 nm range were recorded at room temperature, and the band gap energy was estimated which is 1.95±0. 01 eV for both samples. - Graphical abstract: The article reports for the first time the investigated liquidus surface projection of the Ag{sub 2}Se–Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3}–In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} system and isothermal section at 820 K of the system. Five phase diagrams, six polythermal sections, isothermal section at 820 K and the liquidus surface projection were built at the first time. The existence of the large region of the solid solutions based on AgIn{sub 5}Se{sub 8}, Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and AgGa{sub 1−x}In{sub x}Se{sub 2} was investigated. The existence of two ternary phases was established in the Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3}–In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} system. Two single crystals (Ga{sub 0.6}In{sub 0.4}){sub 2}Se{sub 3}, (Ga{sub 0.594}In{sub 0.396}Er{sub 0.01}){sub 2}Se{sub 3} were grown and some of optical properties of them were studied at first time. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Liquidus surface projection was built for Ag{sub 2}Se–Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3}–In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} system. • Solid solution ranges of AgIn{sub 5}Se{sub 8}, Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and AgGa{sub 1−x}In{sub x}Se{sub 2} were investigated. • Two single crystals (Ga{sub 0.6}In{sub 0.4}){sub 2}Se{sub 3}, (Ga{sub 0.594}In{sub 0.396}Er

  20. Urine acidification has no effect on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling or epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression in rat urinary bladder urothelium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Achanzar, William E. Moyer, Carolyn F.; Marthaler, Laura T.; Gullo, Russell; Chen, Shen-Jue; French, Michele H.; Watson, Linda M.; Rhodes, James W.; Kozlosky, John C.; White, Melvin R.; Foster, William R.; Burgun, James J.; Car, Bruce D.; Cosma, Gregory N.; Dominick, Mark A.

    2007-09-15

    We previously reported prevention of urolithiasis and associated rat urinary bladder tumors by urine acidification (via diet acidification) in male rats treated with the dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha}/{gamma} agonist muraglitazar. Because urine acidification could potentially alter PPAR signaling and/or cellular proliferation in urothelium, we evaluated urothelial cell PPAR{alpha}, PPAR{delta}, PPAR{gamma}, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression, PPAR signaling, and urothelial cell proliferation in rats fed either a normal or an acidified diet for 5, 18, or 33 days. A subset of rats in the 18-day study also received 63 mg/kg of the PPAR{gamma} agonist pioglitazone daily for the final 3 days to directly assess the effects of diet acidification on responsiveness to PPAR{gamma} agonism. Urothelial cell PPAR{alpha} and {gamma} expression and signaling were evaluated in the 18- and 33-day studies by immunohistochemical assessment of PPAR protein (33-day study only) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) measurement of PPAR-regulated gene expression. In the 5-day study, EGFR expression and phosphorylation status were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining and egfr and akt2 mRNA levels were assessed by qRT-PCR. Diet acidification did not alter PPAR{alpha}, {delta}, or {gamma} mRNA or protein expression, PPAR{alpha}- or {gamma}-regulated gene expression, total or phosphorylated EGFR protein, egfr or akt2 gene expression, or proliferation in urothelium. Moreover, diet acidification had no effect on pioglitazone-induced changes in urothelial PPAR{gamma}-regulated gene expression. These results support the contention that urine acidification does not prevent PPAR{gamma} agonist-induced bladder tumors by altering PPAR{alpha}, {gamma}, or EGFR expression or PPAR signaling in rat bladder urothelium.

  1. Effects of CT-based attenuation correction of rat microSPECT images on relative myocardial perfusion and quantitative tracer uptake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strydhorst, Jared H. Ruddy, Terrence D.; Wells, R. Glenn

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Our goal in this work was to investigate the impact of CT-based attenuation correction on measurements of rat myocardial perfusion with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 201}Tl single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods: Eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and scanned in a small animal pinhole SPECT/CT scanner. Scans were repeated weekly over a period of 5 weeks. Eight additional rats were injected with {sup 201}Tl and also scanned following a similar protocol. The images were reconstructed with and without attenuation correction, and the relative perfusion was analyzed with the commercial cardiac analysis software. The absolute uptake of {sup 99m}Tc in the heart was also quantified with and without attenuation correction. Results: For {sup 99m}Tc imaging, relative segmental perfusion changed by up to +2.1%/−1.8% as a result of attenuation correction. Relative changes of +3.6%/−1.0% were observed for the {sup 201}Tl images. Interscan and inter-rat reproducibilities of relative segmental perfusion were 2.7% and 3.9%, respectively, for the uncorrected {sup 99m}Tc scans, and 3.6% and 4.3%, respectively, for the {sup 201}Tl scans, and were not significantly affected by attenuation correction for either tracer. Attenuation correction also significantly increased the measured absolute uptake of tetrofosmin and significantly altered the relationship between the rat weight and tracer uptake. Conclusions: Our results show that attenuation correction has a small but statistically significant impact on the relative perfusion measurements in some segments of the heart and does not adversely affect reproducibility. Attenuation correction had a small but statistically significant impact on measured absolute tracer uptake.

  2. Combined contributions of over-secreted glucagon-like peptide 1 and suppressed insulin secretion to hyperglycemia induced by gatifloxacin in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Yunli; Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 ; Wang, Xinting; Liu, Can; Yao, Dan; Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Shanghai 201203 ; Hu, Mengyue; Li, Jia; Hu, Nan; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2013-02-01

    Accumulating evidences have showed that gatifloxacin causes dysglycemia in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Our preliminary study demonstrated that gatifloxacin stimulated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion from intestinal cells. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between gatifloxacin-stimulated GLP-1 release and dysglycemia in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and explore the possible mechanisms. Oral administration of gatifloxacin (100 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day) for 3 and 12 days led to marked elevation of GLP-1 levels, accompanied by significant decrease in insulin levels and increase in plasma glucose. Similar results were found in normal rats treated with 3-day gatifloxacin. Gatifloxacin-stimulated GLP-1 release was further confirmed in NCI-H716 cells, which was abolished by diazoxide, a K{sub ATP} channel opener. QT-PCR analysis showed that gatifloxacin also upregulated expression of proglucagon and prohormone convertase 3 mRNA. To clarify the contradiction on elevated GLP-1 without insulinotropic effect, effects of GLP-1 and gatifloxacin on insulin release were investigated using INS-1 cells. We found that short exposure (2 h) to GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion and biosynthesis, whereas long exposure (24 h and 48 h) to high level of GLP-1 inhibited insulin secretion and biosynthesis. Moreover, we also confirmed gatifloxacin acutely stimulated insulin secretion while chronically inhibited insulin biosynthesis. All the results gave an inference that gatifloxacin stimulated over-secretion of GLP-1, in turn, high levels of GLP-1 and gatifloxacin synergistically impaired insulin release, worsening hyperglycemia. -- Highlights: ? Gatifloxacin induced hyperglycemia both in diabetic rats and normal rats. ? Gatifloxacin enhanced GLP-1 secretion but inhibited insulin secretion in rats. ? Long-term exposure to high GLP-1 inhibited insulin secretion and biosynthesis. ? GLP-1 over-secretion may be involved in

  3. SU-E-QI-14: Quantitative Variogram Detection of Mild, Unilateral Disease in Elastase-Treated Rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob, R; Carson, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Determining the presence of mild or early disease in the lungs can be challenging and subjective. We present a rapid and objective method for evaluating lung damage in a rat model of unilateral mild emphysema based on a new approach to heterogeneity assessment. We combined octree decomposition (used in three-dimensional (3D) computer graphics) with variograms (used in geostatistics to assess spatial relationships) to evaluate 3D computed tomography (CT) lung images for disease. Methods: Male, Sprague-Dawley rats (232 ± 7 g) were intratracheally dosed with 50 U/kg of elastase dissolved in 200 μL of saline to a single lobe (n=6) or with saline only (n=5). After four weeks, 3D micro-CT images were acquired at end expiration on mechanically ventilated rats using prospective gating. Images were masked, and lungs were decomposed to homogeneous blocks of 2×2×2, 4×4×4, and 8×8×8 voxels using octree decomposition. The spatial variance – the square of the difference of signal intensity – between all pairs of the 8×8×8 blocks was calculated. Variograms – graphs of distance vs. variance - were made, and data were fit to a power law and the exponent determined. The mean HU values, coefficient of variation (CoV), and the emphysema index (EI) were calculated and compared to the variograms. Results: The variogram analysis showed that significant differences between groups existed (p<0.01), whereas the mean HU (p=0.07), CoV (p=0.24), and EI (p=0.08) did not. Calculation time for the variogram for a typical 1000 block decomposition was ∼6 seconds, and octree decomposition took ∼2 minutes. Decomposing the images prior to variogram calculation resulted in a ∼700x decrease in time as compared to other published approaches. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the approach combining octree decomposition and variogram analysis may be a rapid, non-subjective, and sensitive imaging-based biomarker for quantitative characterization of lung disease.

  4. Naringin ameliorates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and associated mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis and inflammation in rats: Possible mechanism of nephroprotection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Tatireddy, Srujana; Koneru, Meghana; Borkar, Roshan M.; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Kuncha, Madhusudana; Srinivas, R.; Shyam Sunder, R.; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2014-05-15

    the kidney. - Highlights: • Naringin ameliorated gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. • Naringin treatment attenuated gentamicin-induced renal apoptosis in rats. • Naringin ameliorated gentamicin-induced renal mitochondrial dysfunction in rats. • Naringin decreased NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. • U-HPLC-MS data revealed that naringin did not alter the renal uptake of gentamicin.

  5. Exposure to As, Cd and Pb-mixture impairs myelin and axon development in rat brain, optic nerve and retina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rai, Nagendra Kumar; Ashok, Anushruti; Rai, Asit; Tripathi, Sachin; Nagar, Geet Kumar; Mitra, Kalyan; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are the major metal contaminants of ground water in India. We have reported the toxic effect of their mixture (metal mixture, MM), at human relevant doses, on developing rat astrocytes. Astrocyte damage has been shown to be associated with myelin disintegration in CNS. We, therefore, hypothesized that the MM would perturb myelinating white matter in cerebral cortex, optic nerve (O.N.) and retina. We observed modulation in the levels of myelin and axon proteins, such as myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein, 2?-, 3?-cyclic-nucleotide-3?-phosphodiesterase, myelin-associated glycoprotein and neurofilament (NF) in the brain of developing rats. Dose and time-dependent synergistic toxic effect was noted. The MBP- and NF-immunolabeling, as well as luxol-fast blue (LFB) staining demonstrated a reduction in the area of intact myelin-fiber, and an increase in vacuolated axons, especially in the corpus-callosum. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of O.N. revealed a reduction in myelin thickness and axon-density. The immunolabeling with MBP, NF, and LFB staining in O.N. supported the TEM data. The hematoxylin and eosin staining of retina displayed a decrease in the thickness of nerve-fiber, plexiform-layer, and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) count. Investigating the mechanism revealed a loss in glutamine synthetase activity in the cerebral cortex and O.N., and a fall in the brain derived neurotrophic factor in retina. An enhanced apoptosis in MBP, NF and Brn3b-containing cells justified the diminution in myelinating axons in CNS. Our findings for the first time indicate white matter damage by MM, which may have significance in neurodevelopmental-pediatrics, neurotoxicology and retinal-cell biology. - Highlights: As, Cd and Pb-mixture, at human relevant dose, demyelinate developing rat CNS. The attenuation in myelin and axon is synergistic. The optic nerve and brain demonstrate reduced glutamine synthetase. The retina

  6. Differential regulation of apoptosis in slow and fast twitch muscles of aged female F344BN rats

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Rice, Kevin M.; Manne, Nandini D. P. K.; Gadde, Murali K.; Paturi, Satyanarayana; Arvapalli, Ravikumar; Blough, Eric

    2015-03-28

    Age-related muscle atrophy is characterized by decreases in muscle mass and is thought be mediated, at least in part, by increases in myocyte apoptosis. Recent data has demonstrated that the degree of muscle loss with aging may differ between males and females while other work has suggested that apoptosis as indicated by DNA fragmentation may be regulated differently in fast- and slow-twitch muscles. Herein, we investigate how aging affects the regulation of muscle apoptosis in the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow-twitch soleus muscles of young (6-month), aged (26-month), and very aged (30-month) female Fischer 344/NNiaHSD × Brown Norway/BiNiamore » (F344BN) rats. Tissue sections were stained with hydroethidium for ROS and protein extract was subjected to immunoblotting for assessing apoptotic markers. Our data suggest that decreases in muscle mass were associated with increased DNA fragmentation (TUNEL positive) and increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) as determined by hydroethidium staining in both the EDL and soleus. Similar to our previous work using aged male animals, we observed that the time course and magnitude of changes in Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-9, and cleavage of α-fodrin protein were regulated differently between muscles. As a result, These data suggest that aging in the female F344BN rat is associated with decreases in muscle mass, elevations in ROS level, increased muscle cell DNA fragmentation, and alterations in cell membrane integrity and that apoptotic mechanisms may differ between fiber types.« less

  7. Early life ethanol exposure causes long-lasting disturbances in rat mesenchymal stem cells via epigenetic modifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leu, Yu-Wei; Chu, Pei-Yi; Chen, Chien-Min; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Liu, Yu Ming; Lee, Yen-Hui; Kuo, Shan-Tsu; Hsiao, Shu-Huei

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • Ethanol exposure alters proliferation and differentiation of MSCs. • Ethanol exposure suppresses osteogenesis and adipogenesis of MSCs. • H3K27me3-associated genes/pathways are affected in ethanol-exposed MSCs. • Expression of lineage-specific genes is dysregulated in ethanol-exposed MSCs. - Abstract: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a birth defect due to maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the main somatic stem cells in adults and may contribute to tissue homeostasis and repair in adulthood, we investigated whether early life ethanol exposure affects MSCs and contributes to the propensity for disease onset in later life. Using a rodent model of FAS, we found that ethanol exposure (5.25 g/kg/day) from postnatal days 4 to 9 in rat pups (mimic of human third trimester) caused long-term anomalies in bone marrow-derived MSCs. MSCs isolated from ethanol-exposed animals were prone to neural induction but resistant to osteogenic and adipogenic inductions compared to their age-matched controls. The altered differentiation may contribute to the severe trabecular bone loss seen in ethanol-exposed animals at 3 months of age as well as overt growth retardation. Expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, aP2, and PPARγ were substantially inhibited, but BDNF was up-regulated in MSCs isolated from ethanol-exposed 3 month-old animals. Several signaling pathways were distorted in ethanol-exposed MSCs via altered trimethylation at histone 3 lysine 27. These results demonstrate that early life ethanol exposure can have long-term impacts in rat MSCs by both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms.

  8. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  9. Phosphoramide mustard exposure induces DNA adduct formation and the DNA damage repair response in rat ovarian granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesan, Shanthi Keating, Aileen F.

    2015-02-01

    Phosphoramide mustard (PM), the ovotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer agent cyclophosphamide (CPA), destroys rapidly dividing cells by forming NOR-G-OH, NOR-G and G-NOR-G adducts with DNA, potentially leading to DNA damage. A previous study demonstrated that PM induces ovarian DNA damage in rat ovaries. To investigate whether PM induces DNA adduct formation, DNA damage and induction of the DNA repair response, rat spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) were treated with vehicle control (1% DMSO) or PM (3 or 6 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Cell viability was reduced (P < 0.05) after 48 h of exposure to 3 or 6 μM PM. The NOR-G-OH DNA adduct was detected after 24 h of 6 μM PM exposure, while the more cytotoxic G-NOR-G DNA adduct was formed after 48 h by exposure to both PM concentrations. Phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double stranded break occurrence, was also increased by PM exposure, coincident with DNA adduct formation. Additionally, induction of genes (Atm, Parp1, Prkdc, Xrcc6, and Brca1) and proteins (ATM, γH2AX, PARP-1, PRKDC, XRCC6, and BRCA1) involved in DNA repair were observed in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. These data support that PM induces DNA adduct formation in ovarian granulosa cells, induces DNA damage and elicits the ovarian DNA repair response. - Highlights: • PM forms ovarian DNA adducts. • DNA damage marker γH2AX increased by PM exposure. • PM induces ovarian DNA double strand break repair.

  10. Effect of acute treatment with cadmium on ethanol anesthesia, body termperature, and synaptosomal Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-ATPase of rat brain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magour, S.; Kristof, V.; Baumann, M.; Assmann, G.

    1981-12-01

    The effect of a single intraperitoneal dose of 0.56, 1.12, and 1.68 mg cadmium/kg on the duration of ethanol-induced sleep was investigated in male rats. Cadmium potentiated ethanol sleeping time in a dose dependent manner up to 300% over controls. No significant difference in the elimination rate of ethanol from blood and brain and observed between control and cadmium-pretreated rats. Cadmium slightly inhibited the hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase in vivo and also potentiated ethanol hypothermia but these changes did not play a significant role in the observed prolongation of ethanol sleeping time. However, cadmium and ethanol additively inhibited brain synaptosomal Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-ATPase in a noncompetitive manner. The results so far indicate that cadmium may increase brain responsiveness toward ethanol partly through inhibition of snaptosomal Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-ATPase.

  11. Site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modelling studies show the role of Asp82 and cysteines in rat acylase 1, a member of the M20 family

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herga, Sameh; Brutus, Alexandre; Vitale, Rosa Maria; Miche, Helene; Perrier, Josette; Puigserver, Antoine; Scaloni, Andrea; Giardina, Thierry . E-mail: thierry.giardina@univ.u-3mrs.fr

    2005-05-06

    Acylase 1 from rat kidney catalyzes the hydrolysis of acyl-amino acids. Sequence alignment has shown that this enzyme belongs to the metalloprotein family M20. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments led to the identification of one functionally important amino acid residue located near one of the zinc coordinating residues, which play a critical role in the enzymatic activity. The D82N- and D82E-substituted forms showed no significant activity and very low activity, respectively, along with a loss of zinc coordination. Molecular modelling investigations indicated a putative role of D82 in ensuring a proper protonation of catalytic histidine. In addition, none of the five cysteine residues present in the rat kidney acylase 1 sequence seemed involved in the catalytic process: the loss of activity induced by the C294A substitution was probably due to a conformational change in the 3D structure.

  12. Boron neutron capture therapy: A guide to the understanding of the pathogenesis of late radiation damage to the rat spinal cord

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, G.M.; Whitehouse, E.M.; Hopewell, J.W. ); Coderre, J.A.; Micca, P. )

    1994-03-30

    Before the commencement of new boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) clinical trials in Europe and North America, detailed information on normal tissue tolerance is required. In this study, the pathologic effects of BNCT on the central nervous system (CNS) have been investigated using a rat spinal cord model. The neutron capture agent used was [sup 10]B-enriched sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH), at a dosage of 100 mg/kg body weight. Rats were irradiated on the thermal beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor. The large spine of vertebra T[sub 2] was used as the lower marker of the irradiation field. Rats were irradiated with thermal neutrons alone to a maximum physical absorbed dose of 11.4 Gy, or with thermal neutrons in combination with BSH, to maximum absorbed physical doses of 5.7 Gy to the CNS parenchyma and 33.7 Gy to the blood in the vasculature of the spinal cord. An additional group of rats was irradiated with 250 kVp X-rays to a single dose of 35 Gy. Spinal cord pathology was examined between 5 and 12 months after irradiation. The physical dose of radiation delivered to the CNS parenchyma, using thermal neutron irradiation in the presence of BSH, was a factor of two to three lower than that delivered to the vascular endothelium, and could not account for the level of damage observed in the parenchyma. The histopathological observations of the present study support the hypothesis that the blood vessels, and the endothelial cells in particular, are the critical target population responsible for the lesions seen in the spinal cord after BNCT type irradiation and by inference, after more conventional irradiation modalities such as photons or fast neutrons. 30 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Changes in expression of renal Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 in cisplatin-induced acute renal failure after treatment of JBP485 in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Tao, E-mail: liutaomedical@qq.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China)] [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China); Meng, Qiang, E-mail: mengq531@yahoo.cn [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China) [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Liaoning, Dalian Medical University (China); Wang, Changyuan, E-mail: wangcyuan@163.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China) [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Liaoning, Dalian Medical University (China); Liu, Qi, E-mail: llaqii@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China) [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Liaoning, Dalian Medical University (China); Guo, Xinjin, E-mail: guo.xinjin@163.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China)] [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China); Sun, Huijun, E-mail: sunhuijun@hotmail.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China) [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Liaoning, Dalian Medical University (China); Peng, Jinyong, E-mail: jinyongpeng2005@163.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China) [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Liaoning, Dalian Medical University (China); and others

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the effect of cyclo-trans-4-L-hydroxyprolyl-L-serine (JBP485) on acute renal failure (ARF) induced by cisplatin is related to change in expression of renal Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 in rats. JBP485 reduced creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and indoxyl sulfate (IS) in plasma and malondialdehyde (MDA) in kidney, and recovered the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cisplatin-treated rats. The plasma concentration of PAH (para-aminohippurate) determined by LCMS/MS was increased markedly after intravenous administration of cisplatin, whereas cumulative urinary excretion of PAH and the uptake of PAH in kidney slices were significantly decreased. qRT-PCR and Western-blot showed a decrease in mRNA and protein of Oat1 and Oat3, an increase in mRNA and protein of Mrp2 in cisplatin-treated rats, and an increase in IS (a uremic toxin) after co-treatment with JBP485. It indicated that JBP485 promoted urinary excretion of toxins by upregulating renal Mrp2. This therefore gives in part the explanation about the mechanism by which JBP485 improves ARF induced by cisplatin in rats. -- Highlights: ? Cisplatin induces acute renal failure (ARF). ? The expression of Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 were changed during ARF. ? The regulated expression of Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 is an adaptive protected response. ? JBP485 could facilitate the adaptive protective action.

  14. Sprague-Dawley rats display metabolism-mediated sex differences in the acute toxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fonsart, Julien [Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Pharmacie, Paris F-75006 (France)]|[CNRS, UMR 7157, Paris F-75006 (France)]|[INSERM, U705, Paris F-75006 (France); Menet, Marie-Claude [Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Pharmacie, Paris F-75006 (France)]|[Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Pharmacie, Plateau Spectrometrie de Masse (IFR 71), Service de Chimie Analytique, Paris F-75006 (France); Decleves, Xavier [Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Pharmacie, Paris F-75006 (France)]|[CNRS, UMR 7157, Paris F-75006 (France)]|[INSERM, U705, Paris F-75006 (France); Galons, Herve [Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Pharmacie, Paris F-75006 (France)]|[INSERM, U648, Paris F-75006 (France); Crete, Dominique; Debray, Marcel; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel [Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Pharmacie, Paris F-75006 (France)]|[CNRS, UMR 7157, Paris F-75006 (France)]|[INSERM, U705, Paris F-75006 (France); Noble, Florence [Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Pharmacie, Paris F-75006 (France)]|[CNRS, UMR 7157, Paris F-75006 (France)]|[INSERM, U705, Paris F-75006 (France)], E-mail: florence.noble@univ-paris5.fr

    2008-07-01

    The use of the amphetamine derivative 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) has been associated with unexplained deaths. Male humans and rodents are more sensitive to acute toxicity than are females, including a potentially lethal hyperthermia. MDMA is highly metabolized to five main metabolites, by the enzymes CYP1A2 and CYP2D. The major metabolite in rats, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), also causes hyperthermia. We postulated that the reported sex difference in rats is due to a sexual dimorphism(s). We therefore determined (1) the LD50 of MDMA and MDA, (2) their hyperthermic effects, (3) the activities of liver CYP1A2 and CYP2D, (4) the liver microsomal metabolism of MDMA and MDA, (5) and the plasma concentrations of MDMA and its metabolites 3 h after giving male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats MDMA (5 mg.kg{sup -1} sc). The LD50 of MDMA was 2.4-times lower in males than in females. MDMA induced greater hyperthermia (0.9 deg. C) in males. The plasma MDA concentration was 1.3-fold higher in males, as were CYP1A2 activity (twice) and N-demethylation to MDA (3.3-fold), but the plasma MDMA concentration (1.4-fold) and CYP2D activity (1.3-fold) were higher in females. These results suggest that male SD rats are more sensitive to MDMA acute toxicity than are females, probably because their CYP1A2 is more active, leading to higher N-demethylation and plasma MDA concentration. This metabolic pathway could be responsible for the lethality of MDMA, as the LD50 of MDA is the same in both sexes. These data strongly suggest that the toxicity of amphetamine-related drugs largely depends on metabolic differences.

  15. JBP485 improves gentamicin-induced acute renal failure by regulating the expression and function of Oat1 and Oat3 in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Xinjin; Meng, Qiang; Liu, Qi; Wang, Changyuan; Sun, Huijun; Peng, Jinyong; Ma, Xiaochi; Kaku, Taiichi; Liu, Kexin

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of JBP485 (an anti-inflammatory dipeptide and a substrate of OAT) on regulation of the expression and function of renal Oat1 and Oat3, which can accelerate the excretion of accumulated uremic toxins (e.g. indoxyl sulfate) in the kidney to improve gentamicin-induced ARF in rats. JBP485 caused a significant decrease in the accumulation of endogenous substances (creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and indoxyl sulfate) in vivo, an increase in the excretion of exogenous compounds (lisinopril and inulin) into urine, and up-regulation of the expressions of renal Oat1 and Oat3 in the kidney tissues and slices via substrate induction. To determine the effect of JBP485 on the accelerated excretion of uremic toxins mediated by Oat1 and Oat3, the mRNA and protein expression levels of renal basolateral Oats were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, western blot, immunohistochemical analysis and an immunofluorescence method. Gentamicin down-regulated the expression of Oats mRNA and protein in rat kidney, and these effects were reversed after administration of JBP485. In addition, JBP485 caused a significant decrease in MPO and MDA levels in the kidney, and improved the pathological condition of rat kidney. These results indicated that JBP485 improved acute renal failure by increasing the expression and function of Oat1 and Oat3, and by decreasing overoxidation of the kidney in gentamicin-induced ARF rats. - Highlights: • JBP485 could up-regulate function and expression of Oat1 and Oat3 in kidney. • Effects of JBP485 on ARF are mediated by stimulating excretion of uremic toxins. • JBP485 protected against gentamicin-induced ARF by decreasing MPO and MDA.

  16. Toxicity studies on Agents GB and GD (Phase 2): 90-day subchronic study of GB (Sarin, Type I) in CD rats. Final report, Jul 85-Aug 91

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucci, T.J.; Parker, R.M.; Crowell, J.A.; Thurman, J.D.; Gosnell, P.A.

    1991-08-01

    A two-phase Dose Range finding study and a 90-Day Subchronic study were conducted in CD rats using the organophosphate ester Sarin (Agent GB, Type I, CAS Number 107-44-8). The highest dose level without lethality in the second phase of the range finding study was designated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The doses selected for the subchronic study were the MTD (300 micron GBI/Kg/day), MTD/2 (150, micron GBI/Kg/day), MTD/4 (75 micron GBI/Kg/day), and a vehicle control (O micron /Kg/day). Forty-eight male and forty-eight female CD rats were randomly allocated at 11-12 weeks of age into four treatment groups (12 per sex per group). The animals were gavaged Monday through Friday for 13 weeks and euthanized with carbon dioxide at the beginning of the fourteenth week. Animals were observed daily for clinical signs of toxicity and were weighed weekly. The rats were bled (6 rats/sex/dose) during weeks -1, 1, 3, 7, and at necropsy. Necropsy examination was performed on all animals. Microscopic evaluation was performed on all high-dose and control animals, and on those tissues of lower dose animals that were abnormal at necropsy. All gross lesions and all animals dying or removed early received histological examination. A cause of death or morbidity for animals removed before the end of the study, determined from histopathological examination, was established in four of the eight cases. There were several statistically significant effects in the clinical chemistry and hematology data. These effects were scattered among the treatment groups and were not numerous enough to develop a pattern of organ toxicity.

  17. Differential cardiotoxicity in response to chronic doxorubicin treatment in male spontaneous hypertension-heart failure (SHHF), spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharkey, Leslie C.; Radin, M. Judith; Heller, Lois; Rogers, Lynette K.; Tobias, Anthony; Matise, Ilze; Wang, Qi; Apple, Fred S.; McCune, Sylvia A.

    2013-11-15

    Life threatening complications from chemotherapy occur frequently in cancer survivors, however little is known about genetic risk factors. We treated male normotensive rats (WKY) and strains with hypertension (SHR) and hypertension with cardiomyopathy (SHHF) with 8 weekly doses of doxorubicin (DOX) followed by 12 weeks of observation to test the hypothesis that genetic cardiovascular disease would worsen delayed cardiotoxicity. Compared with WKY, SHR demonstrated weight loss, decreased systolic blood pressure, increased kidney weights, greater cardiac and renal histopathologic lesions and greater mortality. SHHF showed growth restriction, increased kidney weights and renal histopathology but no effect on systolic blood pressure or mortality. SHHF had less severe cardiac lesions than SHR. We evaluated cardiac soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) content and arachidonic acid metabolites after acute DOX exposure as potential mediators of genetic risk. Before DOX, SHHF and SHR had significantly greater cardiac sEH and decreased epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) (4 of 4 isomers in SHHF and 2 of 4 isomers in SHR) than WKY. After DOX, sEH was unchanged in all strains, but SHHF and SHR rats increased EETs to a level similar to WKY. Leukotriene D4 increased after treatment in SHR. Genetic predisposition to heart failure superimposed on genetic hypertension failed to generate greater toxicity compared with hypertension alone. The relative resistance of DOX-treated SHHF males to the cardiotoxic effects of DOX in the delayed phase despite progression of genetic disease was unexpected and a key finding. Strain differences in arachidonic acid metabolism may contribute to variation in response to DOX toxicity. - Highlights: Late doxorubicin toxicity evaluated in normal, hypertensive, and cardiomyopathic rats. Hypertension enhances the delayed toxicity of doxorubicin. Genetic predisposition to cardiomyopathy did not further enhance toxicity. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids increased in

  18. Up-regulation of DRP-3 long isoform during the induction of neural progenitor cells by glutamate treatment in the ex vivo rat retina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokuda, Kazuhiro; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Byron, Baron; Kitagawa, Takao; Tokuda, Nobuko; Kobayashi, Daiki; Nagayama, Megumi; Araki, Norie; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    2015-08-07

    Glutamate has been shown to induce neural progenitor cells in the adult vertebrate retina. However, protein dynamics during progenitor cell induction by glutamate are not fully understood. To identify specific proteins involved in the process, we employed two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics on glutamate untreated and treated retinal ex vivo sections. Rat retinal tissues were incubated with 1 mM glutamate for 1 h, followed by incubation in glutamate-free media for a total of 24 h. Consistent with prior reports, it was found that mitotic cells appeared in the outer nuclear layer without any histological damage. Immunohistological evaluations and immunoblotting confirmed the emergence of neuronal progenitor cells in the mature retina treated with glutamate. Proteomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 3 (DRP-3), DRP-2 and stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 (STIP1) during neural progenitor cell induction by glutamate. Moreover, mRNA expression of DRP-3, especially, its long isoform, robustly increased in the treated retina compared to that in the untreated retina. These results may indicate that glutamate induces neural progenitor cells in the mature rat retina by up-regulating the proteins which mediate cell mitosis and neurite growth. - Highlights: • Glutamate induced neuronal progenitor cells in the mature rat retina. • Proteomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of DRP-3, DRP-2 and STIP1. • mRNA expression of DRP-3, especially, its long isoform, robustly increased.

  19. Effects of prenatal exposure to a low dose atrazine metabolite mixture on pubertal timing and prostate development of male Long-Evans rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanko, Jason; Enoch, Rolondo; Rayner, Jennifer L; Davis, Christine; Wolf, Douglas; Malarkey, David; Fenton, Suzanne

    2010-12-01

    The present study examines the postnatal reproductive development of male rats following prenatal exposure to an atrazine metabolite mixture (AMM) consisting of the herbicide atrazine and its environmental metabolites diaminochlorotriazine, hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were treated by gavage with 0.09, 0.87, or 8.73 mg AMM/kg body weight (BW), vehicle, or 100 mg ATR/kg BW positive control, on gestation days 15 19. Preputial separation was significantly delayed in 0.87 mg and 8.73 mg AMM-exposed males. AMM-exposed males demonstrated a significant treatment-related increase in incidence and severity of inflammation in the prostate on postnatal day (PND) 120. A dose-dependent increase in epididymal fat masses and prostate foci were grossly visible in AMM-exposed offspring. These results indicate that a short, late prenatal exposure to mixture of chlorotriazine metabolites can cause chronic prostatitis in male LE rats. The mode of action for these effects is presently unclear.

  20. Aroclor 1254, a developmental neurotoxicant, alters energy metabolism- and intracellular signaling-associated protein networks in rat cerebellum and hippocampus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.; Osorio, Cristina; Program on Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina ; Royland, Joyce E.; Ramabhadran, Ram; Alzate, Oscar; Systems Proteomics Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Program on Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina

    2011-11-15

    The vast literature on the mode of action of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) indicates that PCBs are a unique model for understanding the mechanisms of toxicity of environmental mixtures of persistent chemicals. PCBs have been shown to adversely affect psychomotor function and learning and memory in humans. Although the molecular mechanisms for PCB effects are unclear, several studies indicate that the disruption of Ca{sup 2+}-mediated signal transduction plays significant roles in PCB-induced developmental neurotoxicity. Culminating events in signal transduction pathways include the regulation of gene and protein expression, which affects the growth and function of the nervous system. Our previous studies showed changes in gene expression related to signal transduction and neuronal growth. In this study, protein expression following developmental exposure to PCB is examined. Pregnant rats (Long Evans) were dosed with 0.0 or 6.0 mg/kg/day of Aroclor-1254 from gestation day 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21, and the cerebellum and hippocampus from PND14 animals were analyzed to determine Aroclor 1254-induced differential protein expression. Two proteins were found to be differentially expressed in the cerebellum following PCB exposure while 18 proteins were differentially expressed in the hippocampus. These proteins are related to energy metabolism in mitochondria (ATP synthase, sub unit {beta} (ATP5B), creatine kinase, and malate dehydrogenase), calcium signaling (voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 (VDAC1) and ryanodine receptor type II (RyR2)), and growth of the nervous system (dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 4 (DPYSL4), valosin-containing protein (VCP)). Results suggest that Aroclor 1254-like persistent chemicals may alter energy metabolism and intracellular signaling, which might result in developmental neurotoxicity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We performed brain proteomic analysis of rats exposed to the neurotoxicant

  1. Placental oxidative stress and decreased global DNA methylation are corrected by copper in the Cohen diabetic rat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ergaz, Zivanit; Guillemin, Claire; Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Weinstein-Fudim, Liza; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K.; Szyf, Moshe; Ornoy, Asher

    2014-05-01

    Fetal Growth Restriction (FGR) is a leading cause for long term morbidity. The Cohen diabetic sensitive rats (CDs), originating from Wistar, develop overt diabetes when fed high sucrose low copper diet (HSD) while the original outbred Sabra strain do not. HSD induced FGR and fetal oxidative stress, more prominent in the CDs, that was alleviated more effectively by copper than by the anti-oxidant vitamins C and E. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of copper or the anti-oxidant Tempol on placental size, protein content, oxidative stress, apoptosis and total DNA methylation. Animals were mated following one month of HSD or regular chow diet and supplemented throughout pregnancy with either 0, 1 or 2 ppm of copper sulfate or Tempol in their drinking water. Placental weight on the 21st day of pregnancy decreased in dams fed HSD and improved upon copper supplementation. Placental/fetal weight ratio increased among the CDs. Protein content decreased in Sabra but increased in CDs fed HSD. Oxidative stress biochemical markers improved upon copper supplementation; immunohistochemistry for oxidative stress markers was similar between strains and diets. Caspase 3 was positive in more placentae of dams fed HSD than those fed RD. Placental global DNA methylation was decreased only among the CDs dams fed HSD. We conclude that FGR in this model is associated with smaller placentae, reduced DNA placental methylation, and increased oxidative stress that normalized with copper supplementation. DNA hypomethylation makes our model a unique method for investigating genes associated with growth, oxidative stress, hypoxia and copper. - Highlights: • Sensitive Cohen diabetic rats (CDs) had small placentae and growth restricted fetuses. • CDs dams fed high sucrose low copper diet had placental global DNA hypomethylation. • Caspase 3 was positive in more placentae of dams fed HSD than those fed RD. • Oxidative stress parameters improved by Tempol and resolved by copper

  2. SU-E-I-34: Intermittent Low- and High-Dose Ethanol Exposure Alters Neurochemical Responses in Adult Rat Brain: An Ex Vivo 1H NMR Spectroscopy at 11.7 T

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Do-Wan; Kim, Sang-Young; Song, Kyu-Ho; Choe, Bo-Young

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The first goal of this study was to determine the influence of the dose-dependent effects of intermittent ethanol intoxication on cerebral neurochemical responses among sham controls and low- and high-dose-ethanol-exposed rats with ex vivo high-resolution spectra. The second goal of this study was to determine the correlations between the metabolite-metabolite levels (pairs-of-metabolite levels) from all of the individual data from the frontal cortex of the intermittent ethanol-intoxicated rats. Methods: Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups. Twenty rats in the LDE (n = 10) and the HDE (n = 10) groups received ethanol doses of 1.5 g/kg and 2.5 g/kg, respectively, through oral gavage every 8-h for 4 days. At the end of the 4-day intermittent ethanol exposure, one-dimensional ex vivo 500-MHz proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were acquired from 30 samples of the frontal cortex region (from the 3 groups). Results: Normalized total-N-acetylaspartate (tNAA: NAA + NAAG [N-acetylaspartyl-glutamate]), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly lower in the frontal cortex of the HDE-exposed rats than that of the LDE-exposed rats. Moreover, compared to the CNTL group, the LDE rats exhibited significantly higher normalized GABA levels. The 6 pairs of normalized metabolite levels were positively (+) or negatively (−) correlated in the rat frontal cortex as follows: tNAA and GABA (+), tNAA and Aspartate (Asp) (−), myo-Inositol (mIns) and Asp (−), mIns and Alanine (+), mIns and Taurine (+), and mIns and tNAA (−). Conclusion: Our results suggested that repeated intermittent ethanol intoxication might result in neuronal degeneration and dysfunction, changes in the rate of GABA synthesis, and oxidative stress in the rat frontal cortex. Our ex vivo 1H high-resolution-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy results suggested some novel metabolic markers for the dose

  3. Toxicokinetics of α-thujone following intravenous and gavage administration of α-thujone or α- and β-thujone mixture in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waidyanatha, Suramya; Johnson, Jerry D.; Hong, S. Peter; Robinson, Veronica Godfrey; Gibbs, Seth; Graves, Steven W.; Hooth, Michelle J.; Smith, Cynthia S.

    2013-09-01

    Plants containing thujone have widespread use and hence have significant human exposure. α-Thujone caused seizures in rodents following gavage administration. We investigated the toxicokinetics of α-thujone in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice following intravenous and gavage administration of α-thujone or a mixture of α- and β-thujone (which will be referred to as α,β-thujone). Absorption of α-thujone following gavage administration was rapid without any dose-, species-, sex- or test article-related effect. Absolute bioavailability of α-thujone following administration of α-thujone or α,β-thujone was generally higher in rats than in mice. In rats, females had higher bioavailability than males following administration of either test article although a sex difference was not observed in mice. C{sub max} and AUC{sub ∞} increased greater than proportional to the dose in female rats following administration of α-thujone and in male and female mice following administration of α,β-thujone suggesting possible saturation of elimination kinetics with increasing dose. Dose-adjusted AUC{sub ∞} for male and female rats was 5- to 15-fold and 3- to 24-fold higher than mice counterparts following administration of α-thujone and α,β-thujone, respectively (p-value < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Following both intravenous and gavage administration, α-thujone was distributed to the brains of rats and mice with females, in general, having higher brain:plasma ratios than males. These data are in support of the observed toxicity of α-thujone and α,β-thujone where females were more sensitive than males of both species to α-thujone-induced neurotoxicity. In general there was no difference in toxicokinetics between test articles when normalized to α-thujone concentration. - Highlights: • Absorption of α-thujone following gavage administration was rapid in rats and mice. • Rats undergo higher exposure to α-thujone than mice. • α-Thujone brain

  4. Characterizing Rat PNS Electrophysiological Response to Electrical Stimulation Using in vitro Chip-Based Human Investigational Platform (iCHIP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khani, Joshua; Prescod, Lindsay; Enright, Heather; Felix, Sarah; Osburn, Joanne; Wheeler, Elizabeth; Kulp, Kris

    2015-08-18

    Ex vivo systems and organ-on-a-chip technology offer an unprecedented approach to modeling the inner workings of the human body. The ultimate goal of LLNL’s in vitro Chip-based Human Investigational Platform (iCHIP) is to integrate multiple organ tissue cultures using microfluidic channels, multi-electrode arrays (MEA), and other biosensors in order to effectively simulate and study the responses and interactions of the major organs to chemical and physical stimulation. In this study, we focused on the peripheral nervous system (PNS) component of the iCHIP system. Specifically we sought to expound on prior research investigating the electrophysiological response of rat dorsal root ganglion cells (rDRGs) to chemical exposures, such as capsaicin. Our aim was to establish a protocol for electrical stimulation using the iCHIP device that would reliably elicit a characteristic response in rDRGs. By varying the parameters for both the stimulation properties – amplitude, phase width, phase shape, and stimulation/ return configuration – and the culture conditions – day in vitro and neural cell types - we were able to make several key observations and uncover a potential convention with a minimal number of devices tested. Future work will seek to establish a standard protocol for human DRGs in the iCHIP which will afford a portable, rapid method for determining the effects of toxins and novel therapeutics on the PNS.

  5. Phase-Contrast MRI and CFD Modeling of Apparent 3He Gas Flow in Rat Pulmonary Airways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minard, Kevin R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Rick E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Carson, James P.; Corley, Richard A.

    2012-08-01

    Phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with hyperpolarized 3He is potentially useful for developing and testing patient-specific models of pulmonary airflow. One challenge, however, is that PC-MRI provides apparent values of local 3He velocity that not only depend on actual airflow but also on gas diffusion. This not only blurs laminar flow patterns in narrow airways but also introduces anomalous airflow structure that reflects gas-wall interactions. Here, both effects are predicted in a live rat using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and for the first time, simulated patterns of apparent 3He gas velocity are compared with in-vivo PC-MRI. Results show (1) that correlations (R2) between measured and simulated airflow patterns increase from 0.23 to 0.79 simply by accounting for apparent 3He transport, and that (2) remaining differences are mainly due to uncertain airway segmentation and partial volume effects stemming from relatively coarse MRI resolution. Higher-fidelity testing of pulmonary airflow predictions should therefore be possible with future imaging improvements.

  6. Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wenxiang; Zhang, Wenchang; Liu, Jin; Sun, Yan; Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Shen, Xiaohua

    2013-06-15

    Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ► Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ► SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ► The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified.

  7. Synchrotron FTIR Microspectroscopic Analysis of the Effects of Anti-inflammatory Therapeutics on Would Healing in Laminectomized Rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weins,R.; Rak, M.; Cox, N.; Abraham, S.; Juurlink, B.; Kulyk, W.; Gough, K.

    2007-01-01

    Peridural scarring, or the excessive formation of scar tissue following spinal surgery, is one of the important contributing factors that result in persistent pain and disability in many individuals who have undergone elective back surgery. Treatment with anti-inflammatory agents following surgery may reduce oxidative stress and scarring, leading to a reduction in post-operative pain. We are using a surgical rat model to test the hypothesis that post-surgical inflammation and oxidative stress following laminectomy can be reduced by systemic administration of L: -2-oxo-thiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC) and quercetin. OTC is a cysteine precursor required for the synthesis of glutathione, an important antioxidant. Quercetin is a flavenoid with anti-oxidant properties, found in fruits and vegetables. Synchrotron FTIR microspectroscopy data has been collected on OTC, quercetin and saline (control)-treated post-surgery animals, sacrificed at 3 and 21 days (n=6 per age and treatment group). This paper presents preliminary IR results, supported by immunocytochemistry, on the heterogenous distribution of biological components present in the healing tissue. The data collected on animals sacrificed at 3 and 21 days post-surgery will be combined in the future with data from animals sacrificed 63 days after surgery (representing a third time point) to evaluate the efficacy of the different treatments. Initial statistical analysis of ED1 immunohistochemistry results indicates a decrease in the number of activated macrophages 21 days post-surgery in the OTC-treated animals compared with the saline controls.

  8. Toxicity of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in hydra attenuata and in rat whole-embryo culture. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, M.C.

    1991-05-01

    Polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) are a class of biaryl compounds that have little commercial application, but appear to be widespread in the environment. They have been found in wood preservative waste dumpsites and in fly ash from municipal waste incinerators. They have been detected in bird eggs and tissues, fish, and other edible marine organisms in the United States, Canada, and Europe. There are limited reports in the extant literature on the toxicity of PCDEs. This study was designed to evaluate the toxicity of selected PCDEs in cultures of Hydra attenuata and post-implantation rat whole embryos. The toxicity of several closely related polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was evaluated in both cultures and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was evaluated in whole embryo culture. Embryonic growth and development parameters (yolk sac diameter, crown-rump length, somite count, and DNA and protein content) and gross morphology were determined. Findings indicated that these chemicals were neither embryotoxic nor teratogenic. Thus, the PCDEs, which elicit other diverse toxic and biochemical responses in rodents, are relatively inactive in these bioassays for developmental toxicity.

  9. Diphenylarsinic acid, a chemical warfare-related neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis via activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and consequent induction of oxidative DAN damage in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Min; Yamada, Takanori; Yamano, Shotaro; Kato, Minoru; Kakehashi, Anna; Fujioka, Masaki; Tago, Yoshiyuki; Kitano, Mistuaki; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2013-11-15

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a chemical warfare-related neurotoxic organic arsenical, is present in the groundwater and soil in some regions of Japan due to illegal dumping after World War II. Inorganic arsenic is carcinogenic in humans and its organic arsenic metabolites are carcinogenic in animal studies, raising serious concerns about the carcinogenicity of DPAA. However, the carcinogenic potential of DPAA has not yet been evaluated. In the present study we found that DPAA significantly enhanced the development of diethylnitrosamine-induced preneoplastic lesions in the liver in a medium-term rat liver carcinogenesis assay. Evaluation of the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the liver revealed that DPAA induced the expression of CYP1B1, but not any other CYP1, CYP2, or CYP3 enzymes, suggesting that CYP1B1 might be the enzyme responsible for the metabolic activation of DPAA. We also found increased oxidative DNA damage, possibly due to elevated CYP1B1 expression. Induction of CYP1B1 has generally been linked with the activation of AhR, and we found that DPAA activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Importantly, the promotion effect of DPAA was observed only at a dose that activated the AhR, suggesting that activation of AhR and consequent induction of AhR target genes and oxidative DNA damage plays a vital role in the promotion effects of DPAA. The present study provides, for the first time, evidence regarding the carcinogenicity of DPAA and indicates the necessity of comprehensive evaluation of its carcinogenic potential using long-term carcinogenicity studies. - Highlights: • DPAA, an environmental neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis in rats. • DPAA is an activator of AhR signaling pathway. • DPAA promoted oxidative DNA damage in rat livers. • AhR target gene CYP 1B1 might be involved in the metabolism of DPAA.

  10. Phycocyanobilin promotes PC12 cell survival and modulates immune and inflammatory genes and oxidative stress markers in acute cerebral hypoperfusion in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marín-Prida, Javier; Riva, Federica; Pentón-Arias, Eduardo

    2013-10-01

    Since the inflammatory response and oxidative stress are involved in the stroke cascade, we evaluated here the effects of Phycocyanobilin (PCB, the C-Phycocyanin linked tetrapyrrole) on PC12 cell survival, the gene expression and the oxidative status of hypoperfused rat brain. After the permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAo), the animals were treated with saline or PCB, taking samples 24 h post-surgery. Global gene expression was analyzed with GeneChip Rat Gene ST 1.1 from Affymetrix; the expression of particular genes was assessed by the Fast SYBR Green RT-PCR Master Mix and Bioplex methods; and redox markers (MDA, PP, CAT, SOD) were evaluated spectrophotometrically. The PCB treatment prevented the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and glutamate induced PC12 cell injury assessed by the MTT assay, and modulated 190 genes (93 up- and 97 down-regulated) associated to several immunological and inflammatory processes in BCCAo rats. Furthermore, PCB positively modulated 19 genes mostly related to a detrimental pro-inflammatory environment and counteracted the oxidative imbalance in the treated BCCAo animals. Our results support the view of an effective influence of PCB on major inflammatory mediators in acute cerebral hypoperfusion. These results suggest that PCB has a potential to be a treatment for ischemic stroke for which further studies are needed. - Highlights: • Phycocyanobilin (PCB) prevents H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and glutamate induced PC12 cell viability loss. • Anterior cortex and striatum are highly vulnerable to cerebral hypoperfusion (CH). • PCB modulates 190 genes associated to inflammation in acute CH. • PCB regulates 19 genes mostly related to a detrimental pro-inflammatory environment. • PCB restores redox and immune balances showing promise as potential stroke therapy.

  11. o-p?-DDT-mediated uterotrophy and gene expression in immature C57BL/6 mice and SpragueDawley rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwekel, Joshua C.; Forgacs, Agnes L.; Williams, Kurt J.; Zacharewski, Timothy R.

    2013-12-15

    1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(2-chlorophenyl-4-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p?-DDT) is an organochlorine pesticide and endocrine disruptor known to activate the estrogen receptor. Comprehensive ligand- and species-comparative dose- and time-dependent studies were conducted to systematically assess the uterine physiological, morphological and gene expression responses elicited by o,p?-DDT and ethynyl estradiol (EE) in immature ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice and SpragueDawley rats. Custom cDNA microarrays were used to identify conserved and divergent differential gene expression responses. A total of 1256 genes were differentially expressed by both ligands in both species, 559 of which exhibited similar temporal expression profiles suggesting that o,p?-DDT elicits estrogenic effects at high doses when compared to EE. However, 51 genes exhibited species-specific uterine expression elicited by o,p?-DDT. For example, carbonic anhydrase 2 exhibited species- and ligand-divergent expression as confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. The identification of comparable temporal phenotypic responses linked to gene expression demonstrates that systematic comparative gene expression assessments are valuable for elucidating conserved and divergent estrogen signaling mechanisms in rodent uterotrophy. - Highlights: o,p?-DDT and enthynyl estradiol (EE) both elicit uterotrophy in mice and rats. o,p?-DDT and EE have different kinetics in uterine wet weight induction. o,p?-DDT elicited stromal hypertrophy in rats but myometrial hypertrophy in mice. 1256 genes were differentially expressed by both ligands in both species. Only 51 genes had species-specific uterine expression.

  12. Sprague-Dawley rats display sex-linked differences in the pharmacokinetics of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its metabolite 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fonsart, Julien; Menet, Marie-Claude; Debray, Marcel; Hirt, Deborah; Noble, Florence; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Decleves, Xavier

    2009-12-15

    The use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) has increased in recent years; it can lead to life-threatening hyperthermia and serotonin syndrome. Human and rodent males appear to be more sensitive to acute toxicity than are females. MDMA is metabolized to five main metabolites by the enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2D and COMT. Little is presently known about sex-dependent differences in the pharmacokinetics of MDMA and its metabolites. We therefore analyzed MDMA disposition in male and female rats by measuring the plasma and urine concentrations of MDMA and its metabolites using a validated LC-MS method. MDA AUC{sub last} and C{sub max} were 1.6- to 1.7-fold higher in males than in females given MDMA (5 mg/kg sc), while HMMA C{sub max} and AUC{sub last} were 3.2- and 3.5-fold higher, respectively. MDMA renal clearance was 1.26-fold higher in males, and that of MDA was 2.2-fold higher. MDMA AUC{sub last} and t{sub 1/2} were 50% higher in females given MDMA (1 mg/kg iv). MDA C{sub max} and AUC{sub last} were 75-82% higher in males, with a 2.8-fold higher metabolic index. Finally, the AUC{sub last} of MDA was 0.73-fold lower in males given 1 mg/kg iv MDA. The volumes of distribution of MDMA and MDA at steady-state were similar in the two sexes. These data strongly suggest that differences in the N-demethylation of MDMA to MDA are major influences on the MDMA and MDA pharmacokinetics in male and female rats. Hence, males are exposed to significantly more toxic MDA, which could explain previously reported sexual dysmorphism in the acute effects and toxicity of MDMA in rats.

  13. A physiologically based biodynamic (PBBD) model for estragole DNA binding in rat liver based on in vitro kinetic data and estragole DNA adduct formation in primary hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paini, Alicia; Punt, Ans; Viton, Florian; Scholz, Gabriele; Delatour, Thierry; Marin-Kuan, Maricel; Schilter, Benoit; Bladeren, Peter J. van; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2010-05-15

    Estragole has been shown to be hepatocarcinogenic in rodent species at high-dose levels. Translation of these results into the likelihood of formation of DNA adducts, mutation, and ultimately cancer upon more realistic low-dose exposures remains a challenge. Recently we have developed physiologically based biokinetic (PBBK) models for rat and human predicting bioactivation of estragole. These PBBK models, however, predict only kinetic characteristics. The present study describes the extension of the PBBK model to a so-called physiologically based biodynamic (PBBD) model predicting in vivo DNA adduct formation of estragole in rat liver. This PBBD model was developed using in vitro data on DNA adduct formation in rat primary hepatocytes exposed to 1'-hydroxyestragole. The model was extended by linking the area under the curve for 1'-hydroxyestragole formation predicted by the PBBK model to the area under the curve for 1'-hydroxyestragole in the in vitro experiments. The outcome of the PBBD model revealed a linear increase in DNA adduct formation with increasing estragole doses up to 100 mg/kg bw. Although DNA adduct formation of genotoxic carcinogens is generally seen as a biomarker of exposure rather than a biomarker of response, the PBBD model now developed is one step closer to the ultimate toxic effect of estragole than the PBBK model described previously. Comparison of the PBBD model outcome to available data showed that the model adequately predicts the dose-dependent level of DNA adduct formation. The PBBD model predicts DNA adduct formation at low levels of exposure up to a dose level showing to cause cancer in rodent bioassays, providing a proof of principle for modeling a toxicodynamic in vivo endpoint on the basis of solely in vitro experimental data.

  14. A STUDY OF FISCHER 344 RATS EXPOSED TO SILICA DUST AT CONCENTRATIONS OF 0, 2, 10 OR 20 MG/M3, THEN MAINTAINED FOR SIX MONTHS PRIOR TO ASSESSMENT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KUTZMAN,R.S.

    1984-11-01

    The major objective of this study was to relate the results of a series of functional tests to the compositional and structural alterations in the rat lung induced by subchronic exposure to silica dust. To induce a fibrotic lesion, Fischer-344 rats were exposed to either 0, 2, 10, or 20 mg Si0{sub 2}/m{sup 3} for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for six months and then maintained in an animal room, equipped with a laminar flow unit, for six months prior to assessment of the end points.

  15. Differential expression of secretogranin II and chromogranin A genes in the female rat pituitary through sexual maturation and estrous cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anouar, Y.; Duval, J. )

    1991-03-01

    Secretogranin II (SgII) is a protein of pituitary secretory granules released by LHRH-stimulated gonadotrope cells. Estrogens and androgens are modulators of SgII release. Experiments were performed to determine the regulation of expression of the SgII gene in the female rat pituitary, during sexual maturation and according to the estrous cycle. Age- and cycle-related changes in SgII mRNA content were estimated through cytoplasmic slot blot; SgII content was determined by western blotting; maturation of the protein was controlled through (35S)sulfate labeling. Variations in chromogranin A (CgA), another protein of secretory granules, were analyzed in the same experimental conditions to assess the specificity of SgII regulation. The pituitary SgII concentration increased between days 7 and 21 (2.2-fold) and then declined to the initial 7-day-old value. Simultaneously, the CgA concentration went through a maximum between days 14 and 21 and then strongly dropped to barely detectable levels in the adult pituitary. The SgII mRNA concentration followed roughly the same pattern as the protein. Moreover, the sulfation level remained constant between days 14 and 60. These results demonstrated a regulatory mechanism operating, during sexual maturation, on the SgII gene and not on the protein processing or on storage/release steps. In the 4-day cycling females, the pituitary SgII mRNA and protein contents were the lowest during estrus. They then increased to their highest values in diestrus II. Moreover, the sulfation level of SgII was significantly higher during estrus than during any other stage. Due to its low content level, variations in pituitary CgA could not be demonstrated during the cycle.

  16. Evaluation of MRI and cannabinoid type 1 receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL for spatial normalization of rat brains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kronfeld, Andrea; Müller-Forell, Wibke; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Maus, Stephan; Reuss, Stefan; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Miederer, Isabelle; Lutz, Beat

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Image registration is one prerequisite for the analysis of brain regions in magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) or positron-emission-tomography (PET) studies. Diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) is a nonlinear, diffeomorphic algorithm for image registration and construction of image templates. The goal of this small animal study was (1) the evaluation of a MRI and calculation of several cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL and (2) the analysis of the image registration accuracy of MR and PET images to their DARTEL templates with reference to analytical and iterative PET reconstruction algorithms. Methods: Five male Sprague Dawley rats were investigated for template construction using MRI and [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 PET for CB1 receptor representation. PET images were reconstructed using the algorithms filtered back-projection, ordered subset expectation maximization in 2D, and maximum a posteriori in 3D. Landmarks were defined on each MR image, and templates were constructed under different settings, i.e., based on different tissue class images [gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and GM + WM] and regularization forms (“linear elastic energy,” “membrane energy,” and “bending energy”). Registration accuracy for MRI and PET templates was evaluated by means of the distance between landmark coordinates. Results: The best MRI template was constructed based on gray and white matter images and the regularization form linear elastic energy. In this case, most distances between landmark coordinates were <1 mm. Accordingly, MRI-based spatial normalization was most accurate, but results of the PET-based spatial normalization were quite comparable. Conclusions: Image registration using DARTEL provides a standardized and automatic framework for small animal brain data analysis. The authors were able to show that this method works with high reliability and validity. Using DARTEL

  17. The potential reproductive, neurobehavioral and systemic effects of soluble sodium tungstate exposure in Sprague-Dawley rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McInturf, S.M. [Naval Medical Research Unit at Dayton (NAMRU), Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); Bekkedal, M.Y.V. [Two Steps Forward, LLC, Sun Prairie, WI (United States); Wilfong, E. [U.S. Naval Academy, 572M Holloway Road, Annapolis, MD (United States); Arfsten, D. [Navy Drug Screening Laboratory P.O. Box 113, Naval Air Station Jacksonville, FL (United States); Chapman, G. [Naval Medical Research Unit at Dayton (NAMRU), Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); Gunasekar, P.G., E-mail: palur.gunasekar@wpafb.af.mil [Naval Medical Research Unit at Dayton (NAMRU), Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States)

    2011-07-15

    The debate on tungsten (W) is fostered by its continuous usage in military munitions. Reports demonstrate W solubilizes in soil and can migrate into drinking water supplies and, therefore, is a potential health risk to humans. This study evaluated the reproductive, systemic and neurobehavioral effects of sodium tungstate (NaW) in rats following 70 days of daily pre-and postnatal exposure via oral gavage to 5, 62.5 and 125 mg/kg/day of NaW through mating, gestation and weaning (PND 0-20). Daily administration of NaW produced no overt evidence of toxicity and had no apparent effect on mating success or offspring physical development. Distress vocalizations were elevated in F{sub 1} offspring from the high dose group, whereas righting reflex showed unexpected sex differences where males demonstrated faster righting than females; however, the effects were not dose-dependent. Locomotor activity was affected in both low and high-dose groups of F{sub 1} females. Low-dose group showed increased distance traveled, more time in ambulatory movements and less time in stereotypic behavior than controls or high dose animals. The high-dose group had more time in stereotypical movements than controls, and less time resting than controls and the lowest exposure group. Maternal retrieval was not affected by NaW exposure. Tungsten analysis showed a systemic distribution of NaW in both parents and offspring, with preferential uptake within the immune organs, including the femur, spleen and thymus. Histopathological evidence suggested no severe chronic injury or loss of function in these organs. However, the heart showed histological lesions, histiocytic inflammation from minimal to mild with cardiomyocyte degeneration and necrosis in several P{sub 0} animals of 125 mg NaW dose group. The result of this study suggests that pre and postnatal exposure to NaW may produce subtle neurobehavioral effects in offspring related to motor activity and emotionality.

  18. Synergistic acceleration of thyroid hormone degradation by phenobarbital and the PPAR{alpha} agonist WY14643 in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wieneke, N.; Neuschaefer-Rube, F.; Bode, L.M.; Kuna, M.; Andres, J.; Carnevali, L.C.; Hirsch-Ernst, K.I.; Pueschel, G.P.

    2009-10-01

    Energy balance is maintained by controlling both energy intake and energy expenditure. Thyroid hormones play a crucial role in regulating energy expenditure. Their levels are adjusted by a tight feedback-controlled regulation of thyroid hormone production/incretion and by their hepatic metabolism. Thyroid hormone degradation has previously been shown to be enhanced by treatment with phenobarbital or other antiepileptic drugs due to a CAR-dependent induction of phase II enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism. We have recently shown, that PPAR{alpha} agonists synergize with phenobarbital to induce another prototypical CAR target gene, CYP2B1. Therefore, it was tested whether a PPAR{alpha} agonist could enhance the phenobarbital-dependent acceleration of thyroid hormone elimination. In primary cultures of rat hepatocytes the apparent half-life of T3 was reduced after induction with a combination of phenobarbital and the PPAR{alpha} agonist WY14643 to a larger extent than after induction with either compound alone. The synergistic reduction of the half-life could be attributed to a synergistic induction of CAR and the CAR target genes that code for enzymes and transporters involved in the hepatic elimination of T3, such as OATP1A1, OATP1A3, UGT1A3 and UGT1A10. The PPAR{alpha}-dependent CAR induction and the subsequent induction of T3-eliminating enzymes might be of physiological significance for the fasting-induced reduction in energy expenditure by fatty acids as natural PPAR{alpha} ligands. The synergism of the PPAR{alpha} agonist WY14643 and phenobarbital in inducing thyroid hormone breakdown might serve as a paradigm for the synergistic disruption of endocrine control by other combinations of xenobiotics.

  19. The neurotoxic effects of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea on the electrophysiological property and visual signal transmission of rat's retina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Ye; Chen, Tao; Liu, Bei; Yang, Guo Qing; Peng, Guanghua; Zhang, Hua; Huang, Yi Fei

    2015-07-01

    The neurotoxic effects of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) on the inner retinal neurons and related visual signal circuits have not been described in any animal models or human, despite ample morphological evidences about the MNU induced photoreceptor (PR) degeneration. With the helping of MEA (multielectrode array) recording system, we gained the opportunity to systemically explore the neural activities and visual signal pathways of MNU administrated rats. Our MEA research identified remarkable alterations in the electrophysiological properties and firstly provided instructive information about the neurotoxicity of MNU that affects the signal transmission in the inner retina. Moreover, the spatial electrophysiological functions of retina were monitored and found that the focal PRs had different vulnerabilities to the MNU. The MNU-induced PR dysfunction exhibited a distinct spatial- and time-dependent progression. In contrast, the spiking activities of both central and peripheral RGCs altered synchronously in response to the MNU administration. Pharmacological tests suggested that gap junctions played a pivotal role in this homogeneous response of RGCs. SNR analysis of MNU treated retina suggested that the signaling efficiency and fidelity of inner retinal circuits have been ruined by this toxicant, although the microstructure of the inner retina seemed relatively consolidated. The present study provided an appropriate example of MEA investigations on the toxicant induced pathological models and the effects of the pharmacological compounds on neuron activities. The positional MEA information would enrich our knowledge about the pathology of MNU induced RP models, and eventually be instrumental for elucidating the underlying mechanism of human RP. - Highlights: • We systemically explored the neural activities and visual signal pathways of MNU administrated retinas. • The focal photoreceptors had different vulnerabilities to the MNU administration.

  20. Chemical modification and inactivation of rat liver microsomal cytochrome P-450c by 2-bromo-4'-nitroacetophenone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkinson, A.; Ryan, D.E.; Thomas, P.E.; Jerina, D.M.; Sayer, J.M.; van Bladeren, P.J.; Haniu, M.; Shively, J.E.; Levin, W.

    1986-09-05

    The alkylating agent 2-bromo-4'-nitroacetophenone (BrNAP) binds covalently to each of 10 isozymes of purified rat liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 (P-450a-P-450j) but substantially inhibits the catalytic activity of only cytochrome P-450c. Regardless of pH, incubation time, presence of detergents, or concentration of BrNAP, treatment of cytochrome P-450c with BrNAP resulted in no more than 90% inhibition of catalytic activity. Alkylation with BrNAP did not cause the release of heme from the holoenzyme or alter the spectral properties of cytochrome P-450c, data that exclude the putative heme-binding cysteine, Cys-460, as the major site of alkylation. Two residues in cytochrome P-450c reacted rapidly with BrNAP, for which reason maximal loss of catalytic activity was invariably associated with the incorporation of approximately 1.5 mol of BrNAP/mol of cytochrome P-450c. Two major radio-labeled peptides were isolated from a tryptic digest of (/sup 14/CC)BrNAP-treated cytochrome P-450c by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The amino acid sequence of each peptide was determined by microsequence analysis, but the identification of the residues alkylated by BrNAP was complicated by the tendency of the adducts to decompose when subjected to automated Edman degradation. However, results of competitive binding experiments with the sulfhydryl reagent 4,4'-dithiodipyridine identified Cys-292 as the major site of alkylation and Cys-160 as the minor site of alkylation by BrNAP in cytochrome P-450c.

  1. Effects of potassium or potassium/magnesium supplementation on potassium content of body tissues and fluids in furosemide-treated rats on magnesium-deficient or magnesium-sufficient diet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coram, W.M.; Kapeghian, J.C.; Plocinski, A.F.; Toledo, L.M.; Douglas, F.L.; Weiss, G.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Persistent Mg{sup 2+} deficiency may interfere with restoration of normal tissue K{sup +} levels. This study examined: (a) the effects of chronic furosemide treatment of K{sup +} of sartorius, aorta and ventricle of rats fed Mg{sup 2+}-deficient or Mg{sup 2+} sufficient diet and deionized water; (b) whether normal tissue K{sup +} is restored by oral K{sup +} or K{sup +}/Mg{sup 2+} supplementation with continued furosemide therapy. Levels of Mg{sup 2+} were also measured. Furosemide decreased K{sup +} in sartorius, aorta and ventricle by 5.5, 4.3 and 19.9 {mu}Eq/gm, respectively, in rats fed 100 ppm Mg{sup 2+} diet. Furosemide did not alter K{sup +} levels in rats fed 400 ppm Mg{sup 2+} diet. K{sup +} supplementation restored K{sup +} to normal in sartorius but the addition of Mg{sup 2+} supplementation was necessary to restore K+ levels to normal in ventricle and aorta. These data indicate that furosemide can decrease tissue K{sup +} in rats on a Mg{sup 2+}- deficient diet. This decrease can be reversed during diuretic administration by K{sup +} supplementation in sartorius, or K{sup +} plus Mg{sup 2+} supplementation in ventricle and aorta.

  2. Transient oxidative stress and inflammation after intraperitoneal administration of multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with single strand DNA in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clichici, Simona; Biris, Alexandru Radu; Tabaran, Flaviu; Filip, Adriana

    2012-03-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are widely used for nanotechnology. Their impact on living organisms is, however, not entirely clarified. Oxidative stress and inflammation seem to be the key mechanisms involved in MWCNTs' cytotoxicity. Until present, pulmonary and skin models were the main tested experimental designs to assess carbon nanotubes' toxicity. The systemic administration of MWCNTs is essential, with respect for future medical applications. Our research is performed on Wistar rats and is focused on the dynamics of oxidative stress parameters in blood and liver and pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver, after single dose (270 mg l{sup −1}) ip administration of MWCNTs (exterior diameter 15–25 nm, interior diameter 10–15 nm, surface 88 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) functionalized with single strand DNA (ss-DNA). The presence of MWCNTs in blood was assessed by Raman spectroscopy, while in liver histological examination and confocal microscopy were used. It was found that ss-DNA-MWCNTs induce oxidative stress in plasma and liver, with the return of the tested parameters to normal values, 6 h after ip injection of nanotubes, with the exception of reduced glutathione in plasma. The inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) had a similar pattern of evolution. We also assessed the level of ERK1/2 and the phosphorylation of p65 subunit of NF-kB in liver that had a transient increase and returned to normal at the end of the tested period. Our results demonstrate that ss-DNA-MWCNTs produce oxidative stress and inflammation, but with a transient pattern. Given the fact that antioxidants modify the profile not only for oxidative stress, but also of inflammation, the dynamics of these alterations may be of practical importance for future protective strategies. -- Highlights: ► ss-DNA-MWCNTs ip administration induce oxidative stress in plasma and liver. ► ss-DNA-MWCNTs ip administration determine liver inflammation. ► ERK1/2 and p65 phosphorylated NF-KB increase

  3. High glucose induces activation of NF-κB inflammatory signaling through IκBα sumoylation in rat mesangial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Wei; Department of Endocrinology, The People’s Hospital of Xindu, Xindu, Sichuang, 610500 ; Xu, Ling; Zhou, Xueqin; Department of Endocrinology, The People’s Hospital of Leshan, Sichuang ; Gao, Chenlin; Yang, Maojun; Chen, Guo; Zhu, Jianhua; Jiang, Lan; Gan, Huakui; Gou, Fang; Feng, Hong; Peng, Juan; Xu, Yong

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •The expression of SUMO1, SUMO2/3 under high glucose was obviously enhanced. •High glucose induced degradation of IκBα and activation of NF-κB pathway. •Sumoylation of IκBα in high glucose were significantly decreased. •The proteasome inhibitor MG132 could partially revert the degradation of IκBα. -- Abstract: The posttranslational modification of proteins by small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) has emerged as an important regulatory mechanism for the alteration of protein activity, stability, and cellular localization. The latest research demonstrates that sumoylation is extensively involved in the regulation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway, which plays a critical role in the regulation of inflammation and contributes to fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the role of sumoylation in the regulation of NF-κB signaling in DN is still unclear. In the present study, we cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) stimulated by high glucose and divided GMCs into six groups: normal glucose group (5.6 mmol/L), high glucose groups (10, 20, and 30 mmol/L), mannitol group (i.e., osmotic control group), and MG132 intervention group (30 mmol/L glucose with MG132, a proteasome inhibitor). The expression of SUMO1, SUMO2/3, IκBα, NF-κBp65, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) was measured by Western blot, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and indirect immunofluorescence laser scanning confocal microscopy. The interaction between SUMO1, SUMO2/3, and IκBα was observed by co-immunoprecipitation. The results showed that the expression of SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 was dose- and time-dependently enhanced by high glucose (p < 0.05). However, the expression of IκBα sumoylation in high glucose was significantly decreased compared with the normal glucose group (p < 0.05). The expression of IκBα was dose- and time-dependently decreased, and NF-κBp65 and MCP-1 were increased under high glucose conditions, which

  4. Radiation leukaemogenesis at low doses DE-FG02-05 ER 63947 Final Technical Report 15 May 2005 ???????????????¢???????????????????????????????? 14 May 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon Bouffler

    2010-07-28

    This report provides a complete summary of the work undertaken and results obtained under US Department of Energy grant DF-FG02-05 ER 63947, Radiation leukaemogenesis at low doses. There is ample epidemiological evidence indicating that ionizing radiation is carcinogenic in the higher dose range. This evidence, however, weakens and carries increasing uncertainties at doses below 100-200 mSv. At these low dose levels the form of the dose-response curve for radiation-induced cancer cannot be determined reliably or directly from studies of human populations. Therefore animal, cellular and other experimental systems must be employed to provide supporting evidence on which to base judgements of risk at low doses. Currently in radiological protection a linear non-threshold (LNT) extrapolation of risk estimates derived from human epidemiological studies is used to estimate risks in the dose range of interest for protection purposes. Myeloid leukaemias feature prominently among the cancers associated with human exposures to ionising radiation (eg UNSCEAR 2006; IARC 2000). Good animal models of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) are available including strains such as CBA, RFM and SJL (eg Major and Mole 1978; Ullrich et al 1976; Resnitzky et al 1985). Early mechanistic studies using cytogenetic methods in these mouse models established that the majority of radiation-induced AMLs carried substantial interstitial deletions in one copy of chromosome (chr) 2 (eg Hayata et al 1983; Trakhtenbrot et al 1988; Breckon et al 1991; Rithidech et al 1993; Bouffler et al 1996). Chr2 aberrations are known to occur in bone marrow cells as early as 24 hours after in vivo irradiation (Bouffler et al 1997). Subsequent molecular mapping studies defined a distinct region of chr2 that is commonly lost in AMLs (Clark et al 1996; Silver et al 1999). Further, more detailed, analysis identified point mutations at a specific region of the Sfpi1/PU.1 haemopoietic transcription factor gene

  5. Osilodrostat (LCI699), a potent 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor, administered in combination with the multireceptor-targeted somatostatin analog pasireotide: A 13-week study in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Li; Vashisht, Kapil; Boisclair, Julie; Li, Wenkui; Lin, Tsu-han; Schmid, Herbert A.; Kluwe, William; Schoenfeld, Heidi; Hoffmann, Peter

    2015-08-01

    The somatostatin analog pasireotide and the 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor osilodrostat (LCI699) reduce cortisol levels by distinct mechanisms of action. There exists a scientific rationale to investigate the clinical efficacy of these two agents in combination. This manuscript reports the results of a toxicology study in rats, evaluating different doses of osilodrostat and pasireotide alone and in combination. Sixty male and 60 female rats were randomized into single-sex groups to receive daily doses of pasireotide (0.3 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously), osilodrostat (20 mg/kg/day, orally), osilodrostat/pasireotide in combination (low dose, 1.5/0.03 mg/kg/day; mid-dose, 5/0.1 mg/kg/day; or high dose, 20/0.3 mg/kg/day), or vehicle for 13 weeks. Mean body-weight gains from baseline to Week 13 were significantly lower in the pasireotide-alone and combined-treatment groups compared to controls, and were significantly higher in female rats receiving osilodrostat monotherapy. Osilodrostat and pasireotide monotherapies were associated with significant changes in the histology and mean weights of the pituitary and adrenal glands, liver, and ovary/oviduct. Osilodrostat alone was associated with adrenocortical hypertrophy and hepatocellular hypertrophy. In combination, osilodrostat/pasireotide did not exacerbate any target organ changes and ameliorated the liver and adrenal gland changes observed with monotherapy. C{sub max} and AUC{sub 0–24h} of osilodrostat and pasireotide increased in an approximately dose-proportional manner. In conclusion, the pasireotide and osilodrostat combination did not exacerbate changes in target organ weight or toxicity compared with either monotherapy, and had an acceptable safety profile; addition of pasireotide to the osilodrostat regimen may attenuate potential adrenal gland hyperactivation and hepatocellular hypertrophy, which are potential side effects of osilodrostat monotherapy. - Highlights: • We examined the target organ toxicity of SOM230

  6. MicroRNA-130a and -130b enhance activation of hepatic stellate cells by suppressing PPARγ expression: A rat fibrosis model study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Le; Wang, Jinlong; Lu, Hongwei; Zhang, Guoyu; Liu, Yang; Wang, Jiazhong; Zhang, Yafei; Shang, Hao; Ji, Hong; Chen, Xi; Duan, Yanxia; Li, Yiming

    2015-09-25

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the primary sources of extracellular matrix (ECM) in normal and fibrotic liver. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) maintains HSCs in a quiescent state, and its downregulation induces HSC activation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can induce PPARγ mRNA degradation, but the mechanism by which miRNAs regulate PPARγ in rat HSCs is unclear. This study aimed to investigate some miRNAs which putatively bind to the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of PPARγ mRNA, and increase expression of ECM genes in rat HSCs. In carbon tetrachloride injection (CCl{sub 4}) and common bile duct ligation (CBDL) liver fibrosis models, miRNAs miR-130a, miR-130b, miR-301a, miR-27b and miR-340 levels were found to be increased and PPARγ expression decreased. Overexpression of miR-130a and miR-130b enhanced cell proliferation by involving Runx3. MiR-130a and miR-130b decreased PPARγ expression by targeting the 3′-UTR of PPARγ mRNA in rat HSC-T6 cells. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) may mediate miR-130a and miR-130b overexpression, PPARγ downregulation, and ECM genes overexpression in cell culture. These findings suggest that miR-130a and miR-130b are involved in downregulation of PPARγ in liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • MiR-130a and miR-130b are increased and PPARγ is decreased in liver fibrosis models. • MiR-130a and miR-130b decreased PPARγ by targeting the 3′-UTR of PPARγ mRNA. • MiR-130a and miR-130b enhanced HSC cell proliferation by involving Runx3. • TGF-β1 may mediate miR-130a and miR-130b overexpression.

  7. Phosphorus-31 NMR magnetization-transfer measurements of ATP turnover during steady-state isometric muscle contraction in the rat hind limb in vivo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brindle, K.M.; Blackledge, M.J.; Challiss, R.A.J.; Radda, G.K. )

    1989-05-30

    Phosphorus-31 NMR magnetization-transfer measurement have been used to measure the flux between ATP and inorganic phosphate during steady-state isometric muscle contraction in the rat hind limb in vivo. Steady-state contraction was obtained by supramaximal sciatic nerve stimulation. Increasing the stimulation pulse width from 10 to 90 ms, at a pulse frequency of 1 Hz, or increasing the frequency of a 10-ms pulse from 0.5 to 2 Hz resulted in an increase in the flux which was an approximately linear function of the increase in the tension-time integral. The flux showed an approximately linear dependence on the calculated free cytosolic ADP concentration up to an ADP concentration of about 90 {mu}M. The data are consistent with control of mitochondrial ATP synthesis by the cytosolic ADP concentration and indicate that the apparent K{sub m} of the mitochondria for ADP is at least 30 {mu}M.

  8. Acute ethanol intake induces superoxide anion generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat aorta: A role for angiotensin type 1 receptor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yogi, Alvaro; Callera, Glaucia E.; Mecawi, André S.; Batalhão, Marcelo E.; Carnio, Evelin C.; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Queiroz, Regina H.; Touyz, Rhian M.; Tirapelli, Carlos R.

    2012-11-01

    Ethanol intake is associated with increase in blood pressure, through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that acute ethanol intake enhances vascular oxidative stress and induces vascular dysfunction through renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Ethanol (1 g/kg; p.o. gavage) effects were assessed within 30 min in male Wistar rats. The transient decrease in blood pressure induced by ethanol was not affected by the previous administration of losartan (10 mg/kg; p.o. gavage), a selective AT{sub 1} receptor antagonist. Acute ethanol intake increased plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) and angiotensin II (ANG II) levels. Ethanol induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress, evidenced by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels, NAD(P)H oxidase‐mediated vascular generation of superoxide anion and p47phox translocation (cytosol to membrane). These effects were prevented by losartan. Isolated aortas from ethanol-treated rats displayed increased p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Losartan inhibited ethanol-induced increase in the phosphorylation of these kinases. Ethanol intake decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas. Ethanol significantly decreased plasma and aortic nitrate levels. These changes in vascular reactivity and in the end product of endogenous nitric oxide metabolism were not affected by losartan. Our study provides novel evidence that acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and induces vascular oxidative stress and redox-signaling activation through AT{sub 1}-dependent mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of RAS in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage. -- Highlights: ► Acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and vascular oxidative stress. ► RAS plays a role in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage via AT{sub 1} receptor activation.

  9. The In Vivo Quantitation of Diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and Their Major Metabolites in Rat Blood for the Refinement of a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busby, A.; Kousba, A.; Timchalk, C.

    2004-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF)(O,O-diethyl-O-[3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl]-phosphorothioate, CAS 2921-88-2), and diazinon (DZN)(O,O-diethyl-O-2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-pyrimidyl thiophosphate, CAS 333-41-5) are commonly encountered organophosphorus insecticides whose oxon metabolites (CPF-oxon and DZN-oxon) have the ability to strongly inhibit acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme responsible for the breakdown of acetylcholine at nerve synapses. Chlorpyrifos-oxon and DZN-oxon are highly unstable compounds that degrade via hepatic, peripheral blood, and intestinal metabolism to the more stable metabolites, TCP (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, CAS not assigned) and IMHP (2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol, CAS 2814-20-2), respectively. Studies have been performed to understand and model the chronic and acute toxic effects of CPF and DZN individually but little is known about their combined effects. The purpose of this study was to improve physiologically based pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) computational models by quantifying concentrations of CPF and DZN and their metabolites TCP and IMHP in whole rat blood, following exposure to the chemicals individually or as a mixture. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally dosed with 60 mg/kg of CPF, DZN, or a mixture of these two pesticides. When administered individually DZN and CPF were seen to reach their maximum concentration at ~3 hours post-dosing. When given as a mixture, both DZN and CPF peak blood concentrations were not achieved until ~6 hours post-dosing and the calculated blood area under the curve (AUC) for both chemicals exceeded those calculated following the single dose. Blood concentrations of IMHP and TCP correlated with these findings. It is proposed that the higher AUC obtained for both CPF and DZN as a mixture resulted from competition for the same metabolic enzyme systems.

  10. Blood cell oxidative stress precedes hemolysis in whole blood-liver slice co-cultures of rat, dog, and human tissues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vickers, Alison E.M.; Sinclair, John R.; Fisher, Robyn L.; Morris, Stephen R.; Way, William

    2010-05-01

    A novel in vitro model to investigate time-dependent and concentration-dependent responses in blood cells and hemolytic events is studied for rat, dog, and human tissues. Whole blood is co-cultured with a precision-cut liver slice. Methimazole (MMI) was selected as a reference compound, since metabolism of its imidazole thione moiety is linked with hematologic disorders and hepatotoxicity. An oxidative stress response occurred in all three species, marked by a decline in blood GSH levels by 24 h that progressed, and preceded hemolysis, which occurred at high MMI concentrations in the presence of a liver slice with rat (>= 1000 muM at 48 h) and human tissues (>= 1000 muM at 48 h, >= 750 muM at 72 h) but not dog. Human blood-only cultures exhibited a decline of GSH levels but minimal to no hemolysis. The up-regulation of liver genes for heme degradation (Hmox1 and Prdx1), iron cellular transport (Slc40a1), and GSH synthesis and utilization (mGST1 and Gclc) were early markers of the oxidative stress response. The up-regulation of the Kupffer cell lectin Lgals3 gene expression indicated a response to damaged red blood cells, and Hp (haptoglobin) up-regulation is indicative of increased hemoglobin uptake. Up-regulation of liver IL-6 and IL-8 gene expression suggested an activation of an inflammatory response by liver endothelial cells. In summary, MMI exposure led to an oxidative stress response in blood cells, and an up-regulation of liver genes involved with oxidative stress and heme homeostasis, which was clearly separate and preceded frank hemolysis.

  11. Androgenic endocrine disruptors in wastewater treatment plant effluents in India: Their influence on reproductive processes and systemic toxicity in male rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Vikas; Chakraborty, Ajanta; Viswanath, Gunda; Roy, Partha

    2008-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) are linked to human health and diseases as they mimic or block the normal functioning of endogenous hormones. The present work dealt with a comparative study of the androgenic potential of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influents and effluents in Northern region of India, well known for its polluted water. Water samples were screened for their androgenic potential using the Hershberger assay and when they were found positive for androgenicity, we studied their mode of action in intact rats. The data showed a significant change in the weight and structure of sex accessory tissues (SATs) of castrated and intact rats. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated a significant change in the expression patterns of the major steroidogenic enzymes in adrenal and testis: cytochrome P450{sub SCC}, cytochrome P450{sub C17}, 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. This was further supported by increased enzymatic activities measured in vitro spectrophotometrically. Serum hormone profile showed a decreased level of gonadotrophic hormones and increased testosterone level. Further, increase in the serum level of alkaline phosphatase, SGPT and SGOT and histopathological changes in kidney and liver of treated animals, confirmed the toxic effects of contaminating chemicals. Analysis of water samples using HPLC and GC-MS showed the presence of various compounds and from them, four prominent aromatic compounds viz. nonylphenol, hexachlorobenzene and two testosterone equivalents, were identified. Our data suggest that despite rigorous treatment, the final treated effluent from WWTP still has enough androgenic and toxic compounds to affect general health.

  12. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamura, Akitoshi Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-08-15

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28 days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. - Highlights: We tested Brown Norway rats as a candidate model for predicting drug hypersensitivity. The allergic drugs did not induce skin rash, whereas D-penicillamine did so in the rats. Some of allergic drugs increased inflammatory

  13. Uptake and metabolism of L-2-oxo-(35S)thiazolidine-4-carboxylate by rat cells is slower than that of L-(35S)cysteine or L-(35S)methionine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coloso, R.M.; Hirschberger, L.L.; Stipanuk, M.H. )

    1991-09-01

    The uptake and metabolism of L-2-oxo-(35S)thiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC) was compared with that of L-(35S)cysteine and L-(35S)methionine in studies with freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, renal cortical tubules and enterocytes. All three 35S-labeled substrates were metabolized to glutathione, inorganic sulfur and taurine by hepatocytes and to inorganic sulfur by renal tubules and enterocytes. The rate of metabolite production from OTC was always less than 30% of that from cysteine or methionine. The transport rate for uptake of (35S)OTC by hepatocytes was less than that observed for uptake of (35S)cysteine or (35S)methionine. The capacity of rat hepatocytes, renal cortical tubules and enterocytes to take up and metabolize OTC is substantially lower than that for uptake and metabolism of cysteine or its normal intracellular precursor, methionine.

  14. Sex ratio of the offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in utero and lactationally in a three-generation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowlands, J.C.; Budinsky, R.A. . E-mail: RABudinsky@dow.com; Aylward, L.L.; Faqi, A.S.; Carney, E.W.

    2006-10-01

    Reports of a decreased male/female sex ratio in children born to males exposed to TCDD in Seveso, Italy, at a young age have sparked examinations of this endpoint in other populations exposed to TCDD or related compounds. Overall, the male/female sex ratio results reported in these studies, with slightly different age-exposed male populations, have shown mixed results. Experimental studies of the effects of in utero exposure to TCDD in laboratory animals have reported no effect on the f{sub 1} sex ratio and mixed results for the sex ratio of the f{sub 2} generation. In order to better understand the potential effects of TCDD on second generation sex ratio, we retrieved archived data from a comprehensive three-generation feeding study of TCDD in rats that was conducted and published in the 1970s, but which did not publish data on sex ratio of the offspring [Murray, F.J., Smith, F.A., Nitschke, K.D., Humiston, C.G., Kociba, R.J., Schwetz, B.A., 1979. Three-generation reproduction study of rats given 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the diet. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 50, 241-252]. A re-examination of the original Murray et al. data found no statistically significant treatment-related changes in postnatal day 1 sex ratio in any generation of treated animals, consistent with one other relatively large study reporting on this endpoint. We discuss mechanistic data underlying a potential effect of TCDD on this endpoint. We conclude that the inconsistency in findings on sex ratio of the offspring of male rats exposed to TCDD in utero is likely due to random variation associated with a relatively small sample size, although differences between studies in strain of rat, dose regimen, and day of ascertainment of sex ratio cannot be ruled out.

  15. Diethyl hexyl phthalate-induced changes in insulin signaling molecules and the protective role of antioxidant vitamins in gastrocnemius muscle of adult male rat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Chinnapaiyan; Khan, Adam Ismail; Balaji, Venkataraman; Selvaraj, Jayaraman; Balasubramanian, Karundevi

    2011-12-15

    Diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an endocrine disruptor, it influences various organ systems in human beings and experimental animals. DEHP reduced the serum testosterone and increased the blood glucose, estradiol, T{sub 3} and T{sub 4} in rats. However, the effect of DEHP on insulin signaling and glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle is not known. Adult male albino rats were divided into four groups: Group I: Control; Groups II and III: DEHP treated (dissolved in olive oil at a dose of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days); and Group IV: DEHP (100 mg/kg body weight) plus vitamins E (50 mg/kg body weight) and C (100 mg/kg body weight) dissolved in olive oil and distilled water, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days. On completion of treatment, animals were euthanized and perfused (whole body); gastrocnemius muscle was dissected out and subjected to assessment of various parameters. DEHP treatment increased the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, hydroxyl radical levels and lipid peroxidation which disrupt the membrane integrity and insulin receptor. DEHP impaired the insulin signal transduction, glucose uptake and oxidation through decreased expression of plasma membrane GLUT4, which may partly be responsible for the elevation of fasting blood glucose level. The present study suggests that DEHP exposure affects glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle and is mediated through enhanced lipid peroxidation, impaired insulin signaling and GLUT4 expression in plasma membrane. Antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have a protective role against the adverse effect of DEHP. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DEHP treatment significantly decreased serum insulin and testosterone levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased ROS and decreased glucose uptake were observed in DEHP treated animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impaired insulin signaling in gastrocnemius muscle was observed in DEHP treatment. Black

  16. Fractionated Radiation Exposure of Rat Spinal Cords Leads to Latent Neuro-Inflammation in Brain, Cognitive Deficits, and Alterations in Apurinic Endonuclease 1

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Suresh Kumar, M. A.; Peluso, Michael; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Dhawan, Jasbeer; Beheshti, Afshin; Manickam, Krishnan; Thapar, Upasna; Pena, Louis; Natarajan, Mohan; Hlatky, Lynn; et al

    2015-07-24

    Ionizing radiation causes degeneration of myelin, the insulating sheaths of neuronal axons, leading to neurological impairment. As radiation research on the central nervous system has predominantly focused on neurons, with few studies addressing the role of glial cells, we have focused our present research on identifying the latent effects of single/ fractionated -low dose of low/ high energy radiation on the role of base excision repair protein Apurinic Endonuclease-1, in the rat spinal cords oligodendrocyte progenitor cells ’ differentiation. Apurinic endonuclease-1 is predominantly upregulated in response to oxidative stress by low- energy radiation, and previous studies show significant induction ofmore » Apurinic Endonucle- ase-1 in neurons and astrocytes. Our studies show for the first time, that fractionation of pro- tons cause latent damage to spinal cord architecture while fractionation of HZE (28Si) induce increase in APE1 with single dose, which then decreased with fractionation. In conclusion, the oligoden- drocyte progenitor cells differentiation was skewed with increase in immature oligodendro- cytes and astrocytes, which likely cause the observed decrease in white matter, increased neuro-inflammation, together leading to the observed significant cognitive defects« less

  17. Fractionated Radiation Exposure of Rat Spinal Cords Leads to Latent Neuro-Inflammation in Brain, Cognitive Deficits, and Alterations in Apurinic Endonuclease 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suresh Kumar, M. A.; Peluso, Michael; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Dhawan, Jasbeer; Beheshti, Afshin; Manickam, Krishnan; Thapar, Upasna; Pena, Louis; Natarajan, Mohan; Hlatky, Lynn; Demple, Bruce; Naidu, Mamta

    2015-07-24

    Ionizing radiation causes degeneration of myelin, the insulating sheaths of neuronal axons, leading to neurological impairment. As radiation research on the central nervous system has predominantly focused on neurons, with few studies addressing the role of glial cells, we have focused our present research on identifying the latent effects of single/ fractionated -low dose of low/ high energy radiation on the role of base excision repair protein Apurinic Endonuclease-1, in the rat spinal cords oligodendrocyte progenitor cells ’ differentiation. Apurinic endonuclease-1 is predominantly upregulated in response to oxidative stress by low- energy radiation, and previous studies show significant induction of Apurinic Endonucle- ase-1 in neurons and astrocytes. Our studies show for the first time, that fractionation of pro- tons cause latent damage to spinal cord architecture while fractionation of HZE (28Si) induce increase in APE1 with single dose, which then decreased with fractionation. In conclusion, the oligoden- drocyte progenitor cells differentiation was skewed with increase in immature oligodendro- cytes and astrocytes, which likely cause the observed decrease in white matter, increased neuro-inflammation, together leading to the observed significant cognitive defects

  18. Exposure to Pb, Cd, and As mixtures potentiates the production of oxidative stress precursors: 30-day, 90-day, and 180-day drinking water studies in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittaker, Margaret H.; Wang, Gensheng; Chen Xueqing; Lipsky, Michael; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Fowler, Bruce A.

    2011-07-15

    Exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity and is of particular concern due to their appearance in sources of drinking water. Despite this, few in vivo mixture studies have been conducted to date to understand the health impact of chemical mixtures compared to single chemicals. Interactive effects of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) were evaluated in 30-, 90-, and 180-day factorial design drinking water studies in rats designed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of such mixtures at individual component Lowest-Observed-Effect-Levels (LOELs) results in increased levels of the pro-oxidant delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA), iron, and copper. LOEL levels of Pb, Cd, and As mixtures resulted in the increased presence of mediators of oxidative stress such as ALA, copper, and iron. ALA increases were followed by statistically significant increases in kidney copper in the 90- and 180-day studies. Statistical evidence of interaction was identified for six biologically relevant variables: blood delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), kidney ALAD, urinary ALA, urinary iron, kidney iron, and kidney copper. The current investigations underscore the importance of considering interactive effects that common toxic agents such as Pb, Cd, and As may have upon one another at low-dose levels. The interactions between known toxic trace elements at biologically relevant concentrations shown here demonstrate a clear need to rigorously review methods by which national/international agencies assess health risks of chemicals, since exposures may commonly occur as complex mixtures.

  19. DE-FG02-04ER25606 Identity Federation and Policy Management Guide: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humphrey, Marty, A

    2011-05-25

    The goal of this 3-year project was to facilitate a more productive dynamic matching between resource providers and resource consumers in Grid environments by explicitly specifying policies. There were broadly two problems being addressed by this project. First, there was a lack of an Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA)-compliant mechanism for expressing, storing and retrieving user policies and Virtual Organization (VO) policies. Second, there was a lack of tools to resolve and enforce policies in the Open Services Grid Architecture. To address these problems, our overall approach in this project was to make all policies explicit (e.g., virtual organization policies, resource provider policies, resource consumer policies), thereby facilitating policy matching and policy negotiation. Policies defined on a per-user basis were created, held, and updated in MyPolMan, thereby providing a Grid user to centralize (where appropriate) and manage his/her policies. Organizationally, the corresponding service was VOPolMan, in which the policies of the Virtual Organization are expressed, managed, and dynamically consulted. Overall, we successfully defined, prototyped, and evaluated policy-based resource management and access control for OGSA-based Grids. This DOE project partially supported 17 peer-reviewed publications on a number of different topics: General security for Grids, credential management, Web services/OGSA/OGSI, policy-based grid authorization (for remote execution and for access to information), policy-directed Grid data movement/placement, policies for large-scale virtual organizations, and large-scale policy-aware grid architectures. In addition to supporting the PI, this project partially supported the training of 5 PhD students.

  20. Final Report for Grant No. DE-FG02-10ER15527 Edgar P. Spalding...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... A review of Ca2+ transport was also published, acknowledging exclusive funding by the DOE grant. Spalding EP, Harper JF (2011) The ins and outs of cellular Ca2+ transport. Current ...

  1. Materials Data on LiErSe2 (SG:141) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  2. Final Report for DE-FG02-85ER40226

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiler, Thomas J.; Kephart, Thomas W.; Scherrer, Robert J.

    2015-01-23

    The research interests of our three Co-PI’s complement each other very well. Kephart works mainly on models of particle unification in four or higher dimensions, on aspects of gravity such as inflation, black-holes, and the very early Universe, and on applications of knot theory and topology to various physical systems (including gluon dynamics). Scherrer works mainly on aspects of the intermediate-aged Universe, including dark matter and dark energy, and particle physics in the early Universe. Weiler works mainly on neutrino physics, dark matter signatures, and extreme particle-astrophysics in the late Universe, including origins of the highest-energy cosmic-rays and gamma-rays, and the future potential of neutrino astrophysics. Kephart and Weiler have lately devoted some research attention to the LHC and its reach for probing physics beyond the Standard Model. During the 3-year funding period, our grant supported one postdoc (Chiu Man Ho) and partially supported two students, Peter Denton and Lingjun Fu. Chiu Man collaborated with all three of the Co-PI’s during the 3-year funding period and published 16 refereed papers. Chiu Man has gone on to a postdoc with Steve Hsu at Michigan State University. Denton and Fu will both receive their PhDs during the 2014-15 academic year. The total number of our papers published in refereed journals by the three co-PIs during the period of this grant (2011-present) is 54. The total number of talks given by the group members during this time period, including seminars, colloquia, and conference presentations, is 47. Some details of the accomplishments of our DOE funded researchers during the grant period include Weiler being named a Simons Fellow in 2013. He presented an invited TEDx talk in 2012. His paper on closed timelike curves (2013) garnered a great deal of national publicity. Scherrer’s paper on the “little rip” (2011) fostered a new area of cosmological research, and the name “little rip” has now entered the lexicon of cosmology. His paper on anapole dark matter (2013) generated a great deal of interest in the community. Kephart was one of the co-organizers for a 5-month program on applications of topology to physics and biology, and a Visiting Fellow at the Isaac Newton Institute in Cambridge, UK for the fall semester of 2012. His research there resulted in an extended publication on topologically stabilized closed QCD flux tube states.

  3. DOE-ER-46139-Phase II-Final-Report-Tritt-2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry M. Tritt

    2011-10-21

    This proposal emphasizes investigations of the thermal and electrical transport properties of new and novel solid-state materials, with the specific goal of achieving higher efficiency solid-state thermoelectric materials. This program will continue to build a very strong collaborative research effort between researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ONRL) and Clemson University. We propose three new faculty hires and major equipment purchases in order to further enhance our level of national recognition. We will be positioned for competition for major non-EPSCoR DOE and DOD funding (i.e. NSF-Materials Research Center) and able to address many other areas of DOE and national importance. Graduate and undergraduate students will be extensively involved in this project, spending significant time at ORNL, thus gaining important training and educational opportunities. We will also include an outreach program to bring in outside students and faculty. An External Advisory Board of distinguished scientists will provide oversight to the program.

  4. Materials Data on ErP (SG:225) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-02-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  5. McClean-DE-FG02-05ER64119_final

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report 5 (AR5). ... Model version 3.5 (CAM3.5), the Community Land Model version 3 (CLM3), the Parallel Ocean ...

  6. Microsoft Word - ARM report final DE-FG02-05ER63954.doc

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Summary of Research (Final Technical Report) Project Title: "Development and application of new methods to retrieve vertical structure of precipitation above the ARM CART sites ...

  7. Materials Data on ErSeI (SG:59) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  8. Final Scientific/Technical Report GRANT NO. DE-FG02-06ER41450

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter J. Lee; David C. Larbalestier

    2008-12-01

    Remarkable progress towards understanding of the behavior of Nb grain boundaries in high purity cavity sheet has been accomplished. An excellent graduate student has been trained in superconductor characterization and he has developed new techniques for the preparation of high quality electron transparent samples for transmission electron microscopy so that electrical and magneto optical measurements can be made on the same local areas. Nb grain boundaries have been characterized for surface topography, superconducting flux penetration, transport current measurement and microstructure. An excellent framework for continued studies in this area has been established. The work has been well received in the SRF community and has been presented at international workshops.

  9. Audit Report: ER-B-97-02 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of the Department of Energy's Grant for Economic Development at the Mound Plant The downsizing of the Department of Energy's (Department) facilities as a result of the end of the...

  10. Materials Data on Sr(ErS2)2 (SG:122) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  11. Final Report for DOE Project Number: DE-FG02-05ER46241

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gang Chen; Mildred S. Dresselhaus; Costas P. Grigoropoulos; Samuel S. Mao; Xiaodong Xiang; Taofang Zeng

    2010-03-15

    Hydrogen storage is the most challenging task for the hydrogen economy. We established a multidisciplinary research program for high throughput combinatorial synthesis and characterization of novel nanoporous and metastable complex hydrides, coupled to fundamental material studies including electronic, structural and kinetic transport modeling, and pump-probe experiments. Our research is based the concept of hybrid nanostructures that store hydrogen by a combination of chemi- and physorption: atomic hydrogen is stored in metastable hydrides while molecule hydrogen is stored in the nanometer pores of the hydrides. Metastable nanostructured hydride has been achieved by introducing structural and compositional disorders through high throughput elemental substitution/doping, catalyst addition, and nonequilibrium processing. Fast screening compatible with the combinatorial synthesis was achieved by combining X-ray structural characterization with the development of a laser-based microbalance. Manufacturing of nanoporous metahydrides that are identified as promising by the combinatorial synthesis has been explored along with the materials search.

  12. Report/Product Number(s) DOE/ER/64701 DOE Award/Contract Number...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Comparative Proteomics Analysis by DIGE and iTRAQ Provides Insight into the Regulation of Phenylpropanoids in Maize. Journal of Proteomics (In Press http:dx.doi.org10.1016...

  13. Final Report for DE-FG02-93ER14376,Ionic Transport in Electrochemical Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. W. Halley

    2009-05-20

    This project was a molecular dynamics study of the relevant issues associated with the structure and transport of lithium in polymer electrolytes such as polyethylene oxide(PEO). In close collaboration with quantum chemist Larry Curtiss and neutron scatterers David Lee Price and Marie-Louise Saboungi at Argonne, we used molecular dynamics to study the local structure and dynamics and ion transport in the polymer. The studies elucidated the mechanism of Li transport in PEO, revealing that the rate limiting step is extremely sensitive to the magnitude of the torsion forces in the backbone of the polymer. Because the torsion forces are difficult to manipulate chemically, this makes it easier to understand why improving the conductivity of PEO based electrolytes has proven to be very difficult. We studied the transport properties of cations in ionic liquids as possible additives to polymer membranes for batteries and fuel cells and found preliminary indications that the transport is enhanced near phase separation in acid-ionic liquid mixtures.

  14. Yearly Technical Report for DE-FG02-03ER46026

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane D. Johnson

    2012-05-25

    We propose a unique, all-electron, thermodynamic density functional theory (DFT) code that directly predicts full or partial long-range order in crystalline (defected) solids and their effect on electronic properties via a first-principles mean-field theory, scales linear with number of atoms N per unit-cell [i.e. O(N), due to use of a mathematical-based screening in k-space], and addresses up to 1 million atoms using parallel architectures. Novel O(N) algorithms will be developed to permit this for an all-electron KKR Green's functional density-functional theory code.

  15. Materials Data on ErInAg2 (SG:225) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-03-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  16. Materials Data on ErAg2 (SG:139) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Materials Data on Er(FeSn)6 (SG:63) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. DE-FG02-96ER20226 FinalTechnicalReport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lidstrom, M E

    2009-09-05

    In the future, environmental concerns will mandate that manufacturing processes shift towards the use of renewable resources and the minimization of wastes, especially hazardous wastes. One-carbon compounds are of interest as feedstocks for synthesis of chemicals and materials, because they represent a relatively inexpensive, abundant and renewable resource. In addition, the environmentally-benign characteristics of microbial processes make them of interest as part of a long-term waste-minimization strategy for industry. The concept that methylotrophic bacteria could serve as non-polluting multistage catalysts to generate chemicals and materials using C1 compounds as feedstocks is a highly attractive one. In order to develop production strains of methylotrophs, it is necessary to understand and manipulate central methylotrophic pathways. One of the most important of these is the methanol oxidation, or Mox system. In this project, we are studying the promoters and transcriptional regulation of this 25-gene system in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1, a facultative methanol-utilizer. We have addressed the significance of a hexanucleotide sequence upstream of all mox promoters and have shown that it is required for activity of these promoters using both deletion and mutational analyses. In addition, we have identified a putative hairpin structure in the RNA leader region of the mxa promoter that is also essential for transcriptional, and have assessed the mechanism of action of this regulatory region. This work is providing the foundation for development of methylotrophic strains to convert methanol into higher value added products.

  19. Materials Data on NaEr(PS3)2 (SG:2) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. Final Report for Grant DE-FG02-90ER61072

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee Harrison

    2006-02-20

    This is the final report for the work done by our research group at the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center for the US DOE Atmopheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. We were involved from the beginning of the ARM effort; we designed the Multi-filter Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer (MFRSR) which was widely deployed (and still operational in ARM) and through the years did a wide variety of data analysis on the returned data from these instruments. We also developed the Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer, which ARM deployed and also still deploys. Many scientific papers have been written using the data from these instruments, and the ongoing data streams remain part of the current ARM effort. Earlier reports contain our progress from previous grant periods, this report covers the last period and provides references to published work.

  1. Final technical Report DE-FG02-06ER65187

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin Eloranta

    2009-07-17

    Simulations from the University of Wisconsin Non-Hydrostatic Modeling System (UW-NMS) along with those from other models indicate a strong tendency to overproduce ice, resulting in a decimation of the liquid portion of mixed-phase stratus through the Bergeron-Findeissen process. Immersion freezing was illustrated to be a major contributor to ice production within these cloud layers, and aerosol properties were illustrated to be an important consideration in the simulation of this process. In particular, the soluble mass fraction and aerosol insoluble mass type were demonstrated to influence simulation of the immersion freezing process, Data collected by the Arctic High Spectral Resolution Lidar and Millimeter Cloud Radar during the M-PACE period was analyzed in order to provide a statistical dataset for validation of simulations of mixed-phase stratus. 270 hours of single-layer cases were reviewed, and mean values for cloud base height, cloud thickness, cloud optical thickness, cloud temperature, wind direction, and liquid and ice particle size, particle number density, and water content were derived.

  2. Final Final Scientific_tech_reprt_closeout DE-FG02-05ER46223...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Biochemistry 2005, 44 (37), 12344-12354. 2. Koder, R. L.; Valentine, K. G.; Cerda, J.; Noy, D.; Smith, K. M.; Wand, A. J.; and Dutton, P. L. Nativelike structure in designed four ...

  3. Final Technical Report for DOE Award DE-FG02-05ER63959

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher S. Bretherton

    2011-04-08

    The goals of this work were: (1) to improve the University of Washington shallow cumulus parameterization, first developed by the PI's group for better simulation of shallow oceanic cumulus convection in the MM5 mesoscale model (Bretherton et al., 2004, Mon. Wea. Rev.); (2) to explore its applicability to deep (precipitating) cumulus convection; and (3) to explore fundamental physical issues related to this cumulus parameterization.

  4. Grant No DE-FG02-03ER83720 Report for US Department of Engery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Winston; Wagner, Robert

    2004-04-22

    Effective and reliable nuclear monitoring requires discrimination between small magnitude explosions and earthquakes based on the use of limited regional data. Lg is generally the largest seismic phase from both explosion and earthquake sources recorded at regional distances. For small events, Lg may sometimes be the only well-recorded seismic phase so that discriminants based only on the use of Lg are especially desirable. Recent research has provided significantly better understanding of Lg by demonstrating that the explosion-generated Rg makes significant contribution to the low-frequency S or Lg from explosions. Near-source scattering of explosion-generated Rg appears to be a viable mechanism for generating low-frequency(< 2 Hz) Lg waves from explosions. Detailed knowledge of the complex scattering process is, however, still incomplete and is in fact the subject of several ongoing studies. Our analysis of regional data from nuclear explosions from both Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Kazakh Test Site (KTS) and nearby earthquakes in Phase I has suggested that there are several reliable source discrimination methods only based on the use of Lg at regional distances. These discriminants should be. especially useful for small magnitude seismic events for which Lg may be the only well-recorded seismic phase. Our results suggest four possible regional discriminants: (a) frequency-amplitude-time analysis of spectrograms, (b) Lg(low frequency)/Lg(high frequency), (c) Lg spectral slopes, and (d) skewness of Lg spectra. Remarkable similarity of discrimination results from both NTS and KTS nuclear explosions and nearby earthquakes, with entirely different geological settings, indicates that our results should be applicable to other regions of the world.

  5. Materials Data on ErIr (SG:221) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-03-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  6. Materials Data on Er(SiIr)2 (SG:139) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  7. Final report for DOE grant FG02-06ER15805

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel Gage

    2012-05-31

    DOE funding was used to investigate the role of the phosphotransferase system (PTS) in the symbiotic, nodulating bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. This system is well studied in several bacterial species. However, it??s organization and function in S. meliloti is substantially different than in the those other, well-studied bacteria. The S. meliloti PTS, through our DOE-funded work, has become a model for how this important signal transduction system works in the a-proteobacteria. We have found that the PTS is relatively simple, used for only signal transduction and not transport, and is involved in regulation of carbon metabolism in response to carbon availability and nitrogen availability.

  8. Final Technical Report: DE-FG02-08ER41562

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    G. Riess, M. W. Richmond, R. Romani, M. Smith, N. Takanashi, K. Tokita, K. van der ... S. W. Jha, H. Lampeitl, M. Sako, M. Smith, C. Zheng, R. C. Nichol, B. Bassett, R. ...

  9. Microsoft Word - DOE Final Report 2013 - GTL ER64516-1031199...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... The vibrios have a particularly large flexible genome and exhibit very high rates of recent horizontal transfer compared to a recent bacteria-wide survey of HGT (Smillie & Smith et ...

  10. Combined Final Technical Report 04ER86191 H2Cryo.pdf

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... very high field (perhaps greater than 30 Tesla) solenoid to p co current carrying ... The new test cell is capable of 1600 PSI operation in the 5 Tesla LBL Solenoid, recently ...

  11. Audit Report: ER-B-00-02 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    In Calendar Year (CY) 1999, LMES' Security Division worked 186,000 hours of overtime, at a cost of 5.1 million, accounting for 50 percent of LMES' total overtime hours for the ...

  12. Materials Data on Er3InN (SG:221) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  13. Progress Report- DE-FG02-03ER46078-University of Houston

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    These results have been included in a PRB paper. Water in Carbon Nanotubes Earlier ... the momentum distribution relative to that of water, the recent results show a broadening. ...

  14. Final Technical Report for NSF/DOE partnership grant 1004284/ER54905/SC0004660; 2011- 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenzel, Reiner; Urrutia, Manuel

    2014-10-15

    Research has been performed on two topics: (1) Nonlinear time-dependent phenomena in the regime of electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD). (2) Plasma structures forming ”bubbles”. The latter are regions of localized density depletions or enhancements separated from the ambient plasma by sheaths or double layers. Three-dimensional magnetic null points can also be considered as ”magnetic bubbles”. Nonlinear EMHD fields are generated by pulsed magnetic loops. The magnetic field varies in time faster than an ion cyclotron period, hence interacts only with electrons. Space charge electric fields are created when magnetic forces try to separate electrons from ions. Electric and magnetic forces nearly balance to keep the plasma quasi neutral. This leads to rotational electron motions, i.e. Hall currents and associated magnetic perturbations. When the time scale falls between the ion and electron cyclotron period the magnetic perturbation is convected in the whistler mode. When the time-varying magnetic field exceeds the background magnetic field the whistler mode becomes highly nonlinear since its properties depend on the total magnetic field. When the time-varying magnetic field creates magnetic null points or null lines EMHD breaks down. Electrons can be accelerated in null lines which dissipated magnetic energy like in magnetic reconnection. Energized electrons with anisotropic distributions create secondary whistler instabilities. These effects have been observed in field topologies resembling spheromaks and field-reversed configurations (FRCs). The whistler mode propagation near magnetic nulls is not trivial when the field gradients and wavelength are comparable. Ray tracing is inappropriate when the WKB approximation breaks down. Experiments have been started to map wave propagation on curved field lines with null points. Initial results show that whistlers in highly nonuniform fields have highly oblique phase velocities but the energy flow remains dominantly along the field. Density bubbles are created by anode discharges, typically forming spherical ”fireballs” bounded by a double layer. In a magnetized plasma the shape becomes cylindrical, in nonuniform magnetic fields many asymmetric fireball shapes are possible. Due to electron energization the fireball plasma has higher density and temperature than the ambient plasma. The double layer can also be produced by a high transparency positively biased grid. Instabilities arise from the electron transit through the plasma bubble and the double layer. When a permanent magnet is biased positively the electrons perform ExB drifts in the equatorial plane between the poles. Electron drift modes are excited with a high spectral contents. Similarly, a negatively biased magnet produces a disk-shaped plasma bubble. The cold magnet emits secondary electrons due to the impact of energetic ions. Such magnetron discharges exhibit a variety of instabilities which affect the cross-field transport and sputtering applications. This report will summarize the main effects observed and provide references to more detailed publications.

  15. Final report for DE-FG02-95ER40898

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starkman, Glenn David; Mathur, Harsh

    2013-07-20

    PI G. Starkman and Co-I H. Mathur report on the past three years of their research at the frontiers of particle physics and cosmology.

  16. Materials Data on Er10Ti6O27 (SG:8) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Materials Data on Er(CoSi)2 (SG:139) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Award DE-FG02-04ER52655 Final Technical Report: Interior Point...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 97 MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTING Linear programming, linear optimization, quadratic programming, quadratic optimization, entropy-based moment closure, gas dynamics Word Cloud ...

  19. Final Report: DOE award: ER64516-1031199-0013966 2007-2011 Genomic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    interface. That is, we wanted to develop our understanding of the biology of these microbes at all scales of biological organization, from individual cell design to the dynamics...

  20. FINAL REPORT Plant Physiological Aspects of Silicon DE-FG03-94ER20151

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and in the interactions between plants and their environment, including gravity, wind, microorganisms, and insects. Having produced the first quantitative evidence of...

  1. FINAL REPORT DOE Grant: DE-FG02-89ER45391

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James R. Chelikowsky

    2009-02-27

    The work reported here took place at the University of Minnesota from 07/01/1989 to 06/30/2006. Most of this work focused on computational materials applied to oxides during the first part of this funding period and to nanoscale materials toward the end of the funding period. This funding resulted in three monographs, 36 invited articles or book chapters, 160 articles in refereed journals and 89 invited talks. The funding helped train 13 PhD students and one masters student. The PI received two national research awards for this work. A list of these contributions are presented.

  2. McClean-DE-FG02-05ER64119_final

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Oceanography University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, 0230 La ... Bering Sea. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, San Diego, USA, 2013. 2. Wang, J, G.R. ...

  3. Closeout of the award DE-FG02-05ER46223. Trustees of the University...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    As the title of the grant clearly states, this project has explores a unique way that makes use of manmade proteins to turn solar energy into chemical fuels. A major impetus to the ...

  4. Closeout of the award DE-FG02-05ER46223. Trustees of the University...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 08 HYDROGEN; 14 SOLAR ENERGY Solar Energy, water splitting, hydrogen evolution, man-made proteins Word Cloud More ...

  5. Award ER25844: Minimizing System Noise Effects for Extreme-Scale Scientific Simulation Through Function Delegation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumsdaine, Andrew

    2012-11-20

    In software running on distributed computing clusters, time spent on communication between nodes in the cluster can be a significant portion of the overall computation time; background operating system tasks and other computational ?noise? on the nodes of the system can have a significant impact on the amount of time this communication takes, especially on large systems. The research completed in this period has improved understanding of when such noise will have a significant impact. Specifically, it was demonstrated that not just noise on the nodes, but also noise on the network between nodes can have a significant impact on computation time. It was also demonstrated that noise patterns matter more than noise intensity: very regular noise can cause less disruption than lighter (on average) but less regular noise. It was also demonstrated that the effect of noise is more prominent as the speed of the network between nodes is increased. Furthermore, a tracing tool, Netgauge, was improved via our work, and a system simulator, LogGOPSim, was developed; they can be used by application developers to improve performance of their program and by system designers to mitigate the effects of noise by adjusting the noise characteristics of the operating system. Both have been made freely available as open source programs. In the course of developing these tools, we demonstrated weaknesses in existing methodologies for modeling communication, and we introduced a more detailed model, LogGOPS, for simulating systems. Not only were the deleterious effects of noise explored but we have also offered solutions. Our studies of simulations of system noise have led to specific recommendations on tuning systems to mitigate noise. We have also improved existing approaches to mitigating noise. ?Non-blocking collective communication? avoids the effects of noise by letting communication continue simultaneously with computation (thus being ?non-blocking?), so that the delays in communication introduced by noise have a smaller impact on overall computation time. Potentially, noise can be reduced much further by ?offloading? communication tasks to a separate processing element than the operating system is using. We have improved our library LibNBC, which provides an implementation of non-blocking collectives, via this work. During this research, our proposal to include non-blocking collectives (which used LibNBC as a reference implementation) in the upcoming MPI-3 standard was accepted. As MPI is a ubiquitous and important standard for communication in parallel computing, this demonstrates a certain acceptance of the practicality and desirability of non-blocking collectives. Now that non-blocking collectives are a part of the standard we can expect to see optimized platform-specific implementations of non-blocking collectives. Also as part of this work we have also developed a language GOAL (Global Operation Assembly Language) that can be used as a starting point for defining languages to express optimized communication algorithms.

  6. Materials Data on Er(BC)2 (SG:127) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2015-03-08

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  7. Materials Data on Er2Be2GeO7 (SG:113) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  8. Materials Data on ErB2Ru3 (SG:191) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  9. Materials Data on Er(FeB)2 (SG:139) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  10. Materials Data on ErBRh3 (SG:221) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  11. Materials Data on ErFe4B (SG:191) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-05-16

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. Microsoft Word - UCLA-DOE-FG02-04ER63724

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... For example, for a given IWC in clouds, smaller particles would reflect more sunlight than larger counterparts, an effect that has been recognized by Twomey et al. (1984) and Liou ...

  13. DOE GRANT NO. DE-FG02-07ER46421 Development of Spintronic Bandgap...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Dot spacing d is defined as in (a). (b) The optical microscope image of the integrated device: crossbar electrode patterning. The silver and the gold color bars (2 m in width) ...

  14. Audit Report: ER-B-00-01 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    a make-or-buy analysis, whether their services could be obtained at a lower cost by outsourcing to commercial entities. The objective of the audit was to determine whether...

  15. Final Report, DE-FG01-06ER25718 Domain Decomposition and Parallel Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widlund, Olof B.

    2015-06-09

    The goal of this project is to develop and improve domain decomposition algorithms for a variety of partial differential equations such as those of linear elasticity and electro-magnetics.These iterative methods are designed for massively parallel computing systems and allow the fast solution of the very large systems of algebraic equations that arise in large scale and complicated simulations. A special emphasis is placed on problems arising from Maxwell's equation. The approximate solvers, the preconditioners, are combined with the conjugate gradient method and must always include a solver of a coarse model in order to have a performance which is independent of the number of processors used in the computer simulation. A recent development allows for an adaptive construction of this coarse component of the preconditioner.

  16. Materials Data on Er(SiPd)2 (SG:139) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Materials Data on ErGaPd (SG:62) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-01-21

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Materials Data on ErTlPd (SG:189) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-03-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  19. Materials Data on ErSiPd2 (SG:62) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-01-27

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. Materials Data on Er2Pd2Pb (SG:127) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-03-19

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations