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Sample records for radiance interferometer radiometric

  1. Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gero, Jonathan; Ermold, Brian; Gaustad, Krista; Koontz, Annette; Hackel, Denny; Garcia, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) is a ground-based instrument that measures the downwelling infrared radiance from the Earth’s atmosphere. The observations have broad spectral content and sufficient spectral resolution to discriminate among gaseous emitters (e.g., carbon dioxide and water vapor) and suspended matter (e.g., aerosols, water droplets, and ice crystals). These upward-looking surface observations can be used to obtain vertical profiles of tropospheric temperature and water vapor, as well as measurements of trace gases (e.g., ozone, carbon monoxide, and methane) and downwelling infrared spectral signatures of clouds and aerosols. The AERI is a passive remote sounding instrument, employing a Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the spectral range 3.3–19.2 μm (520–3020 cm-1) at an unapodized resolution of 0.5 cm-1 (max optical path difference of 1 cm). The extended-range AERI (ER-AERI) deployed in dry climates, like in Alaska, have a spectral range of 3.3–25.0 μm (400–3020 cm-1) that allow measurements in the far-infrared region. Typically, the AERI averages views of the sky over a 16-second interval and operates continuously.

  2. Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Handbook

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gero, Jonathan; Hackel, Denny; Garcia, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) is a ground-based instrument that measures the downwelling infrared radiance from the Earth’s atmosphere. The observations have broad spectral content and sufficient spectral resolution to discriminate among gaseous emitters (e.g., carbon dioxide and water vapor) and suspended matter (e.g., aerosols, water droplets, and ice crystals). These upward-looking surface observations can be used to obtain vertical profiles of tropospheric temperature and water vapor, as well as measurements of trace gases (e.g., ozone, carbon monoxide, and methane) and downwelling infrared spectral signatures of clouds and aerosols.The AERI is a passive remote sounding instrument, employing a Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the spectral range 3.3–19.2 μm (520–3020 cm-1) at an unapodized resolution of 0.5 cm-1 (max optical path difference of 1 cm). The extended-range AERI (ER-AERI) deployed in dry climates, like in Alaska, have a spectral range of 3.3–25.0 μm (400–3020 cm-1) that allow measurements in the far-infrared region. Typically, the AERI averages views of the sky over a 16-second interval and operates continuously.

  3. Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI): Status and the aerosol explanation for extra window region emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Revercomb, H.E.; Knuteson, R.O.; Best, F.A.; Dirkx, T.P.

    1996-04-01

    High spectral resolution observations of downwelling emission from 3 to 19 microns have been made by the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Prototype at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiative Testbed (CART) site for over two years. The spectral data set from AERI provides a basis for improving clear sky radiative transfer; determining the radiative impact of clouds, including the derivation of cloud radiative properties; defining the influences of aerosols in the window regions; and retrieving boundary layer state properties, including temperature, water vapor, and other trace gases. The data stream of radiometrically and spectrally calibrated radiances is routinely provided by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to those science teams requesting it, and further information on the instrument and data characteristics is available in the ARM Science Team proceedings for 1993 and 1994 and in several conference publications. This paper describes the AERI status, calibration, field experiment wit a new AERI-01 and schedule, window region emissions, and future AERI plans.

  4. Instrument development for atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM): Status of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer - extended Resolution (AERI-X), the Solar Radiance Transmission Interferometer (SORTI), and the Absolute Solar Transmission Inferometer (ASTI)

    SciTech Connect

    Murcray, F.; Stephen, T.; Kosters, J.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes three instruments currently under developemnt for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program at the University of Denver: the AERI-X (Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer-Extended Resolution) and the SORTI (Solar R adiance Transmission Interferometer), and ASTI (Absolute Solar transmission Interferometer).

  5. Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Archived Data at the University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The AERI instrument is an advanced version of the high spectral resolution interferometer sounder (HIS) designed and fabricated at the University of Wisconsin (Revercomb et al. 1988) to measure upwelling infrared radiances from an aircraft. The AERI is a fully automated ground-based passive infrared interferometer that measures downwelling atmospheric radiance from 3.3 - 18.2 mm (550 - 3000 cm-1) at less than 10-minute temporal resolution with a spectral resolution of one wavenumber. It has been used in DOEs Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. Much of the data available here at the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS), an institute within the University of Wisconsins Space Science and Engineering Center, may also be available in the ARM Archive. On this website, data and images from six different field experiments are available, along with AERIPLUS realtime data for the Madison, Wisconsin location. Realtime data includes temperature and water vapor time-height cross sections, SKEWT diagrams, convective stability indices, and displays from a rooftop Lidar instrument. The field experiments took place in Oaklahoma and Wisconsin with the AERI prototype.

  6. Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Archived Data at the University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The AERI instrument is an advanced version of the high spectral resolution interferometer sounder (HIS) designed and fabricated at the University of Wisconsin (Revercomb et al. 1988) to measure upwelling infrared radiances from an aircraft. The AERI is a fully automated ground-based passive infrared interferometer that measures downwelling atmospheric radiance from 3.3 - 18.2 mm (550 - 3000 cm-1) at less than 10-minute temporal resolution with a spectral resolution of one wavenumber. It has been used in DOEÆs Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. Much of the data available here at the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS), an institute within the University of Wisconsin’s Space Science and Engineering Center, may also be available in the ARM Archive. On this website, data and images from six different field experiments are available, along with AERIPLUS realtime data for the Madison, Wisconsin location. Realtime data includes temperature and water vapor time-height cross sections, SKEWT diagrams, convective stability indices, and displays from a rooftop Lidar instrument. The field experiments took place in Oaklahoma and Wisconsin with the AERI prototype.

  7. A Principal Component Analysis Noise Filter Value-Added Procedure to Remove Uncorrelated Noise from Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Observations

    SciTech Connect

    C. Lo D. D. Turner R. O. Knuteson

    2006-01-31

    This technical report provide a short description of the application of the principle component analysis techniques to remove uncorrelated random noise from ground-based high spectral resolution infrared radiance observations collected by the atmospheric emitted radiance interferometers (AERIs) deployed by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. A general overview of the technique, the input, and output datastreams of the newly generated value-added product, and the data quality checks used are provided. A more complete discussion of the theory and results is given in Turner et al. (2006).

  8. ARM - Measurement - Longwave narrowband radiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    narrowband radiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave narrowband radiance The rate at which radiant energy in the longwave portion of the spectrum is emitted in narrow wavelength bands in a particular direction per unit area perpendicular to the direction of radiation. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following

  9. ARM - Measurement - Longwave spectral radiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    spectral radiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave spectral radiance The rate at which the spectrally resolved radiant energy in the longwave portion of the spectrum is emitted in a particular direction per unit area perpendicular to the direction of radiation. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following

  10. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral radiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    spectral radiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave spectral radiance The rate at which the spectrally resolved radiant energy in the shortwave portion of the spectrum is emitted in a particular direction per unit area perpendicular to the direction of radiation. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following

  11. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband radiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    broadband radiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband radiance A measure of the intrinsic radiant energy flux intensity, at wavelengths between 0.4 and 4 {mu}, emitted by a radiator in a given direction, expressed in units of energy per unit time per unit solid angle. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the

  12. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband radiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    narrowband radiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband radiance A measure of the intrinsic radiant energy flux intensity, at wavelengths between 0.4 and 4 {mu}, emitted by a radiator in a given direction, expressed in units of energy per unit time per unit solid angle. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for

  13. Posters Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer Data Analysis...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis Methods R. O. Knuteson, W. L. Smith, S. A. Ackerman, H. E. Revercomb, H. ... project under the direction of William L. Smith of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. ...

  14. Posters Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer: Status and...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    H. E. Revercomb, R. O. Knuteson, W. L. Smith, F. A. Best, and R. G. Dedecker University of ... and in several conference publications (Revercomb et al. 1993, 1994; Smith et al. 1993). ...

  15. Radiance Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Radiance Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Radiance Solar Place: Atlanta, Georgia Zip: 30318 Product: Commercial and residential PV installer based in Atlanta. Coordinates:...

  16. Radiance: Synthetic Imaging System | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    tools User Interface: Desktop Application Website: radsite.lbl.govradiance Cost: Free References: Radiance1 Logo: RADIANCE RADIANCE is a highly accurate ray-tracing...

  17. ZYGO Mark Ivxp Interferometer

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ZYGO Mark Ivxp Interferometer Back to Equipment

  18. Facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations using uniform sources

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Steven W.; Eppeldauer, George P.; Lykke, Keith R

    2006-11-10

    Detectors have historically been calibrated for spectral power responsivity at the National Institute of Standards and Technology by using a lamp-monochromator system to tune the wavelength of the excitation source. Silicon detectors can be calibrated in the visible spectral region with combined standard uncertainties at the 0.1% level. However,uncertainties increase dramatically when measuring an instrument's spectral irradiance or radiance responsivity. We describe what we believe to be a new laser-based facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations using uniform sources (SIRCUS) that was developed to calibrate instruments directly in irradiance or radiance mode with uncertainties approaching or exceeding those available for spectral power responsivity calibrations. In SIRCUS, the emission from high-power, tunable lasers is introduced into an integrating sphere using optical fibers, producing uniform, quasi-Lambertian, high-radiant-flux sources. Reference standard irradiance detectors, calibrated directly against national primary standards for spectral power responsivity and aperture area measurement,are used to determine the irradiance at a reference plane. Knowing the measurement geometry, the source radiance can be readily determined as well. The radiometric properties of the SIRCUS source coupled with state-of-the-art transfer standard radiometers whose responsivities are directly traceable to primary national radiometric scales result in typical combined standard uncertainties in irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations of less than 0.1%. The details of the facility and its effect on primary national radiometric scales are discussed.

  19. Radiometrics | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Prospects In Northern Nevada Radiometrics At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Petersen, 1975) Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area 1975 1975 Geology and Geothermal...

  20. The ARM Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI): Status...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    sites and an AERI is in operation as part of the ARM mobile facility currently in Niger, Africa. Recent upgrades in AERI instrumentation and enhancements in operational data...

  1. ARM - SGP Radiometric Calibration Facility

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiometric Calibration Facility SGP Related Links Virtual Tour Facilities and Instruments Central Facility Boundary Facility Extended Facility Intermediate Facility Radiometric Calibration Facility Geographic Information ES&H Guidance Statement Operations Science Field Campaigns Visiting the Site Summer Training SGP Fact Sheet Images Information for Guest Scientists Contacts SGP Radiometric Calibration Facility The Radiometric Calibration Facility (RCF) provides shortwave radiometer

  2. ANALYSIS WITH RADIOACTIVE REAGENTS AND RADIOMETRIC TITRATION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    & Separations Chemistry-- Radiometric & Radiochemical Procedures; CHEMICAL ANALYSIS; COMPLEXES; DETERMINATION; PRECIPITATION; RADIOISOTOPES; SEPARATION PROCESSES; TITRATION...

  3. Radiance Research Particle Soot/Absorption Photometer Instrument...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiance Research Particle SootAbsorption Photometer Instrument Handbook Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radiance Research Particle SootAbsorption Photometer ...

  4. Phase shifting interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, G.E.

    1999-08-03

    An interferometer is disclosed which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of {lambda}/1000 where {lambda} is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about {lambda}/50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. Whereas current interferometers illuminate the optic to be tested with an aberrated wavefront which also limits the accuracy of the measurement, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical measurement wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms. 11 figs.

  5. Phase shifting interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    1999-01-01

    An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of .lambda./1000 where .lambda. is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about .lambda./50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. Whereas current interferometers illuminate the optic to be tested with an aberrated wavefront which also limits the accuracy of the measurement, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical measurement wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms.

  6. Initial analyses of surface spectral radiance between observations and Line-By-Line calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.D.; Clough, S.A.; Miller, N.E.; Shippert, T.R.; Turner, D.D.

    1996-04-01

    The evaluation an improvement of radiative transfer calculations are essential to attain improved performance of general circulation models (GCMs) for climate change applications. A Quality Measurement Experiment (QME) is being conducted to analyze the spectral residuals between the downwelling longwave radiance measured by the University of Wisconsin Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and spectral radiance calculated by the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM). The three critical components of this study are (1) the assessment of the quality of the high resolution AERI measurements, (2) the assessment of the ability to define the atmospheric state in the radiating column, and (3) the evaluation of the capability of LBLRTM. Validations have been performed on spectral radiance data, obtained from April 1994 through July 1994, through the analysis of the spectral interval and physical process. The results are archived as a function of time, enabling the retrieval of specific data and facilitating investigations and diurnal effects, seasonal effects, and longer-term trends. While the initial focus is restricted to clear-sky analyses, efforts are under way to include the effects of clouds and aerosols. Plans are well formulated for the extension of the current approach to the shortwave. An overview of the concept of the QME is described by Miller et al. (1994), and a detailed description of this study is provided by Clough et al. (1994).

  7. Phase shifting diffraction interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    1996-01-01

    An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of .lambda./1000 where .lambda. is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about .lambda./50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms.

  8. Phase shifting diffraction interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, G.E.

    1996-08-29

    An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of {lambda}/1000 where {lambda} is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about {lambda}/50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms. 8 figs.

  9. Dual surface interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Pardue, Robert M.; Williams, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    A double-pass interferometer is provided which allows direct measurement of relative displacement between opposed surfaces. A conventional plane mirror interferometer may be modified by replacing the beam-measuring path cube-corner reflector with an additional quarter-wave plate. The beam path is altered to extend to an opposed plane mirrored surface and the reflected beam is placed in interference with a retained reference beam split from dual-beam source and retroreflected by a reference cube-corner reflector mounted stationary with the interferometer housing. This permits direct measurement of opposed mirror surfaces by laser interferometry while doubling the resolution as with a conventional double-pass plane mirror laser interferometer system.

  10. Dual surface interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Pardue, R.M.; Williams, R.R.

    1980-09-12

    A double-pass interferometer is provided which allows direct measurement of relative displacement between opposed surfaces. A conventional plane mirror interferometer may be modified by replacing the beam-measuring path cube-corner reflector with an additional quarterwave plate. The beam path is altered to extend to an opposed plane mirrored surface and the reflected beam is placed in interference with a retained reference beam split from dual-beam source and retroreflected by a reference cube-corner reflector mounted stationary with the interferometer housing. This permits direct measurement of opposed mirror surfaces by laser interferometry while doubling the resolution as with a conventional double-pass plane mirror laser interferometer system.

  11. Super-radiance and open quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Volya, Alexander [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4350 (United States); Zelevinsky, Vladimir [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2005-07-08

    Quantum wires, loosely bound nuclei, molecules in chemical reactions and exotic narrow pentaquark states are different examples of open quantum mesoscopic systems. The coupling with and through continuum is their common feature. We discuss general properties of quantum systems in the regime of strong continuum coupling, when the mechanism of Dicke super-radiance changes intrinsic dynamics, signatures of quantum chaos, lifetime of unstable states and reaction cross sections. The examples are shown for various areas of mesoscopic physics.

  12. Rotatable shear plate interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Duffus, Richard C.

    1988-01-01

    A rotatable shear plate interferometer comprises a transparent shear plate mounted obliquely in a tubular supporting member at 45.degree. with respect to its horizontal center axis. This tubular supporting member is supported rotatably around its center axis and a collimated laser beam is made incident on the shear plate along this center axis such that defocus in different directions can be easily measured.

  13. Design, manufacture, and calibration of infrared radiometric blackbody sources

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, D.A.; Michaud, F.D.; Bender, S.C.

    1996-04-01

    A Radiometric Calibration Station (RCS) is being assembled at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) which will allow for calibration of sensors with detector arrays having spectral capability from about 0.4-15 {mu}m. The configuration of the LANL RCS. Two blackbody sources have been designed to cover the spectral range from about 3-15 {mu}m, operating at temperatures ranging from about 180-350 K within a vacuum environment. The sources are designed to present a uniform spectral radiance over a large area to the sensor unit under test. The thermal uniformity requirement of the blackbody cavities has been one of the key factors of the design, requiring less than 50 mK variation over the entire blackbody surface to attain effective emissivity values of about 0.999. Once the two units are built and verified to the level of about 100 mK at LANL, they will be sent to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where at least a factor of two improvement will be calibrated into the blackbody control system. The physical size of these assemblies will require modifications of the existing NIST Low Background Infrared (LBIR) Facility. LANL has constructed a bolt-on addition to the LBIR facility that will allow calibration of our large aperture sources. Methodology for attaining the two blackbody sources at calibrated levels of performance equivalent to present state of the art will be explained in the following.

  14. Radiance Research Particle Soot/Absorption Photometer Instrument Handbook

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Radiance Research Particle Soot/Absorption Photometer Instrument Handbook Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radiance Research Particle Soot/Absorption Photometer Instrument Handbook Radiance Research PSAPs as described in this Handbook are deployed in the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) Aerosol Observing System (AOS), the third ARM Mobile Facility (AMF3) AOS, ENA AOS and Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS)-A. An earlier version of the PSAP

  15. Multipulsed dynamic moire interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.

    1991-01-01

    An improved dynamic moire interferometer comprised of a lasing medium providing a plurality of beams of coherent light, a multiple q-switch producing multiple trains of 100,000 or more pulses per second, a combining means collimating multiple trains of pulses into substantially a single train and directing beams to specimen gratings affixed to a test material, and a controller, triggering and sequencing the emission of the pulses with the occurrence and recording of a dynamic loading event.

  16. MAGIC Cloud Properties from Zenith Radiance Data Final Campaign...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: MAGIC Cloud Properties from Zenith Radiance Data Final Campaign Summary Cloud droplet size and optical depth are the most fundamental properties for understanding cloud ...

  17. Compact portable diffraction moire interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Ward, Michael B.

    1989-01-01

    A compact and portable moire interferometer used to determine surface deformations of an object. The improved interferometer is comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent wave splitters, and collimating lenses directing the split beam at one or more specimen gratings. Observation means including film and video cameras may be used to view and record the resultant fringe patterns.

  18. Compact portable diffraction moire interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1988-05-23

    A compact and portable moire interferometer used to determine surface deformations of an object. The improved interferometer is comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent wave splitters, and collimating lenses directing the split beam at one or more specimen gratings. Observations means including film and video cameras may be used to view and record the resultant fringe patterns. 7 figs.

  19. Surface profiling interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Takacs, Peter Z.; Qian, Shi-Nan

    1989-01-01

    The design of a long-trace surface profiler for the non-contact measurement of surface profile, slope error and curvature on cylindrical synchrotron radiation (SR) mirrors. The optical system is based upon the concept of a pencil-beam interferometer with an inherent large depth-of-field. The key feature of the optical system is the zero-path-difference beam splitter, which separates the laser beam into two colinear, variable-separation probe beams. A linear array detector is used to record the interference fringe in the image, and analysis of the fringe location as a function of scan position allows one to reconstruct the surface profile. The optical head is mounted on an air bearing slide with the capability to measure long aspheric optics, typical of those encountered in SR applications. A novel feature of the optical system is the use of a transverse "outrigger" beam which provides information on the relative alignment of the scan axis to the cylinder optic symmetry axis.

  20. ARM - Instrument - aeri

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsaeri Documentation AERI : Handbook ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Instrument Categories Radiometric AERI General Overview The atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) is a ground-based instrument that measures the downwelling infrared radiance from the Earth's atmosphere. The observations have broad spectral

  1. Posters Ground-Based Radiometric Observations

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Posters Ground-Based Radiometric Observations of Atmospheric Water for Climate Research J. B. Snider, D. A. Hazen, A. J. Francavilla, W. B. Madsen, and M. D. Jacobson National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction Surface-based microwave and infrared radiometers have been employed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Environmental Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) in climate research since 1987. The ability

  2. Nonlocal polarization interferometer for entanglement detection (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Nonlocal polarization interferometer for entanglement detection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nonlocal polarization interferometer for entanglement detection We report a nonlocal interferometer capable of detecting entanglement and identifying Bell states statistically. This is possible due to the interferometer's unique correlation dependence on the antidiagonal elements of the density matrix, which have distinct bounds for separable states and unique

  3. Interferometer for the measurement of plasma density

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Abram R.

    1980-01-01

    An interferometer which combines the advantages of a coupled cavity interferometer requiring alignment of only one light beam, and a quadrature interferometer which has the ability to track multi-fringe phase excursions unambiguously. The device utilizes a Bragg cell for generating a signal which is electronically analyzed to unambiguously determine phase modulation which is proportional to the path integral of the plasma density.

  4. Radiometric instrumentation and measurements guide for photovoltaic performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.

    1997-04-01

    The Photovoltaic Module and Systems Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performs indoor and outdoor standardization, testing, and monitoring of the performance of a wide range of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion devices and systems. The PV Radiometric Measurements and Evaluation Team (PVSRME) within that project is responsible for measurement and characterization of natural and artificial optical radiation which stimulates the PV effect. The PV manufacturing and research and development community often approaches project members for technical information and guidance. A great area of interest is radiometric instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis applied to understanding and improving PV cell, module, and system performance. At the Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Workshop conducted by the PVSRME team in July 1995, the need to communicate knowledge of solar and optical radiometric measurements and instrumentation, gained as a result of NREL`s long-term experiences, was identified as an activity that would promote improved measurement processes and measurement quality in the PV research and manufacturing community. The purpose of this document is to address the practical and engineering need to understand optical and solar radiometric instrument performance, selection, calibration, installation, and maintenance applicable to indoor and outdoor radiometric measurements for PV calibration, performance, and testing applications. An introductory section addresses radiometric concepts and definitions. Next, concepts essential to spectral radiometric measurements are discussed. Broadband radiometric instrumentation and measurement concepts are then discussed. Each type of measurement serves as an important component of the PV cell, module, and system performance measurement and characterization process.

  5. Radiometrics At Salt Wells Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Henkle, Et Al., 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Radiometrics At Salt Wells Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) Exploration Activity...

  6. Radiometrics At Reese River Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    References William R. Henkle Jr., Wayne C. Gundersen, Thomas D. Gundersen (2005) Mercury Geochemical, Groundwater Geochemical, And Radiometric Geophysical Signatures At Three...

  7. Radiometrics At Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    References William R. Henkle Jr., Wayne C. Gundersen, Thomas D. Gundersen (2005) Mercury Geochemical, Groundwater Geochemical, And Radiometric Geophysical Signatures At Three...

  8. Radiometrics At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Radiometrics At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  9. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds The ...

  10. ARM - Field Campaign - Millimeter-wave Radiometric Arctic Winter...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsMillimeter-wave Radiometric Arctic Winter Measurements Experiment ARM Data ... at NSAAAO (in particular, ARM communication and housing facilities, MWRs, cloud ...

  11. Posters Radiometric Sounding System C. D. Whiteman, G. A. Anderson...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Posters Radiometric Sounding System C. D. Whiteman, G. A. Anderson, J. M. Alzheimer, and W. J. Shaw Pacific Northwest Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction Vertical...

  12. interferometers.png | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Information interferometers.png

  13. Nonlocal polarization interferometer for entanglement detection

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Williams, Brian P; Humble, Travis S; Grice, Warren P

    2014-01-01

    We report a nonlocal interferometer capable of detecting entanglement and identifying Bell states statistically. This is possible due to the interferometer's unique correlation dependence on the antidiagonal elements of the density matrix, which have distinct bounds for separable states and unique values for the four Bell states. The interferometer consists of two spatially separated balanced Mach-Zehnder or Sagnac interferometers that share a polarization-entangled source. Correlations between these interferometers exhibit nonlocal interference, while single-photon interference is suppressed. This interferometer also allows for a unique version of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell test where the local reality is the photon polarization. We present themore » relevant theory and experimental results.« less

  14. Nonlocal polarization interferometer for entanglement detection

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Brian P; Humble, Travis S; Grice, Warren P

    2014-01-01

    We report a nonlocal interferometer capable of detecting entanglement and identifying Bell states statistically. This is possible due to the interferometer's unique correlation dependence on the antidiagonal elements of the density matrix, which have distinct bounds for separable states and unique values for the four Bell states. The interferometer consists of two spatially separated balanced Mach-Zehnder or Sagnac interferometers that share a polarization-entangled source. Correlations between these interferometers exhibit nonlocal interference, while single-photon interference is suppressed. This interferometer also allows for a unique version of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell test where the local reality is the photon polarization. We present the relevant theory and experimental results.

  15. CIMEL Measurements of Zenith Radiances at the ARM SGP Site

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    CIMEL Measurements of Zenith Radiances at the ARM SGP Site W. J. Wiscombe National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Climate and Radiation Branch Greenbelt, Maryland A. Marshak and K. Evans Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology University of Maryland Baltimore, Maryland Y. Knyazikhin Department of Geography Boston University Boston, Massachusetts H. W. Barker Environment Canada Downsview, Ontario, Canada C. F. Pavloski Department of Meteorology Pennsylvania

  16. INDIA

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Instruments AERI Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer Measurement Type: Radiometric View Plots AOS Aerosol Observing System Measurement Type: Aerosol View Plots DL Doppler Lidar Measurement Type: Cloud Properties View Plots GNDRAD Ground Radiometers on Stand for Upwelling Radiation Measurement Type: Radiometric View Plots MET Surface Meteorological Instrumentation Measurement Type: Surface Meteorology View Plots MFRSR Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurement Type:

  17. Ordinary SQUID interferometers and superfluid helium matter wave interferometers: The role of quantum fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Golovashkin, A. I.; Zherikhina, L. N. Tskhovrebov, A. M.; Izmailov, G. N.; Ozolin, V. V.

    2010-08-15

    When comparing the operation of a superfluid helium matter wave quantum interferometer (He SQUID) with that of an ordinary direct-current quantum interferometer (dc SQUID), we estimate their resolution limitation that correspond to quantum fluctuations. An alternative mode of operation of the interferometer as a unified macroquantum system is considered.

  18. Contributed Review: Absolute spectral radiance calibration of fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometers using a coiled-coil irradiance standard lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Fat’yanov, O. V. Asimow, P. D.

    2015-10-15

    We describe an accurate and precise calibration procedure for multichannel optical pyrometers such as the 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution instrument used in the Caltech experimental geophysics laboratory. We begin with a review of calibration sources for shock temperatures in the 3000-30 000 K range. High-power, coiled tungsten halogen standards of spectral irradiance appear to be the only practical alternative to NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamps, which are no longer available with large enough calibrated area. However, non-uniform radiance complicates the use of such coiled lamps for reliable and reproducible calibration of pyrometers that employ imaging or relay optics. Careful analysis of documented methods of shock pyrometer calibration to coiled irradiance standard lamps shows that only one technique, not directly applicable in our case, is free of major radiometric errors. We provide a detailed description of the modified Caltech pyrometer instrument and a procedure for its absolute spectral radiance calibration, accurate to ±5%. We employ a designated central area of a 0.7× demagnified image of a coiled-coil tungsten halogen lamp filament, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. We give the results of the cross-calibration along with descriptions of the optical arrangement, data acquisition, and processing. We describe a procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of amplified photodetectors, allowing time-dependent photodiode correction factors for spectral radiance histories from shock experiments. We validate correct operation of the modified Caltech pyrometer with actual shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO and obtain very good agreement with the literature data for these substances. We conclude with a summary of the most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometer using a high-power coiled tungsten halogen

  19. Two-path plasmonic interferometer with integrated detector (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The plasmonic interferometer comprises two independently tuned electrical paths. The plasmonic interferometer enables a spectrometer-on-a-chip where the tuning of electrical path ...

  20. OSTIblog Articles in the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) in Livingston, LA. Image credit: LIGO Laboratory Interferometers are investigative tools used in many fields in science ...

  1. X-ray shearing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Koch, Jeffrey A.

    2003-07-08

    An x-ray interferometer for analyzing high density plasmas and optically opaque materials includes a point-like x-ray source for providing a broadband x-ray source. The x-rays are directed through a target material and then are reflected by a high-quality ellipsoidally-bent imaging crystal to a diffraction grating disposed at 1.times. magnification. A spherically-bent imaging crystal is employed when the x-rays that are incident on the crystal surface are normal to that surface. The diffraction grating produces multiple beams which interfere with one another to produce an interference pattern which contains information about the target. A detector is disposed at the position of the image of the target produced by the interfering beams.

  2. Beam shuttering interferometer and method

    DOEpatents

    Deason, V.A.; Lassahn, G.D.

    1993-07-27

    A method and apparatus resulting in the simplification of phase shifting interferometry by eliminating the requirement to know the phase shift between interferograms or to keep the phase shift between interferograms constant. The present invention provides a simple, inexpensive means to shutter each independent beam of the interferometer in order to facilitate the data acquisition requirements for optical interferometry and phase shifting interferometry. By eliminating the requirement to know the phase shift between interferograms or to keep the phase shift constant, a simple, economical means and apparatus for performing the technique of phase shifting interferometry is provide which, by thermally expanding a fiber optical cable changes the optical path distance of one incident beam relative to another.

  3. Beam shuttering interferometer and method

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Lassahn, Gordon D.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus resulting in the simplification of phase shifting interferometry by eliminating the requirement to know the phase shift between interferograms or to keep the phase shift between interferograms constant. The present invention provides a simple, inexpensive means to shutter each independent beam of the interferometer in order to facilitate the data acquisition requirements for optical interferometry and phase shifting interferometry. By eliminating the requirement to know the phase shift between interferograms or to keep the phase shift constant, a simple, economical means and apparatus for performing the technique of phase shifting interferometry is provide which, by thermally expanding a fiber optical cable changes the optical path distance of one incident beam relative to another.

  4. ARM - Field Campaign - Absolute Solar Transmittance Interferometer...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsAbsolute Solar Transmittance Interferometer (ASTI) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at ...

  5. Single and double superimposing interferometer systems

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Interferometers which can imprint a coherent delay on a broadband uncollimated beam are described. The delay value can be independent of incident ray angle, allowing interferometry using uncollimated beams from common extended sources such as lamps and fiber bundles, and facilitating Fourier Transform spectroscopy of wide angle sources. Pairs of such interferometers matched in delay and dispersion can measure velocity and communicate using ordinary lamps, wide diameter optical fibers and arbitrary non-imaging paths, and not requiring a laser.

  6. Search for: interferometer* | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    interferometer* Find Semantic Search Term Search + Advanced SearchAdv. × Advanced Search All Fields: interferometer* Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator / Author: Name Name ORCID Product Type: All Book/Monograph Conference/Event Journal Article Miscellaneous Patent Program Document Software Manual Technical Report Thesis/Dissertation Subject: Identifier Numbers: Site: All Alaska Power Administration, Juneau, Alaska (United States) Albany Research Center (ARC),

  7. Optically Recording Velocity Interferometer System (ORVIS): Applications

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Challenges. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Optically Recording Velocity Interferometer System (ORVIS): Applications and Challenges. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optically Recording Velocity Interferometer System (ORVIS): Applications and Challenges. Abstract not provided. Authors: Cooper, Marcia A. Publication Date: 2015-06-01 OSTI Identifier: 1257697 Report Number(s): SAND2015-4721C 590812 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation:

  8. Achromatic self-referencing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Feldman, M.

    1994-04-19

    A self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer is described for accurately measuring laser wavefronts over a broad wavelength range (for example, 600 nm to 900 nm). The apparatus directs a reference portion of an input beam to a reference arm and a measurement portion of the input beam to a measurement arm, recombines the output beams from the reference and measurement arms, and registers the resulting interference pattern ([open quotes]first[close quotes] interferogram) at a first detector. Optionally, subportions of the measurement portion are diverted to second and third detectors, which respectively register intensity and interferogram signals which can be processed to reduce the first interferogram's sensitivity to input noise. The reference arm includes a spatial filter producing a high quality spherical beam from the reference portion, a tilted wedge plate compensating for off-axis aberrations in the spatial filter output, and mirror collimating the radiation transmitted through the tilted wedge plate. The apparatus includes a thermally and mechanically stable baseplate which supports all reference arm optics, or at least the spatial filter, tilted wedge plate, and the collimator. The tilted wedge plate is mounted adjustably with respect to the spatial filter and collimator, so that it can be maintained in an orientation in which it does not introduce significant wave front errors into the beam propagating through the reference arm. The apparatus is polarization insensitive and has an equal path length configuration enabling measurement of radiation from broadband as well as closely spaced laser line sources. 3 figures.

  9. Achromatic self-referencing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Feldman, Mark

    1994-01-01

    A self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer for accurately measuring laser wavefronts over a broad wavelength range (for example, 600 nm to 900 nm). The apparatus directs a reference portion of an input beam to a reference arm and a measurement portion of the input beam to a measurement arm, recombines the output beams from the reference and measurement arms, and registers the resulting interference pattern ("first" interferogram) at a first detector. Optionally, subportions of the measurement portion are diverted to second and third detectors, which respectively register intensity and interferogram signals which can be processed to reduce the first interferogram's sensitivity to input noise. The reference arm includes a spatial filter producing a high quality spherical beam from the reference portion, a tilted wedge plate compensating for off-axis aberrations in the spatial filter output, and mirror collimating the radiation transmitted through the tilted wedge plate. The apparatus includes a thermally and mechanically stable baseplate which supports all reference arm optics, or at least the spatial filter, tilted wedge plate, and the collimator. The tilted wedge plate is mounted adjustably with respect to the spatial filter and collimator, so that it can be maintained in an orientation in which it does not introduce significant wave front errors into the beam propagating through the reference arm. The apparatus is polarization insensitive and has an equal path length configuration enabling measurement of radiation from broadband as well as closely spaced laser line sources.

  10. Furnace control apparatus using polarizing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1995-03-28

    A system for nondestructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figures.

  11. Process control system using polarizing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1994-02-15

    A system for nondestructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figures.

  12. Furnace control apparatus using polarizing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Thomas J.; Kotidis, Petros A.; Woodroffe, Jaime A.; Rostler, Peter S.

    1995-01-01

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

  13. Process control system using polarizing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Thomas J.; Kotidis, Petros A.; Woodroffe, Jaime A.; Rostler, Peter S.

    1994-01-01

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

  14. Super-radiance in the sodium resonance lines from sodium iodide arc lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Karabourniotis, D.; Drakakis, E.

    2010-08-09

    Super-radiance observed within the centers of the sodium resonance D lines emitted by arc lamps containing sodium iodide as additive in a high-pressure mercury plasma environment was studied by high-resolution emission spectroscopy. The spectral radiance of these self-reversed lines including super-radiance was simulated by considering a local enhancement of the source function due to the presence of an additional source of radiation near the arc wall. Causes of this hitherto unrecognized source of radiation are given.

  15. Nulling Measurements with the Keck Interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Serabyn, Eugene

    2009-08-05

    The Keck Interferometer provides a mid-infrared nulling capability that is designed to detect faint mid-infrared emission from the immediate vicinity of bright stars. The Keck Interferometer Nuller (KIN) has now been used to carry out initial shared-risk science observations, followed by three nulling key-science projects performed in the 2008 observing semesters. This paper describes the novel measurement technique employed by the KIN, and lists some of the initial observations obtained with it. These data sets are now in the process of being analyzed, and results should begin emerging in the near future.

  16. OSTIblog Articles in the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Observatory (LIGO) Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) Topic Incredible Laser Interferometers by Kathy Chambers 12 Aug, 2016 in ligo_300.jpg Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) in Livingston, LA. Image credit: LIGO Laboratory Interferometers are investigative tools used in many fields in science and engineering. They work by merging two or more sources of light or

  17. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Medecki, H.

    1998-11-10

    Disclosed is a point diffraction interferometer for evaluating the quality of a test optic. In operation, the point diffraction interferometer includes a source of radiation, the test optic, a beam divider, a reference wave pinhole located at an image plane downstream from the test optic, and a detector for detecting an interference pattern produced between a reference wave emitted by the pinhole and a test wave emitted from the test optic. The beam divider produces separate reference and test beams which focus at different laterally separated positions on the image plane. The reference wave pinhole is placed at a region of high intensity (e.g., the focal point) for the reference beam. This allows reference wave to be produced at a relatively high intensity. Also, the beam divider may include elements for phase shifting one or both of the reference and test beams. 8 figs.

  18. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Medecki, Hector

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a point diffraction interferometer for evaluating the quality of a test optic. In operation, the point diffraction interferometer includes a source of radiation, the test optic, a beam divider, a reference wave pinhole located at an image plane downstream from the test optic, and a detector for detecting an interference pattern produced between a reference wave emitted by the pinhole and a test wave emitted from the test optic. The beam divider produces separate reference and test beams which focus at different laterally separated positions on the image plane. The reference wave pinhole is placed at a region of high intensity (e.g., the focal point) for the reference beam. This allows reference wave to be produced at a relatively high intensity. Also, the beam divider may include elements for phase shifting one or both of the reference and test beams.

  19. A continuous cold atomic beam interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Hongbo; Feng, Yanying Yan, Xueshu; Jiang, Zhikun; Chen, Shu; Wang, Xiaojia; Zhou, Zhaoying

    2015-03-07

    We demonstrate an atom interferometer that uses a laser-cooled continuous beam of {sup 87}Rb atoms having velocities of 10–20 m/s. With spatially separated Raman beams to coherently manipulate the atomic wave packets, Mach–Zehnder interference fringes are observed at an interference distance of 2L = 19 mm. The apparatus operates within a small enclosed area of 0.07 mm{sup 2} at a bandwidth of 190 Hz with a deduced sensitivity of 7.8×10{sup −5} rad/s/√(Hz) for rotations. Using a low-velocity continuous atomic source in an atom interferometer enables high sampling rates and bandwidths without sacrificing sensitivity and compactness, which are important for applications in real dynamic environments.

  20. Analysis of a free oscillation atom interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kafle, Rudra P.; Zozulya, Alex A.; Anderson, Dana Z.

    2011-09-15

    We analyze a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC)-based free oscillation atom Michelson interferometer in a weakly confining harmonic magnetic trap. A BEC at the center of the trap is split into two harmonics by a laser standing wave. The harmonics move in opposite directions with equal speeds and turn back under the influence of the trapping potential at their classical turning points. The harmonics are allowed to pass through each other and a recombination pulse is applied when they overlap at the end of a cycle after they return for the second time. We derive an expression for the contrast of the interferometric fringes and obtain the fundamental limit of performance of the interferometer in the parameter space.

  1. Photorefractive Interferometers for Ultrasonic Measurements on Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Lafond, E. F.; Brodeur, P. H.; Gerhardstein, J. P.; Habeger, C. C.; Telschow, Kenneth Louis

    2002-12-01

    Photorefractive interferometers have been employed for the detection of ultrasound in metals and composites since 1991 [14]. Instances of laser-generated ultrasound and laser-based detection in paper were reported in 1996 [5]. More recently, bismuth silicon oxide (BSO) photorefractive interferometers were adapted to detect ultrasound in paper [6]. In this article we discuss BSO and GaAs photorefractive detection of ultrasound on different paper grades and present the resulting waveforms. Compared to contact piezoelectric transducer methods, laser interferometry offers signifcant advantages. One of these is that it is a noncontact technique. This is especially important for on-line application to lightweight papers which could be marked or damaged by contact transducers. Broadband ultrasonic laser generation matched with the broadband sensitivity of laser interferometers is another beneft. This is important for obtaining narrow pulses in nondispersive time-of-fight determinations and for measuring the phase velocity of dispersive modes over a wide frequency band. Also, laser ultrasonic techniques provide a measure of bending stiffness through the analysis of low frequency A0 waves.

  2. A Fiber Interferometer for the Magnetized Shock Experiment (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: A Fiber Interferometer for the Magnetized Shock Experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Fiber Interferometer for the Magnetized Shock Experiment The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) at Los Alamos National Laboratory requires remote diagnostics of plasma density. Laser interferometry can be used to determine the line-integrated density of the plasma. A multi-chord heterodyne fiber optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer is being assembled

  3. Measurements of Martin-Puplett Interferometer Limitations using Blackbody

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Source (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Measurements of Martin-Puplett Interferometer Limitations using Blackbody Source Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measurements of Martin-Puplett Interferometer Limitations using Blackbody Source Frequency domain measurements with Martin-Puplett interferometer is one of a few techniques capable of bunch length measurements at the level of ~ 100 fs. As the bunch length becomes shorter, it is important to know and be able to measure

  4. Two-path plasmonic interferometer with integrated detector

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Shaner, Eric A.; Aizin, Gregory

    2016-03-29

    An electrically tunable terahertz two-path plasmonic interferometer with an integrated detection element can down convert a terahertz field to a rectified DC signal. The integrated detector utilizes a resonant plasmonic homodyne mixing mechanism that measures the component of the plasma waves in-phase with an excitation field that functions as the local oscillator in the mixer. The plasmonic interferometer comprises two independently tuned electrical paths. The plasmonic interferometer enables a spectrometer-on-a-chip where the tuning of electrical path length plays an analogous role to that of physical path length in macroscopic Fourier transform interferometers.

  5. Evaluating Radiometric Measurements Using a Fixed 45 Degrees Responsivity and Zenith Angle Dependent Responsivities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Dooraghi, M.; Habte, A.; Reda, I.; Sengupta, M.; Gotseff, P.; Andreas, A.; Anderberg, M.

    2014-03-01

    This poster seeks to demonstrate the importance and application of an existing but unused approach that ultimately reduces the uncertainty of radiometric measurements. Current radiometric data is based on a single responsivity value that introduces significant uncertainty to the data, however, through using responsivity as a function of solar zenith angle, the uncertainty could be decreased by 50%.

  6. Dual-domain lateral shearing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2004-03-16

    The phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) was developed to address the problem of at-wavelength metrology of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical systems. Although extremely accurate, the fact that the PS/PDI is limited to use with coherent EUV sources, such as undulator radiation, is a drawback for its widespread use. An alternative to the PS/PDI, with relaxed coherence requirements, is lateral shearing interferometry (LSI). The use of a cross-grating, carrier-frequency configuration to characterize a large-field 4.times.-reduction EUV lithography optic is demonstrated. The results obtained are directly compared with PS/PDI measurements. A defocused implementation of the lateral shearing interferometer in which an image-plane filter allows both phase-shifting and Fourier wavefront recovery. The two wavefront recovery methods can be combined in a dual-domain technique providing suppression of noise added by self-interference of high-frequency components in the test-optic wavefront.

  7. Uncertainty Estimation of Radiometric Data using a Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) Method

    SciTech Connect

    Habte, Aron

    2015-06-25

    This presentation summarizes uncertainty estimation of radiometric data using the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty (GUM) method.

  8. Multichannel microwave interferometer for the levitated dipole experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Boxer, Alexander C.; Garnier, Darren T.; Mauel, Michael E.

    2009-04-15

    A four-channel microwave interferometer (center frequency: 60 GHz) has been constructed to measure plasma density profiles in the levitated dipole experiment (LDX). The LDX interferometer has a unique design owing to the unique geometry of LDX. The main design features of the interferometer are: (1) the transmitted beam traverses the plasma entirely in O-mode; (2) the interferometer is a heterodyne system employing two free-running oscillators; (3) four signals of data are received from just on transmitted beam; (4) phase shifts are detected in quadrature. Calibration tests demonstrate that the interferometer measures phase shifts with an uncertainty of approximately 5 deg. Plasma densities in LDX corresponding to phase shifts of up to 5{pi} are routinely and successfully measured.

  9. Process of preparing metal parts to be heated by means of infrared radiance

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Howard Robinson; Blue, Craig A.

    2009-06-09

    A method for preparing metal for heating by infrared radiance to enable uniform and consistent heating. The surface of one or more metal parts, such as aluminum or aluminum alloy parts, is treated to alter the surface finish to affect the reflectivity of the surface. The surface reflectivity is evaluated, such as by taking measurements at one or more points on the surface, to determine if a desired reflectivity has been achieved. The treating and measuring are performed until the measuring indicates that the desired reflectivity has been achieved. Once the treating has altered the surface finish to achieve the desired reflectivity, the metal part may then be exposed to infrared radiance to heat the metal part to a desired temperature, and that heating will be substantially consistent throughout by virtue of the desired reflectivity.

  10. Fourier-transform and global contrast interferometer alignment methods

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    Interferometric methods are presented to facilitate alignment of image-plane components within an interferometer and for the magnified viewing of interferometer masks in situ. Fourier-transforms are performed on intensity patterns that are detected with the interferometer and are used to calculate pseudo-images of the electric field in the image plane of the test optic where the critical alignment of various components is being performed. Fine alignment is aided by the introduction and optimization of a global contrast parameter that is easily calculated from the Fourier-transform.

  11. Posters Preliminary Analysis of Ground-Based Microwave and Infrared Radiance Observations

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Posters Preliminary Analysis of Ground-Based Microwave and Infrared Radiance Observations During the Pilot Radiation OBservation Experiment E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, J. H. Churnside, and J. B. Snider National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Research Laboratories Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction During Phase Two of the Pilot Radiation OBservation Experiment (PROBE) held in Kavieng, Papua New Guinea (Renné et al. 1994), the National Oceanic

  12. Improved ARM-SGP TOA OLR Fluxes from GOES-8 IR Radiances Based on CERES Data

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM-SGP TOA OLR Fluxes from GOES-8 IR Radiances Based on CERES Data D. R. Doelling and M. M. Khaiyer Analytical Services and Materials, Inc. Hampton, Virginia P. Minnis National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia Introduction The radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is a quantity of fundamental importance to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Thus, it is necessary to measure the radiation budget components, broadband

  13. Preliminary Neutronics Analysis of the ITER Toroidal Interferometer and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Polarimeter Diagnostic Corner Cube Retroreflectors (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Preliminary Neutronics Analysis of the ITER Toroidal Interferometer and Polarimeter Diagnostic Corner Cube Retroreflectors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preliminary Neutronics Analysis of the ITER Toroidal Interferometer and Polarimeter Diagnostic Corner Cube Retroreflectors ITER is an international project under construction in France that will demonstrate nuclear fusion at a power

  14. Phase-sensitive two-dimensional neutron shearing interferometer and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hartmann sensor (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Phase-sensitive two-dimensional neutron shearing interferometer and Hartmann sensor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-sensitive two-dimensional neutron shearing interferometer and Hartmann sensor A neutron imaging system detects both the phase shift and absorption of neutrons passing through an object. The neutron imaging system is based on either of two different neutron wavefront sensor techniques: 2-D shearing

  15. Dual-domain point diffraction interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2000-01-01

    A hybrid spatial/temporal-domain point diffraction interferometer (referred to as the dual-domain PS/PDI) that is capable of suppressing the scattered-reference-light noise that hinders the conventional PS/PDI is provided. The dual-domain PS/PDI combines the separate noise-suppression capabilities of the widely-used phase-shifting and Fourier-transform fringe pattern analysis methods. The dual-domain PS/PDI relies on both a more restrictive implementation of the image plane PS/PDI mask and a new analysis method to be applied to the interferograms generated and recorded by the modified PS/PDI. The more restrictive PS/PDI mask guarantees the elimination of spatial-frequency crosstalk between the signal and the scattered-light noise arising from scattered-reference-light interfering with the test beam. The new dual-domain analysis method is then used to eliminate scattered-light noise arising from both the scattered-reference-light interfering with the test beam and the scattered-reference-light interfering with the "true" pinhole-diffracted reference light. The dual-domain analysis method has also been demonstrated to provide performance enhancement when using the non-optimized standard PS/PDI design. The dual-domain PS/PDI is essentially a three-tiered filtering system composed of lowpass spatial-filtering the test-beam electric field using the more restrictive PS/PDI mask, bandpass spatial-filtering the individual interferogram irradiance frames making up the phase-shifting series, and bandpass temporal-filtering the phase-shifting series as a whole.

  16. SU-E-T-470: Beam Performance of the Radiance 330 Proton Therapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Nazaryan, H; Nazaryan, V; Wang, F; Flanz, J; Alexandrov, V

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The ProTom Radiance 330 proton radiotherapy system is a fully functional, compact proton radiotherapy system that provides advanced proton delivery capabilities. It supports three-dimensional beam scanning with energy and intensity modulation. A series of measurements have been conducted to characterize the beam performance of the first installation of the system at the McLaren Proton Therapy Center in Flint, Michigan. These measurements were part of the technical commissioning of the system. Select measurements and results are presented. Methods: The Radiance 330 proton beam energy range is 70250 MeV for treatment, and up to 330 MeV for proton tomography and radiography. Its 3-D scanning capability, together with a small beam emittance and momentum spread, provides a highly efficient beam delivery. During the technical commissioning, treatment plans were created to deliver uniform maps at various energies to perform Gamma Index analysis. EBT3 Gafchromic films were irradiated using the Planned irradiation maps. Bragg Peak chamber was used to test the dynamic range during a scan in one layer for high (250 MeV) and Low (70 MeV) energies. The maximum and minimum range, range adjustment and modulation, distal dose falloff (80%20%), pencil beam spot size, spot placement accuracy were also measured. The accuracy testing included acquiring images, image registration, receiving correction vectors and applying the corrections to the robotic patient positioner. Results: Gamma Index analysis of the Treatment Planning System (TPS) data vs. Measured data showed more than 90% of points within (3%, 3mm) for the maps created by the TPS. At Isocenter Beam Size (One sigma) < 3mm at highest energy (250 MeV) in air. Beam delivery was within 0.6 mm of the intended target at the entrance and the exit of the beam, through the phantom. Conclusion: The Radiance 330 Beam Performance Measurements have confirmed that the system operates as designed with excellent clinical

  17. Acceleration of Radiance for Lighting Simulation by Using Parallel Computing with OpenCL

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Wangda; McNeil, Andrew; Wetter, Michael; Lee, Eleanor

    2011-09-06

    We report on the acceleration of annual daylighting simulations for fenestration systems in the Radiance ray-tracing program. The algorithm was optimized to reduce both the redundant data input/output operations and the floating-point operations. To further accelerate the simulation speed, the calculation for matrix multiplications was implemented using parallel computing on a graphics processing unit. We used OpenCL, which is a cross-platform parallel programming language. Numerical experiments show that the combination of the above measures can speed up the annual daylighting simulations 101.7 times or 28.6 times when the sky vector has 146 or 2306 elements, respectively.

  18. Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions within Radiance

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Gregory; Mistrick, Ph.D., Richard; Lee, Eleanor; McNeil, Andrew; Jonsson, Ph.D., Jacob

    2011-01-21

    We describe two methods which rely on bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) to model the daylighting performance of complex fenestration systems (CFS), enabling greater flexibility and accuracy in evaluating arbitrary assemblies of glazing, shading, and other optically-complex coplanar window systems. Two tools within Radiance enable a) efficient annual performance evaluations of CFS, and b) accurate renderings of CFS despite the loss of spatial resolution associated with low-resolution BSDF datasets for inhomogeneous systems. Validation, accuracy, and limitations of the methods are discussed.

  19. Radiometric characterization of a high temperature blackbody in the visible and near infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Taubert, R. D.; Hollandt, J.

    2013-09-11

    At the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt the radiance temperature in the range from 962 C to 3000 C is disseminated by applying a high temperature blackbody (HTBB) with a directly heated pyrolytic graphite cavity. The thermodynamic radiance temperature of the HTBB was measured in the temperature range from 1000 C to 3000 C by applying almost simultaneously absolutely calibrated silicon photodiode based filter radiometers with centre wavelengths at 476 nm, 676 nm, 800 nm, 900 nm and 1000 nm and InGaAs photodiode based filter radiometers with centre wavelengths at 1300 nm, 1550 nm and 1595 nm. The results demonstrate that, expressed in terms of irradiance, within an uncertainty of 0.1 % (k=1) in a broad wavelength range the thermodynamic radiance temperature of the HTBB is wavelength independent in the investigated temperature interval.

  20. Polarizing optical interferometer having a dual use optical element

    DOEpatents

    Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1995-04-04

    A system for nondestructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figures.

  1. Polarizing optical interferometer having a dual use optical element

    DOEpatents

    Kotidis, Petros A.; Woodroffe, Jaime A.; Rostler, Peter S.

    1995-01-01

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

  2. Final Report: High Spectral Resolution Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Studies with the ARM UAV

    SciTech Connect

    Revercomb, Henry E.

    1999-12-31

    The active participation in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV) science team that was anticipated in the grant proposal was indefinitely delayed after the first year due to a programmatic decision to exclude the high spectral resolution observations from the existing ARM UAV program. However, this report shows that substantial progress toward the science objectives of this grant have made with the help of separate funding from NASA and other agencies. In the four year grant period (including time extensions), a new high spectral resolution instrument has been flown and has successfully demonstrated the ability to obtain measurements of the type needed in the conduct of this grant. In the near term, the third water vapor intensive observing period (WVIOP-3) in October 2000 will provide an opportunity to bring the high spectral resolution observations of upwelling radiance into the ARM program to complement the downwelling radiance observations from the existing ARM AERI instruments. We look forward to a time when the ARM-UAV program is able to extend its scope to include the capability for making these high spectral resolution measurements from a UAV platform.

  3. Release Path Temperatures of Shock-Compressed Tin from Dynamic Reflectance and Radiance Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    La Lone, B. M.; Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D.; Holtkamp, D. B.; Iverson, A. J.; Hixson, R. S.; Veeser, L. R.

    2013-08-01

    Dynamic reflectance and radiance measurements were conducted for tin samples shock compressed to 35 GPa and released to 15 GPa using high explosives. We determined the reflectance of the tin samples glued to lithium fluoride windows using an integrating sphere with an internal xenon flashlamp as an illumination source. The dynamic reflectance (R) was determined at near normal incidence in four spectral bands with coverage in visible and near-infrared spectra. Uncertainties in R/R0 are < 2%, and uncertainties in absolute reflectance are < 5%. In complementary experiments, thermal radiance from the tin/glue/lithium fluoride interface was recorded with similar shock stress and spectral coverage as the reflectance measurements. The two sets of experiments were combined to obtain the temperature history of the tin surface with an uncertainty of < 2%. The stress at the interface was determined from photonic Doppler velocimetry and combined with the temperatures to obtain temperature-stress release paths for tin. We discuss the relationship between the experimental release paths and release isentropes that begin on the principal shock Hugoniot.

  4. Release path temperatures of shock-compressed tin from dynamic reflectance and radiance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    La Lone, B. M. Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D.; Holtkamp, D. B.; Iverson, A. J.; Hixson, R. S.; Veeser, L. R.

    2013-08-14

    Dynamic reflectance and radiance measurements were conducted for tin samples shock compressed to 35 GPa and released to 15 GPa using high explosives. We determined the reflectance of the tin samples glued to lithium fluoride windows using an integrating sphere with an internal xenon flashlamp as an illumination source. The dynamic reflectance (R) was determined at near normal incidence in four spectral bands with coverage in visible and near-infrared spectra. Uncertainties in R/R{sub 0} are <2%, and uncertainties in absolute reflectance are <5%. In complementary experiments, thermal radiance from the tin/glue/lithium fluoride interface was recorded with similar shock stress and spectral coverage as the reflectance measurements. The two sets of experiments were combined to obtain the temperature history of the tin surface with an uncertainty of <2%. The stress at the interface was determined from photonic Doppler velocimetry and combined with the temperatures to obtain temperature-stress release paths for tin. We discuss the relationship between the experimental release paths and release isentropes that begin on the principal shock Hugoniot.

  5. Multiphoton- and simultaneous conjugate Ramsey-Borde atom interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Holger; Chiow, Sheng-wey; Herrmann, Sven [Physics Department, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Chu, Steven [Physics Department, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2008-03-06

    We report on our experiment to measure h/M, the ratio of the Planck constant to the mass of Cs atoms, and thereby the fine-structure constant. The target accuracy is 1 part per billion or better. We focus on two recent milestones: (i) The first realization of atom interferometers based on light-pulse beam splitters that transfer the momentum of up to 12 photon pairs, which increases the useful signal (matter wave phase shift) by a factor of 144 compared to the beam splitters used in the best present atom interferometers. Moreover, they lead to a cancellation of important systematic effects. (ii) The first realization of a simultaneous pair of conjugate Ramsey-Borde interferometers. In these, the relative sign of the inertial term is reversed so that it can be cancelled. Simultaneous operation means that this holds for a time-dependent inertial term (vibrations) too, which promises a substantial improvement in the signal to noise ratio.

  6. Acceleration of the matrix multiplication of Radiance three phase daylighting simulations with parallel computing on heterogeneous hardware of personal computer

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Wangda; McNeil, Andrew; Wetter, Michael; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2013-05-23

    Building designers are increasingly relying on complex fenestration systems to reduce energy consumed for lighting and HVAC in low energy buildings. Radiance, a lighting simulation program, has been used to conduct daylighting simulations for complex fenestration systems. Depending on the configurations, the simulation can take hours or even days using a personal computer. This paper describes how to accelerate the matrix multiplication portion of a Radiance three-phase daylight simulation by conducting parallel computing on heterogeneous hardware of a personal computer. The algorithm was optimized and the computational part was implemented in parallel using OpenCL. The speed of new approach was evaluated using various daylighting simulation cases on a multicore central processing unit and a graphics processing unit. Based on the measurements and analysis of the time usage for the Radiance daylighting simulation, further speedups can be achieved by using fast I/O devices and storing the data in a binary format.

  7. Light pulse analysis with a multi-state atom interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, I.; Lombardi, P.; Schfer, F.; Petrovic, J.; Cataliotti, F. S.

    2014-12-04

    We present a controllable multi-state cold-atom interferometer that is easy-to-use and fully merged on an atom chip. We demonstrate its applications as a sensor of the fields whose interactions with atoms are state-dependent.

  8. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer mask designs

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2001-01-01

    In a phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer, different image-plane mask designs can improve the operation of the interferometer. By keeping the test beam window of the mask small compared to the separation distance between the beams, the problem of energy from the reference beam leaking through the test beam window is reduced. By rotating the grating and mask 45.degree., only a single one-dimensional translation stage is required for phase-shifting. By keeping two reference pinholes in the same orientation about the test beam window, only a single grating orientation, and thus a single one-dimensional translation stage, is required. The use of a two-dimensional grating allows for a multiplicity of pinholes to be used about the pattern of diffracted orders of the grating at the mask. Orientation marks on the mask can be used to orient the device and indicate the position of the reference pinholes.

  9. A Fiber Interferometer for the Magnetized Shock Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Christian

    2012-08-30

    The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) at Los Alamos National Laboratory requires remote diagnostics of plasma density. Laser interferometry can be used to determine the line-integrated density of the plasma. A multi-chord heterodyne fiber optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer is being assembled and integrated into the experiment. The advantage of the fiber coupling is that many different view chords can be easily obtained by simply moving transmit and receive fiber couplers. Several such fiber sets will be implemented to provide a time history of line-averaged density for several chords at once. The multiple chord data can then be Abel inverted to provide radially resolved spatial profiles of density. We describe the design and execution of this multiple fiber interferometer.

  10. Phase estimation with nonunitary interferometers: Information as a metric

    SciTech Connect

    Bahder, Thomas B.

    2011-05-15

    Determining the phase in one arm of a quantum interferometer is discussed taking into account the three nonideal aspects in real experiments: nondeterministic state preparation, nonunitary state evolution due to losses during state propagation, and imperfect state detection. A general expression is written for the probability of a measurement outcome taking into account these three nonideal aspects. As an example of applying the formalism, the classical Fisher information and fidelity (Shannon mutual information between phase and measurements) are computed for few-photon Fock and N00N states input into a lossy Mach-Zehnder interferometer. These three nonideal aspects lead to qualitative differences in phase estimation, such as a decrease in fidelity and Fisher information that depends on the true value of the phase.

  11. A ballistic two-dimensional-electron-gas Andreev interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Amado, M. Fornieri, A.; Sorba, L.; Giazotto, F.; Biasiol, G.

    2014-06-16

    We report the realization and investigation of a ballistic Andreev interferometer based on an InAs two dimensional electron gas coupled to a superconducting Nb loop. We observe strong magnetic modulations in the voltage drop across the device due to quasiparticle interference within the weak-link. The interferometer exhibits flux noise down to ∼80 μΦ{sub 0}/√(Hz) and a robust behavior in temperature with voltage oscillations surviving up to ∼7 K. Besides this remarkable performance, the device represents a crucial first step for the realization of a fully-tunable ballistic superconducting magnetometer and embodies a potential advanced platform for the investigation of Majorana bound states, non-local entanglement of Cooper pairs, as well as the manipulation and control of spin triplet correlations.

  12. Noise-Immune Conjugate Large-Area Atom Interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Chiow Shengwey; Herrmann, Sven [Physics Department, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Chu, Steven; Mueller, Holger [Physics Department, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, 366 Le Conte Hall, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2009-07-31

    We present a pair of simultaneous conjugate Ramsey-Borde atom interferometers using large (20(Planck constant/2pi)k)-momentum transfer beam splitters, where (Planck constant/2pi)k is the photon momentum. Simultaneous operation allows for common-mode rejection of vibrational noise. This allows us to surpass the enclosed space-time area of previous interferometers with a splitting of 20(Planck constant/2pi)k by a factor of 2500. Using a splitting of 10(Planck constant/2pi)k, we demonstrate a 3.4 ppb resolution in the measurement of the fine structure constant. Examples for applications in tests of fundamental laws of physics are given.

  13. Heterodyne interferometer with angstrom-level periodic nonlinearity

    DOEpatents

    Schmitz, Tony L. (Gainesville, FL); Beckwith, John F. (Indialantic, FL)

    2005-01-25

    Displacement measuring interferometer systems and methods are disclosed. One or more acousto-optic modulators for receiving a laser light beam from a laser light source can be utilized to split the laser light beam into two or more laser light beams, while spatially separating frequencies thereof. One or more reflective mechanisms can be utilized to reflect one or more of the laser light beams back to the acousto-optic modulator. Interference of two or more of the laser light beams generally at the acousto-optic modulator can provide an interfered laser light beam thereof. A detector for receiving the interfered laser light beam can be utilized to provide interferometer measurement data.

  14. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer grating designs

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan; Tejnil, Edita

    2001-01-01

    In a phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer, by sending the zeroth-order diffraction to the reference pinhole of the mask and the first-order diffraction to the test beam window of the mask, the test and reference beam intensities can be balanced and the fringe contrast improved. Additionally, using a duty cycle of the diffraction grating other than 50%, the fringe contrast can also be improved.

  15. Mississippi exploration field trials using microbial, radiometrics, free soil gas, and other techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, J.S.; Brown, L.R.; Thieling, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Mississippi Office of Geology has conducted field trials using the surface exploration techniques of geomicrobial, radiometrics, and free soil gas. The objective of these trials is to determine if Mississippi oil and gas fields have surface hydrocarbon expression resulting from vertical microseepage migration. Six fields have been surveyed ranging in depth from 3,330 ft to 18,500 ft. The fields differ in trapping styles and hydrocarbon type. The results so far indicate that these fields do have a surface expression and that geomicrobial analysis as well as radiometrics and free soil gas can detect hydrocarbon microseepage from pressurized reservoirs. All three exploration techniques located the reservoirs independent of depth, hydrocarbon type, or trapping style.

  16. Remotely Controlled, Continuous Observations of Infrared Radiance with the CSIRO/ARM Mark II Radiometer at the SGP CART Site

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Remotely Controlled, Continuous Observations of Infrared Radiance with the CSIRO/ARM Mark II Radiometer at the SGP CART Site C. M. R. Platt and R. T. Austin Department of Atmospheric Science Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado C. M. R. Platt and J. A. Bennett Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization Atmospheric Research Aspendale, Victoria, Australia Abstract The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement

  17. Evaluating Water Vapor in the NCAR CAM3 Climate Model with RRTMG/McICA using Modeled and Observed AIRS Spectral Radiances

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaluating Water Vapor in the NCAR CAM3 Climate Model with RRTMG/McICA using Modeled and Observed AIRS Spectral Radiances Michael J. Iacono, Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., 131 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421 USA 1. Overview Objectives: * Evaluate water vapor and temperature simulation in two versions of CAM3 by comparing modeled and observed cloud-cleared AIRS spectral radiances. * Use spectral differences to verify comparisons between modeled water vapor and temperature and

  18. Dual-axis high-data-rate atom interferometer via cold ensemble exchange

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Dual-axis high-data-rate atom interferometer via cold ensemble exchange Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dual-axis high-data-rate atom interferometer via cold ensemble exchange We demonstrate a dual-axis accelerometer and gyroscope atom interferometer, which can form the building blocks of a six-axis inertial measurement unit. By recapturing the atoms after the interferometer sequence, we maintain a large atom number at high data

  19. Impact of anomalous dispersion on the interferometer measurements of plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, J; Johnson, W R; Iglesias, C A; Scofield, J H

    2004-12-16

    For many decades optical interferometers have been used to measure the electron density of plasmas. During the last ten years X-ray lasers in the wavelength range 14 to 47 nm have enabled researchers to use interferometers to probe even higher density plasmas. The data analysis assumes that the index of refraction is due only to the free electrons, which makes the index of refraction less than one and the electron density proportional to the number of fringe shifts. Recent experiments in Al plasmas observed plasmas with an index of refraction greater than one and made us question the validity of the usual formula for calculating the index of refraction. Recent calculations showed how the anomalous dispersion from the bound electrons can dominate the index of refraction in many types of plasma and make the index greater than one or enhance the index such that one would greatly overestimate the electron density of the plasma using interferometers. In this work we calculate the index of refraction of C, Al, Ti, and Pd plasmas for photon energies from 0 to 100 eV (12.4 nm) using a new average-atom code. The results show large variations from the free electron approximation under many different plasma conditions. We validate the average-atom code against the more detailed OPAL code for carbon and aluminum plasmas. During the next decade X-ray free electron lasers and other sources will be available to probe a wider variety of plasmas at higher densities and shorter wavelengths so understanding the index of refraction in plasmas will be even more essential.

  20. Wollaston prism phase-stepping point diffraction interferometer and method

    DOEpatents

    Rushford, Michael C.

    2004-10-12

    A Wollaston prism phase-stepping point diffraction interferometer for testing a test optic. The Wollaston prism shears light into reference and signal beams, and provides phase stepping at increased accuracy by translating the Wollaston prism in a lateral direction with respect to the optical path. The reference beam produced by the Wollaston prism is directed through a pinhole of a diaphragm to produce a perfect spherical reference wave. The spherical reference wave is recombined with the signal beam to produce an interference fringe pattern of greater accuracy.

  1. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer phase grating designs

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick (Oakland, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Diffraction phase gratings are employed in phase-shifting point diffraction interferometers to improve the interferometric fringe contrast. The diffraction phase grating diffracts a zeroth-order diffraction of light at a first power level to the test-beam window of a mask that is positioned at the image plane and a first-order diffraction at a second power to the reference-beam pinhole. The diffraction phase grating is preferably selected to yield a desired ratio of the first power level to second power level.

  2. Hand held phase-shifting diffraction moire interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Ward, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    An interferometer in which a coherent beam of light is generated within a remote case and transmitted to a hand held unit tethered to said remote case, said hand held unit having optical elements for directing a pair of mutually coherent collimated laser beams at a diffraction grating. Data from the secondary or diffracted beams are then transmitted to a separate video and data acquisition system for recording and analysis for load induced deformation or for identification purposes. Means are also provided for shifting the phase of one incident beam relative to the other incident beam and being controlled from within said remote case.

  3. Hand held phase-shifting diffraction Moire interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1994-09-20

    An interferometer is described in which a coherent beam of light is generated within a remote case and transmitted to a hand held unit tethered to said remote case, said hand held unit having optical elements for directing a pair of mutually coherent collimated laser beams at a diffraction grating. Data from the secondary or diffracted beams are then transmitted to a separate video and data acquisition system for recording and analysis for load induced deformation or for identification purposes. Means are also provided for shifting the phase of one incident beam relative to the other incident beam and being controlled from within said remote case. 4 figs.

  4. On-fiber plasmonic interferometer for multi-parameter sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhijian [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Chen, Yongyao [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Liu, Haijun [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Bae, Hyungdae [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Olson, Douglas A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Gupta, Ashwani K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Yu, Miao [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel miniature multi-parameter sensing device based on a plasmonic interferometer fabricated on a fiber facet in the optical communication wavelength range. This device enables the coupling between surface plasmon resonance and plasmonic interference in the structure, which are the two essential mechanisms for multi-parameter sensing. We experimentally show that these two mechanisms have distinctive responses to temperature and refractive index, rendering the device the capability of simultaneous temperature and refractive index measurement on an ultra-miniature form factor. A high refractive index sensitivity of 220 nm per refractive index unit (RIU) and a high temperature sensitivity of 60 pm/ C is achieved with our device.

  5. Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) Scientific Collaboration, will

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Ripples in space-time discussed in public lecture September 15, 2016 LIGO spokesperson examines the detection of gravitational waves LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Sept. 15, 2016-Gabriela Gonzalez, spokesperson for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) Scientific Collaboration, will discuss the observation of gravitational waves at 7:30 p.m. Sept. 19 in the Grand Ballroom at the Eldorado Hotel in Santa Fe; the free lecture is open to the public. "This is a very exciting time in

  6. Measurements of Martin-Puplett Interferometer Limitations using Blackbody Source

    SciTech Connect

    Evtushenko, Pavel E.; Klopf, John M.

    2013-06-01

    Frequency domain measurements with Martin-Puplett interferometer is one of a few techniques capable of bunch length measurements at the level of ~ 100 fs. As the bunch length becomes shorter, it is important to know and be able to measure the limitations of the instrument in terms of shortest measurable bunch length. In this paper we describe an experiment using a blackbody source with the modified Martin-Puplett interferometer that is routine- ly used for bunch length measurements at the JLab FEL, as a way to estimate the shortest, measurable bunch length. The limitation comes from high frequency cut-off of the wire-grid polarizer currently used and is estimated to be 50 fs RMS. The measurements are made with the same Golay cell detector that is used for beam measure- ments. We demonstrate that, even though the blackbody source is many orders of magnitude less bright than the coherent transition or synchrotron radiation, it can be used for the measurements and gives a very good signal to noise ratio in combination with lock-in detection. We also compare the measurements made in air and in vacuum to characterize the very strong effect of the atmospheric absorption.

  7. Progress on radiometric dating of Wolfcamp brines using /sup 4/He and /sup 40/Ar

    SciTech Connect

    Zaikowski, A.; Kosanke, B.J.; Hubbard, N.

    1984-01-01

    Ground water samples (brines) from deep wells in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas are being analyzed for noble gases in an attempt to obtain radiometric ages for these brines. The brines contain radiogenic /sup 4/He and /sup 40/Ar produced from the radioactive decay of U, Th, and K. Consideration of hydrochemical data for the brines, various isotopic, chemical, and mineralogical data for the aquifer rocks and noble gas production rates allow estimating the age of the brines to be about 130 million years at two wells. At a third well interaquifer mixing has occurred and the age is presently indeterminate. 9 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  8. Multicomponent wavefield characterization with a novel scanning laser interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, Thomas E.; Wijk, Kasper van; Pouet, Bruno; Wartelle, Alexis

    2010-07-15

    The in-plane component of the wavefield provides valuable information about media properties from seismology to nondestructive testing. A new compact scanning laser ultrasonic interferometer collects light scattered away from the angle of incidence to provide the absolute ultrasonic displacement for both the out-of-plane and an in-plane components. This new system is tested by measuring the radial and vertical polarization of a Rayleigh wave in an aluminum half-space. The estimated amplitude ratio of the horizontal and vertical displacement agrees well with the theoretical value. The phase difference exhibits a small bias between the two components due to a slightly different frequency response between the two processing channels of the prototype electronic circuitry.

  9. High data-rate atom interferometers through high recapture efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Biedermann, Grant; Rakholia, Akash Vrijal; McGuinness, Hayden

    2015-01-27

    An inertial sensing system includes a magneto-optical trap (MOT) that traps atoms within a specified trapping region. The system also includes a cooling laser that cools the trapped atoms so that the atoms remain within the specified region for a specified amount of time. The system further includes a light-pulse atom interferometer (LPAI) that performs an interferometric interrogation of the atoms to determine phase changes in the atoms. The system includes a controller that controls the timing of MOT and cooling laser operations, and controls the timing of interferometric operations to substantially recapture the atoms in the specified trapping region. The system includes a processor that determines the amount inertial movement of the inertial sensing system based on the determined phase changes in the atoms. Also, a method of inertial sensing using this inertial sensing system includes recapture of atoms within the MOT following interferometric interrogation by the LPAI.

  10. Statistical measures of Planck scale signal correlations in interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Craig J.; Kwon, Ohkyung

    2015-06-22

    A model-independent statistical framework is presented to interpret data from systems where the mean time derivative of positional cross correlation between world lines, a measure of spreading in a quantum geometrical wave function, is measured with a precision smaller than the Planck time. The framework provides a general way to constrain possible departures from perfect independence of classical world lines, associated with Planck scale bounds on positional information. A parametrized candidate set of possible correlation functions is shown to be consistent with the known causal structure of the classical geometry measured by an apparatus, and the holographic scaling of information suggested by gravity. Frequency-domain power spectra are derived that can be compared with interferometer data. As a result, simple projections of sensitivity for specific experimental set-ups suggests that measurements will directly yield constraints on a universal time derivative of the correlation function, and thereby confirm or rule out a class of Planck scale departures from classical geometry.

  11. On-fiber plasmonic interferometer for multi-parameter sensing

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhijian; Chen, Yongyao; Liu, Haijun; Bae, Hyungdae; Olson, Douglas A.; Gupta, Ashwani K.; Yu, Miao

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel miniature multi-parameter sensing device based on a plasmonic interferometer fabricated on a fiber facet in the optical communication wavelength range. This device enables the coupling between surface plasmon resonance and plasmonic interference in the structure, which are the two essential mechanisms for multi-parameter sensing. We experimentally show that these two mechanisms have distinctive responses to temperature and refractive index, rendering the device the capability of simultaneous temperature and refractive index measurement on an ultra-miniature form factor. A high refractive index sensitivity of 220 nm per refractive index unit (RIU) and a high temperature sensitivity of 60morepm/ C is achieved with our device.less

  12. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of

  13. Solid optical ring interferometer for high-throughput feedback-free spectral analysis and filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Petrak, B.; Peiris, M.; Muller, A.

    2015-02-15

    We describe a simple and inexpensive optical ring interferometer for use in high-resolution spectral analysis and filtering. It consists of a solid cuboid, reflection-coated on two opposite sides, in which constructive interference occurs for waves in a rhombic trajectory. Due to its monolithic design, the interferometers resonance frequencies are insensitive to environmental disturbances over time. Additional advantages are its simplicity of alignment, high-throughput, and feedback-free operation. If desired, it can be stabilized with a secondary laser without disturbance of the primary signal. We illustrate the use of the interferometer for the measurement of the spectral Mollow triplet from a quantum dot and characterize its long-term stability for filtering applications.

  14. Radiometric and geometric analysis of hyperspectral imagery acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Hruska, Ryan; Mitchell, Jessica; Anderson, Matthew; Glenn, Nancy F.

    2012-09-17

    During the summer of 2010, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral in-flight calibration and characterization experiment of the Resonon PIKA II imaging spectrometer was conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) UAV Research Park. The purpose of the experiment was to validate the radiometric calibration of the spectrometer and determine the georegistration accuracy achievable from the on-board global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation sensors (INS) under operational conditions. In order for low-cost hyperspectral systems to compete with larger systems flown on manned aircraft, they must be able to collect data suitable for quantitative scientific analysis. The results of the in-flight calibration experiment indicate an absolute average agreement of 96.3%, 93.7% and 85.7% for calibration tarps of 56%, 24%, and 2.5% reflectivity, respectively. The achieved planimetric accuracy was 4.6 meters (based on RMSE).

  15. Stability of vacuum-ultraviolet radiometric transfer standards: Electron cyclotron resonance versus hollow cathode source

    SciTech Connect

    Gottwald, Alexander; Richter, Mathias; Ulm, Gerhard; Schuehle, Udo

    2005-02-01

    Established transfer standards such as Penning and hollow cathode discharge sources suffer from limited spectral range and, in particular, a limited lifetime and stability due to electrode erosion. The development of a vacuum-ultraviolet radiation source based on an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR)-created plasma might overcome these limitations. To test such a source with regard to its usefulness as radiometric transfer standard, the emission intensity of a Ne plasma was monitored over an operation period of 180 days, with regard to stability and reproducibility in the 50-75 nm wavelength range. For comparison and calibration, a hollow cathode was used as transfer standard traceable to the electron storage ring BESSY II as primary standard. It was found that the ECR source exceeded the lifetime of the hollow cathode source by far, offering a more balanced spectral emission line variety with similar stability.

  16. Uncertainty Analysis for Broadband Solar Radiometric Instrumentation Calibrations and Measurements: An Update; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.; Reda, I. M.; Wilcox, S. M.; Stoffel, T. L.

    2004-04-01

    The measurement of broadband solar radiation has grown in importance since the advent of solar renewable energy technologies in the 1970's, and the concern about the Earth's radiation balance related to climate change in the 1990's. In parallel, standardized methods of uncertainty analysis and reporting have been developed. Historical and updated uncertainties are based on the current international standardized uncertainty analysis method. Despite the fact that new and sometimes overlooked sources of uncertainty have been identified over the period 1988 to 2004, uncertainty in broadband solar radiometric instrumentation remains at 3% to 5% for pyranometers, and 2% to 3% for pyrheliometers. Improvements in characterizing correction functions for radiometer data may reduce total uncertainty. We analyze the theoretical standardized uncertainty sensitivity coefficients for the instrumentation calibration measurement equation and highlight the single parameter (thermal offset voltages), which contributes the most to the observed calibration responsivities.

  17. Electronic transport characterization of silicon wafers by spatially resolved steady-state photocarrier radiometric imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qian; Li, Bincheng

    2015-09-28

    Spatially resolved steady-state photocarrier radiometric (PCR) imaging technique is developed to characterize the electronic transport properties of silicon wafers. Based on a nonlinear PCR theory, simulations are performed to investigate the effects of electronic transport parameters (the carrier lifetime, the carrier diffusion coefficient, and the front surface recombination velocity) on the steady-state PCR intensity profiles. The electronic transport parameters of an n-type silicon wafer are simultaneously determined by fitting the measured steady-state PCR intensity profiles to the three-dimensional nonlinear PCR model. The determined transport parameters are in good agreement with the results obtained by the conventional modulated PCR technique with multiple pump beam radii.

  18. A Radiometric All-Sky Infrared Camera (RASICAM) for DES/CTIO

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Peter M.; Rogers, Howard; Schindler, Rafe H.; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A novel radiometric all-sky infrared camera [RASICAM] has been constructed to allow automated real-time quantitative assessment of night sky conditions for the Dark Energy Camera [DECam] located on the Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The camera is optimized to detect the position, motion and optical depth of thin, high (8-10km) cirrus clouds and contrails by measuring their apparent temperature above the night sky background. The camera system utilizes a novel wide-field equiresolution catadioptic mirror system that provides sky coverage of 2{pi} azimuth and 14-90{sup o} from zenith. Several new technological and design innovations allow the RASICAM system to provide unprecedented cloud detection and IR-based photometricity quantification. The design of the RASICAM system is presented.

  19. A new method for determining the plasma electron density using three-color interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, Hiroyuki; Kawano, Yasunori; Itami, Kiyoshi

    2012-06-15

    A new method for determining the plasma electron density using the fractional fringes on three-color interferometer is proposed. Integrated phase shift on each interferometer is derived without using the temporal history of the fractional fringes. The dependence on the fringe resolution and the electrical noise are simulated on the wavelengths of CO{sub 2} laser. Short-time integrations of the fractional fringes enhance the reliability of this method.

  20. Simultaneous measurement of gravity acceleration and gravity gradient with an atom interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Sorrentino, F.; Lien, Y.-H.; Rosi, G.; Tino, G. M.; Bertoldi, A.; Bodart, Q.; Cacciapuoti, L.; Angelis, M. de; Prevedelli, M.

    2012-09-10

    We demonstrate a method to measure the gravitational acceleration with a dual cloud atom interferometer; the use of simultaneous atom interferometers reduces the effect of seismic noise on the gravity measurement. At the same time, the apparatus is capable of accurate measurements of the vertical gravity gradient. The ability to determine the gravity acceleration and gravity gradient simultaneously and with the same instrument opens interesting perspectives in geophysical applications.

  1. Non-contact measurements of ultrasonic waves on paper webs using a photorefractive interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Brodeur, Pierre H.; Lafond, Emmanuel F.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for non-contact measurement of ultrasonic waves on moving paper webs employs a photorefractive interferometer. The photorefractive interferometer employs an optical head in which the incident beam and reflected beam are coaxial, thus enabling detection of both in-plane and out-of-plane waves with a single apparatus. The incident beam and reference beams are focused into a line enabling greater power to be used without damaging the paper.

  2. EXO-ZODI MODELING FOR THE LARGE BINOCULAR TELESCOPE INTERFEROMETER

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Grant M.; Wyatt, Mark C.; Panić, Olja; Shannon, Andrew; Bailey, Vanessa; Defrère, Denis; Hinz, Philip M.; Rieke, George H.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Su, Katherine Y. L.; Bryden, Geoffrey; Mennesson, Bertrand; Morales, Farisa; Serabyn, Eugene; Danchi, William C.; Roberge, Aki; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Haniff, Chris; Lebreton, Jérémy; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; and others

    2015-02-01

    Habitable zone dust levels are a key unknown that must be understood to ensure the success of future space missions to image Earth analogs around nearby stars. Current detection limits are several orders of magnitude above the level of the solar system's zodiacal cloud, so characterization of the brightness distribution of exo-zodi down to much fainter levels is needed. To this end, the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) will detect thermal emission from habitable zone exo-zodi a few times brighter than solar system levels. Here we present a modeling framework for interpreting LBTI observations, which yields dust levels from detections and upper limits that are then converted into predictions and upper limits for the scattered light surface brightness. We apply this model to the HOSTS survey sample of nearby stars; assuming a null depth uncertainty of 10{sup –4} the LBTI will be sensitive to dust a few times above the solar system level around Sun-like stars, and to even lower dust levels for more massive stars.

  3. Portable Doppler interferometer system for shock diagnostics and high speed motion

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, K.J.; Crump, O.B. Jr.

    1994-05-01

    VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) is a system that uses the Doppler effect and is widely used for measuring the velocity of projectiles, detonations, flying plates, shock pressures (particle velocity) and other high speed/high acceleration motion. Other methods of measurement such as accelerometers and pressure gauges have disadvantages in that they are sensitive to radiation, electromagnetic pulses, and their mass can drastically alter the velocity of the projectile. VISAR uses single frequency-single mode laser fight focused onto a target of interest. Reflected fight from the target is collected and sent through a modified, unequal leg Michelson interferometer. In the interferometer the light is split into two components which travel through the legs of the interferometer cavity and are then recombined. When the light recombines, an interference pattern is created which can range from dark (destructive interference) to bright (constructive interference). When the target moves, the reflected laser light experiences a frequency shift (increase) with respect to the frequency from the target in a static condition. Since the Doppler shifted light is split and routed through an unequal leg interferometer cavity, there is a time lag of the light containing the Doppler information at the recombination point in the interferometer. The effect of the time lag is to create a sinusoidally changing interference pattern (commonly called fringes). Since the interferometer time delay, laser wavelength, and the speed of light are known, an accurate measurement of target velocity/acceleration may be measured by analyzing both the number of tinges and the speed of tinge generation (system accuracy is 3--4%).

  4. Hybrid shearing and phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, Kenneth Alan; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2003-06-03

    A new interferometry configuration combines the strengths of two existing interferometry methods, improving the quality and extending the dynamic range of both. On the same patterned mask, placed near the image-plane of an optical system under test, patterns for phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry and lateral shearing interferometry coexist. The former giving verifiable high accuracy for the measurement of nearly diffraction-limited optical systems. The latter enabling the measurement of optical systems with more than one wave of aberration in the system wavefront. The interferometry configuration is a hybrid shearing and point diffraction interferometer system for testing an optical element that is positioned along an optical path including: a source of electromagnetic energy in the optical path; a first beam splitter that is secured to a device that includes means for maneuvering the first beam splitter in a first position wherein the first beam splitter is in the optical path dividing light from the source into a reference beam and a test beam and in a second position wherein the first beam splitter is outside the optical path: a hybrid mask which includes a first section that defines a test window and at least one reference pinhole and a second section that defines a second beam splitter wherein the hybrid mask is secured to a device that includes means for maneuvering either the first section or the second section into the optical path positioned in an image plane that is created by the optical element, with the proviso that the first section of the hybrid mask is positioned in the optical path when first beam splitter is positioned in the optical path; and a detector positioned after the hybrid mask along the optical path.

  5. Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object using a polarizing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1995-05-09

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

  6. Radiometric and geometric analysis of hyperspectral imagery acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Hruska, Ryan; Mitchell, Jessica; Anderson, Matthew; Glenn, Nancy F.

    2012-09-17

    During the summer of 2010, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral in-flight calibration and characterization experiment of the Resonon PIKA II imaging spectrometer was conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) UAV Research Park. The purpose of the experiment was to validate the radiometric calibration of the spectrometer and determine the georegistration accuracy achievable from the on-board global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation sensors (INS) under operational conditions. In order for low-cost hyperspectral systems to compete with larger systems flown on manned aircraft, they must be able to collect data suitable for quantitative scientific analysis.more » The results of the in-flight calibration experiment indicate an absolute average agreement of 96.3%, 93.7% and 85.7% for calibration tarps of 56%, 24%, and 2.5% reflectivity, respectively. The achieved planimetric accuracy was 4.6 meters (based on RMSE).« less

  7. Estimation of the cloud transmittance from radiometric measurements at the ground level

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, Dario; Mares, Oana

    2014-11-24

    The extinction of solar radiation due to the clouds is more significant than due to any other atmospheric constituent, but it is always difficult to be modeled because of the random distribution of clouds on the sky. Moreover, the transmittance of a layer of clouds is in a very complex relation with their type and depth. A method for estimating cloud transmittance was proposed in Paulescu et al. (Energ. Convers. Manage, 75 690–697, 2014). The approach is based on the hypothesis that the structure of the cloud covering the sun at a time moment does not change significantly in a short time interval (several minutes). Thus, the cloud transmittance can be calculated as the estimated coefficient of a simple linear regression for the computed versus measured solar irradiance in a time interval Δt. The aim of this paper is to optimize the length of the time interval Δt. Radiometric data measured on the Solar Platform of the West University of Timisoara during 2010 at a frequency of 1/15 seconds are used in this study.

  8. Dual-axis high-data-rate atom interferometer via cold ensemble exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Rakholia, Akash V.; McGuinness, Hayden J.; Biedermann, Grant W.

    2014-11-24

    We demonstrate a dual-axis accelerometer and gyroscope atom interferometer, which can form the building blocks of a six-axis inertial measurement unit. By recapturing the atoms after the interferometer sequence, we maintain a large atom number at high data rates of 50 to 100 measurements per second. Two cold ensembles are formed in trap zones located a few centimeters apart and are launched toward one another. During their ballistic trajectory, they are interrogated with a stimulated Raman sequence, detected, and recaptured in the opposing trap zone. As a result, we achieve sensitivities at ?g/ ?Hz and ?rad/s/ ?Hz levels, making this a compelling prospect for expanding the use of atom interferometer inertial sensors beyond benign laboratory environments.

  9. Dual-axis high-data-rate atom interferometer via cold ensemble exchange

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Rakholia, Akash V.; McGuinness, Hayden J.; Biedermann, Grant W.

    2014-11-24

    We demonstrate a dual-axis accelerometer and gyroscope atom interferometer, which can form the building blocks of a six-axis inertial measurement unit. By recapturing the atoms after the interferometer sequence, we maintain a large atom number at high data rates of 50 to 100 measurements per second. Two cold ensembles are formed in trap zones located a few centimeters apart and are launched toward one another. During their ballistic trajectory, they are interrogated with a stimulated Raman sequence, detected, and recaptured in the opposing trap zone. As a result, we achieve sensitivities at μg/ √Hz and μrad/s/ √Hz levels, making thismore » a compelling prospect for expanding the use of atom interferometer inertial sensors beyond benign laboratory environments.« less

  10. Joint retrievals of cloud and drizzle in marine boundary layer clouds using ground-based radar, lidar and zenith radiances

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Fielding, M. D.; Chiu, J. C.; Hogan, R. J.; Feingold, G.; Eloranta, E.; O'Connor, E. J.; Cadeddu, M. P.

    2015-02-16

    Active remote sensing of marine boundary-layer clouds is challenging as drizzle drops often dominate the observed radar reflectivity. We present a new method to simultaneously retrieve cloud and drizzle vertical profiles in drizzling boundary-layer cloud using surface-based observations of radar reflectivity, lidar attenuated backscatter, and zenith radiances. Specifically, the vertical structure of droplet size and water content of both cloud and drizzle is characterised throughout the cloud. An ensemble optimal estimation approach provides full error statistics given the uncertainty in the observations. To evaluate the new method, we first perform retrievals using synthetic measurements from large-eddy simulation snapshots of cumulusmore » under stratocumulus, where cloud water path is retrieved with an error of 31 g m−2. The method also performs well in non-drizzling clouds where no assumption of the cloud profile is required. We then apply the method to observations of marine stratocumulus obtained during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement MAGIC deployment in the northeast Pacific. Here, retrieved cloud water path agrees well with independent 3-channel microwave radiometer retrievals, with a root mean square difference of 10–20 g m−2.« less

  11. Joint retrievals of cloud and drizzle in marine boundary layer clouds using ground-based radar, lidar and zenith radiances

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Fielding, M. D.; Chiu, J. C.; Hogan, R. J.; Feingold, G.; Eloranta, E.; O'Connor, E. J.; Cadeddu, M. P.

    2015-07-02

    Active remote sensing of marine boundary-layer clouds is challenging as drizzle drops often dominate the observed radar reflectivity. We present a new method to simultaneously retrieve cloud and drizzle vertical profiles in drizzling boundary-layer clouds using surface-based observations of radar reflectivity, lidar attenuated backscatter, and zenith radiances under conditions when precipitation does not reach the surface. Specifically, the vertical structure of droplet size and water content of both cloud and drizzle is characterised throughout the cloud. An ensemble optimal estimation approach provides full error statistics given the uncertainty in the observations. To evaluate the new method, we first perform retrievalsmore » using synthetic measurements from large-eddy simulation snapshots of cumulus under stratocumulus, where cloud water path is retrieved with an error of 31 g m-2. The method also performs well in non-drizzling clouds where no assumption of the cloud profile is required. We then apply the method to observations of marine stratocumulus obtained during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement MAGIC deployment in the Northeast Pacific. Here, retrieved cloud water path agrees well with independent three-channel microwave radiometer retrievals, with a root mean square difference of 10–20 g m-2.« less

  12. Quantum non-locality in a two-slit interferometer for short-lived particles

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Spencer R.; Nystrand, Joakim

    2001-12-01

    We describe a new test of quantum nonlocality, using an interferometer for short-lived particles. The separation is large compared with the particle lifetimes. This interferometer is realized by vector meson production in distant heavy ion collisions. The mesons decay before waves from the two sources (ions) can overlap, so interference is only possible among the decay products. The post-decay wave function must retain amplitudes for all possible decays. The decay products are spatially separated, necessitating a non-local wave function. The interference is measurable by summing the product momenta. Alternately, the products positions could be observed, allowing new tests of the EPR paradox.

  13. Dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurements with high resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

    2014-11-15

    A unique dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform absolute distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution.

  14. Validation experiment of a numerically processed millimeter-wave interferometer in a laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kogi, Y., E-mail: kogi@fit.ac.jp; Higashi, T.; Matsukawa, S. [Department of Information Electronics, Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Mase, A. [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-0811 (Japan); Kohagura, J.; Yoshikawa, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5202 (Japan); Kuwahara, D. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    We propose a new interferometer system for density profile measurements. This system produces multiple measurement chords by a leaky-wave antenna driven by multiple frequency inputs. The proposed system was validated in laboratory evaluation experiments. We confirmed that the interferometer generates a clear image of a Teflon plate as well as the phase shift corresponding to the plate thickness. In another experiment, we confirmed that quasi-optical mirrors can produce multiple measurement chords; however, the finite spot size of the probe beam degrades the sharpness of the resulting image.

  15. Design of a Multi-Point Microwave Interferometer Using the Electro-Optic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Design of a Multi-Point Microwave Interferometer Using the Electro-Optic Effect. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design of a Multi-Point Microwave Interferometer Using the Electro-Optic Effect. Abstract not provided. Authors: Specht, Paul Elliott ; Cooper, Marcia A. ; Jilek, Brook Anton Publication Date: 2015-07-01 OSTI Identifier: 1327512 Report Number(s): SAND2015-6249C 606243 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type:

  16. Quantum noise in differential-type gravitational-wave interferometer and signal recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Nishizawa, Atsushi; Sakagami, Masa-aki; Kawamura, Seiji

    2007-08-15

    There exists the standard quantum limit (SQL), derived from Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, in the sensitivity of laser interferometer gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. However, in the context of a full quantum-mechanical approach, SQL can be overcome using the correlation of shot noise and radiation-pressure noise. So far, signal recycling, which is one of the methods to overcome SQL, is considered only in a recombined-type interferometer such as Advanced LIGO, LCGT, and GEO600. In this paper, we investigated quantum noise and the possibility of signal recycling in a differential-type interferometer. As a result, we found that signal recycling is possible and creates at most three dips in the sensitivity curve of the detector due to two coupled resonators. The additional third dip makes it possible to decrease quantum noise at low frequencies, keeping the moderate sensitivity at high frequencies. Then, taking advantage of the third dip and comparing the sensitivity of a differential-type interferometer with that of a next-generation Japanese GW interferometer, LCGT, we found that signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of inspiral binary is improved by a factor of {approx_equal}1.43 for neutron star binary, {approx_equal}2.28 for 50M{sub {center_dot}} black hole binary, and {approx_equal}2.94 for 100M{sub {center_dot}} black hole binary. We also found that power recycling to increase laser power is possible in our signal-recycling configuration of a detector.

  17. Radiometric measurements on the fabrication of non-destructive assay standards for WIPP-Performance Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.S.; Marshall, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    The Inorganic Elemental Analysis Group of LANL has prepared several different sets of working reference materials (WRMs). These WRMs are prepared by blending quantities of nuclear materials (plutonium, americium, and enriched uranium) with diatomaceous earth. The blends are encapsulated in stainless steel cylinders. These WRMs are being measured as blind controls in neutron and gamma based non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments. Radiometric measurements on the blending homogeneity and verification on a set of sixty three plutonium based WRMs are discussed in this paper.

  18. Radiance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... McNeil, A. "BSDFViewer: A utility for interactive exploration of BSDF datasets." ... Solar Energy 98 (2013): 404-414. http:eetd.lbl.govsitesallfiles6541e.pdf Ward, G., M. ...

  19. Edge-channel interferometer at the graphene quantum Hall pn junction

    SciTech Connect

    Morikawa, Sei; Moriya, Rai; Masubuchi, Satoru Machida, Tomoki; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2015-05-04

    We demonstrate a quantum Hall edge-channel interferometer in a high-quality graphene pn junction under a high magnetic field. The co-propagating p and n quantum Hall edge channels traveling along the pn interface functions as a built-in Aharonov-Bohm-type interferometer, the interferences in which are sensitive to both the external magnetic field and the carrier concentration. The trajectories of peak and dip in the observed resistance oscillation are well reproduced by our numerical calculation that assumes magnetic flux quantization in the area enclosed by the co-propagating edge channels. Coherent nature of the co-propagating edge channels is confirmed by the checkerboard-like pattern in the dc-bias and magnetic-field dependences of the resistance oscillations.

  20. Noise power spectral density of a fibre scattered-light interferometer with a semiconductor laser source

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, A E; Potapov, V T

    2013-10-31

    Spectral characteristics of the noise intensity fluctuations at the output of a scattered-light interferometer, caused by phase fluctuations of semiconductor laser radiation are considered. This kind of noise is one of the main factors limiting sensitivity of interferometric sensors. For the first time, to our knowledge, the expression is obtained for the average noise power spectral density at the interferometer output versus the degree of a light source coherence and length of the scattering segment. Also, the approximate expressions are considered which determine the power spectral density in the low-frequency range (up to 200 kHz) and in the limiting case of extended scattering segments. The expression obtained for the noise power spectral density agrees with experimental normalised power spectra with a high accuracy. (interferometry of radiation)

  1. Holographic Noise in Michelson Interferometers: A Direct Experimental Probe of Unification at the Planck Scale

    ScienceCinema

    Hogan, Craig

    2016-07-12

    Classical spacetime and quantum mass-energy form the basis of all of physics. They become inconsistent at the Planck scale, 5.4 times 10^{-44} seconds, which may signify a need for reconciliation in a unified theory. Although proposals for unified theories exist, a direct experimental probe of this scale, 16 orders of magnitude above Tevatron energy, has seemed hopelessly out of reach. However in a particular interpretation of holographic unified theories, derived from black hole evaporation physics, a world assembled out of Planck-scale waves displays effects of unification with a new kind of uncertainty in position at the Planck diffraction scale, the geometric mean of the Planck length and the apparatus size. In this case a new phenomenon may measurable, an indeterminacy of spacetime position that appears as noise in interferometers. The colloquium will discuss the theory of the effect, and our plans to build a holographic interferometer at Fermilab to measure it.

  2. A new method for determining the plasma electron density using optical frequency comb interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, Hiroyuki Tojo, Hiroshi; Sasao, Hajime; Kawano, Yasunori; Itami, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-15

    A new method of plasma electron density measurement using interferometric phases (fractional fringes) of an optical frequency comb interferometer is proposed. Using the characteristics of the optical frequency comb laser, high density measurement can be achieved without fringe counting errors. Simulations show that the short wavelength and wide wavelength range of the laser source and low noise in interferometric phases measurements are effective to reduce ambiguity of measured density.

  3. Single-shot electron bunch length measurements using a spatial electro-optical autocorrelation interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Suetterlin, Daniel; Erni, Daniel; Schlott, Volker; Sigg, Hans; Jaeckel, Heinz; Murk, Axel

    2010-10-15

    A spatial, electro-optical autocorrelation (EOA) interferometer using the vertically polarized lobes of coherent transition radiation (CTR) has been developed as a single-shot electron bunch length monitor at an optical beam port downstream the 100 MeV preinjector LINAC of the Swiss Light Source. This EOA monitor combines the advantages of step-scan interferometers (high temporal resolution) [D. Mihalcea et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9, 082801 (2006) and T. Takahashi and K. Takami, Infrared Phys. Technol. 51, 363 (2008)] and terahertz-gating technologies [U. Schmidhammer et al., Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 94, 95 (2009) and B. Steffen et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 032802 (2009)] (fast response), providing the possibility to tune the accelerator with an online bunch length diagnostics. While a proof of principle of the spatial interferometer was achieved by step-scan measurements with far-infrared detectors, the single-shot capability of the monitor has been demonstrated by electro-optical correlation of the spatial CTR interference pattern with fairly long (500 ps) neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser pulses in a ZnTe crystal. In single-shot operation, variations of the bunch length between 1.5 and 4 ps due to different phase settings of the LINAC bunching cavities have been measured with subpicosecond time resolution.

  4. A closed-loop phase-locked interferometer for wide bandwidth position sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Andrew J. Routley, Ben S.

    2015-11-15

    This article describes a position sensitive interferometer with closed-loop control of the reference mirror. A calibrated nanopositioner is used to lock the interferometer phase to the most sensitive point in the interferogram. In this configuration, large low-frequency movements of the sensor mirror can be detected from the control signal applied to the nanopositioner and high-frequency short-range signals can be measured directly from the photodiode. It is demonstrated that these two signals are complementary and can be summed to find the total displacement. The resulting interferometer has a number of desirable characteristics: it is optically simple, does not require polarization or modulation to detect the direction of motion, does not require fringe-counting or interpolation electronics, and has a bandwidth equal to that of the photodiode. Experimental results demonstrate the frequency response analysis of a high-speed positioning stage. The proposed instrument is ideal for measuring the frequency response of nanopositioners, electro-optical components, MEMs devices, ultrasonic devices, and sensors such as surface acoustic wave detectors.

  5. Null test fourier domain alignment technique for phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2000-01-01

    Alignment technique for calibrating a phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer involves three independent steps where the first two steps independently align the image points and pinholes in rotation and separation to a fixed reference coordinate system, e.g, CCD. Once the two sub-elements have been properly aligned to the reference in two parameters (separation and orientation), the third step is to align the two sub-element coordinate systems to each other in the two remaining parameters (x,y) using standard methods of locating the pinholes relative to some easy to find reference point.

  6. Optical layout and mechanical structure of polarimeter-interferometer system for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Z. Y.; Liu, H. Q. Jie, Y. X.; Wang, Z. X.; Shen, J. S.; An, Z. H.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L.; Wei, X. C.; Li, G. S.; Zhu, X.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Lan, T.

    2014-11-15

    A Far-InfaRed (FIR) three-wave POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system for measurement current density profile and electron density profile is under development for the EAST tokamak. The FIR beams are transmitted from the laser room to the optical tower adjacent to EAST via ?20 m overmoded dielectric waveguide and then divided into 5 horizontal chords. The optical arrangement was designed using ZEMAX, which provides information on the beam spot size and energy distribution throughout the optical system. ZEMAX calculations used to optimize the optical layout design are combined with the mechanical design from CATIA, providing a 3D visualization of the entire POINT system.

  7. Liquid crystal devices especially for use in liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer systems

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, Kenneth L.

    2009-02-17

    Liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer (LCPDI) systems that can provide real-time, phase-shifting interferograms that are useful in the characterization of static optical properties (wavefront aberrations, lensing, or wedge) in optical elements or dynamic, time-resolved events (temperature fluctuations and gradients, motion) in physical systems use improved LCPDI cells that employ a "structured" substrate or substrates in which the structural features are produced by thin film deposition or photo resist processing to provide a diffractive element that is an integral part of the cell substrate(s). The LC material used in the device may be doped with a "contrast-compensated" mixture of positive and negative dichroic dyes.

  8. Design and construction of a Fourier transform soft x-ray interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Spring, John A.

    2000-05-10

    Helium, with its two electrons and one nucleus, is a three-body system. One of the models for investigating correlated electron motion in this system is autoionization, produced via double excitation of the electrons. Predictions about the autoionization spectrum of helium have differed from each other and from preliminary experimental data. However, previous experiments have not been able to distinguish among the theoretical predictions because their energy resolution is not high enough to resolve the narrow linewidths of quasi-forbidden peaks and the resonances that appear in the highest excited states. Consequently, a team of researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have embarked on a project for building a high-resolution Fourier-Transform Soft X-ray (or VUV) interferometer (FTSX) to provide definitive data to answer remaining questions about the autoionization spectrum of helium. The design and construction of this interferometer is described in detail below, including the use of a flexure stage to provide the large path length difference necessary for high resolution measurements, the manufacture of x-ray beamsplitters, a description of the software, and the solution to the problems of stick-slip, vibration, and alignment. Current progress of its development is also described, as well as future goals.

  9. Non-invasive hyperthermia apparatus including coaxial applicator having a non-invasive radiometric receiving antenna incorporated therein and method of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Ross, M.P.

    1996-08-27

    A coaxial hyperthermia applicator is disclosed for applying non-invasively electromagnetic energy to a body against which it is placed. The coaxial applicator antenna has formed integrally within it a non-invasive radiometric antenna for receiving thermoelectromagnetic emissions. The coaxial-configured applicator produces a bell-shaped radiation pattern symmetric about the axis of symmetry of the coaxial applicator. Integrating the radiometric antenna within the coaxial applicator produces a single device that performs dual functions. The first function is to transmit non-invasively energy for heating a subcutaneous tumor. The second function is to receive non-invasively thermal electromagnetic radiation from the tumor by which temperature is sensed and fed back to control the output of the coaxial applicator. 11 figs.

  10. Non-invasive hyperthermia apparatus including coaxial applicator having a non-invasive radiometric receiving antenna incorporated therein and method of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Michael P.

    1996-01-01

    A coaxial hyperthermia applicator for applying non-invasively electromagnetic energy to a body against which it is placed. The coaxial applicator antenna has formed integrally within it a non-invasive radiometric antenna for receiving thermoelectromagnetic emissions. The coaxial-configured applicator produces a bell-shaped radiation pattern symmetric about the axis of symmetry of the coaxial applicator. Integrating the radiometric antenna within the coaxial applicator produces a single device that performs dual functions. The first function is to transmit non-invasively energy for heating a subcutaneous tumor. The second function is to receive non-invasively thermal electromagnetic radiation from the tumor by which temperature is sensed and fed back to control the output of the coaxial applicator.

  11. A Method to Estimate Uncertainty in Radiometric Measurement Using the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) Method; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Reda, I.

    2015-03-01

    Radiometric data with known and traceable uncertainty is essential for climate change studies to better understand cloud radiation interactions and the earth radiation budget. Further, adopting a known and traceable method of estimating uncertainty with respect to SI ensures that the uncertainty quoted for radiometric measurements can be compared based on documented methods of derivation.Therefore, statements about the overall measurement uncertainty can only be made on an individual basis, taking all relevant factors into account. This poster provides guidelines and recommended procedures for estimating the uncertainty in calibrations and measurements from radiometers. The approach follows the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). derivation.Therefore, statements about the overall measurement uncertainty can only be made on an individual basis, taking all relevant factors into account. This poster provides guidelines and recommended procedures for estimating the uncertainty in calibrations and measurements from radiometers. The approach follows the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM).

  12. High temperature millimeter wave radiometric and interferometric measurements of slag-refractory interaction for application to coal gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Woskov, Paul P.

    2011-09-17

    Millimeter wave (MMW) radiometry can be used for simultaneous measurement of emissivity and temperature of materials under extreme environments (high temperature, pressure, and corrosive environments) such as in slagging coal gasifiers, where sensors have been identified as a key enabling technology need for process optimization. We present a state-of-the-art dual-channel MMW heterodyne radiometer with active interferometric capability that allows simultaneous radiometric measurements of sample temperature, emissivity, and flow dynamics to over 1873 K. Interferometric capability is supplied via a probe signal originating from the 137 GHz radiometer local oscillator (LO). The interferometric 'video' channels allow measurement of additional parameters simultaneously, such as volume expansion, thickness change, and slag viscosity along with temperature or emissivity. This capability has been used to demonstrate measurement of temperature and simulated coal slag infiltration into a chromia refractory brick sample as well as slag flow down a vertically placed refractory brick. Observed phenomena include slag melting and slumping, slag reboil and foam with oxygen evolution, and eventual failure of the alumina crucible through corrosion by the molten slag. These results show the promise of the MMW system for extracting quantitative and qualitative process parameters from operating slagging coal gasifiers, providing valuable information for process efficiency, control, and increased productivity.

  13. Slow light Mach-Zehnder interferometer as label-free biosensor with scalable sensitivity

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Qin, Kun; Hu, Shuren; Retterer, Scott T.; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Weiss, Sharon M.

    2016-02-05

    Our design, fabrication, and characterization of a label-free Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) optical biosensor that incorporates a highly dispersive one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal in one arm are presented. The sensitivity of this slow light MZI-based sensor scales with the length of the slow light photonic crystal region. The numerically simulated sensitivity of a MZI sensor with a 16 μm long slow light region is 115,000 rad/RIU-cm, which is sevenfold higher than traditional MZI biosensors with millimeter-length sensing regions. Moreover, the experimental bulk refractive index detection sensitivity of 84,000 rad/RIU-cm is realized and nucleic acid detection is also demonstrated.

  14. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer focus-aid enhanced mask

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    A phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer system (PS/PDI) employing a PS/PDI mask that includes a PDI focus aid is provided. The PDI focus aid mask includes a large or secondary reference pinhole that is slightly displaced from the true or primary reference pinhole. The secondary pinhole provides a larger capture tolerance for interferometrically performing fine focus. With the focus-aid enhanced mask, conventional methods such as the knife-edge test can be used to perform an initial (or rough) focus and the secondary (large) pinhole is used to perform interferometric fine focus. Once the system is well focused, high accuracy interferometry can be performed using the primary (small) pinhole.

  15. Investigation of microscale shock phenomena using a line-imaging optically recording velocity interferometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Trott, Wayne M.; Asay, James R.

    1998-07-10

    An optically recording velocity interferometer system (ORVIS) can be operated in a line-imaging configuration that effectively combines subnanosecond temporal resolution with high spatial resolution (length scales<10 {mu}m). This technique easily captures very small temporal variations in the onset of motion across the face of a small-scale (400-{mu}m diameter) laser-driven flyer. In another application, line-imaging ORVIS has been used to obtain spatially resolved particle velocity vs. time information at flyer impact on a lithium fluoride witness plate. Subnanosecond differences in flyer arrival time are clearly resolved and the results also show subtle amplitude variations in the pulse delivered at different locations of the acceptor. Observed velocity field variations in laser acceleration of a patterned flyer target demonstrate the feasibility of using line ORVIS in studies of instability formation and growth. These results indicate that this diagnostic can be applied to a wide variety of shock phenomena.

  16. DIII-D in-vessel port cover and shutter assembly for the phase contrast interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The entire outer wall of the DIII-D vacuum vessel interion is covered with a regular array of graphite tiles. Certain of the diagnostic ports through the outer vessel wall contain equipment which is shielded from the plasma by installing port covers designed to withstand energy deposition. If the diagnostic contained in the port must communicate with the vessel volume, a shutter assembly is usually provided. In the ports at 285 degrees, R+1 and R-1, interferometer mirrors have been installed to provide a means for transmitting a large diameter CO-2 laser beam through the edge of the plasma. To protect the mirrors and other hardware contained in these ports, a special protective plate and shutter arrangement has been designed. This report describes the details of design, fabrication, and installation of these protective covers and shutters.

  17. Faraday-effect polarimeter-interferometer system for current density measurement on EAST

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H. Q.; Jie, Y. X. Zou, Z. Y.; Li, W. M.; Wang, Z. X.; Qian, J. P.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L.; Wei, X. C.; Hu, L. Q.; Wan, B. N.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Lan, T.; Li, G. S.

    2014-11-15

    A multichannel far-infrared laser-based POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system utilizing the three-wave technique is under development for current density and electron density profile measurements in the EAST tokamak. Novel molybdenum retro-reflectors are mounted in the inside wall for the double-pass optical arrangement. A Digital Phase Detector with 250 kHz bandwidth, which will provide real-time Faraday rotation angle and density phase shift output, have been developed for use on the POINT system. Initial calibration indicates the electron line-integrated density resolution is less than 5 10{sup 16} m{sup ?2} (?2), and the Faraday rotation angle rms phase noise is <0.1.

  18. Flexture plate motion-transfer mechanism, beam-splitter assembly, and interferometer incorporating the same

    DOEpatents

    Carangelo, Robert M.; Dettori, Mark D.; Grigely, Lawrence J.; Murray, Terence C.; Solomon, Peter R.; Van Dine, C. Peter; Wright, David D.

    1996-01-01

    A multiplicity of one-piece flexure plates are assembled in pairs to provide a support system on which a retroreflector may be mounted for reciprocal motion. Combined with balance bodies, the flexure plates provide a support system having portions that are dynamically and statically balanced with one another, irrespective of orientation, so as to thereby immunize the unit against extraneous forces. The motion transfer assembly is especially adapted for use to support a moving retroreflector in a two-arm interferometer that may further include a beamsplitter assembly constructed from a one-piece, integrally formed body, the body having convergent, optically flat planar surfaces of specular reflectance, and means for adjustably mounting a beamsplitter therein. The spectrometer is of modular construction, and employs an integrated clocking sub-assembly as well as a light-weight voice-coil motor.

  19. Flexture plate motion-transfer mechanism, beam-splitter assembly, and interferometer incorporating the same

    DOEpatents

    Carangelo, R.M.; Dettori, M.D.; Grigely, L.J.; Murray, T.C.; Solomon, P.R.; Dine, C.P. Van; Wright, D.D.

    1996-01-23

    A multiplicity of one-piece flexure plates are assembled in pairs to provide a support system on which a retroreflector may be mounted for reciprocal motion. Combined with balance bodies, the flexure plates provide a support system having portions that are dynamically and statically balanced with one another, irrespective of orientation, so as to thereby immunize the unit against extraneous forces. The motion transfer assembly is especially adapted for use to support a moving retroreflector in a two-arm interferometer that may further include a beamsplitter assembly constructed from a one-piece, integrally formed body, the body having convergent, optically flat planar surfaces of specular reflectance, and means for adjustably mounting a beamsplitter therein. The spectrometer is of modular construction, and employs an integrated clocking sub-assembly as well as a light-weight voice-coil motor. 15 figs.

  20. Conceptual design of the tangentially viewing combined interferometer-polarimeter for ITER density measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Van Zeeland, M. A.; Boivin, R. L.; Carlstrom, T. N.; Chavez, J. A.; O'Neill, R. C.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Feder, R.; Johnson, D.; Watts, C.

    2013-04-15

    One of the systems planned for the measurement of electron density in ITER is a multi-channel tangentially viewing combined interferometer-polarimeter (TIP). This work discusses the current status of the design, including a preliminary optical table layout, calibration options, error sources, and performance projections based on a CO{sub 2}/CO laser system. In the current design, two-color interferometry is carried out at 10.59 {mu}m and 5.42 {mu}m and a separate polarimetry measurement of the plasma induced Faraday effect, utilizing the rotating wave technique, is made at 10.59 {mu}m. The inclusion of polarimetry provides an independent measure of the electron density and can also be used to correct the conventional two-color interferometer for fringe skips at all densities, up to and beyond the Greenwald limit. The system features five chords with independent first mirrors to reduce risks associated with deposition, erosion, etc., and a common first wall hole to minimize penetration sizes. Simulations of performance for a projected ITER baseline discharge show the diagnostic will function as well as, or better than, comparable existing systems for feedback density control. Calculations also show that finite temperature effects will be significant in ITER even for moderate temperature plasmas and can lead to a significant underestimate of electron density. A secondary role TIP will fulfill is that of a density fluctuation diagnostic; using a toroidal Alfven eigenmode as an example, simulations show TIP will be extremely robust in this capacity and potentially able to resolve coherent mode fluctuations with perturbed densities as low as {delta}n/n Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -5}.

  1. In-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer composed of microtaper and long-period grating in all-solid photonic bandgap fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Zhifang; Liu Yange; Wang Zhi; Han Tingting; Li Shuo; Jiang Meng; Ping Shum, Perry

    2012-10-01

    We report a compact in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer combining a microtaper with a long-period grating (LPG) in a section of all-solid photonic bandgap fiber. Theoretical and experimental investigations reveal that the interferometer works from the interference between the fundamental core mode and the LP{sub 01} cladding supermodes. The mechanism underlying the mode coupling caused by the microtaper can be attributed to a bandgap-shifting as the fiber diameter is abruptly scaled down. In addition, the interferometer designed to strengthen the coupling ratio of the long-period grating has a promising practical application in the simultaneous measurement of curvature and temperature.

  2. High energy x-ray phase contrast CT using glancing-angle grating interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Sarapata, A.; Stayman, J. W.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Finkenthal, M.; Stutman, D.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The authors present initial progress toward a clinically compatible x-ray phase contrast CT system, using glancing-angle x-ray grating interferometry to provide high contrast soft tissue images at estimated by computer simulation dose levels comparable to conventional absorption based CT. Methods: DPC-CT scans of a joint phantom and of soft tissues were performed in order to answer several important questions from a clinical setup point of view. A comparison between high and low fringe visibility systems is presented. The standard phase stepping method was compared with sliding window interlaced scanning. Using estimated dose values obtained with a Monte-Carlo code the authors studied the dependence of the phase image contrast on exposure time and dose. Results: Using a glancing angle interferometer at high x-ray energy (∼45 keV mean value) in combination with a conventional x-ray tube the authors achieved fringe visibility values of nearly 50%, never reported before. High fringe visibility is shown to be an indispensable parameter for a potential clinical scanner. Sliding window interlaced scanning proved to have higher SNRs and CNRs in a region of interest and to also be a crucial part of a low dose CT system. DPC-CT images of a soft tissue phantom at exposures in the range typical for absorption based CT of musculoskeletal extremities were obtained. Assuming a human knee as the CT target, good soft tissue phase contrast could be obtained at an estimated absorbed dose level around 8 mGy, similar to conventional CT. Conclusions: DPC-CT with glancing-angle interferometers provides improved soft tissue contrast over absorption CT even at clinically compatible dose levels (estimated by a Monte-Carlo computer simulation). Further steps in image processing, data reconstruction, and spectral matching could make the technique fully clinically compatible. Nevertheless, due to its increased scan time and complexity the technique should be thought of not as

  3. Understanding the dramatic role of anomalous dispersion on the measurement of electron densities in plasmas using interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, J; Johnson, W R; Iglesias, C A; Scofield, J H

    2005-07-20

    For decades the electron density of plasmas has been measured using optical interferometers. With the availability of good X-ray laser sources in the last decade interferometers have been extended into the wavelength range 14-47 nm, which has enabled researchers to probe even higher density plasmas. The data analysis assumes the index of refraction is due only to the free electrons, which makes the index less than one. Recent interferometer experiments in Al plasmas observed plasmas with index of refraction greater than one at 14 nm and brought into question the validity of the usual formula for calculating the index. In this paper we show how the anomalous dispersion from bound electrons can dominate the free electron contribution to the index of refraction in many plasmas and make the index greater than one or enhance the contribution to the index such that one would greatly overestimate the density of the plasma using interferometers. Using a new average-atom code we calculate the index of refraction in many plasmas at different temperatures for photon energies from 0 to 100 eV and compare against calculations done with OPAL. We also present examples of other plasmas that may have index of refraction greater than one at X-ray laser energies. During the next decade X-ray free electron lasers and other X-ray sources will be available to probe a wider variety of plasmas at higher densities and shorter wavelengths so understanding the index of refraction in plasmas will be even more essential.

  4. PLANETARY TRANSITS WITH THE ATACAMA LARGE MILLIMETER/SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY RADIO INTERFEROMETER

    SciTech Connect

    Selhorst, C. L.; Barbosa, C. L.; Vlio, Adriana

    2013-11-10

    Planetary transits are commonly observed at visible wavelengths. Here we investigate the shape of a planetary transit observed at radio wavelengths. Solar maps at 17 GHz are used as a proxy for the stellar eclipse by several sizes of planets from super-Earths to hot Jupiters. The relative depth at mid-transit is the same as observed at visible wavelengths, but the limb brightening of the stellar disk at 17 GHz is clearly seen in the shape of the transit light curve. Moreover, when the planet occults an active region the depth of the transit decreases even further, depending on the brightness of the active region relative to the surrounding disk. For intense active region, with 50 times the brightness temperature of the surrounding disk, the decrease can supercede the unperturbed transit depth depending on the size of the eclipsing planet. For a super-Earth (R{sub p} = 0.02 R{sub s} ) crossing, the decrease in intensity is 0.04%, increasing to 0.86% in the case when a strong active region is present. On the other hand, for a hot Jupiter with R{sub p} = 0.17R{sub s} , the unperturbed transit depth is 3% increasing to 4.7% when covering this strong active region. This kind of behavior can be verified with observation of planetary transits with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array radio interferometer.

  5. Highly sensitive simple homodyne interferometer for ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Grossman, John; Suslov, A. V.; Yong, G.; Boatner, Lynn A; Svitelskiy, O.

    2016-01-01

    Progress in microelectronic technology has allowed us to design and develop a simple but, professional quality instrument for ultrasonic pulse-echo probing of the elastic properties of materials. The heart of this interfer- ometer lies in the AD8302 microchip, a gain and phase detector from Analog Devices, Inc. The interferometer was tested by measuring the temperature dependences of the ultrasound speed and attenuation in a ferro- electric KTa0.92 Nb0.08 O3 (KTN) crystal at a frequency of about 40 MHz. These tests demonstrated that our instrument is capable of detecting the relative changes in the sound speed v on the level ofmore » v/v 10 7 . Moreover, this low-cost instrument was able to reveal previously unresolved feature - e.g. the theoretically expected velocity kink at the KTN phase transition to orthorhombic symmetry. Additionally, the ultrasound attenuation revealed new features in the development of the low-temperature structure of the ferroelectric KTN crystal.« less

  6. Velocity Interferometer blanking due to preheating in a double pulse planar experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Laffite, S.; Combis, P.; Clerouin, J.; Recoules, V.; Rousseaux, C.; Videau, L.; Baton, S. D.; Koenig, M.

    2014-08-15

    Optical diagnostics, such as VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) or SOP (Streaked Optical Pyrometry), have become essential in shock timing experiments. Their high precision allows for accurate measurements of shock velocities, chronometry, and brightness temperature. However, in some instances, these measurements can be compromised. In planar shock coalescence experiments recently performed at the LULI facility [Baton et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 195002 (2012)], VISAR signal loss was observed. In these experiments, a strong shock launched by a high-intensity spike catches up with a previously shock launched by an earlier, low-intensity beam. The disappearance of the VISAR signal is attributed to a preheating of the coronal plasma by x-rays generated by the high intensity spike. The signal does not disappear if the high-intensity spike starts after VISAR probe beam begins to reflect off of the first shock. The VISAR diagnostic, modeled using an assessment of the optical index in quartz, compares favorably to experimental results. This provides evidence that x-ray preheating can cause blanking of the VISAR signal in quartz.

  7. Investigation of microscale shock phenomena using a line-imaging optically recording velocity interferometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Trott, W.M.; Asay, J.R.

    1998-07-01

    An optically recording velocity interferometer system (ORVIS) can be operated in a line-imaging configuration that effectively combines subnanosecond temporal resolution with high spatial resolution (length scales{lt}10{mu}m). This technique easily captures very small temporal variations in the onset of motion across the face of a small-scale (400-{mu}m diameter) laser-driven flyer. In another application, line-imaging ORVIS has been used to obtain spatially resolved particle velocity vs. time information at flyer impact on a lithium fluoride witness plate. Subnanosecond differences in flyer arrival time are clearly resolved and the results also show subtle amplitude variations in the pulse delivered at different locations of the acceptor. Observed velocity field variations in laser acceleration of a patterned flyer target demonstrate the feasibility of using line ORVIS in studies of instability formation and growth. These results indicate that this diagnostic can be applied to a wide variety of shock phenomena. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... capability but this is being provided mainly by generators. ... in clear skies Marine Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (MAERI). Cloud liquid water path estimates for thin ...

  9. Preliminary Neutronics Analysis of the ITER Toroidal Interferometer and Polarimeter Diagnostic Corner Cube Retroreflectors

    SciTech Connect

    Tresemer, K. R.

    2015-07-01

    ITER is an international project under construction in France that will demonstrate nuclear fusion at a power plant-relevant scale. The Toroidal Interferometer and Polarimeter (TIP) Diagnostic will be used to measure the plasma electron line density along 5 laser-beam chords. This line-averaged density measurement will be input to the ITER feedback-control system. The TIP is considered the primary diagnostic for these measurements, which are needed for basic ITER machine control. Therefore, system reliability & accuracy is a critical element in TIP’s design. There are two major challenges to the reliability of the TIP system. First is the survivability and performance of in-vessel optics and second is maintaining optical alignment over long optical paths and large vessel movements. Both of these issues greatly depend on minimizing the overall distortion due to neutron & gamma heating of the Corner Cube Retroreflectors (CCRs). These are small optical mirrors embedded in five first wall locations around the vacuum vessel, corresponding to certain plasma tangency radii. During the development of the design and location of these CCRs, several iterations of neutronics analyses were performed to determine and minimize the total distortion due to nuclear heating of the CCRs. The CCR corresponding to TIP Channel 2 was chosen for analysis as a good middle-road case, being an average distance from the plasma (of the five channels) and having moderate neutron shielding from its blanket shield housing. Results show that Channel 2 meets the requirements of the TIP Diagnostic, but barely. These results suggest other CCRs might be at risk of exceeding thermal deformation due to nuclear heating.

  10. An orthogonal return method for linearly polarized beam based on the Faraday effect and its application in interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Benyong Zhang, Enzheng; Yan, Liping; Liu, Yanna

    2014-10-15

    Correct return of the measuring beam is essential for laser interferometers to carry out measurement. In the actual situation, because the measured object inevitably rotates or laterally moves, not only the measurement accuracy will decrease, or even the measurement will be impossibly performed. To solve this problem, a novel orthogonal return method for linearly polarized beam based on the Faraday effect is presented. The orthogonal return of incident linearly polarized beam is realized by using a Faraday rotator with the rotational angle of 45°. The optical configuration of the method is designed and analyzed in detail. To verify its practicability in polarization interferometry, a laser heterodyne interferometer based on this method was constructed and precision displacement measurement experiments were performed. These results show that the advantage of the method is that the correct return of the incident measuring beam is ensured when large lateral displacement or angular rotation of the measured object occurs and then the implementation of interferometric measurement can be ensured.

  11. Application of asymptotic expansions for maximum likelihood estimators errors to gravitational waves from binary mergers: The single interferometer case

    SciTech Connect

    Zanolin, M.; Vitale, S.; Makris, N.

    2010-06-15

    In this paper we apply to gravitational waves (GW) from the inspiral phase of binary systems a recently derived frequentist methodology to calculate analytically the error for a maximum likelihood estimate of physical parameters. We use expansions of the covariance and the bias of a maximum likelihood estimate in terms of inverse powers of the signal-to-noise ration (SNR)s where the square root of the first order in the covariance expansion is the Cramer Rao lower bound (CRLB). We evaluate the expansions, for the first time, for GW signals in noises of GW interferometers. The examples are limited to a single, optimally oriented, interferometer. We also compare the error estimates using the first two orders of the expansions with existing numerical Monte Carlo simulations. The first two orders of the covariance allow us to get error predictions closer to what is observed in numerical simulations than the CRLB. The methodology also predicts a necessary SNR to approximate the error with the CRLB and provides new insight on the relationship between waveform properties, SNR, dimension of the parameter space and estimation errors. For example the timing match filtering can achieve the CRLB only if the SNR is larger than the Kurtosis of the gravitational wave spectrum and the necessary SNR is much larger if other physical parameters are also unknown.

  12. Testing a Model of Planck-Scale Quantum Geometry With Broadband Correlation of Colocated 40m Interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    McCuller, Lee Patrick

    2015-12-01

    The Holometer is designed to test for a Planck diffractive-scaling uncertainty in long-baseline position measurements due to an underlying noncommutative geometry normalized to relate Black hole entropy bounds of the Holographic principle to the now-finite number of position states. The experiment overlaps two independent 40 meter optical Michelson interferometers to detect the proposed uncertainty as a common broadband length fluctuation. 150 hours of instrument cross-correlation data are analyzed to test the prediction of a correlated noise magnitude of $7\\times10^{−21}$ m/$\\sqrt{\\rm Hz}$ with an effective bandwidth of 750kHz. The interferometers each have a quantum-limited sensitivity of $2.5\\times 10^{−18}$ m/$\\sqrt{\\rm Hz}$, but their correlation with a time-bandwidth product of $4\\times 10^{11}$ digs between the noise floors in search for the covarying geometric jitter. The data presents an exclusion of 5 standard deviations for the tested model. This exclusion is defended through analysis of the calibration methods for the instrument as well as further sub shot noise characterization of the optical systems to limit spurious background-correlations from undermining the signal.

  13. Rapid and noncontact photoacoustic tomography imaging system using an interferometer with high-speed phase modulation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jun; Tang, Zhilie; Wu, Yongbo; Wang, Yi

    2015-04-15

    We designed, fabricated, and tested a rapid and noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT) imaging system using a low-coherence interferometer with high-speed phase modulation technique. Such a rapid and noncontact probing system can greatly decrease the time of imaging. The proposed PAT imaging system is experimentally verified by capturing images of a simulated tissue sample and the blood vessels within the ear flap of a mouse (pinna) in vivo. The axial and lateral resolutions of the system are evaluated at 45 and ∼15 μm, respectively. The imaging depth of the system is 1 mm in a special phantom. Our results show that the proposed system opens a promising way to realize noncontact, real-time PAT.

  14. Multichannel microwave interferometer with an antenna switching system for electron density measurement in a laboratory plasma experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamori, Eiichirou; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Mase, Atsushi; Nishida, Yasushi; Cheng, C. Z.

    2014-02-15

    This study presents a simple and powerful technique for multichannel measurements of the density profile in laboratory plasmas by microwave interferometry. This technique uses electromechanical microwave switches to temporally switch the connection between multiple receiver antennas and one phase-detection circuit. Using this method, the phase information detected at different positions is rearranged into a time series that can be acquired from a minimum number of data acquisition channels (e.g., two channels in the case of quadrature detection). Our successfully developed multichannel microwave interferometer that uses the antenna switching method was applied to measure the radial electron density profiles in a magnetized plasma experiment. The advantage of the proposed method is its compactness and scalability to multidimensional measurement systems at low cost.

  15. Improving the efficiency of hierarchical equations of motion approach and application to coherent dynamics in Aharonov–Bohm interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Dong; Xu, RuiXue; Zheng, Xiao; Wang, Shikuan; Wang, Rulin; Ye, LvZhou; Yan, YiJing

    2015-03-14

    Several recent advancements for the hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) approach are reported. First, we propose an a priori estimate for the optimal number of basis functions for the reservoir memory decomposition. Second, we make use of the sparsity of auxiliary density operators (ADOs) and propose two ansatzs to screen out all the intrinsic zero ADO elements. Third, we propose a new truncation scheme by utilizing the time derivatives of higher-tier ADOs. These novel techniques greatly reduce the memory cost of the HEOM approach, and thus enhance its efficiency and applicability. The improved HEOM approach is applied to simulate the coherent dynamics of Aharonov–Bohm double quantum dot interferometers. Quantitatively accurate dynamics is obtained for both noninteracting and interacting quantum dots. The crucial role of the quantum phase for the magnitude of quantum coherence and quantum entanglement is revealed.

  16. Design and performance of a soft-x-ray interferometer for ultra-high-resolution fourier transform spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Moler, E.J.; Hussain, Z.; Duarte, R.M.; Howells, M.R.

    1997-04-01

    A Fourier Transform Soft X-ray spectrometer (FT-SX) has been designed and is under construction for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a branch of beamline 9.3.2. The spectrometer is a novel soft x-ray interferometer designed for ultra-high resolution (theoretical resolving power E/{delta}E{approximately}10{sup 6}) spectroscopy in the photon energy region of 60-120 eV. This instrument is expected to provide experimental results which sensitively test models of correlated electron processes in atomic and molecular physics. The design criteria and consequent technical challenges posed by the short wavelengths of x-rays and desired resolving power are discussed. The fundamental and practical aspects of soft x-ray interferometry are also explored.

  17. Measurement of Electron Density near Plasma Grid of Large-scaled Negative Ion Source by Means of Millimeter-Wave Interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaoka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Tsumori, K.; Nakano, H.; Ito, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Ikeda, K.; Kisaki, M.; Shibuya, M.; Sato, M.; Komada, S.; Kondo, T.; Hayashi, H.; Asano, E.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.

    2011-09-26

    A millimeter-wave interferometer with the frequency of 39 GHz ({lambda} 7.7 mm) was newly installed to a large-scaled negative ion source. The measurable line-integrated electron density (n{sub e}l) is from 2x10{sup 16} to 7x10{sup 18} m{sup -2}, where n{sub e} and l represent an electron density and the plasma length along the millimeter-wave path, respectively. Our interest in this study is behavior of negative ions and reduction of electron density in the beam extraction region near the plasma grid. The first results show the possibility of the electron density measurement by the millimeter-wave interferometer in this region. The line-averaged electron density increases proportional to the arc power under the condition without cesium seeding. The significant decrease of the electron density and significant increase of the negative ion density were observed just after the cesium seeding. The electron density measured with the interferometer agrees well with that observed with a Langmuir probe. The very high negative ion ratio of n{sub H-}/(n{sub e}+n{sub H-}) = 0.85 was achieved within 400 min. after the cesium seeding.

  18. Reconfigurable and ultra-sensitive in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on the fusion of microfiber and microfluid

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Shecheng; Zhang, Weigang E-mail: haozhang@nankai.edu.cn; Zhang, Hao E-mail: haozhang@nankai.edu.cn; Zhang, Chonglei

    2015-02-23

    A reconfigurable Mach-Zenhnder interferometer (MZI) based on a microfluidic cavity (MFC) constructed by embedding a microfiber between two segments of single-mode fibers with pre-designed lateral offset has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The MFC serves as an interference arm with an eccentric annular cross section and allows convenient sample (gas or liquids) replacement procedure. The microfiber works as the other interference arm that provides the proposed device with ease of reconstruction and also enhances the force sensitivity. The re-configurability and the ultra-wide tuning sensitivity range are demonstrated by immersing the MZI constructed with a 484 μm-long-MFC and a microfiber 44 μm in diameter in different droplets. Ultrahigh sensitivities of 34.65 nm/°C (∼88 380 nm/RIU) and −493.7 nm/N (∼−590 pm/με) are experimentally achieved using a droplet with a refractive index of ∼1.44.

  19. White light velocity interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, D.J.

    1997-06-24

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s. 41 figs.

  20. White light velocity interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, David J.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s.

  1. White light velocity interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s.

  2. White light velocity interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, D.J.

    1999-06-08

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s. 41 figs.

  3. Moiré deflectometry using the Talbot-Lau interferometer as refraction diagnostic for High Energy Density plasmas at energies below 10 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Finkenthal, M.

    2014-07-15

    The highly localized density gradients expected in High Energy Density (HED) plasma experiments can be characterized by x-ray phase-contrast imaging in addition to conventional attenuation radiography. Moiré deflectometry using the Talbot-Lau grating interferometer setup is an attractive HED diagnostic due to its high sensitivity to refraction induced phase shifts. We report on the adaptation of such a system for operation in the sub-10 keV range by using a combination of free standing and ultrathin Talbot gratings. This new x-ray energy explored matches well the current x-ray backlighters used for HED experiments, while also enhancing phase effects at lower electron densities. We studied the performance of the high magnification, low energy Talbot-Lau interferometer, for single image phase retrieval using Moiré fringe deflectometry. Our laboratory and simulation studies indicate that such a device is able to retrieve object electron densities from phase shift measurements. Using laboratory x-ray sources from 7 to 15 μm size we obtained accurate simultaneous measurements of refraction and attenuation for both sharp and mild electron density gradients.

  4. A low-noise transimpedance amplifier for the detection of Violin-Mode resonances in advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2014-11-15

    This paper describes the design and performance of an extremely low-noise differential transimpedance amplifier, which takes its two inputs from separate photodiodes. The amplifier was planned to serve as the front-end electronics for a highly sensitive shadow-displacement sensing system, aimed at detecting very low-level Violin-Mode (VM) oscillations in 0.4 mm diameter by 600 mm long fused-silica suspension fibres. Four such highly tensioned fibres support the 40 kg test-masses/mirrors of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory interferometers. This novel design of amplifier incorporates features which prevent noise-gain peaking arising from large area photodiode (and cable) capacitances, and which also usefully separate the DC and AC photocurrents coming from the photodiodes. In consequence, the differential amplifier was able to generate straightforwardly two DC outputs, one per photodiode, as well as a single high-gain output for monitoring the VM oscillationsthis output being derived from the difference of the photodiodes two, naturally anti-phase, AC photocurrents. Following a displacement calibration, the amplifier's final VM signal output was found to have an AC displacement responsivity at 500 Hz of (9.43 1.20) MV(rms) m{sup ?1}(rms), and, therefore, a shot-noise limited sensitivity to such AC shadow- (i.e., fibre-) displacements of (69 13) picometres/?Hz at this frequency, over a measuring span of 0.1 mm.

  5. Design of a fully-fiber multi-chord interferometer and a new phase-shift demodulation method for field-reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Dongfan Sun, Qizhi; Zhao, Xiaoming; Jia, Yuesong

    2014-05-15

    A 633 nm laser interferometer has been designed based on a novel concept, which, without the acousto-optic modulator or the demodulator circuit, adopts the fibers to connect all elements except photodetectors and oscilloscope in this system to make it more compact, portable, and efficient. The noteworthy feature is to mathematically compare the two divided interference signals, which have the same phase-shift caused by the electron density but possess the different initial phase and low angular frequencies. It is possible to read the plasma density directly on the oscilloscope by our original mathematic demodulation method without a camera. Based on the Abel inversion algorithm, the radial electron density profiles versus time can be obtained by using the multi-chord system. The designed measurable phase shift ranges from 0 to 2π rad corresponding to the maximum line integral of electron density less than 3.5 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2}, and the phase accuracy is about 0.017 rad corresponding to the line integral of electron density accuracy of 1 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2}. After the construction of eight-chord interferometer, it will provide the detailed time resolved information of the spatial distribution of the electron density in the field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma target produced by the “Yingguang-1” programmed-discharge device, which is being constructed in the Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power, China Academy of Engineering Physics.

  6. A real-time laser feedback control method for the three-wave laser source used in the polarimeter-interferometer diagnostic on Joint-TEXT tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, C. Y.; Chen, J. Li, Q.; Liu, Y.; Gao, L.

    2014-12-15

    A three-wave laser polarimeter-interferometer, equipped with three independent far-infrared laser sources, has been developed on Joint-TEXT (J-TEXT) tokamak. The diagnostic system is capable of high-resolution temporal and phase measurement of the Faraday angle and line-integrated density. However, for long-term operation (>10 min), the free-running lasers can lead to large drifts of the intermediate frequencies (∼100–∼500 kHz/10 min) and decay of laser power (∼10%–∼20%/10 min), which act to degrade diagnostic performance. In addition, these effects lead to increased maintenance cost and limit measurement applicability to long pulse/steady state experiments. To solve this problem, a real-time feedback control method of the laser source is proposed. By accurately controlling the length of each laser cavity, both the intermediate frequencies and laser power can be simultaneously controlled: the intermediate frequencies are controlled according to the pre-set values, while the laser powers are maintained at an optimal level. Based on this approach, a real-time feedback control system has been developed and applied on J-TEXT polarimeter-interferometer. Long-term (theoretically no time limit) feedback of intermediate frequencies (maximum change less than ±12 kHz) and laser powers (maximum relative power change less than ±7%) has been successfully achieved.

  7. Zenith Radiance Retrieval of Cloud Properties

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    retrievals of cloud properties from the AMF/COPS campaign Preliminary retrievals of cloud properties from the AMF/COPS campaign Christine Chiu, UMBC/JCET Alexander Marshak, GSFC Yuri Knyazikhin, Boston University Warren Wiscombe, GSFC Christine Chiu, UMBC/JCET Alexander Marshak, GSFC Yuri Knyazikhin, Boston University Warren Wiscombe, GSFC The cloud optical properties of interest are: The cloud optical properties of interest are: * Cloud optical depth τ - the great unknown * Radiative cloud

  8. ARM - Campaign Instrument - aeri-uwisc

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer - University of Wisconsin...

  9. ARM - Campaign Instrument - aeri

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Instrument Categories...

  10. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 8. 2B. Interferometer gauge pressure-time measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, J.E.; Seacord, D.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1985-04-01

    This project was charged with the responsibility of conducting tests on static aircraft panels mounted on the ground at various ranges from the blast. Pressure-versus-time data were obtained using interferometer gauges. The gauge proved to be reliable and easy to operate. Its high-frequency response enabled it to record data to the pressure rise at the front of the blast wave which had not been noted previously. These results show, from measurements taken by pressure instruments mounted flush with the ground, that the rise times at the front of the blast waves were on gamma-radiation intensity by the smple expedient of stacking a few layers of lead breic around the gauge mounts.

  11. ARM - Datastreams - aeri01engineer

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamsaeri01engineer Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1025140 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : AERI01ENGINEER Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) 01: engineering data Active Dates 1995.07.22 - 2014.03.12 Originating Instrument Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Measurements Only measurements

  12. Section 81

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer Part II: Water Vapor and Atmospheric Aerosols B.A. Whitney, H.E. Revercomb, R.O. Knuteson, F.A. Best, and W.L. Smith University of Wisconsin - Madison Madison, Wisconsin Introduction Evidence for Problems in Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) spectra provide detailed characterization of the infrared component of the surface radiation budget (Ellingson et al. 1995), support spectroscopic (Clough et al. 1989; Revercomb et al. 1995) and

  13. Hawat-T

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ASTI-SORTI Comparison T. M. Hawat, T. M. Stephen, and F. J. Murcray Physics and Astronomy University of Denver Denver, Colorado Abstract The Absolute Solar Transmittance Interferometer (ASTI) determines the absolutely calibrated solar spectral radiance from 1 micron to 5 microns (10000 to 2000 cm -1 ) with a 1 cm -1 spectral resolution. Recently, the Solar Radiance Transmission Interferometer (SORTI) was configured to operate in the near infrared, providing spectra from 750 nm to 2400 nm (13000

  14. Final Scientific/Technical Report Grant title: Use of ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith Radiance for Better Understanding of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes and Aerosol-Cloud Interaction This is a collaborative project with the NASA GSFC project of Dr. A. Marshak and W. Wiscombe (PIs). This report covers BU activities from February 2011 to June 2011 and BU "no-cost extension" activities from June 2011 to June 2012. This report summarizes results that complement a final technical report submitted by the PIs in 2011.

    SciTech Connect

    Knyazikhin, Y

    2012-09-10

    Main results are summarized for work in these areas: spectrally-invariant approximation within atmospheric radiative transfer; spectral invariance of single scattering albedo for water droplets and ice crystals at weakly absorbing wavelengths; seasonal changes in leaf area of Amazon forests from leaf flushing and abscission; and Cloud droplet size and liquid water path retrievals from zenith radiance measurements.

  15. Mercury Geochemical, Groundwater Geochemical, And Radiometric...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    at right angles to known and suspected faults. Scintillometer readings (gamma radiation - total counts second) were also recorded at each soil sample station. At the...

  16. Calibration and Measurement Uncertainty Estimation of Radiometric...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Preprint A. Habte, M. Sengupta, I. Reda, and A. Andreas National Renewable Energy Laboratory J. Konings Hukseflux Thermal Sensors Presented at Solar 2014 San ...

  17. Category:Radiometrics | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating Reference needed Missing content Broken link Other Additional Comments Cancel Submit Categories: Geothermal Passive Sensors...

  18. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Evidence for Aerosol Effects on AERI Clear-Sky Radiance at the SGP Ma, Y., and Ellingson, R.G., University of Maryland Ninth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) Quality Measurement Experiment (QME) 10-micron window residuals have been examined relative to the Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) 0.87-micron optical depth for clear-sky periods during

  19. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Long Term AERI Data Summaries or Spectral Radiance Data for Testing Climate Models Tobin, D., Revercomb, H., Knuteson, R.O., Best, F., Dedecker, R., Howell, H.B., Garcia, R., and Feltz, W., University of Wisconsin-Madison Eleventh Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data collection has been on-going at the SGP, NSA, and TWP ARM sites for a number of years now. This poster presents long term trends and distributions of

  20. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    High Latitude Cloud Microphysical Properties from FTIR Data Lubin, D., Scripps Institution of Oceanography Thirteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting The ARM AERI instruments record downwelling radiance spectra with sufficient radiometric calibration to enable the retrieval of important cloud microphysical properties. This poster will describe how radiative transfer simulations that include cloud thermodynamic phase (liquid water, ice, mixed phase) can be utilized

  1. MAGIC Cloud Properties from Zenith Radiance Data Final Campaign Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, J. -Y.C.; Gregory, L.; Wagener, R.

    2016-01-01

    Cloud droplet size and optical depth are the most fundamental properties for understanding cloud formation, dissipation and interactions with aerosol and drizzle. They are also a crucial determinant of Earth’s radiative and water-energy balances. However, these properties are poorly predicted in climate models. As a result, the response of clouds to climate change is one of the major sources of uncertainty in climate prediction.

  2. Radiance: Science and Stagecraft Come Together via Alan Alda...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    They might appear to have little in common. She received two Nobel Prizes. He won six Emmys. She was born in Poland and made her name in Paris. He was born in New York City, and ...

  3. Posters Residual Analysis of Surface Spectral Radiances Between...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... the future, will be taken from 915-MHz and 55-MHz radio acoustic sounding systems (RASS). ... Spectral Resolution (cm -1 ): 0.5 (wavenumber to first zero) Noise (670-1400 cm -1 ) (Wm ...

  4. ARM: Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Zenith, Radiance and Transmitta...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) ... Subject: 54 Environmental Sciences Shortwave spectral direct normal irradiance; Shortwave ...

  5. ARM - Instrument Datastreams

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    DatastreamsRadiometric

  6. ARM - Instruments

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsRadiometric

  7. ARM - Measurements

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsRadiometric

  8. ARM - Instrument - asti

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsasti Documentation ASTI : Handbook ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Absolute Solar Transmittance Interferometer (ASTI) Instrument Categories Radiometric General Overview The absolute solar transmittance interferometer (ASTI) provides calibrated spectra of the solar irradiance at the surface of the earth over a wavelength region from 1 to 5 microns at a resolution of 2

  9. Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) Scientific...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Ripples in space-time discussed in public lecture September 15, 2016 LIGO spokesperson examines the detection of gravitational waves LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Sept. 15, 2016-Gabriela ...

  10. Search for: interferometer* | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... River Site Office Schenectady Naval Reactors Office, Schenectady, NY (United States) ... The RTI employs spatial autocorrelation, reflective optics, and a fast response ...

  11. Optically Recording Velocity Interferometer System (ORVIS): ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Proc. (2014). Polymer flyer shape and impact studied with SIO EL Earliest demonstration of SIO collected one frame per test. Renewed interest due to modern camera ...

  12. Optically Recording Velocity Interferometer System (ORVIS): Applicatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  13. Nonlocal polarization interferometer for entanglement detection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  14. Procedure for Generating Data Quality Reports for SIRS Radiometric...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... In addition, the sun tracker has failed due to the AC power outage at the central facility ... Items in the "Action" column indicate whether or not the data should be repainted from ...

  15. Sandia Research Aims to Enhance Understanding of Radiometric...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Systems LaboratoryBrayton Lab Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation Laboratory PV ... News, News & Events, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation ...

  16. Radiometrics At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Deal, Et Al....

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    G., Elston, W.E., Erb, E. E., Peterson, S. L., & Reiter, D. E. (1978) Cenozoic volcanic geology of the Basin and Range province in Hidalgo County, southwestern New Mexico...

  17. Radiometric Ages- Compilation 'B', U.S. Geological Survey | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Abstract Abstract unavailable Authors R.F. Marvin and S.W. Dobson Published New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, 1979 Report Number IsochronWest no. 26 DOI Not...

  18. Calibration and Measurement Uncertainty Estimation of Radiometric Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Reda, I.; Andreas, A.; Konings, J.

    2014-11-01

    Evaluating the performance of photovoltaic cells, modules, and arrays that form large solar deployments relies on accurate measurements of the available solar resource. Therefore, determining the accuracy of these solar radiation measurements provides a better understanding of investment risks. This paper provides guidelines and recommended procedures for estimating the uncertainty in calibrations and measurements by radiometers using methods that follow the International Bureau of Weights and Measures Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty (GUM). Standardized analysis based on these procedures ensures that the uncertainty quoted is well documented.

  19. Radiometrics At Salt Wells Area (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2006) | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    precipitation and the susceptibility of NaCl to remobilization in meteoric water at low temperature. Remote sensing methods for identifying regional-scale zoning of these...

  20. Solar Radiometric Data Quality Assessment of SIRS, SKYRAD and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science Country of Publication: United States Language: ... DIFFUSE HORIZONTAL IRRADIANCE; DIRECT NORMAL IRRADIANCE; Solar Energy - ...

  1. Radiometrics At Chena Geothermal Area (Kolker, 2008) | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Phase I) Notes Fugro, Inc. performed an airborne geophysical survey using the DIGHEM (Digital Helicopter ElectroMagnetics) aircraft over a 937 km2 survey grid. Airborne gamma...

  2. The 2004 North Slope of Alaska Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... It was also intended to supplement efforts by industry (F. Solheim, Private Communication) ... the evaluation of the sensitivity of millimeter-wave window channels to arctic clouds. ...

  3. Microwave Radiometer - UND Radiometrics MWR, John Day - Raw Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Bianco, Laura

    2016-10-25

    Monitor real-time profiles of temperature (K), water vapor (gm-3), relative humidity (%) and liquid water (gm-3) up to 10km.

  4. Microwave Radiometer - CU Radiometrics MWR, Condon - Raw Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Bianco, Laura

    2016-10-25

    Monitor real-time profiles of temperature (K), water vapor (gm-3), relative humidity (%) and liquid water (gm-3) up to 10km.

  5. Microwave Radiometer - ESRL Radiometrics MWR, Troutdale - Raw Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Bianco, Laura

    2016-10-25

    Monitor real-time profiles of temperature (K), water vapor (gm-3), relative humidity (%) and liquid water (gm-3) up to 10km.

  6. Microwave Radiometer - ESRL Radiometrics MWR, Wasco Airport - Raw Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Bianco, Laura

    2016-10-25

    Monitor real-time profiles of temperature (K), water vapor (gm-3), relative humidity (%) and liquid water (gm-3) up to 10km.

  7. ARM - Instrument - mfrirt

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsmfrirt Documentation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Multifilter Radiometer and Infrared Thermometer (MFRIRT) Instrument Categories Aerosols, Radiometric Output Datastreams mfrirt25m : Infrared Thermometer (MFRIRT): upwelling radiance, instantaneous 20-sec at 25-meter height Primary Measurements The following measurements are those considered scientifically relevant.

  8. ARM - Instrument - sasze

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentssasze Documentation SASZE : Handbook ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Zenith (SASZE) Instrument Categories Radiometric General Overview The Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer - Zenith (SASZE) measures the zenith sky shortwave radiance over the spectral range from the near infrared to the ultraviolet. The SASZE incorporates two Avantes

  9. ARM - Instrument - sws

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentssws Documentation SWS : Handbook ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Shortwave Spectroradiometer (SWS) Instrument Categories Radiometric General Overview The Shortwave Spectroradiometer (SWS), measures the absolute visible and near infrared spectral radiance (units of watts per meter square per nanometer per steradian) of the zenith directly above the instrument. The SWS is a

  10. ARM - Blog Article

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    August 3, 2016 [Blog, ENA, Field Notes, LASIC] Two AERI Installs on Two Islands in Two Months Bookmark and Share Editor's note: Jonathan Gero, a research scientist at University of Wisconsin-Madison, sent this update on installing two AERI systems. Jonathan Gero takes in the surrounding beauty of Graciosa Island. Jonathan Gero takes in the surrounding beauty of Graciosa Island. I just completed the second of two Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) installations in what is shaping

  11. ARM Virtual Tour

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Band Scanning Precipitation Radar Ka/W-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar & Ka-Zenith Radar Raman Lidar Raman Lidar Aerosol Observing System Micropulse Lidar Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer Hydrogen Storage Radar Wind Profiler Administration Offices Balloon-Borne Sounding System Instrument Field Instrument Field The Eastern North Atlantic instrument field covers a variety of meteorological measurements focusing on atmospheric and boundary properties, surface and radiative fluxes,

  12. Research Highlight

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Retrieving Thermodynamic Profiles in the Boundary Layer in Clear and Cloudy Conditions Submitter: Turner, D. D., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Area of Research: Radiation Processes Working Group(s): Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Interactions Journal Reference: Turner DD and U Loehnert. 2014. "Information content and uncertainties in thermodynamic profiles and liquid cloud properties retrieved from the ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI)."

  13. fogal-99

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperature and Water Vapor Profile Retrievals from AERI-X High Spectral Resolution Emission Spectra P. F. Fogal, F. J. Murcray, and R. Blatherwick Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Denver Denver, Colorado Introduction The University of Denver Atmospheric Emission Radiance Interferometer-Extended (AERI-X) produces calibrated 0.1 cm -1 resolution spectra of the downwelling infrared emission of the atmosphere. These spectra are used to retrieve temperature and water vapor profiles

  14. Section 111

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    W/m 2 Session Papers 499 The Status of Quality Measurement Experiments in the Microwave, Longwave, and Shortwave P. D. Brown and S. A. Clough Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts D. D. Turner and T. R. Shippert Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb and W. L. Smith University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin Introduction Spectral analyses from the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer/Line-by-Line Radiative

  15. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Interferometric Measurements of the Air-Sea Temperature Difference Minnett, P.J., Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami Eleventh Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Marine Atmosphere Emitted Radiance Interferometers (M-AERI) have been mounted on several research ships on cruises in the world?s oceans, several in the areas of the ARM TWP and NSA-AAO sites. Accurate measurements of the skin sea-surface temperature and

  16. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    AERI-Lidar Retrievals of Ice Cloud Physical Properties, Including the First Estimates of Photon Tunneling Contributions to Absorption Mitchell, D.L.(a) and DeSlover, D.H.(b), Desert Research Institute (a), Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, University of Wisconsin (b) Twelfth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) have been used to determine the

  17. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: A Principal Component

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis Noise Filter VAP to Remove Uncorrelated Noise from AERI Observations A Principal Component Analysis Noise Filter VAP to Remove Uncorrelated Noise from AERI Observations Turner, David Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Lo, Chaomei Battelle, PNNL Knuteson, Robert University Of Wisconsin The temporal sampling stategy of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) was chosen to optimize the requirements for clear-sky radiative transfer studies and profiling atmospheric

  18. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: AERI Thermodynamic

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Profiling VAP Improvements and Status AERI Thermodynamic Profiling VAP Improvements and Status Feltz, Wayne University of Wisconsin Howell, Ben University of Wisconsin-Madison Turner, David Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Mahon, Rick Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Knuteson, Robert University Of Wisconsin The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) was one of the primary instruments developed under the DOE ARM instrument development program (IDP) to be deployed to the

  19. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Status,

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Accomplishments, Recent Developments and Plans at the North Slope of Alaska ACRF Site Status, Accomplishments, Recent Developments and Plans at the North Slope of Alaska ACRF Site Zak, Bernard Sandia National Laboratories Ivey, Mark Sandia National Laboratories Zirzow, Jeffrey Sandia National Laboratories Over this past year, the NSA/AAO ACRF has been a very busy place. The year started with the Extended Range Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (ER-AERI) Intercomparison IOP, January

  20. DOE SC ARM TR 176 Radiance Research Particle Soot_Absorption...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Bap if the "clean" transmission is accidentally reset on ... 19" instrument rack and electrical connection to the appropriate Power Distribution Unit 2. Plumbing of the ...

  1. Time series analysis of AERI radiances for GCM testing and improvement

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    and improvement Dykema, John Harvard University Leroy, Stephen Harvard University Anderson, James Harvard University Tobin, David University of Wisconsin-Madison Knuteson,...

  2. Use of the ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith Radiance for Better...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Use of the ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith ... situation, with particular emphasis on cloud optical depth and effective particle size. ...

  3. Tropospheric and Lower Stratospheric Ozone Profiles From AERI-X Emission Spectra

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropospheric and Lower Stratospheric Ozone Profiles From AERI-X Emission Spectra P. F. Fogal and F. J. Murcray Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Denver Denver, Colorado Introduction The University of Denver Atmospheric Emission Radiometric Interferometer-Extended (AERI-X) has been in regular operation at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program site, conditions permitting, since the mid-1990s. We present here the analysis of several spectra

  4. Microsoft Word - AMF2 Instruments for BAECC.docx

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    AMF2 I nstruments f or B AECC Instrument Mentor Instrument Name Manufacturer Measurement ASSISTII ( like an A eri) Connor F lynn ASSISTII LR---Tech, Inc. Temperature a nd w ater v apor p rofiles CSPHOT Laurie G regory Cimel Sunphotometer CIMEL Electronique Solar i rradiance and sky radiance IRT Vic M orris Infrared Thermometer Heimann Equivalent b lack b ody b rightness t emps MWR---2C Maria C adeddu Microwave Radiometer Radiometrics Column H 20 v apor a nd l iquid MWR---3C Maria C adeddu

  5. Inelastic transport through Aharonov-Bohm interferometer in Kondo regime

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshii, Ryosuke; Eto, Mikio; Sakano, Rui; Affleck, Ian

    2013-12-04

    We formulate elastic and inelastic parts of linear conductance through an Aharonov-Bohm (AB) ring with an embedded quantum dot in the Kondo regime. The inelastic part G{sub inel} is proportional to T{sup 2} when the temperature T is much smaller than the Kondo temperature T{sub K}, whereas it is negligibly small compared with elastic part G{sub el} when T ? T{sub K}. G{sub inel} weakly depends on the magnetic flux penetrating the AB ring, which disturbs the precise detection of G{sub el}/(G{sub el}+G{sub inel}) by the visibility of AB oscillation.

  6. Tripartite entanglement in single-neutron interferometer experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Erdösi, Daniel; Hasegawa, Yuji; Huber, Marcus; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.

    2014-12-04

    We present experimental evidence of the generation of distinct types of genuine multipartite entanglement between the spin, energy, and path degrees of freedom within single-neutron quantum systems. This is achieved via the development of new spin manipulation apparatuses for neutron interferometry and the entanglement is detected via appropriately designed and optimized non-linear witnesses. We demonstrate the extraordinarily high controllability and fidelity of the generated entangled states.

  7. Impact of anomalous dispersion on the interferometer measurements...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We validate the average-atom code against the more detailed OPAL code for carbon and aluminum plasmas. During the next decade X-ray free electron lasers and other sources will be ...

  8. Preliminary Neutronics Analysis of the ITER Toroidal Interferometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in France that will demonstrate nuclear fusion at a power plant-relevant scale. ... to determine and minimize the total distortion due to nuclear heating of the CCRs. ...

  9. Source localization of brain activity using helium-free interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dammers, Jürgen Chocholacs, Harald; Eich, Eberhard; Boers, Frank; Faley, Michael; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Jon Shah, N.

    2014-05-26

    To detect extremely small magnetic fields generated by the human brain, currently all commercial magnetoencephalography (MEG) systems are equipped with low-temperature (low-T{sub c}) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors that use liquid helium for cooling. The limited and increasingly expensive supply of helium, which has seen dramatic price increases recently, has become a real problem for such systems and the situation shows no signs of abating. MEG research in the long run is now endangered. In this study, we report a MEG source localization utilizing a single, highly sensitive SQUID cooled with liquid nitrogen only. Our findings confirm that localization of neuromagnetic activity is indeed possible using high-T{sub c} SQUIDs. We believe that our findings secure the future of this exquisitely sensitive technique and have major implications for brain research and the developments of cost-effective multi-channel, high-T{sub c} SQUID-based MEG systems.

  10. High Spectral Resolution Infrared and Raman Lidar Observations for the ARM Program: Clear and Cloudy Sky Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Revercomb, Henry; Tobin, David; Knuteson, Robert; Borg, Lori; Moy, Leslie

    2009-06-17

    This grant began with the development of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) for ARM. The AERI has provided highly accurate and reliable observations of downwelling spectral radiance (Knuteson et al. 2004a, 2004b) for application to radiative transfer, remote sensing of boundary layer temperature and water vapor, and cloud characterization. One of the major contributions of the ARM program has been its success in improving radiation calculation capabilities for models and remote sensing that evolved from the multi-year, clear-sky spectral radiance comparisons between AERI radiances and line-by-line calculations (Turner et al. 2004). This effort also spurred us to play a central role in improving the accuracy of water vapor measurements, again helping ARM lead the way in the community (Turner et al. 2003a, Revercomb et al. 2003). In order to add high-altitude downlooking AERI-like observations over the ARM sites, we began the development of an airborne AERI instrument that has become known as the Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (Scanning-HIS). This instrument has become an integral part of the ARM Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (ARM-UAV) program. It provides both a cross-track mapping view of the earth and an uplooking view from the 12-15 km altitude of the Scaled Composites Proteus aircraft when flown over the ARM sites for IOPs. It has successfully participated in the first two legs of the “grand tour” of the ARM sites (SGP and NSA), resulting in a very good comparison with AIRS observations in 2002 and in an especially interesting data set from the arctic during the Mixed-Phase Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) in 2004.

  11. Solar Radiometric Data Quality Assessment of SIRS, SKYRAD and GNDRAD Measurements (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Habte, A.; Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.; Kutchenreiter, M.; Gotseff, P.; Anderberg, M.

    2014-03-01

    Solar radiation is the driving force for the earth's weather and climate. Understanding the elements of this dynamic energy balance requires accurate measurements of broadband solar irradiance. Since the mid-1990's the ARM Program has deployed pyrheliometers and pyranometers for the measurement of direct normal irradiance (DNI), global horizontal irradiance (GHI), diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), and upwelling shortwave (US) radiation at permanent and mobile field research sites. This poster summarizes the basis for assessing the broadband solar radiation data available from the SIRS, SKYRAD, and GNDRAD measurement systems and provides examples of data inspections.

  12. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Hobbs National Topographic Map, New Mexico/Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Hobbs National Topographic Map NI13-12 are presented in this report. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also.

  13. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey, San Angelo National Topographic Map: Texas, West Texas Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the San Angelo National Topographic Map NH14-1 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium, and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included.

  14. African Homo erectus: Old radiometric ages and young Oldowan assemblages in the middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.D.; White, T.D.; Selassie, Y.H. ); Heinzelin, J. de ); Schick, K.D. ); Hart, W.K. ); WoldeGabriel, G. ); Walter, R.C. ); Suwa, G. ); Asfaw, B. )

    1994-06-24

    Fossils and artifacts recovered from the middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar depression sample the Middle Pleistocene transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens. Ar/Ar ages, biostratigraphy, and tephrachronology from this area indicate that the Pleistocene Bodo hominid cranium and newer specimens are approximately 0.6 million years old. Only Oldowan chopper and flake assemblages are present in the lower stratigraphic units but Acheulean bifacial artifacts are consistently prevalent and widespread in directly overlying deposits. This technological transition is related to a shift in sedimentary regime, supporting the hypothesis that Middle Pleistocene Oldowan assemblages represent a behavioral facies of the Acheulean industrial complex.

  15. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

    2011-09-01

    Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

  16. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    AERI and Raman Lidar Cirrus Cloud Optical Depth Retrieval to Validate Aircraft-Based Cirrus Measurements DeSlover, D.H.(a), Knuteson, R.O.(a), Turner, D.D.(b), Whiteman, D.N.(c), and Smith, W.L.(d), Univeristy of Wisconsin - Madison (a), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (b), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (c), NASA Langley Research Center (d) Twelfth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and Raman lidar

  17. Preliminary analysis of ground-based microwave and infrared radiance observations during the Pilot Radiation OBservation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Westwater, E.R.; Han, Y.; Churnside, J.H.; Snider, J.B.

    1995-04-01

    During Phase Two of the Pilot Radiation OBservation Experiment (PROBE) held in Kavieng, Papua New Guinea, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration`s Environmental Technology Laboratory (ETL) operated both microwave and infrared radiometers. Phase Two lasted from January 6 to February 28, 1993. The dramatic differences in the water vapor environment between the tropics and mid-latitudes were illustrated by Westwater et al. (1994) who presented PROBE data as well as additional data that were taken during the 1991 First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) 11 experiment in Coffeyville, Kansas. We present an analysis of microwave data and a preliminary analysis of infrared data obtained during PROBE.

  18. Thermal gradient-induced forces on geodesic reference masses for LISA

    SciTech Connect

    Carbone, L.; Ciani, G.; Dolesi, R.; Hueller, M.; Tombolato, D.; Vitale, S.; Weber, W. J.; Cavalleri, A.

    2007-11-15

    The low frequency sensitivity of space-borne gravitational wave observatories will depend critically on the geodesic purity of the trajectories of orbiting test masses. Fluctuations in the temperature difference across the enclosure surrounding the free-falling test mass can produce noisy forces through several processes, including the radiometric effect, radiation pressure, and outgassing. We present here a detailed experimental investigation of thermal gradient-induced forces for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) gravitational wave mission and the LISA Pathfinder, employing high resolution torsion pendulum measurements of the torque on a LISA-like test mass suspended inside a prototype of the LISA gravitational reference sensor that will surround the test mass in orbit. The measurement campaign, accompanied by numerical simulations of the radiometric and radiation pressure effects, allows a more accurate and representative characterization of thermal-gradient forces in the specific geometry and environment relevant to LISA free-fall. The pressure dependence of the measured torques allows clear identification of the radiometric effect, in quantitative agreement with the model developed. In the limit of zero gas pressure, the measurements are most likely dominated by outgassing, but at a low level that does not threaten the current LISA noise estimate, which assumes a maximum net force per degree of temperature difference of 100(pN/K) for the overall thermal gradient-induced effects.

  19. Theory, electro-optical design, testing, and calibration of a prototype atmospheric supersaturation, humidity, and temperature sensor. Final report Mar 81-Jul 82

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, L.D.

    1982-07-15

    A new infrared differential absorption - passive thermal emission based instrument designed to make accurate in-cloud measurements of absolute humidity, air temperature, relative humidity, and ice and water supersaturations has been developed. Absolute humidity is measured by the differential infrared absorption of a broad-band light beam between 2.45 microns wavelength and the strongly absorbing water vapor band at 2.67 microns. Air temperature is sensed by a passive radiometric measurement of the Planck's law radiance emitted by carbon dioxide molecules in their very intense emission band at 4.25 microns. Significant operational advantages over previous 14-16 micron band radiometers are achieved. These non-contact optical measurements of absolute humidity and true air temperature can then be combined to yield relative humidity values with respect to both water and ice which remain valid in condensing supersaturated conditions and in spite of hydrometeors in the sample volume.

  20. Application of non-radiometric methods to the determination of plutonium. Literature review conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Program

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, M.C.

    1992-03-05

    This literature review was motivated by discussions that took place during a review of contamination control technologies proposed for INEL (buried waste). It should be a useful tool in identifying non-radiation measurement techniques for Pu and Am such as ICP-MS, which should fulfill the following criteria: apparatus must be field deployable; up to 100 samples per day; and lower levels of detection and required time must be listed. The sensitivity of ICP and RIMS is compared against that needed for contamination monitoring at INEL. Only Pu-241, with a required detection limit of 400 ppt, would challenge the sensitivity of ICP-MS; Pu-238 would be easily determined. The need to determine Pu-238 and Am-241 in the presence of U-238 and Pu-241 seems to preclude the possibility of using laser ablation ICP-MS for Pu monitoring. ICP-AES and -LEAFS methods may not have enough sensitivity to determine Pu-238 at 2 ppb level with confidence, but RIMS (resonance ionization mass spectroscopy) should be adequate. 47 refs, figs.

  1. Slow light Mach-Zehnder interferometer as label-free biosensor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Moreover, the experimental bulk refractive index detection sensitivity of 84,000 radRIU-cm is realized and nucleic acid detection is also demonstrated. Authors: Qin, Kun 1 ; Hu, ...

  2. Tunable Pseudogap Kondo Effect and Quantum Phase Transitions in Aharonov-Bohm Interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Dias Da Silva, Luis G; Sandler, Nancy; Simon, Pascal; Ingersent, Kevin; Ulloa, Sergio E

    2009-01-01

    We study two quantum dots embedded in the arms of an Aharonov-Bohm ring threaded by a magnetic flux. This system can be described by an effective one-impurity Anderson model with an energy- and flux- dependent density of states. For specific values of the flux, this density of states vanishes at the Fermi energy, yielding a controlled realization of the pseudogap Kondo effect. The conductance and trans- mission phase shifts reflect a nontrivial interplay between wave interference and interactions, providing clear signatures of quantum phase transitions between Kondo and non-Kondo ground states.

  3. Note: Directly measuring the direct digital synthesizer frequency chirp-rate for an atom interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Juan-Juan; Zhou, Min-Kang E-mail: zmk@hust.edu.cn; Zhang, Qiao-Zhen; Cui, Jia-Feng; Duan, Xiao-Chun; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Hu, Zhong-Kun E-mail: zmk@hust.edu.cn

    2015-09-15

    During gravity measurements with Raman type atom interferometry, the frequency of the laser used to drive Raman transition is scanned by chirping the frequency of a direct digital synthesizer (DDS), and the local gravity is determined by precisely measuring the chip rate α of DDS. We present an effective method that can directly evaluate the frequency chirp rate stability of our DDS. By mixing a pair of synchronous linear sweeping signals, the chirp rate fluctuation is precisely measured with a frequency counter. The measurement result shows that the relative α instability can reach 5.7 × 10{sup −11} in 1 s, which is neglectable in a 10{sup −9} g level atom interferometry gravimeter.

  4. Phase-sensitive two-dimensional neutron shearing interferometer and Hartmann sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Kevin

    2015-12-08

    A neutron imaging system detects both the phase shift and absorption of neutrons passing through an object. The neutron imaging system is based on either of two different neutron wavefront sensor techniques: 2-D shearing interferometry and Hartmann wavefront sensing. Both approaches measure an entire two-dimensional neutron complex field, including its amplitude and phase. Each measures the full-field, two-dimensional phase gradients and, concomitantly, the two-dimensional amplitude mapping, requiring only a single measurement.

  5. Chromatic-aberration diagnostic based on a spectrally resolved lateral-shearing interferometer

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Bahk, Seung -Whan; Dorrer, Christopher; Roides, Rick G.; Bromage, Jake

    2016-03-18

    Here, a simple diagnostic characterizing one-dimensional chromatic aberrations in a broadband beam is introduced. A Ronchi grating placed in front of a spectrometer entrance slit provides spectrally coupled spatial phase information. The radial-group delay of a refractive system and the pulse-front delay of a wedged glass plate have been characterized accurately in a demonstration experiment.

  6. Application Of The Phase Shifting Diffraction Interferometer For Measuring Convex Mirrors And Negative Lenses

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.; Campbell, Eugene W.

    2005-06-21

    To measure a convex mirror, a reference beam and a measurement beam are both provided through a single optical fiber. A positive auxiliary lens is placed in the system to give a converging wavefront onto the convex mirror under test. A measurement is taken that includes the aberrations of the convex mirror as well as the errors due to two transmissions through the positive auxiliary lens. A second measurement provides the information to eliminate this error. A negative lens can also be measured in a similar way. Again, there are two measurement set-ups. A reference beam is provided from a first optical fiber and a measurement beam is provided from a second optical fiber. A positive auxiliary lens is placed in the system to provide a converging wavefront from the reference beam onto the negative lens under test. The measurement beam is combined with the reference wavefront and is analyzed by standard methods. This measurement includes the aberrations of the negative lens, as well as the errors due to a single transmission through the positive auxiliary lens. A second measurement provides the information to eliminate this error.

  7. Application of the phase shifting diffraction interferometer for measuring convex mirrors and negative lenses

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.; Campbell, Eugene W.

    2004-03-09

    To measure a convex mirror, a reference beam and a measurement beam are both provided through a single optical fiber. A positive auxiliary lens is placed in the system to give a converging wavefront onto the convex mirror under test. A measurement is taken that includes the aberrations of the convex mirror as well as the errors due to two transmissions through the positive auxiliary lens. A second, measurement provides the information to eliminate this error. A negative lens can also be measured in a similar way. Again, there are two measurement set-ups. A reference beam is provided from a first optical fiber and a measurement beam is provided from a second optical fiber. A positive auxiliary lens is placed in the system to provide a converging wavefront from the reference beam onto the negative lens under test. The measurement beam is combined with the reference wavefront and is analyzed by standard methods. This measurement includes the aberrations of the negative lens, as well as the errors due to a single transmission through the positive auxiliary lens. A second measurement provides the information to eliminate this error.

  8. Sensitivity enhancement of grating interferometer based two-dimensional sensor arrays using two-wavelength readout

    SciTech Connect

    Ferhanoglu, Onur; Urey, Hakan

    2011-07-01

    Diffraction gratings integrated with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors offer displacement measurements with subnanometer sensitivity. However, the sensitivity of the interferometric readout may drop significantly based on the gap between the grating and the reference surface. A two-wavelength (2-{lambda}) readout method was previously tested using a single MEMS sensor for illustrating increased displacement measurement capability. This work demonstrates sensitivity enhancement on a sensor array with large scale parallelization ({approx}20,000 sensors). The statistical representation, which is developed to model sensitivity enhancement within a grating based sensor array, is supported by experimental results using a thermal sensor array. In the experiments, two lasers at different wavelengths (633 and 650 nm) illuminate the thermal sensor array from the backside, time-sequentially. The diffracted first order light from the array is imaged onto a single CCD camera. The target scene is reconstructed by observing the change in the first diffracted order diffraction intensity for both wavelengths. Merging of the data from two measurements with two lasers was performed by taking the larger of the two CCD measurements with respect to the reference image for each sensor. {approx}30% increase in the average sensitivity was demonstrated for a 160x120 pixel IR sensor array. Proposed architecture is also applicable to a variety of sensing applications, such as parallel biosensing and atomic force microscopy, for improved displacement measurements and enhanced sensitivity.

  9. Demonstration of a real-time interferometer as a bunch-lenght...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    bunch-lenght monitor in a high-current electron beam accelerator Citation Details In-Document ... Subject: 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS, 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND ...

  10. A cloud detection algorithm using the downwelling infrared radiance measured by an infrared pyrometer of the ground-based microwave radiometer

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Ahn, M. H.; Han, D.; Won, H. Y.; Morris, Victor R.

    2015-02-03

    For better utilization of the ground-based microwave radiometer, it is important to detect the cloud presence in the measured data. Here, we introduce a simple and fast cloud detection algorithm by using the optical characteristics of the clouds in the infrared atmospheric window region. The new algorithm utilizes the brightness temperature (Tb) measured by an infrared radiometer installed on top of a microwave radiometer. The two-step algorithm consists of a spectral test followed by a temporal test. The measured Tb is first compared with a predicted clear-sky Tb obtained by an empirical formula as a function of surface air temperaturemore » and water vapor pressure. For the temporal test, the temporal variability of the measured Tb during one minute compares with a dynamic threshold value, representing the variability of clear-sky conditions. It is designated as cloud-free data only when both the spectral and temporal tests confirm cloud-free data. Overall, most of the thick and uniform clouds are successfully detected by the spectral test, while the broken and fast-varying clouds are detected by the temporal test. The algorithm is validated by comparison with the collocated ceilometer data for six months, from January to June 2013. The overall proportion of correctness is about 88.3% and the probability of detection is 90.8%, which are comparable with or better than those of previous similar approaches. Two thirds of discrepancies occur when the new algorithm detects clouds while the ceilometer does not, resulting in different values of the probability of detection with different cloud-base altitude, 93.8, 90.3, and 82.8% for low, mid, and high clouds, respectively. Finally, due to the characteristics of the spectral range, the new algorithm is found to be insensitive to the presence of inversion layers.« less

  11. Use of the ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith Radiance for Better Understanding of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes & Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Jui-Yuan Christine

    2014-04-10

    This project focuses on cloud-radiation processes in a general three-dimensional cloud situation, with particular emphasis on cloud optical depth and effective particle size. The proposal has two main parts. Part one exploits the large number of new wavelengths offered by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) zenith-pointing ShortWave Spectrometer (SWS), to develop better retrievals not only of cloud optical depth but also of cloud particle size. We also take advantage of the SWS’ high sampling resolution to study the “twilight zone” around clouds where strong aerosol-cloud interactions are taking place. Part two involves continuing our cloud optical depth and cloud fraction retrieval research with ARM’s 2-channel narrow vield-of-view radiometer and sunphotometer instrument by, first, analyzing its data from the ARM Mobile Facility deployments, and second, making our algorithms part of ARM’s operational data processing.

  12. A cloud detection algorithm using the downwelling infrared radiance measured by an infrared pyrometer of the ground-based microwave radiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, M. H.; Han, D.; Won, H. Y.; Morris, Victor R.

    2015-02-03

    For better utilization of the ground-based microwave radiometer, it is important to detect the cloud presence in the measured data. Here, we introduce a simple and fast cloud detection algorithm by using the optical characteristics of the clouds in the infrared atmospheric window region. The new algorithm utilizes the brightness temperature (Tb) measured by an infrared radiometer installed on top of a microwave radiometer. The two-step algorithm consists of a spectral test followed by a temporal test. The measured Tb is first compared with a predicted clear-sky Tb obtained by an empirical formula as a function of surface air temperature and water vapor pressure. For the temporal test, the temporal variability of the measured Tb during one minute compares with a dynamic threshold value, representing the variability of clear-sky conditions. It is designated as cloud-free data only when both the spectral and temporal tests confirm cloud-free data. Overall, most of the thick and uniform clouds are successfully detected by the spectral test, while the broken and fast-varying clouds are detected by the temporal test. The algorithm is validated by comparison with the collocated ceilometer data for six months, from January to June 2013. The overall proportion of correctness is about 88.3% and the probability of detection is 90.8%, which are comparable with or better than those of previous similar approaches. Two thirds of discrepancies occur when the new algorithm detects clouds while the ceilometer does not, resulting in different values of the probability of detection with different cloud-base altitude, 93.8, 90.3, and 82.8% for low, mid, and high clouds, respectively. Finally, due to the characteristics of the spectral range, the new algorithm is found to be insensitive to the presence of inversion layers.

  13. “Lidar Investigations of Aerosol, Cloud, and Boundary Layer Properties Over the ARM ACRF Sites”

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, Richard; Turner, David

    2015-01-13

    Project goals; Characterize the aerosol and ice vertical distributions over the ARM NSA site, and in particular to discriminate between elevated aerosol layers and ice clouds in optically thin scattering layers; Characterize the water vapor and aerosol vertical distributions over the ARM Darwin site, how these distributions vary seasonally, and quantify the amount of water vapor and aerosol that is above the boundary layer; Use the high temporal resolution Raman lidar data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; Use the high temporal resolution Raman lidar and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds; and Use the high temporal Raman lidar data to continue to characterize the turbulence within the convective boundary layer and how the turbulence statistics (e.g., variance, skewness) is correlated with larger scale variables predicted by models.

  14. RRTM: A rapid radiative transfer model

    SciTech Connect

    Mlawer, E.J.; Taubman, S.J.; Clough, S.A.

    1996-04-01

    A rapid radiative transfer model (RRTM) for the calculation of longwave clear-sky fluxes and cooling rates has been developed. The model, which uses the correlated-k method, is both accurate and computationally fast. The foundation for RRTM is the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) from which the relevant k-distributions are obtained. LBLRTM, which has been extensively validated against spectral observations e.g., the high-resolution sounder and the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer, is used to validate the flux and cooling rate results from RRTM. Validations of RRTM`s results have been performed for the tropical, midlatitude summer, and midlatitude winter atmospheres, as well as for the four Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM) cases from the Spectral Radiance Experiment (SPECTRE). Details of some of these validations are presented below. RRTM has the identical atmospheric input module as LBLRTM, facilitating intercomparisons with LBLRTM and application of the model at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Cloud and Radiation Testbed sites.

  15. Observations of tropical cirrus properties in the pilot radiation observation experiment using lidar and the CSIRO ARM filter radiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Platt, C.M.R.; Young, S.A.; Manson, P.J.; Patterson, G.R.

    1995-04-01

    A narrow beam fast filter radiometer has been developed for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The radiometer is intended to operate alongside a lidar at ARM sites in a lidar/radiometer (LIRAD) configuration. The radiometer detects in three narrow bands at 8.62-, 10.86-, and 12.04-m central wavelengths in the atmospheric window. In addition, it has a variable field aperture that varies the radiance incident on the detector and also allows the field of view to be tailored to that of a lidar used in the LIRAD technique. The radiometer was deployed in the ARM Pilot Radiation Observation Experiment (PROBE) at Kavieng, Papua New Guinea in January-February 1993. The radiometer worked satisfactorily and appeared to be very stable. The radiometer was compared with a previous CSIRO radiometer and the improved performance of the ARM instrument was very evident. The ARM radiometer was also compared with a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratories (ETL) interferometer and gave closely equivalent radiances. The LIRAD method was used at Kavieng to obtain the optical properties of cirrus clouds. Continuous observations of water vapor path obtained by the NOAA ETL microwave radiometer were employed to allow for the strong tropical water vapor absorption and emission. Cirrus cells that developed on one morning, independent of other clouds, had measured infrared emittances varying from <0.1 to 1.0.

  16. Arctic Mixed-Phase Cloud Properties from AERI Lidar Observations: Algorithm and Results from SHEBA

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, David D.

    2005-04-01

    A new approach to retrieve microphysical properties from mixed-phase Arctic clouds is presented. This mixed-phase cloud property retrieval algorithm (MIXCRA) retrieves cloud optical depth, ice fraction, and the effective radius of the water and ice particles from ground-based, high-resolution infrared radiance and lidar cloud boundary observations. The theoretical basis for this technique is that the absorption coefficient of ice is greater than that of liquid water from 10 to 13 ?m, whereas liquid water is more absorbing than ice from 16 to 25 ?m. MIXCRA retrievals are only valid for optically thin (?visible < 6) single-layer clouds when the precipitable water vapor is less than 1 cm. MIXCRA was applied to the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data that were collected during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) experiment from November 1997 to May 1998, where 63% of all of the cloudy scenes above the SHEBA site met this specification. The retrieval determined that approximately 48% of these clouds were mixed phase and that a significant number of clouds (during all 7 months) contained liquid water, even for cloud temperatures as low as 240 K. The retrieved distributions of effective radii for water and ice particles in single-phase clouds are shown to be different than the effective radii in mixed-phase clouds.

  17. Using a Neural Network to Determine the Hatch Status of the AERI at the ARM North Slope of Alaska Site

    SciTech Connect

    Zwink, AB; Turner, DD

    2012-03-19

    The fore-optics of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) are protected by an automated hatch to prevent precipitation from fouling the instrument's scene mirror (Knuteson et al. 2004). Limit switches connected with the hatch controller provide a signal of the hatch state: open, closed, undetermined (typically associated with the hatch being between fully open or fully closed during the instrument's sky view period), or an error condition. The instrument then records the state of the hatch with the radiance data so that samples taken when the hatch is not open can be removed from any subsequent analysis. However, the hatch controller suffered a multi-year failure for the AERI located at the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Central Facility in Barrow, Alaska, from July 2006-February 2008. The failure resulted in misreporting the state of the hatch in the 'hatchOpen' field within the AERI data files. With this error there is no simple solution to translate what was reported back to the correct hatch status, thereby making it difficult for an analysis to determine when the AERI was actually viewing the sky. As only the data collected when the hatch is fully open are scientifically useful, an algorithm was developed to determine whether the hatch was open or closed based on spectral radiance data from the AERI. Determining if the hatch is open or closed in a scene with low clouds is non-trivial, as low opaque clouds may look very similar spectrally as the closed hatch. This algorithm used a backpropagation neural network; these types of neural networks have been used with increasing frequency in atmospheric science applications.

  18. Section 49

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... PW. Knowing that 1% of the Planck function radiance for the ambient temperature is approximately the instrument accuracy, we calculated the Planck radiances for the 800-1250 ...

  19. 1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Radiance at each viewing angle normalized to the zenith radiance is shown in the lower panel. Computer results are shown ... Gardiner, B. G., 1987: Solar radiation transmitted to ...

  20. Radiometric calibration of optical microscopy and microspectroscopy apparata over a broad spectral range using a special thin-film luminescence standard

    SciTech Connect

    Valenta, J. Greben, M.

    2015-04-15

    Application capabilities of optical microscopes and microspectroscopes can be considerably enhanced by a proper calibration of their spectral sensitivity. We propose and demonstrate a method of relative and absolute calibration of a microspectroscope over an extraordinary broad spectral range covered by two (parallel) detection branches in visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The key point of the absolute calibration of a relative spectral sensitivity is application of the standard sample formed by a thin layer of Si nanocrystals with stable and efficient photoluminescence. The spectral PL quantum yield and the PL spatial distribution of the standard sample must be characterized by separate experiments. The absolutely calibrated microspectroscope enables to characterize spectral photon emittance of a studied object or even its luminescence quantum yield (QY) if additional knowledge about spatial distribution of emission and about excitance is available. Capabilities of the calibrated microspectroscope are demonstrated by measuring external QY of electroluminescence from a standard poly-Si solar-cell and of photoluminescence of Er-doped Si nanocrystals.

  1. A comparison of radiometric fluxes influenced by parameterization cirrus clouds with observed fluxes at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) cloud and radiation testbed (CART) site

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, G.G.; Ackerman, T.P.; George, A.T.

    1996-04-01

    The data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program`s Southern Great plains Site (SCP) is a valuable resource. We have developed an operational data processing and analysis methodology that allows us to examine continuously the influence of clouds on the radiation field and to test new and existing cloud and radiation parameterizations.

  2. Characterization of near-terahertz complementary metal-oxide semiconductor circuits using a Fourier-transform interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Arenas, D. J.; Shim, Dongha; Koukis, D. I.; Seok, Eunyoung; Tanner, D. B.; O, Kenneth K.

    2011-10-24

    Optical methods for measuring of the emission spectra of oscillator circuits operating in the 400-600 GHz range are described. The emitted power from patch antennas included in the circuits is measured by placing the circuit in the source chamber of a Fourier-transform interferometric spectrometer. The results show that this optical technique is useful for measuring circuits pushing the frontier in operating frequency. The technique also allows the characterization of the circuit by measuring the power radiated in the fundamental and in the harmonics. This capability is useful for oscillator architectures designed to cancel the fundamental and use higher harmonics. The radiated power was measured using two techniques: direct measurement of the power by placing the device in front of a bolometer of known responsivity, and by comparison to the estimated power from blackbody sources. The latter technique showed that these circuits have higher emission than blackbody sources at the operating frequencies, and, therefore, offer potential spectroscopy applications.

  3. Characterization of near-terahertz complementary metal-oxide semiconductor circuits using a Fourier-transform interferometer

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Arenas, D. J.; Shim, Dongha; Koukis, D. I.; Seok, Eunyoung; Tanner, D. B.; O, Kenneth K.

    2011-10-24

    Optical methods for measuring of the emission spectra of oscillator circuits operating in the 400-600 GHz range are described. The emitted power from patch antennas included in the circuits is measured by placing the circuit in the source chamber of a Fourier-transform interferometric spectrometer. The results show that this optical technique is useful for measuring circuits pushing the frontier in operating frequency. The technique also allows the characterization of the circuit by measuring the power radiated in the fundamental and in the harmonics. This capability is useful for oscillator architectures designed to cancel the fundamental and use higher harmonics. Themore » radiated power was measured using two techniques: direct measurement of the power by placing the device in front of a bolometer of known responsivity, and by comparison to the estimated power from blackbody sources. The latter technique showed that these circuits have higher emission than blackbody sources at the operating frequencies, and, therefore, offer potential spectroscopy applications.« less

  4. System and method for generating a displacement with ultra-high accuracy using a fabry-perot interferometer

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, Timothy J.

    1994-01-01

    A system and method for generating a desired displacement of an object, i.e., a target, from a reference position with ultra-high accuracy utilizes a Fabry-Perot etalon having an expandable tube cavity for resolving, with an Iodine stabilized laser, displacements with high accuracy and for effecting (as an actuator) displacements of the target. A mechanical amplifier in the form of a micropositioning stage has a platform and a frame which are movable relative to one another, and the tube cavity of the etalon is connected between the platform and frame so that an adjustment in length of the cavity effects a corresponding, amplified movement of the frame relative to the cavity. Therefore, in order to provide a preselected magnitude of displacement of the stage frame relative to the platform, the etalon tube cavity is adjusted in length by a corresponding amount. The system and method are particularly well-suited for use when calibrating a high accuracy measuring device.

  5. Millimeter-Wavelength Forward-Model Comparisons Based on Ground...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiometric Data Taken During the 1999 NSAAAO Radiometric Experiment E. R. Westwater ... Slope of AlaskaAdjacent Arctic Ocean (NSAAAO) near Barrow, Alaska, (Racette et al. ...

  6. Evaluating Radiative Closure in the Middle-to-Upper Troposhere

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, David C; Turner, David D; Knuteson, Robert O

    2013-01-02

    This project had two general objectives. The first is the characterization and improvement of the radiative transfer parameterization in strongly absorbing water vapor bands, as these strongly absorbing bands dictate the clear sky radiative heating rate. The second is the characterization and improvement of the radiative transfer in cirrus clouds, with emphasis on ensuring that the parameterization of the radiative transfer is consistent and accurate across the spectrum. Both of these objectives are important for understanding the radiative processes in the mid-to-upper troposphere. The research on this project primarily involved analysis of data from the First and Second Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaigns, RHUBC-I and II. This included a climate model sensitivity study using results from RHUBC-I. The RHUBC experiments are ARM-funded activities that directly address the objectives of this research project. A secondary effort was also conducted that investigated the trends in the long-term (~14 year) dataset collected by the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) at the ARM Southern Great Plains site. This work, which was primarily done by a post-doc at the University of Wisconsin – Madison under Dr. Turner’s direction, uses the only NIST-traceable instrument at the ARM site that has a well-documented calibration and uncertainty performance to investigate long-term trends in the downwelling longwave radiance above this site.

  7. Impact of background and atmospheric variability on infrared hyperspectral chemical detection sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.; Gallagher, Neal B.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Schultz, John F.; Shen, Sylvia S.; Lewis, Paul E.

    2003-04-15

    Chemical detection using infrared (IR) hyperspectral imaging systems is often limited by the effects of variability of the scene background emissivity spectra and temperature. Additionally, the atmospheric up-welling and down-welling radiance and transmittance are difficult to estimate from the hyperspectral image data, and may vary across the image. In combination, these background variability effects are referred to as''clutter.'' A study has been undertaken at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine the relative impact of atmospheric variability and background variability on the detection of trace chemical vapors. This study has analyzed Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to estimate fluctuations in atmospheric constituents. To allow separation of the effects of background and atmospheric variability, hyperspectral data was synthesized using large sets of simulated atmospheric spectra, measured background emissivity spectra, and measured high-resolution gas absorbance spectra. The atmosphere was simulated using FASCODE in which the constituent gas concentrations and temperatures were varied. These spectral sets were combined synthetically using a physics model to realize a statistical synthetic scene with a plume present in a portion of the image. Noise was added to the image with the level determined by a numerical model of the hyperspectral imaging instrument. The chemical detection performance was determined by applying a matched-filter estimator to both the on-plume and off-plume regions. The detected levels in the off-plume region were then used to determine the noise equivalent concentration pathlength (NECL), which is a measure of the chemical detection sensitivity. The NECL was estimated for numerous gases and for a variety of background and atmospheric conditions to determine the relative impact of instrument noise, background variability, and atmospheric variability.

  8. FY07 Final Report for Calibration Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Tanya L.; Broocks, Bryan T.; Cannon, Bret D.; Ho, Nicolas

    2007-12-01

    Remote infrared (IR) sensing provides a valuable method for detection and identification of materials associated with nuclear proliferation. Current challenges for remote sensors include minimizing the size, mass, and power requirements for cheaper, smaller, and more deployable instruments without affecting the measurement performance. One area that is often overlooked is sensor calibration design that is optimized to minimize the cost, size, weight, and power of the payload. Yet, an on-board calibration system is essential to account for changes in the detector response once the instrument has been removed from the laboratory. The Calibration Systems project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is aimed towards developing and demonstrating compact quantum cascade (QC) laser-based calibration systems for infrared sensor systems in order to provide both a spectral and radiometric calibration while minimizing the impact on the instrument payload. In FY05, PNNL demonstrated a multi-level radiance scheme that provides six radiance levels for an enhanced linearity check compared to the currently accepted two-point scheme. PNNL began testing the repeatability of this scheme using a cryogenically cooled, single-mode quantum cascade laser (QCL). A cyclic variation in the power was observed that was attributed to the thermal cycling of the laser's dewar. In FY06, PNNL continued testing this scheme and installed an auxiliary liquid nitrogen reservoir to limit the thermal cycling effects. Although better repeatability was achieved over a longer time period, power fluctuations were still observed due to the thermal cycling. Due to the limitations with the cryogenic system, PNNL began testing Fabry-Perot QCLs that operate continuous-wave (cw) or quasi-cw at room temperature (RT) in FY06. PNNL demonstrated a multi-level scheme that provides five radiance levels in 105 seconds with excellent repeatability. We have continued testing this repeatability in FY07. A burn

  9. 1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    1). Correspondingly, the absolute nadir radiance I( 5 ) at m 14 is 15.7 (radiance dimension is Wm -2 sr -1 m -1 ). This value I( 5 ) 15.7 was used here as a threshold...

  10. ARM - Campaign Instrument - csphot

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol optical properties Cloud optical depth Cloud droplet size Particle number concentration Particle size distribution Precipitable water Shortwave narrowband radiance...

  11. OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Incredible Laser Interferometers by Kathy Chambers on Fri, August 12, 2016 ligo300.jpg Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) in Livingston, LA. Image credit: ...

  12. SWIR | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Thermographic Imaging Radiometrics SWIR Stereo Satellite Imagery Physical Properties The electromagnetic spectrum.1 References Protherm. Infrared Basics Internet. 2013....

  13. ARM - Datastreams - usdarad

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Radiation Monitoring Data (USDARAD) Measurements The measurements below...

  14. ARM - Datastreams - usdauvmfrsr

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Radiation Monitoring Data (USDARAD) Measurements The measurements below...

  15. ARM - Campaign Instrument - ara-dimona

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Campaign Instrument : Airborne Research Australia Dimona Aircraft Laser Altimeter and Fluxes (ARA-DIMONA) Instrument Categories Airborne Observations, Radiometric, Surface ...

  16. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DETECTION HADRON REACTIONS MEASURING INSTRUMENTS NUCLEAR REACTIONS NUCLEON REACTIONS RADIATION DETECTION RADIATION DETECTORS Activation Nuclear Reaction Radiometric...

  17. ARM - SGP Extended Facility

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Extended Facility SGP Related Links Virtual Tour Facilities and Instruments Central Facility Boundary Facility Extended Facility Intermediate Facility Radiometric Calibration...

  18. ARM - SGP Contacts

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Contacts SGP Related Links Virtual Tour Facilities and Instruments Central Facility Boundary Facility Extended Facility Intermediate Facility Radiometric Calibration Facility...

  19. ARM - SGP Intermediate Facility

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Intermediate Facility SGP Related Links Virtual Tour Facilities and Instruments Central Facility Boundary Facility Extended Facility Intermediate Facility Radiometric Calibration...

  20. ARM - SGP Central Facility

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Central Facility SGP Related Links Virtual Tour Facilities and Instruments Central Facility Boundary Facility Extended Facility Intermediate Facility Radiometric Calibration...

  1. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    science (6) analytical procedures (5) determination (5) n20130* --chemistry--analytical & separations chemistry-- radiometric & radiochemical procedures (5) quantitative ...

  2. Microsoft Word - rhubc2_DOE-SC-ARM-0901_final_rev3.24.09.doc

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ......... 4 4 The absolute solar transmittance interferometer ... 8 Tables 1 RHUBC-II instrument list. ......

  3. Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic Aerosols on Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    McFarquhar, Greg; Ghan, Steven J.; Verlinde, J.; Korolev, Alexei; Strapp, J. Walter; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Wolde, Mengistu; Brooks, Sarah D.; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Fan, Jiwen; Flynn, Connor J.; Gultepe, Ismail; Hubbe, John M.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander; Lawson, Paul; Leaitch, W. R.; Liu, Peter S.; Liu, Xiaohong; Lubin, Dan; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Macdonald, A. M.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Morrison, H.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shupe, Matthew D.; Turner, David D.; Xie, Shaocheng; Zelenyuk, Alla; Bae, Kenny; Freer, Matthew; Glen, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    A comprehensive dataset of microphysical and radiative properties of aerosols and clouds in the arctic boundary layer in the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska was collected in April 2008 during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) sponsored by the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and Atmospheric Science Programs. The primary aim of ISDAC was to examine indirect effects of aerosols on clouds that contain both liquid and ice water. The experiment utilized the ARM permanent observational facilities at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) in Barrow. These include a cloud radar, a polarized micropulse lidar, and an atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer as well as instruments specially deployed for ISDAC measuring aerosol, ice fog, precipitation and spectral shortwave radiation. The National Research Council of Canada Convair-580 flew 27 sorties during ISDAC, collecting data using an unprecedented 42 cloud and aerosol instruments for more than 100 hours on 12 different days. Data were obtained above, below and within single-layer stratus on 8 April and 26 April 2008. These data enable a process-oriented understanding of how aerosols affect the microphysical and radiative properties of arctic clouds influenced by different surface conditions. Observations acquired on a heavily polluted day, 19 April 2008, are enhancing this understanding. Data acquired in cirrus on transit flights between Fairbanks and Barrow are improving our understanding of the performance of cloud probes in ice. Ultimately the ISDAC data will be used to improve the representation of cloud and aerosol processes in models covering a variety of spatial and temporal scales, and to determine the extent to which long-term surface-based measurements can provide retrievals of aerosols, clouds, precipitation and radiative heating in the Arctic.

  4. Observational determination of surface radiative forcing by CO2 from 2000 to 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, Daniel R.; Collins, William D.; Gero, P. Johnathan; Torn, Margaret S.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Shippert, Timothy R.

    2015-02-25

    The climatic impact of CO2 and other greenhouse gases is usually quantified in terms of radiative forcing1, calculated as the difference between estimates of the Earth’s radiation field from pre-industrial and present-day concentrations of these gases. Radiative transfer models calculate that the increase in CO2 since 1750 corresponds to a global annual-mean radiative forcing at the tropopause of 1.82 ± 0.19 W m-2 (ref. 2). However, despite widespread scientific discussion and modelling of the climate impacts of well-mixed greenhouse gases, there is little direct observational evidence of the radiative impact of increasing atmospheric CO2. Here we present observationally based evidence of clear-sky CO2 surface radiative forcing that is directly attributable to the increase, between 2000 and 2010, of 22 parts per million atmospheric CO2. The time series of this forcing at the two locations—the Southern Great Plains and the North Slope of Alaska—are derived from Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer spectra3 together with ancillary measurements and thoroughly corroborated radiative transfer calculations4. The time series both show statistically significant trends of 0.2 W m-2 per decade (with respective uncertainties of ±0.06 W m-2 per decade and ±0.07 W m-2 per decade) and have seasonal ranges of 0.1–0.2 W m-2. This is approximately ten per cent of the trend in downwelling longwave radiation5, 6, 7. These results confirm theoretical predictions of the atmospheric greenhouse effect due to anthropogenic emissions, and provide empirical evidence of how rising CO2 levels, mediated by temporal variations due to photosynthesis and respiration, are affecting the surface energy balance.

  5. Joint retrievals of cloud and drizzle in marine boundary layer clouds using

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ground-based radar, lidar and zenith radiances (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Joint retrievals of cloud and drizzle in marine boundary layer clouds using ground-based radar, lidar and zenith radiances Title: Joint retrievals of cloud and drizzle in marine boundary layer clouds using ground-based radar, lidar and zenith radiances Active remote sensing of marine boundary-layer clouds is challenging as drizzle drops often dominate the observed radar reflectivity. We present a new method to

  6. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Variations in the Ratio of IR Window Radiance to Microwave Water Path Observed Under Cloudless Convection Platt, C.M.(a) and Austin, R.T.(b), Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado Thirteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting The measurement of the radiance of cirrus (and other) clouds at atmospheric window 8-13 micron wavelengths requires a correction for the water vapor radiance and transmittance below the clouds.

  7. ARMresearch_highlights.indd

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    developed to adjust for dry bias in previous radiosonde humid- ity soundings. The research team used spec- tral radiance observations from an independently calibrated...

  8. 1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and dry dust), where downwelling radiance was computed ... we assumed the aerosols were composed of ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, or dust. ...

  9. X:\\ARM_19~1\\P283-315.WPD

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... flag is particularly useful when computing radiance derivatives with respect to ... for all layers, a complete calculation can be performed in memory for each sub-interval. ...

  10. ARM - Facility News Article

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    New Shortwave Spectrometer Performs Well in Field Evaluation Bookmark and Share These full spectrum plots show radiance data collected by the SWS at five time intervals over the ...

  11. Atlanta, Georgia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Global Energy Holdings Group formerly Xethanol Corporation Navajo Wind Energy Plum Combustion Radiance Solar Servidyne SilvaGas Corporation FERCO Enterprises Inc Solar Systems...

  12. Joint retrievals of cloud and drizzle in marine boundary layer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    radar, lidar and zenith radiances Prev Next Title: Joint retrievals of cloud and drizzle in marine boundary layer clouds using ground-based radar, lidar and zenith ...

  13. DeKalb County, Georgia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Radiance Solar Resource Services Group (RSG) Servidyne SilvaGas Corporation FERCO Enterprises Inc Solar Systems USA Suniva Inc formerly Solarity Sustainable World Capital TCE...

  14. Georgia's 5th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Radiance Solar Resource Services Group (RSG) Servidyne SilvaGas Corporation FERCO Enterprises Inc Solar Systems USA Suniva Inc formerly Solarity Sustainable World Capital TCE...

  15. Fulton County, Georgia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Wind Energy Plum Combustion Radiance Solar Servidyne SilvaGas Corporation FERCO Enterprises Inc Solar Systems USA Suniva Inc formerly Solarity Sustainable World Capital TCE...

  16. Detecting Cirrus-Overlapping-Water Clouds and Retrieving their...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Ou et al. (1996) presented a threshold test scheme to ... simple transformation of thermal radiance into temperature. ... G. Liu, 1997: Vertical stratification of tropical cloud ...

  17. Application Of High-Resolution Thermal Infrared Sensors For Geothermal...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    comparison to SEBASS. The land-leaving TIR radiance data were separated into brightness temperature and surface emissivity. TIR emissivity data are unique to each mineral and a...

  18. ARM - Facility News Article

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    detect and quantify cloud effects on ground-based radiance measurements, and calculate vertical atmospheric profiles of temperature and water vapor and the detection of trace...

  19. Nazim Bharmal Anthony Slingo Jeff Settle Gary Robinson Helen...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    the TOA radiances every 15 min from Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB). * Edwards-Slingo RT code used to calculate consistent flux components. * Or, use measurements...

  20. ARM SGP and BN AERI Instrument Diagnostic Comparison and Preliminary...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    by Bechtel-Nevada (BN). Analysis produced the following preliminary results: (1) sky radiance data collected by both instruments are compatible and consistent and both...

  1. Section 31

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    over the intervals. The intervals are The upward and downward fluxes are found by Gaussian quadrature of the radiances. Heating rates are computed from the fluxes. Upward and...

  2. ARM - Facility News Article

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ER-AERI Bookmark and Share Thanks to quick actions on the part of numerous ARM Climate Research Facility operations staff, an Extended Range Atmospheric Emitted Radiance...

  3. Research Highlight

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    of the radiative quantity (radiance or flux) to the total single scattering albedo is a linear function of this quantity; its slope and intercept are wavelength-independent....

  4. DOE/SC-ARM-15-035 Enhanced Soundings for Local Coupling Studies...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric temperature, moisture, and wind profiles: Microwave radiometer (MWR) Doppler lidar (DL) 915 MHz radar wind profiler (RWP) Atmospheric emitted radiance...

  5. Understanding the dramatic role of anomalous dispersion on the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: SPIE International Symposium on Optics and ... FREE ELECTRON LASERS; INTERFEROMETERS; OPTICS; PHOTONS; PLASMA; PROBES; REFRACTIVE ...

  6. LTS Project Management - Hanford Site

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Key Communication Tools Briefings Fact sheets Website Public documents Frequently Asked ... Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory Information Management ...

  7. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, Emil F.

    1991-01-01

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

  8. Final Report: Global Change Research with Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles UAV Applications for Studying the Radiation and Optical Properties of Upper Tropospheric Clouds, February 1, 1995 - March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    1998-01-31

    This paper describes the design and characteristics of a scanning spectral polarimeter which is capable of measuring spectral radiances and fluxes in the range between 0.4 rm to 4.0 pm. The instrument characteristics are described and a discussion of the procedures to calibrate the unpolarized radiances and fluxes are prescribed along the detailed error analyses of this calibration.

  9. Low level absorptance measurements and scans of high performance optical coatings for atomic vapor laser isotope separation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R.; Taylor, J.R.; Wu, Z.L.; Krupka, R.; Yang, T.

    1998-01-24

    A surface thermal lensing and a radiometric technique was used to characterize the absorptance dependence on time, power, site, and technique of low absorptance optical multilayered coatings.

  10. ARM - Campaign Instrument - psr

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) Instrument Categories Radiometric, Surface Meteorology Campaigns Cloud LAnd Surface...

  11. Section 63

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    of radiometric error that can result from dust on the external scene viewing mirror. ... of the data. thereby providing constant dust protection for the Unanticipated AERI-01 ...

  12. ARM - Instrument - prp

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Instrument Categories Radiometric The Portable Radiation Package (PRP) is an instrument suite to collect atmospheric radiation measurements on a moving platform. The instrument ...

  13. ARM - Instrument - usdarad

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Radiation Monitoring Data (USDARAD) Instrument Categories Radiometric...

  14. Soil Sampling At Reese River Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    References William R. Henkle Jr., Wayne C. Gundersen, Thomas D. Gundersen (2005) Mercury Geochemical, Groundwater Geochemical, And Radiometric Geophysical Signatures At Three...

  15. Soil Sampling At Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    References William R. Henkle Jr., Wayne C. Gundersen, Thomas D. Gundersen (2005) Mercury Geochemical, Groundwater Geochemical, And Radiometric Geophysical Signatures At Three...

  16. Field Mapping At Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    References William R. Henkle Jr., Wayne C. Gundersen, Thomas D. Gundersen (2005) Mercury Geochemical, Groundwater Geochemical, And Radiometric Geophysical Signatures At Three...

  17. Field Mapping At Reese River Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    References William R. Henkle Jr., Wayne C. Gundersen, Thomas D. Gundersen (2005) Mercury Geochemical, Groundwater Geochemical, And Radiometric Geophysical Signatures At Three...

  18. ARM - Campaign Instrument - rcs

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : NREL Radiometer Characterization System (RCS) Instrument Categories Radiometric Campaigns Aerosol IOP Download Data Southern...

  19. PowerPoint Presentation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud and Radiation Measurements Millimeter-wavelength cloud radar Micropulse Lidars Laser Ceilometers Aircrafts Surface Microwave Radiometers Surface Radiometric Instrument System ...

  20. ARM - Campaign Instrument - twst

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Three Waveband Spectrally-agile Technique Sensor (TWST) Instrument Categories Atmospheric Profiling, Cloud Properties, Radiometric...

  1. ARM - Campaign Instrument - sam

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Sun and Aureole Measurement (SAM) Instrument Categories Radiometric Campaigns CLASIC - SAM Support Download Data ...

  2. ARM - Campaign Instrument - mwrp

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Categories Atmospheric Profiling, Cloud Properties, Radiometric Campaigns ARM-FIRE Water Vapor Experiment Download Data Southern Great Plains, 2000.11.01 - 2000.12.31...

  3. ARM - Facility News Article

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    in a first person view, using curiosity as their guide. Vivid Learning Systems' Nick Bauer takes stills on top of the Radiometric Calibration Facility. Vivid Learning Systems'...

  4. Category:Electrical Techniques | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Resistivity Survey E Electrical Techniques Electromagnetic Techniques R Radiometrics S Self Potential T Telluric Survey Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  5. Research Highlight

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Comparisons Between Radiosondes and Remote Sensors During the 2004 NSA Arctic Winter ... Description of radiosondes launched during the 2004 NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric ...

  6. Geophysical Methods | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Methods Magnetic Methods Gravity Methods Radiometric Methods Seismic methods dominates oil and gas exploration, and probably accounts for over 80% of exploration dollars spent...

  7. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr16rad

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    2000.12.09 - 2007.04.01 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Measurements The measurements below provided...

  8. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr16

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    2000.12.09 - 2007.04.01 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Measurements The measurements below provided...

  9. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr15

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    1998.11.10 - 2007.10.07 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Measurements The measurements below provided...

  10. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr17

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    2002.06.27 - 2007.10.07 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Measurements The measurements below provided...

  11. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr17rad

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    2002.06.27 - 2007.10.07 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Measurements The measurements below provided...

  12. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr12rad

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    1994.07.22 - 2007.08.09 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Measurements The measurements below provided...

  13. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr10

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    1994.09.15 - 1999.10.09 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Measurements The measurements below provided...

  14. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr12

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    1994.07.22 - 2007.08.09 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Measurements The measurements below provided...

  15. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr9

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    1994.09.15 - 1995.08.02 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Measurements The measurements below provided...

  16. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr14rad

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    1995.01.18 - 2007.03.12 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Measurements The measurements below provided...

  17. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr15rad

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    1998.11.10 - 2007.10.07 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Measurements The measurements below provided...

  18. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr18

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    2005.09.25 - 2007.04.01 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Measurements The measurements below provided...

  19. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr11rad

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    1994.07.21 - 1998.10.13 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Measurements The measurements below provided...

  20. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr9rad

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    1994.09.15 - 1995.08.02 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Measurements The measurements below provided...

  1. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr10rad

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    1994.09.15 - 1999.10.09 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Measurements The measurements below provided...

  2. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr14

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    1995.01.18 - 2007.03.12 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Measurements The measurements below provided...

  3. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr18rad

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    2005.09.25 - 2007.04.01 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Measurements The measurements below provided...

  4. ARM - Datastreams - avhrr11

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    1994.07.21 - 1998.10.13 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Measurements The measurements below provided...

  5. Temperature, Water Vapor, and Clouds"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor, and Clouds" Project ID: 0011106 ... measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well ...

  6. Passive Sensors | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Imaging Long-Wave Infrared Multispectral Imaging Near Infrared Surveys Oblique Aerial & Ground Visible Band & Thermographic Imaging Radiometrics SWIR Stereo Satellite Imagery...

  7. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... The prime motivation formore this proposal is that there has been no substantial ... At the same time, we will send basic radiometric, surface energy balance, and upper air ...

  8. Yoho receives NNSA Fellowship

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    missions, at the new TA-55 facility for analytical chemistry (RLUOB). He will also apply Industrial Engineering and quality assurance principles to develop radiometric assay...

  9. ARM - Campaign Instrument - mas

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : NASA MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) Instrument Categories Airborne Observations, Radiometric Campaigns Cloud LAnd...

  10. ARM - Journal Articles 2005

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    modeling: A summary of the AER codes, Short Communication (Citation) J. Quant. Spectrosc. ... Surface-Based Microwave and Millimeter Wave Radiometric Remote Sensing of the ...

  11. ARM - Campaign Instrument - mir

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) Instrument Categories Atmospheric Profiling, Radiometric Campaigns Millimeter-wave...

  12. ARM - Site Instruments

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Cimel Sunphotometer Aerosols, Radiometric Browse Data Installed at 2 facilities DL Doppler Lidar Cloud Properties Browse Data Single installation ECOR Eddy Correlation...

  13. SGP Overview Map

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Overview Map SGP Related Links Virtual Tour Facilities and Instruments Central Facility Boundary Facility Extended Facility Intermediate Facility Radiometric Calibration Facility...

  14. SGP Shipment Notification Form

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    PlainsShipment Notification Form SGP Related Links Virtual Tour Facilities and Instruments Central Facility Boundary Facility Extended Facility Intermediate Facility Radiometric...

  15. Amplitude and intensity spatial interferometry; Proceedings of the SPIE Meeting, Vol. 1237, Tucson, AZ, Feb. 14-16, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Breckinridge, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Attention is given to such topics as ground interferometers, space interferometers, speckle-based and interferometry-based astronomical observations, adaptive and atmospheric optics, speckle techniques, and instrumentation. Particular papers are presented concerning recent progress on the IR Michelson array; the IOTA interferometer project; a space interferometer concept for the detection of extrasolar earth-like planets; IR speckle imaging at Palomar; optical diameters of stars measured with the Mt. Wilson Mark III interferometer; the IR array camera for interferometry with the cophased Multiple Mirror Telescope; optimization techniques appliesd to the bispectrum of one-dimensional IR astronomical speckle data; and adaptive optical iamging for extended objects.

  16. The place for sodars in a high-technology environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, R. L.

    1998-06-12

    In an era of increasingly complex technology, some of the atmospheric quantities most difficult to measure and observe are yielding their secrets to increasingly complex instruments and combinations of instruments. For example, water vapor profiles, a long-time nemesis to detailed examination, have become measurable with the use of Raman lidar; temperature profile measurements are becoming relatively routine with radio acoustic sounding systems (RASSs) or infrared Fourier transform instrumentation such as the atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI); and radar, lidar, or combinations of the two are enabling wind profile measurements to increasing altitudes. What, then, is the role of the relatively pedestrian sodar in such an era? Because the sodar's propagation speed in the atmosphere is six orders of magnitude smaller than that of its electromagnetic counterparts (3 x 10{sup 2} vs. 3 x 10{sup 8} m/s), severely limiting its rate of interrogation, and because the sodar's signal limit frequency modulation techniques, many high-technology advances associated with enormous increases in computation speed and available memory have had relatively little direct impact on acoustic remote sensing. However, the principal elements of acoustic remote sensing continue to make it a useful, even essential, tool for obtaining a better understanding of the physics of the lower atmosphere. The sodar's ''slow'' propagation speed provides relatively easy access to the region between 10 m and several hundred meters above the surface that is often inaccessible to other instruments. This is the region of the atmosphere where conditions often change radically with height, the ''matching'' region between large-scale forcing and small-scale surface heterogeneities that can have large effects on human activity. The atmosphere provides signals for sodars that are rich in content because the phase speed of sound is dependent on the atmosphere itself and is tied directly to the

  17. Estimating atmospheric parameters and reducing noise for multispectral imaging

    DOEpatents

    Conger, James Lynn

    2014-02-25

    A method and system for estimating atmospheric radiance and transmittance. An atmospheric estimation system is divided into a first phase and a second phase. The first phase inputs an observed multispectral image and an initial estimate of the atmospheric radiance and transmittance for each spectral band and calculates the atmospheric radiance and transmittance for each spectral band, which can be used to generate a "corrected" multispectral image that is an estimate of the surface multispectral image. The second phase inputs the observed multispectral image and the surface multispectral image that was generated by the first phase and removes noise from the surface multispectral image by smoothing out change in average deviations of temperatures.

  18. SLA-74.0103 No For(:iqri

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Antia ,craft b1issiJ.e (SIAM). A description of the optical system is included, and models of target radiant intensity, atmospheric transmis- sion, and background radiance...

  19. Final Scientific/Technical Report Grant title: Use of ARM Measurements...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Final ScientificTechnical Report Grant title: Use of ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith Radiance for Better Understanding of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes and Aerosol-Cloud ...

  20. bedka_turner_poster.ppt

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Simulated IR radiance for a kaolinite dust layer with r eff 2 m for a range of infrared optical depths. The dust particles were modeled as spheres. * MIXCRA was originally ...

  1. Energy Department Releases Updates to EnergyPlus and OpenStudio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    OpenStudio 1.7.0 OpenStudio is DOE's open-source software development kit for whole-building energy modeling using EnergyPlus and daylight analysis using Radiance. DOE releases ...

  2. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Using a Neural Network to Determine the Hatch Status of the AERI at the ARM North Slope of Alaska Site Zwink, AB ; Turner, DD The fore-optics of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance ...

  3. Raman lidar/AERI PBL Height Product (Dataset) | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AERI measurements of downwelling radiance are used in a physical retrieval approach (Smith et al. 1999, Feltz et al. 1998) to derive profiles of temperature and water vapor. The ...

  4. Section 14

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    An Analysis of Ground-Based Polarimetric Sky Radiance Measurements B. Cairns Columbia University New York, New York B. E. Carlson and A. A. Lacis NASAGoddard Institute for Space...

  5. Chemical micro-sensor

    DOEpatents

    Ruggiero, Anthony J.

    2005-05-03

    An integrated optical capillary electrophoresis system for analyzing an analyte. A modulated optical pump beam impinges on an capillary containing the analyte/buffer solution which is separated by electrophoresis. The thermally-induced change in the index of refraction of light in said electrophoresis capillary is monitored using an integrated micro-interferometer. The interferometer includes a first interferometer arm intersecting the electrophoresis capillary proximate the excitation beam and a second, reference interferometer arm. Changes in index of refraction in the analyte measured by interrogating the interferometer state using white light interferometry and a phase-generated carrier demodulation technique. Background thermo-optical activity in the buffer solution is cancelled by splitting the pump beam and exciting pure buffer solution in a second section of capillary where it crosses the reference arm of the interferometer.

  6. Clear Skies S. A. Clough Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc.

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    S. A. Clough Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Cambridge, MA 02139 The objective of this research effort is to develop radiative transfer models that are consistent with Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program spectral radiance measurements for clear and cloudy atmospheres. Our approach is to develop the model physics and related databases with a line-by-line model in the context of available spectral radiance measurements. The line-by- line mode! then functions as an

  7. Research Highlight

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    A Downwelling Infrared Radiance Climatology for the ARM Southern Great Plains Site Download a printable PDF Submitter: Turner, D. D., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Gero, J., University of Wisconsin Area of Research: Radiation Processes Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: Turner DD and PJ Gero. 2011. "Downwelling infrared radiance temperature climatology for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site." Journal of Geophysical

  8. Research Highlight

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Correction Method for Infrared Detector Confirmed; Error in Clear Sky Bias Condition Remains Unresolved Submitter: Turner, D. D., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Area of Research: Radiation Processes Working Group(s): Radiative Processes Journal Reference: N/A AERI data from January 2004 at the ARM North Slope of Alaska locale shows the observed radiance for two AERI systems with significantly different hot blackbody temperatures. Residuals are within 1% of the ambient radiance

  9. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of Globally Predicted Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor Fields Using HIRS Radiances Delamere, J.S. (a), Iacono, M.J. (a), Mlawer, E.J. (a), Cady-Pereira, K. (a), Clough, S.A. (a), Stamnes, K. (b), and Bates, J.J. (c), Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc. (a), Stevens Institute of Technology (b), Environmental Technology Laboratory, NOAA (c) Eleventh Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting A new radiation module has been developed which computes radiances

  10. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectral-to-Broadband Albedo and Radiance Relationships Obtained From MISR and CERES Measurements Davies, R., Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology This goal of this study is to develop relationships between broadband shortwave and narrowband spectral radiances and albedos. These relationships will allow MISR and CERES coarse resolution albedos to be compared, and especially to convert MISR local albedos, which are spectral, into high-resolution broadband albedos. High

  11. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Nighttime cirrus

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    detection using AIRS radiances and total column precipitable water Nighttime cirrus detection using AIRS radiances and total column precipitable water Kahn, Brian Jet Propulsion Laboratory Liou, Kuo-Nan UCLA A method of cirrus detection at nighttime is presented that utilizes 3.8 and 10.4 m infrared (IR) window brightness temperature differences (dBT) and total column precipitable water (PW) measurements. This technique is applied to the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Advanced

  12. Laser system preset unit

    DOEpatents

    Goodwin, William L.

    1977-01-01

    An electronic circuit is provided which may be used to preset a digital display unit of a Zeeman-effect layer interferometer system which derives distance measurements by comparing a reference signal to a Doppler signal generated at the output of the interferometer laser head. The circuit presets dimensional offsets in the interferometer digital display by electronically inducing a variation in either the Doppler signal or the reference signal, depending upon the direction of the offset, to achieve the desired display preset.

  13. LCLS X-ray mirror measurements using a large aperture visible light

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    interferometer (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: LCLS X-ray mirror measurements using a large aperture visible light interferometer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: LCLS X-ray mirror measurements using a large aperture visible light interferometer Synchrotron or FEL X-ray mirrors are required to deliver an X-ray beam from its source to an experiment location, without contributing significantly to wave front distortion. Accurate mirror figure measurements are required prior

  14. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, E.F.

    1991-03-19

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor is described in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figures.

  15. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (1) excitation (1) geometrical aberrations (1) instrumentation related to nuclear science and technology (1) interferometers (1) lasers (1) monocrystals (1) phase transformations ...

  16. ARM - Campaign Instrument - pdi

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Phase Doppler Interferometer (PDI) Instrument Categories Airborne Observations, Cloud Properties...

  17. ARM - Facility News Article

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Interferometers Compared for ARM Mobile Facility Deployment in China Bookmark and Share ... Mobile Facility in 2008 for a field campaign to study Aerosol Indirect Effects in China. ...

  18. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... The design, construction, and verification of the single-point interferometer provided a ... Potential alterations to the current construction are presented to improve the quality of ...

  19. ARM - Facility News Article

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    emitted infrared radiation into the uncovered interferometer to derive atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles. (Image source: European Space Agency) Since 2002, ARM...

  20. Fizeau

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Fizeau interferometer for measurement of plasma electron current D. L. Brower, a) W. X. ... to measure the plasma electron density and toroidal current density via Faraday rotation. ...

  1. ARM_AVP_SHIS_Taylor_Turner_pdf.ppt

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    power consumption. * Its relatively small size, modular design, and low power ... Blackbody Hot Blackbody Scene Mirror Motor MGSE - Not for flight Interferometer & ...

  2. Beamline 1.4.4

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    cm-1 Interferometer resolution up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations Thermo Nicolet Nexus 870 FTIR, Continuum XL IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage,...

  3. ARM - Facility News Article

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    March 15, 2005 Facility News Japanese Collaborators Take A Long Look at Lightning Bookmark and Share Mounted on tripods, numerous interferometer antennas are secured to the roof...

  4. Gauge field production in axion inflation: Consequences for monodromy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gauge field production in axion inflation: Consequences for monodromy, non-Gaussianity in the CMB, and gravitational waves at interferometers Citation Details In-Document Search ...

  5. DOE/RL-2010-35

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Communication section (and Example Communication and Commitment Tracking) added to the ... LIGO Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory LM U.S. Department of Energy, ...

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: Research: Facilities: Technology...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-time Spectroscopy Laboratory Single-Stage Light-Gas Gun Facility DIAGNOSTIC CAPABILITIES: piezoelectric gauges VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) flash ...

  7. ARM - Campaign Instrument - psp-eppley-modified

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Modified Eppley PSP (PSP-EPPLEY-MODIFIED) Instrument Categories Radiometric Campaigns Diffuse Shortwave IOP...

  8. ARM - Campaign Instrument - psp-eppley

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Eppley PSP (PSP-EPPLEY) Instrument Categories Radiometric Campaigns 1995...

  9. Stratigraphic Nomenclature of Volcanic Rocks in the Jemez Mountains...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    the formations are refined by radiometric dating. Authors Roy A. Bailey, Robert Leland Smith and Clarence Samuel Ross Published U.S. Geological Survey, 1969 DOI Not Provided Check...

  10. uav_scie

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... UAV capable of carrying a 100-kg payload to a maximum altitude of 7 km. The Gnat was first operated in a checkout flight at Edwards Air Force Base with a basic radiometric payload ...

  11. ARM - Datastreams - gms5

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : GMS5 GMS-5: visible 1.25-km res., IR 5-km resolution Active Dates 1996.10.11 - 2003.02.16 Measurement Categories Radiometric...

  12. ARM - Campaign Instrument - smart-rad

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Broadband Radiometers from NASA SMART Trailer (SMART-RAD) Instrument Categories Radiometric Campaigns Application of the ARM...

  13. Phase transition and metallization of FeO at high pressures and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We performed X-ray diffraction and radiometric measurements on wuestite in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell, finding an insulator-metal transition at high pressures and ...

  14. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Coos Bay quadrangle, Oregon. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    Volume II contains the fight path, radiometric multi-parameter stacked profiles, magnetic and ancillary parameter stacked profiles, histograms, and anomaly maps for the Coos Bay Quadrangle in Oregon.

  15. ARM - Instrument - rad

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsrad Documentation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Radiation Measurements at AMF (RAD) Instrument Categories Radiometric Picture of the radiometric instruments at the ancillary site in Niger General Overview While preparing for the ARM Mobile Facility deployment in Niger, the science team identified the need for instrumentation at an off-site location to compare radiative

  16. Microsoft PowerPoint - ARMSTM_2007_Westwater_et_al_02.ppt

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    EXPERIMENTS 1. Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment 2004 Period: March 9-April 9 2004 Location: ARM NSA, Barrow, Alaska 2. RHUBC (http://science.arm.gov/rhubc/) Period: February 22, 2007 to present Location: ARM NSA, Barrow, Alaska GOALS * Provide real time retrievals of PWV and CLP * Compare observations with ARM and Radiometrics millimeter-wave radiometers * Forward model radiative transfer studies Results from the Ground-based Scanning Radiometer's Deployments at the NSA in 2004 and 2007

  17. Infrared systems, SPIE proceedings. Vol. 256

    SciTech Connect

    Sanmann, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    The seminar focused on infrared systems sensor specifications, applications of infrared thermography in the analysis of induced surface currents due to incident electromagnetic radiation on complex shapes, advanced optical ceramics for sensor windows, digital processing in calibrated infrared imagery, and calibration. Papers were presented on nearby object radiometry, homing overlay experiment radiometric error terminology, design of radiometric calibration sources and spectroradiometers, and the Lockheed sensor test facility.

  18. Apparatus and method for laser velocity interferometry

    DOEpatents

    Stanton, Philip L.; Sweatt, William C.; Crump, Jr., O. B.; Bonzon, Lloyd L.

    1993-09-14

    An apparatus and method for laser velocity interferometry employing a fixed interferometer cavity and delay element. The invention permits rapid construction of interferometers that may be operated by those non-skilled in the art, that have high image quality with no drift or loss of contrast, and that have long-term stability even without shock isolation of the cavity.

  19. Aerosol analysis with the Coastal Zone Collor Scanner (CZCS). The Australasian region. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Giondomenica, G.M.

    1995-09-10

    The Channel 4 data from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), a space-borne radiometer, was analyzed to infer aerosol distributions in the Australasian region for 1979. Monthly, seasonal, and annual composites of the Channel 4 data were created. An accompanying data density image was created for each composite to indicate the degree of data coverage. Australian climatological data and 1000mb and 850mb monthly mean wind fields were used to interpret the dominant features in the composites. Because the primary source of the measured radiances in the Channel 4 data was thought to be suspended dust, it was theorized that the dominant aerosol features would be located downwind of regions with high dust storm activity. Elevated 670nm radiances were observed throughout 1979 within the portion of study region located between 1505 and the equator. However, the wind field data and rainfall climatology did not support dust transport to this region. Although biomass burning and biogenic hydrocarbon production were likely aerosol sources, the Channel 4 data suggested that they were not likely to be the primary source for the elevated radiances in the region. The low level wind fields and climatological data supported the feasibility of dust transport off the northwest coast of Australia over the Indian Ocean. The 1979 CZCS data indicated elevated 670nm radiances did occur in this region. However, the pattern of the signal suggested these radiances may not have been due to dust transport. The daily 670nm images indicated sun glint and faulty cloud-masking were probable sources for the observed radiances.

  20. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    AERI Observations in the Arctic: Monthly-Average Radiance Spectra and Longwave Cloud Radiative Forcing Walden, V.P., Revercomb, H.E., Knuteson, R.O., Best, F.A., Ciganovich, N., Dedecker, R.G., Dirkx, T., Garcia, R.K., Herbsleb, R., Howell, H.B., McRae, D., Short, J., and Tobin, D., Cooperative Institute of Mesoscale Meteorological Studies/Space Science and Engineering Center/University of Wisconsin Ninth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Atmospheric Emitted Radiance

  1. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Absolute Radiance Calibration Techniques for the Whole Sky Imager Shields, J.E. (a), Johnson, R.W. (a), Tooman, T.P. (b), Karr, M.E. (a), Burden, A.R. (a), and Baker, J.G. (a), Scripps Institution of Oceanography (a), Sandia National Laboratories (b) Eleventh Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting The Day/Night Whole Sky Imager is designed to provide absolute radiance distributions over the full upper hemisphere, as well as providing an assessment of cloud fraction and

  2. Optical domain analog to digital conversion methods and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vawter, Gregory A

    2014-05-13

    Methods and apparatus for optical analog to digital conversion are disclosed. An optical signal is converted by mapping the optical analog signal onto a wavelength modulated optical beam, passing the mapped beam through interferometers to generate analog bit representation signals, and converting the analog bit representation signals into an optical digital signal. A photodiode receives an optical analog signal, a wavelength modulated laser coupled to the photodiode maps the optical analog signal to a wavelength modulated optical beam, interferometers produce an analog bit representation signal from the mapped wavelength modulated optical beam, and sample and threshold circuits corresponding to the interferometers produce a digital bit signal from the analog bit representation signal.

  3. Field calibration facilities for environmental measurement of radium, thorium, and potassium. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.D.; George, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    A key component of Technical Measurements Center support is the development, identification, standardization, and maintenance of calibration facilities for environmental radioelement measurements. This report describes calibration facilities located at Grand Junction, Colorado, and at six secondary sites. These facilities are available to contractors for the calibration of radiometric field instrumentation for in-situ measurements of radium, thorium, and potassium. All of the calibration facilities described herein were constructed by the Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies for use in annual uranium-reserve determinations. The use of these facilities for the calibration of radiometric field instruments used in remedial action is made possible by the commonality of the radiometric measurement technique for uranium and for radium. The use of these facilities will standardize remedial action measurements in a cost-effective manner.

  4. Beamline 5.4.1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations FTIR bench and IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution;...

  5. Brian P. Williams

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This interferometer also allows for a unique version of the CHSH-Bell test where the local ... a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell test 8, with entanglement detected for Bell ...

  6. DOE/ER-0442

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... cm-1 Solar Interferometer 2-20 mm 0.002 cm-1 Grating Spectrometer 8-25 mm 0.5 cm-1 In the visible region, a spectrophotometer will be used for the spectrally resolved observations. ...

  7. Collaborative Initiative in Biomedical Imaging to Study Complex Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Weili; Fiddy, Michael A.

    2012-03-31

    The work reported addressed these topics: Fluorescence imaging; Optical coherence tomography; X-ray interferometer/phase imaging system; Quantitative imaging from scattered fields, Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy; and Multiphoton and Raman microscopy.

  8. Beamline 5.4.3

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Interferometer resolution 0.00096 cm-1 Endstations Bruker IFS 125HR with 9 scanner chambers Characteristics High resolution Far-IR to Mid-IR spectroscopy primarily for gas phase...

  9. Beamline 1.4.3

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations Nicolet Magna 760 FTIR, Nic-Plan IR Microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Motorized sample stage, 0.1-micron...

  10. ARM - Campaign Instrument - asti

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Absolute Solar Transmittance Interferometer (ASTI) Instrument ...

  11. Beamline 5.4.1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    650 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations FTIR bench and IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution;...

  12. Beamline 1.4.3

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations Nicolet Magna 760 FTIR, Nic-Plan IR Microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Motorized sample stage, 0.1-micron resolution,...

  13. Beamline 5.4.1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    range 650 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution Up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations FTIR bench and IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample stage,...

  14. Beamline 1.4.4

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    800 - 10,000 cm-1 Interferometer resolution up to 0.125 cm-1 Endstations Thermo Nicolet Nexus 870 FTIR, Continuum XL IR microscope (N2 purged) Characteristics Computerized sample...

  15. Phase comparator apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Coffield, F.E.

    1985-02-01

    This invention finds especially useful application for interferometer measurements made in plasma fusion devices (e.g., for measuring the line integral of electron density in the plasma). Such interferometers typically use very high intermediate frequencies (e.g., on the order of 10 to 70 MHz) and therefore the phase comparison circuitry should be a high speed circuit with a linear transfer characteristic so as to accurately differentiate between small fractions of interference fringes.

  16. High-speed

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    speed three-wave polarimeter-interferometer diagnostic for Madison symmetric torus B. H. Deng, D. L. Brower, and W. X. Ding Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 M. D. Wyman, B. E. Chapman, and J. S. Sarff Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 ͑Received 5 May 2006; presented on 10 May 2006; accepted 11 June 2006; published online 27 September 2006͒ A high-speed three-wave polarimeter-interferometer

  17. ARM - Datastreams - goes7rad

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    rad Documentation XDC documentation Data Quality Plots ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : GOES7RAD GOES-7: radiance, channels 7, 10, 12

  18. ARM - Datastreams - wsifullradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamswsifullradiance Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1025322 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : WSIFULLRADIANCE WSI: calibrated radiances for each pixel, with multiple filters

  19. ARM - Datastreams - wsipatchsummary

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamswsipatchsummary Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1025323 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : WSIPATCHSUMMARY WSI: radiances from red image for three patches (avg and SD)

  20. ARM - SGP Geographic Information By Facility

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Geographic Information By Facility SGP Related Links Virtual Tour Facilities and Instruments Central Facility Boundary Facility Extended Facility Intermediate Facility Radiometric Calibration Facility Geographic Information ES&H Guidance Statement Operations Science Field Campaigns Visiting the Site Summer Training SGP Fact Sheet Images Information for Guest Scientists Contacts SGP Geographic Information By Facility Note: BF = Boundary Facility, EF = Extended Facility, and IF = Intermediate

  1. ARM - Campaign Instrument - kandz-cm21-schenk-star

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    -schenk-star Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Kipp and Zonen-CM21 Schenk Star (KANDZ-CM21-SCHENK-STAR) Instrument Categories Radiometric Campaigns

  2. ARM - Datastreams - 02taorad165e5n

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    n Documentation XDC documentation Data Quality Plots ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : 02TAORAD165E5N Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Buoys: radiometric data at 165 E, 5 N, 2-min avg Active Dates 1997.06

  3. ARM - Datastreams - 02taorad165e5s

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    s Documentation XDC documentation Data Quality Plots ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : 02TAORAD165E5S Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Buoys: radiometric data at 165 E, 5 S, 2-min avg Active Dates 1998.01

  4. Metrology Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Metrology Laboratory For accurate and repeatable data, researchers at the NREL Metrology Laboratory at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory ensure their measurements are traceable and their instruments are calibrated according to national or international standards. The Metrology Laboratory provides World Radiometric Reference traceability for solar absolute cavity radiometers, pyrheliometers, pyranometers, and pyrgeometers. The Metrology Laboratory provides National Institute of Standards

  5. Separation of niobium and tantalum using a chelating ion exchange resin with N-benzoyl phenyl hydroxyl amine as functional group

    SciTech Connect

    Pobi, M.; Das, J. )

    1993-04-01

    Niobium is separated from Ta and V by elution with 0.5 M HF in a column of chelating resin containing N-benzoyl-N-phenyl-hydroxylamine (NBPHA) as a function group. Niobium and tantalum can also be separated using their differential distribution coefficient and elution behavior, monitored by radiometric and also be spectrophotometric methods. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Nondestructive assay

    SciTech Connect

    Keepin, G.R. )

    1989-11-01

    Analytical chemistry and the physics of radiometric measurements have effected an interdisciplinary synergism into the broad field of nuclear material measurements and have given rise to nondestructive assay technology widely supporting domestic and international safeguards. The events leading up to the establishment of a safeguards R and D program and the subsequent contributions thereof to international safeguards are discussed.

  7. Method for the melting of metals

    DOEpatents

    White, Jack C.; Traut, Davis E.

    1992-01-01

    A method of quantitatively determining the molten pool configuration in melting of metals. The method includes the steps of introducing hafnium metal seeds into a molten metal pool at intervals to form ingots, neutron activating the ingots and determining the hafnium location by radiometric means. Hafnium possesses exactly the proper metallurgical and radiochemical properties for this use.

  8. racette-99.PDF

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Millimeter Wave Radiometric Arctic Winter Experiment P. E. Racette and E. Kim National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland E. R. Westwater, Y. Han, and M. Klein CIRES, University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado A. Gasiewski National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado K. B. Widener Pacific Northwest National

  9. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Peoria, Decater, Belleville Quadrangles, (IL). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    An airborne combined radiometric and magnetic survey was performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) over the area covered by the Peoria, Decatur, and Belleville, 1:250,000 National Topographic Map Series (NTMS), quadrangle maps. The survey was part of DOE's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. Data were collected by a helicopter equipped with a gamma-ray spectrometer with a large crystal volume, and with a high sensitivity proton procession magnetometer. The radiometric system was calibrated at the Walker Field Calibration pads and the Lake Mead Dynamic Test Range. Data quality was ensured during the survey by daily test flights and equipment checks. Radiometric data were corrected for live time, aircraft and equipment background, cosmic background, atmospheric radon, Compton scatter, and altitude dependence. The corrected data were statistically evaluated, plotted, and contoured to produce anomaly maps based on the radiometric response of individual geological units. The anomalies were interpreted and an interpretation map produced. Volume I contains a description of the systems used in the survey, a discussion of the calibration of the systems, the data collection procedures, the data processing procedures, the data presentation, the interpretation rationale, and the interpretation methodology. A separate Volume II for each quadrangle contains the data displays and the interpretation results.

  10. ARM - Site Instruments

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Boundary FacilityInstruments SGP Related Links Virtual Tour Facilities and Instruments Central Facility Boundary Facility Extended Facility Intermediate Facility Radiometric Calibration Facility Geographic Information ES&H Guidance Statement Operations Science Field Campaigns Visiting the Site Summer Training SGP Fact Sheet Images Information for Guest Scientists Contacts Instruments : Boundary Facilities Active Retired Active instruments are currently deployed at fixed or mobile facilities

  11. ARM - Site Instruments

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Extended FacilityInstruments SGP Related Links Virtual Tour Facilities and Instruments Central Facility Boundary Facility Extended Facility Intermediate Facility Radiometric Calibration Facility Geographic Information ES&H Guidance Statement Operations Science Field Campaigns Visiting the Site Summer Training SGP Fact Sheet Images Information for Guest Scientists Contacts Instruments : Extended Facilities Active Retired Active instruments are currently deployed at fixed or mobile facilities

  12. ARM - Site Instruments

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Intermediate FacilityInstruments SGP Related Links Virtual Tour Facilities and Instruments Central Facility Boundary Facility Extended Facility Intermediate Facility Radiometric Calibration Facility Geographic Information ES&H Guidance Statement Operations Science Field Campaigns Visiting the Site Summer Training SGP Fact Sheet Images Information for Guest Scientists Contacts Instruments : Intermediate Facilities Active Retired Active instruments are currently deployed at fixed or mobile

  13. Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of a solid object that is subjected to external vibrations

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1995-04-25

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

  14. Refractive index and absorption detector for liquid chromatography based on Fabry-Perot interferometry

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Woodruff, Steven D.

    1984-06-19

    A refractive index and absorption detector for liquid chromatography. It is based in part on a Fabry-Perot interferometer and is used for the improved detection of refractive index and absorption. It includes a Fabry-Perot interferometer having a normally fixed first partially reflecting mirror and a movable second partially reflecting mirror. A chromatographic flow-cell is positioned between the mirrors along the optical axis of a monochromatic laser beam passing through the interferometer. A means for deriving information about the interference fringes coming out of the interferometer is used with a mini-computer to compute the refractive index of the specimen injected into the flow cell. The minicomputer continuously scans the interferometer for continuous refractive index readings and outputs the continuous results of the scans on a chart recorder. The absorption of the specimen can concurrently be scanned by including a second optical path for an excitation laser which will not interfere with the first laser, but will affect the specimen so that absorption properties can be detected. By first scanning for the refractive index of the specimen, and then immediately adding the excitation laser and subsequently scanning for the refractive index again, the absorption of the specimen can be computed and recorded.

  15. Apparatus and method for performing two-frequency interferometry

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Roger G.

    1990-01-01

    The present apparatus includes a two-frequency, Zeeman-effect laser and matched, doubly refracting crystals in the construction of an accurate interferometer. Unlike other interferometric devices, the subject invention exhibits excellent phase stability owing to the use of single piece means for producing parallel interferometer arms, making the interferometer relatively insensitive to thermal and mechanical instabilities. Interferometers respond to differences in optical path length between their two arms. Unlike many interferometric techniques, which require the measurement of the location of interference fringes in a brightly illuminated background, the present invention permits the determination of the optical path length difference by measuring the phase of an electronic sine wave. The present apparatus is demonstrated as a differential thermooptic spectrometer for measuring differential optical absorption simply and accurately which is but one of many applications therefor. The relative intensities of the heating beams along each arm of the interferometer can be easily adjusted by observing a zero phase difference with identical samples when this condition is obtained.

  16. Refractive index and absorption detector for liquid chromatography based on Fabry-Perot interferometry

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Woodruff, S.D.

    1984-06-19

    A refractive index and absorption detector are disclosed for liquid chromatography. It is based in part on a Fabry-Perot interferometer and is used for the improved detection of refractive index and absorption. It includes a Fabry-Perot interferometer having a normally fixed first partially reflecting mirror and a movable second partially reflecting mirror. A chromatographic flow-cell is positioned between the mirrors along the optical axis of a monochromatic laser beam passing through the interferometer. A means for deriving information about the interference fringes coming out of the interferometer is used with a mini-computer to compute the refractive index of the specimen injected into the flow cell. The minicomputer continuously scans the interferometer for continuous refractive index readings and outputs the continuous results of the scans on a chart recorder. The absorption of the specimen can concurrently be scanned by including a second optical path for an excitation laser which will not interfere with the first laser, but will affect the specimen so that absorption properties can be detected. By first scanning for the refractive index of the specimen, and then immediately adding the excitation laser and subsequently scanning for the refractive index again, the absorption of the specimen can be computed and recorded. 10 figs.

  17. Apparatus and method for performing two-frequency interferometry

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, R.G.

    1988-01-25

    The present apparatus includes a two-frequency, Zeeman Effect laser and matched, doubly refracting crystals in the construction of an accurate interferometer. Unlike other interferometric devices, the subject invention exhibits excellent phase stability owing to the use of single piece means for producing parallel interferometer arms, making the interferometer relatively insensitive to thermal and mechanical instabilities. Interferometers respond to differences in optical path length between their two arms. Unlike many interferometric techniques, which require the measurement of the location of interference fringes in a brightly illuminated background, the present invention permits the determination of the optical path length difference by measuring the phase of an electronic sine wave. The present apparatus is demonstrated as a differential thermooptic spectrometer for measuring differential optical absorption simply and accurately which is but one of many applications therefor. The relative intensities of the heating beams along each arm of the interferometer can be easily adjusted by observing a zero phase difference with identical samples when this condition is obtained. 6 figs.

  18. Combined dispersive/interference spectroscopy for producing a vector spectrum

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, David J.

    2002-01-01

    A method of measuring the spectral properties of broadband waves that combines interferometry with a wavelength disperser having many spectral channels to produce a fringing spectrum. Spectral mapping, Doppler shifts, metrology of angles, distances and secondary effects such as temperature, pressure, and acceleration which change an interferometer cavity length can be measured accurately by a compact instrument using broadband illumination. Broadband illumination avoids the fringe skip ambiguities of monochromatic waves. The interferometer provides arbitrarily high spectral resolution, simple instrument response, compactness, low cost, high field of view and high efficiency. The inclusion of a disperser increases fringe visibility and signal to noise ratio over an interferometer used alone for broadband waves. The fringing spectrum is represented as a wavelength dependent 2-d vector, which describes the fringe amplitude and phase. Vector mathematics such as generalized dot products rapidly computes average broadband phase shifts to high accuracy. A Moire effect between the interferometer's sinusoidal transmission and the illumination heterodynes high resolution spectral detail to low spectral detail, allowing the use of a low resolution disperser. Multiple parallel interferometer cavities of fixed delay allow the instantaneous mapping of a spectrum, with an instrument more compact for the same spectral resolution than a conventional dispersive spectrometer, and not requiring a scanning delay.

  19. Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of a solid object that is subjected to external vibrations

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Thomas J.; Kotidis, Petros A.; Woodroffe, Jaime A.; Rostler, Peter S.

    1995-01-01

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

  20. Apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object that is subjected to external vibrations

    DOEpatents

    Kotidis, Petros A.; Woodroffe, Jaime A.; Rostler, Peter S.

    1997-01-01

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

  1. Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object using a polarizing interfeometer

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Thomas J.; Kotidis, Petros A.; Woodroffe, Jaime A.; Rostler, Peter S.

    1995-01-01

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading.

  2. Apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object that is subjected to external vibrations

    DOEpatents

    Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1997-04-22

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

  3. Geometric Modeling, Radiation Simulation, Rendering, Analysis Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    1995-01-17

    RADIANCE is intended to aid lighting designers and architects by predicting the light levels and appearance of a space prior to construction. The package includes programs for modeling and translating scene geometry, luminaire data and material properties, all of which are needed as input to the simulation. The lighting simulation itself uses ray tracing techniques to compute radiance values (ie. the quantity of light passing through a specific point in a specific direction), which aremore » typically arranged to form a photographic quality image. The resulting image may be analyzed, displayed and manipulated within the package, and converted to other popular image file formats for export to other packages, facilitating the production of hard copy output.« less

  4. Fluorescence-based video profile beam diagnostics: Theory and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, D.; Gilpatrick, D.; Shinas, M.; Garcia, R.; Yuan, V.; Zander, M.

    1994-05-01

    Inelastic collisions between accelerated particles and residual gas in the accelerator vessel can cause the residual gas to fluoresce. The gas fluorescence intensity is proportional to the current density of the particle beam. This process provides the foundation for a video diagnostic system to measure the profile and position of accelerated particle beams. This, in fact, has proven to be a useful diagnostic at several installations. This paper describes the light production process resulting from beam -- residual gas interactions and gives formulas for estimating the beam radiance for various conditions. Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) radiance calculations will be used as an example. In addition, measurement experiences with the GTA video diagnostics system will be discussed.

  5. Fluorescence-based video profile beam diagnostics: Theory and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, D.P.; Garcia, R.C.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Shinas, M.A.; Wright, R.; Yuan, V.; Zander, M.E. )

    1994-10-10

    Inelastic collisions between accelerated particles and residual gas in the accelerator vessel can cause the residual gas to fluoresce. The gas fluorescence intensity is proportional to the current density of the particle beam. This process provides the foundation for a video diagnostics system to measure the profile and position of accelerated particle beams. This, in fact, has proven to be a useful diagnostic at several installations. This paper describes the light production process resulting from beam-residual gas interactions and gives formulas for estimating the beam radiance for various conditions. Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) radiance calculations will be used as an example. In addition, measurement experiences with the GTA video diagnostics system will be discussed.

  6. Effect of the Temperature-Emissivity Contrast on the Chemical Signal for Gas Plume Detection Using Thermal Image Data

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Stephen; Chilton, Lawrence; Tardiff, Mark F.; Metoyer, Candace N.

    2008-10-21

    Detecting and identifying weak gaseous plumes using thermal imaging data is complicated by many factors. These include variability due to atmosphere, ground and plume temperature, and background clutter. This paper presents an analysis of one formulation of the physics-based radiance model, which describes at-sensor observed radiance. The background emissivity and plume/ground temperatures are isolated, and their effects on net chemical signal are described. This analysis shows that the plume’s physical state, emission or absorption, is directly dependent on that background emissivity. It then describes what conditions on the background emissivity have inhibiting effects on the net chemical signal. These claims are illustrated by analyzing synthetic hyperspectral imaging data with the Adaptive Matched Filter using two chemicals and three distinct background emissivities.

  7. New approach for absolute fluence distribution calculations in Monte Carlo simulations of light propagation in turbid media

    SciTech Connect

    Böcklin, Christoph Baumann, Dirk; Fröhlich, Jürg

    2014-02-14

    A novel way to attain three dimensional fluence rate maps from Monte-Carlo simulations of photon propagation is presented in this work. The propagation of light in a turbid medium is described by the radiative transfer equation and formulated in terms of radiance. For many applications, particularly in biomedical optics, the fluence rate is a more useful quantity and directly derived from the radiance by integrating over all directions. Contrary to the usual way which calculates the fluence rate from absorbed photon power, the fluence rate in this work is directly calculated from the photon packet trajectory. The voxel based algorithm works in arbitrary geometries and material distributions. It is shown that the new algorithm is more efficient and also works in materials with a low or even zero absorption coefficient. The capabilities of the new algorithm are demonstrated on a curved layered structure, where a non-scattering, non-absorbing layer is sandwiched between two highly scattering layers.

  8. Parallel multiplex laser feedback interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Song; Tan, Yidong; Zhang, Shulian

    2013-12-15

    We present a parallel multiplex laser feedback interferometer based on spatial multiplexing which avoids the signal crosstalk in the former feedback interferometer. The interferometer outputs two close parallel laser beams, whose frequencies are shifted by two acousto-optic modulators by 2Ω simultaneously. A static reference mirror is inserted into one of the optical paths as the reference optical path. The other beam impinges on the target as the measurement optical path. Phase variations of the two feedback laser beams are simultaneously measured through heterodyne demodulation with two different detectors. Their subtraction accurately reflects the target displacement. Under typical room conditions, experimental results show a resolution of 1.6 nm and accuracy of 7.8 nm within the range of 100 μm.

  9. Foundations of VISAR analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Daniel H.

    2006-06-01

    The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) is a widely used diagnostic at Sandia National Laboratories. Although the operating principles of the VISAR are well established, recently deployed systems (such as the fast push-pull and air delay VISAR) require more careful consideration, and many common assumptions about VISAR are coming into question. This report presents a comprehensive review of VISAR analysis to address these issues. Detailed treatment of several interferometer configurations is given to identify important aspects of the operation and characterization of VISAR systems. The calculation of velocity from interferometer measurements is also described. The goal is to derive the standard VISAR analysis relationships, indicate when these relationships are valid, and provide alternative methods when the standard analysis fails.

  10. Quantum-projection-noise-limited interferometry with coherent atoms in a Ramsey-type setup

    SciTech Connect

    Doering, D.; McDonald, G.; Debs, J. E.; Figl, C.; Altin, P. A.; Bachor, H.-A.; Robins, N. P.; Close, J. D. [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Quantum-Atom Optics, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia); Department of Quantum Science, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia)

    2010-04-15

    Every measurement of the population in an uncorrelated ensemble of two-level systems is limited by what is known as the quantum projection noise limit. Here, we present quantum-projection-noise-limited performance of a Ramsey-type interferometer using freely propagating coherent atoms. The experimental setup is based on an electro-optic modulator in an inherently stable Sagnac interferometer, optically coupling the two interfering atomic states via a two-photon Raman transition. Going beyond the quantum projection noise limit requires the use of reduced quantum uncertainty (squeezed) states. The experiment described demonstrates atom interferometry at the fundamental noise level and allows the observation of possible squeezing effects in an atom laser, potentially leading to improved sensitivity in atom interferometers.

  11. Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    1998-01-01

    Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities.

  12. Tomographic interferometry of a filtered high-current vacuum arc plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Warr, George B.; Tarrant, Richard N.; Bilek, Marcela M. M.; McKenzie, David R.; Harris, Jeffrey H.; Howard, John; Blackwell, Boyd D.

    2007-04-01

    Tomography of a plasma enables the distribution of electron density to be visualized. We report on the design of two tomographic interferometer systems used to measure plasma electron density distributions in a high-current pulsed cathodic vacuum arc. The method is shown to be capable of microsecond time resolution. The spatial resolution of the quasioptical interferometer operating at 2 mm wavelength is 20 mm and the spatial resolution of the waveguide-based interferometer operating at 8 mm wavelength is 50 mm. In both cases the resolution achieved depends on the launching and receiving geometries. We developed criteria for assessing the tomogram for artifacts arising from limited sampling. First results of the spatial and temporal history of plasma in a high-current vacuum arc guided by a curved magnetic filter are presented and indicate poloidal field fluctuations reminiscent of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in pinches. The applicability of the tomographic interferometry method to optimize plasma transport through the filter is also demonstrated.

  13. ARM - Instruments

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Instruments Related Links RHUBC Home NSA Home ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Experiment Planning RHUBC Proposal Abstract Full Proposal (pdf, 420kb) Science Plan (pdf) Operations Plan (pdf, 144kb) Instruments Contacts News ARM Press Release (Feb. 26, 2007) Images flickr_dots Instruments This plot shows the downwelling high-spectral-resolution radiance (top) and transmission (bottom) for three different atmospheres. The U.S. standard atmosphere represents conditions that can be found at many

  14. ARM - Datastreams - gndmfr

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamsgndmfr Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1025190 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : GNDMFR Ground-oriented multifilter radiometer (MFR): upwelling radiances Active Dates 1997.10.26 - 1998.09.30 Originating Instrument Ground Multifilter Radiometer (GNDMFR) Measurements The measurements below provided by this product are

  15. ARM - Field Campaign - ASSIST: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Spectral Technology govCampaignsASSIST: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : ASSIST: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology 2008.07.08 - 2008.07.18 Lead Scientist : Michael Howard For data sets, see below. Abstract Goals of assist were to intercompare radiance spectra and profile retrievals

  16. ARM - VAP Product - qmeaerimeans

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Productsqmeaerilblqmeaerimeans Documentation Data Management Facility Plots (Quick Looks) Citation DOI: 10.5439/1027749 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send VAP Output : QMEAERIMEANS QME: derived AERI vs. LBLRTM-radiance stats as f of bin, proc. & channel Active Dates 1993.12.08 - 2005.01.08

  17. Chiu_ARMSTM_COPS.ppt

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Our retrieval method uses zenith radiance measurements at 673, 870, and 1640 nm wavelengths and requires the presence of green vegetation in the surrounding area. * This method works because: 1. At 673 and 870nm, clouds have nearly identical optical properties, but vegetated surfaces reflect quite differently; 2. 1640 nm is a water-absorbing wavelength that contains information about the strength of forwarding scattering and absorption due to various cloud drop sizes. * Using a 1D radiative

  18. Microphysical Properties of Single and Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds Derived from AERI Observations

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Microphysical Properties of Single and Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds Derived from AERI Observations D. D. Turner University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Abstract A novel new approach to retrieve cloud microphysical properties from mixed-phase clouds is presented. This algorithm retrieves cloud optical depth, ice fraction, and the effective size of the water and ice particles from ground-based, high-resolution infrared radiance

  19. Microsoft PowerPoint - 04_bedka_turner_awg_advertisement.ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Properties at Niamey, Niger y g Using Downwelling Infrared Radiance Data Sarah Bedka and Dave Turner Space Science and Engineering Center University of Wisconsin Madison University of Wisconsin - Madison Aerosol working group breakout session M d 26 M h 2007 Monday 26 March 2007 ARM Science Team Meeting Monterey, California Background g * Airborne dust is common in the Sahel region f Af i of Africa * How important is this dust to the radiative balance and atmospheric heating in that balance and

  20. Li-Z

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of Cloud Spectral Radiance/Irradiance at the Surface and Top-of-the-Atmosphere from Modeling and Observations Z. Li and A. Trishchenko Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Ottawa, Ontario, Canada M. Cribb Intermap Technologies Ltd. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Introduction In view of some reported discrepancies concerning cloud parameter retrievals and cloud absorption (Stephens and Tsay 1990; Li et al. 1999; Rossow and Schiffer 1999) it is useful to compare cloud spectral signatures derived