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Sample records for rain disdrometer disdrometer

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - Rain Microphysics Study with Disdrometer and

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarization Radar govCampaignsRain Microphysics Study with Disdrometer and Polarization Radar ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Rain Microphysics Study with Disdrometer and Polarization Radar 2005.04.28 - 2005.06.30 Lead Scientist : Guifu Zhang For data sets, see below. Abstract Understanding rain microphysics is important for accurate rainfall rate estimation and for improving

  2. ARM - Campaign Instrument - disdrometer

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Impact Disdrometer (DISDROMETER) Instrument Categories Surface...

  3. Impact Disdrometers Instrument Handbook

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    11 Impact Disdrometer Instrument Handbook MJ Bartholomew March 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned

  4. Parsivel Disdrometer Support for MAGIC

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy 2DVD GEWEX Two-Dimensional Video Disdrometer Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment GCSS GPCI GEWEX) Cloud System Studies GCSS Pacific Cross-Section ...

  5. AMIE Gan Island Ancillary Disdrometer Field Campaign...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ancillary Disdrometer Field Campaign Report M Oue April 2016 CLIMATE RESEARCH FACILITY DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. ...

  6. AMIE Gan Island Ancillary Disdrometer Field Campaign Report (Program

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Document) | SciTech Connect AMIE Gan Island Ancillary Disdrometer Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: AMIE Gan Island Ancillary Disdrometer Field Campaign Report As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment (AMIE), in January 2012 a disdrometer observation took place with the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2), the Scanning ARM Cloud Radar

  7. Dead-time Corrected Disdrometer Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Bartholomew, Mary Jane

    2008-03-05

    Original and dead-time corrected disdrometer results for observations made at SGP and TWP. The correction is based on the technique discussed in Sheppard and Joe, 1994. In addition, these files contain calculated radar reflectivity factor, mean Doppler velocity and attenuation for every measurement for both the original and dead-time corrected data at the following wavelengths: 0.316, 0.856, 3.2, 5, and 10cm (W,K,X,C,S bands). Pavlos Kollias provided the code to do these calculations.

  8. ARM - PI Product - Dead-time Corrected Disdrometer Data

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsDead-time Corrected Disdrometer Data ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Dead-time Corrected Disdrometer Data Original and dead-time corrected disdrometer results for observations made at SGP and TWP. The correction is based on the technique discussed in Sheppard and Joe, 1994. In addition, these files contain calculated radar reflectivity factor, mean Doppler velocity and

  9. ARM - Field Campaign - AMIE-Gan Ancillary Disdrometer

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : AMIE-Gan Ancillary Disdrometer 2012.01.01 - 2012.02.10 Lead Scientist : Mariko Oue...

  10. AMIE Gan Island Ancillary Disdrometer Field Campaign Report ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SMART-R C-band radar, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) dual ... Comparing the disdrometer data with 2DVD data, the raindrop size distribution data will be ...

  11. Parsivel Disdrometer Support for MAGIC Field Campaign Report (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Parsivel Disdrometer Support for MAGIC Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Parsivel Disdrometer Support for MAGIC Field Campaign Report In the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility's second Mobile Facility (AMF2) was deployed on the Horizon Lines cargo ship Spirit traversing a route between Los

  12. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Parcivel Disdrometer (williams-disdro)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    2012-11-06

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  13. Rain Gauges Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomew, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    To improve the quantitative description of precipitation processes in climate models, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility deployed rain gauges located near disdrometers (DISD and VDIS data streams). This handbook deals specifically with the rain gauges that make the observations for the RAIN data stream. Other precipitation observations are made by the surface meteorology instrument suite (i.e., MET data stream).

  14. ARM - Datastreams - disdrometer

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamsdisdrometer Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.54391025181 What is this? Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to...

  15. ARM - Instrument - disdrometer

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Australia retired retired Originating instrument has been retired at this location Contact(s) Mary Jane Bartholomew Brookhaven National Laboratory (631) 344-2444 bartholomew@bnl...

  16. Search for: All records | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ARM: Rain gauge Mary Jane Bartholomew Rain gauge View Dataset March 2006 ARM: Video Disdrometer Drop Size Distribution Mary Jane Bartholomew Video Disdrometer Drop Size ...

  17. ARM - Facility News Article

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Some disdrometers can distinguish between rain and graupel (solid precipitation such as hail, sleet, and snow pellets). Newer disdrometers that use microwave or laser technologies ...

  18. ARM: Parsivel2 Laser Disdrometer (Dataset) | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (BER) Country of Publication: United States Availability: ORNL Language: English Subject: 54 Environmental Sciences Hydrometeor fall velocity; Hydrometeor size; Hydrometeor Size ...

  19. Parsivel Disdrometer Support for MAGIC Field Campaign Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...tratocumulus-to-cumulus transition of the North-East Pacific, a region of great climatic ... Language: English Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES North-East Pacific; marine clouds; ...

  20. Evaluation of Cloud-resolving and Limited Area Model Intercomparison Simulations using TWP-ICE Observations. Part 2: Rain Microphysics

    SciTech Connect

    Varble, Adam; Zipser, Edward J.; Fridlind, Ann; Zhu, Ping; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Fan, Jiwen; Hill, Adrian; Shipway, Ben; Williams, Christopher R.

    2014-12-27

    Ten 3D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations and four 3D limited area model (LAM) simulations of an intense mesoscale convective system observed on January 23-24, 2006 during the Tropical Warm Pool – International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) are compared with each other and with observations and retrievals from a scanning polarimetric radar, co-located UHF and VHF vertical profilers, and a Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer in an attempt to explain published results showing a low bias in simulated stratiform rainfall. Despite different forcing methodologies, similar precipitation microphysics errors appear in CRMs and LAMs with differences that depend on the details of the bulk microphysics scheme used. One-moment schemes produce too many small raindrops, which biases Doppler velocities low, but produces rain water contents (RWCs) that are similar to observed. Two-moment rain schemes with a gamma shape parameter (?) of 0 produce excessive size sorting, which leads to larger Doppler velocities than those produced in one-moment schemes, but lower RWCs than observed. Two moment schemes also produce a convective median volume diameter distribution that is too broad relative to observations and thus, may have issues balancing raindrop formation, collision coalescence, and raindrop breakup. Assuming a ? of 2.5 rather than 0 for the raindrop size distribution improves one-moment scheme biases, and allowing ? to have values greater than 0 may improve two-moment schemes. Under-predicted stratiform rain rates are associated with under-predicted ice water contents at the melting level rather than excessive rain evaporation, in turn likely associated with convective detrainment that is too high in the troposphere and mesoscale circulations that are too weak. In addition to stronger convective updrafts than observed, limited domain size prevents a large, well-developed stratiform region from developing in CRMs, while a dry bias in ECMWF analyses does the same to the LAMs.

  1. Parsivel2 Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomew, MJ

    2014-06-13

    In order to improve the quantitative description of precipitation processes in climate models, the ARM program has been collecting observations of the drop size spectra of rain events since early in 2006. ARM purchased Parsivel2 laser disdrometers with America Recovery Act funds and they have proven to be robust in the field. They make observations of the particle size distribution over the range of 0.06mm to 24mm and classify precipitation type. To date they have been deployed on board the Spirit Horizon during the MAGIC Field Campaign and one will be permanently deployed at East North Atlantic (ENA). ARM initially deployed impact disdrometers (TWPC1, TWPC3 and SGPC1). Each of the three units deployed was accompanied by a nearby tipping bucket. In 2010, the tipping buckets were upgraded to weighing buckets. Subsequently five video disdrometers were purchased. The purchase of the 6th video disdrometer is pending. The video disdrometers are permanently deployed at SGPC1, TWPC1, TWPC3 and in the near future at ENA. One video disdrometer is assigned to the ARM2. What follows is a detailed description of the Parsivel2 laser disdrometers and their datastreams.

  2. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Parcivel Disdrometer (williams-disdro) Title: ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Parcivel Disdrometer (williams-disdro) ...

  3. Insights into riming and aggregation processes as revealed by aircraft, radar, and disdrometer observations for a 27 April 2011 widespread precipitation event: Insights into Riming and Aggregation

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Giangrande, Scott E.; Toto, Tami; Bansemer, Aaron; Kumjian, Matthew R.; Mishra, Subhashree; Ryzhkov, Alexander V.

    2016-05-19

    Our study presents aircraft spiral ascent and descent observations intercepting a transition to riming processes during widespread stratiform precipitation. The sequence is documented using collocated scanning and profiling radar, including longer-wavelength dual polarization measurements and shorter-wavelength Doppler spectra. Riming regions are supported using aircraft measurements recording elevated liquid water concentrations, spherical particle shapes, and saturation with respect to water. Profiling cloud radar observations indicate riming regions during the event as having increasing particle fall speeds, rapid time-height changes, and bimodalities in Doppler spectra. These particular riming signatures are coupled to scanning dual polarization radar observations of higher differential reflectivity (ZDR)more » aloft. Moreover, reduced melting layer enhancements and delayed radar bright-band signatures in the column are also observed during riming periods, most notably with the profiling radar observations. The bimodal cloud radar Doppler spectra captured near riming zones indicate two time-height spectral ice peaks, one rimed particle peak, and one peak associated with pristine ice needle generation and/or growth between -4°C and -7°C also sampled by aircraft probes. We observe this pristine needle population near the rimed particle region which gives a partial explanation for the enhanced ZDR. The riming signatures aloft and radar measurements within the melting level are weakly lag correlated (r~0.6) with smaller median drop sizes at the surface, as compared with later times when aggregation of larger particle sizes was believed dominant.« less

  4. ARM - Instrument - vdis

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Video Disdrometer ... The 2-dimensional video-disdrometer (vdis) is comprised of video cameras capable of ...

  5. ARM - Instrument - rain

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsrain Documentation RAIN : Handbook ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Rain Gauge (RAIN) Instrument Categories Surface Meteorology General Overview One of the tipping bucket rain gauges at the Southern Great Plains facility. A rain gauge (RAIN) is an instrument that gathers and measures the amount of liquid precipitation over a set period of time. ARM uses two types of rain

  6. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    3, 2012 [Feature Stories and Releases] SGP Site Staff Share Successes, Challenges in the Name of Science Bookmark and Share Large-scale observation network in Korea opens door to new collaborations Daniel Hartsock and Dr. Kyungjeen Park look on as Pat Dowell describes the operation of a disdrometer at the SGP site. A sensor under the instrument's 'hood' measures rain rate and drop size distribution. Daniel Hartsock and Dr. Kyungjeen Park look on as Pat Dowell describes the operation of a

  7. Microsoft PowerPoint - Williams_Profilers.ppt

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    0-MHz Profiler Rain Gauges Joss Waldvogel Disdrometers 2835-MHz Profiler Status of Profiler and Surface Data Sets for TWPICE Christopher.R.Williams@noaa.gov - University of Colorado at Boulder and NOAA Earth Science Research Laboratory Funding is from the NASA TRMM & GPM Programs through the former NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory and from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (BMRC) Approximately 8 km between ARM and Profiler sites The profiler and surface observations deployed at

  8. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E):

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multi-Frequency Profilers, Parcivel Disdrometer (williams-disdro) (Dataset) | Data Explorer Parcivel Disdrometer (williams-disdro) Title: ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Parcivel Disdrometer (williams-disdro) This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed

  9. Research Highlight

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Automated Rain Rate Estimates Using the Ka-band ARM Zenith Radar (KAZR) Submitter: Chandra, A. S., McGill University Area of Research: Radiation Processes Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: Chandra A, C Zhang, P Kollias, S Matrosov, and W Szyrmer. 2015. "Automated rain rate estimates using the Ka-band ARM Zenith Radar (KAZR)." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 8(1-15), doi:10.5194/amt-8-1-2015. Scatter plots of rain rates (R) observed from a video disdrometer vs

  10. Singin' in the Rain

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Singin' in the Rain News News Home Featured Articles 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 Science Headlines Science Highlights Presentations & Testimony News Archives Communications and Public Affairs Contact Information Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5430 11.25.13 Singin' in the Rain Ultra water-repellent material developed at Brookhaven Lab may lead to many warming applications. Print Text

  11. ARM - AMF1 Baseline Instruments

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Surface Meteorology Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Laser Disdrometer (LDIS) Meteorological Instrumentation at AMF (MET) ...

  12. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Cloud Radar Browse Data KAZR Ka ARM Zenith Radar Browse Data LDIS Laser Disdrometer Browse Data MET Surface Meteorological Instrumentation Browse Data Browse Plots MFR ...

  13. ARM - Site Instruments

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Disdrometer Surface Meteorology Browse Plots Browse Data Single installation DL Doppler Lidar Cloud Properties Browse Plots Browse Data Installed at 2 facilities EBBR...

  14. FACT SHEET U.S. Department of Energy Eastern North Atlantic

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    * eddy correlation flux measurement system * disdrometer Lidars * micropulse lidar * Doppler lidar * Raman lidar Radars * zenith cloud radar * scanning cloud radar * scanning...

  15. ARM - Site Instruments

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Disdrometer Surface Meteorology Browse Plots Browse Data Single installation DL Doppler Lidar Cloud Properties Browse Data Single installation ECOR Eddy Correlation...

  16. Slide 1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Profiler * Vertical profiles of Z, DSD collocated with disdrometers under coverage umbrella of radar Aircraft * High altitude (ER-2 w GMI and DPR simulators) Aircraft already...

  17. Rain sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, D.A.; Tomich, S.D.; Glover, D.W.; Allen, E.V.; Hales, J.M.; Dana, M.T.

    1991-05-14

    The present invention constitutes a rain sampling device adapted for independent operation at locations remote from the user which allows rainfall to be sampled in accordance with any schedule desired by the user. The rain sampling device includes a mechanism for directing wet precipitation into a chamber, a chamber for temporarily holding the precipitation during the process of collection, a valve mechanism for controllably releasing samples of the precipitation from the chamber, a means for distributing the samples released from the holding chamber into vessels adapted for permanently retaining these samples, and an electrical mechanism for regulating the operation of the device. 11 figures.

  18. Rain sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Danny A.; Tomich, Stanley D.; Glover, Donald W.; Allen, Errol V.; Hales, Jeremy M.; Dana, Marshall T.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention constitutes a rain sampling device adapted for independent operation at locations remote from the user which allows rainfall to be sampled in accordance with any schedule desired by the user. The rain sampling device includes a mechanism for directing wet precipitation into a chamber, a chamber for temporarily holding the precipitation during the process of collection, a valve mechanism for controllably releasing samples of said precipitation from said chamber, a means for distributing the samples released from the holding chamber into vessels adapted for permanently retaining these samples, and an electrical mechanism for regulating the operation of the device.

  19. NNSA Procurement Projects Perspective - Bob Raines, Associate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Projects Perspective - Bob Raines, Associate Administrator for Acquisition and Project Management, NNSA NNSA Procurement Projects Perspective - Bob Raines, Associate Administrator ...

  20. Rain Gauge Instrument Handbook

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    10 Rain Gauge Instrument Handbook MJ Bartholomew January 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.

  1. ARM - Lesson Plans: Acid Rain

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Acid Rain Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Acid Rain Objective The objective is to help students understand the concept of acid rain and what impact this may have on vegetation. Materials Each group of students will need the following: 2 or 3 small plants of the

  2. Can crops tolerate acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, J.K.

    1989-11-01

    This brief article describes work by scientists at the ARS Air Quality-Plant Growth and Development Laboratory in Raleigh, North Carolina, that indicates little damage to crops as a result of acid rain. In studies with simulated acid rain and 216 exposed varieties of 18 crops, there were no significant injuries nor was there reduced growth in most species. Results of chronic and acute exposures were correlated in sensitive tomato and soybean plants and in tolerant winter wheat and lettuce plants. These results suggest that 1-hour exposures could be used in the future to screen varieties for sensitivity to acid rain.

  3. Revised for pdf of instruments 8.5x11 (2)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    RWP KA/WSACR KAZR MPL MWRHF SASHE AERI SWS CSPHOT VCEIL MWR3C MWR TSI RSS PWD 10IRT 10MFR SWATS EBBR ORG DISDROMETER VDIS WBRG SUOMINET BRS-BSRN NIMFR MFRN1 SIRS MFR USDA ARRAY SIRS TEST BED RAIN MET 10 METER TB TOWER 10 METER TOWER DL N W E S A R M S G P 60 METER TOWER (TWR) PGS RAMAN LIDAR AOS ACSM,APS,CCN,CLAP, CPC,NEPHELOMETER, PASS3,PSAP,TDMA. ECOR OPTICAL CLUSTER CCB OCO GIF OPTICAL TRAILER RCF ERL CULTIVATED GROUND SONDE CO2FLX,IRT, MFR,UIR. THWAPS IRT WACR CENTRAL CLUSTER SCALE

  4. Optical Rain Gauge Instrument Handbook

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Optical Rain Gauge Instrument Handbook MJ Bartholomew April 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned

  5. ARM - Campaign Instrument - ldis

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Laser Disdrometer (LDIS) Instrument Categories Surface Meteorology Campaigns Marine ARM GPCI ...

  6. ARM - Field Campaign - Marine ARM GPCI Investigations of Clouds...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Marine ARM GPCI Investigations of Clouds (MAGIC): Parsivel Disdrometer support for...

  7. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    addition, the Ka-ARM zenith radar, W-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar, radar wind profiler, Doppler lidar, and 2-D video disdrometer instrumentation was also added. (See the ENA...

  8. Acid rain information book. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    Acid rain is one of the most widely publicized environmental issues of the day. The potential consequences of increasingly widespread acid rain demand that this phenomenon be carefully evaluated. Reveiw of the literature shows a rapidly growing body of knowledge, but also reveals major gaps in understanding that need to be narrowed. This document discusses major aspects of the acid rain phenomenon, points out areas of uncertainty, and summarizes current and projected research by responsible government agencies and other concerned organizations.

  9. Rain or Shine: We Cycle for Science | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Rain or Shine: We Cycle for Science Rain or Shine: We Cycle for Science July 2, 2015 - 10:39am Addthis Elizabeth and Rachel visit a YWCA in Waterloo, Iowa. | Photo courtesy of ...

  10. Heavy rains hamper Louisiana gas line

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, C.

    1983-06-01

    Despite heavy rains and flooding a 36-mile gas pipeline loop for Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Corp. was completed from north of Starks (at the end of Transco's south Louisiana lateral) to the Lake Charles area. Somastic-coated, 42-in. grade X-60 pipe comprises 90% of the route. The contract included multiple 30-42 in. fabrications, installation of six 42-in. gate valves, and expansion of the Gillis compressor station.

  11. Acid rain legislation and local areas

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.H.B.

    1992-01-01

    This study explores the local economic impacts of the phase I requirements of the 1990 acid rain legislation. This legislation allows electric utilities to adopt least cost ways of reducing sulfur dioxide pollution. The impact on employment, income and size distribution of income due to a switch to low sulfur coal is examined for a selected number of high sulfur coal producing counties in southern Illinois. In order to achieve the above objectives a generalized non-survey input-output model, IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning), is employed to estimate first- and second-order employment and income effects of a switch to low sulfur coal. Two models, I and II, are constructed to provide these estimates. In Model I, income is generated and adjusted to reflect income retained and spent within the four county region. In Model II, no adjustment is made for flows into and out of the region. In addition to adjustments in income, adjustments in direct employment impacts were made in both models to account for retirements. Scenarios reflecting different degrees of coal switching, low and high switching options, were examined under both models. With regards to size distribution impacts, a newly developed operational model compatible with IMPLAN and developed by Rose et al (1988) was employed. This model is a member of a class of models collectively termed extended input-output models. As in the case of employment and income, allowance was made for income generated, retained and spent within the four counties in the assessment of income distribution impacts. The findings indicate that the adverse effects of a switch to low sulfur coal under the 1990 acid rain legislation will primarily hurt the coal mining industry. Coal mining employment and income will be adversely affected. Employment and income declines in other industries in the region will be fairly slight. Second, income distribution becomes slightly more equal for the local area due to acid rain control.

  12. Rain Gauges Handbook (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Rain Gauges Handbook To improve the quantitative description of precipitation processes in climate models, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research ...

  13. ARM - Instrument - ldis

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsldis Documentation LDIS : Handbook ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Laser Disdrometer (LDIS) Instrument Categories Surface Meteorology A laser disdrometer measures the reduction of total signal as a hydrometeor passes through a horizontally oriented fan-shaped laser-beam. This signal is proportional to the linear extent of the beam blocked by the hydrometer at this instant

  14. Microsoft PowerPoint - 16.0855_Raines Draft Rev 4 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    55Raines Draft Rev 4 Microsoft PowerPoint - 16.0855Raines Draft Rev 4 PDF icon Microsoft PowerPoint - 16.0855Raines Draft Rev 4 More Documents & Publications Enhancing Earned...

  15. Solar Decathlon: Rain and Shine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Rain and Shine Solar Decathlon: Rain and Shine October 20, 2009 - 7:00am Addthis Drew Bittner Writer/Editor, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Friday marked the end of the Solar Decathlon competition. Team Germany won (for the second time) in a very competitive field, in a ceremony marked by gray skies, cold temperatures and rain. For all the bad weather, however, the mood in DC was very upbeat. This was the fourth Solar Decathlon, an event that has seen great strides since its

  16. Soliton rains in a fiber laser: An experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Chouli, Souad; Grelu, Philippe

    2010-06-15

    Rains of solitons constitute a class of nonlinear dynamics of dissipative soliton ensembles that we briefly reported in Opt. Express 17, 11776 (2009) from a fiber laser experiment. The existence of a relatively intense noisy background together with several tens of soliton pulses aggregated in a condensed soliton phase constitutes a necessary condition for their appearance. New soliton pulses form spontaneously from the background fluctuations and drift until they reach the condensed soliton phase. We here relate in detail the experimental conditions under which soliton rains manifest and their key features, describe related dynamics observed in their vicinity, and propose an explanation for soliton rain dynamics.

  17. Dimethyl sulfide in the Amazon rain forest

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, Kolby; Yanez-Serrano, A. M.; Williams, J.; Kunert, N.; Jardine, A.; Taylor, T.; Abrell, L.; Artaxo, Paulo; Guenther, Alex B.; Hewitt, C. N.; House, E.; Florentino, A. P.; Manzi, A.; Higuchi, N.; Kesselmeier, J.; Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Derstroff, B.; Fuentes, J.; Martin, Scot T.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-to-atmosphere emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) may impact global climate 44 through the formation of gaseous sulfuric acid, which can yield secondary sulfate 45 aerosols and contribute to new particle formation. While oceans are generally 46 considered the dominant source of DMS, a shortage of ecosystem observations prevents 47 an accurate analysis of terrestrial DMS sources. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified 48 ambient DMS mixing ratios within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem in the 49 central Amazon Basin in real-time (2010-2011) and at high vertical resolution (2013-50 2014). Elevated but highly variable DMS mixing ratios were observed within the 51 canopy, showing clear evidence of a net ecosystem source to the atmosphere during 52 both day and night in both the dry and wet seasons. Periods of high DMS mixing ratios 53 lasting up to 8 hours (up to 160 ppt) often occurred within the canopy and near the 54 surface during many evenings and nights. Daytime gradients showed mixing ratios (up 55 to 80 ppt) peaking near the top of the canopy as well as near the ground following a rain 56 event. The spatial and temporal distribution of DMS suggests that ambient levels and 57 their potential climatic impacts are dominated by local soil and plant emissions. A soil 58 source was confirmed by measurements of DMS emission fluxes from Amazon soils as 59 a function of temperature and soil moisture. Furthermore, light and temperature 60 dependent DMS emissions were measured from seven tropical tree species. Our study 61 has important implications for understanding terrestrial DMS sources and their role in 62 coupled land-atmosphere climate feedbacks. 63

  18. DISCLAIMER

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM-TR-137 ARM's Handbook for the Parsivel2 Laser Disdrometer MJ Bartholomew February 2014 Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research MJ Bartholomew, February 2014, DOE/SC-ARM-TR-137 Contents 1.0 General Overview ................................................................................................................................. 1 2.0 Contacts

  19. Gas turbines and acid rain - Looking at some solutions

    SciTech Connect

    May, W.

    1989-01-01

    This article examines the technology available for reducing the sulfur emissions of gas turbines that are implicated in the production of acid rain. The alternatives reviewed are limestone scrubbing, spray dryer absorption and limestone injection into boilers. The last process is not feasible for gas turbines and of the other two the author recommends limestone scrubbing.

  20. Stratiform and Convective Precipitation Observed by Multiple Radars during the DYNAMO/AMIE Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Min; Kollias, Pavlos; Feng, Zhe; Zhang, Chidong; Long, Charles N.; Kalesse, Heike; Chandra, Arunchandra; Kumar, Vickal; Protat, Alain

    2014-11-01

    The motivation for this research is to develop a precipitation classification and rain rate estimation method using cloud radar-only measurements for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) long-term cloud observation analysis, which are crucial and unique for studying cloud lifecycle and precipitation features under different weather and climate regimes. Based on simultaneous and collocated observations of the Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR), two precipitation radars (NCAR S-PolKa and Texas A&M University SMART-R), and surface precipitation during the DYNAMO/AMIE field campaign, a new cloud radar-only based precipitation classification and rain rate estimation method has been developed and evaluated. The resulting precipitation classification is equivalent to those collocated SMART-R and S-PolKa observations. Both cloud and precipitation radars detected about 5% precipitation occurrence during this period. The convective (stratiform) precipitation fraction is about 18% (82%). The 2-day collocated disdrometer observations show an increased number concentration of large raindrops in convective rain compared to dominant concentration of small raindrops in stratiform rain. The composite distributions of KAZR reflectivity and Doppler velocity also show two distinct structures for convective and stratiform rain. These indicate that the method produces physically consistent results for two types of rain. The cloud radar-only rainfall estimation is developed based on the gradient of accumulative radar reflectivity below 1 km, near-surface Ze, and collocated surface rainfall (R) measurement. The parameterization is compared with the Z-R exponential relation. The relative difference between estimated and surface measured rainfall rate shows that the two-parameter relation can improve rainfall estimation.

  1. Light rain events change over North America, Europe and Asia for 1973-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Yun; Gong, Daoyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2010-10-28

    Long-term daily precipitation data from NCDC are used to investigate the changes of light rain events from 1973-2009 over North America, Europe and Asia. Results reveal that the trend of light rain events presents a remarkably diverse feature in different regions, while an overall decrease trend can be found over the continents in northern hemisphere. In North America, most of stations show a decrease trend for light rain on the annual basis but a decrease trend can also be found for moderate and heavy rain. The opposite trends are observed over the stations in Europe and the trend of light rain is not significant when averaged for all the stations. In Asia, especially East Asia, the light rain days show an overwhelming decrease trend with high spatial coherency. Meanwhile the moderate and heavy rain events (> 10 mm/day) have increased, suggesting a remarkable shift of precipitation from light to heavy rain in East Asia. While both the warming at a global scale and increased atmospheric aerosols due to air pollution at a regional scale (e.g. East Asia) may have affected the light rain changes, it remains a challenging task to quantitatively detect and separate the cause of light rain changes in different regions. ?

  2. Microsoft PowerPoint - 16.0855_Raines Draft Rev 4

    Energy Saver

    Management Update Project Management Update Bob Raines Director, Project Management Systems and Assessments * Everybody's Favorite Subject Cost Estimating * Cost Estimating * EVMS...

  3. Environmental Externalities in Electric Power Markets: Acid Rain, Urban Ozone, and Climate Change

    Reports and Publications

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the emissions resulting from the generation of electricity by utilities and their role in contributing to the environmental problems of acid rain, urban ozone, and climate change.

  4. (Rain)cloud computing: Researchers work to improve how we predict...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    (Rain)cloud computing: Researchers work to improve how we predict climate change By Louise Lerner * March 3, 2016 Tweet EmailPrint Rao Kotamarthi and Jiali Wang spend their days ...

  5. Research Highlight

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    A Revealing Look Inside Northern Australian Wet Season Precipitation Download a printable PDF Submitter: Giangrande, S., Brookhaven National Laboratory Area of Research: Surface Properties Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: Giangrande SE, M Bartholomew, M Pope, S Collis, and MP Jensen. 2014. "A Summary of Precipitation Characteristics from the 2006-2011 Northern Australian Wet Seasons as Revealed by ARM Disdrometer Research Facilities (Darwin, Australia)." Journal of

  6. Research Highlight

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Spiraling Through a Storm PI Contact: Giangrande, S., Brookhaven National Laboratory Area of Research: Cloud Processes Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: Giangrande SE, T Toto, A Bansemer, MR Kumjian, S Mishra, and A Ryzkhov. 2016. "Insights into riming and aggregation processes as revealed by aircraft, radar, and disdrometer observations for a 27 April 2011 widespread precipitation event." Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, , doi:10.1002/2015JD024537.

  7. Universal multrifractals: Theory and observations for rain and clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Tessier, Y.; Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D. )

    1993-02-01

    The standard model of atmospheric motions divides the atmosphere into distinct two- and three-dimensional isotropic turbulent regimes separated by a dimensional transition, the [open quotes]mesoscale gap.[close quotes] It is argued that the [open quotes]gap[close quotes] is fictional and that the atmosphere is scaling but anisotropic at all scales. According to this alternative unified scaling model, the dynamics are governed by anisotropic (differentially stratified and rotating) cascade processes yielding highly variable multifractal fields. Just as Gaussian random variables are associated with (linear) sums of random variables, these (nonlinear) multiplicative processes are generically associated with (special) universal multifractals in which many of the details of the dynamics are irrelevant. Although an attempt is made to outline these arguments in a widely accessible form, they are not new to this paper; they provide its context and motivation. The principal purpose of this paper is to test these ideas empirically. This is done using Landsat, NOAA-9, and Metcosat cloud radiances at visible, near-infrared, and thermal infrared wavelengths with length scales spanning the range-166 m-4000 km, radar reflectivities of rain (in the horizontal, vertical, and time), and global daily rainfall accumulations. Spectral analysis, as well as the new double trace moment data-analysis technique, is applied. In each case, rather than the sharp dimensional transition predicted by the standard model, the scaling is found to be relatively well respected right through the mesoscale. The three fundamental universal multifractal exponents are then estimated and one can go on to outline how these exponents (with the help of appropriate space-time transformations) can be used to make dynamic multifractal models. 87 refs., 34 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Integrated Title V/acid rain permits: Transitioning through initial permit issuance and reopenings

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomfield, C.

    1995-12-31

    Titles IV and V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Act or CAA) created two new stationary source permitting programs, one specific to acid rain (Title IV), and a second for operating permits in general (Title V). The Phase 2 portion of the acid rain program was designed to be implemented through the Title V operating permit program, thereby subjecting all Phase 2 acid rain sources to the requirements of Title V. Permits issued pursuant to Phase 2 of the acid rain program will be viewed as a self-contained portion of the Title V operating permit and will be governed by regulations promulgated under both Title IV and Title V. The requirements imposed by Title IV may not always be consistent with the broader operating permit program requirements of Title V, and when inconsistency occurs, the acid rain requirements will take precedence. This nonalignment will perhaps be most apparent during two stages of initial permitting: (1) the transition period following Title V program approval when permit application, issuance, and effective dates differ between the two programs, and (2) at the point when acid rain permits must be reopened to incorporate Phase 2 NO{sub x} requirements. This paper explores strategies for streamlining implementation of the two programs with particular focus on these two coordination issues.

  9. Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality

    SciTech Connect

    Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and in 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and pH 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at ph 2.5 in 'Empire'. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in 'McIntosh'. The incidence of russetting on 'Golden Delicious' fruits was ameliorated by the presence of rain-exclusion chambers but was not affected by acid rain. With season-long sprays at pH 2.75, there was a slight delay in maturity and lower weight of 'McIntosh' apples. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

  10. Photo of the Week: Rain or Shine, Preparing for the 2013 Hurricane Season |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Rain or Shine, Preparing for the 2013 Hurricane Season Photo of the Week: Rain or Shine, Preparing for the 2013 Hurricane Season May 15, 2013 - 1:16pm Addthis President Barack Obama listens to Acting Energy Secretary Daniel B. Poneman during a meeting with electric utility CEOs and trade association representatives at the Department of Energy in Washington, D.C., May 8, 2013. The group met to discuss lessons learned during the response to Hurricane Sandy, as well as the

  11. (Rain)cloud computing: Researchers work to improve how we predict climate

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    change | Argonne National Laboratory (Rain)cloud computing: Researchers work to improve how we predict climate change By Louise Lerner * March 3, 2016 Tweet EmailPrint Rao Kotamarthi and Jiali Wang spend their days looking at a future Earth. At the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory, the two scientists work on simulations and techniques to project what the climate will look like 100 years from now. Last year, they completed the highest resolution climate forecast

  12. Electric Utility Phase I Acid Rain Compliance Strategies for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    Reports and Publications

    1994-01-01

    The Acid Rain Program is divided into two time periods; Phase I, from 1995 through 1999, and Phase II, starting in 2000. Phase I mostly affects power plants that are the largest sources of SO2 and NOx . Phase II affects virtually all electric power producers, including utilities and nonutilities. This report is a study of the effects of compliance with Phase I regulations on the costs and operations of electric utilities, but does not address any Phase II impacts.

  13. Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality

    SciTech Connect

    Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Mature McIntosh, Empire, and Golden Delicious apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at pH 2.5 in Empire. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in McIntosh. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

  14. The biological diversity conservation district: A rain forest conservation tool for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, M.

    1995-12-01

    Over the next twenty years, the Earth`s rain forests may decrease by forty percent! This paper presents a revolutionary corporate entity for the protection of those forests, the biological diversity conservation district (biodistricts). The underlying cause of rain forest destruction is unfettered competition for limited resources. The competitors are many: farmers, business, local and national governments, the biotechnology and ecotourism industries, multinational companies, public utilities, and indigenous groups. To varying degrees, all compete within the marketplace. biodistricts will bring together two forces once thought to be antithetical: conservation an development. They will be set up in corporate form, owned and controlled by groups claiming access to the forest resources. Because the various groups will fight for the same resources habitats, ecosystems, and genetic diversity-each will prevent the others from destroying them. The district members will ensure that all businesses maintain sustainable development practices because the economic success of the district depends upon the area`s natural beauty and biological diversity. This paper analyzes the effects on the culture, politics, economy and conservation there. It will conclude that the comprehensive approach taken by biodistricts is the only method for solving the problem of rain forest destruction; that it is economically feasible, culturally viable, and ethically defensible. By March 1, 1995, the paper will represent not only the culmination of eighteen months of research, writing and interviews regarding biological diversity conservation, but also the impetus to push the thinking of environmentalists and business persons in a new direction, perhaps the only direction that will allow the nations of the world to protect their forests for the next twenty years and beyond.

  15. The role of EPA`s Acid Rain Division in the Ozone Transport Commission`s NOx budget program

    SciTech Connect

    Schary, C.; Culligan, K.

    1997-12-31

    The Ozone Transport Commission`s (OTC) Nitrogen Oxides (NO{sub x}) Budget Program will implement the emissions reduction goal of the 1994 Memorandum of Understanding between its twelve member states and the District of Columbia. The program will achieve its significant NO{sub x} reductions from electric utilities and industrial boilers using a {open_quotes}cap-and-trade{close_quotes} approach modeled after the US Environmental Protection Agency`s sulfur dioxide emissions trading under the Acid Rain Program. The similarity of the two programs has led to the development of an important partnership between the OTC states and EPA`s Acid Rain Division, Over the past two years, Acid Rain Program staff have shared their technical expertise and assisted extensively in the development of the program`s rules. Leveraging the investment EPA made in the systems used to run the Acid Rain Program, the OTC states have asked the Acid Rain Division to administer the data systems for them, and together are working to expand its existing Emissions Tracking System and to modify a clone of the sulfur dioxide Allowance Tracking System, to fulfill the unique requirements of the NO{sub x} Budget Program. This partnership is an important example of the new type of cooperation and sharing of expertise and resources that should develop between EPA and states as they launch multi-state programs to address regional pollution problems that defy a single-state solution.

  16. The future of emissions trading in light of the acid rain experience

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, B.J.; Rico, R.

    1995-12-31

    The idea of emissions trading was developed more than two decades ago by environmental economists eager to provide new ideas for how to improve the efficiency of environmental protection. However, early emissions trading efforts were built on the historical {open_quotes}command and control{close_quotes} infrastructure which has dominated U.S. environmental protection until today. The {open_quotes}command and control{close_quotes} model initially had advantages that were of a very pragmatic character: it assured large pollution reductions in a time when large, cheap reductions were available and necessary; and it did not require a sophisticated government infrastructure. Within the last five years, large-scale emission trading programs have been successfully designed and started that are fundamentally different from the earlier efforts, creating a new paradigm for environmental control just when our understanding of environmental problems is changing as well. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the largest national-scale program--the Acid Rain Program--and from that experience, forecast when emission trading programs may be headed based on our understanding of the factors currently influencing environmental management. The first section of this paper will briefly review the history of emissions trading programs, followed by a summary of the features of the Acid Rain Program, highlighting those features that distinguish it from previous efforts. The last section addresses the opportunities for emissions trading (and its probable future directions).

  17. Using biodiversity methods to assess the impacts of oil and gas development in tropical rain forests

    SciTech Connect

    Reagan, D.P.; Silva del Poso, X. |

    1995-06-01

    Oil and gas development in tropical rain forests has attracted international attention because of the potentially adverse effects on the forest ecosystems. Biodiversity is a topic of particular concern, but is difficult to assess for small areas of disturbance. In July 1992 we used light traps to compare insect diversity at canopy and ground level as a means of detecting the impacts of an exploratory well site and related facilities within mature Amazonian rain forest in the Oriente Province of Ecuador. Replicate samples were collected at the well site, in a nearby area of agricultural development, and in a reference site within mature forest. Species richness was determined, and diversity indices were calculated for each set of samples. Results indicated that changes in diversity could be detected in the canopy and at ground level at the well site, but that the reduction in diversity was small. Biological diversity was substantially reduced in the area of agricultural development. Limitations and possible applications of this approach are discussed.

  18. Rain-Induced Increase in Background Radiation Detected by Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Hausladen, Paul; Blessinger, Christopher S; Guzzardo, Tyler; Livesay, Jake

    2012-07-01

    A complete understanding of both the steady state and transient background measured by Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) is essential to predictable system performance, as well as maximization of detection sensitivity. To facilitate this understanding, a test bed for the study of natural background in RPMs has been established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This work was performed in support of the Second Line of Defense Program's mission to detect the illicit movement of nuclear material. In the present work, transient increases in gamma ray counting rates in RPMs due to rain are investigated. The increase in background activity associated with rain, which has been well documented in the field of environmental radioactivity, originates from the atmospheric deposition of two radioactive daughters of radon-222, namely lead-214 and bismuth-214 (henceforth {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi). In this study, rainfall rates recorded by a co-located weather station are compared with RPM count rates and High Purity Germanium spectra. The data verifies these radionuclides are responsible for the dominant transient natural background fluctuations in RPMs. Effects on system performance and potential mitigation strategies are discussed.

  19. Oxy`s strategy on environment, community issues key to success of project in Ecuador`s rain forest

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.

    1997-04-21

    Occidental Exploration and Production Co. has implemented a comprehensive strategy of strict environmental protection measures and aggressive community relations initiatives in its oil operations in the rain forests of eastern Ecuador. While such measures may not be unique by themselves, Oxy`s efforts to incorporate these measures as a cornerstone of its exploration and development campaign--at the earliest possible stage--can serve as something of a paradigm for oil and gas industry operations in the rain forest. The upshot is that Oxy has a world-class (at least from an environmental standpoint) oil drilling-production operation at the heart of a world-class biological reserve in a pristine rain forest. Even against a backdrop of politically charged concern over industry work in the Amazon region, the project is an unqualified success to Oxy, the government of Ecuador, and most importantly, the native inhabitants there. The paper describes the environmental management plan.

  20. Allowance trading activity and state regulatory rulings: Evidence from the US Acid Rain Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, E.M.

    1997-12-31

    The US Acid Rain Program is one of the first, and by far the most extensive, applications of a market based approach to pollution control. From the beginning, there has been concern whether utilities would participate in allowance trading, and whether regulatory activity at the state level would further complicate utilities` decision to trade allowances. This paper finds that public utility commission regulation has encouraged allowance trading activity in states with regulatory rulings, but that allowance trading activity has not been limited to states issuing regulations. Until there is evidence suggesting that significant additional cost savings could have been obtained if additional allowance trading activity had occurred in states without regulations or that utilities in states with regulations are still not taking advantage of all cost saving trading opportunities, this analysis suggests that there is little reason to believe that allowance trading activity is impeded by public utility commission regulations.

  1. Implications of the Clean Air Act acid rain title on industrial boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Maibodi, M. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper discusses the impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments related to acid rain controls, as they apply to industrial boilers. Emphasis is placed on explaining the Title IV provisions of the Amendments that permit nonutility sources to participate in the SO{sub 2} allowance system. The allowance system, as it pertains to industrial boiler operators, is described, and the opportunities for operators to trade and/or sell SO{sub 2} emission credits is discussed. The paper also reviews flue gas desulfurization system technologies available for industrial boiler operators who may choose to participate in the system. Furnace sorbent injection, advanced silicate process, lime spray drying, dry sorbent injection, and limestone scrubbing are described, including statements of their SO{sub 2} removing capability, commercial status, and costs. Capital costs, levelized costs and cost-effectiveness are presented for these technologies.

  2. Managing nontechnical risks associated with seismic operations in the tropical rain forests of Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, G.; Smith, G.R.; Vacas, F.J.; Swingholm, E.K.; Yuill, R.M.; Aleman, M.A.

    1997-04-21

    Companies operating in sensitive areas are being challenged to address the environmental and social issues while preserving these areas for future generations. This increased international attention on environmental and sociocultural issues has led Amoco to focus efforts on developing new ideas and strategies to facilitate environmental and cultural management. In Ecuador, the major oil producing region is the Ecuadorian portion of the Amazon Basin, referred to locally as the Oriente. Amoco Ecuador BV recently completed a seismic acquisition program in the Oriente with minimum impact to the environment and the communities within the project area. The goal of this article is to describe Amoco`s experience in managing environmental, social, and public perception issues associated with seismic operations in the rain forests of Ecuador.

  3. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: Parsivel2

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Field Campaign Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: Parsivel2 Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: Parsivel2 Field Campaign Report One of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility's Parsivel2 disdrometers was deployed at the first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) T3 site in

  4. H. R. 5904: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide tax relief to utilities installing acid rain reduction equipment, introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session, October 23, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on October 23, 1990 to control acid rain. This legislation focuses on tax credit for equipment to meet acid rain reduction standards, as well as tax-exempt financing of acid rain control property. In addition, a tax credit is issued for minerals used to reduce the sulfur in coal.

  5. Survival and distribution of Vibrio cholerae in a tropical rain forest stream

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Rosas, N.; Hazen, T.C.

    1988-12-31

    For 12 months Vibrio cholerae and fecal coliforms were monitored along with 9 other water quality parameters at 12 sites in a rain forest watershed in Puerto Rico. Densities of V. cholerae and fecal coliforms were not significantly correlated even though the highest densities of both bacteria were found at a sewage outfall. High densities of V. cholerae were also found at pristine sites high in the watershed. V. cholerae and Escherichia coli were inoculated into membrane diffusion chambers, placed at two sites and monitored for 5 days on two different occasions. Two different direct count methods indicated that the density of E. coli and V. cholerae did not change significantly during the course of either study. Physiological activity, as measured by INT-reduction and relative nucleic acid composition declined for E. coli during the first 12 h then increased and remained variable during the remainder of the study. V. cholerae activity, as measured by relative nucleic acid concentrations, remained high and unchanged for the entire study. INT-reduction in V. cholerae declined initially but regained nearly all of it`s original activity within 48 h. This study suggests that V. cholerae is an indigenous organism in tropical freshwaters and that assays other than fecal coliforms or E. coli must be used for assessing public health risk in tropical waters.

  6. Current and Future Carbon Budgets of Tropical Rain Forest: A Cross Scale Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Oberbauer, S. F.

    2004-01-16

    The goal of this project was to make a first assessment of the major carbon stocks and fluxes and their climatic determinants in a lowland neotropical rain forest, the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Our research design was based on the concurrent use of several of the best available approaches, so that data could be cross-validated. A major focus of our effort was to combine meteorological studies of whole-forest carbon exchange (eddy flux), with parallel independent measurements of key components of the forest carbon budget. The eddy flux system operated from February 1998 to February 2001. To obtain field data that could be scaled up to the landscape level, we monitored carbon stocks, net primary productivity components including tree growth and mortality, litterfall, woody debris production, root biomass, and soil respiration in a series of replicated plots stratified across the major environmental gradients of the forest. A second major focus of this project was on the stocks and changes of carbon in the soil. We used isotope studies and intensive monitoring to investigate soil organic stocks and the climate-driven variation of soil respiration down the soil profile, in a set of six 4m deep soil shafts stratified across the landscape. We measured short term tree growth, climate responses of sap flow, and phenology in a suite of ten canopy trees to develop individual models of tree growth to daytime weather variables.

  7. Effects of simulated acidic rain on yields of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa, Triticum aestivum and Medicago sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.S.; Gmur, N.F.; Mancini, D.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine effects of simulated acidic rain on radishes (Raphanus sativus), wheat(Triticum aestivum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under greenhouse conditions. Experimental designs allowed the detection of statistically significant differences among means that differed by less than 10%. These results suggest that the efficiency of radish foliage in increasing; root mass decreases with increased rainfall acidity since only foliage was exposed to the treatments.

  8. Dimethyl sulfide in the Amazon rain forest: DMS in the Amazon

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Jardine, K.; Yañez-Serrano, A. M.; Williams, J.; Kunert, N.; Jardine, A.; Taylor, T.; Abrell, L.; Artaxo, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.; et al

    2015-01-08

    Surface-to-atmosphere emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) may impact global climate 44 through the formation of gaseous sulfuric acid, which can yield secondary sulfate 45 aerosols and contribute to new particle formation. While oceans are generally 46 considered the dominant source of DMS, a shortage of ecosystem observations prevents 47 an accurate analysis of terrestrial DMS sources. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified 48 ambient DMS mixing ratios within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem in the 49 central Amazon Basin in real-time (2010-2011) and at high vertical resolution (2013-50 2014). Elevated but highly variable DMS mixing ratios were observed within themore » 51 canopy, showing clear evidence of a net ecosystem source to the atmosphere during 52 both day and night in both the dry and wet seasons. Periods of high DMS mixing ratios 53 lasting up to 8 hours (up to 160 ppt) often occurred within the canopy and near the 54 surface during many evenings and nights. Daytime gradients showed mixing ratios (up 55 to 80 ppt) peaking near the top of the canopy as well as near the ground following a rain 56 event. The spatial and temporal distribution of DMS suggests that ambient levels and 57 their potential climatic impacts are dominated by local soil and plant emissions. A soil 58 source was confirmed by measurements of DMS emission fluxes from Amazon soils as 59 a function of temperature and soil moisture. Furthermore, light and temperature 60 dependent DMS emissions were measured from seven tropical tree species. Our study 61 has important implications for understanding terrestrial DMS sources and their role in 62 coupled land-atmosphere climate feedbacks. 63« less

  9. Dimethyl sulfide in the Amazon rain forest: DMS in the Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, K.; Yańez-Serrano, A. M.; Williams, J.; Kunert, N.; Jardine, A.; Taylor, T.; Abrell, L.; Artaxo, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.; House, E.; Florentino, A. P.; Manzi, A.; Higuchi, N.; Kesselmeier, J.; Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Derstroff, B.; Fuentes, J. D.; Martin, S. T.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-01-08

    Surface-to-atmosphere emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) may impact global climate 44 through the formation of gaseous sulfuric acid, which can yield secondary sulfate 45 aerosols and contribute to new particle formation. While oceans are generally 46 considered the dominant source of DMS, a shortage of ecosystem observations prevents 47 an accurate analysis of terrestrial DMS sources. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified 48 ambient DMS mixing ratios within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem in the 49 central Amazon Basin in real-time (2010-2011) and at high vertical resolution (2013-50 2014). Elevated but highly variable DMS mixing ratios were observed within the 51 canopy, showing clear evidence of a net ecosystem source to the atmosphere during 52 both day and night in both the dry and wet seasons. Periods of high DMS mixing ratios 53 lasting up to 8 hours (up to 160 ppt) often occurred within the canopy and near the 54 surface during many evenings and nights. Daytime gradients showed mixing ratios (up 55 to 80 ppt) peaking near the top of the canopy as well as near the ground following a rain 56 event. The spatial and temporal distribution of DMS suggests that ambient levels and 57 their potential climatic impacts are dominated by local soil and plant emissions. A soil 58 source was confirmed by measurements of DMS emission fluxes from Amazon soils as 59 a function of temperature and soil moisture. Furthermore, light and temperature 60 dependent DMS emissions were measured from seven tropical tree species. Our study 61 has important implications for understanding terrestrial DMS sources and their role in 62 coupled land-atmosphere climate feedbacks. 63

  10. Analysis of utility acid rain compliance plans: A discussion of issues and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brick, S.

    1993-07-01

    Utility acid rain compliance plans have begun to roll into public utility commissions around the eastern half of the country. These plans typically represent the combined effort of utility staff and consultants, and have evolved since early drafts of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) began to circulate, several years back. The filings themselves often consist of many volumes of technical analysis, supporting documentation, and accompanying testimony. Hundreds of computer simulations are often presented and these, in turn, are underlain by hundreds of assumptions covering a staggering range of variables. Commissions usually have little time and few external resources with which to review and in some cases, preapprove proposed utility actions. There may be a tendency among commissions to forego a comprehensive review, approve utility plans as filed, and hope for the best. There are at least three important reasons, however, why this should not occur: (1) The magnitude of planned CAAA expenditures is large. (2) Preapproval, either formal or de facto, is becoming increasingly common. Although the approval of specific actions is certainly one outcome of the preapproval process, it should not be the sole or even principal outcome. The main focus of preapproval should involve defining an economic and institutional framework for how utilities, with input from regulators and the public, can best meet future customer needs. Done correctly, the preapproval process provides a meaningful, preexisting context which can be used to analyze outcomes. (3) Without adequate review market opportunities may be ignored and compliance costs increased unnecessarily. This article discusses the following topics in detail: CAAA Compliance Plan Review framework; Emission Reduction Alternatives: How Much is Enough?; Assumptions, Analytical Methods, and Evaluation Criteria of compliance plans; CAAA compliance costs and IRP. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Nutrient dynamics and nitrogen trace gas flux during ecosystem development in montane rain forest

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.H.; Vitousek, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Patterns of nitrogen trace gas emissions, soil nitrogen flux, and nutrient availability were evaluated at five sites that form a chronosequence in Hawaiian montane rain forest. The estimated age of basaltic parent material from which soils developed at the Kilauea site was 200 yr, 6000 yr at the Puu Makaala site, 185000 yr at the Kohala site, 1.65 x 10{sup 6} yr at the Molokai site, and 4.5 x 10{sup 6} yr at the Kauai site. Peak net N mineralization and nitrification values were found in soils from the 185000-yr-old Kohala site. Nitrogen content of foliage and leaf litter was highest in the intermediate age sites (Puu Makaala and Kohala) and N and P retranslocation was lowest at the Puu Makaala site. Soil cores fertilized with nitrogen had significantly higher rates of root ingrowth than control cores at the two youngest sites (200 and 6000 yr old) but not in older sites (185000 and 4.5 x 10{sup 6}-yr-old sites) and total fine root growth into control cores was greatest at the Kohala site. The highest N{sub 2}O emissions were found at the 185000-yr-old Kohala site, while the highest combined flux of N{sub 2}O + NO was observed at the 4.5 x 10{sup 6}-yr-old Kauai site. While overall N{sub 2}O emission rates were correlated with rates of N transformations, soil water content appeared to influence the magnitude of emissions of N{sub 2}O and the ratios of emissions of NO vs. N{sub 2}O. N{sub 2}O emissions occurred when water-filled pore space (WFPS) values were >40%, with highest emissions in at least two sites observed at WFPS values of 75%. Among sites, high N{sub 2}O emissions were associated with high soil N transformation rates. Large NO fluxes were observed only at the Kauai site when WFPS values were <60%. 50 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Environmental radiological monitoring of air, rain, and snow on and near the Hanford Site, 1945-1957

    SciTech Connect

    Hanf, R.W.; Thiede, M.E.

    1994-03-01

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The goal of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Members of the HEDR Project`s Environmental Monitoring Data Task have developed databases of historical environmental measurements of such emissions. Hanford documents were searched for information on the radiological monitoring of air, rain, and snow at and near the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The monitoring information was reviewed and summarized. The end product is a yearly overview of air, rain, and snow samples as well as ambient radiation levels in the air that were measured from 1945 through 1957. The following information is provided in each annual summary: the media sampled, the constituents (radionuclides) measured/reported, the sampling locations, the sampling frequencies, the sampling methods, and the document references. For some years a notes category is included that contains additional useful information. For the years 1948 through 1957, tables summarizing the sampling locations for the various sample media are also included in the appendix. A large number of documents were reviewed to obtain the information in this report. A reference list is attached to the end of each annual summary. All of the information summarized here was obtained from reports originating at Hanford. These reports are all publicly available and can be found in the Richland Operations Office (RL) public reading room. The information in this report has been compiled without analysis and should only be used as a guide to the original documents.

  13. The role of the U.S. Clean Coal Technology Program in implementing the objectives of the joint Canada-U.S. acid rain mitigation initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, A.L.; Smith, D.N.; Mann, A.W.; McIlvried, H.G.; Russell, D.L. Sr.

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program was initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in part as a response to the 1986 Joint Report of the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain, with a particular focus on coal-burning electric power plants. The fist three solicitations of the CCT Program were aimed primarily at mitigating the potential impacts of acid rain. Subsequently, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 established emission reduction targets for SO{sub 2} and No{sub x}, which influenced the goals of the last two CCT Program. This paper provides an overview of the CCT Program and reports the significant results, with emphasis on emissions reduction as well as their impact on ozone formation.

  14. S. 1234: A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide tax relief to utilities installing acid rain reduction equipment, introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, June 6, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The bill would allow a tax credit of 6 2/3% of a taxpayer's investment in qualified acid rain control equipment for each of the three years beginning the year the equipment is placed in service. Additionally, a tax credit would be allowed during two years of construction progress, the amount being 6 2/3% of construction expenditures. The bill describes qualified acid rain property', tax-exempt financing of acid rain control property, tax credit for minerals used to reduce the sulfur in coal, coal cleaning minerals credit, exclusion from gross income of receipt of qualified Clean Air allowance and proceeds of disposition thereof, qualified Clean Air allowances, and amortization of acid rain control property.

  15. ARM - Datastreams - rain

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    0:00 basetime Record with error unitless errorlatch ( time ) Frequency average, sensor 1 Hz frequency1 ( time ) Frequency average, sensor 2 Hz frequency2 ( time ) Frequency...

  16. ARM - Cloud and Rain

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox ...

  17. Rain Machine (Solar Still)

    Education - Teach & Learn

    Working in groups, students build simple solar stills filled with salt water and observe what happens when the stills are placed in the sun. The students then taste the water they have collected and discuss what has happened in their stills.

  18. Ozone and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-09

    The roles of ozone and other oxidizing agents are discussed. The major polluting emissions are SO/sub 2/, NO, and volatile organic chemicals. In the usual ambient concentrations, these substances are relatively harmless. However, when SO/sub 2/ and NO are oxidized, they are converted into more acid, more toxic, substances. Oxidants, including OH, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, HO/sub 2/, and organic peroxides, arise out of complex photochemistry that involves the ozone, the nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic chemicals. Were SO/sub 2/ the only pollutant, most of it would escape unchanged to the western Atlantic Ocean where it would be so diluted as to have no effect. At present about 35 percent of the SO/sub 2/ produced in the United States leaves the continent. In contrast, because of higher rates of reaction with oxidants, most of the NO is converted into nitric acid and deposited on land. The nitrogen oxides are involved in the production of ozone, some of which is naturally present. But particularly in urban settings where concentrations of NO/sub x/ are elevated and volatile organic chemicals such as those in gasoline are present, ozone concentrations may rise to levels deleterious to health. The Environmental Protection Agency has set standards for levels not to be exceeded, but nearly half of urban communities are not in compliance. The NO/sub x/ involved in the formation of urban ozone comes mostly from vehicular emissions.

  19. ARM - Campaign Instrument - rain

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON 2014) Download Data Manacapuru, Amazonas, Brazil; Mobile Facility, 2014.01.01 - 2014.12.31 Primary Measurements Taken The following...

  20. Use of DOE SGP Radars in Support of ASR Modeling Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, Steven A.

    2015-12-13

    The objective of this work was to use the DOE Southern Great Plains (SGP) precipitation radars to investigate physical characteristics of clouds and precipitation, and use this knowledge in support of DOE ASR modeling efforts. The goal was to develop an integrated data set based on the SGP instrumentation to yield statistically robust fields to aid in the task of verifying simulated cloud dynamical and microphysical fields. For this effort we relied heavily on the ARM scanning precipitation radars, X-SAPR’s and C-SAPR, and also incorporating data from wind profilers, surface disdrometers and the nearby WSR-88D radar, KVNX. Initially we lent our expertise to quality controlling the data from the newly installed ARM radars, particularly the X-band polarimetric data, and additionally assessed automatic radial velocity unfolding algorithms developed by other ASR researchers. We focused our efforts on four cases from the MC3E field campaign in 2011 and developed a dataset including microphysical information derived from hydrometeor identification and kinematic analysis using multiple-Doppler retrieval techniques. This dataset became a PI product and was released to the community in 2014. This analysis was used to investigate the source of big drops (> 5 mm) observed with disdrometers at the surface. It was found that the big drops were coincident with the strongest updrafts, suggesting they resulted from the melting of large precipitation ice, likely hail. We teamed up with W-K Tao and T. Matsui to statistically compare radar-derived observational kinematics and microphysics to WRF model output for the 25 April 2011. Comparisons highlighted some areas where the model may need improvement, such as generating too much hail and big drops, as well as overly-strong updrafts and overly-weak of downdrafts.

  1. Can extractive reserves save the rain forest: A ecological and socioeconomic comparison of non-timber forest product extraction systems in Peten, Guatemala, and West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Salafsky, N.; Dugelby, B.L.; Terborgh, J.W.

    1992-04-01

    Extractive reserves in tropical rain forests, in which only non-timber products are harvested, have been heralded by some conservationists as a means of maintaining biodiversity while providing income for local people. The study of extraction systems in Peten, Guatemala, and in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, leads to a more tempered conclusion, for while the Peten program was quite successful, the Kalimantan program was not. The study finds the success of an extractive reserve to be contingent on: (1) ecological conditions, and (2) socioeconomic and political factors. Although the study focuses on market-oriented extractive reserves, many of the issues discussed apply as well to other land uses such as the collection of non-timber forest products for household consumption or small-scale timber extraction.

  2. Variation of Indoor Radon Levels in Some Caves of Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR), SP, Brazil with Ventilation and Rain

    SciTech Connect

    Alberigi, Simone; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu

    2008-08-07

    In order to assess the radon exposure for the tour guide workers, radon levels in several galleries of the most visited caves of PETAR (High Ribeira River Turistic State Park), were determined by using Makrofol E tracks detectors. A two-years surveillance, from 2003 to 2005, showed radon average levels varying from 153{+-}44 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3} to 6358{+-}1619 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3}. Those results showed that the wide variation between the minimum and maximum concentrations values are strongly related with cave ventilation. In order to establish other factors contributing to this variation, beside the well known temperature effect, rain data over the entire period were also considered, showing that, apparently, radon concentrations inside the caves rise with drought.

  3. Analysis of Precipitation (Rain and Snow) Levels and Straight-line Wind Speeds in Support of the 10-year Natural Phenomena Hazards Review for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Elizabeth J.; Dewart, Jean Marie; Deola, Regina

    2015-12-10

    This report provides site-specific return level analyses for rain, snow, and straight-line wind extreme events. These analyses are in support of the 10-year review plan for the assessment of meteorological natural phenomena hazards at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These analyses follow guidance from Department of Energy, DOE Standard, Natural Phenomena Hazards Analysis and Design Criteria for DOE Facilities (DOE-STD-1020-2012), Nuclear Regulatory Commission Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800, 2007) and ANSI/ ANS-2.3-2011, Estimating Tornado, Hurricane, and Extreme Straight-Line Wind Characteristics at Nuclear Facility Sites. LANL precipitation and snow level data have been collected since 1910, although not all years are complete. In this report the results from the more recent data (1990–2014) are compared to those of past analyses and a 2004 National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration report. Given the many differences in the data sets used in these different analyses, the lack of statistically significant differences in return level estimates increases confidence in the data and in the modeling and analysis approach.

  4. Optical Rain Gauge and Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Comparisons

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    1. Introduction Measurement of rainfall and precipitation is a difficult task even in the best of circumstances. Different types of gauges are used depending on the type of...

  5. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, S-band Radar (williams-s_band)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Williams, Christopher

    2012-11-06

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  6. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Surface Meteorology (williams-surfmet)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    2012-11-06

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  7. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Vertical Air Motion (williams-vertair)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    2012-11-06

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  8. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, 449 MHz Profiler(williams-449_prof)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    2012-11-06

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  9. Clearing rain from open-pit mine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    Because of the large yearly rainfall in Panguna, Bougainveille Island, North Solomons Province, Papua New Guinea, unique problems have developed for the open-pit copper mine operated there by Bougainville Copper Limited. The large size of ths pit intercepts numerous streams and drainways which enter the area. The article discusses various methods to reduce and eliminate this water. Methods discussed are channels, pumping and tunneling.

  10. Jack Rains | Y-12 National Security Complex

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Norris Lake at Demre community when they started building TVA. Then my dad had to move. So he moved. As we come into Oak Ridge on the left it's the, what we call old Steward Norris ...

  11. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Rain Collector

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This photograph features the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee's rainwater collector that was put to use during the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon on the National Mall. The butterfly...

  12. Robert B. Raines | National Nuclear Security Administration ...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    for Project Management Systems and Assessments since 2008. Prior to joining the Department, he worked for CH2M HILL where he was responsible for environmental remediation ...

  13. Brazilian rain forest security - environment - development. Study project report

    SciTech Connect

    Arruda, P.A.

    1993-03-25

    The Amazon region has been intensely discussed in the recent years. Most of these discussions have been highly influenced by interests groups. To understand the Amazon area we need to specify what the Amazon is, to describe the forest, to evaluate its mineral and biological resources, and to study the people living in the region. A security analysis reveals that there are no main threats to Brazilian Amazon. Nevertheless, narco guerrillas, acting in neighboring countries, can cross the borders and challenge regional authorities. First World interests may disturb Brazilian policies to the region. To face these threats, Brazilian armed forces maintain a well trained military sharing with other native people the security and the routes towards progress. Brazilian government is also implementing some programs to achieve a well balanced development. The new concepts of sustainable development are applied to keep the region's natural resources available for future generations. Among these programs this paper addresses the ecological economic zoning, Calha Norte Program and Amazon Protection System (SIPAM/SIVAM). In synthesis it demonstrates the Brazilian commitment to integrate, develop and preserve this rich and exotic region.

  14. Incentive mechanisms as a strategic option for acid rain compliance

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.W.; Bailey, K.A.; McDermott, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 (P.L. 101--549) establishes the use of flexible emission compliance strategies for electric utilities to reduce the emissions of add precursors (SO[sub 2], NO[sub 2]). To control SO[sub 2] emissions, tradeable emission allowances will be used; NO[sub 2] emissions will be controlled by an emission standard, but a utility is permitted to average NO[sub 2] emissions systemwide to meet the standard. Both of these policies promote flexibility and cost savings for the utility while achieving the prescribed emission reduction goals of P.L. 101--549. The use of SO[sub 2] emission allowances has two notable benefits: A utility has the choice of a wide range of compliance methods allowing it to minimize compliance costs and second; the use of transferable emission allowances promote technological innovation with respect to emissions reduction/control. This report discusses the use of regulatory incentives towards the achievement of a Title IV goal of cost reduction of SO[sub 2] emissions.

  15. Incentive mechanisms as a strategic option for acid rain compliance

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.W.; Bailey, K.A.; McDermott, K.A.

    1991-12-31

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 (P.L. 101--549) establishes the use of flexible emission compliance strategies for electric utilities to reduce the emissions of add precursors (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}). To control SO{sub 2} emissions, tradeable emission allowances will be used; NO{sub 2} emissions will be controlled by an emission standard, but a utility is permitted to average NO{sub 2} emissions systemwide to meet the standard. Both of these policies promote flexibility and cost savings for the utility while achieving the prescribed emission reduction goals of P.L. 101--549. The use of SO{sub 2} emission allowances has two notable benefits: A utility has the choice of a wide range of compliance methods allowing it to minimize compliance costs and second; the use of transferable emission allowances promote technological innovation with respect to emissions reduction/control. This report discusses the use of regulatory incentives towards the achievement of a Title IV goal of cost reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions.

  16. LPG marketers thank the rain gods for hefty crop-drying market in '89

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    One of the pleasant bits of news that sprouted in many places across the country last fall concerned the increased LP-gas gallonage for crop drying. It is difficult to predict the farmers or dryers' consumption of propane in any given season. The demand for this fuel in drying operations is determined almost entirely by weather conditions, and since climate remains a perennial question mark, no one knows until the season is well under way how much moisture content the plants will exhibit. In another area, predictions can be complicated by the variations of individual farm practices as well as the evolving technology of drying equipment, including burners. This article, reports on the crop drying market as seen by various LP-gas dealers and others outside the industry.

  17. Rain or Shine, Students Keep Their Race Cars Going - News Feature...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    always work," he said. One of his teams, Astler said, wanted to use a hinge so that the solar panel could be adjusted to more directly receive the sun. But the hinge added too...

  18. MHK ISDB/Sensors/0.01" Rain Gauge (2m cable) Smart Sensor | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    (1) 0.2 mm Rainfall (2m cable) Smart Sensor ... further results Also made by Onset Computer Corporation HOBO RX3000 Remote Monitoring SystemHOBO RX3000 Remote Monitoring...

  19. Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment TWP-ICE Cloud and rain characteristics in the Australian Monsoon

    SciTech Connect

    May, P.T., Jakob, C., and Mather, J.H.

    2004-05-31

    The impact of oceanic convection on its environment and the relationship between the characteristics of the convection and the resulting cirrus characteristics is still not understood. An intense airborne measurement campaign combined with an extensive network of ground-based observations is being planned for the region near Darwin, Northern Australia, during January-February, 2006, to address these questions. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) will be the first field program in the tropics that attempts to describe the evolution of tropical convection, including the large scale heat, moisture, and momentum budgets, while at the same time obtaining detailed observations of cloud properties and the impact of the clouds on the environment. The emphasis will be on cirrus for the cloud properties component of the experiment. Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the tropics and have a large impact on their environment but the properties of these clouds are poorly understood. A crucial product from this experiment will be a dataset suitable to provide the forcing and testing required by cloud-resolving models and parameterizations in global climate models. This dataset will provide the necessary link between cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them.

  20. Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE): Cloud and Rain Characteristics in the Australian Monsoon

    SciTech Connect

    PT May; C Jakob; JH Mather

    2004-05-30

    The impact of oceanic convection on its environment and the relationship between the characteristics of the convection and the resulting cirrus characteristics is still not understood. An intense airborne measurement campaign combined with an extensive network of ground-based observations is being planned for the region near Darwin, Northern Australia, during January-February, 2006, to address these questions. The Tropical Warm Pool – International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) will be the first field program in the tropics that attempts to describe the evolution of tropical convection, including the large scale heat, moisture, and momentum budgets, while at the same time obtaining detailed observations of cloud properties and the impact of the clouds on the environment. The emphasis will be on cirrus for the cloud properties component of the experiment. Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the tropics and have a large impact on their environment but the properties of these clouds are poorly understood. A crucial product from this experiment will be a dataset suitable to provide the forcing and testing required by cloud-resolving models and parameterizations in global climate models. This dataset will provide the necessary link between cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them. The experiment is a collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the European Commission DG RTD-1.2, and several United States, Australian, Canadian, and European Universities. This experiment will be undertaken over a 4-week period in early 2006. January and February corresponds to the wet phase of the Australia monsoon. This season has been selected because, despite Darwin’s coastal location, the convection that occurs over and near Darwin at this time is largely of maritime origin with a large fetch over water. Based on previous experiments, the convection appears typical of maritime convection with widespread convection that has complex organization, but is not as deep or as intense as continental or coastal convection. Therefore, it is expected that the convection and cloud characteristics will be representative of conditions typical for wide areas of the tropics.

  1. ARM XDC Datastreams

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Rain, categorical, freezing, from RUC model Precipitation caticepellets Ice, pellets, categorical, from RUC model Precipitation catrain Rain, categorical, from RUC model ...

  2. MONTICELLO NPL SITES

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... 37" 54' 00" N LONG: 109" 18' 00" w TEMPERATURE (oF)' RAIN (in), WIND SPEED (mph) HEAT COOL AVG MEAN DEG DEG WIND DOM DAY TEMP HIGH TIME LOW TIME DAYS DAYS RAIN SPEED HIGH TIME ...

  3. Microsoft Word - 2016 Call for Abstracts.docx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    CALL F OR A BSTRACTS For t he 2016 N ational E nvironmental J ustice C onference a nd T raining Program The 2 016 N ational E nvironmental J ustice C onference a nd T raining P ...

  4. Research Highlight

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    To Rain or Not to Rain...Aerosols May Be the Answer Download a printable PDF Submitter: Li, Z., University of Maryland Area of Research: Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Interactions...

  5. WIPP Update 4_25_14

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    w orker t raining, c onduct o f operations c ourses t raining, a nd c ompleted a nnual M ine S afety a nd H ealth A dministration u nderground safety r equirements w hile w orking...

  6. Sustainability Around the House | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Sustainability Around the House Sustainability Around the House April 13, 2015 - 7:46am Addthis Rain barrels collect rain water and provide a free source of fresh water for your ...

  7. Slide 1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Retrievables: mean rainfall rate (R m ) andor rain water path (RWP), cloud liquid water path (LWP) (D < 50 m or so) (cloud and rain...

  8. Eastern Pine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    + Occupant Health * Building Becomes Part Of Nature * Permeable Pavers * Native Drought Resistance Planting * Low Maintenance + Water Usage * Integrated Rain Water ...

  9. Sustainability Policy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Around the House Sustainability Around the House April 13, 2015 - 7:46am Addthis Rain barrels collect rain water and provide a free source of fresh water for your lawn. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto/schulzie Rain barrels collect rain water and provide a free source of fresh water for your lawn. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto/schulzie Christina Stowers Communications Specialist in the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Programs Office How does it work? Choosing the right landscaping for your

  10. Glossary - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    electricity Acid rain: Also called acid precipitation or acid deposition, acid rain is precipitation containing harmful amounts of nitric and sulfuric acids formed primarily by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides released into the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned. It can be wet precipitation (rain, snow, or fog) or dry precipitation (absorbed gaseous and particulate matter, aerosol particles or dust). Acid rain has a pH below 5.6. Normal rain has a pH of about 5.6, which is slightly

  11. HTO washout model: on the relationship between exchange rate and washout coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Golubev, A.; Balashov, Y.; Mavrin, S.; Golubeva, V.; Galeriu, D.

    2015-03-15

    Washout coefficient Λ is widely used as a parameter in washout models. These models describes overall HTO washout with rain by a first-order kinetic equation, while washout coefficient Λ depends on the type of rain event and rain intensity and empirical parameters a, b. The washout coefficient is a macroscopic parameter and we have considered in this paper its relationship with a microscopic rate K of HTO isotopic exchange in atmospheric humidity and drops of rainwater. We have shown that the empirical parameters a, b can be represented through the rain event characteristics using the relationships of molecular impact rate, rain intensity and specific rain water content while washout coefficient Λ can be represented through the exchange rate K, rain intensity, raindrop diameter and terminal raindrop velocity.

  12. ARM - Datastreams - raintb

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamsraintb Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1224827 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : RAINTB Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge data Active Dates 2014.10.14 - 2016.11.17 Measurement Categories Atmospheric State Originating Instrument Rain Gauge (RAIN) Measurements Only measurements considered scientifically relevant are shown below by

  13. ARM - Datastreams - rainwb

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamsrainwb Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1224829 DOI: 10.5439/1224830 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : RAINWB Weighing Bucket Rain Gauge Active Dates 2010.09.22 - 2016.06.03 Measurement Categories Atmospheric State Originating Instrument Rain Gauge (RAIN) Measurements Only measurements considered scientifically relevant

  14. Stratiform and Convective Precipitation Observed by Multiple...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The composite distributions of KAZR reflectivity and Doppler velocity also show two distinct structures for convective and stratiform rain. These indicate that the method produces ...

  15. Hurricane Sandy-Nor'easter Situation Reports

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    On November 7, a Nor’easter began to impact the Mid-Atlantic and Northeast with strong winds, rain, snow and coastal flooding.

  16. ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor fall velocity

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    velocity Fall velocity of hydrometeors (e.g. rain, snow, graupel, hail). Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  17. ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor types

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    into such microphysical classes as rain, snow, graupel, and hail. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  18. Africa Data Dissemination Service | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    used to monitor the vegetation condition (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI) and rainfall (RainFall Estimate, or RFE) across the entire African continent. The NDVI...

  19. DOE Tour of Zero: The Adaptation Home by Evolutionary Home Builders...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Association of Home Builders' National Green Building certification, emerald level, and ... and .75-inch plastic ventilated rain screen strips were installed at the tops and ...

  20. Microsoft Word - Science and Technology of Future Light Sources...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... We could use the knowledge for modeling the influence of anthropogenic aerosols on climate and health and for effective rain making and hail prevention through cloud seeding. ...

  1. ARM - PI Product - Black Carbon aerosol mass concentration in...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    The measurements provided in this data set were obtained from snow and rain water ... Data Consistency and Completeness Data set is considered complete for the ...

  2. Month-Long 2D Cloud-Resolving Model Simulation and Resultant...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    parameterization of the warm rain processes and a modified version of the Koenig and Murray (1976) ice parameterization (Wu et al. 1999). The subgrid-scale mixing is...

  3. EPA Webcast- Creating a Green Infrastructure Plan to Transform Your Community

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Green infrastructure approaches, such as incorporating trees and rain gardens into street designs, can help communities better manage stormwater while achieving other environmental, public health,...

  4. WIPP Update 4_10_14

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    0, 2 014 New environmental sampling data shows no detectable contamination New water and air sampling data, including rooftop runoff samples, collected during a rain shower at the...

  5. Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems (CASoS) | NISAC

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    complex physical-socio-technical systems. Examples include: tropical rain forests, agro-eco systems, cities, infrastructure, governments, political systems, education systems,...

  6. NNMCAB Member Update

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the September 24, 2014 Board meeting Patti Jones LANL, Provided the Members with a Status Update to the TA-21 Demolition and Storm Water Season Rain Events.

  7. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... N. ; Kalesse, Heike ; Chandra, Arunchandra ; Kumar, Vickal ; Protat, Alain The motivation for this research is to develop a precipitation classification and rain rate ...

  8. ARM TR-008

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 1 January 2005, ARM TR-048 Campbell Scientific Logan, Utah Phone: (435) ... Summed precipitation Texas Instruments TE525 tipping bucket rain gage Data Logger Campbell ...

  9. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    educationdownloadsfun-sun-teachers-activity-guide-elementary-grades-k-2-1 Download Rain Machine (Solar Still) Working in groups, students build simple solar stills filled...

  10. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    energy.goveereeducationdownloadsphotovoltaics-and-solar-energy-2-activities Download Rain Machine (Solar Still) Working in groups, students build simple solar stills filled...

  11. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    experiment as a class. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadswhats-cooking Download Rain Machine (Solar Still) Working in groups, students build simple solar stills filled...

  12. ORGANIZATIONAL CHART - CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE VII-11 DIRECTOR Yennello

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Schmidt Sherman Vickers Yendrey Machine Shop Supervisor Whiteley A. Clark Hanhart Raines Sr. Mechanical Engineer Olsen Designer II Molitor Anderson Barton Gallegos Richardson...

  13. Fermilab Today | Result of the Week | Archive - 2009

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    09 Subscribe | Contact Fermilab Today | Archive | Classifieds Search GO CMS Result Archive - 2009 Dec. 11, 2009 Simply smashing Nov. 18, 2009 A gentle cosmic rain Nov. 13, 2009...

  14. Mechanisms Contributing to Suppressed Precipitation in Mt. Hua...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Consistent with the increase of air pollution in these regions, it has been argued that the precipitation trend is linked to aerosol microphysical effect on suppressing warm rain. ...

  15. ARMSMrv2.ppt

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    satellite data and objectively using the AMSR-E rain rate and the IR brightness temperature from the MODIS. Anvil cloud structures associated with MCSs are then studied...

  16. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 11 - 20 of 15 results. Download Rain Machine (Solar Still) Working in groups, students build simple solar stills filled with salt...

  17. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 11 - 20 of 13 results. Download Rain Machine (Solar Still) Working in groups, students build simple solar stills filled with salt...

  18. Field Office, Osk Ridge

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Rita Aldrich Principle Radiophysicist Oivisfon of Safety and Health New York State Department of Labor 1 Rain Street Brooklyn, New York 11201 Dear Iis. Aldrich: BAKER AND WILLIAM ...

  19. DOE-HDBK-1130-2008 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    December 11, 2008 Radiological Worker (RW) Training Reaffirmed 2013 This program management guide provides guidance for proper implementation of additional standardized raining as ...

  20. P:\\JODI\\PGS77-91.WPD

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    differencing with short step for sound-wave terms microphysics with cloud, rain, snow... data for input to the model. A second communication). simulation will assimilate these ...

  1. ARM - Facility News Article

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    To ensure that ARM precipitation measurements are as accurate as possible, the SGP rain gauges (white cylinder above left) are inspected every two weeks, are statically...

  2. Research Highlight

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Fog and Rain in the Amazon Download a printable PDF Submitter: Gentine, P., Columbia University Sobel, A., Columbia University Area of Research: Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation...

  3. Research Highlight

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    of a stratiform precipitating event and the corresponding estimates of mean rain rate (c) and cloud IWP and LWP (d). A comprehensive characterization of all...

  4. TC_CLOUD_REGIME.cdr

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    intensity (e.g. May and Ballinger, 2007) Resulting Cloud Properties Examine rain DSD using polarimetric radar Examine ice cloud properties using MMCR and MPL Expect...

  5. Research Highlight

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Fog and Rain in the Amazon For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govsciencehighlights Research Highlight The diurnal and seasonal...

  6. Streamflow

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Help BPA Home > Power > Modified Streamflows Rain drop OUR VISION "BPA is a trusted steward of the Columbia River Power System. We provide maximum power and environmental value...

  7. ARM - Facility News Article

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    began collecting data at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the ARM Darwin site in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), adding details about rain drop size...

  8. Passive Leak Detection Using Commercial Hydrogen Colorimetric...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office, Safety Codes ... including rain, snow, and sun, along with the daily and long-term ...

  9. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Consistent with the increase of air pollution in these regions, it has been argued that the precipitation trend is linked to aerosol microphysical effect on suppressing warm rain. ...

  10. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    and sunlight provide the ingredients for a multitude of chemical reactions that can generate effects ranging from clouds and smog to acid rain and climate change. In 1949,...

  11. Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile Â… Unvented...

    Energy Saver

    ... * Disaster Resistance - Roofs over unvented attics are ... rain and better protects metal connectors in the roof ... roof deck (to keep its temperature above 45F throughout ...

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pollutants and Health

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    The high diversity, mobility, and reactivity of NOx enable this pollutant to contribute to numerous environmental problems such as acid rain, climate change, deteriorated water ...

  13. Evolution in Cloud Population Statistics of the MJO: From AMIE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to Global-Cloud Permitting Models Final Report Version 1 Methods of convectivestratiform precipitation classification and surface rain rate estimation based on the ...

  14. Evolution in Cloud Population Statistics of the MJO. From AMIE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to Global-Cloud Permitting Models final report Version 1 Methods of convectivestratiform precipitation classification and surface rain rate estimation based on the ...

  15. Moisture Barrier - Energy Innovation Portal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    For example, a photovoltaic cell must able to withstand long durations of rain, snow, fog, dew, environmental contaminants or other substances. The encapsulated material may be, ...

  16. Manvendra Dubey selected as Fulbright-Nehru Fellow

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Dubey will give lectures on the role of atmospheric science in developing technologies to solve environmental problems, such as acid rain, air pollution, stratospheric ozone ...

  17. Estimates of rainfall over the United Kingdom and surrounding seas from the SSM/I using the polarization corrected temperature algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, M.C.; Bailey, J.O.

    1995-06-01

    The 85-GHz polarization corrected temperature PCT{sub 85} algorithm, using the V85 and H85 channels of the SSM/I sensor, is evaluated for estimation of midlatitude rainfall. The algorithm {theta} parameter and rain/no-rain thresholds are examined and found to be highly variable. Methods for automatic calibration, to account for variable atmospheric and surface conditions, are presented. Derivation of {theta} and thresholds for each individual scene provides a marked improvement in rainfall identification accuracy over the equivalent monthly values. The algorithm is calibrated by comparison with radar data for the estimation of instantaneous rain rates. Detailed evaluation of a number of case studies suggest the relationship of PCT{sub 85} and rain rate is substantially different for frontal and mesoscale convective system rainfall. For most frontal conditions the PCT{sub 85} provides useful estimates of rain rates with sensitivity to rain intensities as low as 0.1 mm h{sup -1}. Overall, the PCT{sub 85} estimates of instantaneous rain rate at the footprint scale are to within {+-}75% of the radar quantity only 50% of the time. Systematic errors result from both the calibration process and from the inability of microwave scattering methods to identify warm rain processes, including orographically enhanced rainfall over land. The results show the need for improved empirical calibration of passive microwave algorithms to provide sensitivity to subsynoptic-scale surface and atmospheric conditions and rainfall processes. 25 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on Electric Utilities: An Update, The

    Reports and Publications

    1997-01-01

    Describes the strategies used to comply with the Acid Rain Program in 1995, the effect of compliance on SO2 emissions levels, the cost of compliance, and the effects of the program on coal supply and demand. It updates and expands the EIA report, Electric Utility Phase I Acid Rain Compliance Strategies for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

  19. The potential use of summer rainfall enhancement in Illinois. Part I: A field experiment to define responses of crop yields to increased rainfall

    SciTech Connect

    Changnon, S.A.; Hollinger, S.E. )

    1993-03-01

    An assessment was made of factors affecting the use of cloud seeding to increase summer (June-August) rainfall for improved corn and soybean yields in Illinois. Crop yields from a five-year agricultural field experiment involving nine levels of rain increases were compared with yields produced under natural rainfall. The sampled years (1987-91) included a wide range of summer weather conditions, including extremely hot and dry (1988) and very wet and cool (1990). Since the types of growing seasons sampled represented only 30% of all types, caution must be used in interpreting the results and applying them to other years. Additional water of 10%, 25%, or 40% of each days actual rainfall was applied after each rain. Additional water was also applied only to certain rains, depending on whether they were light, moderate, or heavy. The best treatment, based on performance in all years and considering both treated and untreated crops, was a 25% rain increase applied on days with moderate rain (2.5 mm-2.53 cm). However, it was only marginally better than the natural rainfall. The best treatment for soybeans alone, based on the average yields for 1987-90, was the natural, unmodified rainfall, whereas that for corn was 10%-40% increases only on heavy-rain days. In general, rain increases of 10% had little yield effect, and 40% increases applied in all years were found damaging in wetter years. However, in extremely dry summers, the 40% rain increases were the best for both crops. The best treatment in any given summer varied by the type and timing of rain conditions and crop. Selection of the best treatment to use in any summer would require the capability to predict the amount and timing of summer rainfall by 1 June. 23 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    18, 2014 [Feature Stories and Releases] A New Species in the Amazon Rain Forest: Scientists Bookmark and Share Covering 5.5 million square kilometers, the sheer size of the Amazon rain forest has a strong impact on climate in the Southern Hemisphere and is a primary driver of global atmospheric circulation. Covering 5.5 million square kilometers, the sheer size of the Amazon rain forest has a strong impact on climate in the Southern Hemisphere and is a primary driver of global atmospheric

  1. PM Update - Steve Meador, Acting Dir for Proj Assessment-SC,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Update - Steve Meador, Acting Dir for Proj Assessment-SC, Jack Surash, Dep Asst Secretary for APM-EM, Bob Raines, Assoc. Administrator for APM-NNSA PM Update - Steve Meador, Acting...

  2. A New Approach for Representing Ice Particles in Weather

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    mass mixing ratio, qi, c) cloud water mass mixing ratio, qc, d) rain mass mixing ratio, qr, e) rime mass fraction, Fr, f) mass-weighted mean ice particle density, p, g)...

  3. ARM - AMF2 Baseline Instruments

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 MAOS Data Operations AMF Fact Sheet Images ... 2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, ... rain gauges and present weather detectors are available to ...

  4. ARM - Evaluation Product - Vertical Air Motion during Large-Scale...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsVertical Air Motion during Large-Scale Stratiform Rain ARM Data Discovery Browse ... Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Vertical Air ...

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Plots and Figures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    science or data quality condition is associated with some other parameter (e.g., high wind or rain).taken from http:www.arm.govdatadataplots.stm Several interfaces and ...

  6. Major Recovery Act Project Completed at Hanford: Two New Super...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Although ERDF does not accept liquid waste, water is introduced to the facility through rain, snow and water used for dust suppression. The construction of super cell 10 included ...

  7. Collins.ppt

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Black line: border of original land mask Dust Impact on NAM precipitation 2 1 3 4 Summer precipitation change in the NAM region Dust Impact on Rain (mmday) Dust Impact on NAM ...

  8. Newsletter Southern Great Plains

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    of rain. As the bucket tips to empty, it activates a magnetic reed switch and sends a signal to a data acquisition system that records the time of each tip. Figure 1. A...

  9. Title

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Extract- .f?" 6 Strontium 90 Alpha , ,,. (Net) (PC1 > 1 0 i | j"l O ' * Oil * i * ... indicate that the discharge varies widely and is greatest shortly after heavy rains. ...

  10. FROM I J. T.Consiglio, Chief, Middlesex Operations SUBJECT:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    spread over the top of this material to prevent it from blowing away in a strong wind. . ... canvas roof to keep the rain, with them. wind, and snow from physically coming in ...

  11. MONTICELLO NPL SITES

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... WWD SPEED (mph) HEAT COOL AVG MEAN DEG DEG WIND DOM DAY 'rEMP HIGH TIME LOW TIME DAYS DAYS ... 18' 00 11 w TEMPERATURE ( *n. RAIN (in), WIND SPEED (mph) HEAT COOL VG MEAN DEG DEc; ...

  12. Karst characterization in a semi-arid region using gravity, seismic, and resistivity geophysical techniques.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhart, Kevin Scott

    2013-10-01

    We proposed to customize emerging in situ geophysical monitoring technology to generate time-series data during sporadic rain events in a semi-arid region. Electrodes were to be connected to wireless \

  13. EERE Success Story-Dow Partners with ORNL to Commercialize Advanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... to 10 to 90% relative humidity and other outdoor conditions such as rain, solar radiation, and pressures from wind and wind gusts that range from -30 to 30 pounds per square foot. ...

  14. ARM XDC Datastreams

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... GR HAIL RA RAIN DZ DRIZZLE SN SNOW SG SNOW GRAINS GS SMALL HAIL &OR SNOW PELLETS PE ICE PELLETS IC CRYSTALS FG+ HEAVY FOG (FG & LE.25 MILES) FG FOG BR MIST UP UNKNOWN ...

  15. Property:SoftwarePage | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    scs900-site-controller-software + MHK ISDBSensors0.01" Rain Gauge (2m cable) Smart Sensor + http:www.onsetcomp.comproductssoftwarehoboware + MHK ISDBSensors0.2 mm...

  16. 1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Words ACROSS 2 When it's outside, it's important to wear a coat and hat 3 Light reflects off of raindrops and puddles, and makes a colorful after it rains 4 When the ...

  17. Microsoft Word - li_z.doc

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    of Cloud Liquid Water Path and Its Potential for Rain Detection Z. Li, R. Chen, and F-L Chang Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland College Park,...

  18. ARM - El Niño Phenomenon

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... During a normal year, the surface waters of the central and eastern Pacific stay cool and rain is concentrated near the warmer waters off the coast of Papua New Guinea in the ...

  19. Inventory of Safety-Related Codes and Standards for Energy Storage...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... rain, etc.) Mechanical strength (e.g., drop test or impact test) Grounding and ... scope of specifications (e.g., highlow voltage or overload) - Product does not need to ...

  20. Microsoft Word - ESS Compliance Guide 6-21-16.final.docx

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    ... rain, etc.) Mechanical strength (e.g.,, drop test or impact test) Grounding and bonding ... scope of specifications (e.g.,, highlow voltage or overload) - Product does not need to ...

  1. Microsoft Word - 7.26_PBacklund - Master _FINAL_.doc

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ball screw system lists operating conditions between 0-40 C and 5%-95% relative humidity. These conditions would be exceeded on a hot day or if it rains. Using hydraulic rams...

  2. Hydropower in the Northwest

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydropower produces no emissions. There are no gases or waste products that contribute to air pollution, acid rain or global warming. Hydropower is secure. Water from our rivers is...

  3. DOE Tour of Zero: The System Home by Evolutionary Home Builders...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    water runoff on the narrow site. Other techniques include underground retention wells, rain barrels, and a water-saving landscaping design. 3 of 15 Even without a solar electric...

  4. MHK ISDB/Sensors/0.2 mm Rainfall (2m cable) Smart Sensor | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    (1) 0.01" Rain Gauge (2m cable) Smart Sensor ... further results Also made by Onset Computer Corporation HOBO RX3000 Remote Monitoring SystemHOBO RX3000 Remote Monitoring...

  5. Antifreeze, and Deicing Fluids J. M. Strong-Gunderson, S. Wheelis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    glycol degradation was a gram-negative rod (EG-y) that produced a water-soluble pigment. ... was a spent solution with a concentration of ca. 7% propylene glycol (PPG) in rain water. ...

  6. Smart Meters Help Balance Energy Consumption at Solar Decathlon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Clouds, rain, thunderstorms… at Solar Decathlon Village? Oh my, you may say. But less-than-ideal weather conditions are no match for this year's teams, thanks to smart grid technology that is helping them monitor their energy consumption.

  7. O N A G B M C H D L E I F J

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    on earth. The liquid phase includes water in rain, sea water, lakes, streams, clouds, the ground and in living things. Solid water comes in the form of snow, ice and glaciers where...

  8. DOE Tour of Zero: Laurel Gardens #794 by Habitat for Humanity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Deep overhangs, gutters, and site grading help to carry water away from the slab-on-grade foundation. A rain barrel collects some rainwater for irrigation. 4 of 10 ENERGY ...

  9. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook

    calls for a chance of scattered showers, does that mean it will be raining at the park when youre planning to have a picnic? While it may be interesting to know what the...

  10. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    balloons to improve understanding of how surface conditions may impact clouds and rain Weather balloons, also called sondes, will be launched hourly from 6:30 am to 6:30 pm...

  11. Slide 1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    for attenuation effects a) observed (i.e., attenuated) X-band radar reflectivity in rain b) for the same scene attenuation - corrected reflectivity max range is 40 km in this...

  12. Fermilab | Tritium at Fermilab | Indian Creek Aerial View

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    lab at its southwest corner. The flow of water in the creek varies with the amount of rain that falls during the year. At present, Indian Creek has very low levels of water. Even...

  13. DOE Zero Ready Home Case Study: Sterling Brook Custom Homes,...

    Energy Saver

    ... the walls, allowing more room for the open-cell spray foam that fills the wall cavities ... It gets full sun and rain and it's holding up very well," said Atkins. On the outside of ...

  14. High Octane Fuel: Terminal Backgrounder

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    ... Ethanol is always stored in a closed, floating-roof tank due to its affinity for water. ... A sump pump must be used for rain water collection in the containment area, which could be ...

  15. A Prehistoric Lahar-Dammed Lake And Eruption Of Mount Pinatubo...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    flows; a post-eruption aftermath of rain-triggered lahars in surrounding drainages and dome-building that fills the caldera; and then another long quiescent period. During and...

  16. Research Highlight

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    "Automated rain rate estimates using the Ka-band ARM Zenith Radar (KAZR)." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 8(1-15), doi:10.5194amt-8-1-2015. ACCEPTED. Time series of 1-min...

  17. The potential use of summer rainfall enhancement in Illinois. Part II: Integration of factors affecting enhancement projects and future research

    SciTech Connect

    Changnon, S.A. )

    1993-03-01

    Rain-yield findings were integrated with the average incidence of rain days and areal distribution of rain in a potential rain-modification area in Illinois to simulate regional aspects of a cloud-seeding project over a 13,000-km[sup 2] area. Potential seeding opportunities are limited because clouds cannot be effectively seeded at night, and 46% of all rain events occur at night. Further, 32% of all remaining rain events occur with severe weather warnings when Illinois law does not allow seeding. The number of candidate rain periods for modification is reduced from a regional average of 31 days to 11 days. Yield increases from the best treatment, based on all years' performance are further reduced regionally because on 53% of the moderate rain events, 50% of the simulated project area receives less than the minimum moderate rain level. These factors combine to reduce yield gains from 20% to 43% of the yield responses found in the 1987-91 field trials. The effects of the resulting crop-yield changes over the simulated project area ranged from an average annual increase of $3.4 million to an average decrease of $2.6 million per year. The estimated annual cost of a quality cloud-seeding project over the area is $1 million. Regional benefits could be larger if summer rainfall forecasts were sufficently accurate to allow selection in those summers when natural rainfall met crop water needs. The 1987-91 field trials sampled only 30% of the growing conditions that occur in Illinois. The rain-modification results are only estimates of the possible outcomes from an added rainfall. They reveal clear needs for research relating to weather modification in the humid climate of the corn belt. More field trials are needed to define crop yield-rain relations in other types of growing seasons. Methods for seeding clouds at night must be developed if agriculturally useful increases are to occur. Increased attention should be given to seasonal forecasting research. 12 refs.

  18. ARM - Facility News Article

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    3, 2016 [Facility News] Nature Geoscience Article: Raindrops Disperse Climate-Critical Organic Particles Bookmark and Share ARM site plays a role in a novel finding on rain events and airborne carbonaceous particles Embedded in a 160-acre spread of remote farmland, the Southern Great Plains site played host to a scientific discovery that could alter the way scientists look at rain's effect on climate. Embedded in a 160-acre spread of remote farmland, the Southern Great Plains site played host to

  19. Research Highlight

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    TOA Radiation Budget of Convective Core/Stratiform Rain/Anvil Clouds from Deep Convection Download a printable PDF Submitter: Feng, Z., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Dong, X., University of Arizona Area of Research: Cloud Distributions/Characterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: Feng Z, XQ Dong, BK Xi, C Schumacher, P Minnis, and M Khaiyer. 2011. "Top-of-atmosphere radiation budget of convective core/stratiform rain and anvil clouds from deep convective

  20. Research Highlight

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Critical Role of Cloud Drop Effective Radius >14 Micron Radius in Rain Initiation Download a printable PDF Submitter: Rosenfeld, D., The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Wang, H., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Area of Research: Radiation Processes Working Group(s): Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Interactions Journal Reference: Rosenfeld D, H Wang, and PJ Rasch. 2012. "The roles of cloud drop effective radius and LWP in determining rain properties in marine stratocumulus." Journal

  1. Research Highlight

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    New DSD Parameterization and SR QPE from Aircraft and Surface Distrometer PI Contact: Dong, X., University of Arizona Area of Research: Cloud Processes Working Group(s): Cloud Properties Journal Reference: Wang J, X Dong, B Xi, and H Andrew. 2016. "Investigation of liquid cloud microphysical properties of deep convective systems: 1. Parameterization of rain drop size distribution and its application for stratiform rain estimate." Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 121,

  2. What would you do if your water faucets ran dry?

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    What would you do if your water faucets ran dry? Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue:November 2, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit What would you do if your water faucets ran dry? New Mexico's recurring drought pattern is an environmental and economic challenge June 1, 2014 Arid northern New Mexico landscape waiting for rain. Arid northern New Mexico landscape waiting for rain. Contact Community Programs Office Director

  3. Precipitation and Air Pollution at Mountain and Plain Stations in Northern China: Insights Gained from Observations and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jianping; Deng, Minjun; Fan, Jiwen; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Qian; Zhai, Panmao; Dai, Zhijian; Li, Xiaowen

    2014-04-27

    We analyzed 40 year data sets of daily average visibility (a proxy for surface aerosol concentration) and hourly precipitation at seven weather stations, including three stations located on the Taihang Mountains, during the summertime in northern China. There was no significant trend in summertime total precipitation at almost all stations. However, light rain decreased, whereas heavy rain increased as visibility decreased over the period studied. The decrease in light rain was seen in both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds. The consistent trends in observed changes in visibility, precipitation, and orographic factor appear to be a testimony to the effects of aerosols. The potential impact of large-scale environmental factors, such as precipitable water, convective available potential energy, and vertical wind shear, on precipitation was investigated. No direct links were found. To validate our observational hypothesis about aerosol effects, Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations with spectral-bin microphysics at the cloud-resolving scale were conducted. Model results confirmed the role of aerosol indirect effects in reducing the light rain amount and frequency in the mountainous area for both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds and in eliciting a different response in the neighboring plains. The opposite response of light rain to the increase in pollution when there is no terrain included in the model suggests that orography is likely a significant factor contributing to the opposite trends in light rain seen in mountainous and plain areas.

  4. Evaluation of convection-permitting model simulations of cloud populations associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation using data collected during the AMIE/DYNAMO field campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Hagos, Samson M.; Feng, Zhe; Burleyson, Casey D.; Lim, Kyo-Sun; Long, Charles N.; Wu, Di; Thompson, Gregory

    2014-11-12

    Regional cloud permitting model simulations of cloud populations observed during the 2011 ARM Madden Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment/ Dynamics of Madden-Julian Experiment (AMIE/DYNAMO) field campaign are evaluated against radar and ship-based measurements. Sensitivity of model simulated surface rain rate statistics to parameters and parameterization of hydrometeor sizes in five commonly used WRF microphysics schemes are examined. It is shown that at 2 km grid spacing, the model generally overestimates rain rate from large and deep convective cores. Sensitivity runs involving variation of parameters that affect rain drop or ice particle size distribution (more aggressive break-up process etc) generally reduce the bias in rain-rate and boundary layer temperature statistics as the smaller particles become more vulnerable to evaporation. Furthermore significant improvement in the convective rain-rate statistics is observed when the horizontal grid-spacing is reduced to 1 km and 0.5 km, while it is worsened when run at 4 km grid spacing as increased turbulence enhances evaporation. The results suggest modulation of evaporation processes, through parameterization of turbulent mixing and break-up of hydrometeors may provide a potential avenue for correcting cloud statistics and associated boundary layer temperature biases in regional and global cloud permitting model simulations.

  5. A New Two-Moment Bulk Stratiform Cloud Microphysics Scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model, Version 3 (CAM3). Part II: Single-Column and Global Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gettelman, A.; Morrison, H.; Ghan, Steven J.

    2008-08-11

    The global performance of a new 2-moment cloud microphysics scheme for a General Circulation Model (GCM) is presented and evaluated relative to observations. The scheme produces reasonable representations of cloud particle size and number concentration when compared to observations, and represents expected and observed spatial variations in cloud microphysical quantities. The scheme has smaller particles and higher number concentrations over land than the standard bulk microphysics in the GCM, and is able to balance the radiation budget of the planet with 60% the liquid water of the standard scheme, in better agreement with observations. The new scheme treats both the mixing ratio and number concentration of rain and snow, and is therefore able to differentiate the two key regimes, consisting of drizzle in shallow warm clouds and larger rain drops in deeper cloud systems. The modeled rain and snow size distributions are consistent with observations.

  6. Satellite remote sensing of global rainfall using passive microwave radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ferriday, J.G.

    1994-12-31

    Global rainfall over land and ocean is estimated using measurements of upwelling microwaves by a satellite passive microwave radiometer. Radiative transfer calculations through a cloud model are used to parameterize an inversion technique for retrieving rain rates from brightness temperatures measured by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I). The rainfall retrieval technique is based on the interaction between multi-spectral microwave radiances and millimeter sized liquid and frozen hydrometeors distributed in the satellite`s field of view. The rain rate algorithm is sensitive to both hydrometeor emission and scattering while being relatively insensitive to extraneous atmospheric and surface effects. Separate formulations are used over ocean and land to account for different background microwave characteristics and the algorithm corrects for inhomogeneous distributions of rain rates within the satellite`s field of view. Estimates of instantaneous and climate scale rainfall are validated through comparisons with modeled clouds, surface radars, rain gauges and alternative satellite estimates. The accuracy of the rainfall estimates is determined from a combination of validation comparisons, theoretical sampling error calculations, and modeled sensitivity to variations in atmospheric and surface radiative properties. An error budget is constructed for both instantaneous rain rates and climate scale global estimates. At a one degree resolution, the root mean square errors in instantaneous rain rate estimates are 13% over ocean and 20% over land. The root mean square errors in global rainfall totals over a four month period are found to be 46% over ocean and 63% over land. Global rainfall totals are computed on a monthly scale for a three year period from 1987 to 1990. The time series is analyzed for climate scale rainfall distribution and variability.

  7. Microsoft PowerPoint - courtney-twpice.ppt

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Characteristics as seen by Anvil Characteristics as seen by C C - - POL during TWP POL during TWP - - ICE ICE Kaycee Frederick and Courtney Schumacher Kaycee Frederick and Courtney Schumacher Texas A&M University Texas A&M University MCS water budget MCS water budget (Modified from Houze et al. 1980) (Modified from Houze et al. 1980) C C - - POL vertical x POL vertical x - - sect sect Ice Anvil Mixed Anvil Stratiform Rain Convective Rain C C - - POL domain POL domain Experiment averages

  8. Coexistence: Exploration and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, P.S.; Winston, J.G.; Watt, G.L.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major challenges in our industry today is successfully meeting two needs of the planet that often appear to be conflicting: Meeting the economic needs of the people through sustainable development of natural resources while preserving the integrity and diversity of our environment. Nowhere is this more critical than in the world`s wetlands and rain forests. This presentation demonstrates the principles and practices that have fostered coexistence of environmental protection and sustainable development projects in wetlands and tropical forests in the Americas. Excerpts from two projects are shown. one in a national wildlife refuge in Louisiana, and one in the rain forests of Bolivia.

  9. Elizabeth Case | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Case About Us Elizabeth Case - Guest Blogger, Cycle for Science Most Recent Rain or Shine: We Cycle for Science July 2 Mountains, and Teachers, and a Bear, Oh My! June 2 Sol-Cycle: Biking Across America for Science Education May 1

  10. Synergies and conflicts in multimedia pollution control related to utility compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; Loeb, A.P.; Formento, J.W.; South, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    Most analyses of utility strategies for meeting Title IV requirements in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 have focused on factors relating directly to utilities` sulfur dioxide control costs; however, there are a number of additional environmental requirements that utilities must meet at the same time they comply with the acid rain program. To illuminate the potential synergies and conflicts that these other regulatory mandates may have in connection with the acid rain program, it is necessary to conduct a thorough, simultaneous examination of the various programs. This report (1) reviews the environmental mandates that utilities must plant to meet in the next decade concurrently with those of the acid rain program, (2) evaluates the technologies that utilities may select to meet these requirements, (3) reviews the impacts of public utility regulation on the acid rain program, and (4) analyzes the interactions among the various programs for potential synergies and conflicts. Generally, this report finds that the lack of coordination among current and future regulatory programs may result in higher compliance costs than necessary. Failure to take advantage of cost-effective synergies and incremental compliance planning will increase control costs and reduce environmental benefits.

  11. Microsoft PowerPoint - arm_stm08-poster_matrosov.ppt

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    estimations of cloud and rainfall parameters using ARM and auxiliary instruments Sergey Y. Matrosov, Matthew D. Shupe Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado and NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory Purpose: Extending ARM column hydrometeor retrievals to include simultaneous estimations of cloud and rainfall parameters in stratiform precipitating systems Approach: Differential attenuation (MMCR and WACR) radar measurements in the rain layer are

  12. The NO{sub x} Budget trading program: a collaborative, innovative approach to solving a regional air pollution problem

    SciTech Connect

    Napolitano, Sam; Stevens, Gabrielle; Schreifels, Jeremy; Culligan, Kevin

    2007-11-15

    The NO{sub x} Budget Trading Program showed that regional cap-and-trade programs are adaptable to more than one pollutant, time period, and geographic scale, and can achieve compliance results similar to the Acid Rain Program. Here are 11 specific lessons that have emerged from the experience. (author)

  13. TITLE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... No. S0038700 Page 3-14 U.S. Department of Energy Rev.O Rt>v n* MRAIN (in), WIND SPEED (mph) HEAT COOL AVG MEAN DEG DEG ...

  14. Rachel Woods-Robinson | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Rachel Woods-Robinson About Us Rachel Woods-Robinson - Guest Blogger, Cycle for Science Most Recent Rain or Shine: We Cycle for Science July 2 Mountains, and Teachers, and a Bear, Oh My! June 2 Sol-Cycle: Biking Across America for Science Education May

  15. CASSINI VIMS OBSERVATIONS SHOW ETHANE IS PRESENT IN TITAN'S RAINFALL

    SciTech Connect

    Dalba, Paul A.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Baines, Kevin H.; Sotin, Christophe; Lawrence, Kenneth J.; Brown, Robert H.; Barnes, Jason W.; Clark, Roger N.; Nicholson, Philip D.

    2012-12-20

    Observations obtained over two years by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem suggest that rain showers fall on the surface. Using measurements obtained by the Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer, we identify the main component of the rain to be ethane, with methane as an additional component. We observe five or six probable rainfall events, at least one of which follows a brief equatorial cloud appearance, suggesting that frequent rainstorms occur on Titan. The rainfall evaporates, sublimates, or infiltrates on timescales of months, and in some cases it is associated with fluvial features but not with their creation or alteration. Thus, Titan exhibits frequent 'gentle rainfall' instead of, or in addition to, more catastrophic events that cut rivers and lay down large fluvial deposits. Freezing rain may also be present, and the standing liquid may exist as puddles interspersed with patches of frost. The extensive dune deposits found in the equatorial regions of Titan imply multi-season arid conditions there, which are consistent with small, but possibly frequent, amounts of rain, in analogy to terrestrial deserts.

  16. Paddy field, groundwater and land subsidence

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    Through many years of research and technical interchange both at home and abroad, it is commonly recognized that paddy fields possess the functions of micro-climate adjustment, flood detection and prevention, soil and water conservation, river-flow stabilization, soil salinization prevention, water purification, groundwater recharge, rural area beautification and environmental protection which are all beneficial to the public. In recent years, the global environmental problems have become a series concern throughout the world. These include the broken ozone layer, green house effects, acid rain, land desertion, tropical rain forest disappearing etc. Among them, rain forest disappearing draws great attention. Both rain forests and paddy fields are in tropical areas. They have similar functions and are disappearing because of economic pressure. This paper describes the special functions of paddy fields on water purification, ground water recharge and prevention of land subsidence, and reiterates groundwater utilization and land subsidence prevention measures. In view of the importance of groundwater resources, paddy fields, which can not be replaced by any other artificial groundwater recharge facilities, should not be reduced in acreage, nor can they be left idle. Paddy fields shall be properly maintained and managed in order to strengthen their special functions in the years to come even under heavy pressure from foreign countries.

  17. ORGANIZATIONAL CHART - CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Hodges Munsey Speikes Administration/ Accounting Jeske Computer Systems Hagel Burch Senior Accelerator Physicist May Accelerator Physicists Kim H. Clark G. Tabacaru Operations Chief Abegglen Building Maint. Gallegos Kingsbury Mynar Piolet Electrical Shop Black Cowden Eisenmann Gathings LaPoint Malave Morgan O'Berski Peeler Russell Sherman Yendrey Zajicek Machine Shop Supervisor Norris Bielamowicz A. Clark Raines Whiteley

  18. ORGANIZATIONAL CHART - CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Munsey Speikes Student Worker Administration/ Accounting Jeske Computer Systems Hagel Burch Senior Accelerator Physicist May Accelerator Physicists Kim H. Clark G. Tabacaru Operations Chief Abegglen Building Maint. Gallegos Kingsbury Mynar Piolet Electrical Shop Black Cowden Eisenmann Ford Gathings LaPoint Morgan O'Berski Peeler Russell Sherman Yendrey Zajicek Machine Shop Supervisor Norris Bielamowicz A. Clark Raines Whiteley Udovicic

  19. Microsoft PowerPoint - schumacher-frederick.ppt [Compatibility...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ( 10 2.5 km H 0 Latent Latent Heating Total latent heating profiles for 10 mm d -1 of rain g C-POL domain and TWP-ICE rainfall mm d -1 * Area average rainfall for 19 Jan - 11 Feb...

  20. Daytime turbulent exchange between the Amazon forest and the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzjarrald, D.R.; Moore, K.E. ); Cabral, M.R. ); Scolar, J. ); Manzi, A.O.; de Abreau Sa, L.D. )

    1990-09-20

    Detailed observations of turbulence just above and below the crown of the Amazon rain forest during the wet season are presented. The forest canopy is shown to remove high-frequency turbulent fluctuations while passing lower frequencies. Filter characteristics of turbulent transfer into the Amazon rain forest canopy are quantified. In spite of the ubiquitous presence of clouds and frequent rain during this season, the average horizontal wind speed spectrum and the relationship between the horizontal wind speed and its standard deviation are well described by dry convective boundary layer similarity hypotheses originally found to apply in flat terrain. Diurnal changes in the sign of the vertical velocity skewness observed above and inside the canopy are shown to be plausibly explained by considering the skewness budget. Simple empirical formulas that relate observed turbulent heat fluxes to horizontal wind speed and variance are presented. Changes in the amount of turbulent coupling between the forest and the boundary layer associated with deep convective clouds are presented in three case studies. Even small raining clouds are capable of evacuating the canopy of substances normally trapped by persistent static stability near the forest floor. Recovery from these events can take more than an hour, even during midday.

  1. 1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    T A P O O R O I N R D O R Y A D W E E W A L T M O C R M R N S N O W M A N A C S A N I U M C C S I W R Cloud Hail Icy Mittens Puddles Rain Rainbow Sleet Snow Snowman Storm Umbrella...

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Manacapuru, Brazil for the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON) Field Campaign

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Amazon rain forest in Brazil is the largest broadleaf forest in the world, covering 7 million square kilometers of the Amazon Basin in South America. It represents over half of the planet’s remaining rain forests, and comprises the most biodiverse tract of tropical rain forest on the planet. Due to the sheer size of the Amazon rain forest, the area has a strong impact on the climate in the Southern Hemisphere. To understand the intricacies of the natural state of the Amazon rain forest, the Green Ocean Amazon, or GOAMAZON, field campaign is a two-year scientific collaboration among U.S. and Brazilian research organizations. They are conducting a variety of different experiments with dozens of measurement tools, using both ground and aerial instrumentation, including the ARM Aerial Facility's G-1 aircraft. For more information on the holistic view of the campaign, see the Department of Energy’s GOAMAZON website. As a critical component of GOAMAZON, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) will obtain measurements near Manacapuru, south of Manaus, Brazil, from January to December 2014. The city of Manaus, with a population of 3 million, uses high-sulfur oil as their primary source of electricity. The AMF site is situated to measure the atmospheric extremes of a pristine atmosphere and the nearby cities’ pollution plume, as it regularly intersects with the site. Along with other instrument systems located at the Manacapuru site, this deployment will enable scientists to study how aerosol and cloud life cycles are influenced by pollutant outflow from a tropical megacity.

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Manacapuru, Brazil for the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON) Field Campaign

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Amazon rain forest in Brazil is the largest broadleaf forest in the world, covering 7 million square kilometers of the Amazon Basin in South America. It represents over half of the planet’s remaining rain forests, and comprises the most biodiverse tract of tropical rain forest on the planet. Due to the sheer size of the Amazon rain forest, the area has a strong impact on the climate in the Southern Hemisphere. To understand the intricacies of the natural state of the Amazon rain forest, the Green Ocean Amazon, or GOAMAZON, field campaign is a two-year scientific collaboration among U.S. and Brazilian research organizations. They are conducting a variety of different experiments with dozens of measurement tools, using both ground and aerial instrumentation, including the ARM Aerial Facility's G-1 aircraft. For more information on the holistic view of the campaign, see the Department of Energy’s GOAMAZON website. As a critical component of GOAMAZON, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) will obtain measurements near Manacapuru, south of Manaus, Brazil, from January to December 2014. The city of Manaus, with a population of 3 million, uses high-sulfur oil as their primary source of electricity. The AMF site is situated to measure the atmospheric extremes of a pristine atmosphere and the nearby cities’ pollution plume, as it regularly intersects with the site. Along with other instrument systems located at the Manacapuru site, this deployment will enable scientists to study how aerosol and cloud life cycles are influenced by pollutant outflow from a tropical megacity.

  4. Babcock and Wilcox clean-coal program

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, J.B. ); Kulig, J.S. ); Rackley, J.M. )

    1989-01-01

    The issue of acid rain is being addressed on a world-wide basis. The major industrial nations are all implementing new laws that are directed at reducing the emissions of gases that are believed to contribute to acid rain. The United States has been a pioneer in this area with a major clean-air bill that became law in the early 1970s and amended in the late 1970s. In the mid-1980s, the U.S. embarked on a program to develop new clean-coal technologies, which would provide a cost-effective means of further reducing gaseous emissions from fossil-fired power facilities. The clean coal program at Babcock and Wilcox is presented.

  5. Study of phase I NOx control: Lessons learned for phase II NOx control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, B.

    1996-12-31

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) is concerned with lowering the levels of acid rain in the USA. One of the contributions to acid rain is nitric oxides referred to as NO{sub x}. Title IV seeks NO{sub x} reductions from two groupings of utility steam generators. The first group, known as Phase I, was to have their reductions made by January 1, 1996. The purpose of this paper is to look back at Phase I to see what one can learn for use in Phase II compliance planning. Phase II units are scheduled to be in compliance by January 1, 2000. As such, this paper looks to answer four questions about Phase I units.

  6. Absorption chillers: Part of the solution

    SciTech Connect

    Occhionero, A.J. ); Hughes, P.J. ); Reid, E.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Acid rain, ozone depletion, global warming, and implementation economics are considered as they relate to the advisability of expanding the application of absorption chillers. Introductory and background information are provided to put the discussion in the proper context. Then all four issues are discussed separately as they relate to absorption chillers. Acid rain and ozone depletion concerns, and implementation economics, are found to support the expanded use of absorption chillers. The global warming concern is found to be more of a gray area, but the areas of benefit correspond well with the conditions of greatest economic advantage. All things considered, absorption chillers are believed to be part of the environmental and economic solution. It is further believed that integrated resource planning (IRP) processes that consider electric and gas technologies on an equal footing would come to the same conclusion for many regions of the United States. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Weather control

    SciTech Connect

    Leepson, M.

    1980-09-05

    Weather modification, the intentional altering of atmospheric conditions to suit the purposes of humankind, has five basic forms: (1) fog dissipation; (2) rain and snow enhancement; (3) hail suppression; (4) lightning suppression; and (5) the abatement of severe storms such as hurricanes and tornadoes. The dissipation of fog and the seeding of clouds with dry ice or silver iodide to produce rain are the most successful weather modification techniques. Both are used extensively and with varying degrees of success in the United States and around the world. Cloud seeding, though, is not effective in easing the harshness of a drought, such as the one that hit the Southwest, Midwest and Great Plains this summer.

  8. Assessment of RA226 and toxic-element distribution at Tennessee Valley Authority phosphate slag stockpiles, Muscle Shoals, AL. 1910 (80 years) 1990. Report of Investigations/1990

    SciTech Connect

    May, A.; Boyle, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted studies to determine if phosphate slag stockpiles at Tennessee Valley Authority's National Fertilizer Development Center were hazardous materials. The stockpiles were not hazardous materials as determined by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) extraction procedure (EP) toxicity test. Rain water, trapped in a depression on top of the east slag stockpile, became seepage water at the base of the stockpile. Concentrations of EPA toxic elements in seepage water were much less than concentrations from an EPA EP toxicity test on the slag. Twelve elements-Na, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Cd, Al, and P--had higher concentrations in seepage water than in rain water on top of the slag stockpiles, or in creek water adjacent to stockpile bases, indicating that they were leached from slag stockpiles.

  9. Exploration and production operations in an environmentally sensitive area

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, G.W.; Steele, E.J.; Robalino, J.; Baldwin, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    The Ecuadorian portion of the Amazon Basin, known locally as the Oriente, is the major oil producing region in Ecuador. The tropical rain forests of the Oriente contain some of the Earth`s most biologically diverse and ecologically sensitive areas. In addition, the rain forest is home to several groups of indigenous peoples.When formulating an exploration plan and prior to beginning E and P activities in the Oriente, operators must understand the environmental and sociocultural issues in the region. These concerns are considered throughout the planning process, from project conception to project closure. An environmental management plan is adopted which addresses environmental and sociocultural concerns, minimizes environmental impact, prevents delays, and limits environmental liability.

  10. Environmental concerns gaining importance in industry operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports that environmental concerns have leapt to the forefront of industry's concerns in operating in Latin America. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro June 3-14 focused a strong world spotlight on the region's environmental and commercial resources. Protection of the region's rain forests, which accounts for a huge share of the world's total, is emerging as an especially contentious issue. Ecuador's Oriente region may well prove the litmus test of how or whether oil and gas companies are able to operate in Latin American rain forests. Controversy over industry operations in the Oriente have heated to the point that environmentalist and native groups have routinely picketed company offices in Quito and used mass fundraiser mailings in North America.

  11. Slide 1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    simultaneous estimations of cloud and rainfall parameters using ARM and auxiliary instruments why estimating liquid cloud parameters in presence of rain have problems ? vastly different magnitudes of backscatter: clouds ~ -20 dBZ (LWC ~ 0.1 - 0.2 g m -3 ) rainfall ~ 30 dBZ ( R ~ 3 mm h -1 ) Traditionally, remote sensing radar - based methods for estimating cloud and precipitation parameters are developed separately why estimating ice cloud parameters above rainfall presents problems for

  12. Slide 1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Overview Matthew Shupe CPWG Chair 2009 ARM Science Team Meeting March 31, 2009 Louisville, KY Outline Highlight exciting PI research results Touch on recent and upcoming IOPs Three individual talks on current research From the Tropics to the Arctic, from the Surface to Space: Characterizing clouds and cloud-related properties across the globe Retrievals of LWP, IWP and mean rain rate R m in the vertical column above the SGP radar observations Sergey Matrosov *Rainfall and LWP derived from

  13. How It Works

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    How Hydropower Works How Hydropower Works Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player Hydropower is using water to power machinery or make electricity. Water constantly moves through a vast global cycle, evaporating from lakes and oceans, forming clouds, precipitating as rain or snow, then flowing back down to the ocean. The energy of this water cycle, which is driven by the sun, can be tapped to produce electricity or for mechanical tasks like

  14. Glossary - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    renewable Active solar: As an energy source, energy from the sun collected and stored using mechanical pumps or fans to circulate heat-laden fluids or air between solar collectors and a building. Adverse water conditions: Reduced stream flow, lack of rain in the drainage basin, or low water supply behind a pondage or reservoir dam resulting in a reduced gross head that limits the production of hydroelectric power or forces restrictions to be placed on multipurpose reservoirs or other water uses.

  15. ARM - Instrument - stamp

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsstamp Documentation STAMP : Handbook ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Soil Temperature and Moisture Profiles (STAMP) Instrument Categories Surface/Subsurface Properties Output Datastreams stamp : Soil Temperature and Moisture Profiles stamppcp : Soil Temperature and Moisture Profiling system Rain Gauges Primary Measurements The following measurements are those considered

  16. ARM - Oceans

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ListOceans Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Oceans Water vapor in the air eventually condenses and falls as rain, snow, sleet, or hail. Water that falls on land collects in rivers which carry it back to the ocean. The return of water to the ocean may be slowed when water

  17. ARM - Facility News Article

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ASR Atmospheric Convection Workshop Held Bookmark and Share Atmospheric moist convection is a primary process that starts out with the formation of small shallow clouds that rise from the boundary layer. Under the right environmental conditions, they grow into deep thunderstorms that produce rain. Atmospheric moist convection is a primary process that starts out with the formation of small shallow clouds that rise from the boundary layer. Under the right environmental conditions, they grow into

  18. ARM - Datastreams - stamppcp

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamsstamppcp Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1238261 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : STAMPPCP Soil Temperature and Moisture Profiling system Rain Gauges Active Dates 2016.02.22 - 2016.11.18 Measurement Categories Atmospheric State Originating Instrument Soil Temperature and Moisture Profiles (STAMP) Measurements Only

  19. Building Science: Getting Enclosures Right in Zero Energy Ready Homes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Science ZERH Joseph Lstiburek, Ph.D., P.Eng, ASHRAE Fellow www.buildingscience.com What is a Building? Building Science Corporation Joseph Lstiburek 2 A Building is an Environmental Separator Building Science Corporation Joseph Lstiburek 3 * Control heat flow * Control airflow * Control water vapor flow * Control rain * Control ground water * Control light and solar radiation * Control noise and vibrations * Control contaminants, environmental hazards and odors * Control insects, rodents and

  20. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment In northeastern India, the fertile land around the Ganges River supports several hundred million people. This river, the largest in India, is fed by monsoon rains and runoff from the nearby Himalayan Mountains. Through an intergovernmental agreement with India, the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility deployed its portable laboratory, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF), to Nainital, India, in June 2011. During

  1. Curry_AMS_Final.cdr

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Unified Treatment for Liquid and Ice Particle Size Spectra Derived from the Stochastic Kinetic Equations V.I. Khvorostyanov and J.A. Curry Georgia Institute of Technology The kinetic equation of stochastic condensation for cloud particle size spectra has been extended to account for crystalline clouds and also to include the accretion/aggregation process. The size spectra are separated into small- and large-size fractions that correspond to cloud drops (ice) and rain (snow). Solutions for the

  2. Microsoft PowerPoint - arm_stm09-poster_matrosov.ppt

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Estimates of Cloud and Precipitation Parameters above the SGP site during spring-summ Sergey Y. Matrosov Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado and NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory Objectives To provide cloud and precipitation parameters retrieved simultaneously in a vertical column above the SGP site To evaluate relations between cloud and rain water and also between cloud ice amount and precipitation intensity Approach A combination of

  3. Global Solutions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Solutions Our Vision National User Facilities Research Areas In Focus Global Solutions ⇒ Navigate Section Our Vision National User Facilities Research Areas In Focus Global Solutions A-Z Index Berkeley Lab masthead U.S. Department of Energy logo Phone Book Jobs Search BANGLADESH INDIA CHINA DAYA BAY CHINA RUSSIA SIBERIA JAPAN SAMOA HAWAII SOUTH POLE ANTARCTICA NEW MEXICO SOUTH DAKOTA TEXAS GULF OF MEXICO NEW YORK PUERTO RICO AMAZON RAIN FOREST CANARY ISLANDS SWITZERLAND ETHIOPIA

  4. Research Highlight

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropical Rain Clouds Still a Challenge to Cloud-Resolving Models Download a printable PDF Submitter: Fridlind, A. M., NASA - Goddard Institute for Space Studies Ackerman, A., NASA - Goddard Institute for Space Studies Area of Research: Cloud Distributions/Characterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle, Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Interactions Journal Reference: Fridlind AM, AS Ackerman, J Chaboureau, J Fan, WW Grabowski, AA Hill, TR Jones, MM Khaiyer, G Liu, P Minnis, H Morrison, L Nguyen,

  5. Research Highlight

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    A Finer Mesh to Improve Cloud Representation in Climate Models? Submitter: Bhattacharya, A., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Area of Research: Cloud Processes Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: Boutle IA, SJ Abel, PG Hill, and CJ Morcrette. 2013. "Spatial variability of liquid cloud and rain: observations and microphysical effects." Quarterly Journal Royal Meteorological Society, , doi:10.1002/qj.2140. Different sizes of water droplets as well as varying water

  6. Research Highlight

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Sub-micrometre Particulate Matter Is Primarily in Liquid Form over Amazon Rain Forest PI Contact: Zaveri, R., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Area of Research: Aerosol Properties Working Group(s): Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Interactions Journal Reference: Bateman AP, Z Gong, P Liu, B Sato, G Cirino, Y Zhang, P Artaxo, AK Bertram, AO Manzi, LV Rizzo, RA Souza, RA Zaveri, and ST Martin. 2016. "Sub-micrometre particulate matter is primarily in liquid form over Amazon rainforest."

  7. Federal Energy and Water Management Awards 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Steven Bass, Rodney Cryer, Danny Davis, Samuel Hagins, Glenn Tyler U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Thomas E. Creek VA Medical Center Amarillo, Texas In 2013 the Amarillo Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System constructed a 2.28 megawatt photovoltaic (PV) covered parking project at the Thomas E. Creek VA Medical Center that provides about 30% of the center's electricity to save $245,000 annually. Keeping vehicles cooler during summer and protecting them from rain, snow, and hail, the

  8. Makah Renewable Energy Feasibility Study

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Makah Renewable Energy Feasibility Study Makah Project Manager: Bud Denney Coordinator: Ryland Bowchop Technical Contact: Bob Lynette October 2004 Background * Enrollment for the Makah Tribe is 2,389 * Reservation is 47 square miles, elevations typically between 500 and 1,000 feet. * Four major watersheds; over 100" rain/yr. * Closest town is 60 miles away. * 30 MW line to reservation; frequent loss of power. Makah Reservation Makah Reservation Participants Project Participant Contact Role

  9. May 3, 2011 Situation Report

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Beginning Wednesday April 27, 2011, severe storms with heavy rain, hail, and tornadoes impacted States in the Mid-Atlantic and Southern regions. As of 3:00 pm EDT, May 3, 2011, the impacted States report a total of 122,941 customers without power. This is a decrease from the 149,210 customers reported in this morning’s Situation Report #11. Restoration efforts by electric utilities are reported below.

  10. DOE/SC-ARM-11-024 ARM Climate Research Facility ANNUAL REPORT - 2011

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    1-024 ARM Climate Research Facility ANNUAL REPORT - 2011 Recovery Act HIGHLIGHTS October 2010 * Doppler lidars tested at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. * Final installation completed for the three X-band scanning ARM precipitation radars (X-SAPRs) at SGP. * Weighing bucket rain gauge installed at Tropical Western Pacifc (TWP) site in Darwin, Australia. November 2010 * Aerosol chemistry speciation monitor incorporated into

  11. Prediction of cloud droplet number in a general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Ghan, S.J.; Leung, L.R.

    1996-04-01

    We have applied the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) bulk cloud microphysics parameterization to the treatment of stratiform clouds in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (CCM2). The RAMS predicts mass concentrations of cloud water, cloud ice, rain and snow, and number concnetration of ice. We have introduced the droplet number conservation equation to predict droplet number and it`s dependence on aerosols.

  12. Bridge Structural Analysis Using CSM

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Bridge Structural Analysis Using Computational Structural Mechanics Background Bridge failure due to wind has been observed as far back as 1823. The latest concept for an efficient and cost-effective bridge design is the cable-stayed bridge. Bridge stay cables, however, have exhibited large-amplitude vibrations as a result of wind loadings, sometimes in combination with rain. In recent years, attempts have been made to model this problem both in the laboratory and on the computer. Several wind

  13. Coordinating Low Emission Development in Columbia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.; Butheau, M.; Sandor, D.

    2013-11-01

    Colombia's economy has grown more than 4 percent per year for a decade, but climate change is posing new risks to sustaining that development. With the nation's coastal areas, mountain ranges, rain forests, plains, and river basins vulnerable to changing weather patterns and growing seasons, Colombia is building resilience to climate change while working to curb emissions and pursue new options for low emission development.

  14. Understanding NOx SCR Mechanism and Activity on Cu/Chabazite Structures throughout the Catalyst Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, Fabio; Delgass, Nick; Gounder, Rajmani; Schneider, William F.; Miller, Jeff; Yezerets, Aleksey; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken

    2014-12-09

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) compounds contribute to acid rain and photochemical smog and have been linked to respiratory ailments. NOx emissions regulations continue to tighten, driving the need for high performance, robust control strategies. The goal of this project is to develop a deep, molecular level understanding of the function of Cu-SSZ-13 and Cu-SAPO-34 materials that catalyze the SCR of NOx with NH3.

  15. Research Highlight

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    General Formulation for Representing Cloud-to-Rain Transition in Atmospheric Models Submitter: Liu, Y., Brookhaven National Laboratory Area of Research: General Circulation and Single Column Models/Parameterizations Working Group(s): Aerosol, Cloud Modeling, Cloud Properties Journal Reference: Liu, Y., P. H. Daum, R. McGraw, M. Miller, and S. Niu, 2007: Theoretical formulation for autoconversion rate of cloud droplet concentration. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L116821, doi:10.1029/2007GL030389

  16. Water Technology Research | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Technology Research Wastewater treatment plant Wastewater treatment plant Water is an increasingly valuable natural resource. By identifying typical sources and distribution of microbial communities in waterways, researchers can develop hydrological models that incorporate the microbial data, laying out how water flows from different sources and how rain events affect bacterial diversity and count. For example, by studying how microbes flourish in specific areas, it may be possible to

  17. AmeriFlux CR-Lse La Selva

    SciTech Connect

    Loescher, Hank

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CR-Lse La Selva. Site Description - Site was occupied by Native Americans since 3000 B.P. practicing shifting cultivation. Some selective cutting along rivers (heart of palm). Charcoal dating indicate fires 2400 B.P. and 1100 B.P. Some clearing for pasture/cocoa production, second growth, humid tropical rain forest. Site resides on land presently owned by the Organization for Tropical Studies.

  18. Toward a Unified Formulation of the Kessler-Type Autoconversion Parameterizations

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    a Unified Formulation of the Kessler-Type Autoconversion Parameterizations Y. Liu and P. H. Daum Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York Introduction Rain is initiated in liquid water clouds by collision and coalescence of cloud droplets wherein larger droplets with higher settling velocities collect smaller droplets and become embryonic raindrops. Kessler (1969) proposed a simple parameterization that linearly relates the autoconversion rate to the cloud liquid water content, and this

  19. Polluting of Winter Convective Clouds upon Transition from Ocean Inland Over Central California: Contrasting Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Chemke, Rei; Prather, Kimberly; Suski, Kaitlyn; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Jonsson, Haf

    2014-01-01

    In-situ aircraft measurements of aerosol chemical and cloud microphysical properties were conducted during the CalWater campaign in February and March 2011 over the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the coastal waters of central California. The main objective was to elucidate the impacts of aerosol properties on clouds and precipitation forming processes. In order to accomplish this, we compared contrasting cases of clouds that ingested aerosols from different sources. The results showed that clouds containing pristine oceanic air had low cloud drop concentrations and started to develop rain 500 m above their base. This occurred both over the ocean and over the Sierra Nevada, mainly in the early morning when the radiatively cooled stable continental boundary layer was decoupled from the cloud base. Supercooled rain dominated the precipitation that formed in growing convective clouds in the pristine air, up to the -21°C isotherm level. A contrasting situation was documented in the afternoon over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, when the clouds ingested high pollution aerosol concentrations produced in the Central Valley. This led to slow growth of the cloud drop effective radius with height and suppressed and even prevented the initiation of warm rain while contributing to the development of ice hydrometeors in the form of graupel. Our results show that cloud condensation and ice nuclei were the limiting factors that controlled warm rain and ice processes, respectively, while the unpolluted clouds in the same air mass produced precipitation quite efficiently. These findings provide the motivation for deeper investigations into the nature of the aerosols seeding clouds.

  20. RF/optical shared aperture for high availability wideband communication RF/FSO links

    DOEpatents

    Ruggiero, Anthony J; Pao, Hsueh-yuan; Sargis, Paul

    2014-04-29

    An RF/Optical shared aperture is capable of transmitting and receiving optical signals and RF signals simultaneously. This technology enables compact wide bandwidth communications systems with 100% availability in clear air turbulence, rain and fog. The functions of an optical telescope and an RF reflector antenna are combined into a single compact package by installing an RF feed at either of the focal points of a modified Gregorian telescope.

  1. RF/optical shared aperture for high availability wideband communication RF/FSO links

    DOEpatents

    Ruggiero, Anthony J; Pao, Hsueh-yuan; Sargis, Paul

    2015-03-24

    An RF/Optical shared aperture is capable of transmitting and receiving optical signals and RF signals simultaneously. This technology enables compact wide bandwidth communications systems with 100% availability in clear air turbulence, rain and fog. The functions of an optical telescope and an RF reflector antenna are combined into a single compact package by installing an RF feed at either of the focal points of a modified Gregorian telescope.

  2. Moisture Management of High-R Walls (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Management of High-R Walls PROJECT APPLICATION Construction: Existing homes with vapor open wall assemblies Type: Residential Climate Zones: All TECHNICAL PARAMETERS Moisture Sources: Water vapor is moisture that flows from areas of high vapor pressure to low vapor pressure. It can accumulate behind vapor impermeable materials. Construction moisture is moisture that is stored in materials when exposed to the environment during construction. Rain is the primary source. This was simulated with a

  3. Evaluation of moist processes during intense precipitation in km-scale NWP models using remote sensing and in-situ data: Impact of microphysics size distribution assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Van Weverberg, K.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbe, L.

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the sensitivity of moist processes and surface precipitation during three extreme precipitation events over Belgium to the representation of rain, snow and hail size distributions in a bulk one-moment microphysics parameterisation scheme. Sensitivities included the use of empirically derived relations to calculate the slope parameter and diagnose the intercept parameter of the exponential snow and rain size distributions and sensitivities to the treatment of hail/graupel. A detailed evaluation of the experiments against various high temporal resolution and spatially distributed observational data was performed to understand how moist processes responded to the implemented size distribution modifications. Net vapor consumption by microphysical processes was found to be unaffected by snow or rain size distribution modifications, while it was reduced replacing formulations for hail by those typical for graupel, mainly due to intense sublimation of graupel. Cloud optical thickness was overestimated in all experiments and all cases, likely due to overestimated snow amounts. The overestimation slightly deteriorated by modifying the rain and snow size distributions due to increased snow depositional growth, while it was reduced by including graupel. The latter was mainly due to enhanced cloud water collection by graupel and reduced snow depositional growth. Radar reflectivity and cloud optical thickness could only be realistically represented by inclusion of graupel during a stratiform case, while hail was found indispensable to simulate the vertical reflectivity profile and the surface precipitation structure. Precipitation amount was not much altered by any of the modifications made and the general overestimation was only decreased slightly during a supercell convective case.

  4. Microsoft Word - P04-00147.doc

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ER/ARM-0401 Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE): Cloud and Rain Characteristics in the Australian Monsoon May 2004 P. T. May and C. Jakob Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre Victoria 3001, Australia J. H. Mather Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research DOE/ER/ARM-0401 iii SUMMARY The impact of oceanic convection on its environment and the

  5. NERSC Resources Help Find Roots of MJO Modeling Mismatches

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC Resources Help Find Roots of MJO Modeling Mismatches NERSC Resources Help Find Roots of MJO Modeling Mismatches April 18, 2016 MJOmodeling From Calcutta, India, to Seattle, Wash. and beyond, the MJO can bring storms and plenty of rain in wet years. PNNL researchers are using field data and NERSC supercomputers to better model how the MJO operates and understand its interaction regional weather systems around the world. Image: PNNL An Alaska-sized pulse of clouds and precipitation

  6. cctdp | netl.doe.gov

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) was launched in 1986 as a multi-billion-dollar effort to address acid rain. The primary goal of the program was to develop and demonstrate, at a commercial scale, a family of clean coal technologies in four categories: Environmental control devices Advanced power generation Fuel processing Industrial applications The CCTDP evolved as a model of government and industry cooperation and successfully met

  7. High-Yielding Method for Converting Biomass to Fermentable Sugars for

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Biofuel Production - Energy Innovation Portal High-Yielding Method for Converting Biomass to Fermentable Sugars for Biofuel Production Inventors: Ronald Raines, Joseph Binder Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Lignocellulosic biomass is a very desirable feedstock for biofuel production. If the fermentation process for lignocellulose could be optimized, conversion of this biomass could yield 25 to 50 billion gallons of

  8. Scott Samuelson receives NNSA's Gold Medal of Excellence | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration | (NNSA) Scott Samuelson receives NNSA's Gold Medal of Excellence Thursday, November 20, 2014 - 2:22pm Bob Raines, NNSA Associate Administrator for Acquisition and Project Management (APM), recently presented the Gold Medal of Excellence to Scott Samuelson, Senior Advisor for APM. The medal is the highest honorary award granted by NNSA and was presented to Samuelson in recognition to his dedication and commitment to NNSA. Samuelson will retire at the end of November

  9. Groundwater, Legacy Soil Cleanup and Flood Recovery Top Lab's

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Accomplishments | Department of Energy Groundwater, Legacy Soil Cleanup and Flood Recovery Top Lab's Accomplishments Groundwater, Legacy Soil Cleanup and Flood Recovery Top Lab's Accomplishments December 23, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis Los Alamos National Laboratory’s chromium remediation project is located in a canyon adjacent to pueblo lands. Los Alamos National Laboratory's chromium remediation project is located in a canyon adjacent to pueblo lands. A 1,000-year rain event in September

  10. Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater April 13, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A water treatment system that can turn wastewater into clean water has been shown to reduce potential environmental impacts associated with producing natural gas from shale formations in the Appalachian basin. Altela Inc.'s AltelaRain® 4000 water desalination system was tested at BLX, Inc.'s Sleppy well site in Indiana

  11. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Possibilities of Rainfall-Rate Estimates from MMCR Measurements Matrosov, S.Y., CIRES, University of Colorado and NOAA ETL The vertically-pointing ARM 8 mm cloud radars are widely used for retrievals of cloud parameters. Attempts to quantitatively retrieve precipitation parameters (excluding drizzle properties) have been scarce. These retrievals are hampered by the saturation of strong radar returns, Mie scattering effects and significant attenuation of millimeter wavelength radiation in rain.

  12. Caused? A Monsoon Example: India Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    issue: What is a Monsoon? How are Monsoons Caused? A Monsoon Example: India Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment Definitions Activity About ARM: The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is a U.S. Department of Energy scientific user facility for the study of global climate change. As part of its outreach program, ARM provides education resources for students, teachers, and communities. www.arm.gov EDUCATION NEWS Monsoons: Bring on the Rain Imagine weeks of hot, dry heat,

  13. Dry scrubber reduces SO sub 2 in calciner flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.W. ); Roderick, D. ); Nastri, A. )

    1991-02-18

    This paper discusses the installation of a dry sulfur dioxide scrubber for an existing petroleum coke calciner at its Fruita, Colo., refinery. The dry scrubbing process was developed by the power industry to help cope with the acid rain problem. It is the first application of the process in an oil refinery. The process could also remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas of a fluid catalytic cracker, fluid coker, or other refinery sources.

  14. Environmental effects research. Environmental Research Division annual report, January-December 1983. Part 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    The Terrestrial Ecology group continued its involvement in the National Crop Loss Assessment Network, and studies of O/sub 3/ effects on winter wheat and soybeans were completed. Experiments on O/sub 3/ x SO/sub 2/ interactions on soybeans were also performed. The Microcosms for Acid Rain Studies (MARS) project had its first full year of research and much information concerning acid rain impacts on soil-plant systems was collected. A study of the influence of temporal variations in rain acidity on soybean productivity was also initiated. The aquatic radiochemistry group continued measurements of the mobility of plutonium and americium at a disposal site at Los Alamos and initiated similar work at Hanford. Laboratory tracer experiments were carried out to study the adsorptive behavior of neptunium, the solubility limits of plutonium, and the influence of rare earth concentration on the sorption and redox behavior of plutonium. The soil-plant process group initiated several studies on the influence of mycorrhizae to host plants in disturbed and natural environments. Much of the past research has been concerned with understanding mycorrhizal fungi propagule dynamics as related to disturbances associated with energy extraction. Future research will be directed at understanding how below-ground symbiotic associations may increase the fitness of host plants. Emphasis is being placed on resource acquisition and compartmental strategies. Separate analytics have been indexed for EDB.

  15. Final report on the Groundwater Isotope Project in the Brentwood Region of East Contra Costa County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M.L.; Campbell, K.R.

    1995-05-01

    Groundwater in the Brentwood region has been characterized using isotope hydrology techniques and have addressed resource issues regarding the future sustainability of groundwater, maintenance of existing supplies, and exploration of new supplies. The stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen indicate that groundwater is derived from two sources: ancient rain recharge, and recharge of agricultural irrigation water. Rain derived groundwater ages range from <1000 to {approximately}12,000 years old. Agricultural recharge groundwater is <80 years and has recharged much of the basin on average to {approximately}125 fbs. The agricultural water recharges >10 times faster than natural rain water and hence, represents the principal recharge component. The agricultural recharge at the present time provides groundwater quantities to the basin that exceed the yearly water supply demand. With increasing urban development and retiring agricultural land, the availability of groundwater will decrease. Safe yield projections for the groundwater have been modeled to show that safe groundwater yields range between 30 to 120 acre-ft/mi{sup 2} per year for a population of 70,000 people. This will only account for {approximately}3 to 11 % of the total water demand. Furthermore, much of this groundwater may need well head treatment for water quality problems.

  16. The impact of size distribution assumptions in a bulk one-moment microphysics scheme on simulated surface precipitation and storm dynamics during a low-topped supercell case in Belgium

    SciTech Connect

    Van Weverberg, K.; Van Lipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbe, L.

    2011-04-01

    In this research the impact of modifying the size distribution assumptions of the precipitating hydrometeors in a bulk one-moment microphysics scheme on simulated surface precipitation and storm dynamics has been explored for long-lived low-topped supercells in Belgium. It was shown that weighting the largest precipitating ice species of the microphysics scheme to small graupel results in an increase of surface precipitation because of counteracting effects. On the one hand, the precipitation formation process slowed down, resulting in lower precipitation efficiency. On the other hand, latent heat release associated with freezing favored more intense storms. In contrast to previous studies finding decreased surface precipitation when graupel was present in the microphysics parameterization, storms were rather shallow in the authors simulations. This left little time for graupel sublimation. The impact of size distribution assumptions of snow was found to be small, but more realistic size distribution assumptions of rain led to the strongest effect on surface precipitation. Cold pools shrunk because of weaker rain evaporation at the cold pool boundaries, leading to a decreased surface rain area.

  17. Precipitation characteristics of CAM5 physics at mesoscale resolution during MC3E and the impact of convective timescale choice

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Gustafson, William I.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-12-17

    The physics suite of the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) has recently been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to explore the behavior of the parameterization suite at high resolution and in the more controlled setting of a limited area model. The initial paper documenting this capability characterized the behavior for northern high latitude conditions. This present paper characterizes the precipitation characteristics for continental, mid-latitude, springtime conditions during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) over the central United States. This period exhibited a range of convective conditions from those driven strongly by large-scale synoptic regimesmore » to more locally driven convection. The study focuses on the precipitation behavior at 32 km grid spacing to better anticipate how the physics will behave in the global model when used at similar grid spacing in the coming years. Importantly, one change to the Zhang-McFarlane deep convective parameterization when implemented in WRF was to make the convective timescale parameter an explicit function of grid spacing. This study examines the sensitivity of the precipitation to the default value of the convective timescale in WRF, which is 600 seconds for 32 km grid spacing, to the value of 3600 seconds used for 2 degree grid spacing in CAM5. For comparison, an infinite convective timescale is also used. The results show that the 600 second timescale gives the most accurate precipitation over the central United States in terms of rain amount. However, this setting has the worst precipitation diurnal cycle, with the convection too tightly linked to the daytime surface heating. Longer timescales greatly improve the diurnal cycle but result in less precipitation and produce a low bias. An analysis of rain rates shows the accurate precipitation amount with the shorter timescale is assembled from an over abundance of drizzle combined with too

  18. Precipitation characteristics of CAM5 physics at mesoscale resolution during MC3E and the impact of convective timescale choice

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, William I.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-12-01

    The physics suite of the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) has recently been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to explore the behavior of the parameterization suite at high resolution and in the more controlled setting of a limited area model. The initial paper documenting this capability characterized the behavior for northern high latitude conditions. This present paper characterizes the precipitation characteristics for continental, mid-latitude, springtime conditions during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) over the central United States. This period exhibited a range of convective conditions from those driven strongly by large-scale synoptic regimes to more locally driven convection. The study focuses on the precipitation behavior at 32 km grid spacing to better anticipate how the physics will behave in the global model when used at similar grid spacing in the coming years. Importantly, one change to the Zhang-McFarlane deep convective parameterization when implemented in WRF was to make the convective timescale parameter an explicit function of grid spacing. This study examines the sensitivity of the precipitation to the default value of the convective timescale in WRF, which is 600 seconds for 32 km grid spacing, to the value of 3600 seconds used for 2 degree grid spacing in CAM5. For comparison, an infinite convective timescale is also used. The results show that the 600 second timescale gives the most accurate precipitation over the central United States in terms of rain amount. However, this setting has the worst precipitation diurnal cycle, with the convection too tightly linked to the daytime surface heating. Longer timescales greatly improve the diurnal cycle but result in less precipitation and produce a low bias. An analysis of rain rates shows the accurate precipitation amount with the shorter timescale is assembled from an over abundance of drizzle combined with too little heavy

  19. Precipitation characteristics of CAM5 physics at mesoscale resolution during MC3E and the impact of convective timescale choice

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, William I.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-12-17

    The physics suite of the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) has recently been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to explore the behavior of the parameterization suite at high resolution and in the more controlled setting of a limited area model. The initial paper documenting this capability characterized the behavior for northern high latitude conditions. This present paper characterizes the precipitation characteristics for continental, mid-latitude, springtime conditions during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) over the central United States. This period exhibited a range of convective conditions from those driven strongly by large-scale synoptic regimes to more locally driven convection. The study focuses on the precipitation behavior at 32 km grid spacing to better anticipate how the physics will behave in the global model when used at similar grid spacing in the coming years. Importantly, one change to the Zhang-McFarlane deep convective parameterization when implemented in WRF was to make the convective timescale parameter an explicit function of grid spacing. This study examines the sensitivity of the precipitation to the default value of the convective timescale in WRF, which is 600 seconds for 32 km grid spacing, to the value of 3600 seconds used for 2 degree grid spacing in CAM5. For comparison, an infinite convective timescale is also used. The results show that the 600 second timescale gives the most accurate precipitation over the central United States in terms of rain amount. However, this setting has the worst precipitation diurnal cycle, with the convection too tightly linked to the daytime surface heating. Longer timescales greatly improve the diurnal cycle but result in less precipitation and produce a low bias. An analysis of rain rates shows the accurate precipitation amount with the shorter timescale is assembled from an over abundance of drizzle combined with too little heavy

  20. Estimating dispersion from a tornado vortex and mesocyclone

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.H.; Hunter, C.H.

    1996-06-01

    Atmospheric dispersion modeling is required to ensure that a postulated breach in radionuclide storage containers at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from a tornado strike of Fujita-scale intensity F2 or higher will not result in an unacceptable dose to individuals. Fujita-scale tornado descriptions are included in Appendix A of this report. Dispersion models previously used at SRS for estimating dispersion following a tornado strike were developed by D.W. Pepper in 1975 (DP-1387, Dispersion of Small Particles) and H.R. Haynes and D.W. Taylor in 1983 (DPST-82-982, Estimating Doses from Tornado Winds). Research conducted in 1983 on the formation and evolution of tornadic thunderstorms has lead to a more complete understanding of the tornado vortex and associated persistent updraft and downdraft regions within the parent thunderstorm. To ensure that appropriate, contemporary methods are used for safety analysis, the Pepper model and the Haynes and Taylor model were evaluated with respect to current knowledge of circulations within tornadic thunderstorms. Pepper`s model is complex numerically but contains most of the desired physical parameterizations. Haynes and Taylor`s model is used with the Puff-Plume model (an emergency response model on the Weather INformation and Display System at SRS) and has provisions for radionuclide deposition and rainout. Haynes and Taylor assumed heavy rain following the tornado for a period of ten minutes, followed by a lighter rain for another ten minutes, then no rain for the period when the material is transported to 100 km downwind. However, neither model incorporates the effects of a nearby thunderstorm downdraft.

  1. Development of a new FGD process that converts sulfur dioxide to salable ammonium phosphate fertilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Ji-lu Chen

    1993-12-31

    Rich mineral resources have enabled Chinese coal output and energy consumption to rank second and third in the world, respectively. In 1992, up to 70 percent of the country`s electric power was generated by the combustion of some 300 million tons of coal. Although the average sulfur content level in Chinese coals is only about 0.8 percent, the share of high- sulfur coals with 2 percent or more sulfur content is as high as 18 percent. As a result, air pollution accompanied by acid rain now occurs over most of the country, especially in southwestern China. Currently, the area comprising Guangdong, Guangxi, the Sichuan Basin, and the greater part of Gueizhou, where the sulfur content in coal is between 2 and 7 percent and the average pH values of rain water are between 4 and 5 per annum, has become one of the three biggest acid rain-affected areas in the world. In 1992, the national installed coal-fired electricity generation capacity exceeded 100,000 MWe. By the year 2000, it is expected to reach as much as 200,000 MWe, according to a new scheduled program. Environmental pollution caused by large-scale coal combustion is a very important issue that needs to be considered in the implementation of the program. To ensure that the effects of coal-fired power generation on the environment can be properly controlled in the near future, TPRI (Thermal Power Research Institute), the sole thermal power engineering research institution within the Ministry of Electric Power Industry (MOEPI), has conducted a long-term research program to develop sulfur emission control technologies suitable to the special conditions prevalent in China since the early 1970s. The details are summarized. The objective of this chapter is to describe the fundamental concept and major pilot test results and present an economic evaluation of a new process combining flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and ammonium phosphate fertilizer production.

  2. Precipitation Estimate Using NEXRAD Ground-Based Radar Images: Validation, Calibration and Spatial Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xuesong

    2012-12-17

    Precipitation is an important input variable for hydrologic and ecological modeling and analysis. Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) can provide precipitation products that cover most of the continental United States with a high resolution display of approximately 4 Ă— 4 km2. Two major issues concerning the applications of NEXRAD data are (1) lack of a NEXRAD geo-processing and geo-referencing program and (2) bias correction of NEXRAD estimates. In this chapter, a geographic information system (GIS) based software that can automatically support processing of NEXRAD data for hydrologic and ecological models is presented. Some geostatistical approaches to calibrating NEXRAD data using rain gauge data are introduced, and two case studies on evaluating accuracy of NEXRAD Multisensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) and calibrating MPE with rain-gauge data are presented. The first case study examines the performance of MPE in mountainous region versus south plains and cold season versus warm season, as well as the effect of sub-grid variability and temporal scale on NEXRAD performance. From the results of the first case study, performance of MPE was found to be influenced by complex terrain, frozen precipitation, sub-grid variability, and temporal scale. Overall, the assessment of MPE indicates the importance of removing bias of the MPE precipitation product before its application, especially in the complex mountainous region. The second case study examines the performance of three MPE calibration methods using rain gauge observations in the Little River Experimental Watershed in Georgia. The comparison results show that no one method can perform better than the others in terms of all evaluation coefficients and for all time steps. For practical estimation of precipitation distribution, implementation of multiple methods to predict spatial precipitation is suggested.

  3. Testing cloud microphysics parameterizations in NCAR CAM5 with ISDAC and M-PACE observations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu X.; Lin W.; Xie, S.; Boyle, J.; Klein, S. A.; Shi, X.; Wang, Z.; Ghan, S. J.; Earle, M.; Liu, P. S. K.; Zelenyuk, A.

    2011-12-24

    Arctic clouds simulated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) are evaluated with observations from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) and Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), which were conducted at its North Slope of Alaska site in April 2008 and October 2004, respectively. Model forecasts for the Arctic spring and fall seasons performed under the Cloud-Associated Parameterizations Testbed framework generally reproduce the spatial distributions of cloud fraction for single-layer boundary-layer mixed-phase stratocumulus and multilayer or deep frontal clouds. However, for low-level stratocumulus, the model significantly underestimates the observed cloud liquid water content in both seasons. As a result, CAM5 significantly underestimates the surface downward longwave radiative fluxes by 20-40 W m{sup -2}. Introducing a new ice nucleation parameterization slightly improves the model performance for low-level mixed-phase clouds by increasing cloud liquid water content through the reduction of the conversion rate from cloud liquid to ice by the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process. The CAM5 single-column model testing shows that changing the instantaneous freezing temperature of rain to form snow from -5 C to -40 C causes a large increase in modeled cloud liquid water content through the slowing down of cloud liquid and rain-related processes (e.g., autoconversion of cloud liquid to rain). The underestimation of aerosol concentrations in CAM5 in the Arctic also plays an important role in the low bias of cloud liquid water in the single-layer mixed-phase clouds. In addition, numerical issues related to the coupling of model physics and time stepping in CAM5 are responsible for the model biases and will be explored in future studies.

  4. Testing Cloud Microphysics Parameterizations in NCAR CAM5 with ISDAC and M-PACE Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaohong; Xie, Shaocheng; Boyle, James; Klein, Stephen A.; Shi, Xiangjun; Wang, Zhien; Lin, Wuyin; Ghan, Steven J.; Earle, Michael; Liu, Peter; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2011-12-24

    Arctic clouds simulated by the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) are evaluated with observations from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) and Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), which were conducted at its North Slope of Alaska site in April 2008 and October 2004, respectively. Model forecasts for the Arctic Spring and Fall seasons performed under the Cloud- Associated Parameterizations Testbed (CAPT) framework generally reproduce the spatial distributions of cloud fraction for single-layer boundary layer mixed-phase stratocumulus, and multilayer or deep frontal clouds. However, for low-level clouds, the model significantly underestimates the observed cloud liquid water content in both seasons and cloud fraction in the Spring season. As a result, CAM5 significantly underestimates the surface downward longwave (LW) radiative fluxes by 20-40 W m-2. The model with a new ice nucleation parameterization moderately improves the model simulations by increasing cloud liquid water content in mixed-phase clouds through the reduction of the conversion rate from cloud liquid to ice by the Wegener-Bergeron- Findeisen (WBF) process. The CAM5 single column model testing shows that change in the homogeneous freezing temperature of rain to form snow from -5 C to -40 C has a substantial impact on the modeled liquid water content through the slowing-down of liquid and rain-related processes. In contrast, collections of cloud ice by snow and cloud liquid by rain are of minor importance for single-layer boundary layer mixed-phase clouds in the Arctic.

  5. ARM - Evaluation Product - Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) from

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    the CSAPR ProductsQuantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) from the CSAPR ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) from the CSAPR Precipitation rates from cloud systems can give a fundamental insight into the processes occurring in-cloud. While rain

  6. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    3, 2015 [Feature Stories and Releases] Land, Sea, and Air: ACAPEX Targets Atmospheric Rivers Bookmark and Share Researchers collect rare data linked to rain and drought From left to right: The G-IV, P-3, and G-1 aircraft at McClellan Airfield in Sacramento, California, prepare for a coordinated flight mission. Photo courtesy of Marty Ralph, Scripps Institution of Oceanography at University California, San Diego. From left to right: The G-IV, P-3, and G-1 aircraft at McClellan Airfield in

  7. Solar Photovoltaic System Design Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    System Design Basics Solar Photovoltaic System Design Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:00pm Addthis Solar photovoltaic modules are where the electricity gets generated, but are only one of the many parts in a complete photovoltaic (PV) system. In order for the generated electricity to be useful in a home or business, a number of other technologies must be in place. Mounting Structures PV arrays must be mounted on a stable, durable structure that can support the array and withstand wind, rain, hail,

  8. Courtney Schumacher Courtney Schumacher

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Courtney Schumacher Courtney Schumacher 1 1 , Robert Houze , Robert Houze 2 2 , Peter May , Peter May 3 3 , Kaycee Frederick , Kaycee Frederick 1 1 , Jasmine Cetrone , Jasmine Cetrone 2 2 , and Andreas Vallgren , and Andreas Vallgren 3 3 1 1 Texas A&M University, Texas A&M University, 2 2 University of Washington, University of Washington, 3 3 Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre Vertical Echo Distribution Rain ( X C and X S ) and Anvil ( X A ) Area

  9. SO{sub 2} and NOx trading markets: providing flexibility and results

    SciTech Connect

    Sam Napolitano; Melanie LaCount; Daniel Chartier

    2007-06-15

    Experience with the Acid Rain and NOx Budget Trading Programs demonstrates that cap-and-trade programs are an effective means of achieving broad improvements in air quality. Results demonstrate that the combination of mandatory emissions caps, a viable allowance trading market, rigorous emissions monitoring and reporting protocols, and automatic enforcement provide accountability and ensure results in a cost-effective manner. The market developments discussed in this article demonstrate a successful environmental partnership. With a government focused on results and a private sector motivated to innovate, cap-and trade systems deliver environmental results as efficiently and effectively as possible. 3 refs., 4 figs,

  10. Energy Efficiency and Least-Cost Planning: The Best Way to Save Money and Reduce Energy Use in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Mowris, Robert J.

    1990-05-21

    If the 500 MW geothermal project on the Big Island of Hawaii is developed as planned, the Wao Kele O Puna rain forest will be severely damaged or destroyed. If this happens the State will lose one of its most precious resources. It would be tragic for this to happen, since on a least-cost basis, the geothermal project does not make economic sense. Improving energy efficiency in the commercial and residential sectors of Hawaii can save about 500 MW of power at a cost of $700 million.

  11. Research Highlight

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Rain and Cloud Resistance Download a printable PDF Submitter: Flaherty, J., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Area of Research: Cloud Distributions/Characterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: Deng L, S McFarlane, and J Flaherty. 2013. "Characteristics associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation at Manus Island." Journal of Climate, 26(10), doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00312.1. Deep tropical clouds are sometimes called the engines of the global climate. They

  12. Research Highlight

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Storm Clouds Take Rain on Rollercoaster Ride Download a printable PDF Submitter: Ovchinnikov, M., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Area of Research: Cloud Processes Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: Wong M, M Ovchinnikov, and M Wang. 2015. "Evaluation of subgrid-scale hydrometeor transport schemes using a high-resolution cloud-resolving model." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 72(9), doi:10.1175/JAS-D-15-0060.1. Strong updrafts within the cloud propel their

  13. S

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Jay S rinivasan Computa1onal S ystems G roup Lawrence Berkeley Na1onal Lab 24 February 2012 JGI T raining S eries Un1l all users are migrated to NERSC we plan to hold weekly F riday s essions 1:30---1:45 --- Intro and presenta1on of the transi1on schedule 1:45 --- 2:15 --- Best prac1ces when using the shared batch system 2:15 --- 2:30 --- Job arrays, use, control and monitoring of jobs 2:30 --- 2:45 --- Review of queue policies (long jobs, highmem jobs) 2:45 --- 3:00 --- Data transfer from DTN

  14. Sunrayce 93: The hottest new sport on campus. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The solar powered electric vehicle race began in Arlington, Texas on June 20, 1993 and finished 7 days later in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Thirty four teams from Universities across the United States and Puerto Rico completed the race out of thirty six entries. The race demonstrated the viability of sunlight powered vehicles as the better average daily speeds were in excess of 50 miles an hour. Even in the rain, most average speeds were in excess of 15 miles an hour. Analyzed results, photographs, and project details are included. (GHH)

  15. ARM - Blog Article

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    May 21, 2011 [Blog, Field Notes, MC3E] The (Almost) Dream Scenario Bookmark and Share Long before the MC3E scientists arrived in Ponca City and descended upon the SGP Central Facility (CF), there was a great deal of talk about the "dream scenario." The golden case of all golden cases was described as a well defined line of convective storms with a large stratiform rain region that propagated directly over the SGP CF. While this dream system moved over the site it would be sampled by

  16. Tree Death Study's Climate Change Connections

    ScienceCinema

    McDowell, Nate

    2014-06-25

    What are the exact physiological mechanisms that lead to tree death during prolonged drought and rising temperatures? These are the questions that scientists are trying to answer at a Los Alamos National Laboratory research project called SUMO. SUMO stands for SUrvival/MOrtality study; it's a plot of land on the Lab's southern border that features 18 climate controlled tree study chambers and a large drought structure that limits rain and snowfall. Scientists are taking a wide variety of measurements over a long period of time to determine what happens during drought and warming, and what the connections and feedback loops might be between tree death and climate change.

  17. Questions and answers about ITER and fusion energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    QA & What is fusion? Fusion, the energy source of the sun and stars, is the most efficient process for converting mass into energy (E = mc 2 ). The fusion process is environmentally benign and does not emit gases that contribute to global warming or acid rain. Abundant fuel supplies for fusion are available that could meet the needs of the world's population for more than 10,000 years if the fusion process is harnessed successfully. When will fusion successfully produce useable energy? The

  18. Research Highlights Sorted by Submitter

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Submitter A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A Ackerman, A. Buffering of Ice Crystal Number Concentration to Ice Nucleus Abundance above Arctic Stratus ARM To Be or Not To Be Liquid? The Challenge of Arctic Mixed-Phase Cloud Modeling ARM Tropical Rain Clouds Still a Challenge to Cloud-Resolving Models ARM ASR Understanding Ice Formation in Arctic Mixed-Phase Boundary-Layer Clouds During ISDAC ARM Ackerman, T. P. Progress in Understanding Water Vapor's Role in Models ARM

  19. Ontario Hydro -- Recent advances in fossil environmental management and control

    SciTech Connect

    Seckington, B.R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper provides a brief overview of various recent environmental activities within the Fossil Business Unit of Ontario Hydro, specifically those related to air emissions and acid rain. This includes: (1) an overview of involvement with current and anticipated Federal and Ontario Provincial regulatory positions and directions; (2) a brief synopsis of environmental installations of FGD at Lambton GS and Low NO{sub x} burners at Lambton and Nanticoke; (3) development of market mechanisms; and (4) R and D activities related to impact assessment and control technology.

  20. ARM CLASIC ER2 CRS/EDOP

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Heymsfield

    2010-12-20

    Data was taken with the NASA ER-2 aircraft with the Cloud Radar System and other instruments in conjunction with the DOE ARM CLASIC field campaign. The flights were near the SGP site in north Central Oklahoma and targeted small developing convection. The CRS is a 94 GHz nadir pointing Doppler radar. Also on board the ER-2 was the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Seven science flights were conducted but the weather conditions did not cooperate in that there was neither developing convection, or there was heavy rain.

  1. 2012 - 08 | Jefferson Lab

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Aug 2012 Mon, 2012-08-27 15:00 JLab Voluntary Separation Program - Message from Hugh Montgomery Mon, 2012-08-27 15:00 Zimbra User Training Rescheduled for Tuesday and Wednesday Mon, 2012-08-27 15:00 Jefferson Lab Safety Culture Survey Underway Sun, 2012-08-26 15:00 Experimental Hall Off Limits After Heavy Rains on 25 Aug. Wed, 2012-08-22 15:00 TIAA-CREF INDIVIDUAL COUNSELING - Autumn 2012 Wed, 2012-08-22 15:00 Important Changes in Radiological Status of Hall B Tue, 2012-08-07 15:00 Avoid

  2. Papua New Guinea: Tough course

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, M.

    1991-11-01

    This paper describes the problems that seismic crews face in Papua New Guinea. The complex geologic conditions which often entail karstified carbonate rocks which are overlying folded sedimentary and igneous rocks, cause severe problems with data collection and interpretation. Secondly, the rugged topography and dense rain forest vegetation along with the wild animals and diseases create inaccessible or undesirable work areas. However, these conditions can be overcome and this paper briefly describes how one exploration company uses local natives to assist in development of reliable seismic surveys.

  3. Microsoft PowerPoint - 01 Bosco PM Workshop BOSCO Feb22_2010PB final rcvd 5

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Mar [Compatibility Mode] | Department of Energy 1 Bosco PM Workshop BOSCO Feb22_2010PB final rcvd 5 Mar [Compatibility Mode] Microsoft PowerPoint - 01 Bosco PM Workshop BOSCO Feb22_2010PB final rcvd 5 Mar [Compatibility Mode] Microsoft PowerPoint - 01 Bosco PM Workshop BOSCO Feb22_2010PB final rcvd 5 Mar [Compatibility Mode] (732.53 KB) More Documents & Publications Project Management Update - Paul Bosco, Director, Office of Acquisition & Project Mgt Microsoft PowerPoint - 07 Raines

  4. Picture of the Week: Modeling a small, blue planet

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Modeling a small, blue planet This visualization, courtesy of the Lab's MPAS-Ocean Model, shows ocean currents and eddies in a high-resolution global ocean simulation with the Antarctic in the center. May 10, 2015 Modeling a small, blue planet x View extra-large image on Flickr » The oceans play an important role in the earth's climate; they transport heat from equator to pole, provide moisture for rain, and absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Ocean models, such as this one from Los

  5. Tree Death Study's Climate Change Connections

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, Nate

    2012-09-10

    What are the exact physiological mechanisms that lead to tree death during prolonged drought and rising temperatures? These are the questions that scientists are trying to answer at a Los Alamos National Laboratory research project called SUMO. SUMO stands for SUrvival/MOrtality study; it's a plot of land on the Lab's southern border that features 18 climate controlled tree study chambers and a large drought structure that limits rain and snowfall. Scientists are taking a wide variety of measurements over a long period of time to determine what happens during drought and warming, and what the connections and feedback loops might be between tree death and climate change.

  6. Research Highlight

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Theoretical Formulation for Cloud-to-Rain Transition Submitter: Liu, Y., Brookhaven National Laboratory Area of Research: Cloud Distributions/Characterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Modeling Journal Reference: Liu, Y., P. H. Daum, R. McGraw, M. Miller, and S. Niu, 2007: Theoretical formulation for autoconversion rate of cloud droplet concentration. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L116821, doi:10.1029/2007GL030389. The "typical drop radius" r* as a function of the mean volume radius r3

  7. ARM Mobile Facility Surface Meteorology Handbook - October 2008

    SciTech Connect

    MT Ritsche

    2008-10-30

    The ARM Mobile Facility Surface Meteorology station (AMF MET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-minute statistics of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, and rain-rate. Additional sensors may be added to or removed from the base set of sensors depending upon the deployment location, climate regime or programmatic needs. Additionally, sensor types may change depending upon the climate regime of the deployment. These changes/additions are noted in the Deployment Locations and History section.

  8. Woo-Sun Yang! NERSC User Services Group

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Starting DDT and MAP at NERSC --- 1 --- Allinea D DT a nd M AP T raining May 1 4, 2 015 Overview of today's training * Training o n A llinea's D DT ( parallel d ebugger) a nd MAP ( parallel p rofiler) * Lectures and demo sessions - Beau P aisley, A llinea S o2ware * Hands---on session in the aFernoon - You c an u se y our o wn c ode --- 2 --- Training materials * Use the 'training' module to get training materials that Beau prepared: * We w ill p rimarily u se E dison f or t oday's d emos --- 3

  9. Rupture loop annex ion exchange RLAIX vault deactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.; Harris, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This engineering report documents the deactivation, stabilization and final conditions of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located northwest of the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns, piping debris, and column liquid were removed from the vault, packaged and shipped for disposal. The vault walls and floor were decontaminated, and portions of the vault were painted to fix loose contamination. Process piping and drains were plugged, and the cover blocks and rain cover were installed. Upon closure,the vault was empty, stabilized, isolated.

  10. Geographically distributed environmental sensor system

    DOEpatents

    French, Patrick; Veatch, Brad; O'Connor, Mike

    2006-10-03

    The present invention is directed to a sensor network that includes a number of sensor units and a base unit. The base station operates in a network discovery mode (in which network topology information is collected) in a data polling mode (in which sensed information is collected from selected sensory units). Each of the sensor units can include a number of features, including an anemometer, a rain gauge, a compass, a GPS receiver, a barometric pressure sensor, an air temperature sensor, a humidity sensor, a level, and a radiant temperature sensor.

  11. Demand-side management program evaluation and the EPA Conservation Verification Protocols. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Willems, P.; Ciraulo, J.; Smith, B.

    1993-11-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Conservation Verification Protocols (CVPs) are a set of step-by-step procedures for impact monitoring and evaluation of electric utility demand-side management (DSM) programs. The EPA developed these protocols as part of its mission to implement the Acid Rain Program authorized by Title IV of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990. This report provides an overview of the CVPs and how they can be used by electric utilities in DSM program monitoring and evaluation. Both the CVPs Monitoring Path and Stipulated Path procedures are summarized and reviewed. Several examples are provided to illustrate how to calculate DSM program energy savings using the CVPSs.

  12. OFFICE OF ELECTRICITY DELIVERY AND ENERGY RELIABILITY (OE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    8:00am OVERVIEW The remnants of Post-Tropical Cyclone Matthew no longer poses a threat to U.S. interests as the system dissipates over the Atlantic. All land based watches and warnings for Matthew have been discontinued and the National Hurricane Center issued the final advisory on Matthew at 5:00pm on October 9, 2016. Flooding continues over portions of South and North Carolina from record rains as a result of Matthew and flood warnings are in effect for several areas across the region. U.S.

  13. CASL-U-2014-0069-001

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    4-0069-001 Modeling an iPWR Startup Core Cycle with VERA Progress Report 2 Milestone L4:AMA.APP.P10.04 Kelly Kenner University of Tennessee - Knoxville Advisors: Ivan Maldonado, UTK Rose Montgomery, TVA Dudley Raine, B&W June 26, 2014 CASL-U-2014-0069-001 Page i Executive Summary The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the research work performed by Kelly Kenner, a Master's Candidate at the University of Tennessee's Department of Nuclear Engineering, as funded by Tennessee

  14. CASL-U-2015-0234-000 CASL Program Highlights

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    4-000 CASL Program Highlights February 2015 Douglas Kothe Oak Ridge National Laboratory February 29, 2014 CASL-U-2015-0234-000 Outcome: VERA was demonstrated to be capable of simulating iPWR geometry and control rod management for normal operating conditions. H concentration Contributors: Rose Montgomery (TVA), Ben Collins (ORNL) Independent review by Dudley Raine (B&W) CASL Demonstration of VERA Capabilities to simulate an iPWR SMR Illustration of the B&W mPower iPWR used as a basis for

  15. Communiversity | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    April 27, 2014, 1:00pm to 6:00pm Princeton University Princeton University Communiversity Princeton Festival of the Arts The countdown is on for Communiversity, one of Central New Jersey's most well-known events and beloved annual traditions. This year's celebration of the arts is slated for Sunday, April 27, 2014 (rain or shine), from 1:00 to 6:00 p.m. Presented by the Arts Council of Princeton and the students of Princeton University, the event originated as "The Art People's Party"

  16. Clean Air Interstate Rule (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications

    2009-01-01

    Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) is a cap-and-trade program promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency in 2005, covering 28 eastern U.S. states and the District of Columbia. It was designed to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions in order to help states meet their National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter (PM2.5) and to further emissions reductions already achieved through the Acid Rain Program and the NOx State Implementation Plan call program. The rule was set to commence in 2009 for seasonal and annual NOx emissions and in 2010 for SO2 emissions.

  17. What I Do to Save Energy and Money in the Winter | Department of Energy

    Energy Saver

    I Do to Save Energy and Money in the Winter What I Do to Save Energy and Money in the Winter October 27, 2009 - 8:00am Addthis Chris Stewart Senior Communicator at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory Colorado's cool autumn weather has arrived, which was marked with an exclamation point last week with cold rain, sleet, and snow in Denver. With the quiet hum of my heater periodically firing up, I'm reminded of what I do to save energy and money at home in the winter. Program my thermostat

  18. A-Z Index - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    A-Z Index A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XYZ A Abbreviations, energy related About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines Acid rain Definition Emissions data Overview Acquisitions and Divestitures by Foreign Direct Investors in U.S. Energy (report discontinued) Activities for kids Additions to storage (natural gas) Underground, by all operators Underground, by storage type Liquefied natural gas additions and withdrawals AEO (see Annual Energy Outlook) AER (Annual Energy Review - report with

  19. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Early Universe Question Greetings Well, you most likely receive a billion messages a day from nuts like me, but here's another one for you. Before the big bang, when there was just random endergy fluctuations in this empty void. At this point, before the particle that blew up, is it possible that there could have been one dimension raining supreme, a dimension which, when seperated, become the four distinct dimensions we now live in? What I'm trying to say is, when the universe was formed,

  20. About EIA - Policies - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    A-Z Index A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XYZ A Abbreviations, energy related About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines Acid rain Definition Emissions data Overview Acquisitions and Divestitures by Foreign Direct Investors in U.S. Energy (report discontinued) Activities for kids Additions to storage (natural gas) Underground, by all operators Underground, by storage type Liquefied natural gas additions and withdrawals AEO (see Annual Energy Outlook) AER (Annual Energy Review - report with

  1. Jefferson Lab plans Open House on Saturday, April 26 | Jefferson Lab

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    on Saturday, April 26 JLab Open House Poster JLab will be open to the public on Saturday, April 25 from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. rain or shine. Jefferson Lab plans Open House on Saturday, April 26 February 25, 2003 The Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab, located in Newport News, Va., has set Saturday, April 26, 2003, for its next "Science is Cool" Open House. "The Lab's last Open House was about two years ago," comments Linda Ware, Jefferson Lab Public Affairs manager. "We

  2. Keeping

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    "climate" and "weather"? The weather is what you see outside your window right now-maybe cool and cloudy with rain, or warm and sunny with blue skies. Climate is like weather, except it covers a longer period of time... months, years, or even decades. It's the combination of weather you typically "expect" at a certain place at a certain time of year. For instance, summers in the Azores are usually warm and calm, with temperatures in the 70s or so. This is the

  3. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: The life stage of deep

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    convection defined by the MSG multi-channel data and rainfall type observed by PR/TRMM The life stage of deep convection defined by the MSG multi-channel data and rainfall type observed by PR/TRMM Inoue, Toshiro MRI/JMA The life cycle of deep convection is characterized as the cumulus/cumulonimbus type cloud classified by the method is dominant at the earlier stage and cirrus type cloud (anvil) is dominant at the decaying stage for no-split/no-merge case. We also know that convective rain is

  4. Housing standards: change to HUD 4930. 2 Intermediate Minimum Property Standard (IMPS) supplement for solar heating and domestic hot water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-17

    This rule is made to provide an updating, clarification, and improvement of requirements contained in HUD Handbook 4930.2, Intermediate Minimum Property Standards (IMPS) Supplement concerning solar heating and domestic hot water systems. Changes pertain to fire protection, penetration, roof covering, conditions of use, thermal stability, rain resistance, ultraviolet stability, and compatibility with transfer medium. Additional changes cover applicable standards, labeling, flash point, chemical and physical commpatibility, flame spread classification, lightening protection, and parts of a solar energy system. Altogether, there are over 50 changes, some of which apply to tables and worksheets. Footnotes are included.

  5. Health and environmental effects of coal-fired electric power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-05-01

    This paper describes health and environmental impacts of coal-fired electric power plants. Effects on man, agriculture, and natural ecosystems are considered. These effects may result from direct impacts or exposures via air, water, and food chains. The paper is organized by geographical extent of effect. Occupational health impacts and local environmental effects such as noise and solid waste leachate are treated first. Then, regional effects of air pollution, including acid rain, are analyzed. Finally, potential global impacts are examined. Occupational health concerns considered include exposure to noise, dust, asbestos, mercury, and combustion products, and resulting injury and disease. Local effects considered include noise; air and water emissions of coal storage piles, solid waste operations, and cooling systems. Air pollution, once an acute local problem, is now a regional concern. Acute and chronic direct health effects are considered. Special attention is given to potential effects of radionuclides in coal and of acid rain. Finally, potential global impacts associated with carbon dioxide emissions are considered. 88 references, 9 tables.

  6. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Spray polyurethane foams (SPFs) have advantages over alternative insulation methods because they provide air sealing in complex assemblies, particularly roofs. Spray foam can provide the thermal, air, and vapor control layers in both new and retrofit construction. Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell SPF insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990s to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated incidents of failures (either sheathing rot or SPF delamination) that raise some general concerns about the hygrothermal performance and durability of these systems. The primary risks for roof systems are rainwater leaks, condensation from diffusion and air leakage, and built-in construction moisture. This project directly investigated rain and indirectly investigated built-in construction moisture and vapor drives. Research involved both hygrothermal modeling of a range of rain water leakage scenarios and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs. Other variables considered were climate zone, orientation, interior relative humidity, and the vapor permeance of the coating applied to the interior face of open cell SPF.

  7. Technology Solutions Case Study: Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    Spray polyurethane foams (SPFs) have advantages over alternative insulation methods because they provide air sealing in complex assemblies, particularly roofs. Spray foam can provide the thermal, air, and vapor control layers in both new and retrofit construction. Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell SPF insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990s to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated incidents of failures (either sheathing rot or SPF delamination) that raise some general concerns about the hygrothermal performance and durability of these systems. The primary risks for roof systems are rainwater leaks, condensation from diffusion and air leakage, and built-in construction moisture. In this project, Building Science Corporation investigated rain and built-in construction moisture and vapor drives. Research involved both hygrothermal modeling of a range of rain water leakage scenarios and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs. Other variables considered were climate zone, orientation, interior relative humidity, and the vapor permeance of the coating applied to the interior face of open cell SPF.

  8. Challenges in implementing efficient Title IV and Title V permit programs

    SciTech Connect

    Sprott, R.

    1997-12-31

    Integrating title IV acid rain and title V operating permits in an efficient manner poses numerous challenges. Federal rules and policy memos about these programs often conflict or lead to actions that are difficult to implement at best. Both permitting programs are complex and controversial, but the title IV permitting rules are particularly difficult to use and understand. Clear lines of jurisdiction for various aspects of the acid rain program are lacking in some cases, and regulators have been slow to recognize and solve these problems. There are numerous issues that have arisen during the initial stages of developing permits for title IV affected sources. Some have or are being resolved; others remain as potential impediments to efficient permitting. Utah and other western states have been working with the utility industry and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to resolve these and other issues and some problems have been resolved. However, some state and industry officials feel that EPA should take the lead to conduct a series title IV implementation workshops in partnership with states and the utilities. This paper describes solutions to some common implementation problems and identifies challenges that remain to be solved.

  9. Airborne soil organic particles generated by precipitation

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Wang, Bingbing; Harder, Tristan H.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Piens, Dominique S.; China, Swarup; Kovarik, Libor; Keiluweit, Marco; Arey, Bruce W.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-05-02

    Airborne organic particles play a critical role in Earth’s climate1, public health2, air quality3, and hydrological and carbon cycles4. However, sources and formation mechanisms for semi-solid and solid organic particles5 are poorly understood and typically neglected in atmospheric models6. Laboratory evidence suggests that fine particles can be formed from impaction of mineral surfaces by droplets7. Here, we use chemical imaging of particles collected following rain events in the Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, USA and after experimental irrigation to show that raindrop impaction of soils generates solid organic particles. We find that after rain events, sub-micrometre solid particles, with a chemicalmore » composition consistent with soil organic matter, contributed up to 60% of atmospheric particles. Our irrigation experiments indicate that intensive water impaction is sufficient to cause ejection of airborne soil organic particles from the soil surface. Chemical imaging and micro-spectroscopy analysis of particle physico-chemical properties suggest that these particles may have important impacts on cloud formation and efficiently absorb solar radiation. Lastly, we suggest that raindrop-induced formation of solid organic particles from soils may be a widespread phenomenon in ecosystems such as agricultural systems and grasslands where soils are exposed to strong, episodic precipitation events8.« less

  10. Allowance trading: Correcting the past and looking to the future

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, A.Y.; Canter, L.W.

    1995-09-01

    Allowance trading is basic to the Title IV acid rain provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) in the United States; the provisions seek to achieve a 10-million-ton reduction in annual sulfur dioxide emissions from the electric power utility industry. Allowance trading, a market-based approach, is conceptually similar to the emissions trading policy of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). An allowance is defined as the authorization to emit, during or after a specified calendar year, one ton of sulfur dioxide. This paper provides an overview of the allowance trading program by summarizing some important features, particularly as they are responsive to limitations and concern as related to the precursor emissions trading program in the early to mid-1980s. Such features include a simple definition of baseline emission levels, encouragements for nationwide trading, disincentives for accumulation of excess allowance,s opportunities for leasing other short-term allowance transfer arrangements, enforcement provisions, and benefits of bonus allowances and early emission reductions. Adherence to implementation protocols for the acid rain provisions of Title IV of the CAAA will provide a good opportunity to evaluate this market-based approach for environmental quality management.

  11. The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S. R.; Daniel, A.

    2013-10-31

    The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and Southwire Company was to jointly develop a low cost, commercially viable, water-repellant anti-icing coating system for high voltage transmission lines. Icing of power lines and other structures caused by freezing rain events occurs annually in the United States, and leads to severe and prolonged power outages. These outages cause untold economic and personal distress for many American families and businesses. Researchers at the Department of Energy?s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have previously developed a set of superhydrophobic coatings with remarkable anti-icing properties that could potentially be sprayed or painted onto high-tension power lines and pylons. These coatings drastically reduce ice accumulation on these structures during freezing rain events. The project involved obtaining technical input, supplies and test high voltage cables from Southwire, along with the joint development of anti-icing coating techniques, which would result in a commercial license agreement between Southwire and ORNL, and potentially other companies requiring water repellent anti-icing coatings.

  12. The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Scott Robert

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and Southwire Company was to jointly develop a low cost, commercially viable, water-repellant anti-icing coating system for high voltage transmission lines. Icing of power lines and other structures caused by freezing rain events occurs annually in the United States, and leads to severe and prolonged power outages. These outages cause untold economic and personal distress for many American families and businesses. Researchers at the Department of Energy s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have previously developed a set of superhydrophobic coatings with remarkable anti-icing properties that could potentially be sprayed or painted onto high-tension power lines and pylons. These coatings drastically reduce ice accumulation on these structures during freezing rain events. The project involved obtaining technical input, supplies and test high voltage cables from Southwire, along with the joint development of anti-icing coating techniques, which would result in a commercial license agreement between Southwire and ORNL, and potentially other companies requiring water repellent anti-icing coatings.

  13. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Final report, September 19, 1988--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-12-31

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R&D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  14. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  15. Assessing the benefits of OHER (Office of Health and Environmental Research) research: Three case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Nesse, R.J.; Callaway, J.M.; Englin, J.E.; Klan, M.S.; Nicholls, A.K.; Serot, D.E.

    1987-09-01

    This research was undertaken to estimate the societal benefits and costs of selected past research performed for the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Three case studies of representative OHER and DOE research were performed. One of these, the acid rain case study, includes research conducted elsewhere in DOE. The other two cases were the OHER marine research program and the development of high-purity germanium that is used in radiation detectors. The acid rain case study looked at the research benefits and costs of furnace sorbent injection and duct injection, technologies that might reduce acid deposition precursors. Both appear to show benefits in excess of costs. We examined in detail one of the OHER marine research program's accomplishments - the increase in environmental information used by the Outer Continental Shelf leasing program to manage bidding for off-shore oil drilling. The results of an econometric model show that environmental information of the type supported by OHER is unequivocally linked to government and industry leasing decisions. The germanium case study indicated that the benefits of germanium radiation detectors were significant.

  16. Fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery system development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Patch, K.D.; Cole, W.E.

    1988-06-01

    A major energy loss in industry is the heat content of the flue gases from industrial process heaters. One effective way to utilize the energy, which is applicable to all processes, is to preheat the combustion air for the process heater. Although recuperators are available to preheat this air when the flue gases are clean, recuperators to recover the heat from dirty and corrosive flue gases do not exist. The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) system is designed to preheat this combustion air using the heat available in dirty flue gas streams. In this system, recirculating alumina particles are heated by the flue gas in a raining bed. The hot particles are then removed from the bed and placed in a fluidized bed where they are fluidized by the combustion air. Through this process, the combustion air is preheated. The cooled particles are then returned to the raining bed. Initial development of this concept is for the aluminum smelting industry. In this final report, the design, development, fabrication, and installation of a full-scale FBWHR system is detailed.

  17. Secondary economic impact of acid deposition control legislation in six coal producing states: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.; Guthrie, S.J.

    1988-12-01

    Among the difficult policy questions on the US environmental agenda is what to do about emissions to the earth's atmosphere of pollutants that may result in ''acid rain''. The Congress has considered several pieces of legislation spelling out potential approaches to the problem and setting goals for emission reduction, mostly emphasizing the control of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen. Significant policy concern is the dollar costs to the nation's economy of achieving the intended effects of the legislation and the potential impacts on economic activity---in particular, losses of both coal mining and secondary service sector employment in states and regions dependent on the mining of high sulfur coal. There are several direct economic effects of regulations such as the acid rain control legislation. One of the more obvious effects was the switching from high sulfur coal to low sulfur coal. This would result in increases in employment and coal business procurements in low sulfur coal mining regions, but also would result in lower employment and lower coal business procurements in high sulfur coal mining areas. The potential negative effects are the immediate policy concern and are the focus of this report. 15 refs., 1 fig., 17 tabs.

  18. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program Report to Congress: An Integrated Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Uhart, M.; et al,

    2005-08-01

    Under Title IX of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, Congress reauthorized the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) to continue coordinating acid rain research and monitoring, as it had done during the previous decade, and to provide Congress with periodic reports. In particular, Congress asked NAPAP to assess all available data and information to answer two questions: (1) What are the costs, benefits, and effectiveness of Title IV? This question addresses the costs and economic impacts of complying with the Acid Rain Program as well as benefit analyses associated with the various human health and welfare effects, including reduced visibility, damages to materials and cultural resources, and effects on ecosystems. (2) What reductions in deposition rates are needed to prevent adverse ecological effects? This complex questions addresses ecological systems and the deposition levels at which they experience harmful effects. The results of the assessment of the effects of Title IV and of the relationship between acid deposition rates and ecological effects were to be reported to Congress quadrennially, beginning with the 1996 report to Congress. The objective of this Report is to address the two main questions posed by Congress and fully communicate the results of the assessment to decision-makers. Given the primary audience, most of this report is not written as a technical document, although information supporting the conclusions is provided along with references.

  19. DETECTION OF SUPERSONIC DOWNFLOWS AND ASSOCIATED HEATING EVENTS IN THE TRANSITION REGION ABOVE SUNSPOTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kleint, L.; MartĂ­nez-Sykora, J.; Antolin, P.; Tian, H.; Testa, P.; Reeves, K. K.; McKillop, S.; Saar, S.; Golub, L.; Judge, P.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V.; Jaeggli, S.; and others

    2014-07-10

    Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph data allow us to study the solar transition region (TR) with an unprecedented spatial resolution of 0.''33. On 2013 August 30, we observed bursts of high Doppler shifts suggesting strong supersonic downflows of up to 200 km s{sup –1} and weaker, slightly slower upflows in the spectral lines Mg II h and k, C II 1336, Si IV 1394 Å, and 1403 Å, that are correlated with brightenings in the slitjaw images (SJIs). The bursty behavior lasts throughout the 2 hr observation, with average burst durations of about 20 s. The locations of these short-lived events appear to be the umbral and penumbral footpoints of EUV loops. Fast apparent downflows are observed along these loops in the SJIs and in the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, suggesting that the loops are thermally unstable. We interpret the observations as cool material falling from coronal heights, and especially coronal rain produced along the thermally unstable loops, which leads to an increase of intensity at the loop footpoints, probably indicating an increase of density and temperature in the TR. The rain speeds are on the higher end of previously reported speeds for this phenomenon, and possibly higher than the free-fall velocity along the loops. On other observing days, similar bright dots are sometimes aligned into ribbons, resembling small flare ribbons. These observations provide a first insight into small-scale heating events in sunspots in the TR.

  20. The field experiments on the HTO washout from the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Golubev, A.V.; Mavrin, S.V.; Golubeva, V.N.; Stengach, A.V.; Balashov, Y.S.; Kovalenko, V.P.; Solomatin, I.I.

    2015-03-15

    HTO (tritiated water) wash-out from the atmosphere is one of the key processes governing the HTO transport from the atmosphere into soil and plants. Experimental studies of the HTO interaction with water drops were carried out both in laboratories and in the field. In the course of experiments, the following rain characteristics were recorded: rain intensity, size distribution of drops, and falling velocities and their dependence on drop diameter. A laser optical device was designed and used to measure the distribution of the drop radius and velocities during the period of experiment. The tritium source was placed at a height of 30 m. Rainwater samples were collected in plastic bottles and their HTO activity was determined by liquid scintillation techniques. The data obtained for the experimental values of the scavenging rate are within the range from 4.12*10{sup -5} to 1.57*10{sup -4} s{sup -1} and correspond to the precipitation intensity from 0.3 to 1.26 mm/hour. These results are in sufficiently good agreement with the results of earlier papers.

  1. Technology Solutions Case Study: Hygrothermal Performance of a Double-Stud Cellulose Wall

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    Moisture problems within the building shell can be caused by a number of factors including excess interior moisture that is transported into the wall through air leakage and vapor drive, bulk water intrusion from leaks and wind-driven rain, capillary action from concrete to wood connections, and through wetted building materials such as siding wetted from rain splash back. With the increasing thickness of walls, moisture issues could increase. Several builders have successfully used “double-wall” systems to more practically achieve higher R-values in thicker framed walls. A double wall typically consists of a load-bearing external frame wall constructed with 2 × 4 framing at 16 in. on center using conventional methods. After the building is enclosed, an additional frame wall is constructed several inches inside the load-bearing wall. Several researchers have used moisture modeling software to conduct extensive analysis of these assemblies; however, little field research has been conducted to validate the results. In this project, the Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored a double-stud assembly in climate zone 5A to determine the accu¬racy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable and efficient assemblies.

  2. Installation of a Hydrologic Characterization Network for Vadose Zone Monitoring of a Single-Shell Tank Farm at the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W. ); Ward, Anderson L. ); Ritter, Jason C. ); Sisson, James B.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sydnor, Harold A.

    2001-10-30

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in collaboration with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and Duratek Federal Services, deployed a suite of vadose-zone instruments at the B Tank Farm in the 200 E Area of the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington, during the last quarter of FY 2001. The purpose of the deployment was to obtain in situ hydrologic characterization data within the vadose zone of a high-level-waste tank farm. Eight sensor nests, ranging in depth from 67 m (220 ft) below ground surface (bgs) to 0.9 m (3 ft) bgs were placed in contact with vadose-zone sediments inside a recently drilled, uncased, borehole (C3360) located adjacent to Tank B-110. The sensor sets are part of the Vadose Zone Monitoring System and include advanced tensiometers, heat dissipation units, frequency domain reflectometers, thermal probes, and vadose zone solution samplers. Within the top meter of the surface, a water flux meter was deployed to estimate net infiltration from meteoric water (rain and snowmelt) sources. In addition, a rain gage was located within the tank farm to document on-site precipitation events. All sensor units, with the exception of the solution samplers, were connected to a solar-powered data logger located within the tank farm. Data collected from these sensors are currently being accessed by modem and cell phone and will be analyzed as part of the DOE RL31SS31 project during the coming year (FY 2001).

  3. Parameterizations of Cloud Microphysics and Indirect Aerosol Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2014-05-19

    1. OVERVIEW Aerosols and especially their effect on clouds are one of the key components of the climate system and the hydrological cycle [Ramanathan et al., 2001]. Yet, the aerosol effect on clouds remains largely unknown and the processes involved not well understood. A recent report published by the National Academy of Science states "The greatest uncertainty about the aerosol climate forcing - indeed, the largest of all the uncertainties about global climate forcing - is probably the indirect effect of aerosols on clouds [NRC, 2001]." The aerosol effect on clouds is often categorized into the traditional "first indirect (i.e., Twomey)" effect on the cloud droplet sizes for a constant liquid water path [Twomey, 1977] and the "semi-direct" effect on cloud coverage [e.g., Ackerman et al., 2000]. Enhanced aerosol concentrations can also suppress warm rain processes by producing a narrow droplet spectrum that inhibits collision and coalescence processes [e.g., Squires and Twomey, 1961; Warner and Twomey, 1967; Warner, 1968; Rosenfeld, 1999]. The aerosol effect on precipitation processes, also known as the second type of aerosol indirect effect [Albrecht, 1989], is even more complex, especially for mixed-phase convective clouds. Table 1 summarizes the key observational studies identifying the microphysical properties, cloud characteristics, thermodynamics and dynamics associated with cloud systems from high-aerosol continental environments. For example, atmospheric aerosol concentrations can influence cloud droplet size distributions, warm-rain process, cold-rain process, cloud-top height, the depth of the mixed phase region, and occurrence of lightning. In addition, high aerosol concentrations in urban environments could affect precipitation variability by providing an enhanced source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Hypotheses have been developed to explain the effect of urban regions on convection and precipitation [van den Heever and Cotton, 2007 and Shepherd

  4. Roles of Wind Shear at Different Vertical Levels, Part I: Cloud System Organization and Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Qian; Fan, Jiwen; Hagos, Samson M.; Gustafson, William I.; Berg, Larry K.

    2015-07-07

    Understanding of critical processes that contribute to the organization of mesoscale convective systems is important for accurate weather forecast and climate prediction. In this study, we investigate the effects of wind shear at different vertical levels on the organization and properties of cloud systems using the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model with a spectral-bin microphysical scheme. The sensitivity experiments are performed by increasing wind shear at the lower (0-5 km), middle (5-10 km), upper (> 10 km) and the entire troposphere, respectively, based on a control run for a mesoscale convective system (MCS) with weak wind shear. We find that increasing wind shear at the both lower and middle vertical levels reduces the domain-accumulated precipitation and the occurrence of heavy rain, while increasing wind shear at the upper levels changes little on precipitation. Although increasing wind shear at the lower-levels is favorable for a more organized quasi-line system which leads to enlarged updraft core area, and enhanced updraft velocities and vertical mass fluxes, the precipitation is still reduced by 18.6% compared with the control run due to stronger rain evaporation induced by the low-level wind shear. Strong wind shear in the middle levels only produces a strong super-cell over a narrow area, leading to 67.3% reduction of precipitation over the domain. By increasing wind shear at the upper levels only, the organization of the convection is not changed much, but the increased cloudiness at the upper-levels leads to stronger surface cooling and then stabilizes the atmosphere and weakens the convection. When strong wind shear exists over the entire vertical profile, a deep dry layer (2-9 km) is produced and convection is severely suppressed. There are fewer very-high (cloud top height (CTH) > 15 km) and very-deep (cloud thickness > 15 km) clouds, and the precipitation is only about 11.8% of the control run. The changes in cloud microphysical

  5. Slide 1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    WSR-88D profiles over SGP ARM site PI VAP (X. Dong et al., University of North Dakota) Examples from X. Dong: a) MMCR time-height cross-section b) KVNX time-height cross section c) merged product d) surface rain rate and LWP -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 observed reflectivity, Z e (dBZ) height AGL (km) MMCR general mode 1-May-2007 black lines - 10:00 UTC blue lines - 12:00 UTC KVNX A stratiform precipitation case study at SGP (1 May 2007) -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30

  6. Wet buildings: A moisture primer

    SciTech Connect

    Lotz, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    This article will attempt to clarify the various issues that must be solved when investigating the cause of a building moisture problem. Several classic errors that result in mechanical engineers and contractors defending themselves in lawsuits will be reviewed. Moisture from internal and external sources is the most frequent cause of building problems and subsequent legal action. Many reported roof leaks are, in reality, condensation problems that have nothing to do with the roofing contractor. Mechanical design engineers need to work closely with the building owner, architect, and contractors to insure a dry, durable building. The first issue to examine is if the moisture is coming from the outside--i.e. rain. Other leaks discussed are ice dams, groundwater leaks, and roof leaks. Also discussed are vapor barriers, continuity of insulation, humidification chilled water, warehouses, trash plants, indoor pools, and hot or humid climates.

  7. The Impact of Injection on Seismicity at The Geyses, CaliforniaGeothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Majer, Ernest L.; Peterson, John E.

    2006-09-25

    Water injection into geothermal systems has often become arequired strategy to extended and sustain production of geothermalresources. To reduce a trend of declining pressures and increasingnon-condensable gas concentrations in steam produced from The Geysers,operators have been injecting steam condensate, local rain and streamwaters, and most recently treated wastewater piped to the field fromneighboring communities. If geothermal energy is to provide a significantincrease in energy in the United States (US Department of Energy (DOE)goal is 40,000 megawatts by 2040), injection must play a larger role inthe overall strategy, i.e., enhanced geothermal systems, (EGS). Presentedin this paper are the results of monitoring microseismicity during anincrease in injection at The Geysers field in California using data froma high-density digital microearthquake array. Although seismicity hasincreased due to increased injection it has been found to be somewhatpredicable, thus implying that intelligent injection control may be ableto control large increases in seismicity.

  8. An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Bruff; Ned Godshall; Karen Evans

    2011-04-30

    This Final Scientific/ Technical Report submitted with respect to Project DE-FE0000833 titled 'An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale' in support of final reporting requirements. This final report contains a compilation of previous reports with the most current data in order to produce one final complete document. The goal of this research was to provide an integrated approach aimed at addressing the increasing water resource challenges between natural gas production and other water stakeholders in shale gas basins. The objective was to demonstrate that the AltelaRain{reg_sign} technology could be successfully deployed in the Marcellus Shale Basin to treat frac flow-back water. That objective has been successfully met.

  9. Town of Colonie sanitary landfill leachate management system. Final report for 1992 and 1993 spraying season

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, J.R.

    1996-08-01

    The development, construction, and operation of the Colonie Landfill Leachate Management System (LLMS) was first conceived as a two-year project in 1987, but took more than six years to reach the final reporting stage, during which time substantial regulatory hurdles were encountered and overcome. During the summer of 1987, a work plan for the project was developed. It was determined that a pilot leachate-spraying study should be undertaken to provide additional information on the potential environmental impacts due to surface runoff and moisture front penetration through the landfill cap. To achieve this, a {1/4}-acre (100` x 100`) test area was prepared and equipped with a single leachate spray head, a collection point for runoff, a rain gage, and four pan lysimeters (at depths of 6 inch, 12 inch, 18 inch, and 24 inch) to measure moisture advancement through the cap. A similarly equipped control area, minus the spray head, was prepared nearby.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Environmental Data and Models. Volume 2. Performance, Emissions, and Cost of Combustion-Based NOx Controls for Wall and Tangential Furnace Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, H. Christopher; Tran, Loan K.

    1999-04-30

    This is Volume 2 of a two-volume set of reports describing work conducted at North Carolina State University sponsored by Grant Number DE-FG05-95ER30250 by the U.S. Department of Energy. The title of the project is “Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Acid Rain Assessments.” The work conducted under sponsorship of this grant pertains primarily to two main topics: (1) development of new methods for quantitative analysis of variability and uncertainty applicable to any type of model; and (2) analysis of variability and uncertainty in the performance, emissions, and cost of electric power plant combustion-based NOx control technologies. These two main topics are reported separately in Volumes 1 and 2.

  11. pH-dependent leaching of dump coal ash - retrospective environmental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, A.; Djordjevic, D. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    Trace and major elements in coal ash particles from dump of 'Nikola Tesla A' power plant in Obrenovac near Belgrade (Serbia) can cause pollution, due to leaching by atmospheric and surface waters. In order to assess this leaching potential, dump ash samples were subjected to extraction with solutions of decreasing pH values (8.50, 7.00, 5.50, and 4.00), imitating the reactions of the alkaline ash particles with the possible alkaline, neutral, and acidic (e.g., acid rain) waters. The most recently deposited ash represents the greatest environmental threat, while 'aged' ash, because of permanent leaching on the dump, was shown to have already lost this pollution potential. On the basis of the determined leachability, it was possible to perform an estimation of the acidity of the regional rainfalls in the last decades.

  12. Laboratory measurements of parameters affecting wet deposition of methyl iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Maeck, W.J.; Honkus, R.J.; Keller, J.H.; Voilleque, P.G.

    1984-09-01

    The transfer of gaseous methyl iodide (CH/sub 3/I) to raindrops and the initial retention by vegetation of CH/sub 3/I in raindrops have been studied in a laboratory experimental program. The measured air-to-drop transfer parameters and initial retention factors both affect the wet deposition of methyl iodide onto vegetation. No large effects on the air-to-drop transfer due to methyl iodide concentration, temperature, acidity, or rain type were observed. Differences between laboratory measurements and theoretical values of the mass transfer coefficient were found. Pasture grass, lettuce, and alfalfa were used to study the initial retention of methyl iodide by vegetation. Only a small fraction of the incident CH/sub 3/I in raindrops was held by any of the three vegetation types.

  13. Interpretation of Geoelectric Structure at Hululais Prospect Area, South Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Mulyadi

    1995-01-01

    Schlumberger resistivity surveys were conducted in 1993 as part of a combined geological, geophysical and geological program to investigate a geothermal prospect in the Hululais area, Southern Sumatra. These resistivity data resolved the upper conductive layer and were interpreted to define the shallow extent of a possible geothermal system. A follow-up magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out to probe deeper than the dc resistivity survey results achieved. However, the resistive sub-stratum below the conductive layer was still poorly resolved. Possible reasons for this include a preferential channeling of the telluric current within the thick shallow very conductive layer, thus limiting the penetration depth of the magnetotelluric signals and poor resolution due to high noise levels caused by significant rain and sferics.

  14. Detection range enhancement using circularly polarized light in scattering environments for infrared wavelengths

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    van der Laan, J. D.; Sandia National Lab.; Scrymgeour, D. A.; Kemme, S. A.; Dereniak, E. L.

    2015-03-13

    We find for infrared wavelengths there are broad ranges of particle sizes and refractive indices that represent fog and rain where the use of circular polarization can persist to longer ranges than linear polarization. Using polarization tracking Monte Carlo simulations for varying particle size, wavelength, and refractive index, we show that for specific scene parameters circular polarization outperforms linear polarization in maintaining the intended polarization state for large optical depths. This enhancement with circular polarization can be exploited to improve range and target detection in obscurant environments that are important in many critical sensing applications. Specifically, circular polarization persists bettermore » than linear for radiation fog in the short-wave infrared, for advection fog in the short-wave infrared and the long-wave infrared, and large particle sizes of Sahara dust around the 4 micron wavelength.« less

  15. Cross-media approach to saving the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Appleton, E.L.

    1995-12-01

    A project EPA began in August will investigate the possibility of cross-media emissions trading as a new approach to reducing nitrogen loadings to the Chesapeake Bay. Working with the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), the Agency hopes to device a NO{sub x} trading framework along the lines of existing sulfur dioxide trading plans to control acid rain. The Chesapeake Air Project will examine the feasibility of using emissions trading between and water sources, including trading credits between power plants and mobile sources, to reduce the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to the bay. The progress of the Bay Program nutrient reduction goals is up for reevaluation in 1997, and Knopes and EDF economist Brian Morton have high hopes that the trading plan, which would place a cap on the mass of emissions and rate of deposition allowed by all sources, will become the atmospheric deposition portion of the Chesapeake Bay Program`s Nutrient Reduction Strategy. 6 refs.

  16. Rainflow Algorithm-Based Lifetime Estimation of Power Semiconductors in Utility Applications

    SciTech Connect

    GopiReddy, Lakshmi Reddy; Tolbert, Leon M.; Ozpineci, Burak; Pinto, Joao O. P.

    2015-07-15

    Rainflow algorithms are one of the popular counting methods used in fatigue and failure analysis in conjunction with semiconductor lifetime estimation models. However, the rain-flow algorithm used in power semiconductor reliability does not consider the time-dependent mean temperature calculation. The equivalent temperature calculation proposed by Nagode et al. is applied to semiconductor lifetime estimation in this paper. A month-long arc furnace load profile is used as a test profile to estimate temperatures in insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) in a STATCOM for reactive compensation of load. In conclusion, the degradation in the life of the IGBT power device is predicted based on time-dependent temperature calculation.

  17. Richard Gerber! NERSC Senior Science Advisor! NERSC Training Lead

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Training Lead NERSC Overview --- 1 --- NERSC N ew U ser T raining September 10, 2013 --- 2 --- The m ission o f t he N a.onal E nergy Research S cien.fic C ompu.ng C enter (NERSC) i s t o a ccelerate s cien.fic discovery a t t he D OE O ffice o f S cience through h igh p erformance c ompu.ng and d ata a nalysis. National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) * NERSC i s a n a:onal s upercomputer c enter f unded b y the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (SC) - Supports S C

  18. Allowance trading made easy: The cash-forward settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Bartels, C.W.

    1993-11-01

    Centralized trading for cash-forward settlement adopts the most useful aspects of traditional commodity trading of spot cash and futures contracts, but eliminates those aspect which are most problematic for the regulated utility industry. Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a system of tradeable pollution rights which promises to achieve U.S. acid rain reduction goals at a savings of billions of dollars compared to traditional means of environmental regulation. The ultimate success of this allowance trading program depends in large part on the utility industry's capacity to integrate a new type of transaction into planning, decision-making, and cost recovery mechanism. The breadth and novelty of this challenge, along with the conservative nature of utility planners, executives, and regulators, may be one reason exploitation of allowance trading has been slow to develop.

  19. SO{sub 2} trimming and its effect on ESP performance

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, K.R.; Cottingham, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    Increased international awareness of acid rain pollution has resulted in a re-think by the Power Generation Industries, and various technologies are being applied to plants using fuels giving rise to high levels of sulphur dioxide production. There are both wet and dry absorption systems in operation throughout the world, but the presentation will be concerned only with dry control systems used for sulphur dioxide reduction or ``trimming``. The various approaches, (a) Reducing the sulphur content of the fuel, (b) The injection of dry powder absorbents, and (c) Spray dry liquid absorption will be reviewed in terms of typical SO{sub 2} reduction levels, stoichiometry, particulate carry-over and their impact on the performance of existing precipitators will be examined. Practical methods of minimizing the effect of changing inlet parameters on precipitator performance will be reviewed in terms of retrofit situations.

  20. Rainflow Algorithm-Based Lifetime Estimation of Power Semiconductors in Utility Applications

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    GopiReddy, Lakshmi Reddy; Tolbert, Leon M.; Ozpineci, Burak; Pinto, Joao O. P.

    2015-07-15

    Rainflow algorithms are one of the popular counting methods used in fatigue and failure analysis in conjunction with semiconductor lifetime estimation models. However, the rain-flow algorithm used in power semiconductor reliability does not consider the time-dependent mean temperature calculation. The equivalent temperature calculation proposed by Nagode et al. is applied to semiconductor lifetime estimation in this paper. A month-long arc furnace load profile is used as a test profile to estimate temperatures in insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) in a STATCOM for reactive compensation of load. In conclusion, the degradation in the life of the IGBT power device is predicted basedmore » on time-dependent temperature calculation.« less

  1. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on animal husbandry and production, from a Swedish perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.E.

    1989-04-01

    About 20% of the Swedish land area was considerably contaminated by radionuclides released by the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine, in April 1986. However, less than 10% of the arable land was contaminated. The heavy contamination was closely correlated with the amount of rain received during the first days of May 1986. Immediate restrictions on grazing limited the early uptake of contaminants in animal products. Changes in management of animals, especially sheep, goats, and reindeer in the contaminated areas have effectively reduced the transfer of radionuclides to human beings. One important factor was the possibility of obtaining uncontaminated feeds from unaffected parts of the country. The direct costs during the first 2 years after the accident were approximately +10 million for analyses and +90 million for compensation to farmers for condemned products (milk, mutton, and reindeer meat) and reimbursement for purchase of uncontaminated feeds from other parts of the country.

  2. FGD systems: What utilities chose in phase 1 and what they might choose in phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.W.; Bailey, K.A.

    1995-07-01

    Title IV (acid rain) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 is imposing new limitations on the emission of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from electric power plants. The Act requires utilities to develop compliance plans to reduce these emissions, and indications are that these plans will dramatically alter traditional operating procedures. A key provision of the SO{sub 2} control program defined in Title IV is the creation of a system of emission allowances, with utilities having, the option of complying by adjusting system emissions and allowance holdings. The central focus of this paper is the identification of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) control options being implemented by the electric utility industry, current compliance trends, synergistic control issues and a discussion of the implications of Phase I decisions for Phase II.

  3. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 3, Atmospheric sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1987-06-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales. In 1986, atmospheric research examined the transport and diffusion of atmospheric contaminants in areas of complex terrain and participated in a large, multilaboratory program to assess the precipitation scavenging processes important to the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' In addition, during 1986, a special opportunity for measuring the transport and removal of radioactivity occurred after the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual projects.

  4. Large-scale mapping of landslides in the epicentral area Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989, Santa Cruz County

    SciTech Connect

    Spittler, T.E.; Sydnor, R.H.; Manson, M.W.; Levine, P.; McKittrick, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989 triggered landslides throughout the Santa Cruz Mountains in central California. The California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology (DMG) responded to a request for assistance from the County of Santa Cruz, Office of Emergency Services to evaluate the geologic hazard from major reactivated large landslides. DMG prepared a set of geologic maps showing the landslide features that resulted from the October 17 earthquake. The principal purpose of large-scale mapping of these landslides is: (1) to provide county officials with regional landslide information that can be used for timely recovery of damaged areas; (2) to identify disturbed ground which is potentially vulnerable to landslide movement during winter rains; (3) to provide county planning officials with timely geologic information that will be used for effective land-use decisions; (4) to document regional landslide features that may not otherwise be available for individual site reconstruction permits and for future development.

  5. Technical efforts focus on cutting LNG plant costs

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Ichizo; Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi

    1995-07-03

    LNG demand is growing due to the nuclear setback and environmental issues spurred by concern about the greenhouse effect and acid rain, especially in the Far East. However, LNG is expensive compared with other energy sources. Efforts continue to minimize capital and operating costs and to increase LNG plant availability and safety. Technical trends in the LNG industry aim at reducing plant costs in pursuit of a competitive LNG price on an energy value basis against the oil price. This article reviews key areas of technical development. Discussed are train size, liquefaction processes, acid gas removal, heavy end removal, nitrogen rejection, refrigeration compressor and drivers, expander application, cooling media selection, LNG storage and loading system, and plant availability.

  6. Annual Storm Water Report for the Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Environment Compliance Department

    2012-01-01

    The storm water pollution prevention program at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) intends to protect the quality of storm water runoff through: (1) reducing the exposure of metal accumulation areas to precipitation, (2) implementation of Best Management Practices, (3) sampling during rain events and subsequent analysis, and (4) routine surveillances. When prescribed, the analytical data is compared to a set of cut-off concentration values to determine how the Y-12 Complex relates to other metal fabrication industries in the state of Tennessee. The quality of the storm water exiting the Y-12 Complex via East Fork Poplar Creek indicated some improvement in 2011. This improvement is attributable to the completion of several construction, demolition and remediation projects which occurred in 2010 and 2011. Emphasis will continue to be placed on site inspections and the timely implementation of improved storm water control measures as deemed necessary.

  7. Annual Storm Water Report for the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Clean Water Compliance Section of the Environment Compliance Department

    2012-01-01

    The storm water pollution prevention program at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) intends to protect the quality of storm water runoff through: (1) reducing the exposure of metal accumulation areas to precipitation, (2) implementation of Best Management Practices, (3) sampling during rain events and subsequent analysis, and (4) routine surveillances. When prescribed, the analytical data is compared to a set of cut-off concentration values to determine how the Y-12 Complex relates to other metal fabrication industries in the state of Tennessee. The quality of the storm water exiting the Y-12 Complex via East Fork Poplar Creek indicated some improvement in 2011. This improvement is attributable to the completion of several construction, demolition and remediation projects which occurred in 2010 and 2011. Emphasis will continue to be placed on site inspections and the timely implementation of improved storm water control measures as deemed necessary.

  8. The effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 on electric utilities: An update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report presents data and analyses related to Phase I implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendment by electric utilities. It describes the strategies used to comply with the Acid Rain Program in 1995, the effect of compliance on sulfur dioxide emissions levels, the cost of compliance, and the effects of the program on coal supply and demand. The first year of Phase I demonstrated that the market-based sulfur dioxide emissions control system could achieve significant reductions in emissions at lower than expected costs. Some utilities reduced aggregate emissions below legal requirements due to economic incentives; other utilities purchased additional allowances to avoid noncompliance. More than half of the utilities switched to or blended with lower sulfur coal, due to price reductions in the coal market which were partially due to the allowance trading program. 21 figs., 20 tabs.

  9. Pigouvian taxation of energy for flow and stock externalities and strategic, noncompetitive energy pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Wirl, F. )

    1994-01-01

    The literature on energy and carbon taxes is by and large concerned about the derivation of (globally) efficient strategies. In contrast, this paper considers the dynamic interactions between cartelized energy suppliers and a consumers' government that collectively taxes energy carriers for Pigouvian motives. Two different kinds of external costs are associated with energy consumption: flow (e.g., acid rain) and stock externalities (e.g., global warming). The dynamic interactions between a consumers' government and a producers' cartel are modeled as a differential game with a subgame perfect Nash equilibrium in linear and nonlinear Markov strategies. The major implications are that the nonlinear solutions are Pareto-inferior to the linear strategies and energy suppliers may preempt energy taxation and thereby may raise the price at front; however, this effect diminishes over time because the producers' price declines, while taxes increase. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Clean coal technology deployment: From today into the next millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Papay, L.T.; Trocki, L.K.; McKinsey, R.R.

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s clean coal technology (CCT) program succeeded in developing more efficient, cleaner, coal-fired electricity options. The Department and its private partners succeeded in the demonstration of CCT -- a major feat that required more than a decade of commitment between them. As with many large-scale capital developments and changes, the market can shift dramatically over the course of the development process. The CCT program was undertaken in an era of unstable oil and gas prices, concern over acid rain, and guaranteed markets for power suppliers. Regulations, fuel prices, emergency of competing technologies, and institutional factors are all affecting the outlook for CCT deployment. The authors identify the major barriers to CCT deployment and then introduce some possible means to surmount the barriers.

  11. Critique of the carbonate mass loss model for paint damage functions

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, R.A.

    1987-06-01

    One of the key questions concerning the assessment of acid deposition damage is its effect on painted surfaces. In order to determine this it is necessary to have a paint damage function that expresses the quantity of physical damage associated with a given level of acid deposition. This problem is now a major focus of EPA's current research; however, results are not yet available. Consequently, the NAPAP paint damage function was derived from data collected in several studies that substantially predated the acid rain research program. Although this damage function may appear plausible at first glance, it has been criticized, in part because paint damage constitutes such an important part of the total, but mainly because it is based largely on a conceptual model involving erosion due to dissolution loss of carbonate extenders in the paint formulation.

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Environmental Data and Models. Volume 1. Theory and Methodology Based Upon Bootstrap Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, H. Christopher; Rhodes, David S.

    1999-04-30

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume set of reports describing work conducted at North Carolina State University sponsored by Grant Number DE-FG05-95ER30250 by the U.S. Department of Energy. The title of the project is “Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Acid Rain Assessments.” The work conducted under sponsorship of this grant pertains primarily to two main topics: (1) development of new methods for quantitative analysis of variability and uncertainty applicable to any type of model; and (2) analysis of variability and uncertainty in the performance, emissions, and cost of electric power plant combustion-based NOx control technologies. These two main topics are reported separately in Volumes 1 and 2.

  13. Global Warming: A Science Overview for the A/C Industry

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1999-12-06

    Fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and natural gas) provide about 85% of the world's energy, sustaining our standard-of-living. They are inexpensive, transportable, safe, and relatively abundant. At the same time, their use contributes to problems such as air quality and acid rain that are being addressed through various control efforts and to the problem of global warming, which is now being considered by governments of the world. This talk will focus on six key aspects of the scientific findings that are leading to proposals for significant limitation of the emissions of fossil-fuel-derived carbon dioxide and limitations on emissions of other greenhouse gases that can influence the global climate, including substances used in the refrigeration and air-conditioning industries.

  14. Managing the global environmental risks in Russia: The missing links and external influences

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, V.

    1996-12-31

    Based on analysis of management history of three global environmental issues in Russia--climate change, ozone depletion and acid rains--the author suggests a few explanations of failure to build-up the nationwide strategy to manage global risks. Among them are specific factors related to the science-policy relationship on global changes processes and impacts. Particular attention is given to such internal factors as: the monopolization of these issues by the single state agency Hydromet until the late 1980s; the interest of the Soviet military in global atmospheric issues; the absence of any major input from the public or the media; and the manner in which the discussion of these issues was nested within the Soviet government`s broader foreign policy agenda.

  15. Status of fossil energy resources: A global perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Balat, M.

    2007-07-01

    This article deals with recently status of global fossil energy sources. Fossil energy sources have been split into three categories: oil,coal, and natural gas. Fossil fuels are highly efficient and cheap. Currently oil is the fastest primary energy source in the world (39% of world energy consumption). Coal will be a major source of energy for the world for the foreseeable future (24% of world energy consumption). In 2030, coal covers 45% of world energy needs. Natural gas is expected to be the fastest growing component of world energy consumption (23% of world energy consumption). Fossil fuel extraction and conversion to usable energy has several environmental impacts. They could be a major contributor to global warming and greenhouse gases and a cause of acid rain; therefore, expensive air pollution controls are required.

  16. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemore » and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.« less

  17. Environmental consequences of energy production: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1989-01-01

    The Seventeenth Annual Illinois Energy conference entitled Environmental consequences of Energy Production was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 19-20, 1989. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on the technical, economic and institutional issues surrounding energy production and related environmental problems. The conference program was developed by a planning committee which included Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. The conference included presentations on four major topic areas. The issue areas were: urban pollution: where are we now and what needs to be done in the future; the acid rain problem: implications of proposed federal legislation on the Midwest; global warming: an update on the scientific debate; and strategies to minimize environmental damage. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual presentations. (FL)

  18. Detection range enhancement using circularly polarized light in scattering environments for infrared wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    van der Laan, J. D.; Scrymgeour, D. A.; Kemme, S. A.; Dereniak, E. L.

    2015-03-13

    We find for infrared wavelengths there are broad ranges of particle sizes and refractive indices that represent fog and rain where the use of circular polarization can persist to longer ranges than linear polarization. Using polarization tracking Monte Carlo simulations for varying particle size, wavelength, and refractive index, we show that for specific scene parameters circular polarization outperforms linear polarization in maintaining the intended polarization state for large optical depths. This enhancement with circular polarization can be exploited to improve range and target detection in obscurant environments that are important in many critical sensing applications. Specifically, circular polarization persists better than linear for radiation fog in the short-wave infrared, for advection fog in the short-wave infrared and the long-wave infrared, and large particle sizes of Sahara dust around the 4 micron wavelength.

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales. In 1985, this research has examined the transport and diffusion of atmospheric contaminants in areas of complex terrain, summarized the field studies and analyses of dry deposition and resuspension conducted in past years, and begun participation in a large, multilaboratory program to assess the precipitation scavenging processes important to the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' The description of atmospheric research at PNL is organized in terms of the following study areas: Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain; Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension of Atmospheric Contaminants; and Processing of Emissions by Clouds and Precipitation (PRECP).

  20. Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?

    SciTech Connect

    Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

    2009-09-25

    Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

  1. An environmental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Geerling, C.

    1996-11-01

    The Shell Petroleum Development Company is operating in southern Nigeria in the delta of the Niger River. This delta covers an area 70,000 square kin of coastal ridge barriers, mangroves, freshwater swamp forest and lowland rain forests. Over the past decades considerable changes has occurred through coastal zone modifications, upstream urban and hydrological infrastructure, deforestation, agriculture, fisheries, industrial development, oil operation, as well as demographic changes. The problems associated with these changes are: (1) over-exploitation of renewable natural resources and breakdown of traditional management structures; (2) impact from industry such as pollution and physical changes, and (3) a perception of lack of social and economic equity. This paper describes approaches to help counteract theses problems.

  2. The state of a new art: Monitoring stormwater quality BMPs

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.R.; Allen, V.P. II

    1999-07-01

    Virtually all stormwater treatment systems work quite well at the low operating rates that occur during routine rainstorms and virtually all experience some drop-off in efficiency at the higher operating rates that result from heavy rainstorms. Some systems may fail, i.e, operate at negative efficiency meaning that they lose previously captured pollutants, when subjected to high enough loading rates. A premise of this paper is that no system's performance has been thoroughly documented until the highest operating rate at which it can perform acceptably has been documented. The three components of a monitoring program are: sampling (including rain gauging and/or flow measurement), testing, and reporting. None are overly complex, but since every site and every monitoring program is unique, there is wide variability in how best to carry them out. The outline that follows is offered as a practical set of methods to carry out each compound to get the best results from available resources.

  3. Modeling and validating tritium transfer in a grassland ecosystem in response to {sup 3}H releases

    SciTech Connect

    Le Dizes, S.

    2015-03-15

    In this paper a radioecological model (TOCATTA) for tritium transfer in a grassland ecosystem developed on an hourly time-step basis is proposed and compared with the first data set obtained in the vicinity of the AREVA-NC reprocessing plant of La Hague (France). The TOCATTA model aims at simulating dynamics of tritium transfer in agricultural soil and plant ecosystems exposed to time-varying HTO concentrations in air water vapour and possibly in irrigation and rain water. In the present study, gaseous releases of tritium from the AREVA NC nuclear reprocessing plant in normal operation can be intense and intermittent over a period of less than 24 hours. A first comparison of the model predictions with the field data has shown that TOCATTA should be improved in terms of kinetics of tritium transfer.

  4. PDSF User Meeting 05-06-14.pptx

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Lisa Gerhardt Utilization --- 2 --- Past Outages * 4/22/14: M endel r ack 1 2 u pgrade * 4/23/14 ( 11 a m - 1 2 p m): R olling r eboot o f l ogin nodes * 5/1/14 ( 24 h ours): M endel r ack 1 p ower Planned Outages * May 1 3 ( 8:00 a m - 5 :00 p m): F ull o utage. J obs w ill begin d raining a t 5 :00 p m t he d ay b efore Other Topics from PDSF Staff * Please u se p dsf.nersc.gov t o a ccess P DSF - Goes t hrough l oad b alancer - Old l ogin n odes a re u sed f or s ystem t es8ng a nd c an b e

  5. Department of Energy fiscal year 1984 budget on environment programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Natural Resources, Agriculture Research and Environment, U. S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, first session, 19 Apr 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    DOE Director Alvin W. Trivelpiece and Deputy Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health Robert W. Davies testified on why the administration made major budget cuts in nonnuclear health and environment programs when a 50% increase above the current $300 million budget is needed just to maintain the current reduced staff. Research on the health and environment effects and risk analyses associated with energy technologies were either scaled down or eliminated in the 1984 budget. Trivelpiece argued that programs were consolidated to eliminate duplication, and that the $210 million request will be adequate for data compilation and analysis. Davies reviewed DOE health and safety goals for the year, which will focus on personnel at DOE facilities. Both defended the administration's approach to such issues as acid rain, toxic wastes, and cancer research. An appendix with questions and answers for the record follows the testimony.

  6. Department of Energy Fiscal Year 1983 budget on environment, health, and safety. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Natural Resources, Agriculture Research and Environment of the Committee on Science and Technology, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session, March 11, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Alvin W. Trivelpiece of DOE and Willian Vaughan of the Environmental Protection Agency were the principal witnesses at a hearing to evaluate DOE's reduced budget request for environmental, health, and safety research. Of particular concern were the consequences of cutting the research budgets for work on the cancer and genetic effects of energy technologies, the effects of acid rain, human radiotherapy, and health-risk analysis. Trivelpiece and associates described the results of basic environmental and health research from the beginning of the Atomic Energy Commission. They made assurances that the current budget proposal is adequate, given the emphasis on appropriate missions, review processes and quality control, and cooperative information exchanges. Vaughan also assured the committee that DOE's health and safety responsibilities can be met with the proposed funding. (DCK)

  7. Radionuclides in plankton from the South Pacific Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1984-03-23

    We have initiated an investigation of the utility of marine plankton as bioconcentrating samplers of low-level marine radioactivity in the southern hemisphere. A literature review has shown that both freshwater and marine plankton have trace element and radionuclide concentration factors (relative to water) of up to 10/sup 4/. We participated in Operations Deepfreeze 1981 and 1982, collecting a total of 48 plankton samples from the USCGC Glacier on its Antarctic cruises. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories sampled air, water, rain, and fallout. We were able to measure concentrations in plankton of the naturally-occurring radionuclides /sup 7/Be, /sup 40/K, and the U and Th series, and we believe that we have detected low levels of /sup 144/Ce and /sup 95/Nb in seven samples ranging as far south as 68/sup 0/. Biological identification of the plankton suggests a possible correlation between radionuclide concentration and the protozoa content of the samples. 7 references, 5 figures.

  8. Remote sensing of soil radionuclide fluxes in a tropical ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, B.; Koranda, J.; Robinson, W.; Holladay, G.

    1980-11-06

    We are using a transponding geostationary satellite to collect surface environmental data to describe the fate of soil-borne radionuclides. The remote, former atomic testing grounds at the Eniwetok and Bikini Atolls present a difficult environment in which to collect continuous field data. Our land-based, solar-powered microprocessor and environmental data systems remotely acquire measurements of net and total solar radiation, rain, humidity, temperature, and soil-water potentials. For the past year, our water flux model predicts wet season plant transpiration rates nearly equal to the 6 to 7 mm/d evaporation pan rate, which decreases to 2 to 3 mm/d for the dry season. Radioisotopic analysis confirms the microclimate-estimated 1:3 to 1:20 soil to plant /sup 137/Cs dry matter concentration ratio. This ratio exacerbates the dose to man from intake of food plants. Nephelometer measurements of airborne particulates presently indicate a minimum respiratory radiological dose.

  9. Airborne Multisensor Pod System, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Alonzo, G M; Sanford, N M

    1995-01-01

    This issue focuses on the Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) which is a collaboration of many of the DOE national laboratories to provide a scientific environment to research multiple sensors and the new information that can be derived from them. The bulk of the research has been directed at nonproliferation applications, but it has also proven useful in environmental monitoring and assessment, and land/water management. The contents of this issue are: using AMPS technology to detect proliferation and monitor resources; combining multisensor data to monitor facilities and natural resources; planning a AMPS mission; SAR pod produces images day or night, rain or shine; MSI pod combines data from multiple sensors; ESI pod will analyze emissions and effluents; and accessing AMPS information on the Internet.

  10. Removal of Sarin Aerosol and Vapor by Water Sprays

    SciTech Connect

    Brockmann, John E.

    1998-09-01

    Falling water drops can collect particles and soluble or reactive vapor from the gas through which they fall. Rain is known to remove particles and vapors by the process of rainout. Water sprays can be used to remove radioactive aerosol from the atmosphere of a nuclear reactor containment building. There is a potential for water sprays to be used as a mitigation technique to remove chemical or bio- logical agents from the air. This paper is a quick-look at water spray removal. It is not definitive but rather provides a reasonable basic model for particle and gas removal and presents an example calcu- lation of sarin removal from a BART station. This work ~ a starting point and the results indicate that further modeling and exploration of additional mechanisms for particle and vapor removal may prove beneficial.

  11. OSCAR experiment high-density network data report: Event 1 - April 8-9, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Dana, M.T.; Easter, R.C.; Thorp, J.M.

    1984-12-01

    The OSCAR (Oxidation and Scavenging Characteristics of April Rains) experiment, conducted during April 1981, was a cooperative field investigation of wet removal in cyclonic storm systems. The high-densiy component of OSCAR was located in northeast Indiana and included sequential precipitation chemistry measurements on a 100 by 100 km network, as well as airborne air chemistry and cloud chemistry measurements, surface air chemistry measurements, and supporting meteorological measurements. Four separate storm events were studied during the experiment. This report summarizes data taken by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) during the first storm event, April 8-9. The report contains the high-density network precipitation chemistry data, air chemistry data from the PNL aircraft, and meteorological data for the event, including standard National Weather Service products and radar data from the network. 4 references, 72 figures, 5 tables.

  12. OSCAR experiment high-density network data report: Event 3 - April 16-17, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Dana, M.T.; Easter, R.C.; Thorp, J.M.

    1984-12-01

    The OSCAR (Oxidation and Scavenging Characteristics of April Rains) experiment, conducted during April 1981, was a cooperative field investigation of wet removal in cyclonic storm systems. The high-density component of OSCAR was located in northeast Indiana and included sequential precipitation chemistry measurements on a 100 by 100 km network, as well as airborne air chemistry and cloud chemistry measurements, surface air chemistry measurements, and supporting meteorological measurements. Four separate storm events were studied during the experiment. This report summarizes data taken by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) during the third storm event, April 16-17. The report contains the high-density network precipitation chemistry data, air chemistry and cloud chemistry data from the PNL aircraft, and meteorological data for the event, including standard National Weather Service products and radar and rawindsonde data from the network. 4 references, 76 figures, 6 tables.

  13. AmeriFlux US-CRT Curtice Walter-Berger cropland

    DOE Data Explorer

    Chen, Jiquan [University of Toledo / Michigan State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-CRT Curtice Walter-Berger cropland. Site Description - The conventional cropland site is rain fed and no irrigation is applied. As it is located in a part of the historic Great Black Swamp, drainage tiles are deployed around 0.5–1.0 m beneath the ground surface in order to draw down the water level. The soil is classified as silty clay and silty clay loam. The cultivation practices include minimum tillage and both insect and weed control.  During the study period, the cropland was planted with soybean and winter wheat.

  14. Decontamination analysis of the NUWAX-83 accident site using DECON

    SciTech Connect

    Tawil, J.J.

    1983-11-01

    This report presents an analysis of the site restoration options for the NUWAX-83 site, at which an exercise was conducted involving a simulated nuclear weapons accident. This analysis was performed using a computer program deveoped by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The computer program, called DECON, was designed to assist personnel engaged in the planning of decontamination activities. The many features of DECON that are used in this report demonstrate its potential usefulness as a site restoration planning tool. Strategies that are analyzed with DECON include: (1) employing a Quick-Vac option, under which selected surfaces are vacuumed before they can be rained on; (2) protecting surfaces against precipitation; (3) prohibiting specific operations on selected surfaces; (4) requiring specific methods to be used on selected surfaces; (5) evaluating the trade-off between cleanup standards and decontamination costs; and (6) varying of the cleanup standards according to expected exposure to surface.

  15. NMR Studies on the Aqueous Phase Photochemical Degradation of TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Cox, Larry G.

    2008-04-06

    Aqueous phase photochemical degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an important pathway in several environments, including washout lagoon soils, impact craters from partially detonated munitions that fill with rain or groundwater, and shallow marine environments containing unexploded munitions that have corroded. Knowledge of the degradation products is necessary for compliance issues on military firing ranges and formerly used defense sites. Previous laboratory studies have indicated that UV irradiation of aqueous TNT solutions results in a multicomponent product mixture, including polymerization compounds, that has been only partially resolved by mass spectrometric analyses. This study illustrates how a combination of solid and liquid state 1H, 13C, and 15N NMR spectroscopy, including two dimensional analyses, provides complementary information on the total product mixture from aqueous photolysis of TNT, and the effect of reaction conditions. Among the degradation products detected were amine, amide, azoxy, azo, and carboxylic acid compounds.

  16. Sandia Combustion Research Program: Annual report, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This report presents research results of the past year, divided thematically into some ten categories. Publications and presentations arising from this work are included in the appendix. Our highlighted accomplishment of the year is the announcement of the discovery and demonstration of the RAPRENOx process. This new mechanism for the elimination of nitrogen oxides from essentially all kinds of combustion exhausts shows promise for commercialization, and may eventually make a significant contribution to our nation's ability to control smog and acid rain. The sections of this volume describe the facility's laser and computer system, laser diagnostics of flames, combustion chemistry, reacting flows, liquid and solid propellant combustion, mathematical models of combustion, high-temperature material interfaces, studies of engine/furnace combustion, coal combustion, and the means of encouraging technology transfer. 182 refs., 170 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. The Gulf War and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    El-Baz, F. (ed.) (Boston Univ., MA (United States). Center for Remote Sensing); Makharita, R.M. (ed.) (World Bank, Washington, DC (United States))

    1994-01-01

    The Gulf War inflicted dramatic environmental damage upon the fragile desert and shore environments of Kuwait and northeastern Saudi Arabia. Coastal and marine environments experienced oil spills of more than 8 million barrels, which killed wildlife and damaged the fishing industry. In inland Kuwait, hundreds of oil lakes are scattered across the desert surface: these lakes emit noxious gases, drown insects and birds, and may seep to pollute groundwater. Exploding and burning oil wells released soot particles, oil droplets, and noxious chemicals into the atmosphere, spreading air pollution, acid rain, and respiratory problems. Military diggings, constructions, and vehicles have destroyed much of the desert pavement, resulting in increased dust storms and large, moving dunes.

  18. Hawaii Geothermal Project annotated bibliography: Biological resources of the geothermal subzones, the transmission corridors and the Puna District, Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.E.; Burgett, J.M.

    1993-10-01

    Task 1 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project Interagency Agreement between the Fish and Wildlife Service and the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge National Laboratory (DOE) includes an annotated bibliography of published and unpublished documents that cover biological issues related to the lowland rain forest in Puna, adjacent areas, transmission corridors, and in the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP). The 51 documents reviewed in this report cover the main body of biological information for these projects. The full table of contents and bibliography for each document is included along with two copies (as requested in the Interagency Agreement) of the biological sections of each document. The documents are reviewed in five main categories: (1) geothermal subzones (29 documents); (2) transmission cable routes (8 documents); (3) commercial satellite launching facility (Spaceport; 1 document); (4) manganese nodule processing facility (2 documents); (5) water resource development (1 document); and (6) ecosystem stability and introduced species (11 documents).

  19. Making appropriate comparisons of estimated and actual costs of reducing SO{sub 2} emissions under Title IV

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.E.

    1998-12-31

    A current sentiment within some parts of the environmental policy community is that market-based regulatory approaches such as emissions trading have proven so effective that actual costs will be only a small fraction of what ex ante cost estimation procedures would project. With this line of reasoning, some have dismissed available cost estimates for major proposed new regulations, such as the new PM and ozone NAAQS, as not meaningful for policy decisions. The most commonly used evidence in support of this position is the experience with SO{sub 2} reductions under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. In Title IV, a market for emissions allowances has been used to achieve reductions in sulfur dioxides (SO{sub 2}) to ameliorate acid rain. It is commonly asserted today that the cost of achieving the SO{sub 2} emissions reductions has been only one-tenth or less of what Title IV was originally expected to cost. This paper demonstrates that, to the contrary, actual costs for SO{sub 2} reductions remain roughly in line with original estimates associated with Title IV. Erroneous conclusions about Title IV`s costs are due to inappropriate comparisons of a variety of different measures that appear to be comparable only because they are all stated in dollars per ton. Program cost estimates include the total costs of a fully-implemented regulatory program. The very low costs of Title IV that are commonly cited today are neither directly reflective of a fully implemented Title IV, (which is still many years away) nor reflective of all the costs already incurred. Further, a careful review of history finds that the initial cost estimates that many cite were never associated with Title IV. Technically speaking, people are comparing the estimated control costs for the most-costly power plant associated with earlier acid rain regulatory proposals with prices from a market that do not directly reflect total costs.

  20. Fundamentals of successful monitoring, reporting, and verification under a cap-and-trade program

    SciTech Connect

    John Schakenbach; Robert Vollaro; Reynaldo Forte

    2006-11-15

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed and implemented the Acid Rain Program (ARP), and NOx Budget Trading Programs (NBTP) using several fundamental monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) elements: (1) compliance assurance through incentives and automatic penalties; (2) strong quality assurance (QA); (3) collaborative approach with a petition process; (4) standardized electronic reporting; (5) compliance flexibility for low-emitting sources; (6) complete emissions data record required; (7) centralized administration; (8) level playing field; (9) publicly available data; (10) performance-based approach; and (11) reducing conflicts of interest. Each of these elements is discussed in the context of the authors' experience under two U.S. cap-and-trade programs and their potential application to other cap and-trade programs. The U.S. Office of Management and Budget found that the Acid Rain Program has accounted for the largest quantified human health benefits of any federal regulatory program implemented in the last 10 yr, with annual benefits exceeding costs by {gt} 40 to 1. The authors believe that the elements described in this paper greatly contributed to this success. EPA has used the ARP fundamental elements as a model for other cap-and-trade programs, including the NBTP, which went into effect in 2003, and the recently published Clean Air Interstate Rule and Clean Air Mercury Rule. The authors believe that using these fundamental elements to develop and implement the MRV portion of their cap-and-trade programs has resulted in public confidence in the programs, highly accurate and complete emissions data, and a high compliance rate. 2 refs.

  1. Data Report: Meteorological and Evapotranspiration Data from Sagebrush and Pinyon Pine/Juniper Communities at Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, 2011-2012

    SciTech Connect

    Jasoni, Richard L; Larsen, Jessica D; Lyles, Brad F.; Healey, John M; Cooper, Clay A; Hershey, Ronald L; Lefebre, Karen J

    2013-04-01

    Pahute Mesa is a groundwater recharge area at the Nevada National Security Site. Because underground nuclear testing was conducted at Pahute Mesa, groundwater recharge may transport radionuclides from underground test sites downward to the water table; the amount of groundwater recharge is also an important component of contaminant transport models. To estimate the amount of groundwater recharge at Pahute Mesa, an INFIL3.0 recharge-runoff model is being developed. Two eddy covariance (EC) stations were installed on Pahute Mesa to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) to support the groundwater recharge modeling project. This data report describes the methods that were used to estimate ET and collect meteorological data. Evapotranspiration was estimated for two predominant plant communities on Pahute Mesa; one site was located in a sagebrush plant community, the other site in a pinyon pine/juniper community. Annual ET was estimated to be 310±13.9 mm for the sagebrush site and 347±15.9 mm for the pinyon pine/juniper site (March 26, 2011 to March 26, 2012). Annual precipitation measured with unheated tipping bucket rain gauges was 179 mm at the sagebrush site and 159 mm at the pinyon pine/juniper site. Annual precipitation measured with bulk precipitation gauges was 222 mm at the sagebrush site and 227 mm at the pinyon pine/juniper site (March 21, 2011 to March 28, 2012). A comparison of tipping bucket versus bulk precipitation data showed that total precipitation measured by the tipping bucket rain gauges was 17 to 20 percent lower than the bulk precipitation gauges. These differences were most likely the result of the unheated tipping bucket precipitation gauges not measuring frozen precipitation as accurately as the bulk precipitation gauges. In this one-year study, ET exceeded precipitation at both study sites because estimates of ET included precipitation that fell during the winter of 2010-2011 prior to EC instrumentation and the precipitation gauges started

  2. Near-surface Density Currents Observed in the Southeast Pacific Stratocumulus-topped Marine Boundary Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, Matt C.; Yuter, S. E.; de Szoeke, S.; Brewer, W. A.; Miller, Matthew A.; Hall, Andrew M.; Burleyson, Casey D.

    2015-09-01

    Density currents (i.e. cold pools or outflows) beneath marine stratocumulus clouds are characterized using a 30-d data set of ship-based observations obtained during the 2008 Variability of American Monsoon Systems (VAMOS) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) in the southeast Pacific. An objective method identifies 71 density current fronts using an air density criterion and isolates each density current’s core (peak density) and tail (dissipating) zone. Compared to front and core zones, most density current tails exhibited weaker density gradients and wind anomalies elongated about the axis of the mean wind. The mean cloud-level advection relative to the surface layer wind (1.9 m s-1) nearly matches the mean density current propagation speed (1.8 m s-1). The similarity in speeds allows drizzle cells to deposit tails in their wakes. Based on high-resolution scanning Doppler lidar data, prefrontal updrafts had a mean intensity of 0.91 m s-1, reached an average altitude of 800 m, and were often surmounted by low-lying shelf clouds not connected to the overlying stratocumulus cloud. Nearly 90% of density currents were identified when C-band radar estimated 30-km diameter areal average rain rates exceeded 1 mm d-1. Rather than peaking when rain rates are highest overnight, density current occurrence peaks between 0600 and 0800 local solar time when enhanced local drizzle co-occurs with shallow subcloud dry and stable layers. The dry layers may contribute to density current formation by enhancing subcloud evaporation of drizzle. Density currents preferentially occur in regions of open cells but also occur in regions of closed cells.

  3. Determination of formate in natural waters by a coupled enzymatic/high-performance liquid chromatographic technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kieber, D.J.; Vaughan, G.M.; Mopper, K.

    1988-09-01

    An enzymatic method was developed to quantify formic acid in natural water samples at submicromolar concentrations. The method is based on the oxidation of formate by formate dehydrogenase with corresponding reduction of ..beta..-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (..beta..-NAD/sup +/) to reduced ..beta..-NAD/sup +/ (..beta..-NADH); ..beta..-NADH is quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection. An important feature of this method is that the enzymatic reaction occurs directly in aqueous media, even sea water, and does not require sample pretreatment other than sample filtration. The reaction proceeds at room temperature at a slightly alkaline pH (7.5 - 8.5) and is specific for formate with a detection limit of 0.5 ..mu..M (S/N = 4) for a 200-..mu..L injection. The precision of the method was 4.6% relative standard deviation (n = 6) for a 0.6 ..mu..M standard addition of formate to Sargasso sea water. Average recoveries of 2 ..mu..M additions of formate to sea water, pore water, or rain were 103, 103, and 87%, respectively. Intercalibration with a Dionex ion chromatographic system showed an excellent agreement of 98%. Concentrations of formate present in natural samples ranged from 0.2 to 0.8 ..mu..M for Biscayne Bay sea water, 0.4 to 10.0 ..mu..M for Miami rain, and 0.9 to 8.4 ..mu..M for Biscayne Bay sediment pore water.

  4. Relations between rainfall amount, soil moisture and landslides in Hamilton County, Ohio, measured by strain survey and tensiometers

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, B.; Mayer, L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The movement of water through fill material and natural colluvium in a cut slope is being monitored at two sites with past landslide activity adjacent to I-275 in Hamilton County, Ohio. Quadrilaterals and an array of wooden stakes were placed immediately adjacent to the slide area to monitor movement of the slope at Site 1. To correlate any movement with soil moisture levels, rain gauges were installed. Changes in line-length measurements over a 3-month period are < 14 mm, and most differences average about 4 mm. Since measurement errors of up to 5--6 mm can be expected using a steel tape, more measurements over time will be needed to determine if significant displacement is occurring. Tensiometers were placed at 12 and 36 inches depth in the soil from mid-September through early November 1992, in order to measure matric suction. The 36 inch tensiometer indicated that the soil remained saturated at that depth. The 12 inch tensiometer measured 8 centibars, which occurred following a week of rain-free weather. Gravimetric measurements of soil samples show that surface soil moisture ranges from 14--39% immediately following a storm to 7--29% following at least 10 days of dry weather. At Site 2, quadrilaterals were set up in mid-August 1992; resurveys of the quadrilaterals shows very little, if any, movement. Movement of 38 mm occurred in one quadrilateral; movement in other quadrilaterals averaged close to 5 mm. The slide is not steadily moving, and may be following a pattern, where slides in Hamilton County were more likely to move in late winter or early spring.

  5. Optimization of scat detection methods for a social ungulate, the wild pig, and experimental evaluation of factors affecting detection of scat

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Keiter, David A.; Cunningham, Fred L.; Rhodes, Jr., Olin E.; Irwin, Brian J.; Beasley, James C.

    2016-05-25

    Collection of scat samples is common in wildlife research, particularly for genetic capture-mark-recapture applications. Due to high degradation rates of genetic material in scat, large numbers of samples must be collected to generate robust estimates. Optimization of sampling approaches to account for taxa-specific patterns of scat deposition is, therefore, necessary to ensure sufficient sample collection. While scat collection methods have been widely studied in carnivores, research to maximize scat collection and noninvasive sampling efficiency for social ungulates is lacking. Further, environmental factors or scat morphology may influence detection of scat by observers. We contrasted performance of novel radial search protocolsmore » with existing adaptive cluster sampling protocols to quantify differences in observed amounts of wild pig (Sus scrofa) scat. We also evaluated the effects of environmental (percentage of vegetative ground cover and occurrence of rain immediately prior to sampling) and scat characteristics (fecal pellet size and number) on the detectability of scat by observers. We found that 15- and 20-m radial search protocols resulted in greater numbers of scats encountered than the previously used adaptive cluster sampling approach across habitat types, and that fecal pellet size, number of fecal pellets, percent vegetative ground cover, and recent rain events were significant predictors of scat detection. Our results suggest that use of a fixed-width radial search protocol may increase the number of scats detected for wild pigs, or other social ungulates, allowing more robust estimation of population metrics using noninvasive genetic sampling methods. Further, as fecal pellet size affected scat detection, juvenile or smaller-sized animals may be less detectable than adult or large animals, which could introduce bias into abundance estimates. In conclusion, knowledge of relationships between environmental variables and scat detection may allow

  6. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) for Coal Storage Area Stabilization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Project and Design Engineering

    2011-03-01

    The scope of this project is to stabilize the abandoned coal storage area and redirect the storm water runoff from sanitary sewer system to the storm drain system. Currently, the existing storm water runoff is directed to a perimeter concrete drainage swale and collected in a containment basin. The collected water is then pumped to a treatment facility and after treatment, is discharged to the Y-12 sanitary sewer system. The existing drainage swale and collection basin along with silt fencing will be used during aggregate placement and grading to provide erosion and sediment control. Inlet protection will also be installed around existing structures during the storm water diversion construction. This project scope will include the installation of a non-woven geotextile fabric and compacted mineral aggregate base (paving optional) to stabilize the site. The geotextile specifications are provided on the vendor cut sheets in Appendix B. The installation of a storm water collection/retention area will also be installed on the southern side of the site in accordance with EPA Technical Guidance on Implementing the Stormwater Runoff Requirements for federal Projects under Section 438 of the Energy Independence and Security Act. The total area to be disturbed is approximately 2.5 acres. The order of activities for this Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) will be: (1) post notice of coverage (NOC) in a prominent display near entrance of the site; (2) install rain gauge on site or contact Y-12 Plant Shift Superintendent daily for Met tower rain gauge readings; (3) install stabilized construction exit on site; (4) install silt fencing along perimeter as indicated on the attached site plan; (5) regrade site; (6) install geotextile fabric and compacted mineral aggregate base; (7) install catch basin inlet protection where required; (8) excavate and lower existing catch basin tops, re-grade and asphalt to drain; and (9) when all disturbed areas are re-stabilized, remove

  7. Evaluation of Cloud-Resolving Model Intercomparison Simulations Using TWP-ICE Observations: Precipitation and Cloud Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Varble, Adam C.; Fridlind, Ann; Zipser, Ed; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Fan, Jiwen; Hill, Adrian; McFarlane, Sally A.; Pinty, Jean-Pierre; Shipway, Ben

    2011-06-24

    The Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) provided high quality model forcing and observational datasets through which detailed model and observational intercomparisons could be performed. In this first of a two part study, precipitation and cloud structures within nine cloud-resolving model simulations are compared with scanning radar reflectivity and satellite infrared brightness temperature observations during an active monsoon period from 19 to 25 January 2006. Most simulations slightly overestimate volumetric convective rainfall. Overestimation of simulated convective area by 50% or more in several simulations is somewhat offset by underestimation of mean convective rain rates. Stratiform volumetric rainfall is underestimated by 13% to 53% despite overestimation of stratiform area by up to 65% because stratiform rain rates in every simulation are much lower than observed. Although simulations match the peaked convective radar reflectivity distribution at low levels, they do not reproduce the peaked distributions observed above the melting level. Simulated radar reflectivity aloft in convective regions is too high in most simulations. 29 In stratiform regions, there is a large spread in model results with none resembling 30 observed distributions. Above the melting level, observed radar reflectivity decreases 31 more gradually with height than simulated radar reflectivity. A few simulations produce 32 unrealistically uniform and cold 10.8-?m infrared brightness temperatures, but several 33 simulations produce distributions close to observed. Assumed ice particle size 34 distributions appear to play a larger role than ice water contents in producing incorrect 35 simulated radar reflectivity distributions aloft despite substantial differences in mean 36 graupel and snow water contents across models. 37

  8. Chemistry of western Atlantic precipitation at the mid-Atlantic coast and on Bermuda

    SciTech Connect

    Church, T.M.; Galloway, J.N.; Jickells, T.D.; Knap, A.H.

    1982-12-20

    The major ion composition of western Atlantic precipitation falling at the coast of eastern United States (Lewes, Delaware) and at the Sargasso Sea (Bermuda Island) has been measured by event year round (May 1980 to April 1981) to assess the influence of the ocean on precipitation from storms that leave the North American continent and transit over the western Atlantic. Particular attention is paid to the oceanic influence on the sulfur and nitrogen precursors of acid rains. While sea salt contributes over half (by weight) of the salt in precipitation at the coast and over three quarters at Bermuda, most of the sulfate (90% at the coast and 50% at Bermuda) is in excess to sea salt sodium. Since Bermuda precipitation is still acidified some factor of 8 relative to pure equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide, this strong acidity has been attributed to the long-range transport sulfur and nitrogen precursors in the marine troposphere during which the sulfuric acid component dominates. A sulfur budget for the western Atlantic troposphere shows that of the total amount of sulfur exported from the North American continent (>3.9 TgS/yr) less than 3% (0.1 TgS/yr) is from natural sources, the rest being from anthropogenic emissions. If Bermuda precipitation is taken as typical of wet fallout of sulfur over the western Atlantic, then no more than half (<2 TgS/yr) of North American excess (nonsea salt) sulfur export falls out to the western Atlantic and at least half undergoes potential transoceanic transport as acid rain precursors to the east of Bermuda.

  9. Chemistry of Western Atlantic Precipitation at the Mid-Atlantic Coast and on Bermuda

    SciTech Connect

    Church, T.M.; Galloway, J.N.; Jickells, T.D.; Knap, A.H.

    1982-12-20

    The major ion composition of western Atlantic precipitation falling at the coast of eastern United States (Lewes, Delaware) and at the Sargasso Sea (Bermuda Island) has been measured by event year round (May 1980 to April 1981) to assess the influence of the ocean on precipitation from storms that leave the North American continent and transit over the western Atlantic. Particular attention is paid to the oceanic influence on the sulfur and nitrogen precursors of 'acid rains.' While sea salt contributes over half (by weight) of the salt in precipitation at the coast and over three quarters at Bermuda, most of the sulfate (90% at the coast and 50% at Bermuda) is in excess to sea salt sodium. Since Bermuda precipitation is still acidified some factor of 8 relative to pure equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide, this strong acidity has been attributed to the long-range transport sulfur and nitrogen precursors in the marine troposphere during which the sulfuric acid component dominates. A sulfur budget for the western Atlantic troposphere shows that of the total amount of sulfur exported from the North American continuent (>3.9 TgS/yr) less than 3% (0.1 TgS/yr) is from natural sources, the rest being from anthropogenic emissions. If Bermuda precipitation is taken as typical of wet fallout of sulfur over the western Atlantic, then no more than half (<2 TgS/yr) of north American excess (nonsea salt) sulfur export falls out to the western Atlantic and at least half undergoes potential transoceanic tranport as acid rain precursors to the east of Bermuda.

  10. September 2013 Storm and Flood Assessment Report

    SciTech Connect

    Walterscheid, J. C.

    2015-12-21

    Between September 10 and 17, 2013, New Mexico and Colorado received a historically large amount of precipitation (Figure 1). This report assesses the damage caused by flooding along with estimated costs to repair the damage at Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) on the Pajarito Plateau. Los Alamos County, New Mexico, received between 200% and 600% of the normal precipitation for this time period (Figure 2), and the Laboratory received approximately 450% percent of its average precipitation for September (Figure 3). As a result, the Laboratory was inundated with rain, including the extremely large, greater-than-1000-yr return period event that occurred between September 12 and 13 (Table 1). With saturated antecedent soil conditions from the September 10 storm, when the September 12 to September 13 storm hit, the flooding was disastrous to the Laboratory’s environmental infrastructure, including access roads, gage stations, watershed controls, control measures installed under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit (hereafter, the Individual Permit), and groundwater monitoring wells (Figures 4 through 21). From September 16 to October 1, 2013, the Laboratory completed field assessments of environmental infrastructure and generated descriptions and estimates of the damage, which are presented in spreadsheets in Attachments 1 to 4 of this report. Section 2 of this report contains damage assessments by watershed, including access roads, gage stations, watershed controls, and control measures installed under the Individual Permit. Section 3 contains damage assessments of monitoring wells by the groundwater monitoring groups as established in the Interim Facility-Wide Groundwater Monitoring Plan for Monitoring Year 2014. Section 4 addresses damage and loss of automated samplers. Section 5 addresses sediment sampling needs, and Section 6 is the summary of estimated recovery costs from the significant rain and flooding during September 2013.

  11. Final Technical Report: Effects of Changing Water and Nitrogen Inputs on a Mojave Desert Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Stanley, D.; Nowak, Robert S.; Fenstermaker, Lynn, F.; Young, Michael,H.

    2007-11-30

    In order to anticipate the effects of global change on ecosystem function, it is essential that predictive relationships be established linking ecosystem function to global change scenarios. The Mojave Desert is of considerable interest with respect to global change. It contains the driest habitats in North America, and thus most closely approximates the world’s great arid deserts. In order to examine the effects of climate and land use changes, in 2001 we established a long-term manipulative global change experiment, called the Mojave Global Change Facility. Manipulations in this study include the potential effects of (1) increased summer rainfall (75 mm over three discrete 25 mm events), (2) increased nitrogen deposition (10 and 40 kg ha-1), and (3) the disturbance of biological N-fixing crusts . Questions addressed under this grant shared the common hypothesis that plant and ecosystem performance will positively respond to the augmentation of the most limiting resources to plant growth in the Mojave Desert, e.g., water and nitrogen. Specific hypotheses include (1) increased summer rainfall will significantly increase plant production through an alleviation of moisture stress in the dry summer months, (2) N-deposition will increase plant production in this N-limited system, particularly in wet years or in concert with added summer rain, and (3) biological crust disturbance will gradually decrease bio-available N, with concomitant long-term reductions in photosynthesis and ANPP. Individual plant and ecosystem responses to global change may be regulated by biogeochemical processes and natural weather variability, and changes in plant and ecosystem processes may occur rapidly, may occur only after a time lag, or may not occur at all. During the first PER grant period, we observed changes in plant and ecosystem processes that would fall under each of these time-response intervals: plant and ecosystem processes responded rapidly to added summer rain, whereas most

  12. Use of Remote Technology in the Surface Water Environmental Monitoring Program at SRS Reducing Measurements in the Field - 13336

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, T.; Terry, B.; Meyer, A.; Hall, J.; Allen, P.; Hughey, D.; Hartley, T.

    2013-07-01

    automated sampler. In addition, automated rain gauges will be tied into this technology for immediate notification of rain at storm-water locations further enhancing the automation of environmental data collection. These technological improvements at SRS have led to data-quality improvements while reducing the field technician time in the field and costs for maintaining the traditional environmental monitoring applications. (authors)

  13. Environmental Tracers for Determining Water Resource Vulnerability to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, M

    2009-07-08

    Predicted changes in the climate will have profound impacts on water availability in the Western US, but large uncertainties exist in our ability to predict how natural and engineered hydrological systems will respond. Most predictions suggest that the impacts of climate change on California water resources are likely to include a decrease in the percentage of precipitation that falls as snow, earlier onset of snow-pack melting, and an increase in the number of rain on snow events. These processes will require changes in infrastructure for water storage and flood control, since much of our current water supply system is built around the storage of winter precipitation as mountain snow pack. Alpine aquifers play a critical role by storing and releasing snowmelt as baseflow to streams long after seasonal precipitation and the disappearance of the snow pack, and in this manner significantly impact the stream flow that drives our water distribution systems. Mountain groundwater recharge and, in particular, the contribution of snowmelt to recharge and baseflow, has been identified as a potentially significant effect missing from current climate change impact studies. The goal of this work is to understand the behavior of critical hydrologic systems, with an emphasis on providing ground truth for next generation models of climate-water system interactions by implementing LLNL capabilities in environmental tracer and isotopic science. We are using noble gas concentrations and multiple isotopic tracers ({sup 3}H/{sup 3}He, {sup 35}S, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H, {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O, and {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) in groundwater and stream water in a small alpine catchment to (1) provide a snapshot of temperature, altitude, and physical processes at the time of recharge, (2) determine subsurface residence times (over time scales ranging from months to decades) of different groundwater age components, and (3) deconvolve the contribution of these different groundwater components

  14. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Characterization of Fatigue and Crash Performance of New Generation High Strength Steels for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda Yan; Dennis Urban

    2003-04-21

    A 2-year project (2001-2002) to generate fatigue and high strain data for a new generation of high strength steels (HSS) has been completed in December 2002. The project tested eleven steel grades, including Dual Phase (DP) steels, Transformation-Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels, Bake Hardenable (BH) steels, and conventional High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) steels. All of these steels are of great interest in automotive industry due to the potential benefit in weight reduction, improved fuel economy, enhanced crash energy management and total system cost savings. Fatigue behavior includes strain controlled fatigue data notch sensitivity for high strength steels. High strain rate behavior includes stress-strain data for strain rates from 0.001/s to 1000/s, which are considered the important strain rate ranges for crash event. The steels were tested in two phases, seven were tested in Phase 1 and the remaining steels were tested in Phase. In a addition to the fatigue data and high st rain rate data generated for the steels studied in the project, analyses of the testing results revealed that Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) exhibit significantly higher fatigue strength and crash energy absorption capability than conventional HSS. TRIP steels exhibit exceptionally better fatigue strength than steels of similar tensile strength but different microstructure, for conditions both with or without notches present

  15. Dry borax applicator operator's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Karsky, Richard, J.

    1999-01-01

    Annosum root rot affects conifers throughout the Northern Hemisphere, infecting their roots and eventually killing the trees. The fungus Heterobasidion annosum causes annosum root rot. The fungus colonizes readily on freshly cut stumps. Partially cut stands have a high risk of infestation because the fungus can colonize on each of the stumps and potentially infect the neighboring trees. Wind and rain carry the annosum spores. Spores that land on freshly cut stumps grow down the stump's root system where they can infect living trees through root grafts or root contacts. Once annosum becomes established, it can remain active for many years in the Southern United States and for several decades in the north. About 7% of the trees that become infected die. When thinning, stumps can be treated successfully using a competing fungus, Phlebia gigantea, and with ''Tim-Bor'' in liquid formulations. These liquid products are no longer approved in the United States. Only the dry powder form is registered and approved by the EPA. Stumps can be treated with a dry formula of borax, (Sporax), significantly reducing one of the primary routes by which Heterobasidion annosum infects a stand of trees. Sporax is used by the USDA Forest Service to control annosum root rot. Sporax is now applied by hand, but once the felled trees are skidded it becomes very hard to locate the stumps. A stump applicator will reduce error, labor costs, and hazards to workers.

  16. FGD markets & business in an age of retail wheeling

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C.; Dalton, S.M.

    1995-06-01

    This paper discusses (1) the market and technology outlook for flue gas desulfurization ({open_quotes}FGD{close_quotes}) systems, with particular emphasis on wet systems in North America and the implications of retail wheeling of electricity and emission allowances for the utility industry, and (2) implications for the utility industry of architect/engineering ({open_quotes}A/E{close_quotes}) firm tendencies to reduce greatly the FGD vendor`s scope of award. The paper concludes that (1) the FGD market will be modest domestically and robust offshore over the forecast period (5-10 years), although the utility industry`s response to federal and state air toxics rules and retail wheeling may eventually grow the FGD market domestically beyond that created by compliance with Phase II of the Clean Air Act`s Title IV acid rain program alone, (2) new designs are likely to follow trends established in the past few years, but will likely include advanced processes that use higher velocity and smaller space, and possibly multi-pollutant control to remain competitive, and (3) shrinking of the FGD vendor`s scope may have adverse implications for the utility end-user, while retail wheeling may increase third-party ownership of FGD technology

  17. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and the Great Lakes economy: Challenges and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.; Molburg, J.; Pandola, G.; Taxon, T.; Lurie, G.; Fisher, R.; Boyd, G. ); Fox, J. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the market for SO{sub 2} emission allowances over time and electric utility compliance choices. For currently high emitting plants ( > 2.5 lb SO{sub 2}/MMBtu), the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) provide for about twice as many SO{sub 2} allowances to be issued per year in Phase 1 (1995--1999) than in Phase 2. Also, considering the scrubber incentives in Phase 1, there is likely to be substantial emission banking for use in Phase 2. Allowance prices are expected to increase over time at a rate less than the return on alternative investments, so utilities which are risk neutral or other potential speculators in the allowance market are not expected to bank allowances. The allowances will be banked by risk averse utilities or the utilities may buy forward contracts for SO{sub 2} allowances. However, speculators may play an important role by selling forward contracts for SO{sub 2} allowances to the risk averse utilities. The Argonne Utility Simulation Model (ARGUS) is being revised to incorporate the provisions of the CAAA acid rain title and to simulate SO{sub 2} allowance prices, compliance choices, capacity expansion, system dispatch, fuel use, and emissions. The revised model (ARGUS2) incorporates unit-level performance data and can incorporate unit-specific compliance decisions when these are known. The model has been designed for convenience in analyzing alternatives scenarios (demand growth rates, technology mix, economic parameters, etc). 1 ref., 5 figs.

  18. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    SciTech Connect

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO[sub 2] take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry's response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV.

  19. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    SciTech Connect

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO{sub 2} take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry`s response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV.

  20. Forecasting the market for SO sub 2 emission allowances under uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.; Molburg, J.; Fisher, R.; Boyd, G.; Pandola, G.; Lurie, G.; Taxon, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the effects of uncertainty and risk aversion on market outcomes for SO{sub 2} emission allowance prices and on electric utility compliance choices. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), which are briefly reviewed here, provide for about twice as many SO{sub 2} allowances to be issued per year in Phase 1 (1995--1999) than in Phase 2. Considering the scrubber incentives in Phase 1, there is likely to be substantial emission banking for use in Phase 2. Allowance prices are expected to increase over time at a rate less than the return on alternative investments, so utilities which are risk neutral, or potential speculators in the allowance market, are not expected to bank allowances. The allowances will be banked by utilities that are risk averse. The Argonne Utility Simulation Model (ARGUS2) is being revised to incorporate the provisions of the CAAA acid rain title and to simulate SO{sub 2} allowance prices, compliance choices, capacity expansion, system dispatch, fuel use, and emissions using a unit level data base and alternative scenario assumptions. 1 fig.

  1. Technology Solutions Case Study: Stand-Off Furring in Deep Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using "L" clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and "picture framing" the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing.

  2. Human health benefits of ambient sulfate aerosol reductions under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Chestnut, L.G.; Watkins, A.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Acid Rain Provisions (Title IV) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 call for about a 10 million ton reduction in annual SO{sub 2} emissions in the United States by the year 2010. Although the provisions apply nationwide, most of the reduction will take place in the eastern half of the United States, where use of high sulfur coal for electricity generation is most common. One potentially large benefit of Title IV is the expected reduction in adverse human health effects associated with exposure to ambient sulfate aerosols, a secondary pollutant formed in the atmosphere when SO{sub 2} is present. Sulfate aerosols are a significant constituent of fine particulate (PM{sub 2.5}). This paper combines available epidemiologic evidence of health effects associated with sulfate aerosols and economic estimates of willingness to pay for reductions in risks or incidence of health effects with available estimates of the difference between expected ambient sulfate concentrations in the eastern United States and southeastern Canada with and without Title IV to estimate the expected health benefits of Title IV. The results suggest a mean annual benefit in the eastern United States of $10.6 billion (in 1994 dollars) in 1997 and $40.0 billion in 2010, with an additional $1 billion benefit each year in Ontario and Quebec provinces.

  3. Revisiting your NO{sub x} compliance strategy: The impact of Title IV -- Phase 2, Title I -- OTAG, and proposed new NAAQS

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenquist, W.A.; DePriest, W.; Krause, T.; Rhudy, R.

    1997-09-01

    Utility strategic planning for NO{sub x} compliance will be significantly influenced by not only the new Title IV Phase 2 rules but also y the pending new ozone non-attainment requirements and the proposed changes to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). These regulations will have far-reaching effects on the NO{sub x} compliance strategy for most utilities. A utility`s goal is to develop a compliance plan that builds on the Phase 1 work just completed, while cost-effectively positioning themselves for the deregulated electricity market. With a typically broad mix of generating unit sizes, ages, capacity factors, fuels, and emission rates, a utility`s air emission compliance planning committee must deal with an ever growing mountain of data and options. The compliance planning committee can leverage the knowledge obtained in Phase 1 of the market-based Acid Rain Program to achieve a long-range strategy that will give the utility the flexibility to be competitive in a broad range of market conditions. This paper addresses how this monumental task can be accomplished using innovative application of proven technologies, coupled with the security of conservative risk management.

  4. The worldwide applicability of B and W`s advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D.K.; Madden, D.A.; Sivy, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Babcock and Wilcox, under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), has been developing an advanced generating plant design in DOE`s Combustion 2000 program entitled, Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low Emission Boiler System. The objective of the LEBS program is to develop an advanced pulverized coal (PC) fired power generation system for commercial application by the year 2000. Since concerns over acid rain, air toxics, global climate changes, ozone depletion and solid waste disposal are expected to further tighten regulations for new coal-fired plants, the system must achieve very low emissions and high cycle efficiency at a life cycle cost equivalent to a conventional PC plant meeting New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). B and W has coupled advanced environmental control technologies capable of achieving emissions or NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate far below current NSPS with an advanced boiler equipped with improved combustion and heat transfer subsystems to meet this objective. The B and W LEBS plant uses conventional state-of-the-art equipment along with developing new technologies to meet the program goals. This combustion of new and proven technologies allows B and W to meet the current demands in the marketplace. This paper describes B and W`s advanced generating plant design and its relevance to both the foreign and domestic markets.

  5. Alternative solutions for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from cell burner boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mali, E.; Laursen, T.; Piepho, J.

    1996-01-01

    Standard, tightly-spaced cell burners were developed by Babcock & Wilcox during the 1960s in response to economic demands for highly efficient burner designs. However, the downside of this 1960s design is the production of elevated levels of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions which negatively impact the environment. Cell-fired units have been designated as Phase II, Group II boilers under Title IV, Acid Rain Control, of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 for NO{sub x} control. This paper will discuss one technology developed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology program for pulverized coal, cell-fired units - namely, the Low NO{sub x} Cell burner (LNCB{reg_sign}) technology. The body of this paper will describe the development of Low NO{sub x} Cell burner technology and examine six follow-on commercial contracts. The purpose of the paper is to identify similarities and differences in design, fuels, costs and performance results when compared against the Clean Coal Technology prototype.

  6. Cooling the greenhouse effect: Options and costs for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from the American Electric Power Company

    SciTech Connect

    Helme, N.; Popovich, M.G.; Gille, J.

    1993-05-01

    A recent report from the National Academy of Sciences concludes that the earth is likely to face a doubling of preindustrial greenhouse gases in the next half century. This doubling could be expected to push average global temperatures. up from between 1.8 to 9 degrees Fahrenheit. Much of the potential for human impacts on the global climate is linked to fossil fuel consumption. Carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption in the US totals about one-quarter of the world`s total emissions from energy consumption. Global warming is different from other environmental problems because CO{sub 2} emissions can be captured naturally by trees, grasses, soil, and other plants. In contrast, acid rain emissions reductions can only be accomplished through switching to lower-polluting fuels, conserving energy, or installing costly retrofit technologies. Terrestrial biota, such as trees, plants, grasses and soils, directly affect the CO{sub 2} concentrations in the atmosphere. A number of reports have concluded that forestry and land-use practices can increase CO{sub 2} sequestration and can help reduce or delay the threat of global warming.

  7. Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust omniphobicity

    SciTech Connect

    Shillingford, Cicely; MacCallum, Noah; Wong, Tak -Sing; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-12-11

    The development of a stain-resistant and pressure-stable textile is desirable for consumer and industrial applications alike, yet it remains a challenge that current technologies have been unable to fully address. Traditional superhydrophobic surfaces, inspired by the lotus plant, are characterized by two main components: hydrophobic chemical functionalization and surface roughness. While this approach produces water-resistant surfaces, these materials have critical weaknesses that hinder their practical utility, in particular as robust stain-free fabrics. For example, traditional superhydrophobic surfaces fail (i.e., become stained) when exposed to low-surface-tension liquids, under pressure when impacted by a high-velocity stream of water (e.g., rain), and when exposed to physical forces such as abrasion and twisting. We have recently introduced slippery lubricant-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS), a self-healing, pressure-tolerant and omniphobic surface, to address these issues. However we present the rational design and optimization of nanostructured lubricant-infused fabrics and demonstrate markedly improved performance over traditional superhydrophobic textile treatments: SLIPS-functionalized cotton and polyester fabrics exhibit decreased contact angle hysteresis and sliding angles, omni-repellent properties against various fluids including polar and nonpolar liquids, pressure tolerance and mechanical robustness, all of which are not readily achievable with the state-of-the-art superhydrophobic coatings.

  8. A flexible importance sampling method for integrating subgrid processes

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Raut, E. K.; Larson, V. E.

    2016-01-29

    Numerical models of weather and climate need to compute grid-box-averaged rates of physical processes such as microphysics. These averages are computed by integrating subgrid variability over a grid box. For this reason, an important aspect of atmospheric modeling is spatial integration over subgrid scales. The needed integrals can be estimated by Monte Carlo integration. Monte Carlo integration is simple and general but requires many evaluations of the physical process rate. To reduce the number of function evaluations, this paper describes a new, flexible method of importance sampling. It divides the domain of integration into eight categories, such as the portion that containsmore » both precipitation and cloud, or the portion that contains precipitation but no cloud. It then allows the modeler to prescribe the density of sample points within each of the eight categories. The new method is incorporated into the Subgrid Importance Latin Hypercube Sampler (SILHS). The resulting method is tested on drizzling cumulus and stratocumulus cases. In the cumulus case, the sampling error can be considerably reduced by drawing more sample points from the region of rain evaporation.« less

  9. A flexible importance sampling method for integrating subgrid processes

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Raut, E. K.; Larson, V. E.

    2015-10-22

    Numerical models of weather and climate need to compute grid-box-averaged rates of physical processes such as microphysics. These averages are computed by integrating subgrid variability over a grid box. For this reason, an important aspect of atmospheric modeling is integration. The needed integrals can be estimated by Monte Carlo integration. Monte Carlo integration is simple and general but requires many evaluations of the physical process rate. To reduce the number of function evaluations, this paper describes a new, flexible method of importance sampling. It divides the domain of integration into eight categories, such as the portion that contains bothmore »precipitation and cloud, or the portion that contains precipitation but no cloud. It then allows the modeler to prescribe the density of sample points within each of the eight categories. The new method is incorporated into the Subgrid Importance Latin Hypercube Sampler (SILHS). The resulting method is tested on drizzling cumulus and stratocumulus cases. In the cumulus case, the sampling error can be considerably reduced by drawing more sample points from the region of rain evaporation.« less

  10. Buoyancy-driven heat transfer and flow between a wetted heat source and an isothermal cube

    SciTech Connect

    Close, D.J.; Peck, M.K.; White, R.F.; Mahoney, K.J. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes flow visualization and heat transfer experiments conducted with a heat source inside an isothermal cube filled with a saturated or near-saturated gas/vapor mixture. The mixture was formed by vaporizing liquid from the surface of the heat source, and allowing it to condense on the surfaces of the cube, which was initially filled with a noncondensing gas. Visualization studies showed that for air and ethanol below 35C, and for air and water, the flow patterns were similar with the hot plume rising from the source. For air and ethanol above 35C the flow pattern reversed with the hot plume flowing downward. For temperatures spanning 35C, which is the zero buoyancy temperature for the ethanol/water azeotrope and air, no distinct pattern was observed. Using water, liquid droplets fell like rain throughout the cube. Using ethanol, a fog of droplets moved with the fluid flow. Heat transfer experiments were made with water and air, and conductances between plate and cube of around 580 W{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}K{sup {minus}1} measured. Agreement between the similarity theory developed for saturated gas/vapor mixtures, and correlations for single component fluids only, was very good. Together with qualitative support from the visualization experiments, the theory developed in a earlier paper deriving a similarity relationship between single fluids and gas/vapor mixtures has been validated.

  11. The potential influence of environmental pollution on amphibian development and decline

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Globally, amphibians are reportedly declining. Environmental pollution has been hypothesized to be associated with declines. Because of their aquatic development and permeable eggs, skin and gills, amphibians, like fishes, may be particularly susceptible to poor water quality or waterborne pollutants. This dissertation addresses effects of global pollutants such as pesticides, acid rain and associated metal toxicity, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the development, behavior, and physiology of amphibian early life stages. This report contains only chapter six and conclusions. Chapter 6 reports on a field experiment in which green frogs from two clutches were exposed from egg to 107 days of age to water and sediments in enclosures along a PCB and metal contamination gradient in the Fox River and wetlands near Green Bay, Wisconsin. Green frogs showed lower hatching success and survival at sites with higher contaminant levels compared to cleaner wetland sites along Green Bay. Hatching success in the green frog was most significantly negatively correlated with sediment PCB levels. It can be concluded that environmental pollution and toxicants in aquatic environments can cause problems for amphibian early development. Sometimes the effects are subtle, and sometimes they are dramatic. In general, amphibian early life stages seem particularly sensitive to environmentally-realistic levels of low pH and metals, but appear more tolerant of TCDD and PCBs.

  12. Survey of synfuel technology for lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Sondreal, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    The most important market for lignite will continue to be the electric utility industry, where it is used to fuel large pc-fired boilers serving major regional power grids. However, the growth of this market and thechnology is being challenged by new and more stringent environmental control requirements, including the international concern over acid rain. Environmental and economic issues could either encourage or limit the development of a synfuels market for lignite depending on the cost effectiveness of the technological solutions that are developed. Clearly the United States needs to develop its coal resources to reduce dependence on imported oil. However, demand for coal derived substitute petroleum will be constrained by cost for the forseeable future. Government policy initiatives and new technology will be the keys to removing these constraints in the decades ahead. A crossover point with respect to petroleum and natural gas will be reached at some point in the future, which will allow synthetic fuels to penetrate the markets now served by oil and gas. Those of us who are today concerned with the development of lignite resources can look forward to participating in the major synfuels market that will emerge when those economic conditions are realized.

  13. Pollution prevention incentives and disincentives created by the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, C.F.; Wolffe, G.S.

    1998-12-31

    Environmental laws and regulations have not always been implemented in a manner which allows the consideration of pollution prevention alternatives as a means of achieving progress toward air quality goals. Recently EPA has been making strides to re-interpret laws and regulations to be more flexible and encourage pollution prevention projects which do not involve end-of-the-pipe controls. For instance when conducting control technology evaluations such as Best Available Control Technology (BACT) and Lowest Achievable Emission Rate (LAER), facilities can and should take into consideration P2 options which accomplish the same emission reduction goals as traditional end-of-the-pipe controls. There are also new emissions trading provisions building on those allowed in the acid rain and offset trading programs which promise to make P2 projects much more cost effective. Several traditional command and control programs of the CAA also promote P2 projects. For instance emission reductions realized through P2 projects show managers a direct cost savings due to reductions in Title V Facility annual emissions fees and possibly a direct cost benefit through sale of emission credits. Furthermore, the CAA encourages P2 indirectly through the detailed understanding of processes gained from emissions inventories and Risk Management Plans. However, many CAA prescriptive programs create disincentives for industry to select pollution prevention alternatives. This paper will discuss incentives and disincentives for using P2 alternatives to comply with the CAA and discuss some of the recent changes designed to encourage P2.

  14. Environmental radionuclide distribution in Georgia after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Mosulishvili, L.M.; Shoniya, N.I.; Katamadze, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric Chernobyl-released radioactivity, assessed at about 2 x 10{sup 18} Bq, caused global environmental contamination. Contaminated air masses appeared in the Transcaucasian region in early May, 1986. Rains that month promoted intense radionuclide deposition all over Georgia. The contamination level of western Georgia considerably exceeded the contamination level of eastern Georgia. The Black Sea coast of Georgia suffered from the Chernobyl accident as much as did strongly contaminated areas of the Ukraine and Belarus`. Unfortunately, governmental decrees on countermeasures against the consequences of the Chernobyl accident at that time did not even refer to the coast of Georgia. The authors observed the first increase in radioactivity background in rainfall samples collected on May 2, 1986, in Tbilisi. {gamma}-Spectrometric measurements of aerosol filters, vegetation, food stuffs, and other objects, in addition to rainfall, persistently confirmed the occurrence of short-lived radionuclides, including {sup 131}I. At first, this fact seemed unbelievable, because the Chernobyl accident had occurred only 4-5 days earlier and far from Georgia. However, these arguments proved to be faulty. Soon, environmental monitoring of radiation in Georgia became urgent. Environmental radionuclide distribution in Georgia shortly after the Chernobyl accident, as well as the methods of analysis, are reported in this paper.

  15. Effects of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments on distributions of visual impairment

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, J.D.; Camp, J.; Trexler, E.C. Jr.

    1996-02-01

    The Acid Rain Provisions (Title IV) of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (1990 CAAA) focus on emission policies designed to reduce the amount of deposition of acidifying pollutants, particularly in the Northeast. The primary strategy is a significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions, with lesser reductions scheduled for NO{sub {times}} emissions. However, lessening of acid deposition is not the only important benefit of the emission control strategy. Decreasing SO{sup {minus}} and NO {sup {minus}} emissions will decrease atmospheric concentrations of sulfate and nitrate particles, which account for much of the visibility reduction associated with regional haze. Although one can get a qualitative sense of how visibility might improve by examining historical large-scale trends in regional emission totals and regional visibility, quantification of the expected improvement requires model simulations. One must model the spatial and temporal patterns of emissions reductions; the relevant pollutant transport, transformation, and removal processes in the atmosphere; and the changes in particulate loading. For this initial examination of the visibility improvement at Shenandoah National Park associated the the Phase I and Phase II SO{sub 2} emission reductions, we have linked emission trend projections taken from ongoing analysis of the 1990 CAAA at Argonne National Laboratory, regional transport modeling with the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model and visual impairment modeling with the Visibility Assessment Scoping Model (VASM).

  16. Emissions trading programs, making sense of the options

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrer, S.

    1996-03-01

    In an attempt to move away from the traditional command-and-control approach to regulation, the US Environmental Protection Agency has begun to develop economic incentive programs. These programs encourage compliance with nationwide pollution-reduction goals, but seek industry action based on market or profit incentives, rather than fear of retribution or penalty. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) require that stringent means be taken to reduce NOx pollution in so-called ozone-nonattainment areas. Under CAAA Title IV, the SO{sub 2} trading program went into effect in 1993 to reduce acid rain. For NO{sub x}, several programs are either already in operation, or are under development. These include the Cap and Trade program, the Open Market trading program and New Source Review Offset Trading program. These 3 programs are described. To obtain a Title V operating permit, issues to consider are operation, job descriptions, certification process, value, estimating future emissions, confidentiality, permits, inter-media coordination, costs, and publicity.

  17. Synthetic fuels and the environment: an environmental and regulatory impacts analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    Since July 1979 when DOE/EV-0044 report Environmental Analysis of Synthetic Liquid fuels was published the synthetic fuels program proposals of the Administration have undergone significant modifications. The program year for which the development goal of 1.5 million barrels per day is to be reached has been changed from 1990 to 1995. The program plan is now proposed to have two stages to ensure, among other things, better environmental protection: an initial stage emphasizing applied research and development (R and D), including environmental research, followed by a second stage that would accelerate deployment of those synthetic fuel technologies then judged most ready for rapid deployment and economic operation within the environmental protection requirements. These program changes have significantly expanded the scope of technologies to be considered in this environmental analysis and have increased the likelihood that accelerated environmental R and D efforts will be successful in solving principal environmental and worker safety concerns for most technologies prior to the initiation of the second stage of the accelerated deployment plan. Information is presented under the following section headings: summary; study description; the technologies and their environmental concerns (including, coal liquefaction and gasification, oil shale production, biomass and urban waste conversion); regulatory and institutional analyses; and environmental impacts analysis (including air and water quaility analyses, impacts of carbon dioxide and acid rain, water availability, solid and hazardous wastes, coal mining environmental impacts, transportation issues, community growth and change, and regional impacts). Additional information is presented in seventeen appendixes. (JGB)

  18. Atmospheric tracer technology and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on atmospheric tracer technology and applications. It summarizes the state of the art, provides information exchange for members of the atmospheric community, defines areas for future applications of tracers, and identifies requirements for tracer techniques. A major objective of research in atmospheric science over the past several decades has been to obtain an enhanced description of transport, transformation, and deposition of trace constituents present in the atmosphere. Interest in these processes has been hightened with the recognition that pollutant materials transported over long distances may exert significant effects at receptor locations, and the consequent desire to improve knowledge of source-receptor relationships. There is a wide range of practical applications for tracer experiments. In many cases the tracer allows 1) the documentation of a potential airborne hazard without actually emitting hazardous material or 2) the evaluation of the expected outcome of an expensive process alteration. Some examples of the former case are testing of rocket fuels, developing chemical defense strategies, establishing safety procedures for possible accidents in the handling and transportation of hazardous materials, and assessing the fire and explosion hazards present in handling special materials such as liquified natural gas. The practical use of tracers for economic benefit includes designing emissions systems, for both air quality control and dissemination systems such as in forest and crop spraying or cloud seeding, and siting of industrial facilities. Other applications include source attribution, which is currently of interest in the acid rain problem.

  19. ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, L. R.; Prather, K.; Ralph, R.; Rosenfeld, D.; Spackman, R.; DeMott, P.; Fairall, C.; Fan, J.; Hagos, S.; Hughes, M.; Long, C.; Rutledge, S.; Waliser, D.; Wang, H.

    2014-09-01

    The western U.S. receives precipitation predominantly during the cold season when storms approach from the Pacific Ocean. The snowpack that accumulates during winter storms provides about 70-90% of water supply for the region. Understanding and modeling the fundamental processes that govern the large precipitation variability and extremes in the western U.S. is a critical test for the ability of climate models to predict the regional water cycle, including floods and droughts. Two elements of significant importance in predicting precipitation variability in the western U.S. are atmospheric rivers and aerosols. Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow bands of enhanced water vapor associated with the warm sector of extratropical cyclones over the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Because of the large lower-tropospheric water vapor content, strong atmospheric winds and neutral moist static stability, some ARs can produce heavy precipitation by orographic enhancement during landfall on the U.S. West Coast. While ARs are responsible for a large fraction of heavy precipitation in that region during winter, much of the rest of the orographic precipitation occurs in post-frontal clouds, which are typically quite shallow, with tops just high enough to pass the mountain barrier. Such clouds are inherently quite susceptible to aerosol effects on both warm rain and ice precipitation-forming processes.

  20. Controlling NOx emission from industrial sources

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, R.K.; Nueffer, W.; Grano, D.; Khan, S.; Staudt, J.E.; Jozewicz, W.

    2005-07-01

    A number of regulatory actions focused on reducing NOx emissions from stationary combustion sources have been taken in the United States in the last decade. These actions include the Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, and the NOx SIP Call rulemakings. In addition to these regulations, the recent Interstate Air Quality Rulemaking proposal and other bills in the Congress are focusing on additional reductions of NOx. Industrial combustion sources accounted for about 18016 of NOx emissions in the United States in 2000 and constituted the second largest emitting source category within stationary sources, only behind electric utility sources. Based on these data, reduction of NOx emissions from industrial combustion sources is an important consideration in efforts undertaken to address the environmental concerns associated with NOx. This paper discusses primary and secondary NOx control technologies applicable to various major categories of industrial sources. The sources considered in this paper include large boilers, furnaces and fired heaters, combustion turbines, large IC engines, and cement kilns. For each source category considered in this paper, primary NOx controls are discussed first, followed by a discussion of secondary NOx controls.

  1. The feasibility of effluent trading in the energy industries

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    In January 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to spur additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades - point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant, and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This report evaluates the feasibility of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas industry (exploration and production, refining, and distribution and marketing segments), electric power industry, and the coal industry (mines and preparation plants). Nonpoint source/nonpoint source trades are not considered since the energy industry facilities evaluated here are all point sources. EPA has administered emission trading programs in its air quality program for many years. Programs for offsets, bubbles, banking, and netting are supported by federal regulations, and the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments provide a statutory basis for trading programs to control ozone and acid rain. Different programs have had varying degrees of success, but few have come close to meeting their expectations. Few trading programs have been established under the Clean Water Act (CWA). One intraplant trading program was established by EPA in its effluent limitation guidelines (ELGs) for the iron and steel industry. The other existing effluent trading programs were established by state or local governments and have had minimal success.

  2. Sub-micrometre Particulate Matter is Primarily in Liquid Form over Amazon Rainforests

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, Adam P.; Gong, Z. H.; Liu, Pengfei; Sato, Bruno; Cirino, Glauber; Zhang, Yue; Artaxo, Paulo; Bertram, Allan K.; Manzi, A.; Rizzo, L. V.; Souza, Rodrigo A.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) occurs in the Earth’s atmosphere both in liquid and non-liquid forms. The physical state affects the available physical and chemical mechanisms of growth and reactivity, ultimately affecting the number, size, and composition of the atmospheric particle population. Herein, the physical state, including the response to relative humidity (RH), was investigated on-line and in real time for PM (< 1 μm) over the tropical rain forest of central Amazonia during both the wet and dry seasons of 2013. The results show that the PM was liquid for RH > 80% across 296 to 300 K. These results, in conjunction with the distributions of RH and temperature in Amazonia, imply that near-surface submicron PM in Amazonia is liquid most of the time. The observations are consistent with laboratory experiments showing that PM produced by isoprene photo-oxidation is liquid across these meteorological conditions. The findings have implications for the mechanisms of new particle production in Amazonia, the growth of submicron particles and hence dynamics of the cloud life cycle, and the sensitivity of these processes to anthropogenic activities. An approach for inclusion of particle physical state in chemical transport models is presented.

  3. Enhanced cover methods for surface coal refuse reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, L.F.; Cargill, K.W.; McGarvie, S.D.

    1997-12-31

    Controlling acid rock drainage (ARD) can be a major component of surface mining reclamation. An enhanced reclamation cover system is being constructed to control infiltration of rain water and generation of ARD from coal-refuse disposal areas at a closed mine in southern Illinois. Development of the mine reclamation plan required consideration of ARD generation in coal refuse disposal areas located adjacent to an alluvial aquifer used for public water supply. An integrated site characterization was performed at the mine to provide information to develop and support the enhanced reclamation plan. The enhanced cover system is similar to covers required for municipal solid waste landfills by the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Subtitle D regulations. The system comprises a graded and compacted gob layer, overlain by a compacted clay liner, and a protective soil cover. The results of infiltration modeling and analyses showed that the standard reclamation cover is effective in reducing infiltration by about 18 percent compared to an unreclaimed coal-refuse surface. The modeling results showed that the inhanced cover system should reduce infiltration by about 84 percent. The geochemical modeling results showed that the reduction in infiltration would help minimize ARD generation and contribute to an earlier reclamation of the mine site.

  4. Water balance relationships in four alternative cover designs for radioactive and mixed waste landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.W.; Hakonson, T.E. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States); Trujillo, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a field study to evaluate the relative hydrologic performance of various landfill capping technologies installed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at Hill Air Force Base, Utah. Four cover designs (two Los Alamos capillary barrier designs, one modified EPA RCRA design, and one conventional design) were installed in large lysimeters instrumented to monitor the fate of natural precipitation between 01 January 1990 and 20 September 1993. After 45 months of study, results showed that the cover designs containing barrier layers were effective in reducing deep percolation as compared to a simple soil cap design. The RCRA cover, incorporating a clay hydraulic barrier, was the most effective of all cover designs in controlling percolation but was not 100% effective. Over 90% of all percolation and barrier lateral flow occurred during the months of February through May of each year, primarily as a result of snow melt, early spring rains and low evapotranspiration. Gravel mulch surface treatments (70--80% coverage) were effective in reducing runoff and erosion. The two plots receiving gravel mulch treatments exhibited equal but enhanced amounts of evapotranspiration despite the fact that one plot was planted with additional shrubs.

  5. 25 Year Lifetime for Flexible Buildings Integrated Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Mark E.

    2010-07-10

    Although preliminary proof-of-principle of the efficacy of barrier materials and processes, first developed by Battelle at PNNL and commercialized by Vitex, has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale, there are several challenges to the practical commercial implementation of these developments in the Buildings Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) market. Two important issues that are addressed in this project are identifying a low cost substrate material that can survive in the outside environment (rain, heat, dust, hail, etc.) for 25 years and developing an encapsulation method for the photovoltaic (PV) cells that can meet the required barrier performance without driving the cost of the total barrier package out of range (remaining below $3.00/Wp). Without these solutions, current encapsulation technologies will limit the use of PV for BIPV applications. Flexible, light-weight packaging that can withstand 25 years in the field is required for a totally flexible integrated PV package. The benefit of this research is to make substantial progress in the development of a cost-effective, viable thin film barrier package which will be a critical enabling technology to meet the Solar America Initiative cost and device reliability goals, and to make photovoltaics (PV) more cost-competitive with electricity generated using fossil fuels. Increased PV installations will enable increased US electrical capacity and reduce dependence on imported oil through increased utilization of a widely abundant source of renewable energy (sunlight).

  6. DISCOVERY OF FOG AT THE SOUTH POLE OF TITAN

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M. E.; Smith, A. L.; Chen, C.; Adamkovics, M.

    2009-11-20

    While Saturn's moon Titan appears to support an active methane hydrological cycle, no direct evidence for surface-atmosphere exchange has yet appeared. The indirect evidence, while compelling, could be misleading. It is possible, for example, that the identified lake features could be filled with ethane, an involatile long-term residue of atmospheric photolysis; the apparent stream and channel features could be ancient remnants of a previous climate; and the tropospheric methane clouds, while frequent, could cause no rain to reach the surface. We report here the detection of fog at the south pole of Titan during late summer using observations from the VIMS instrument on board the Cassini spacecraft. While terrestrial fog can form from a variety of causes, most of these processes are inoperable on Titan. Fog on Titan can only be caused by evaporation of nearly pure liquid methane; the detection of fog provides the first direct link between surface and atmospheric methane. Based on the detections presented here, liquid methane appears widespread at the south pole of Titan in late southern summer, and the hydrological cycle on Titan is currently active.

  7. Energy technologies and the environment: Environmental information handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This revision of Energy Technologies and the Environment reflects the changes in energy supply and demand, focus of environmental concern, and emphasis of energy research and development that have occurred since publication of the earlier edition in 1980. The increase in availability of oil and natural gas, at least for the near term, is responsible in part for a reduced emphasis on development of replacement fuels and technologies. Trends in energy development also have been influenced by an increased reliance on private industry initiatives, and a correspondingly reduced government involvement, in demonstrating more developed technologies. Environmental concerns related to acid rain and waste management continue to increase the demand for development of innovative energy systems. The basic criteria for including a technology in this report are that (1) the technology is a major current or potential future energy supply and (2) significant changes in employing or understanding the technology have occurred since publication of the 1980 edition. Coal is seen to be a continuing major source of energy supply, and thus chapters pertaining to the principal coal technologies have been revised from the 1980 edition (those on coal mining and preparation, conventional coal-fired power plants, fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification, and coal liquefaction) or added as necessary to include emerging technologies (those on oil shale, combined-cycle power plants, coal-liquid mixtures, and fuel cells).

  8. An ecological engineering approach for keeping water from reaching interred wastes in arid or semiarid regions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes application of a soil-plant cover system (SPCS) to preclude water from reaching interred wastes in arid and semiarid regions. Where potential evapotranspiration far exceeds precipitation, water can be kept from reaching buried wastes by (1) providing a sufficiently deep cap of soil to store precipitation that falls while plants are dormant and (2) maintaining plant cover to deplete soil moisture during the growing season, thereby emptying the storage reservoir. Research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has shown that 2 m of soil is adequate to store moisture from snowmelt and spring rains. Healthy stands of perennial grasses and shrubs adapted to the INEL climate use all available soil moisture, even during a very wet growing season. However, burrowing by small mammals or ants may affect the performance of a SPCS by increasing infiltration of water. Intrusion barriers of gravel and cobble can be used to restrict burrowing, but emplacement of such barriers affects soil moisture storage and plant rooting depths. A replicated field experiment to investigate the implications of those effects is in progress. Incorporation of an SPCS should be considered in the design of isolation barriers for shallow land burial of hazardous wastes in and regions.

  9. Exploration and production in Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Wulff, K.; Hobson, D. )

    1996-01-01

    The prospectivity of the Papuan Basin has been appreciated, since oil seeps were first discovered in 1911. Initially, the mountainous terrain, a deeply karstified limestone surface covered with tropical rainforest, fed by 300 inches of rain each year, restricted access to the adventurous. Early exploration was focussed along the coastline and river systems, with only limited success. The development of helicopter transportable rigs during the 1970s was the technological advance that led to success, as the crests of anticlines became accessible to the drill. Even so, the lack of seismic due to severe terrain conditions and structural complexity, still constrains our ability to image trap. Despite these limitations, the oil discovery at Lagifu-2 in 1986, led to the development of the Kutubu Field by a Chevron led joint venture, with first oil in 1992. The Kutubu Field was developed at a cost of US$ 1 billion. Reserves are in excess of 250 mmbo with production currently at 1,00,000 bopd. PNG's second oil development will be the Gobe / SE Gobe Fields, also in the Papuan Thrust Belt, and thought to contain around 100 mmbo. Discovered in the late 1980s, the field is expected to produce 25 000 bopd from 1997. Significant volumes of gas have been discovered in the Highlands at Hides, where 3 wells have now confirmed a gas column in excess of 1 km. Additional large gas discoveries have been made in the Papuan Basin, highlighting the potential for PNG to become a long term LNG s producer.

  10. Atmospheric corrosion monitoring at the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M.

    1995-12-31

    Depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) at the US Department of Energy`s K-25 Site at Oak Ridge, TN has been stored in large steel cylinders which have undergone significant atmospheric corrosion damage over the last 35 years. A detailed experimental program to characterize and monitor the corrosion damage was initiated in 1992. Large amounts of corrosion scale and deep pits are found to cover cylinder surfaces. Ultrasonic wall thickness measurements have shown uniform corrosion losses up to 20 mils (0.5 mm) and pits up to 100 mils (2.5 mm) deep. Electrical resistance corrosion probes, time-of-wetness sensors and thermocouples have been attached to cylinder bodies. Atmospheric conditions are monitored using rain gauges, relative humidity sensors and thermocouples. Long-term (16 years) data are being obtained from mild steel corrosion coupons on test racks as well as attached directly to cylinder surfaces. Corrosion rates have been found to intimately related to the times-of-wetness, both tending to be higher on cylinder tops due to apparent sheltering effects. Data from the various tests are compared, discrepancies are discussed and a pattern of cylinder corrosion as a function of cylinder position and location is described.

  11. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) persistence in the Seveso (Milan, Italy) soil

    SciTech Connect

    Cerlesi, S.; Di Domenico, A.; Ratti, S. )

    1989-10-01

    Preliminary results of a new study on TCDD environmental persistence at Seveso (Milan, Italy) are presented. For this study, the most contaminated territory, Zone A, was divided into areas to fractionate the available TCDD levels in soil into data sets with reduced value spreads. In addition, various time subsets were defined for each area. Selected data were fitted with the exponential model y = y0.e-k.1. It was estimated that at least 1.2 kg TCDD was present in Zone A shortly after the accident. On average, a considerable portion (23%) of this amount lay on vegetation; TCDD which was not photodegraded or volatilized before the heavy rains of fall 1976, was later washed off and transferred to ground by water action. From this study, mean analytical underestimations affecting January 1977 and March 1978 contamination map data were on the order of 30 and 24%. All the above figures are considered optimistic. A few years after the accident, mean TCDD half-life in soil appeared to be 9.1y (t1/2-95% CLs, 6.2-17y).

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface waters of Alessandria District, South Eastern Piedmont (Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Trova, C.; Cossa, G.; Gandolfo, G.

    1992-10-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. Because of the high toxicity of some polycyclic compounds, such as benzopyrenes, the determination of their levels in air, water, soil and aquatic organisms was the object of several papers. Anthropogenic pyrolitic and combustion processes, related to industrial plants, domestic heating, automobile traffic, are the major sources of these compounds; from these sources they enter atmospheric environment where their concentration is reduced by scavenging during precipitation events: rain, snow and fog in urban areas usually show high contents of PAHs. Dry and wet atmospheric polluted depositions effluents transport appreciable amounts of PAHs to aquatic environment, where they are rapidly taken up and accumulated by both fish and shellfish. Alessandria District, in South-Eastern Piedmont (Italy), lies in the middle of Torino-Milano-Genova industrial area: in addition to local sources, a relatively long range transport of polluted air masses may conduct to this region atmospheric contaminants, such as polynuclear compounds, that can enter fluvial environments through meteoric precipitation. The object of this work was to evaluate PAH content in surface waters flowing across the described territory. Samplings were carried on during winter season, when the concentration of these pollutants usually reaches the highest levels. 8 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Argonne National Laboratory Research Highlights 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The research and development highlights are summarized. The world's brightest source of X-rays could revolutionize materials research. Test of a prototype insertion device, a key in achieving brilliant X-ray beams, have given the first glimpse of the machine's power. Superconductivity research focuses on the new materials' structure, economics and applications. Other physical science programs advance knowledge of material structures and properties, nuclear physics, molecular structure, and the chemistry and structure of coal. New programming approaches make advanced computers more useful. Innovative approaches to fighting cancer are being developed. More experiments confirm the passive safety of Argonne's Integral Fast Reactor concept. Device simplifies nuclear-waste processing. Advanced fuel cell could provide better mileage, more power than internal combustion engine. New instruments find leaks in underground pipe, measure sodium impurities in molten liquids, detect flaws in ceramics. New antibody findings may explain ability to fight many diseases. Cadmium in cigarettes linked to bone loss in women. Programs fight deforestation in Nepal. New technology could reduce acid rain, mitigate greenhouse effect, enhance oil recovery. Innovative approaches transfer Argonne-developed technology to private industry. Each year Argonne educational programs reach some 1200 students.

  14. Analysis of potential combustion source impacts on acid deposition using an independently derived inventory. Volume II, appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    This document contains 2 appendices. The first documents the methodologies used to calculate production, unit energy consumption, fuel type and emission estimates for 16 industries and 35 types of facilities utilizing direct-fired industrial combustion processes, located in 26 states (and the District of Columbia) east of the Mississippi River. As discussed in the text of this report, a U.S. total of 16 industries and 45 types of facilities utilizing direct-fired combustion processes were identified by an elimination type method that was developed based on evaluation of fuel use in industrial SIC codes 20-39 to identify pollutant sources contributing to acid rain. The final population included only plants that have direct-fired fuel consumption greater than or equal to 100 x 10/sup 9/ Btu/yr of equivalent energy consumption. The goal for this analysis was to provide at least a 1980 base year for the data. This was achieved for all of the industries and in fact, 1981 data were used for a number of the industries evaluated. The second contains an analysis of all consumption of major fossil fuels to: (1) identify all fuel usage categories, and (2) identify the kinds of combustion equipment used within each category. This analysis provides a frame of reference for the balance of the study and permits using an energy accounting methodology to quantify the degree to which the inventoried sources in individual consuming sectors are complete and representative of the total population for the sector.

  15. Introduction of clean coal technology in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Takashi Kiga

    2008-01-15

    Coal is an abundant resource, found throughout the world, and inexpensive and constant in price. For this reason, coal is expected to play a role as one of the energy supply sources in the world. The most critical issues to promote utilization of coal are to decrease the environmental load. In this report, the history, outline and recent developments of the clean coal technology in Japan, mainly the thermal power generation technology are discussed. As recent topics, here outlined first is the technology against global warming such as the improvement of steam condition for steam turbines, improvement of power generation efficiency by introducing combined generation, carbon neutral combined combustion of biomass, and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology. Also introduced are outlines of Japanese superiority in application technology against NOx and SO{sub 2} which create acid rain, development status of the technical improvement in the handling method for coal which is a rather difficult solid-state resource, and utilization of coal ash.

  16. Paint coatings: Controlled field and chamber experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Edney, E.O.

    1989-04-01

    To determine the impact of pollution levels on the weathering rates of coatings, laboratory chamber experiments and controlled field exposures at North Carolina and Ohio sites were conducted in such a manner to separate the contributions due to dry deposition, wet deposition, precipitation pH, etc. The results of these studies confirm that acidic gases such as SO/sub 2/ and HNO/sub 3/, as well as acids within rain, promote the dissolution of alkaline components including CaCO/sub 3/, ZnO, and Al flake from paint films. It is unclear from these studies whether the removal of these components reduces the service life or protective properties of the paint film. Other researchers within the Coatings Effects Program are conducting subsequent analyses to determine micro-damage of these paints. The uptake of acidic gases to painted surfaces is a complex process that depends on several factors. The deposition rate of SO/sub 2/ to a wet, painted surface may be controlled by the level of oxidants such as H/sub 2/O/sub 2/.

  17. Vertical microphysical profiles of convective clouds as a tool for obtaining aerosol cloud-mediated climate forcings

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Daniel

    2015-12-23

    Quantifying the aerosol/cloud-mediated radiative effect at a global scale requires simultaneous satellite retrievals of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and cloud base updraft velocities (Wb). Hitherto, the inability to do so has been a major cause of high uncertainty regarding anthropogenic aerosol/cloud-mediated radiative forcing. This can be addressed by the emerging capability of estimating CCN and Wb of boundary layer convective clouds from an operational polar orbiting weather satellite. Our methodology uses such clouds as an effective analog for CCN chambers. The cloud base supersaturation (S) is determined by Wb and the satellite-retrieved cloud base drop concentrations (Ndb), which is the same as CCN(S). Developing and validating this methodology was possible thanks to the ASR/ARM measurements of CCN and vertical updraft profiles. Validation against ground-based CCN instruments at the ARM sites in Oklahoma, Manaus, and onboard a ship in the northeast Pacific showed a retrieval accuracy of ±25% to ±30% for individual satellite overpasses. The methodology is presently limited to boundary layer not raining convective clouds of at least 1 km depth that are not obscured by upper layer clouds, including semitransparent cirrus. The limitation for small solar backscattering angles of <25º restricts the satellite coverage to ~25% of the world area in a single day. This methodology will likely allow overcoming the challenge of quantifying the aerosol indirect effect and facilitate a substantial reduction of the uncertainty in anthropogenic climate forcing.

  18. Estimates of Savings Achievable from Irrigation Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Alison; Fuchs, Heidi; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham

    2014-03-28

    This paper performs a literature review and meta-analysis of water savings from several types of advanced irrigation controllers: rain sensors (RS), weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC), and soil moisture sensors (SMS).The purpose of this work is to derive average water savings per controller type, based to the extent possible on all available data. After a preliminary data scrubbing, we utilized a series of analytical filters to develop our best estimate of average savings. We applied filters to remove data that might bias the sample such as data self-reported by manufacturers, data resulting from studies focusing on high-water users, or data presented in a non-comparable format such as based on total household water use instead of outdoor water use. Because the resulting number of studies was too small to be statistically significant when broken down by controller type, this paper represents a survey and synthesis of available data rather than a definitive statement regarding whether the estimated water savings are representative.

  19. Black carbon contribution to global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, P.; Johnson, B.; Kou, L.; Wong, J.

    1996-12-31

    Before the onset of industrial revolution the only important source of black carbon in the atmosphere was biomass burning. Today, black carbon production is divided between the biomass and fossil fuel burning. Black carbon is a major agent responsible for absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols. Thus black carbon makes other aerosols less efficient in their role of reflecting solar radiation and cooling the earth-atmosphere system. Black carbon also contributes to the absorption of solar radiation by clouds and snow cover. The authors present the results of black carbon concentrations measurements in the atmosphere, in cloud water, in rain and snow melt water collected during the 1992--1996 time period over the southern Nova Scotia. Their results are put into the global and historical perspective by comparing them with the compilation of past measurements at diverse locations and with their measurements of black carbon concentrations in the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. Black carbon contribution to the global warming is estimated, and compared to the carbon dioxide warming, using the radiative forcing caused by the black carbon at the top of the atmosphere.

  20. Measures used to tackle environmental problems related to global warming and climate change resulting from the use of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Environmental issues continue to play a major role in strategic planning associated with the use of coal for power generation. Problems, such as Acid Rain resulting from SO{sub 2} emissions produced from the sulfur content of coal during coal combustion, have recently cornered the attention of policy makers and planners. More recently the carbon content of coal, which provides for most of the coals heating value, has been identified as the major contributor to the production of CO{sub 2} and other emissions associated with Global Warming and Climate Change. Total world carbon emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels were approximately 6 billion metric tons in 1990, of which 44% were from the consumption of oil, 39% from coal, and 17% from natural gas. Assuming no change in current regulations, carbon emissions are anticipated to grow by 1.5% per year, and are predicted to reach more than 8 billion tons by the year 2010. Most of this increase in carbon emissions is expected to come from developing countries in the Asian Pacific Region such as China where coal use dominates the power production industry and accounts for 71% of its total CO{sub 2} emissions. Asian Pacific coal demand is expected to double over the next 15 years accounting for a 46% increase in total primary energy demand, and China currently produces approximately 11% of the world`s global greenhouse gas emissions which is expected to grow to 15% by the year 2010.

  1. Understanding the chemical properties of macerals and minerals in coal and its potential application for occupational lung disease prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, X.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this review was to assess whether some chemical parameters in coal play a role in producing environmental health problems. Basic properties of coal - such as chemical forms of the organic materials, structure, compositions of minerals - vary from one coal mine region to another as well as from coals of different ranks. Most importantly, changes in chemical properties of coals due to exposure to air and humidity after mining - a dynamic process - significantly affect toxicity attributed to coal and environmental fate. Although coal is an extremely complex and heterogeneous material, the fundamental properties of coal responsible for environmental and adverse health problems are probably related to the same inducing components of coal. For instance, oxidation of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) in the coal forms iron sulfate and sulfuric acid, which produces occupational lung diseases (e.g., pneumoconiosis) and other environmental problems (e.g., acid mine drainage and acid rain). Calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) contained in certain coals alters the end products of pyrite oxidation, which may make these coals less toxic to human inhalation and less hazardous to environmental pollution. Finally, knowledge gained on understanding of the chemical properties of coals is illustrated to apply for prediction of toxicity due to coal possibly before large-scale mining and prevention of occupational lung disease during mining.

  2. A High Resolution, Light-Weight, Synthetic Aperture Radar for UAV Application

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I. Pace, F.; Walker, B,C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-05-27

    (U) Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA) has designed and built a high resolution, light-weight, Ku-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) known as "Lynx". Although Lynx can be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, its design is optimized for use on medium altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVS). In particular, it can be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, and Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA. (U) The radar production weight is less than 120 lb and operates within a 3 GHz band from 15.2 GHz to 18.2 GHz with a peak output power of 320 W. Operating range is resolution and mode dependent but can exceed 45 km in adverse weather (4 mm/hr rain). Lynx has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode, over substantial depression angles (5 to 60 deg) and squint angles (broadside ±45 deg). Real-time Motion Compensation is implemented to allow high-quality image formation even during vehicle turns and other maneuvers.

  3. Lynx: A High-Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Pace, F.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I.; Walker, B.C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-03-08

    Lynx is a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has been designed and built by Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA). Although Lynx may be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, it is primarily intended to be fielded on unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it may be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, or Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA Aeronautical Systems, Inc. The Lynx production weight is less than 120 lb. and has a slant range of 30 km (in 4 mm/hr rain). It has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode. In ground moving target indicator mode, the minimum detectable velocity is 6 knots with a minimum target cross-section of 10 dBsm. In coherent change detection mode, Lynx makes registered, complex image comparisons either of 0.1 m resolution (minimum) spotlight images or of 0.3 m resolution (minimum) strip images. The Lynx user interface features a view manager that allows it to pan and zoom like a video camera. Lynx was developed under corporate finding from GA and will be manufactured by GA for both military and commercial applications. The Lynx system architecture will be presented and some of its unique features will be described. Imagery at the finest resolutions in both spotlight and strip modes have been obtained and will also be presented.

  4. Indian Monsoon Depression: Climatology and Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Huang, Wan-Ru

    2012-03-09

    The monsoon climate is traditionally characterized by large seasonal rainfall and reversal of wind direction (e.g., Krishnamurti 1979). Most importantly this rainfall is the major source of fresh water to various human activities such as agriculture. The Indian subcontinent resides at the core of the Southeast Asian summer monsoon system, with the monsoon trough extended from northern India across Indochina to the Western Tropical Pacific (WTP). Large fraction of annual rainfall occurs during the summer monsoon season, i.e., June - August with two distinct maxima. One is located over the Bay of Bengal with rainfall extending northwestward into eastern and central India, and the other along the west coast of India where the lower level moist wind meets the Western Ghat Mountains (Saha and Bavardeckar 1976). The rest of the Indian subcontinent receives relatively less rainfall. Various weather systems such as tropical cyclones and weak disturbances contribute to monsoon rainfall (Ramage 1971). Among these systems, the most efficient rain-producing system is known as the Indian monsoon depression (hereafter MD). This MD is critical for monsoon rainfall because: (i) it occurs about six times during each summer monsoon season, (ii) it propagates deeply into the continent and produces large amounts of rainfall along its track, and (iii) about half of the monsoon rainfall is contributed to by the MDs (e.g., Krishnamurti 1979). Therefore, understanding various properties of the MD is a key towards comprehending the veracity of the Indian summer monsoon and especially its hydrological process.

  5. Validation and analysis of microwave-derived rainfall over the tropics. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fleishauer, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    A recently developed single channel microwave rain rate retrieval algorithm exists to measure global precipitation over the data-sparse tropical oceans. The objective of this study is to retrieve and validate rainfall using this algorithm, followed by an analysis of the derived rainfall fields. Retrieval consists of applying the algorithm technique to the extraction of four years worth of achieved data from the Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) instrument flown aboard the NIMBUS 5 satellite. The Pacific Atoll Raingage Data Set is chosen as a ground truth measure to validate the ESMR-Derived rainfall data against, comparing slope, intercept and correlation between 5 deg x 5 deg area average. Despite limitations imposed by the comparison of point measurements to area-averaged rainfall, results show a 0.80 correlation. Monthly and quarterly climatological mean rainfall estimates are produced, with a consequent analysis of prominent signals, especially in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) and the Indian monsoon. Latent heat flux is computed, using the ESMR-derived rainfall, and plotted to show qualitatively where seasonal latent thermodynamic energy sources and sinks exist in the atmosphere. A comparison of the summer and winter quarterly composites of the above products with previously compiled climatologies and Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) showed only minor discrepancies in location and intensity, which are discussed in some detail.

  6. Pacific Northwest Storms Situation Report # 2

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-16

    Severe wind and snow storms hit the Pacific Northwest region on December 14 – 15, 2006 resulting in major power outagesin the region. The storm is now moving off into southern Canada. A new weather disturbance nearing the Northwest coast may generate a few rain and snow showers across the Seattle and Portland areas today, but widespread active weather is not expected. There are roughly 950,000 customers in the region (including Canada) without power as a result of the Pacific Northweststorms, down from a peak of 1.8 million customers. This represents about 26 percent of customers in affected utility service areas in Oregon and Washington. See table below. As of 12:30 PM EST, the Renton Control Center for the Olympic Pipeline (petroleum products) had power restored. The pipeline, serviced by Puget Sound Energy, was shut down after it lost power during the storm. According to a pipeline official, the pipeline is expected to restart in approximately 2-3 hours with some reduced throughput later today. SeaTac International Airport receives jet fuel from the pipeline; however, it’s been reported that the airport has approximately eight days of jet fuel inventories on hand. There are no reports of problems regarding fuel production. There are some temporary and minor distribution at retail gas stations due to lack of power. Fuel delivery is also slowed in some areas due to delays on some roads. ESF #12 has not been deployed

  7. Extreme Climate Event Trends: The Data Mining and Evaluation of the A1FI Scenario for 2000???2100

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson III, David J; Ganguly, Auroop R; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K; Branstetter, Marcia L; Oglesby, Robert; Hoffman, Forrest M; Buja, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss the implications and resulting alterations of the hydrologic cycle as Earth climate evolves from 2000-2100. Climate simulations based on the assumptions implicit in the A1F1 scenario for the period 2000-2100 using CCSM3 are analyzed. In particular, we will assess the changes in the surface latent and sensible heat energy budget, the Indian regional water budgets including trends in the timing and duration of the Indian monsoon and the resulting impacts on mean river flow and hydroelectric power generation potential. These analyses will also be examined within the context of heat index, droughts, floods and related estimates of societal robustness and resiliency. We will interpret these new A1F1 results within the context of the previous climate simulations based on the SRES A2 and B1 scenarios forced with land cover and atmospheric CO2. Analyses of historical records in the context of the Indian Monsoon Rainfall (IMR) have suggested an evolving relation of IMR with natural climate variability caused by El Nino events. We will report on the combined effects of natural climate variability and global warming on IMR and assess the trend of extreme rain and temperature events in a warming environment.

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Plots and Figures

    DOE Data Explorer

    ARM Program data is available in daily diagnostic plots that can be easily grouped into daily, weekly, monthly, and even yearly increments. By visualizing ARM data in thumbnail-sized data plots, users experience highly-browsable subsets of data available at the Data Archive including complimentary data products derived from data processed by ARM. These thumbnails allow users to quickly scan for a particular type of condition, like a clear day or a day with persistent cirrus. From a diagnostics perspective, the data plots assist in looking for missing data, for data exceeding a particular range, or for loading multiple variables (e.g., shortwave fluxes and precipitation), and to determine whether a certain science or data quality condition is associated with some other parameter (e.g., high wind or rain).[taken from http://www.arm.gov/data/data_plots.stm] Several interfaces and tools have been developed to make data plots easy to generate and manipulate. For example, the NCVWeb is an interactive NetCDF data plotting tool that ARM users can use to plot data as they order it or to plot regular standing data orders. It allows production of detailed tables, extraction of data, statistics output, comparison plotting, etc. without the need for separate visualization software. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data plots are free for viewing and downloading.

  9. Final report on "Modeling Diurnal Variations of California Land Biosphere CO2 Fluxes"

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Inez

    2014-07-28

    In Mediterranean climates, the season of water availability (winter) is out of phase with the season of light availability and atmospheric demand for moisture (summer). Multi-year half-hourly observations of sap flow velocities in 26 evergreen trees in a small watershed in Northern California show that different species of evergreen trees have different seasonalities of transpiration: Douglas-firs respond immediately to the first winter rain, while Pacific madrones have peak transpiration in the dry summer. Using these observations, we have derived species-specific parameterization of normalized sap flow velocities in terms of insolation, vapor pressure deficit and near-surface soil moisture. A simple 1-D boundary layer model showed that afternoon temperatures may be higher by 1 degree Celsius in an area with Douglas-firs than with Pacific madrones. The results point to the need to develop a new representation of subsurface moisture, in particular pools beneath the organic soil mantle and the vadose zone. Our ongoing and future work includes coupling our new parameterization of transpiration with new representation of sub-surface moisture in saprolite and weathered bedrock. The results will be implemented in a regional climate model to explore vegetation-climate feedbacks, especially in the dry season.

  10. The increased concentration of SO{sub 2} and threat to the largest mangrove forest of the world - the Sundarbans

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, J.U.; Ullah, S.S.; Carmichael, G.R.; Haque, R.

    1996-12-31

    The atmospheric concentration of SO{sub 2} was monitored in two different sites, Khulna and Savar in Bangladesh as a part of Rains Asia Atmos Module, Phase I Project. The results show that the winter concentration of SO{sub 2} in Khulna is 3 to 4 times higher than the summer concentrations, which is also higher compared to measurements at Savar which is adjacent to Dhaka city. Based on these facts and seasonal wind pattern, trans-boundary air pollution has been suggested. Khulna is in the southwestern part of Bangladesh and this area harbors the largest mangrove forest of the world, the Sundarbans. Sundari trees are the main trees of the Sundarban ecosystem. During the last few years, many of the Sundari trees, which are quite susceptible to pH stress, are dying from the top. The unusual winter increase of atmospheric sulphurdioxide has been assigned to be one of the reasons for the top dying. Other factors might be the increase of salinity and diminished flow of water.

  11. Bayou pipeline crossing requires helical pilings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a routine inspection by Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Corp. which revealed the approximately 100 ft of its 30-in gas pipeline in St. Landry Parish, La., had become suspended. The situation occurred in the West Atchafalaya Floodway after periods of heavy rain produced strong currents that scoured the soil from around and below the pipeline. To protect the pipeline from possible damage from overstressing, Transco awarded a lump-sum contract to Energy Structures Inc., Houston, to design and install pipeline supports. The pipeline supports engineered by ESI used helical-screw pilings instead of conventional driven pilings. The helical piles were manufactured by A.B. Chance Co., Centralia, Mo. Typically, helical pilings consist of steel pipe ranging from 3.5- to 8-in. diameter pipe with one or more helixes welded onto the pipe. Selection of the proper piling cross-section was based on design loads and soil conditions at the project locations. length was determined by the amount of pipeline suspension and on-site soil conditions.

  12. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster at 244-AR vault. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Carrell, D.J.

    1997-12-17

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96, a portable exhauster at the 244-AR Vault. The exhauster would be used during air jetting of accumulated liquids from the cell sumps into the tanks and to make transfers among the tanks within the vault when needed. The 244-AR Vault is considered to be a double-contained receiver tank (OCRT) based on its functional characteristics, although it is not listed as one of the five designated DCRTs in the 200 Area Tank Farm systems. Process operations at the vault have been inactive since 1978 and the vault`s two stacks have not operated since 1993. Since cessation of vault operations an extremely large amount of rain water and snow melt have accumulated in the cell sumps. The water level in the sumps is substantially above their respective operating levels and there is concern for leakage to the environment through containment failure due to corrosion from backed-up sump liquid. Active ventilation is required to provide contamination control during air jetting operations within the vault. It has been determined that it would not be cost effective to repair the existing exhaust systems to an operational condition; thus, a portable exhauster will be used to support the intermittent operations.

  13. Assessing historical global sulfur emission patterns for the period 1850--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Lefohn, A.S.; Husar, J.D.; Husar, R.B.; Brimblecombe, P.

    1996-07-19

    Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions from energy-producing and metal production activities have become an important factor in better understanding the relationship between humans and the environment. Concerns about (1) acid rain effects on the environment and (2) anthropogenic aerosols affecting possible global change have prompted interest in the transformation and fate of sulfur in the environment. One step in assessing the importance of sulfur emissions is the development of a reliable regional emission inventory of sulfur as a function of time. The objective of this research effort was to create a homogeneous database for historical sulfur emission estimates for the world. The time from 1850--1990 was selected to include the period of industrialization form the time the main production of fuels and minerals began until the most recent year for which complete production data exist. This research effort attempts to correct some of the deficiencies associated with previous global sulfur emission estimates by (1) identifying those production activities that resulted in sulfur emissions by country and (2) calculating historical emission trends by country across years. An important component of this study was the comparison of the sulfur emission results with those of previous studies.

  14. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-22

    The objective of this project is to evaluate and demonstrate a cost effective emission control technology for acid rain precursors, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and sulfur (SO{sub x}), on three coal fired utility boilers in Illinois. The units selected are representative of pre-NSPS design practices; tangential, wall, and cyclone fired. The specific objectives are to demonstrate reductions of 60 percent in NO{sub x} and 50 percent in SO{sub x} emissions, by a combination of two developed technologies, gas reburning (GR) and sorbent injection (SI). With GR, about 80--85 percent of the coal fuel is fired in the primary combustion zone. The balance of the fuel is added downstream as natural gas to create a slightly fuel rich environment in which NO{sub x} is converted to N{sub 2}. The combustion process is completed by overfire air addition. SO{sub x} emissions are reduced by injecting dry sorbents (usually calcium based) into the upper furnace, at the superheater exit or into the ducting following the air heater. The sorbents trap SO{sub x} as solid sulfates and sulfites, which are collected in the particulate control device.

  15. Pollutant transfer through air and water pathways in an urban environment

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.; Burian, S.; McPherson, T.; Streit, G.; Costigan, K.; Greene, B.

    1998-12-31

    The authors are attempting to simulate the transport and fate of pollutants through air and water pathways in an urban environment. This cross-disciplinary study involves linking together models of mesoscale meteorology, air pollution chemistry and deposition, urban runoff and stormwater transport, water quality, and wetland chemistry and biology. The authors are focusing on the transport and fate of nitrogen species because (1) they track through both air and water pathways, (2) the physics, chemistry, and biology of the complete cycle is not well understood, and (3) they have important health, local ecosystem, and global climate implications. The authors will apply their linked modeling system to the Los Angeles basin, following the fate of nitrates from their beginning as nitrate-precursors produced by auto emissions and industrial processes, tracking their dispersion and chemistry as they are transported by regional winds and eventually wet or dry deposit on the ground, tracing their path as they are entrained into surface water runoff during rain events and carried into the stormwater system, and then evaluating their impact on receiving water bodies such as wetlands where biologically-mediated chemical reactions take place. In this paper, the authors wish to give an overview of the project and at the conference show preliminary results.

  16. Turbidity study of solar ponds utilizing seawater as salt source

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Nan; Sun, Wence; Shi, Yufeng; Yin, Fang; Zhang, Caihong

    2010-02-15

    A series of experiments were conducted to study the turbidity reduction in solar ponds utilizing seawater as salt source. The experiment on the turbidity reduction efficiency with chemicals indicates that alum (KAl(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.12H{sub 2}O) has a better turbidity control property because of its strongly flocculating and also well depressing the growing of algae and bacteria in the seawater. In comparison with bittern and seawater, our experiment shows that the residual brine after desalination can keep limpidity for a long time even without any chemical in it. Experiments were also conducted on the diffusion of turbidity and salinity, which show that the turbidity did not diffuse upwards in the solution. In the experiment on subsidence of soil in the bittern and saline with the same salinity, it was found that soil subsided quite quickly in the pure saline water, but very slowly in the bittern. In this paper we also proposed an economical method to protect the solar pond from the damage of rain. Finally, thermal performance of a solar pond was simulated in the conditions of different turbidities using a thermal diffusion model. (author)

  17. Environmental boundaries to energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Trivelpiece, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Public concern about the environment, health and safety consequences of energy technology has been growing steadily for more than two decades in the United States. This concern forms an important boundary condition as the United States seeks to develop a new National Energy Strategy. Furthermore, the international aspects of the energy/environment interface such as acid rain global climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion are very prominent in US thinking. In fact, the energy systems of the world are becoming more closely coupled environmentally and otherwise. Now where is this coupling more important than that between the industrialized and developing world; the choices made by each will have profound effects on the other. The development of energy technologies compatible with both economic growth and improving and sustaining environmental quality represents a major R D challenge to the US and USSR. Decision about adoption of new technology and R D priorities can be improved by better measurements of how energy sources and uses are changing throughout the world and better methods to project the potential consequences of these decisions. Such projection require understanding relative risks of alternating existing and evolving technologies. All of these R D areas, technology improvement energy system monitoring and projection and comparative risk assessment are the topics of this seminar. Progress in each may be enhanced by collaboration and cooperation between our two countries. 7 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. DOD fuel cell demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, F.H.; Binder, M.J.; Taylor, W.R.

    1996-12-31

    The supply of reliable, cost-effective electric power with minimal environmental impact is a constant concern of Department of Defense (DOD) installation energy personnel. Electricity purchased from the local utility is expensive and represents only about 30% of the original energy input at the generating station due to generation and distribution inefficiencies. Because of master metering and large air conditioning loads, the demand portion of the installation`s electric bill can be in excess of 50% of the total bill. While the electric utilities in the United States have a very good record of reliability, there is significant potential for improving the security of electrical power supplied by using on-site power generation. On-site, dispersed power generation can reduce power outages due to weather, terrorist activities, or lack of utility generating capacity. In addition, as increased emphasis is placed on global warming, acid rain, and air pollution in general, the development of clean, highly efficient power producing technologies is not only desirable, but mandatory. Since the majority of central heat plants on U.S. military installations are nearing the end of their useful life, there is an opportunity to replace outdated existing equipment with modem technologies.

  19. The role of precipitation size distributions in km-scale NWP simulations of intense precipitation: Evaluation of cloud properties and surface precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Van Weverberg K.; Vogelmann A.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbec, L.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of simulated cloud properties and surface precipitation to assumptions regarding the size distributions of the precipitating hydrometeors in a one-moment bulk microphysics scheme. Three sensitivity experiments were applied to two composites of 15 convective and 15 frontal stratiform intense precipitation events observed in a coastal midlatitude region (Belgium), which were evaluated against satellite-retrieved cloud properties and radar-rain-gauge derived surface precipitation. It is found that the cloud optical thickness distribution was well captured by all experiments, although a significant underestimation of cloudiness occurred in the convective composite. The cloud-top-pressure distribution was improved most by more realistic snow size distributions (including a temperature-dependent intercept parameter and non-spherical snow for the calculation of the slope parameter), due to increased snow depositional growth at high altitudes. Surface precipitation was far less sensitive to whether graupel or hail was chosen as the rimed ice species, as compared to previous idealized experiments. This smaller difference in sensitivity could be explained by the stronger updraught velocities and higher freezing levels in the idealized experiments compared to typical coastal midlatitude environmental conditions.

  20. Variabilities in the natural and nuclear endoatmospheric environment. Final report, October 1990-December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, E.

    1992-04-01

    This document supplements a briefing on Uncertainties in the Prediction of High-Altitude Nuclear Effects. The intended audience consists of the SDS architects and engagement modelers who have to consider the nuclear (and other) environment but are under very severe constraints regarding computer running time so that very fast-running and thus simple models of atmospheric environment have been used. This material is a tutorial, intended to give the audience a physical feeling of the nature of the natural and nuclear endoenvironment (i.e., environments and heights of burst in the 0-100-km altitude range), pointing out the changes in nuclear phenomenology at different altitudes and the large variabilities in the natural atmosphere, including effects of turbulence, clouds, and rain. The factors to be considered for SDS modeling depend on the threat scenario under consideration, such as the number, altitude and yield of the nuclear bursts, and the nature of sensors under consideration (IR, UV/VIS, MMW; spectral and spatial resolution; sensitivity; active vs. passive sensors).