National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for organic matter content

  1. Organic Matter Management

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2002-01-01

    Soil organic matter (S)M) is an essential attribute of soil quality with a key role in soil conservation and sustainable agriculture. Many practices-some involving land use changes-have been shown to increase SOM and thus received considerable attention for their possible role in climate change mitigation. Carbon sequestration in managed soils occurs when there is a net removal of atmospheric CO2 because of the balance between carbon inputs (net primary productivity) and outputs (soil respiration, management-related C emissions). Soil C sequestration has the additional appeal that all its practices conform to principles of sustainable agriculture (e.g., reduced tillage, erosion control, diverse cropping systems, improved soil fertility). Long-term field experiments have been instrumental to increase our understanding of SOM dynamics. This chapter presents fundamental concepts to guide readers on the role of SOM in sustainable agriculture and climate change mitigation.

  2. Missing links in the root-soil organic matter continuum

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Sarah L.; Iversen, Colleen M

    2009-01-01

    The soil environment remains one of the most complex and poorly understood research frontiers in ecology. Soil organic matter (SOM), which spans a continuum from fresh detritus to highly processed, mineral-associated organic matter, is the foundation of sustainable terrestrial ecosystems. Heterogeneous SOM pools are fueled by inputs from living and dead plants, driven by the activity of micro- and mesofauna, and are shaped by a multitude of abiotic factors. The specialization required to measure unseen processes that occur on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales has led to the partitioning of soil ecology research across several disciplines. In the organized oral session 'Missing links in the root-soil organic matter continuum' at the annual Ecological Society of America meeting in Albuquerque, NM, USA, we joined the call for greater communication and collaboration among ecologists who work at the root-soil interface (e.g. Coleman, 2008). Our goal was to bridge the gap between scientific disciplines and to synthesize disconnected pieces of knowledge from root-centric and soil-centric studies into an integrated understanding of belowground ecosystem processes. We focused this report around three compelling themes that arose from the session: (1) the influence of the rhizosphere on SOM cycling, (2) the role of soil heterotrophs in driving the transformation of root detritus to SOM, and (3) the controlling influence of the soil environment on SOM dynamics. We conclude with a discussion of new approaches for gathering data to bridge gaps in the root-SOM continuum and to inform the next generation of ecosystem models. Although leaf litter has often been considered to be the main source of organic inputs to soil, Ann Russell synthesized a convincing body of work demonstrating that roots, rather than surface residues, control the accumulation of SOM in a variety of ecosystems. Living roots, which are chemically diverse and highly dynamic, also influence a wide

  3. Investigation of vertical distribution and morphology of indigenous organic matter Sleeping Bear site, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.C.; Lyon, W.G.; Ross, D.L.

    1994-11-01

    This study evaluates the nature and origin of particulate organic carbon and organic coatings on aquifer sands upgradient from a fuel spill site near the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in Michigan. The distribution of carbon was found to be highly complex due to the occurrence of high organic carbon horizons, bounded above and below by high carbonate sediments. The organic coatings on the sands were examined using white light and fluorescence microscopy and by scanning electron microscopy. Core samples were analyzed for organic and inorganic carbon, solution pH, humic/fulvic acid ratios, and insoluable organic matter content (that is, humin) as function of depth from the ground surface. The organic geochemistry of the soil profile at this site was found to be significantly influenced by the carbonates producing a sharp boundary of precipitated organic matter. This boundary was followed by coatings of predominantly fulvic acid salts on mineral grains deeper in the soil column. The coatings extended into the aquifer. The existence of native organic films on sand grains is well documented in the soils literature. The study reported here was greatly aided by this information and provides the framework for future studies concerning the influence of carbon distribution, chemical identity, and morphology on contaminant fate and transport processes. 56 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Why dissolved organic matter (DOM) enhances photodegradation of methylmercury

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Yun; Yin, Xiangping Lisa; Brooks, Scott C; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is known to degrade photochemically, but it remains unclear what roles naturally dissolved organic matter (DOM) and complexing organic ligands play in MeHg photodegradation. Here we investigate the rates and mechanisms of MeHg photodegradation using DOM samples with varying oxidation states and origins as well as organic ligands with known molecular structures. All DOM and organic ligands increased MeHg photodegradation under solar irradiation, but the first-order rate constants varied depending on the oxidation state of DOM and the type and concentration of the ligands. Compounds containing both thiols and aromatics (e.g., thiosalicylate and reduced DOM) increased MeHg degradation rates far greater than those containing only aromatic or thiol functional groups (e.g., salicylate or glutathione). Our results suggest that, among other factors, the synergistic effects of thiolate and aromatic moieties in DOM greatly enhance MeHg photodegradation.

  5. Methods to radiolabel natural organic matter by reduction with hydrogen labeled reducing agents

    DOEpatents

    Tinnacher, Ruth M.; Honeyman, Bruce D.

    2011-10-18

    Methods to radiolabel natural organic matter by reduction with a hydrogen labeled reducing agent, and compositions, are provided.

  6. Lead Sequestration and Species Redistribution During Soil Organic Matter Decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Schroth,A.; Bostick, B.; Kaste, J.; Friedland, A.

    2008-01-01

    The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) maintains a dynamic chemical environment in the forest floor that can impact metal speciation on relatively short timescales. Here we measure the speciation of Pb in controlled and natural organic (O) soil horizons to quantify changes in metal partitioning during SOM decomposition in different forest litters. We provide a link between the sequestration of pollutant Pb in O-horizons, estimated by forest floor Pb inventories, and speciation using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. When Pb was introduced to fresh forest Oi samples, it adsorbed primarily to SOM surfaces, but as decomposition progressed over two years in controlled experiments, up to 60% of the Pb was redistributed to pedogenic birnessite and ferrihydrite surfaces. In addition, a significant fraction of pollutant Pb in natural soil profiles was associated with similar mineral phases ({approx}20-35%) and SOM ({approx}65-80%). Conifer forests have at least 2-fold higher Pb burdens in the forest floor relative to deciduous forests due to more efficient atmospheric scavenging and slower organic matter turnover. We demonstrate that pedogenic minerals play an important role in surface soil Pb sequestration, particularly in deciduous forests, and should be considered in any assessment of pollutant Pb mobility.

  7. Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, M.W.; Torn, M. S.; Abiven, S.; Dittmar, T.; Guggenberger, G.; Janssens, I.A.; Kleber, M.; Kgel-Knabner, I.; Lehmann, J.; Manning, D.A.C.; Nannipieri, P.; Rasse, D.P.; Weiner, S.; Trumbore, S.E.

    2011-08-15

    Globally, soil organic matter (SOM) contains more than three times as much carbon as either the atmosphere or terrestrial vegetation. Yet it remains largely unknown why some SOM persists for millennia whereas other SOM decomposes readilyand this limits our ability to predict how soils will respond to climate change. Recent analytical and experimental advances have demonstrated that molecular structure alone does not control SOM stability: in fact, environmental and biological controls predominate. Here we propose ways to include this understanding in a new generation of experiments and soil carbon models, thereby improving predictions of the SOM response to global warming.

  8. DETOXIFICATION OF OUTFALL WATER USING NATURAL ORGANIC MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, N.; Looney, B.; Millings, M.; Nichols, R.; Noonkester, J.; Payne, B.

    2010-07-13

    To protect stream organisms in an ephemeral stream at the Savannah River Site, a proposed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit reduced the copper limit from 25 {micro}g/l to 6 {micro}g/l at Outfall H-12. Efforts to reduce copper in the wastewater and stormwater draining to this outfall did not succeed in bringing copper levels below this limit. Numerous treatment methods were considered, including traditional methods such as ion exchange and natural treatment alternatives such as constructed wetlands and peat beds, all of which act to remove copper. However, the very low target metal concentration and highly variable outfall conditions presented a significant challenge for these treatment technologies. In addition, costs and energy use for most of these alternatives were high and secondary wastes would be generated. The Savannah River National Laboratory developed an entirely new 'detoxification' approach to treat the outfall water. This simple, lower-cost detoxification system amends outfall water with natural organic matter to bind up to 25 {micro}g/l copper rather than remove it, thereby mitigating its toxicity and protecting the sensitive species in the ecosystem. The amendments are OMRI (Organic Materials Review Institute) certified commercial products that are naturally rich in humic acids and are commonly used in organic farming.

  9. Molecular simulation of a model of dissolved organic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, Rebecca; Sposito, Garrison; Diallo, Mamadou S.; Schulten,Hans-Rolf

    2004-11-08

    A series of atomistic simulations was performed to assess the ability of the Schulten dissolved organic matter (DOM) molecule, a well-established model humic molecule, to reproduce the physical and chemical behavior of natural humic substances. The unhydrated DOM molecule had a bulk density value appropriate to humic matter, but its Hildebrand solubility parameter was lower than the range of current experimental estimates. Under hydrated conditions, the DOM molecule went through conformational adjustments that resulted in disruption of intramolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds), although few water molecules penetrated the organic interior. The radius of gyration of the hydrated DOM molecule was similar to those measured for aquatic humic substances. To simulate humic materials under aqueous conditions with varying pH levels, carboxyl groups were deprotonated, and hydrated Na{sup +} or Ca{sup 2+} were added to balance the resulting negative charge. Because of intrusion of the cation hydrates, the model metal- humic structures were more porous, had greater solvent-accessible surface areas, and formed more H-bonds with water than the protonated, hydrated DOM molecule. Relative to Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} was both more strongly bound to carboxylate groups and more fully hydrated. This difference was attributed to the higher charge of the divalent cation. The Ca-DOM hydrate, however, featured fewer H-bonds than the Na-DOM hydrate, perhaps because of the reduced orientational freedom of organic moieties and water molecules imposed by Ca{sup 2+}. The present work is, to our knowledge, the first rigorous computational exploration regarding the behavior of a model humic molecule under a range of physical conditions typical of soil and water systems.

  10. Significance of Isotopically Labile Organic Hydrogen in Thermal Maturation of Organic Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Arndt Schimmelmann; Maria Mastalerz

    2010-03-30

    Isotopically labile organic hydrogen in fossil fuels occupies chemical positions that participate in isotopic exchange and in chemical reactions during thermal maturation from kerogen to bitumen, oil and gas. Carbon-bound organic hydrogen is isotopically far less exchangeable than hydrogen bound to nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur. We explore why organic hydrogen isotope ratios express a relationship with organic nitrogen isotope ratios in kerogen at low to moderate maturity. We develop and apply new techniques to utilize organic D/H ratios in organic matter fractions and on a molecular level as tools for exploration for fossil fuels and for paleoenvironmental research. The scope of our samples includes naturally and artificially matured substrates, such as coal, shale, oil and gas.

  11. Storage and turnover of organic matter in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Torn, M.S.; Swanston, C.W.; Castanha, C.; Trumbore, S.E.

    2008-07-15

    Historically, attention on soil organic matter (SOM) has focused on the central role that it plays in ecosystem fertility and soil properties, but in the past two decades the role of soil organic carbon in moderating atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations has emerged as a critical research area. This chapter will focus on the storage and turnover of natural organic matter in soil (SOM), in the context of the global carbon cycle. Organic matter in soils is the largest carbon reservoir in rapid exchange with atmospheric CO{sub 2}, and is thus important as a potential source and sink of greenhouse gases over time scales of human concern (Fischlin and Gyalistras 1997). SOM is also an important human resource under active management in agricultural and range lands worldwide. Questions driving present research on the soil C cycle include: Are soils now acting as a net source or sink of carbon to the atmosphere? What role will soils play as a natural modulator or amplifier of climatic warming? How is C stabilized and sequestered, and what are effective management techniques to foster these processes? Answering these questions will require a mechanistic understanding of how and where C is stored in soils. The quantity and composition of organic matter in soil reflect the long-term balance between plant carbon inputs and microbial decomposition, as well as other loss processes such as fire, erosion, and leaching. The processes driving soil carbon storage and turnover are complex and involve influences at molecular to global scales. Moreover, the relative importance of these processes varies according to the temporal and spatial scales being considered; a process that is important at the regional scale may not be critical at the pedon scale. At the regional scale, SOM cycling is influenced by factors such as climate and parent material, which affect plant productivity and soil development. More locally, factors such as plant tissue quality and soil mineralogy affect

  12. Geochemical drivers of organic matter decomposition in Arctic tundra soils

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Yang, Ziming; Graham, David E.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Gu, Baohua; Liang, Liyuan; Bargar, John; Janot, Noemie; Regier, Tom Z.

    2015-12-07

    Climate change is warming tundra ecosystems in the Arctic, resulting in the decomposition of previously-frozen soil organic matter (SOM) and release of carbon (C) to the atmosphere; however, the processes that control SOM decomposition and C emissions remain highly uncertain. In this study, we evaluate geochemical factors that influence anaerobic production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the active layers of four ice-wedge polygons. Surface and soil pore waters were collected during the annual thaw season over a two-year period in an area containing waterlogged, low-centered polygons and well-drained, high-centered polygons. We report spatial and seasonal patterns of dissolved gases in relation to the geochemical properties of Fe and organic C as determined using spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. Iron was present as Fe(II) in soil solution near the permafrost boundary but enriched as Fe(III) in the middle of the active layer, similar to dissolved aromatic-C and organic acids. Dissolved CH4 increased relative to dissolved CO2 with depth and varied with soil moisture in the middle of the active layer in patterns that were positively correlated with the proportion of dissolved Fe(III) in transitional and low-centered polygon soils but negatively correlated in the drier flat- and high-centered polygons. These results suggest that microbial-mediated Fe oxidation and reduction influence respiration/fermentation of SOM and production of substrates (e.g., low-molecular-weight organic acids) for methanogenesis. As a result, we infer that geochemical differences induced by water saturation dictate microbial products of SOM decomposition, and Fe geochemistry is an important factor regulating methanogenesis in anoxic tundra soils.

  13. Geochemical drivers of organic matter decomposition in Arctic tundra soils

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Yang, Ziming; Graham, David E.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Gu, Baohua; Liang, Liyuan; Bargar, John; Janot, Noemie; Regier, Tom Z.

    2015-12-07

    Climate change is warming tundra ecosystems in the Arctic, resulting in the decomposition of previously-frozen soil organic matter (SOM) and release of carbon (C) to the atmosphere; however, the processes that control SOM decomposition and C emissions remain highly uncertain. In this study, we evaluate geochemical factors that influence anaerobic production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the active layers of four ice-wedge polygons. Surface and soil pore waters were collected during the annual thaw season over a two-year period in an area containing waterlogged, low-centered polygons and well-drained, high-centered polygons. We report spatial and seasonal patterns ofmore » dissolved gases in relation to the geochemical properties of Fe and organic C as determined using spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. Iron was present as Fe(II) in soil solution near the permafrost boundary but enriched as Fe(III) in the middle of the active layer, similar to dissolved aromatic-C and organic acids. Dissolved CH4 increased relative to dissolved CO2 with depth and varied with soil moisture in the middle of the active layer in patterns that were positively correlated with the proportion of dissolved Fe(III) in transitional and low-centered polygon soils but negatively correlated in the drier flat- and high-centered polygons. These results suggest that microbial-mediated Fe oxidation and reduction influence respiration/fermentation of SOM and production of substrates (e.g., low-molecular-weight organic acids) for methanogenesis. As a result, we infer that geochemical differences induced by water saturation dictate microbial products of SOM decomposition, and Fe geochemistry is an important factor regulating methanogenesis in anoxic tundra soils.« less

  14. Inhibition of Alkaline Flocculation by Algal Organic Matter for Chlorella vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Vandamme, Dries; Beuckels, Annelies; Vadelius, Eric; Depraetere, Orily; Noppe, Wim; Dutta, Abhishek; Foubert, Imogen; Laurens, Lieve; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline flocculation is a promising strategy for the concentration of microalgae for bulk biomass production. However, previous studies have shown that biological changes during the cultivation negatively affect flocculation efficiency. The influence of changes in cell properties and in the quality and composition of algal organic matter (AOM) were studied using Chlorella vulgaris as a model species. In batch cultivation, flocculation was increasingly inhibited over time and mainly influenced by changes in medium composition, rather than biological changes at the cell surface. Total carbohydrate content of the organic matter fraction sized bigger than 3 kDa increased over time and this fraction was shown to be mainly responsible for the inhibition of alkaline flocculation. The monosaccharide identification of this fraction mainly showed the presence of neutral and anionic monosaccharides. An addition of 30–50 mg L-1 alginic acid, as a model for anionic carbohydrate polymers containing uronic acids, resulted in a complete inhibition of flocculation. Furthermore, these results suggest that inhibition of alkaline flocculation was caused by interaction of anionic polysaccharides leading to an increased flocculant demand over time.

  15. Contents

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Program and Book of Abstracts Contents Organizers i-ii Detailed Program iii-viii Oral presentations 1-38 Posters P1-P27 Program Schematic back cover The LAPD Symposium brings together scientists from laser physics, low- temperature plasma chemistry and physics, and nuclear fusion. The Symposium is an important, unique, and fruitful source for cross-fertilization between these fields. Major topics include laser-aided diagnostics for fusion plasmas, industrial process plasmas, and environmental

  16. Carbon Mineralizability Determines Interactive Effects on Mineralization of Pyrogenic Organic Matter and Soil Organic Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Whitman, Thea L.; Zhu, Zihua; Lehmann, Johannes C.

    2014-10-31

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a critical and active pool in the global C cycle, and the addition of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) has been shown to change SOC cycling, increasing or decreasing mineralization rates (often referred to as priming). We adjusted the amount of easily mineralizable C in the soil, through 1-day and 6-month pre-incubations, and in PyOM made from maple wood at 350°C, through extraction. We investigated the impact of these adjustments on C mineralization interactions, excluding pH and nutrient effects and minimizing physical effects. We found short-term increases (+20-30%) in SOC mineralization with PyOM additions in the soil pre-incubated for 6 months. Over the longer term, both the 6-month and 1-day pre-incubated soils experienced net ~10% decreases in SOC mineralization with PyOM additions. This was possibly due to stabilization of SOC on PyOM surfaces, suggested by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry. Additionally, the duration of pre-incubation affected priming interactions, indicating that there may be no optimal pre-incubation time for SOC mineralization studies. We show conclusively that relative mineralizability of SOC in relation to PyOM-24 C is an important determinant of the effect of PyOM additions on SOC mineralization.

  17. Organic matter distribution in the flysch deposits of the Marnoso-Arenacea formation, miocene, northern Apennines, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Mosca, F.; Stefano, D. )

    1993-09-01

    The Marnoso-Arenacea Formation represents the filling of the Miocene Apennine foredeep by widespread and thick turbidite systems. Based on stratigraphic and sedimentologic considerations, two major sequences, related to the development of the Apennine orogene and to migration toward northeast of the depocenters, have been recognized. In both these units, respectively, upper Burdigalian-Serravallian and uppermost Serravallian-Tortonian, a major foredeep and a piggyback basin belt coexisted. The former is characterized by the development of depositional lobes down current passing to basin plain deposits; the latter were filled mostly by channel-levee-slope fine-grained deposits. To evaluate the petroleum potential of the different facies associations recognized within the Marnoso-Arenacea Formation, 300 samples were collected along the Santerno Valley type section and analyzed by using the basic geochemical methods. A preliminary space-time model concerning the distribution and nature of the naphtogenic facies in a foredeep basin has been developed. In particular, the average organic carbon content vs. hydrogen index and petroleum potential shows that the preservation of organic matter seems to be better in the basin plain than in associations, but of different age, show significant variation in the petroleum potential (S2) and in the hydrogen index (HI). These variations do not reflect changes in the organic input, as pointed out by kerogen composition and gc-ms analyses, but are related to different sedimentation rates during the Miocene. The best condition for organic matter preservation seems to be related to medium to high sedimentation rates, whereas low rates lead to a more diffused oxidation. This is true for similar paleoenvironmental conditions with the same organic productivity. However, it is important to point that very high sedimentation rates can lead to a dilution of the organic matter in the siliciclastic fraction.

  18. Final Technical Report: Mercury Release from Organic Matter (OM) and OM-Coated Mineral Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Kathryn L.

    2015-08-18

    Chemical reactions between mercury, a neurotoxin, and sulfur, an essential nutrient, in the environment control to a large extent the distribution and amount of mercury available for uptake by living organisms. The largest reservoir of sulfur in soils is in living, decaying, and dissolved natural organic matter. The decaying and dissolved organic matter can also coat the surfaces of minerals in the soil. Mercury (as a divalent cation) can bind to the sulfur species in the organic matter as well as to the bare mineral surfaces, but the extent of binding and release of this mercury is not well understood. The goals of the research were to investigate fundamental relationships among mercury, natural organic matter, and selected minerals to better understand specifically the fate and transport of mercury in contaminated soils downstream from the Y-12 plant along East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee, and more generally in any contaminated soil. The research focused on (1) experiments to quantify the uptake and release of mercury from two clay minerals in the soil, kaolinite and vermiculite, in the presence and absence of dissolved organic matter; (2) release of mercury from cinnabar under oxic and anoxic conditions; (3) characterization of the forms of mercury in the soil using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopic techniques; and, (4) determination of molecular forms of mercury in the presence of natural organic matter. We also leveraged funding from the National Science Foundation to (5) evaluate published approaches for determining sulfur speciation in natural organic matter by fitting X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra obtained at the sulfur K-edge and apply optimized fitting schemes to new measurements of sulfur speciation in a suite of dissolved organic matter samples from the International Humic Substances Society. Lastly, in collaboration with researchers at the University of Colorado and the U.S. Geological Survey in Boulder, Colorado, (6

  19. CO2 Storage by Sorption on Organic Matter and Clay in Gas Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Diana H.; Yonkofski, Catherine MR; Schaef, Herbert T.; White, Mark D.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-10-10

    Simulations of methane production and supercritical carbon dioxide injection were developed that consider competitive adsorption of CH4 and CO2 on both organic matter and montmorillonite. The results were used to assess the potential for storage of CO2 in a hydraulically fractured shale gas reservoir and for enhanced recovery of CH4. Assuming equal volume fractions of organic matter and montmorillonite, amounts of CO2 adsorbed on both materials were comparable, while methane desorption was from clays was two times greater than desorption from organic material. The most successful strategy considered CO2 injection from a separate well and enhanced methane recovery by 73%, while storing 240 kmt of CO2.

  20. CONTENTS

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    8.0 - HOISTING AND RIGGING IN HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS February 18, 2010 Rev 1 Page 1 CHAPTER 18.0 TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS..................................................................................................................................1 PAGINATION TABLE.....................................................................................................................................1 18.0 HOISTING AND RIGGING IN HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS

  1. Pathways of anaerobic organic matter decomposition in tundra soils from Barrow, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Mann, Benjamin F.; Chowdhury, Taniya Roy; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Graham, David E.; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua; Yang, Ziming

    2015-11-23

    Arctic tundra soils store a large quantity of organic carbon that is susceptible to decomposition and release to the atmosphere as methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) under a warming climate. Anaerobic processes that generate CH4 and CO2 remain unclear because previous studies have focused on aerobic decomposition pathways. To predict releases of CO2 and CH4 from tundra soils, it is necessary to identify pathways of soil organic matter decomposition under the anoxic conditions that are prevalent in Arctic ecosystems. Here molecular and spectroscopic techniques were used to monitor biological degradation of water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) during anoxic incubation of tundra soils from a region of continuous permafrost in northern Alaska. Organic and mineral soils from the tundra active layer were incubated at –2, +4, or +8°C for up to 60 days to mimic the short-term thaw season. Results suggest that, under anoxic conditions, fermentation converted complex organic molecules into simple organic acids that were used in concomitant Fe-reduction and acetoclastic methanogenesis reactions. Nonaromatic compounds increased over time as WEOC increased. Organic acid metabolites initially accumulated in soils but were mostly depleted by day 60 because organic acids were consumed to produce Fe(II), CO2, and CH4. We conclude that fermentation of nonprotected organic matter facilitates methanogenesis and Fe reduction reactions, and that the proportion of organic acids consumed by methanogenesis increases relative to Fe reduction with increasing temperature. As a result, the decomposition pathways observed in this study are important to consider in numerical modeling of greenhouse gas production in the Arctic.

  2. Pathways of anaerobic organic matter decomposition in tundra soils from Barrow, Alaska

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Mann, Benjamin F.; Chowdhury, Taniya Roy; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Graham, David E.; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua; Yang, Ziming

    2015-11-23

    Arctic tundra soils store a large quantity of organic carbon that is susceptible to decomposition and release to the atmosphere as methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) under a warming climate. Anaerobic processes that generate CH4 and CO2 remain unclear because previous studies have focused on aerobic decomposition pathways. To predict releases of CO2 and CH4 from tundra soils, it is necessary to identify pathways of soil organic matter decomposition under the anoxic conditions that are prevalent in Arctic ecosystems. Here molecular and spectroscopic techniques were used to monitor biological degradation of water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) during anoxic incubation ofmore » tundra soils from a region of continuous permafrost in northern Alaska. Organic and mineral soils from the tundra active layer were incubated at –2, +4, or +8°C for up to 60 days to mimic the short-term thaw season. Results suggest that, under anoxic conditions, fermentation converted complex organic molecules into simple organic acids that were used in concomitant Fe-reduction and acetoclastic methanogenesis reactions. Nonaromatic compounds increased over time as WEOC increased. Organic acid metabolites initially accumulated in soils but were mostly depleted by day 60 because organic acids were consumed to produce Fe(II), CO2, and CH4. We conclude that fermentation of nonprotected organic matter facilitates methanogenesis and Fe reduction reactions, and that the proportion of organic acids consumed by methanogenesis increases relative to Fe reduction with increasing temperature. As a result, the decomposition pathways observed in this study are important to consider in numerical modeling of greenhouse gas production in the Arctic.« less

  3. Applications of a simulation model to description of anaerobic conversion of complex organic matter into methane

    SciTech Connect

    Vavilin, V.A.; Rytow, S.V.; Lokshina, L.Ya.

    1996-12-31

    Three years passed since the generalized model of anaerobic degradation of complex organic matter has been developed. Now the new modifications were created. Anaerobic degradation was described as a multistep process of series and parallel reactions in which several groups of bacteria take part. Hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis were considered in the model with the various kinetic functions. A two-phase equation describing a particulate substrate degradation as a heterogeneous reaction has been developed. Acetic, butyric, and propionic groups of acidogenic bacteria producing the particular products were considered. The additional group of homoacetogenic bacteria producing acetate from hydrogen and carbon dioxide was involved into new version of the model. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide inhibition were described previously. In that paper, it was shown by simulation of several case-studies that unionized volatile fatty acids (VFA) are the inhibitors of key stages of anaerobic conversion of complex organic matter: hydrolysis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis.

  4. CONTENTS

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    3.0 - CRITICAL, SPECIAL, & ENGINEERED LIFTS January 4, 2016 Rev 1 Page 1 CHAPTER 3.0 TABLE OF CONTENTS 3.0 CRITICAL LIFTS ....................................................................................................................................... 3 3.1 SCOPE .......................................................................................................................................................... 3 3.2 CRITICAL LIFT DETERMINATION

  5. Ultrastrong light-matter coupling in electrically doped microcavity organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzeo, M.; Genco, A.; Gambino, S.; Ballarini, D.; Mangione, F.; Sanvitto, D.; Di Stefano, O.; Patanè, S.; Savasta, S.; Gigli, G.

    2014-06-09

    The coupling of the electromagnetic field with an electronic transition gives rise, for strong enough light-matter interactions, to hybrid states called exciton-polaritons. When the energy exchanged between light and matter becomes a significant fraction of the material transition energy an extreme optical regime called ultrastrong coupling (USC) is achieved. We report a microcavity embedded p-i-n monolithic organic light emitting diode working in USC, employing a thin film of squaraine dye as active layer. A normalized coupling ratio of 30% has been achieved at room temperature. These USC devices exhibit a dispersion-less angle-resolved electroluminescence that can be exploited for the realization of innovative optoelectronic devices. Our results may open the way towards electrically pumped polariton lasers.

  6. CONTENTS

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    organization (such as Safety or Quality Assurance). Depending upon the site-specific organizational structure, the following reviewapprovals are recommended: DOERL-92-36,...

  7. Advanced solvent based methods for molecular characterization of soil organic matter by high-resolution mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tfaily, Malak M.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolic, Nikola; Roscioli, Kristyn M.; Anderton, Christopher R.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Robinson, Errol W.; Hess, Nancy J.

    2015-05-19

    Soil organic matter (SOM) a complex, heterogeneous mixture of above and belowground plant litter and animal and microbial residues at various degrees of decomposition, is a key reservoir for carbon (C) and nutrient biogeochemical cycling in soil based ecosystems. A limited understanding of the molecular composition of SOM limits the ability to routinely decipher chemical processes within soil and predict accurately how terrestrial carbon fluxes will response to changing climatic conditions and land use. To elucidate the molecular-level structure of SOM, we selectively extracted a broad range of intact SOM compounds by a combination of different organic solvents from soils with a wide range of C content. Our use of Electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) and a suite of solvents with varying polarity significantly expands the inventory of the types of organic molecules present in soils. Specifically, we found that hexane is selective for lipid-like compounds with very low O:C ratios; water was selective for carbohydrates with high O:C ratios; acetonitrile preferentially extracts lignin, condensed structures, and tannin poly phenolic compounds with O:C > 0.5; methanol has higher selectivity towards compounds characterized with low O:C < 0.5; and hexane, MeOH, ACN and water solvents increase the number and types of organic molecules extracted from soil for a broader range of chemically diverse soil types. Our study of SOM molecules by ESI-FTICR MS revealed new insight into the molecular-level complexity of organics contained in soils.

  8. Low temperature hydrothermal maturation of organic matter in sediments form the Atlantis II Deep, Red Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Simoneit, B.R.; Grimalt, J.O.; Hayes, J.M.; Hartman, H.

    1987-04-01

    Hydrocarbons and bulk organic matter of two sediment cores located within the Atlantis II Deep have been analyzed. Although the brines overlying the coring areas were reported to be sterile, microbial inputs and minor terrestrial sources represent the major sedimentary organic material. This input is derived from the upper water column above the brines. Both steroid and triterpenoid hydrocarbons show that extensive acid-catalyzed reactions are occurring in the sediments. In comparison with other hydrothermal or intrusive systems, the Atlantis II Deep exhibits a lower degree of thermal maturation. This is easily deduced from the elemental composition of the kerogens and the absence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of a pyrolytic origin in the bitumen. The lack of carbon number preference among the n-alkanes suggests, especially in the case of the long chain homologs, that the organic matter of Atlantis II Deep sediments has undergone some degree catagenesis. However, the yields of hydrocarbons are much lower than those observed in other hydrothermal areas. The effect of lower temperature and poor source-rock characteristics appear to be responsible for the differences.

  9. Variable C : N : P stoichiometry of dissolved organic matter cycling in the Community Earth System Model

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Letscher, R. T.; Moore, J. K.; Teng, Y. -C.; Primeau, F.

    2015-01-12

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in the ocean's biological carbon pump by providing an advective/mixing pathway for ~ 20% of export production. DOM is known to have a stoichiometry depleted in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) compared to the particulate organic matter pool, a fact that is often omitted from biogeochemical ocean general circulation models. However the variable C : N : P stoichiometry of DOM becomes important when quantifying carbon export from the upper ocean and linking the nutrient cycles of N and P with that of carbon. Here we utilize recent advances in DOM observationalmore » data coverage and offline tracer-modeling techniques to objectively constrain the variable production and remineralization rates of the DOM C : N : P pools in a simple biogeochemical-ocean model of DOM cycling. The optimized DOM cycling parameters are then incorporated within the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling (BEC) component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and validated against the compilation of marine DOM observations. The optimized BEC simulation including variable DOM C : N : P cycling was found to better reproduce the observed DOM spatial gradients than simulations that used the canonical Redfield ratio. Global annual average export of dissolved organic C, N, and P below 100 m was found to be 2.28 Pg C yr-1 (143 Tmol C yr-1, 16.4 Tmol N yr-1, and 1 Tmol P yr-1, respectively, with an average export C : N : P stoichiometry of 225 : 19 : 1 for the semilabile (degradable) DOM pool. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export contributed ~ 25% of the combined organic C export to depths greater than 100 m.« less

  10. CONTENTS

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Volume 2, Sampling Technical Requirements Effective Date: 6/1/07 Vol. 2: i CONTENTS 1.0 SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS PROCESS .................................................................... 1-1 2.0 DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES ................................................................................... 2-1 3.0 SAMPLING SYSTEMS .................................................................................................. 3-1 3.1 Facility Management

  11. CONTENTS

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Volume 4, Laboratory Technical Requirements Effective Date: 6/1/07 Vol. 4: i CONTENTS 1.0 QUALITY ASSURANCE OBJECTIVES......................................................................... 1-1 1.1 DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES............................................................................ 1-1 1.2 CLIENT DATA QUALITY REQUIREMENTS ..................................................... 1-2 1.2.1 Precision

  12. Geochemistry and sedimentation of organic matter in the Triassic-Liassic carbonate laminated source rocks of the Ragusa basin (Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Brosse, E.; Loreau, J.P.; Frixa, A.

    1988-08-01

    The Noto and Streppenosa formations of the Ragusa basin (southeastern Sicily) are considered the main source rocks for oil in this area. They display various styles of sedimentation in a generally carbonate context. The organic matter is basically of marine planktonic origin but with some variations, especially in terms of O/C ratio and kinetic behavior. Three main styles of sedimentation occurred within these formations: (1) laminates in a dominantly carbonate rock with thin recurrent interlayers of black shales; (2) alternating layers of marls and limestones, both containing interlayers of black shales and with occasional laminations in the limestones; and (3) silty shales, more or less rich in carbonates (30-70%). The highest petroleum potentials are neither strictly associated with the algal-sedimentary laminites nor with the basinal silty facies but with the black shales interbedded in the different facies or abruptly overlying limestones. In these black shales, oxygen-poor kerogens are dominant. Limestones of the alternated layers are generally organic lean (TOC < 1%), and oxygen-rich kerogens are dominant. The transition from one type of kerogen to the other occurs in the marly layers of the sequence. A tentative integration of both sedimentological and geochemical results is proposed, at the scale of the core, to interpret the respective influence of the depositional pattern and the diagenetic conditions on the content and nature of the kerogen in the source rocks.

  13. Variable C : N : P stoichiometry of dissolved organic matter cycling in the Community Earth System Model

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Letscher, R. T.; Moore, J. K.; Teng, Y. -C.; Primeau, F.

    2014-06-16

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in the ocean's biological carbon pump by providing an advective/mixing pathway for ~ 20% of export production. DOM is known to have a stoichiometry depleted in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) compared to the particulate organic matter pool, a~fact that is often omitted from biogeochemical-ocean general circulation models. However the variable C : N : P stoichiometry of DOM becomes important when quantifying carbon export from the upper ocean and linking the nutrient cycles of N and P with that of carbon. Here we utilize recent advances in DOM observational data coveragemore » and offline tracer-modeling techniques to objectively constrain the variable production and remineralization rates of the DOM C / N / P pools in a simple biogeochemical-ocean model of DOM cycling. The optimized DOM cycling parameters are then incorporated within the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling (BEC) component of the Community Earth System Model and validated against the compilation of marine DOM observations. The optimized BEC simulation including variable DOM C : N : P cycling was found to better reproduce the observed DOM spatial gradients than simulations that used the canonical Redfield ratio. Global annual average export of dissolved organic C, N, and P below 100 m was found to be 2.28 Pg C yr-1 (143 Tmol C yr-1), 16.4 Tmol N yr-1, and 1 Tmol P yr-1, respectively with an average export C : N : P stoichiometry of 225 : 19 : 1 for the semilabile (degradable) DOM pool. DOC export contributed ~ 25% of the combined organic C export to depths greater than 100 m.« less

  14. Underwater radiant energy absorbed by phytoplankton, detritus, dissolved organic matter, and pure water

    SciTech Connect

    Kishino, M.; Booth, C.R.; Okami, N.

    1984-03-01

    The spectral irradiance distribution at five stations on lakes and at sea was measured with a portable underwater spectral irradiance meter. Chlorophyll a concentration and the absorption coefficient of the water were concurrently measured. From measured spectral irradiance distributions, radiant energy absorbed per unit volume was computed. At these stations, the effect of upward irradiance on total quanta absorbed by the water was negligibly small for all layers. The relative contributions of phytoplankton, detritus, dissolved organic matter, and pure water to the total absorbed quanta were also computed by taking into consideration the spectral dependency of each component: the contribution of quanta absorbed by the water was negligibly small for all layers. The relative contributions of phytoplankton, detritus, dissolved organic matter, and pure water to the total absorbed quanta were also computed by taking into consideration the spectral dependency of each component: the contribution of quanta absorbed by phytoplankton was about 3-10% in clear water and about 30-40% in the plankton-rich water.

  15. Final technical report; Mercury Release from Organic matter (OM) and OM-Coated Mineral Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Aiken, George

    2014-10-02

    This document is the final technical report for a project designed to address fundamental processes controlling the release of mercury from flood plain soils associated with East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee near the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge facility. The report summarizes the activities, findings, presentations, and publications resulting from an award to the U.S. Geological that were part of a larger overall effort including Kathy Nagy (University of Illinois, Chicago, Ill) and Joseph Ryan (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO). The specific charge for the U.S.G.S. portion of the study was to provide analytical support for the larger group effort (Nagy and Ryan), especially with regard to analyses of Hg and dissolved organic matter, and to provide information about the release of mercury from the floodplain soils.

  16. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias, Nick; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Mike; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2012-01-01

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from an aerosol sample. One method is a Dekati Thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented for this project in an engine test cell built around a direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. Direct injection is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency but this comes with the production of a significant amount of (PM) and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition. The first interesting observation is that PM number distributions, acquired using a TSI SMPS, have a large accumulation mode (30-294 nm) but a very small nuclei mode (8-30 nm). This is understood to represent a lack of condensation particles meaning that neither the exhaust conditions nor the sample handling conditions are conducive to condensation. This lack of nuclei mode does not, however, represent a lack of VOCs in the sample. It has been observed, using mass spectral analysis (limited to PM>50 nm), that PM from the DISI engine has approximately 40% organic content through varying operating conditions. This begs the question of how effective different sample handling methods are at removing these VOCs. For one specific operating condition, called Cold Start, the un-treated PM was 40% organic. The TD

  17. Sequential Extraction and Spectroscopic Characterisation of Organic Matter from the Callovo-Oxfordian Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Grasset, L.; Brevet, J; Schäfer, T; Claret, F; Gaucher, E; Albrecht, A; Amblès, A

    2010-01-01

    One site under consideration for the disposal of medium and high level, long lived radioactive waste is in the eastern part of the Paris Basin (Meuse/Haute Marne, France), where the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) operates an underground laboratory. The sedimentary host formation is a 130 m thick, clay-rich Callovo-Oxfordian deposit ca. 350-550 m below ground in the selected area. The major fraction (>95%) of the organic matter (OM) is associated with minerals. In order to better understand the importance of OM on the chemistry of this formation, we have developed a protocol allowing extraction/fractionation of organic compounds in the rocks. The protocol is based on classical methods currently used for the isolation of humic substances from soils and for the separation of kerogen in ancient sediments using sequential extraction with solvents and water at different pH value. This allows us to the remove a large part of the minerals and to suspend almost all (>90%) of the OM (associated with residual recalcitrant minerals) in water. The OM can then be analysed via spectroscopic methods, such as mass spectrometry (MS), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), or C (1s) near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. The molecular composition of the solvent-soluble, directly-extractable part shows the OM to be thermally immature. The solvent-soluble fractions obtained after acid and alkaline treatments are mostly polar in nature and have a high degree of aliphaticity. C(1s) NEXAFS analysis of water soluble organic fractions indicates a progressive increase in aliphaticity and a decrease in carboxylic/carbonyl groups with consecutive extraction steps.

  18. Organic Matter Transformation in the Peat Column at Marcell Experimental Forest: Humification and Vertical Stratification

    SciTech Connect

    Tfaily, Malak; Cooper, Bill; Kostka,; Chanton, Patrick R; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Hanson, Paul J; Iversen, Colleen M; Chanton, Jeff P

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale ecosystem manipulation (Spruce and Peatland Responses under Climatic and Environmental Change, SPRUCE) is being constructed in the Marcell Experimental Forest, Minnesota, USA, to determine the effects of climatic forcing on ecosystem processes in northern peatlands. Prior to the initiation of the manipulation, we characterized the solid-phase peat to a depth of 2 meters using a variety of techniques, including peat C:N ratios, 13C and 15N isotopic composition, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT IR), and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR). FT IR determined peat humification-levels increased rapidly between and 75 cm, indicating a highly reactive zone. We observed a rapid drop in the abundance of O-alkyl-C, carboxyl-C, and other oxygenated functionalities within this zone and a concomitant increase in the abundance of alkyl- and nitrogen-containing compounds. Below 75-cm, minimal change was observed except that aromatic functionalities accumulated with depth. Incubation studies revealed the highest methane production rates and greatest CH4:CO2 ratios within this and 75 cm zone. Hydrology and surface vegetation played a role in belowground carbon cycling. Radiocarbon signatures of microbial respiration products in deeper porewaters resembled the signatures of dissolved organic carbon rather than solid phase peat, indicating that more recently photosynthesized organic matter fueled the bulk of subsurface microbial respiration. Oxygen-containing functionalities, especially O-alkyl-C, appear to serve as an excellent proxy for soil decomposition rate, and in addition should be a sensitive indicator of the response of the solid phase peat to the climatic manipulation.

  19. Chemical and isotopic kinetics of sulfate reduction by organic matter under hydrothermal conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of nonbacterial sulfate reduction by organic matter in geologic environments. Sulfate is reduced by dextrose under acidic conditions at temperatures of 230-270 C. Reaction products include sulfide and organic-sulfur compounds; sulfite, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur were not detected. The rate law for the initial one- or two-electron reduction of sulfate at 250C is first-order in bisulfate and about one-half-order in initial dextrose concentration, and shows a very strong dependence on pH. The kinetics of sulfate reduction by fructose at 250C are virtually the same. The lack of sulfate reduction by formaldehyde, methanol, ethanol and acetic acid at 250 C indicates that the reducing power of dextrose and fructose cannot be attributed to carbonyl, carboxyl or hydroxyl functional groups. The form of the rate law for sulfate reduction by dextrose and the presence of an induction period rather suggest that the initial reduction of sulfate occurs with free radicals derived from the thermal decomposition of the hexoses or their alteration products. The inferred sulfate-reduction reaction mechanism suggest that aqueous sulfate may be reduced to sulfide in geologic environments such as deep sedimentary basins. The observed acid-catalysis of the reaction in the laboratory may be supplanted by clay-mineral catalysis in geologic environments. Sulfur isotopes are fractionated during the reduction of sulfate by dextrose under hydrothermal conditions. Computer simulations of the isotopic evolution of the experiments suggest that sulfate-sulfide isotopic exchange largely controls the isotopic composition of sulfate and sulfide. The extent of isotopic fractionation due solely to sulfate reduction thus cannot be determined from the experiments

  20. Spectroscopic evidence of uranium immobilization in acidic wetlands by natural organic matter and plant roots

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dien; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C.; Jaff, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Segre, Carlo U.; Chen, Ning; Jiang, De-Tong; Newville, Matthew; Lanzirotti, Antonio

    2015-03-03

    Biogeochemistry of uranium in wetlands plays important roles in U immobilization in storage ponds of U mining and processing facilities but has not been well understood. The objective of this work was to study molecular mechanisms responsible for high U retention by Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments under varying redox and acidic (pH = 2.65.8) conditions using U L?-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Uranium in the SRS wetland sediments existed primarily as U(VI) bonded as a bidentate to carboxylic sites (UC bond distance at ~2.88 ), rather than phenolic or other sites of natural organic matter (NOM). In microcosms simulating the SRS wetland processes, U immobilization on roots was two orders of magnitude higher than on the adjacent brown or more distant white sands in which U was U(VI). Uranium on the roots were both U(IV) and U(VI), which were bonded as a bidentate to carbon, but the U(VI) may also form a U phosphate mineral. After 140 days of air exposure, all U(IV) was re-oxidized to U(VI) but remained as a bidentate bonding to carbon. This study demonstrated NOM and plant roots can highly immobilize U(VI) in the SRS acidic sediments, which has significant implication for the long-term stewardship of U-contaminated wetlands.

  1. Indexing Permafrost Soil Organic Matter Degradation Using High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Mann, Benjamin F.; Chen, Hongmei; Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolic, Nikola; Portier, Evan F.; Roy Chowdhury, Taniya; Robinson, Errol W.; Callister, Stephen J.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; et al

    2015-06-12

    Microbial degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) is a key process for terrestrial carbon cycling, although the molecular details of these transformations remain unclear. This study reports the application of ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry to profile the molecular composition of SOM and its degradation during a simulated warming experiment. A soil sample, collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA, was subjected to a 40-day incubation under anoxic conditions and analyzed before and after the incubation to determine changes of SOM composition. A CHO index based on molecular C, H, and O data was utilized to codify SOM components according to their observedmore » degradation potentials. Compounds with a CHO index score between –1 and 0 in a water-soluble fraction (WSF) demonstrated high degradation potential, with a highest shift of CHO index occurred in the N-containing group of compounds, while similar stoichiometries in a base-soluble fraction (BSF) did not. Additionally, compared with the classical H:C vs O:C van Krevelen diagram, CHO index allowed for direct visualization of the distribution of heteroatoms such as N in the identified SOM compounds. We demonstrate that CHO index is useful not only in characterizing arctic SOM at the molecular level but also enabling quantitative description of SOM degradation, thereby facilitating incorporation of the high resolution MS datasets to future mechanistic models of SOM degradation and prediction of greenhouse gas emissions.« less

  2. Indexing Permafrost Soil Organic Matter Degradation Using High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Benjamin F.; Chen, Hongmei; Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolic, Nikola; Portier, Evan F.; Roy Chowdhury, Taniya; Robinson, Errol W.; Callister, Stephen J.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Graham, David E.; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua; Hui, Dafeng

    2015-06-12

    Microbial degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) is a key process for terrestrial carbon cycling, although the molecular details of these transformations remain unclear. This study reports the application of ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry to profile the molecular composition of SOM and its degradation during a simulated warming experiment. A soil sample, collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA, was subjected to a 40-day incubation under anoxic conditions and analyzed before and after the incubation to determine changes of SOM composition. A CHO index based on molecular C, H, and O data was utilized to codify SOM components according to their observed degradation potentials. Compounds with a CHO index score between –1 and 0 in a water-soluble fraction (WSF) demonstrated high degradation potential, with a highest shift of CHO index occurred in the N-containing group of compounds, while similar stoichiometries in a base-soluble fraction (BSF) did not. Additionally, compared with the classical H:C vs O:C van Krevelen diagram, CHO index allowed for direct visualization of the distribution of heteroatoms such as N in the identified SOM compounds. We demonstrate that CHO index is useful not only in characterizing arctic SOM at the molecular level but also enabling quantitative description of SOM degradation, thereby facilitating incorporation of the high resolution MS datasets to future mechanistic models of SOM degradation and prediction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Spectroscopic evidence of uranium immobilization in acidic wetlands by natural organic matter and plant roots

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dien; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C.; Jaffé, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Segre, Carlo U.; Chen, Ning; Jiang, De-Tong; Newville, Matthew; Lanzirotti, Antonio

    2015-03-03

    Biogeochemistry of uranium in wetlands plays important roles in U immobilization in storage ponds of U mining and processing facilities but has not been well understood. The objective of this work was to study molecular mechanisms responsible for high U retention by Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments under varying redox and acidic (pH = 2.6–5.8) conditions using U L₃-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Uranium in the SRS wetland sediments existed primarily as U(VI) bonded as a bidentate to carboxylic sites (U–C bond distance at ~2.88 Å), rather than phenolic or other sites of natural organic matter (NOM). In microcosms simulating the SRS wetland processes, U immobilization on roots was two orders of magnitude higher than on the adjacent brown or more distant white sands in which U was U(VI). Uranium on the roots were both U(IV) and U(VI), which were bonded as a bidentate to carbon, but the U(VI) may also form a U phosphate mineral. After 140 days of air exposure, all U(IV) was re-oxidized to U(VI) but remained as a bidentate bonding to carbon. This study demonstrated NOM and plant roots can highly immobilize U(VI) in the SRS acidic sediments, which has significant implication for the long-term stewardship of U-contaminated wetlands.

  4. Spectroscopic evidence of uranium immobilization in acidic wetlands by natural organic matter and plant roots

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Li, Dien; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C.; Jaffé, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Segre, Carlo U.; Chen, Ning; Jiang, De-Tong; et al

    2015-03-03

    Biogeochemistry of uranium in wetlands plays important roles in U immobilization in storage ponds of U mining and processing facilities but has not been well understood. The objective of this work was to study molecular mechanisms responsible for high U retention by Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments under varying redox and acidic (pH = 2.6–5.8) conditions using U L₃-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Uranium in the SRS wetland sediments existed primarily as U(VI) bonded as a bidentate to carboxylic sites (U–C bond distance at ~2.88 Å), rather than phenolic or other sites of natural organic matter (NOM). In microcosms simulatingmore » the SRS wetland processes, U immobilization on roots was two orders of magnitude higher than on the adjacent brown or more distant white sands in which U was U(VI). Uranium on the roots were both U(IV) and U(VI), which were bonded as a bidentate to carbon, but the U(VI) may also form a U phosphate mineral. After 140 days of air exposure, all U(IV) was re-oxidized to U(VI) but remained as a bidentate bonding to carbon. This study demonstrated NOM and plant roots can highly immobilize U(VI) in the SRS acidic sediments, which has significant implication for the long-term stewardship of U-contaminated wetlands.« less

  5. Kinetic controls on the complexation between mercury and dissolved organic matter in a contaminated environment

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Carrie L; Southworth, George R; Brooks, Scott C; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2009-01-01

    The interaction of mercury (Hg) with dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) under equilibrium conditions is the focus of many studies but the kinetic controls on Hg-NOM complexation in aquatic systems has often been overlooked. We examined the rate of Hg-NOM complexation using reactive Hg (HgR) measurements and C18 solid phase extraction in Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and in controlled laboratory experiments using a reference NOM isolate. Greater than 90% of the dissolved Hg at the headwaters of UEFPC was present as HgR and this fraction decreased downstream but remained >25% of the dissolved Hg at all sites. Equilibrium calculations indicate that Hg-NOM complexes should dominate throughout UEFPC, but the presence of HgR suggests that equilibrium conditions are not established. Rate constants for Hg-NOM complexation varied between 0.05 and 0.29 hr-1 in laboratory experiments. This study demonstrates the need to consider Hg-NOM complexation kinetics on processes such as Hg methylation and solid phase partitioning.

  6. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in landfill leachate during the combined treatment process of air stripping, Fenton, SBR and coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, ZhiPing; Wu, WenHui; Shi, Ping; Guo, JinSong; Cheng, Jin

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • DOM fractions spectra analysis during the whole treatment process. • Efficient method was achieved to remove organic matters in landfill leachate. • Molecular weight distribution and fractions were discussed. - Abstract: A combined treatment process of air stripping + Fenton + sequencing batch reactor (SBR)+ coagulation was performed to remove the pollutants in landfill leachate. Molecular weight (MW) distribution and fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were discussed to study the characteristics. The experiment showed that the removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD), five day biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}−N) by the combined process were 92.8%, 87.8% and 98.0%, respectively. Humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) were the main fractions in raw leachate with 81.8% of the total COD concentration, while hydrophilic organic matter (HyI) was the dominant fraction in the final effluent of the combined process with 63.5% of the total COD concentration. After the combined treatment process, the removal rate of DOM and fractions HA, FA, HyI were 91.9%, 97.1%, 95.8% and 71.7%, respectively. Organic matters of MW < 2 k and MW > 100 k were removed with 90.5% and 97.9% COD concentration after the treatment. The ultraviolet–visible spectra (UV–vis), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrices spectra (EEMs) indicated that benzene materials and phenol compounds were preferentially removed in air stripping. High MW matters, aromatic rings, conjugated moieties and some functional groups were mainly removed by Fenton. While small MW fractions, carboxylic acids, alcohols and protein-like materials were preferentially biodegraded via SBR. Fulvic-like and humic-like materials were mainly destroyed via Fenton oxidation and coagulation.

  7. Current developments in soil organic matter modeling and the expansion of model applications. A review

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Campbell, Eleanor E.; Paustian, Keith

    2015-12-23

    It is important to note that Soil organic matter (SOM) is a great natural resource. It is fundamental to soil and ecosystem functions across a wide range of scales, from site-specific soil fertility and water holding capacity to global biogeochemical cycling. It is also a highly complex material that is sensitive to direct and indirect human impacts. In our SOM research, simulation models play an important role by providing a mathematical framework to integrate, examine, and test the understanding of SOM dynamics. Simulation models of SOM are also increasingly used in more ‘applied’ settings to evaluate human impacts on ecosystemmore » function, and to manage SOM for greenhouse gas mitigation, improved soil health, and sustainable use as a natural resource. Within this context, there is a need to maintain a robust connection between scientific developments in SOM modeling approaches and SOM model applications. This need forms the basis of this review. In this review we first provide an overview of SOM modeling, focusing on SOM theory, data-model integration, and model development as evidenced by a quantitative review of SOM literature. Second, we present the landscape of SOM model applications, focusing on examples in climate change policy. Finally, we conclude by discussing five areas of recent developments in SOM modeling including: (1) microbial roles in SOM stabilization; (2) modeling SOM saturation kinetics; (3) temperature controls on decomposition; (4)SOM dynamics in deep soil layers; and (5)SOM representation in earth system models. Our aim is to comprehensively connect SOM model development to its applications, revealing knowledge gaps in need of focused interdisciplinary attention and exposing pitfalls that, if avoided, can lead to best use of SOM models to support policy initiatives and sustainable land management solutions.« less

  8. Current developments in soil organic matter modeling and the expansion of model applications. A review

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Eleanor E.; Paustian, Keith

    2015-12-23

    It is important to note that Soil organic matter (SOM) is a great natural resource. It is fundamental to soil and ecosystem functions across a wide range of scales, from site-specific soil fertility and water holding capacity to global biogeochemical cycling. It is also a highly complex material that is sensitive to direct and indirect human impacts. In our SOM research, simulation models play an important role by providing a mathematical framework to integrate, examine, and test the understanding of SOM dynamics. Simulation models of SOM are also increasingly used in more ‘applied’ settings to evaluate human impacts on ecosystem function, and to manage SOM for greenhouse gas mitigation, improved soil health, and sustainable use as a natural resource. Within this context, there is a need to maintain a robust connection between scientific developments in SOM modeling approaches and SOM model applications. This need forms the basis of this review. In this review we first provide an overview of SOM modeling, focusing on SOM theory, data-model integration, and model development as evidenced by a quantitative review of SOM literature. Second, we present the landscape of SOM model applications, focusing on examples in climate change policy. Finally, we conclude by discussing five areas of recent developments in SOM modeling including: (1) microbial roles in SOM stabilization; (2) modeling SOM saturation kinetics; (3) temperature controls on decomposition; (4)SOM dynamics in deep soil layers; and (5)SOM representation in earth system models. Our aim is to comprehensively connect SOM model development to its applications, revealing knowledge gaps in need of focused interdisciplinary attention and exposing pitfalls that, if avoided, can lead to best use of SOM models to support policy initiatives and sustainable land management solutions.

  9. Decreases in Soil Moisture and Organic Matter Quality Suppress Microbial Decomposition Following a Boreal Forest Fire

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, Sandra R.; Berhe, Asmeret A.; Treseder, Kathleen K.

    2015-08-01

    Climate warming is projected to increase the frequency and severity of wildfires in boreal forests, and increased wildfire activity may alter the large soil carbon (C) stocks in boreal forests. Changes in boreal soil C stocks that result from increased wildfire activity will be regulated in part by the response of microbial decomposition to fire, but post-fire changes in microbial decomposition are poorly understood. Here, we investigate the response of microbial decomposition to a boreal forest fire in interior Alaska and test the mechanisms that control post-fire changes in microbial decomposition. We used a reciprocal transplant between a recently burned boreal forest stand and a late successional boreal forest stand to test how post-fire changes in abiotic conditions, soil organic matter (SOM) composition, and soil microbial communities influence microbial decomposition. We found that SOM decomposing at the burned site lost 30.9% less mass over two years than SOM decomposing at the unburned site, indicating that post-fire changes in abiotic conditions suppress microbial decomposition. Our results suggest that moisture availability is one abiotic factor that constrains microbial decomposition in recently burned forests. In addition, we observed that burned SOM decomposed more slowly than unburned SOM, but the exact nature of SOM changes in the recently burned stand are unclear. Finally, we found no evidence that post-fire changes in soil microbial community composition significantly affect decomposition. Taken together, our study has demonstrated that boreal forest fires can suppress microbial decomposition due to post-fire changes in abiotic factors and the composition of SOM. Models that predict the consequences of increased wildfires for C storage in boreal forests may increase their predictive power by incorporating the observed negative response of microbial decomposition to boreal wildfires.

  10. Genome-Based Models to Optimize In Situ Bioremediation of Uranium and Harvesting Electrical Energy from Waste Organic Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lovley, Derek R

    2012-12-28

    The goal of this research was to provide computational tools to predictively model the behavior of two microbial communities of direct relevance to Department of Energy interests: 1) the microbial community responsible for in situ bioremediation of uranium in contaminated subsurface environments; and 2) the microbial community capable of harvesting electricity from waste organic matter and renewable biomass. During this project the concept of microbial electrosynthesis, a novel form of artificial photosynthesis for the direct production of fuels and other organic commodities from carbon dioxide and water was also developed and research was expanded into this area as well.

  11. Effects of solar radiation on organic matter cycling: Formation of carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide (Chapter 11). Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Zepp, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of photoinduced processes on carbon cycling and the biospheric emission of two important trace carbon gases--carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide--are examined. Both of these gases are likely to play an important role in the biospheric feedbacks that may reinforce or attenuate future changes in climate. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that a significant fraction of the global sources of both of these gases derives from the photochemical fragmentation of decayed plant materials and other biogenic organic matter in terrestrial and marine environments.

  12. Complexation of Mercury(II) in Soil Organic Matter: EXAFS Evidence for Linear Two-Coordination with Reduced Sulfur Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Skyllberg,U.; Bloom, P.; Qian, J.; Lin, C.; Bleam, W.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical speciation of inorganic mercury (Hg) is to a great extent controlling biologically mediated processes, such as mercury methylation, in soils, sediments, and surface waters. Of utmost importance are complexation reactions with functional groups of natural organic matter (NOM), indirectly determining concentrations of bioavailable, inorganic Hg species. Two previous extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopic studies have revealed that reduced organic sulfur (S) and oxygen/nitrogen (O/N) groups are involved in the complexation of Hg(II) to humic substances extracted from organic soils. In this work, covering intact organic soils and extending to much lower concentrations of Hg than before, we show that Hg is complexed by two reduced organic S groups (likely thiols) at a distance of 2.33 Angstroms in a linear configuration. Furthermore, a third reduced S (likely an organic sulfide) was indicated to contribute with a weaker second shell attraction at a distance of 2.92-3.08 Angstroms. When all high-affinity S sites, corresponding to 20-30% of total reduced organic S, were saturated, a structure involving one carbonyl-O or amino-N at 2.07 Angstroms and one carboxyl-O at 2.84 Angstroms in the first shell, and two second shell C atoms at an average distance of 3.14 Angstroms, gave the best fit to data. Similar results were obtained for humic acid extracted from an organic wetland soil. We conclude that models that are in current use to describe the biogeochemistry of mercury and to calculate thermodynamic processes need to include a two-coordinated complexation of Hg(II) to reduced organic sulfur groups in NOM in soils and waters.

  13. Effects of organic matter and its anaerobic decomposition products on the growth and zinc uptake by Oryza sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, the effect of organic acid and bicarbonate on plant growth and Zn uptake, effects of organic matter addition on various Zn fractions at different pH levels were investigated. Organic acids, acetic, propionic and butyric acids at 5 meq/l, caused reduced plant growth and impaired Zn uptake. Plant toxicity by organic acids was greatest at low pH which was related to the increased concentration of undissociated acid concentration in the nutrient media. The relative injury severity of organic acids to plant growth was in the order of butyric > propionic > acetic acid. Bicarbonate ion concentration, greater than 5 meq/l significantly decreased Zn uptake by rice shoots and roots. The combined effect of high pH and high bicarbonate ion concentration had the greatest detrimental effect on rice seedling growth and Zn uptake. In a Zn fraction experiment, seven Zn pools were separated. Multiple regression and path-coefficient analysis indicated that water soluble + exchangeable Zn, Zn weakly complexed to OM, and Zn bound to OM are the major contributors to plant Zn uptake.

  14. Old and stable soil organic matter is not necessarily chemically recalcitrant: Implications for modeling concepts and temperature sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kleber, M.; Nico, P.S.; Plante, A.; Filley, T.; Kramer, M.; Swanston, C.; Sollins, P.

    2010-03-01

    Soil carbon turnover models generally divide soil carbon into pools with varying intrinsic decomposition rates. Although these decomposition rates are modified by factors such as temperature, texture, and moisture, they are rationalized by assuming chemical structure is a primary controller of decomposition. In the current work, we use near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy in combination with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and alkaline cupric oxide (CuO) oxidation to explore this assumption. Specifically, we examined material from the 2.3-2.6 kg L{sup -1} density fraction of three soils of different type (Oxisol, Alfisol, Inceptisol). The density fraction with the youngest {sup 14}C age (Oxisol, 107 years) showed the highest relative abundance of aromatic groups and the lowest O-alkyl C/aromatic C ratio as determined by NEXAFS. Conversely, the fraction with the oldest C (Inceptisol, 680 years) had the lowest relative abundance of aromatic groups and highest O-alkyl C/aromatic C ratio. This sample also had the highest proportion of thermally labile materials as measured by DSC, and the highest ratio of substituted fatty acids to lignin phenols as indicated by CuO oxidation. Therefore, the organic matter of the Inceptisol sample, with a {sup 14}C age associated with 'passive' pools of carbon (680 years), had the largest proportion of easily metabolizable organic molecules with low thermodynamic stability, whereas the organic matter of the much younger Oxisol sample (107 years) had the highest proportion of supposedly stable organic structures considered more difficult to metabolize. Our results demonstrate that C age is not necessarily related to molecular structure or thermodynamic stability, and we suggest that soil carbon models would benefit from viewing turnover rate as codetermined by the interaction between substrates, microbial actors, and abiotic driving variables. Furthermore, assuming that old carbon is composed of

  15. FIA-12-0054- In the Matter of California-Arizona-Nevada District Organization Contract Compliance

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    On September 14, 2012, California-Arizona-Nevada District Organization Contract Compliance (CANDO) filed an appeal from a final determination issued by the Loan Guarantee Program Office (LGPO) of...

  16. Biogenicity and Syngeneity of Organic Matter in Ancient Sedimentary Rocks: Recent Advances in the Search for Evidence of Past Life

    SciTech Connect

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Cady, Sherry L.

    2014-12-01

    he past decade has seen an explosion of new technologies for assessment of biogenicity and syngeneity of carbonaceous material within sedimentary rocks. Advances have been made in techniques for analysis of in situ organic matter as well as for extracted bulk samples of soluble and insoluble (kerogen) organic fractions. The in situ techniques allow analysis of micrometer-to-sub-micrometer-scale organic residues within their host rocks and include Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy/imagery, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and forms of secondary ion/laser-based mass spectrometry, analytical transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray absorption microscopy/spectroscopy. Analyses can be made for chemical, molecular, and isotopic composition coupled with assessment of spatial relationships to surrounding minerals, veins, and fractures. The bulk analyses include improved methods for minimizing contamination and recognizing syngenetic constituents of soluble organic fractions as well as enhanced spectroscopic and pyrolytic techniques for unlocking syngenetic molecular signatures in kerogen. Together, these technologies provide vital tools for the study of some of the oldest and problematic carbonaceous residues and for advancing our understanding of the earliest stages of biological evolution on Earth and the search for evidence of life beyond Earth. We discuss each of these new technologies, emphasizing their advantages and disadvantages, applications, and likely future directions.

  17. Roles of dissolved organic matter in the speciation of mercury and methylmercury in a contaminated ecosystem in Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Wenming; Liang, Liyuan; Brooks, Scott C; Southworth, George R; Gu, Baohua

    2009-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) presents an environmental concern owing to its transformation to the potent neurotoxin methylmercury (CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}). The environmental factors that control bacterial methylation of mercury are poorly understood, but we know that methylmercury is bioaccumulated and biomagnified in aquatic food webs. We show that, even at low concentrations ({approx}3 mg L{sup -1}), natural dissolved organic matter strongly complexes with ionic Hg{sup 2+} and CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}, thereby influencing biological uptake and methylation of Hg in aquatic environments. Complexation of the mercuric ion (Hg{sup 2+}) and methylmercury (CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}) with organic and inorganic ligands influences mercury transformation and bioaccumulation in aquatic environments. Using aqueous geochemical modelling, we show that natural dissolved organic matter (DOM), even at low concentrations ({approx}3 mg L{sup -1}), controls the Hg speciation by forming strong Hg-DOM and CH{sub 3}Hg-DOM complexes through the reactive sulfur or thiol-like functional groups in DOM in the contaminated East Fork Poplar Creek at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Concentrations of neutral Hg(OH){sub 2}, Hg(OH)Cl, CH{sub 3}HgCl, and CH{sub 3}HgOH species are negligible. Of the coexisting metal ions, only Zn{sup 2+}, at concentrations of 1.6-2.6 x 10{sup -7} M, competes with Hg{sup 2+} for binding with DOM, causing decrease in Hg-DOM complexation but having little impact on CH{sub 3}Hg-DOM complexation. DOM may thus play a dominant role in controlling the transformation, biological uptake, and methylation of Hg in this contaminated ecosystem.

  18. FIA-12-0020- In the Matter of California-Arizona-Nevada District Organization Contract Compliance

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Hearings and Appeals granted a Motion for Reconsideration of part of a Decision we issued on March 23, 2012, relating to appeals filed by California-Arizona-Nevada District Organization Contract Compliance (CANDO) under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).

  19. FIA-12-0004- In the Matter of California-Arizona-Nevada District Organization Contract Compliance

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Hearings and Appeals issued one Decision relating to two appeals filed by California-Arizona-Nevada District Organization Contract Compliance (CANDO) from two determination letters issued by the Loan Guarantee Program Office (LGPO) of the Department of Energy (DOE) under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).

  20. FIA-12-0005- In the Matter of California-Arizona-Nevada District Organization Contract Compliance

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Hearings and Appeals issued one Decision relating to two appeals filed by California-Arizona-Nevada District Organization Contract Compliance (CANDO) from two determination letters issued by the Loan Guarantee Program Office (LGPO) of the Department of Energy (DOE) under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).

  1. Impacts of Mid-level Biofuel Content in Gasoline on SIDI Engine-Out and Tailpipe Particulate Matter Emissions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Ireland, J. C.; Zigler, B. T.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Knoll, K. E.; Alleman, T. L.; Tester, J. T.

    2011-02-01

    The influences of ethanol and iso-butanol blended with gasoline on engine-out and post Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) particle size distribution and number concentration were studied using a GM 2.0L turbocharged Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was operated using the production ECU with a dynamometer controlling the engine speed and the accelerator pedal position controlling the engine load. A TSI Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) spectrometer was used to measure the particle size distribution in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm with a sampling rate of 1 Hz. US federal certification gasoline (E0), two ethanol-blended fuels (E10 and E20), and 11.7% iso-butanol blended fuel (BU12) were tested. Measurements were conducted at ten selected steady-state engine operation conditions. Bi-modal particle size distributions were observed for all operating conditions with peak values at particle sizes of 10 nm and 70 nm. Idle and low speed / low load conditions emitted higher total particle numbers than other operating conditions. At idle, the engine-out Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were dominated by nucleation mode particles, and the production TWC reduced these nucleation mode particles by more than 50%, while leaving the accumulation mode particle distribution unchanged. At engine load higher than 6 bar NMEP, accumulation mode particles dominated the engine-out particle emissions and the TWC had little effect. Compared to the baseline gasoline (E0), E10 does not significantly change PM emissions, while E20 and BU12 both reduce PM emissions under the conditions studied. Iso-butanol was observed to impact PM emissions more than ethanol, with up to 50% reductions at some conditions. In this paper, the issues related to PM measurement using FMPS are also discussed. While some uncertainties are due to engine variation, the FMPS must be operated under careful maintenance procedures in order to achieve repeatable measurement results.

  2. Chemical changes to nonagrregtaed particulate soil organic matter following grassland-to woodland transition ina subtropical savanna.

    SciTech Connect

    Filley, T. R.; Boutton, T. W.; Liao, J. D.; Jastrow, J. D.; Gamblin, D. E.; Biosciences Division; Purdue Univ.; Texas A&M

    2008-07-19

    Encroachment of thorn woodlands into grasslands of southern Texas has resulted in greater aboveground and belowground biomass and greater soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Our previous studies showed that a large percentage of the SOC accrued under invading woody clusters was not stabilized within protective soil aggregates or on mineral-surfaces. Here we evaluated lignin and cutin- and suberin-derived substituted fatty acid (SFA) chemistry to determine if the accrual of nonaggregated particulate organic matter (POM) in woodlands was promoted by inherently greater recalcitrance of tissues from woody versus grass species, and if there was selective input of aboveground versus belowground plant carbon to POM. Woody clusters exhibited reduced concentrations of cutin-derived SFA and cinnamyl phenols within surface litter compared to fresh aboveground plant material. However, root litter exhibited relatively minor changes in biopolymer chemistry compared to fresh root tissue, suggesting it was either more stable or was refreshed at a greater rate. Between 14 and 105 years of woody plant encroachment, SFA in free POM fractions appeared to be consistently derived from root material while SFA within intraaggregate POM were increasingly derived from cutin sources. In addition, the shift from herbaceous to woody input was accompanied by enrichment in the amount of cutin and suberin-derived aliphatics with respect to lignin in both root and surface litter as well as nonaggregated POM. Woody plant encroachment at this site results in the rapid accrual of POM pools that are biochemically recalcitrant, providing a mechanism by which soil organic carbon can accumulate in this sandy soil system. Our results also lend further credence to the hypothesis that aliphatic biopolymers, particularly root-derived suberin, are important components of long-term soil organic carbon stabilization.

  3. Chemical Form Matters: Differential Accumulation of Mercury Following Inorganic and Organic Mercury Exposures in Zebrafish Larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Korbas, Malgorzata; MacDonald, Tracy C.; Pickering, Ingrid J.; George, Graham N.; Krone, Patrick H.

    2013-04-08

    Mercury, one of the most toxic elements, exists in various chemical forms each with different toxicities and health implications. Some methylated mercury forms, one of which exists in fish and other seafood products, pose a potential threat, especially during embryonic and early postnatal development. Despite global concerns, little is known about the mechanisms underlying transport and toxicity of different mercury species. To investigate the impact of different mercury chemical forms on vertebrate development, we have successfully combined the zebrafish, a well-established developmental biology model system, with synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging. Our work revealed substantial differences in tissue-specific accumulation patterns of mercury in zebrafish larvae exposed to four different mercury formulations in water. Methylmercury species not only resulted in overall higher mercury burdens but also targeted different cells and tissues than their inorganic counterparts, thus revealing a significant role of speciation in cellular and molecular targeting and mercury sequestration. For methylmercury species, the highest mercury concentrations were in the eye lens epithelial cells, independent of the formulation ligand (chloride versus L-cysteine). For inorganic mercury species, in absence of L-cysteine, the olfactory epithelium and kidney accumulated the greatest amounts of mercury. However, with L-cysteine present in the treatment solution, mercuric bis-L-cysteineate species dominated the treatment, significantly decreasing uptake. Our results clearly demonstrate that the common differentiation between organic and inorganic mercury is not sufficient to determine the toxicity of various mercury species.

  4. Detailed Characterization and Profiles of Crankcase and Diesel Particulate Matter Exhaust Emissions Using Speciated Organics

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinska, B.; Campbell, D.; Lawson, D. R.; Ireson, R. G.; Weaver, C. S.; Hesterberg, T. W.; Larson, T.; Davey, M.; Sally Liu, L.-J.

    2008-01-01

    A monitoring campaign was conducted in August-September 2005 to compare different experimental approaches quantifying school bus self-pollution. As part of this monitoring campaign, a detailed characterization of PM2.5 diesel engine emissions from the tailpipe and crankcase emissions from the road draft tubes was performed. To distinguish between tailpipe and crankcase vent emissions, a deuterated alkane, n-hexatriacontane-d74 (n-C36D74) was added to the engine oil to serve as an intentional quantitative tracer for lubricating oil PM emissions. This paper focuses on the detailed chemical speciation of crankcase and tailpipe PM emissions from two school buses used in this study. We found that organic carbon emission rates were generally higher from the crankcase than from the tailpipe for these two school buses, while elemental carbon contributed significantly only in the tailpipe emissions. The n-C36D74 that was added to the engine oil was emitted at higher rates from the crankcase than the tailpipe. Tracers of engine oil (hopanes and steranes) were present in much higher proportion in crankcase emissions. Particle-associated PAH emission rates were generally very low (<1 {micro}g/km), but more PAH species were present in crankcase than in tailpipe emissions. The speciation of samples collected in the bus cabins was consistent with most of the bus self-pollution originating from crankcase emissions.

  5. Inorganic/organic nanocomposites: Reaching a high filler content without increasing viscosity using core-shell structured nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Benhadjala, W.; Gravoueille, M.; Weiss, M.; Bord-Majek, I.; Béchou, L.; Ousten, Y.; Suhir, E.; Buet, M.; Louarn, M.; Rougé, F.; Gaud, V.

    2015-11-23

    Extensive research is being conducted on the development of inorganic/organic nanocomposites for a wide variety of applications in microelectronics, biotechnologies, photonics, adhesives, or optical coatings. High filler contents are usually required to fully optimize the nanocomposites properties. However, numerous studies demonstrated that traditional composite viscosity increases with increasing the filler concentration reducing therefore significantly the material processability. In this work, we synthesized inorganic/organic core-shell nanocomposites with different shell thicknesses. By reducing the shell thickness while maintaining a constant core size, the nanoparticle molecular mass decreases but the nanocomposite filler fraction is correlatively increased. We performed viscosity measurements, which clearly highlighted that intrinsic viscosity of hybrid nanoparticles decreases as the molecular mass decreases, and thus, as the filler fraction increases, as opposed to Einstein predictions about the viscosity of traditional inorganic/polymer two-phase mixtures. This exceptional behavior, modeled by Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation, proves to be a significant breakthrough for the development of industrializable nanocomposites with high filler contents.

  6. Toxicity to embryo and adult zebrafish of copper complexes with two malonic acids as models for dissolved organic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, F.B.; Evans, C.W.; Butler, C.A.; Timperley, M.H.

    1998-08-01

    The toxicity to embryo and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) of Cu complexes with two substituted malonic acids, benzyl- and n-hexadecyl-, chosen as models for low-molecular-weight natural dissolved organic matter, were investigated. Toxicity test solutions at pH 6.5 {+-} 0.1 with the required Cu ion-specific electrode. In the absence of malonic acids, concentrations of Cu{sup 2+} up to 1.13 {mu}mol/L increased the embryo hatching time from approx. 2 d in control solutions (no Cu or malonic acid) and solutions containing malonic acids without Cu to approx. 8 d. The Cu-benzylmalonic acid complex in the presence of inorganic Cu species did not delay hatching beyond that attributable to Cu{sup 2+}. In contrast, 0.60 {mu}mol/L Cu-n-hexadecylmalonic complexes delayed hatching by 5.5 d in excess of that attributable to 1.13 {mu}mol/L Cu{sup 2+}, assuming that the hatching delays caused by the different Cu species were additive, possibly because of Cu entry into the embryo as the lipophilic Cu-n-hexadecylmalonic complex. None of the Cu-malonic acid complexes was acutely toxic to adult zebrafish at concentrations up to 1.4 {mu}mol/L, possibly because Cu was removed from the Cu-malonic acid complexes by stronger chelating groups at the gill surface. Substituted malonic acids with similar proton and Cu association constants can be readily prepared with a variety of simple substituents, radiolabeled if required. Their results show that these acids could be useful ligands for investigating intracellular transport and metabolism of metal-organic complexes.

  7. Summary of the issues with regard to the carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and exposure of polycyclic organic matter (POM)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    Polycyclic organic matter (POM) is emitted from a variety of sources in the environment. Evidence of the carcinogenicity of emissions from coke production, motor vehicles (includes tire wear), asphalt roofing, paving, and air blowing, catalytic cracking residential coal combustion, industrial/utility coal combustion, carbon black, and iron and steel processes is presented. The contribution of the POM fraction to the carcinogenicity of the mixture is evaluated for gasoline engine exhaust condensate and coal combustion effluent and appears to contribute the majority of the carcinogenic potential for those mixtures. Evidence of the mutagenicity of emissions from coke production, motor vehicles (including tire wear), industrial/utility coal combustion, carbon black, iron and steel processes, forest fires and open burning, residential solid fuel (wood) combustion, commercial and other incineration, commercial/industrial oil combustion, residential oil combustion, and asphalt roofing, paving, and air blowing is also presented. The problem in the use of a chemical surrogate to sample for POM-containing emissions is discussed. A discussion of the problems in evaluating the carcinogenic potential of different POM-containing mixtures is also presented.

  8. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias, Nicholas; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Michael; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul M.; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun S.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2012-01-01

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. SIDI is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency compared to other SI engines, however, the efficiency benefit comes with greater PM emissions and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based PM regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition.

  9. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias, Nicholas; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Michael; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun S.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2012-01-01

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. SIDI is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency compared to other SI engines, however, the efficiency benefit comes with greater PM emissions and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based PM regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition

  10. PowerSlicing to determine fluorescence lifetimes of water-soluble organic matter derived from soils, plant biomass, and animal manures

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Tsutomu; Wang, Zheming; Bro, Rasmus

    2008-04-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) which plays an important role in soil ecosystem processes. WSOM was extracted from plant biomass, animal manures, and soils from controlled cropping systems studies with known histories of organic amendments. Lifetime constants were derived using the multi-way PowerSlicing method which provides a non-iterative, multi-exponential fitting of decay profiles. The lifetimes obtained by PowerSlicing were not significantly different from those obtained using the traditional discrete components analysis. The three components attributed to WSOM had lifetimes of 0.38 0.14, 2.110.72, and 7.081.18 ns which are in agreement with previous lifetimes reported for humic substances. This study provides further support for the new paradigm for the structure of soil organic matter where the organic matter is composed of low-molecular-weight components held together by hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions.

  11. Organic Matter Composition, Recycling Susceptibility, and the Effectiveness of the Biological Pump – An Evaluation Using NMR Spectra of Marine Plankton

    SciTech Connect

    Paytan, Adina

    2014-02-19

    Carbon (C) sequestration through fertilization of phytoplankton with micronutrients and enhancement of the absorption and retention of atmospheric C by ocean biota heavily depends on the efficiency of the “biological pump”. The long-term effectiveness of this strategy depends on a net transfer of C from the upper ocean-atmosphere system to the deep ocean where the C is removed from contact with the atmosphere for an extended period of time. This C removal can be equated to the amount of C fixation by phytoplankton minus the C cycling and regeneration in the euphotic zone. If the regeneration efficiency is increased, then despite increased C fixation, no net loss (sequestration) of C will result. A reduction in cycling efficiency in the euphotic zone, on the other hand, will increase the effectiveness of the “biological pump” and thus C sequestration. The degree of organic matter biodegradation and recycling depends on the “reactivity” of compounds synthesized by the biota, which in turn, is controlled by the structural characteristic of these compounds. There is considerable evidence that different phytoplankton taxa differ substantially in their biogeochemical characteristics and it is likely that the relative abundance of different compounds synthesized by these distinct taxa, and even within each group at different growth conditions, will differ too. This variability in biosynthesis and thus abundance of a wide range of organic compounds in the water column would lend itself to different susceptibility for biodegradation and regeneration. Knowledge of the distribution of various organic matter structural groups synthesized by distinct taxa, the dependence of the organic matter compound classes on different growth conditions (temperature, light, nutrients) and the selective susceptibility of these compound to regeneration is crucial for estimating the potential for rapid regeneration in the euphotic zone, and thus the effectiveness of the

  12. Discussion on the energy content of the galactic dark matter Bose-Einstein condensate halo in the Thomas-Fermi approximation

    SciTech Connect

    De Souza, J.C.C.; Pires, M.O.C. E-mail: marcelo.pires@ufabc.edu.br

    2014-03-01

    We show that the galactic dark matter halo, considered composed of an axionlike particles Bose-Einstein condensate [6] trapped by a self-graviting potential [5], may be stable in the Thomas-Fermi approximation since appropriate choices for the dark matter particle mass and scattering length are made. The demonstration is performed by means of the calculation of the potential, kinetic and self-interaction energy terms of a galactic halo described by a Boehmer-Harko density profile. We discuss the validity of the Thomas-Fermi approximation for the halo system, and show that the kinetic energy contribution is indeed negligible.

  13. Response of fine particulate matter to emission changes of oxides of nitrogen and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds in the eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandra P. Tsimpidi; Vlassis A. Karydis; Spyros N. Pandis

    2008-11-15

    A three-dimensional chemical transport model (Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions) is used to investigate changes in fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in response to 50% emissions changes of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during July 2001 and January 2002 in the eastern United States. The reduction of NOx emissions by 50% during the summer results in lower average oxidant levels and lowers PM2.5 (8% on average), mainly because of reductions of sulfate (9-11%), nitrate (45-58%), and ammonium (7-11%). The organic particulate matter (PM) slightly decreases in rural areas, whereas it increases in cities by a few percent when NOx is reduced. Reduction of NOx during winter causes an increase of the oxidant levels and a rather complicated response of the PM components, leading to small net changes. Sulfate increases (8-17%), nitrate decreases (18-42%), organic PM slightly increases, and ammonium either increases or decreases a little. The reduction of VOC emissions during the summer causes on average a small increase of the oxidant levels and a marginal increase in PM2.5. This small net change is due to increases in the inorganic components and decreases of the organic ones. Reduction of VOC emissions during winter results in a decrease of the oxidant levels and a 5-10% reduction of PM2.5 because of reductions in nitrate (4-19%), ammonium (4-10%), organic PM (12-14%), and small reductions in sulfate. Although sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) reduction is the single most effective approach for sulfate control, the coupled decrease of SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions in both seasons is more effective in reducing total PM2.5 mass than the SO{sub 2} reduction alone. 34 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Do New Technologies Matter? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Do New Technologies Matter? Do New Technologies Matter? February 12, 2015 - 2:07pm Addthis Pat Adams Pat Adams Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Learn More Learn ...

  15. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics | Dark matter and dark...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Dark matter and dark energy photo Visible matter makes up just 4 percent of the contents of the universe; the remaining 96 percent is made of dark matter and dark energy. ...

  16. Inorganic–organic hybrids presenting high basic center content: SBA-15 incorporation, toxic metals sorption and energetic behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Fernando J.V.E.; Melo, Maurício A.; Airoldi, Claudio

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Mesoporous SBA-15 silicas were organofunctionalized with new silylant agents. ► Thiocarbamate was used to enhance the silylating agent chains and basic centers. ► The synthesized pendant chains contain nitrogen and sulfur basic centers. ► The new hybrids sorb toxic cations from aqueous solutions with high efficiency. ► The thermodynamic data demonstrated favorable cation/basic center interactions. - Abstract: Mesoporous SBA-15 samples were organofunctionalized with mono, di- and tri-aminosilanes that previously reacted with thiocarbamide to enhance the organic chains and attach nitrogen and sulfur basic centers to the surface of the solids. These new organosilanes were synthesized through a non-solvent approach to reduce both cost and hazardous wastes. The high affinities for both hard and soft Lewis acids due to the combination of nitrogen and sulfur atoms attached to the same pendant chain enabled favorable sorption capacities for Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} cations, with maximum capacities of 1.90, 3.48 and 5.30 mmol g{sup −1}, respectively, for the most efficient mesoporous silica. Microcalorimetric investigations allowed the calculation of the thermodynamic data at the solid/liquid interface. All Gibbs energy are negative as expected for spontaneous cation/basic center interactions and the positive entropic values from 49 ± 3 to 108 ± 5 J K{sup −1} mol{sup −1}, also reinforced this favorable interactive process in heterogeneous system. The designed organosilanes covalently bonded to the inorganic siliceous skeleton can be suggested as new materials for toxic metal removal from a wastewater with high efficiency.

  17. Characterization of low-VOC latex paints: Volatile organic compound content, VOC and aldehyde emissions, and paint performance. Final report, January 1997--January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Fortmann, R.; Lao, H.C.; Ng, A.; Roache, N.

    1999-04-01

    The report gives results of laboratory tests to evaluate commercially available latex paints advertised as `low-odor,` `low-VOC (volatile organic compound),` or `no-VOC.` Measurements were performed to quantify the total content of VOCs in the paints and to identify the predominant VOCs and aldehydes in the emissions following application to test substrates. The performance of the paints was evaluated and compared to that of commonly used conventional latex paints by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard methods that measured parameters such as scrubbability, cleanability, and hiding power. The report describes the paints that were tested, the test methods, and the experimental data. Results are presented that can be used to evaluate the low-odor/low-VOC paints as alternatives to conventional latex wall paints that contain and emit higher concentrations of VOCs.

  18. Dark Matters

    ScienceCinema

    Joseph Silk

    2016-07-12

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark.  Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious, but pervasive dark matter which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe.  I will describe the complex interplay between galaxy formation and dark matter detectability and review recent attempts to measure particle dark matter by direct and indirect means.

  19. Matter in transition

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Anderson, Lara B.; Gray, James; Raghuram, Nikhil; Taylor, Washington

    2016-04-13

    In this study, we explore a novel type of transition in certain 6D and 4D quantum field theories, in which the matter content of the theory changes while the gauge group and other parts of the spectrum remain invariant. Such transitions can occur, for example, for SU(6) and SU(7) gauge groups, where matter fields in a three-index antisymmetric representation and the fundamental representation are exchanged in the transition for matter in the two-index antisymmetric representation. These matter transitions are realized by passing through superconformal theories at the transition point. We explore these transitions in dual F-theory and heterotic descriptions, wheremore » a number of novel features arise. For example, in the heterotic description the relevant 6D SU(7) theories are described by bundles on K3 surfaces where the geometry of the K3 is constrained in addition to the bundle structure. On the F-theory side, non-standard representations such as the three-index antisymmetric representation of SU(N) require Weierstrass models that cannot be realized from the standard SU(N) Tate form. We also briefly describe some other situations, with groups such as Sp(3), SO(12), and SU(3), where analogous matter transitions can occur between different representations. For SU(3), in particular, we find a matter transition between adjoint matter and matter in the symmetric representation, giving an explicit Weierstrass model for the F-theory description of the symmetric representation that complements another recent analogous construction.« less

  20. Asymmetric twin Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Farina, Marco

    2015-11-09

    We study a natural implementation of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Twin Higgs models. The mirroring of the Standard Model strong sector suggests that a twin baryon with mass around 5 GeV is a natural Dark Matter candidate once a twin baryon number asymmetry comparable to the SM asymmetry is generated. We explore twin baryon Dark Matter in two different scenarios, one with minimal content in the twin sector and one with a complete copy of the SM, including a light twin photon. The essential requirements for successful thermal history are presented, and in doing so we address some of the cosmological issues common to many Twin Higgs models. The required interactions we introduce predict signatures at direct detection experiments and at the LHC.

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    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click ... Data for" ,"Data 1","South Dakota Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers ...

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  6. Dark Matter

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Dark Matter Scientists are using the underground of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant to try to solve the universe's major missing mass problem. He is enjoying his search They are searching for the presence of particles that may have mass but hardly interact with other matter. Based on observations of the relationships between mass and gravity and the speed of the stars and other cosmological systems, scientists believe that more than 90 percent of the universe's mass is "missing." A

  7. Active microrheology in active matter systems: Mobility, intermittency...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on March 24, 2016 Title: Active microrheology in active matter systems: Mobility, intermittency, and...

  8. Diluted equilibrium sterile neutrino dark matter (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Diluted equilibrium sterile neutrino dark matter Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on November 5, 2016 Title: Diluted equilibrium ...

  9. Diluted equilibrium sterile neutrino dark matter (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Diluted equilibrium sterile neutrino dark matter This content will become publicly available on November 5, 2016 Prev Next Title: Diluted equilibrium sterile neutrino dark ...

  10. Apparatus for particulate matter analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gundel, Lara A.; Apte, Michael G.; Hansen, Anthony D.; Black, Douglas R.

    2007-01-30

    The apparatus described herein is a miniaturized system for particle exposure assessment (MSPEA) for the quantitative measurement and qualitative identification of particulate content in gases. The present invention utilizes a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) or other mass-sensitive temperature compensated acoustic wave resonator for mass measurement. Detectors and probes and light sources are used in combination for the qualitative determination of particulate matter.

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    Consumed" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","District of Columbia Heat Content ...

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    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Hampshire Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic ...

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    Data for" ,"Data 1","Minnesota Natural Gas Injections into Underground ... 7:00:26 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Minnesota Natural Gas Injections into Underground ...

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    ..."Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"09302016 8:50:56 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural Gas Underground Storage ...

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    ..."Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"10072016 1:14:05 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Net Storage Changes ...

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    to Contents","Data 1: Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)" "Sourcekey","RNGC3" "Date","Natural Gas Futures Contract 3 (Dollars per Million Btu)" 34349,2.116 ...

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    to Contents","Data 1: Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)" "Sourcekey","RNGC2" "Date","Natural Gas Futures Contract 2 (Dollars per Million Btu)" 34349,2.188 ...

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  3. Workbook Contents

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"5302016 7:40:48 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Crude Oil Production" "Sourcekey","MCRFPUS1","MCRFPP11","MCRFPFL1","MCRFPNY1","MCRFPPA1","MCRFPVA1","M...

  4. Workbook Contents

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Minnesota Price of Natural Gas Sold to Commercial ... 6:57:30 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Minnesota Price of Natural Gas Sold to Commercial ...

  5. Subchronic effects of inhaled ambient particulate matter on glucose homeostasis and target organ damage in a type 1 diabetic rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Yuan-Horng; Charles, Chou C.-K.; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Tung, Chun-Liang; Li, Ya-Ru; Lo, Kai; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported associations between particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular effects, and diabetes mellitus (DM) patients might be susceptible to these effects. The chief chronic injuries resulting from DM are small vascular injuries (micro-vascular complications) or large blood vessel injuries (macro-vascular complications). However, toxicological data regarding the effects of PM on DM-related cardiovascular complications is limited. Our objective was to investigate whether subchronic PM exposure alters glucose homeostasis and causes cardiovascular complications in a type 1 DM rat model. We constructed a real world PM{sub 2.5} exposure system, the Taipei Air Pollution Exposure System for Health Effects (TAPES), to continuously deliver non-concentrated PM for subchronic exposure. A type 1 DM rat model was induced using streptozotocin. Between December 22, 2009 and April 9, 2010, DM rats were exposed to PM or to filtered air (FA) using TAPES in Taipei, Taiwan, 24 h/day, 7 days/week, for a total of 16 weeks. The average concentrations (mean [SD]) of PM{sub 2.5} in the exposure and control chambers of the TAPES were 13.30 [8.65] and 0.13 [0.05] μg/m{sup 3}, respectively. Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was significantly elevated after exposure to PM compared with exposure to FA (mean [SD], 7.7% [3.1%] vs. 4.7% [1.0%], P < 0.05). Interleukin 6 and fibrinogen levels were significantly increased after PM exposure. PM caused focal myocarditis, aortic medial thickness, advanced glomerulosclerosis, and accentuation of tubular damage of the kidney (tubular damage index: 1.76 [0.77] vs. 1.15 [0.36], P < 0.001). PM exposure might induce the macro- and micro-vascular complications in DM through chronic hyperglycemia and systemic inflammation. - Highlights: • The study demonstrated cardiovascular and renal effects of PM in a rat model of DM. • TAPES is a continuous, real world, long-term PM exposure system. • HbA1c, a marker of glycemic

  6. Investigations of release phenomenon of volatile organic compounds and particulates from residual storage chip piles

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, S.; Nagarkatti, M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper outlines the method for estimating Particulate Matter and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) emissions from wood handling and storage operations at a pulp mill. Fugitive particulate matter emissions from wood handling and storage operations are due to material load/dropout operations, wind erosion from storage piles and vehicular traffic on paved roads. The particulate matter emissions are a function of a number of variables like windspeed, surface moisture content, material silt content, and number of days of precipitation. Literature review attributes VOC emissions to biological, microbiological, chemical, and physical processes occurring in wood material storage pile. The VOC emissions are from the surface of these piles and the VOC released during retrieval of chips from the pile. VOC emissions are based on the chip throughput, number of turnovers, moisture content and surface area of the pile. The emission factors with the requisite calculation methodology to be utilized for quantifying VOC emissions from chip piles has been discussed in this paper.

  7. Workbook Contents

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Contents","Data 1: U.S., PAD Districts, and States" "Sourcekey","8NA8O0NUSC","8NA8O0R10C","8NA8O0SDEC","8NA8O0SFLC","8NA8O0SGAC","8NA8O0SMDC","8NA8O0SN...

  8. neutrinos matter

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    nu0001 PDF full text version nu0001 HTML full text version nu0002 Credits nu0003 Contents nu0004 Introduction nu0005 Neutrinos are Everywhere nu0006 What are neutrinos? nu0007 A new particle? nu0008 Origins nu0009 Making neutrinos nu0010 Seeing neutrinos nu0011 Big detector nu0012 Neutrinos are there nu0013 Loners of the universe nu0014 The neutrino family nu0015 Neutrino tracks nu0016 Do they have mass? nu0017 What if they do? nu0018 Oscillations nu0019 Seeing the invisible nu0020 Neutrinos

  9. The Energy.gov Content Team | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    The Energy.gov Content Team About Us The Energy.gov Content Team - Office of Public Affairs The Energy.gov Content Team Formed in 2010, the Energy Department's digital content team is comprised of professional digital content producers who tell stories about energy, science, technology and why they matter. Part of the Office of Public Affairs, the team creates multimedia content for Energy.gov and the Energy Department's social media channels, working to make energy and science topics exciting

  10. LM Organization Chart | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Organization Chart LM Organization Chart LM Organization Chart (47.99 KB) More Documents & Publications 2011-2015 Human Capital Management Plan VBH-0017 - In the Matter of Jimmie L. Russell WIP Organization Chart

  11. Dark Matter Theory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Dark Matter Theory Dark Matter Theory Understanding discoveries at the Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic Frontiers Get Expertise Rajan Gupta (505) 667-7664 Email Bruce Carlsten (505) ...

  12. Workbook Contents

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Consumers",52,"Monthly","8/2016","01/15/2012" ,"Data 2","Heat Content of Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers",52,"Annual",2015,"06/30/2003" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","ngm25vmall.xls" ,"Available from Web

  13. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Organization Organization Organization

  14. Bisfuel links - Professional organizations

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Professional organizations http://portal.acs.org/portal/acs/corg/content" target="_blank">American Chemical Society

  15. Asymmetric dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Jason

    2014-06-24

    We review the theoretical framework underlying models of asymmetric dark matter, describe astrophysical constraints which arise from observations of neutron stars, and discuss the prospects for detecting asymmetric dark matter.

  16. Particulate Matter Aerosols

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    particulate matter aerosols Particulate Matter Aerosols The study of atmospheric aerosols is important because of its adverse effects on health, air quality, visibility, cultural heritage, and Earth's radiation balance. Techniques that can help better characterize particulate matter are required to better understand the constituents, causes and sources of particulate matter (PM) aerosols. Carbon is one of the main constituents of atmospheric aerosols. Radiocarbon (14C) measurement performed on

  17. Extended Research on Detection of Deception Using Volatile Organic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 98 NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT, SAFEGUARDS, AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; DETECTION; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; TESTING; VOLATILE MATTER deception, ...

  18. Partitioning of Volatile Organics in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Evaluation of how sampling details affect the measurement of volatile organic compounds in ... Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction of Particulate Matter on DPF ...

  19. Big Questions: Dark Matter

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-07

    Carl Sagan's oft-quoted statement that there are "billions and billions" of stars in the cosmos gives an idea of just how much "stuff" is in the universe. However scientists now think that in addition to the type of matter with which we are familiar, there is another kind of matter out there. This new kind of matter is called "dark matter" and there seems to be five times as much as ordinary matter. Dark matter interacts only with gravity, thus light simply zips right by it. Scientists are searching through their data, trying to prove that the dark matter idea is real. Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln tells us why we think this seemingly-crazy idea might not be so crazy after all.

  20. Big Questions: Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-12-05

    Carl Sagan's oft-quoted statement that there are "billions and billions" of stars in the cosmos gives an idea of just how much "stuff" is in the universe. However scientists now think that in addition to the type of matter with which we are familiar, there is another kind of matter out there. This new kind of matter is called "dark matter" and there seems to be five times as much as ordinary matter. Dark matter interacts only with gravity, thus light simply zips right by it. Scientists are searching through their data, trying to prove that the dark matter idea is real. Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln tells us why we think this seemingly-crazy idea might not be so crazy after all.

  1. EERE Website Content Checklist

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This checklist is a tool to guide EERE content developers and editors in creating and reviewing content for websites.

  2. THE INTEGRATED STELLAR CONTENT OF DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Leauthaud, Alexie; Bundy, Kevin; Tanaka, Masayuki; George, Matthew R.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Tinker, Jeremy; Conroy, Charlie; Finoguenov, Alexis

    2012-02-10

    Measurements of the total amount of stars locked up in galaxies as a function of host halo mass contain key clues about the efficiency of processes that regulate star formation. We derive the total stellar mass fraction f{sub *} (excluding stars in the intracluster light) as a function of halo mass M{sub 500c} from z = 0.2 to z = 1 using two complementary methods. First, we derive f{sub *} using a statistical Halo Occupation Distribution model jointly constrained by data from lensing, clustering, and the stellar mass function. This method enables us to probe f{sub *} over a much wider halo mass range than with group or cluster catalogs. Second, we derive f{sub *} at group scales using a COSMOS X-ray group catalog and show that the two methods agree to within 30%. We quantify the systematic uncertainty on f{sub *} using abundance matching methods and show that the statistical uncertainty on f{sub *} ({approx}10%) is dwarfed by systematic uncertainties associated with stellar mass measurements ({approx}45% excluding initial mass function, IMF, uncertainties). Assuming a Chabrier IMF, we find 0.012 {<=} f{sub *} {<=} 0.025 at M{sub 500c} = 10{sup 13} M{sub Sun} and 0.0057 {<=} f{sub *} {<=} 0.015 at M{sub 500c} = 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun }. These values are significantly lower than previously published estimates. We investigate the cause of this difference and find that previous work has overestimated f{sub *} owing to a combination of inaccurate stellar mass estimators and/or because they have assumed that all galaxies in groups are early-type galaxies with a constant mass-to-light ratio. Contrary to previous claims, our results suggest that the mean value of f{sub *} is always significantly lower than f{sub gas} for halos above 10{sup 13} M{sub Sun }. Combining our results with recently published gas mass fractions, we find a shortfall in f{sub *} + f{sub gas} at R{sub 500c} compared to the cosmic mean. This shortfall varies with halo mass and becomes larger toward lower halo masses.

  3. Ghost dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Tomonori; Yokoyama, Shuichiro; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Mukohyama, Shinji E-mail: shu@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp E-mail: naoshi@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2010-05-01

    We revisit ghost dark matter, the possibility that ghost condensation may serve as an alternative to dark matter. In particular, we investigate the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) background evolution and the large-scale structure (LSS) in the ΛGDM universe, i.e. a late-time universe dominated by a cosmological constant and ghost dark matter. The FRW background of the ΛGDM universe is indistinguishable from that of the standard ΛCDM universe if M∼>1eV, where M is the scale of spontaneous Lorentz breaking. From the LSS we find a stronger bound: M∼>10eV. For smaller M, ghost dark matter would have non-negligible sound speed after the matter-radiation equality, and thus the matter power spectrum would significantly differ from observation. These bounds are compatible with the phenomenological upper bound M∼<100GeV known in the literature.

  4. Neutrinos and dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, Alejandro

    2015-07-15

    Neutrinos could be key particles to unravel the nature of the dark matter of the Universe. On the one hand, sterile neutrinos in minimal extensions of the Standard Model are excellent dark matter candidates, producing potentially observable signals in the form of a line in the X-ray sky. On the other hand, the annihilation or the decay of dark matter particles produces, in many plausible dark matter scenarios, a neutrino flux that could be detected at neutrino telescopes, thus providing non-gravitational evidence for dark matter. More conservatively, the non-observation of a significant excess in the neutrino fluxes with respect to the expected astrophysical backgrounds can be used to constrain dark matter properties, such as the self-annihilation cross section, the scattering cross section with nucleons and the lifetime.

  5. Dark Matter Theory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Dark Matter Theory Dark Matter Theory Understanding discoveries at the Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic Frontiers Get Expertise Rajan Gupta (505) 667-7664 Email Bruce Carlsten (505) 667-5657 Email Dark Matter Theory The existence of dark matter can be traced back to the pioneering discoveries of Fritz Zwicky and Jan Oort that the motion of galaxies in the Coma cluster, and of nearby stars in our own Galaxy, do not follow the expected motion based on Newton's law of gravity and the observed visible

  6. Cosmology with Mimetic Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav; Vikman, Alexander E-mail: viatcheslav.Mukhanov@lmu.de

    2014-06-01

    We consider minimal extensions of the recently proposed Mimetic Dark Matter and show that by introducing a potential for the mimetic non-dynamical scalar field we can mimic nearly any gravitational properties of the normal matter. In particular, the mimetic matter can provide us with inflaton, quintessence and even can lead to a bouncing nonsingular universe. We also investigate the behaviour of cosmological perturbations due to a mimetic matter. We demonstrate that simple mimetic inflation can produce red-tilted scalar perturbations which are largely enhanced over gravity waves.

  7. Magnetization of neutron matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bigdeli, M.

    2011-09-21

    In this paper, we compute magnetization of neutron matter at strong magnetic field using the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) technique.

  8. Energy Matters Mailbag

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This edition of the mailbag tackles follow-up questions from our Energy Matters discussion on breaking our reliance on foreign oil.

  9. Science on Tap - Matter

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Science on Tap - Matter Science on Tap - Matter WHEN: Feb 18, 2016 5:30 PM - 7:00 PM WHERE: UnQuarked Wine Room 145 Central Park Square, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 USA SPEAKER: Jack Shlachter CONTACT: Linda Anderman (505) 665-9196 CATEGORY: Bradbury INTERNAL: Calendar Login Event Description Mark your calendars for this event held every third Thursday from 5:30 to 7 p.m. A short presentation is followed by a lively discussion on a different subject each month. What's the Matter with Matter?

  10. Complex Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-04-16

    After a century of study, scientists have come to the realization that the ordinary matter made of atoms is a minority in the universe. In order to explain observations, it appears that there exists a new and undiscovered kind of matter, called dark matter, that is five times more prevalent than ordinary matter. The evidence for this new matter’s existence is very strong, but scientists know only a little about its nature. In today’s video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln talks about an exciting and unconventional idea, specifically that dark matter might have a very complex set of structures and interactions. While this idea is entirely speculative, it is an interesting hypothesis and one that scientists are investigating.

  11. Distribution of organic facies in recent sediments in northern part of Lake Tanganyika

    SciTech Connect

    Huc, A.Y.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Bessereau, G.; Le Fournier, J.

    1987-05-01

    A better understanding of the relation between the organic facies and the depositional environments is a basic prerequisite to allow predictions of the lateral variations of source rocks and then to achieve realistic quantitative evaluation of the petroleum potential of a sedimentary basin. Lake Tanganyika is a suitable example to address the problem of organic sedimentology in an environment related to a rifting situation. More than 400 dredged samples have been used to construct detailed maps of the organic facies in the surficial sediments of the northern part of Lake Tanganyika. These maps include Bujumbura and Rumonge basins. Beyond an apparent complex pattern, the distribution of the organic facies can be explained in terms of differential preservation and sedimentological processes including pelagic sedimentation on the top of structural blocks, winnowing processes which drive the low-density organic matter from the shallow agitated waters (above the thermocline) toward depocenters in the deepest parts of the basin, and gravity transport mechanisms which dispatch sediments together with their specific organic content along sedimentary transit pathways. In this lake the main biological precursors for the sedimentary organic matter are diatoms. Organic geochemical studies including kerogen analyses and pyrolysis-GC show that the preeminent factor controlling the quality of the organic material, principally its hydrogen richness (in other words, its petroleum potential), is the extent of its degradation which is closely related to the depositional environment (oxic environment above the thermocline versus anoxic environment below the thermocline).

  12. Neutralino dark matter in BMSSM effective theory

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Marcus; Edsj, Joakim; Lundstrm, Erik; Sjrs, Stefan; Gondolo, Paolo E-mail: edsjo@physto.se E-mail: erik@physto.se

    2009-08-01

    We study thermal neutralino dark matter in an effective field theory extension of the MSSM, called ''Beyond the MSSM'' (BMSSM) in Dine, Seiberg and Thomas (2007). In this class of effective field theories, the field content of the MSSM is unchanged, but the little hierarchy problem is alleviated by allowing small corrections to the Higgs/higgsino part of the Lagrangian. We perform parameter scans and compute the dark matter relic density. The light higgsino LSP scenario is modified the most; we find new regions of parameter space compared to the standard MSSM. This involves interesting interplay between the WMAP dark matter bounds and the LEP chargino bound. We also find some changes for gaugino LSPs, partly due to annihilation through a Higgs resonance, and partly due to coannihilation with light top squarks in models that are ruled in by the new effective terms.

  13. Organic carbon in Bakken Formation, United States portion of Williston Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Schmoker, J.W.; Hester, T.C.

    1983-12-01

    The upper and lower members of the Mississippian and Devonian Bakken Formation in the United States portion of the Williston basin are black shales that are extremely rich in organic matter and are the source of much of the oil found in the basin. Organic-carbon values are calculated from formationdensity logs using the equation: TOC = (154.497//rho/) -57.261, where TOC is organic-carbon content (wt. %) and /rho/ is formation density (g/cm/sup 3/). Test calculations comparing this equation to laboratory organic-carbon analyses from 39 wells in North Dakota show an average absolute difference of 1.1% in organic-carbon content. Organic-carbon content, calculated at 159 locations in North Dakota and 107 in Montana, averages 12.1% for the upper member of the Bakken Formation and 11.5% for the lower member. There is a regional depletion of organic carbon, paralleling present-day isotherms, that reflects the conversion of organic matter to oil and subsequent expulsion of the oil from the formation. The mass of organic carbon in the Bakken Formation is approximately evenly divided between the upper and lower members, and it totals about 126 X 10/sup 12/ kg in the study area, of which 102 X 10/sup 12/ kg are in the thermally mature region. The assumption that 167 mg HC/g TOC have migrated out of the mature Bakken shales leads to a tentative estimate that hydrocarbons equivalent to 132 billion bbl of 43/sup 0/ (API gravity) oil have been expelled from the United States portion of the upper and lower members of the Bakken Formation.

  14. Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions Enabling the next generation of intense particle accelerators Contact Juan Fernandez (505) 667-6575 ...

  15. 3 Reasons Why Advanced Manufacturing Institutes Matter | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Why Advanced Manufacturing Institutes Matter 3 Reasons Why Advanced Manufacturing Institutes Matter February 1, 2016 - 3:06pm Addthis Watch how manufacturing Institutes like the Institute for Advanced Composites Manufacturing Innovation are revolutionizing America's clean energy economy. Paul Lester Paul Lester Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs KEY FACTS National Network for Manufacturing Innovation aims to drive down the cost of advanced manufacturing technologies.

  16. CONTENT MODEL HOW-TO

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    003241MLTPL00 Content Model Guidelines https://github.com/usgin/usginspecs/wiki/Content-Model-Guidelines

  17. Inflatable dark matter

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel

    2016-01-22

    Here, we describe a general scenario, dubbed “inflatable dark matter,” in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early Universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many, otherwise, well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context. Thermal relics that would, otherwise, be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the nonthermal abundance of grand unified theory or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levelsmore » without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. A period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ~MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the standard model.« less

  18. Energy Matters - Fall 2002

    SciTech Connect

    2002-09-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. This issue focus of this edition of the Energy Matters Newsletter is on energy and environmental issues. Read more about compressed air's role in productivity, making good motor decisions, and more.

  19. Energy Matters - Spring 2002

    SciTech Connect

    2002-03-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. The focus of the Spring 2002 Issue of Energy Matters focuses on premium energy efficiency systems, with articles on new gas technologies, steam efficiency, the Augusta Newsprint Showcase, and more.

  20. Method Development: Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Method Development: Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction of Particulate Matter on DPF Soot Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research ...

  1. The Search for Dark Matter

    ScienceCinema

    Orrell, John

    2016-07-12

    More than 25 years ago, PNNL scientists began the first underground measurements searching for dark matter using specialized radiation detector technology. Dark matter is yet to be discovered says Physicist John L. Orrell.

  2. The Search for Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Orrell, John

    2013-11-20

    More than 25 years ago, PNNL scientists began the first underground measurements searching for dark matter using specialized radiation detector technology. Dark matter is yet to be discovered says Physicist John L. Orrell.

  3. Table of Contents

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION J. B. Natowitz, Director SECTION I: NUCLEAR STRUCTURE, FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS AND ASTROPHYSICS SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS SECTION III: NUCLEAR...

  4. Fermilab Today - Related Content

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Related Content Subscribe | Contact Fermilab Today | Archive | Classifieds Search GO Classifieds Director's Corner Physics in a Nutshell Frontier Science Result Tip of the Week...

  5. Direct search for dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Dark matter is hypothetical matter which does not interact with electromagnetic radiation. The existence of dark matter is only inferred from gravitational effects of astrophysical observations to explain the missing mass component of the Universe. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles are currently the most popular candidate to explain the missing mass component. I review the current status of experimental searches of dark matter through direct detection using terrestrial detectors.

  6. Rigid particulate matter sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-02-22

    A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

  7. Cosmology with matter diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Calogero, Simone; Velten, Hermano E-mail: velten@cce.ufes.br

    2013-11-01

    We construct a viable cosmological model based on velocity diffusion of matter particles. In order to ensure the conservation of the total energy-momentum tensor in the presence of diffusion, we include a cosmological scalar field ? which we identify with the dark energy component of the universe. The model is characterized by only one new degree of freedom, the diffusion parameter ?. The standard ?CDM model can be recovered by setting ? = 0. If diffusion takes place (? > 0) the dynamics of the matter and of the dark energy fields are coupled. We argue that the existence of a diffusion mechanism in the universe may serve as a theoretical motivation for interacting models. We constrain the background dynamics of the diffusion model with Supernovae, H(z) and BAO data. We also perform a perturbative analysis of this model in order to understand structure formation in the universe. We calculate the impact of diffusion both on the CMB spectrum, with particular attention to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe signal, and on the matter power spectrum P(k). The latter analysis places strong constraints on the magnitude of the diffusion mechanism but does not rule out the model.

  8. Inflatable Dark Matter

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D.

    2016-01-22

    We describe a general scenario, dubbed “Inflatable Dark Matter”, in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many otherwise well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context, without the need to tune underlying parameters or to appeal to anthropic considerations. Thermal relics that would otherwise be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the non-thermal abundance of GUTmore » or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels, without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. Additionally, a period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ~ MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the Standard Model.« less

  9. Inflatable Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D.

    2015-07-30

    We describe a general scenario, dubbed “Inflatable Dark Matter”, in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many otherwise well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context, without the need to tune underlying parameters or to appeal to anthropic considerations. Thermal relics that would otherwise be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the non-thermal abundance of GUT or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels, without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. Additionally, a period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ~ MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the Standard Model.

  10. TABLE OF CONTENTS

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AC05-00OR22800 TABLE OF CONTENTS Contents Page # TOC - i SECTION A - SOLICITATION/OFFER AND AWARD ......................................................................... A-i SECTION B - SUPPLIES OR SERVICES AND PRICES/COSTS ........................................................ B-i B.1 SERVICES BEING ACQUIRED ....................................................................................B-2 B.2 TRANSITION COST, ESTIMATED COST, MAXIMUM AVAILABLE FEE, AND AVAILABLE FEE (Modification 295,

  11. San Joaquin Valley Clean Energy Organization | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Reference needed Missing content Broken link Other Additional Comments Cancel Submit Categories: Organizations Networking Organizations Stubs Articles with outstanding TODO tasks...

  12. Discrete dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, M.; Morisi, S.; Peinado, E.; Valle, J. W. F. [AHEP Group, Institut de Fisica Corpuscular--C.S.I.C./Universitat de Valencia, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, Apartado 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-12-01

    We propose a new motivation for the stability of dark matter (DM). We suggest that the same non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetry which accounts for the observed pattern of neutrino oscillations, spontaneously breaks to a Z{sub 2} subgroup which renders DM stable. The simplest scheme leads to a scalar doublet DM potentially detectable in nuclear recoil experiments, inverse neutrino mass hierarchy, hence a neutrinoless double beta decay rate accessible to upcoming searches, while {theta}{sub 13}=0 gives no CP violation in neutrino oscillations.

  13. TABLE OF CONTENTS

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    3, Revision 0 i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Summary .............................................................................................................................. 1 2.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 1 3.0 Discussion ............................................................................................................................ 4 3.1 Selection of Tanks for Level Decrease

  14. TABLE OF CONTENTS

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    4, Revision 0 i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Summary .............................................................................................................................. 1 2.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 1 3.0 Discussion ............................................................................................................................ 4 3.1 Selection of Tanks for Level Decrease

  15. TABLE OF CONTENTS

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    5, Revision 0 i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Summary .............................................................................................................................. 1 2.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 1 3.0 Discussion ............................................................................................................................ 4 3.1 Selection of Tanks for Level Decrease

  16. Contents.key

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Paul Clavin Contents Combustion Waves and Fronts in Flows P. Clavin and G. Searby Cambridge University Press (to appear) Orders of magnitude 2 Lecture 1: 1-1: Overall...

  17. TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    008 High Temperature Superconductivity for Electric Systems Peer Review Final Report i TABLE OF CONTENTS High Temperature Superconductivity for Electric Systems Program Overview ...... 1 The Peer Review................................................................................................................ 3 Review Criteria ................................................................................................................. 5 Guidelines

  18. Table_of_Contents

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Contents 1. Physical Security .............................................................................................................................. 1-1 101. Headquarters Security Badges ........................................................................................ 101-1 102. HSPD-12 Badges and the PIV Process ........................................................................... 102-1 103. Prohibited Articles

  19. TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    irecusa.org | LMI Guidelines | 0 www.irecusa.org | LMI Guidelines | i TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary iv Content Overview vii Introduction 1 I. Identifying LMI Customers and Designing Facilities to Serve LMI Customers 5 A. LMI Customers 5 B. Designing Facilities to Serve LMI Customers 6 II. Barriers to Adoption and Opportunities for Engagement 11 A. Financial Barriers 11 B. Ownership Barriers and Split Incentives 14 C. Marketing, Education, and Outreach Barriers 15 D. Opportunities for

  20. Estimation of anisotropy parameters in organic-rich shale: Rock physics forward modeling approach

    SciTech Connect

    Herawati, Ida Winardhi, Sonny; Priyono, Awali

    2015-09-30

    Anisotropy analysis becomes an important step in processing and interpretation of seismic data. One of the most important things in anisotropy analysis is anisotropy parameter estimation which can be estimated using well data, core data or seismic data. In seismic data, anisotropy parameter calculation is generally based on velocity moveout analysis. However, the accuracy depends on data quality, available offset, and velocity moveout picking. Anisotropy estimation using seismic data is needed to obtain wide coverage of particular layer anisotropy. In anisotropic reservoir, analysis of anisotropy parameters also helps us to better understand the reservoir characteristics. Anisotropy parameters, especially ε, are related to rock property and lithology determination. Current research aims to estimate anisotropy parameter from seismic data and integrate well data with case study in potential shale gas reservoir. Due to complexity in organic-rich shale reservoir, extensive study from different disciplines is needed to understand the reservoir. Shale itself has intrinsic anisotropy caused by lamination of their formed minerals. In order to link rock physic with seismic response, it is necessary to build forward modeling in organic-rich shale. This paper focuses on studying relationship between reservoir properties such as clay content, porosity and total organic content with anisotropy. Organic content which defines prospectivity of shale gas can be considered as solid background or solid inclusion or both. From the forward modeling result, it is shown that organic matter presence increases anisotropy in shale. The relationships between total organic content and other seismic properties such as acoustic impedance and Vp/Vs are also presented.

  1. Fate of nutrient enrichment on continental shelves as indicated by the C/N content of bottom sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J.J.; Premuzic, E.T.; Whitledge, T.E.

    1980-01-01

    The trajectory and fate of particulate matter are poorly understood processes in a spatially heterogeneous coastal ocean. Parameterization of appropriate hydrodynamics for a quantitative description of these loss processes must thus await definition of the important biological time and space scales. Since the bottom sands tend to record the history of the water column, we have selected the C/N content of shelf sediments as a possible tracer of (1) sites of nutrient introduction to the shelf by various physical mechanisms, of (2) areas of subsequent downstream utilization by the phytoplankton, and of (3) where loss of particulate matter might occur from the water column. An analysis is made of the C/N patterns of bottom surface sediments in relation to the nitrogen sources from upwelling, river runoff, and tidal mixing on the Peruvian, west African, Amazonian, Gulf of Mexico, eastern US, Bering, and North Sea shelves in an initial attempt to proscribe the particle trajectories of organic matter on the continental shelf.

  2. Solving the Dark Matter Problem

    ScienceCinema

    Baltz, Ted

    2016-07-12

    Cosmological observations have firmly established that the majority of matter in the universe is of an unknown type, called 'dark matter'. A compelling hypothesis is that the dark matter consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the mass range around 100 GeV. If the WIMP hypothesis is correct, such particles could be created and studied at accelerators. Furthermore they could be directly detected as the primary component of our galaxy. Solving the dark matter problem requires that the connection be made between the two. We describe some theoretical and experimental avenues that might lead to this connection.

  3. Searching for dark matter annihilation in the Smith high-velocity cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Gómez-Vargas, Germán A.; Hewitt, John W.; Linden, Tim; Tibaldo, Luigi

    2014-07-20

    Recent observations suggest that some high-velocity clouds may be confined by massive dark matter halos. In particular, the proximity and proposed dark matter content of the Smith Cloud make it a tempting target for the indirect detection of dark matter annihilation. We argue that the Smith Cloud may be a better target than some Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies and use γ-ray observations from the Fermi Large Area Telescope to search for a dark matter annihilation signal. No significant γ-ray excess is found coincident with the Smith Cloud, and we set strong limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section assuming a spatially extended dark matter profile consistent with dynamical modeling of the Smith Cloud. Notably, these limits exclude the canonical thermal relic cross section (∼ 3 × 10{sup –26} cm{sup 3} s{sup –1}) for dark matter masses ≲ 30 GeV annihilating via the b b-bar or τ{sup +}τ{sup –} channels for certain assumptions of the dark matter density profile; however, uncertainties in the dark matter content of the Smith Cloud may significantly weaken these constraints.

  4. Errors in determination of soil water content using time-domain reflectometry caused by soil compaction around wave guides

    SciTech Connect

    Ghezzehei, T.A.

    2008-05-29

    Application of time domain reflectometry (TDR) in soil hydrology often involves the conversion of TDR-measured dielectric permittivity to water content using universal calibration equations (empirical or physically based). Deviations of soil-specific calibrations from the universal calibrations have been noted and are usually attributed to peculiar composition of soil constituents, such as high content of clay and/or organic matter. Although it is recognized that soil disturbance by TDR waveguides may have impact on measurement errors, to our knowledge, there has not been any quantification of this effect. In this paper, we introduce a method that estimates this error by combining two models: one that describes soil compaction around cylindrical objects and another that translates change in bulk density to evolution of soil water retention characteristics. Our analysis indicates that the compaction pattern depends on the mechanical properties of the soil at the time of installation. The relative error in water content measurement depends on the compaction pattern as well as the water content and water retention properties of the soil. Illustrative calculations based on measured soil mechanical and hydrologic properties from the literature indicate that the measurement errors of using a standard three-prong TDR waveguide could be up to 10%. We also show that the error scales linearly with the ratio of rod radius to the interradius spacing.

  5. Secure content objects

    DOEpatents

    Evans, William D.

    2009-02-24

    A secure content object protects electronic documents from unauthorized use. The secure content object includes an encrypted electronic document, a multi-key encryption table having at least one multi-key component, an encrypted header and a user interface device. The encrypted document is encrypted using a document encryption key associated with a multi-key encryption method. The encrypted header includes an encryption marker formed by a random number followed by a derivable variation of the same random number. The user interface device enables a user to input a user authorization. The user authorization is combined with each of the multi-key components in the multi-key encryption key table and used to try to decrypt the encrypted header. If the encryption marker is successfully decrypted, the electronic document may be decrypted. Multiple electronic documents or a document and annotations may be protected by the secure content object.

  6. TABLE OF CONTENTS

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    3, Field Analytical Technical Requirements Effective Date: 6/1/07 Vol. 3:i CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................... 1-1 1.1 FIELD SCREENING........................................................................................... 1-1 1.2 FIELD TESTING................................................................................................. 1-1 2.0 QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS

  7. TABLE OF CONTENTS

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    DE-EM0001840 Page 2 of 108 WIPP Transportation Services Table of Contents SECTION B - SUPPLIES OR SERVICES AND PRICES/COSTS ................................................................ 3 SECTION C - DESCRIPTION/SPECIFICTIONS ....................................................................................... 10 SECTION D -PACKAGING AND MARKING .............................................................................................. 34 SECTION E - INSPECTION AND ACCEPTANCE

  8. TABLE OF CONTENTS

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    6/1/2011 Decades of Discovery Decades of Discovery Page 2 6/1/2011 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................... 6 2 BASIC ENERGY SCIENCES .................................................................................................. 7 2.1 Adenosine Triphosphate: The Energy Currency of Life .............................................. 7 2.2 Making Better Catalysts

  9. Table of Contents

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    COMMUNICATIONS REQUIREMENTS OF SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES October 5, 2010 i Table of Contents I. Introduction and Executive Summary.......................................................... 1 a. Overview of Smart Grid Benefits and Communications Needs................. 2 b. Summary of Recommendations .................................................................... 5 II. Federal Government Smart Grid Initiatives ................................................ 7 a. DOE Request for Information

  10. Multi-Component Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2008-11-01

    We explore multi-component dark matter models where the dark sector consists of multiple stable states with different mass scales, and dark forces coupling these states further enrich the dynamics. The multi-component nature of the dark matter naturally arises in supersymmetric models, where both R parity and an additional symmetry, such as a Z{sub 2}, is preserved. We focus on a particular model where the heavier component of dark matter carries lepton number and annihilates mostly to leptons. The heavier component, which is essentially a sterile neutrino, naturally explains the PAMELA, ATIC and synchrotron signals, without an excess in antiprotons which typically mars other models of weak scale dark matter. The lighter component, which may have a mass from a GeV to a TeV, may explain the DAMA signal, and may be visible in low threshold runs of CDMS and XENON, which search for light dark matter.

  11. Nuclear-matter--quark-matter phase diagram with strangeness

    SciTech Connect

    Barz, H. W.; Friman, B. L.; Knoll, J.; Schulz, H.

    1989-07-01

    A phenomenological equation of state of strongly interacting matter, including strange degrees of freedom, is presented. It is shown that the hyperon and kaon interactions must be included, in order to obtain a reasonable description of the deconfinement transition at high baryon densities. The consequences of kaon condensation on the nuclear-matter--quark-matter phase diagram are explored. The relative particle abundances obtained in an isentropic expansion of a blob of quark-gluon plasma are presented for different initial conditions. Implications for ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are briefly discussed.

  12. Probing gravitational dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jing; He, Hong-Jian

    2015-03-27

    So far all evidences of dark matter (DM) come from astrophysical and cosmological observations, due to the gravitational interactions of DM. It is possible that the true DM particle in the universe joins gravitational interactions only, but nothing else. Such a Gravitational DM (GDM) may act as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP), which is conceptually simple and attractive. In this work, we explore this direction by constructing the simplest scalar GDM particle χ{sub s}. It is a ℤ{sub 2} odd singlet under the standard model (SM) gauge group, and naturally joins the unique dimension-4 interaction with Ricci curvature, ξ{sub s}χ{sub s}{sup 2}R, where ξ{sub s} is the dimensionless nonminimal coupling. We demonstrate that this gravitational interaction ξ{sub s}χ{sub s}{sup 2}R, together with Higgs-curvature nonminimal coupling term ξ{sub h}H{sup †}HR, induces effective couplings between χ{sub s}{sup 2} and SM fields, and can account for the observed DM thermal relic abundance. We analyze the annihilation cross sections of GDM particles and derive the viable parameter space for realizing the DM thermal relic density. We further study the direct/indirect detections and the collider signatures of such a scalar GDM. These turn out to be highly predictive and testable.

  13. Organizing Committee

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee R. Todd Anderson Program Manager, BER Climate and Environmental Sciences Anjuli Barnzai Program Manager, BER Climate and Environmental...

  14. Hydrodesulfurization and hydrodenitrogenation catalysts obtained from coal mineral matter

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Kindtoken H. D.; Hamrin, Jr., Charles E.

    1982-01-01

    A hydrotreating catalyst is prepared from coal mineral matter obtained by low temperature ashing coals of relatively low bassanite content by the steps of: (a) depositing on the low temperature ash 0.25-3 grams of an iron or nickel salt in water per gram of ash and drying a resulting slurry; (b) crushing and sizing a resulting solid; and (c) heating the thus-sized solid powder in hydrogen.

  15. MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; SOLID STATE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Open problems in condensed matter physics, 1987 Falicov, L.M. 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; SOLID STATE PHYSICS; RESEARCH PROGRAMS;...

  16. Energy Matters LLC | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Name: Energy Matters LLC Place: Santa Rosa, California Zip: 95402 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Energy Matters specialises in software tools for the renewable energy...

  17. Energy Matters: Our Energy Independence

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this installment of the livechat series "Energy Matters," Dr. Arun Majumdar takes questions from the public about the investments we're making today that will move us off of foreign oil and...

  18. Physical Protection of Classified Matter

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1988-02-03

    The order establishes policy and objectives for physical protection of classified matter. This directive does not cancel another directive. Chg 1, 7-30-93. Canceled by 5632.1C.

  19. Integrated coherent matter wave circuits

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Ryu, C.; Boshier, M. G.

    2015-09-21

    An integrated coherent matter wave circuit is a single device, analogous to an integrated optical circuit, in which coherent de Broglie waves are created and then launched into waveguides where they can be switched, divided, recombined, and detected as they propagate. Applications of such circuits include guided atom interferometers, atomtronic circuits, and precisely controlled delivery of atoms. We report experiments demonstrating integrated circuits for guided coherent matter waves. The circuit elements are created with the painted potential technique, a form of time-averaged optical dipole potential in which a rapidly moving, tightly focused laser beam exerts forces on atoms through theirmoreelectric polarizability. Moreover, the source of coherent matter waves is a BoseEinstein condensate (BEC). Finally, we launch BECs into painted waveguides that guide them around bends and form switches, phase coherent beamsplitters, and closed circuits. These are the basic elements that are needed to engineer arbitrarily complex matter wave circuitry.less

  20. Content Analysis for Proactive Intelligence: Marshaling Frame Evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Cowell, Andrew J.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Boek, Annie M.; Cowell, Amanda K.; Posse, Christian; Pouchard, Line C.

    2007-07-22

    Modeling and simulation have great potential as technologies capable of aiding analysts in making accurate predictions of future situations to help provide competitive advantage and avoid strategic surprise. However, to make modeling and simulation effective, an evidence marshaling process is needed that addresses the information needs of the modeling task, as detailed by subject matter experts. We suggest that such an evidence marshaling process can be obtained by combining natural language processing and content analysis techniques to provide quantified qualitative content assessments, and describe a case study with specific reference to the acquisition and marshaling of frames from unstructured text.

  1. Content Analysis for Proactive Intelligence: Marshaling Frame Evidence.

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio; Cowell, Andrew; Pouchard, Line Catherine

    2007-07-01

    Modeling and simulation have great potential as technologies capable of aiding analysts in making accurate predictions of future situations to help provide competitive advantage and avoid strategic surprise. However, to make modeling and simulation effective, an evidence-marshaling process is needed that addresses the information needs of the modeling task, as detailed by subject matter experts. We suggest that such an evidence-marshaling process can be obtained by combining natural language processing and content analysis techniques to provide quantified qualitative content assessments, and describe a case study on the acquisition and marshaling of frames from unstructured text.

  2. Condensed Matter and Magnet Science

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    CMMS Condensed Matter and Magnet Science The group has a distinguished history of applying cutting-edge condensed matter physics research and high magnetic field science to mission-relevant materials challenges as well as fundamental investigations of emergent physical phenomena. Contact Us Group Leader Michael Hundley Email Deputy Group Leader Chuck Mielke Email NHMFL-PFF Director Chuck Mielke Email Deputy NHMFL-PFF Director Ross McDonald Email Group Office (505) 667-4838 NHMFL Office (505)

  3. Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions Relativistic Laser-Matter Interactions Enabling the next generation of intense particle accelerators Contact Juan Fernandez (505) 667-6575 Email Short-pulse ion acceleration The Trident facility is a world-class performer in the area of ion acceleration from laser-solid target interactions. Trident has demonstrated over 100 MeV protons at intensities of 8x1020 W/cm2 with efficiencies approaching 5%. These intense relativistic interactions can be diagnosed

  4. Energy Matters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Matters Energy Matters July 25, 2011 - 1:04pm Addthis On Wednesday, January 26th, Secretary Chu held an online town hall to discuss President Obama's clean energy and innovation agenda. Read a recap and watch video from the full event here. Addthis Related Articles WEDNESDAY: Secretary Chu to Host Live Chat on Clean Energy and Innovation Vice President Biden Kicks Off Five Days of Earth Day Activities with Announcement of Major New Energy Efficiency Effort Energy Secretary Steven Chu to Travel

  5. Strongly interacting parton matter equilibration

    SciTech Connect

    Ozvenchuk, V.; Linnyk, O.; Bratkovskaya, E.; Gorenstein, M.; Cassing, W.

    2012-07-15

    We study the kinetic and chemical equilibration in 'infinite' parton matter within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics transport approach. The 'infinite' matter is simulated within a cubic box with periodic boundary conditions initialized at different energy densities. Particle abundances, kinetic energy distributions, and the detailed balance of the off-shell quarks and gluons in the strongly-interacting quarkgluon plasma are addressed and discussed.

  6. Personalized professional content recommendation

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-11-05

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  7. Personalized professional content recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-10-27

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  8. TABLE OF CONTENTS

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    through December 2001 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A. Project Summary 1. Technical Progress 3 2. Cost Reporting 4 B. Detailed Reports 1.1 Magnets & Supports 7 1.2 Vacuum System 9 1.3 Power Supplies 13 1.4 RF System 16 1.5 Instrumentation & Controls 17 1.6 Cable Plant 18 1.9 Installation 19 2.0 Accelerator Physics 20 3 A. SPEAR 3 PROJECT SUMMARY 1. Technical Progress In the magnet area, the production of all major components (dipoles, quadrupoles, and sextupoles) has been completed on

  9. TABLE OF CONTENTS

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A. Project Summary 1. Technical Progress 3 2. Cost Reporting 5 B. Detailed Reports 1.1 Magnets & Supports 8 1.2 Vacuum System 12 1.3 Power Supplies 14 1.4 RF System 16 1.5 Instrumentation & Controls 17 1.6 Cable Plant 18 1.7 Beam Line Front Ends 19 1.8 Facilities 19 1.9 Installation 20 2.1 Accelerator Physics 21 2 A. SPEAR 3 PROJECT SUMMARY 1. Technical Progress The progress and highlights of each major technical system are summarized below. Additional details

  10. TABLE OF CONTENTS

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    through June 2001 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A. Project Summary 1. Technical Progress 3 2. Cost Reporting 4 B. Detailed Reports 1.1 Magnets & Supports 9 1.2 Vacuum System 16 1.3 Power Supplies 21 1.4 RF System 25 1.5 Instrumentation & Controls 26 1.6 Cable Plant 28 1.8 Facilities 28 2.0 Accelerator Physics 29 2.1 ES&H 31 3 A. SPEAR 3 PROJECT SUMMARY 1. Technical Progress Magnet System - The project has received three shipments of magnets from IHEP. A total of 55 dipole, quadrupole and

  11. TABLE OF CONTENTS

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    through September 2001 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A. Project Summary 1. Technical Progress 3 2. Cost Reporting 4 B. Detailed Reports 1.1 Magnets & Supports 9 1.2 Vacuum System 14 1.3 Power Supplies 21 1.4 RF System 24 1.5 Instrumentation & Controls 26 1.6 Cable Plant 27 1.7 Beam Line Front Ends 28 1.8 Facilities 29 2.0 Accelerator Physics 30 2.1 ES&H 32 3 A. SPEAR 3 PROJECT SUMMARY 1. Technical Progress Summary - The SPEAR 3 project is near the 50% completion mark in terms of

  12. Dark matter beams at LBNF

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Coloma, Pilar; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Frugiuele, Claudia; Harnik, Roni

    2016-04-08

    High-intensity neutrino beam facilities may produce a beam of light dark matter when protons strike the target. Searches for such a dark matter beam using its scattering in a nearby detector must overcome the large neutrino background. We characterize the spatial and energy distributions of the dark matter and neutrino beams, focusing on their differences to enhance the sensitivity to dark matter. We find that a dark matter beam produced by a Zmore » $$^{'}$$ boson in the GeV mass range is both broader and more energetic than the neutrino beam. The reach for dark matter is maximized for a detector sensitive to hard neutral-current scatterings, placed at a sizable angle off the neutrino beam axis. In the case of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), a detector placed at roughly 6 degrees off axis and at a distance of about 200 m from the target would be sensitive to Z$$^{'}$$ couplings as low as 0.05. This search can proceed symbiotically with neutrino measurements. We also show that the MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE detectors, which are on Fermilab’s Booster beamline, happen to be at an optimal angle from the NuMI beam and could perform searches with existing data. As a result, this illustrates potential synergies between LBNF and the short-baseline neutrino program if the detectors are positioned appropriately.« less

  13. Organic geochemistry and correlation of Paleozoic source rocks and Trenton crude oils, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, J. )

    1989-08-01

    Shale samples from four cores of the New Albany and Antrim Shales (Devonian) and from six cores of the Maquoketa Group (Ordovician), representing a broad geographic area of Indiana, have been analyzed for total organic carbon, total sulfur, pyrolysis yield (Rock-Eval), bitumen content, and illite crystallinity data. These data indicate that the New Albany, Antrim, and Maquoketa shales contain a sufficient quantity and quality of organic matter to be good petroleum source rocks. Bitumen ratios, Rock-Eval yields, gas chromatography of saturated hydrocarbons, and illite crystallinity data show that the Maquoketa shales have reached a higher level of thermal maturity than the New Albany and Antrim shales. The level of thermal maturity of the Maquoketa shales suggested a maximum burial depth considerably greater than the present depth.

  14. Table of Contents

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    U . . S S . . D D E E P P A A R R T T M M E E N N T T O O F F E E N N E E R R G G Y Y O O F F F F I I C C E E O O F F I I N N S S P P E E C C T T O O R R G G E E N N E E R R A A L L Semiannual Report toCongress DOE/IG-0065 April 1 - September 30, 2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS From the Desk of the Inspector General ..................................................... 2 Impacts Key Accomplishments ............................................................................................... 3 Positive

  15. Web Content Analysis and Inventories

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) recommends periodic content inventories and analyses of its websites. They will help identify content that needs to be updated, edited, added, or removed for maintenance.

  16. Dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste: Methane production modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Fdez-Gueelfo, L.A.; Alvarez-Gallego, C.; Sales, D.; Romero Garcia, L.I.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methane generation may be modeled by means of modified product generation model of Romero Garcia (1991). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic matter content and particle size influence the kinetic parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher organic matter content and lower particle size enhance the biomethanization. - Abstract: The influence of particle size and organic matter content of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) in the overall kinetics of dry (30% total solids) thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion have been studied in a semi-continuous stirred tank reactor (SSTR). Two types of wastes were used: synthetic OFMSW (average particle size of 1 mm; 0.71 g Volatile Solids/g waste), and OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant (average particle size of 30 mm; 0.16 g Volatile Solids/g waste). A modification of a widely-validated product-generation kinetic model has been proposed. Results obtained from the modified-model parameterization at steady-state (that include new kinetic parameters as K, Y{sub pMAX} and {theta}{sub MIN}) indicate that the features of the feedstock strongly influence the kinetics of the process. The overall specific growth rate of microorganisms ({mu}{sub max}) with synthetic OFMSW is 43% higher compared to OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant: 0.238 d{sup -1} (K = 1.391 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.167 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 7.924 days) vs. 0.135 d{sup -1} (K = 1.282 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.150 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 9.997 days) respectively. Finally, it could be emphasized that the validation of proposed modified-model has been performed successfully by means of the simulation of non-steady state data for the different SRTs tested with each waste.

  17. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Organization Organization LM Organization Chart LM High-Level Organization Chart.jpg Download Printable Version LM Functional Organization Chart

  18. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  19. Dark matter in 3D

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Alves, Daniele S. M.; El Hedri, Sonia; Wacker, Jay G.

    2016-03-21

    We discuss the relevance of directional detection experiments in the post-discovery era and propose a method to extract the local dark matter phase space distribution from directional data. The first feature of this method is a parameterization of the dark matter distribution function in terms of integrals of motion, which can be analytically extended to infer properties of the global distribution if certain equilibrium conditions hold. The second feature of our method is a decomposition of the distribution function in moments of a model independent basis, with minimal reliance on the ansatz for its functional form. We illustrate our methodmore » using the Via Lactea II N-body simulation as well as an analytical model for the dark matter halo. Furthermore, we conclude that O(1000) events are necessary to measure deviations from the Standard Halo Model and constrain or measure the presence of anisotropies.« less

  20. Wino dark matter under siege

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Timothy; Lisanti, Mariangela; Pierce, Aaron; Slatyer, Tracy R. E-mail: mlisanti@princeton.edu E-mail: tslatyer@mit.edu

    2013-10-01

    A fermion triplet of SU(2){sub L} a wino is a well-motivated dark matter candidate. This work shows that present-day wino annihilations are constrained by indirect detection experiments, with the strongest limits coming from H.E.S.S. and Fermi. The bounds on wino dark matter are presented as a function of mass for two scenarios: thermal (winos constitute a subdominant component of the dark matter for masses less than 3.1 TeV) and non-thermal (winos comprise all the dark matter). Assuming the NFW halo model, the H.E.S.S. search for gamma-ray lines excludes the 3.1 TeV thermal wino; the combined H.E.S.S. and Fermi results completely exclude the non-thermal scenario. Uncertainties in the exclusions are explored. Indirect detection may provide the only probe for models of anomaly plus gravity mediation where the wino is the lightest superpartner and scalars reside at the 100 TeV scale.

  1. Z-portal dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Arcadi, Giorgio; Mambrini, Yann; Richard, Francois

    2015-03-11

    We propose to generalize the extensions of the Standard Model where the Z boson serves as a mediator between the Standard Model sector and the dark sector χ. We show that, like in the Higgs portal case, the combined constraints from the recent direct searches restrict severely the nature of the coupling of the dark matter to the Z boson and set a limit m{sub χ}≳200 GeV (except in a very narrow region around the Z-pole region). Using complementarity between spin dependent, spin independent and FERMI limits, we predict the nature of this coupling, more specifically the axial/vectorial ratio that respects a thermal dark matter coupled through a Z-portal while not being excluded by the current observations. We also show that the next generation of experiments of the type LZ or XENON1T will test Z-portal scenario for dark matter mass up to 2 TeV. The condition of a thermal dark matter naturally predicts the spin-dependent scattering cross section on the neutron to be σ{sub χn}{sup SD}≃10{sup −40} cm{sup 2}, which then becomes a clear prediction of the model and a signature testable in the near future experiments.

  2. EVM Subject Matter Experts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Earned Value Management » EVM Subject Matter Experts EVM Subject Matter Experts Name Title Office * Phone Email Melvin Frank Chief, Project Management Policy and Systems PM-30 202-586-5519 Send Email David Kester EVMS Subject Matter Expert PM-30 202-586-4342 Send Email Robert Loop EVMS Subject Matter Expert PM-30 202-287-1324 Send Email Karen Urschel (CONTR) EVMS Subject Matter Expert PM-30 260-417-2184 Send Email Buck Wilkerson (CONTR) Planning and Scheduling Subject Matter Expert PM-30

  3. Lab Organizations

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizations Lab Organizations National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. Los Alamos National Security, LLC Leadership Team Organization Chart PRINCIPAL ASSOCIATE DIRECTORATES Capital Projects, Larry Simmons Global Security, Terry Wallace Operations and Business, Craig Leasure Science, Technology, and Engineering, Alan Bishop

  4. Our Organization | The Ames Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Organization Ames Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy research facility operated by Iowa State University. The management of the Laboratory is divided in two main categories, Scientific and Administrative as shown in the organization chart. Below are links to these and other affiliated agencies. Ames Laboratory is not responsible for the content of any offsite pages referenced. The U.S. Department of Energy home page DOE's Office of Science DOE's Chicago Operations Office DOE Pulse

  5. Organizing Committee

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics May 26-27, 2011 Ted Barnes DOE Office of Nuclear Physics Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, DOE Office of Advanced Computational Research Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Richard Gerber NERSC User Services Harvey Wasserman NERSC User Services Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:21

  6. Fermilab | About | Organization | Fermilab Organization

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Organization Fermilab Organization < Back to Leadership and Organization Fermilab Org Chart Accelerator Division Accelerator Physics Center CMS Center Core Computing Division ESH&Q FESS Finance Section LBNF Project Far-Site LBNF Project Near-Site LBNF Project Office LBNF Project LCLS-II Project Neutrino Division Office of Communication Office of Integrated Planning and Performance Management Office of Project Support Services Office of the CFO Office of the CIO Office of the CPO PIP-II

  7. Cold quark matter in compact stars

    SciTech Connect

    Franzon, B.; Fogaca, D. A.; Navarra, F. S.; Horvath, J. E.

    2013-03-25

    We used an equation of state for the cold quark matter to the study of properties of quark stars. We also discuss the absolute stability of quark matter and compute the mass-radius relation for self-bound stars.

  8. Science On Tap - Matter over. Antimatter

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Science On Tap - Matter over Antimatter Science On Tap - Matter over. Antimatter WHEN: Aug 20, 2015 5:30 PM - 7:00 PM WHERE: UnQuarked Wine Room 145 Central Park Square, Los...

  9. Policy Matters Ohio | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Matters Ohio Jump to: navigation, search Name: Policy Matters Ohio Address: 3631 Perkins Avenue - Suite 4C-East Place: Cleveland, Ohio Zip: 44114 Website: www.policymattersohio.org...

  10. Fermilab | About | Organization | Fermilab Organization | Explanation...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    of Symbols Line Organization: sectors, divisions, sections Line Organization Matrix Organization: centers, projects and programs utilizing resources spanning the entire...

  11. Mentoring Matters: Engaging Students through Science and Arts...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Mentoring Matters: Engaging Students through Science and Arts Mentoring Matters: Engaging Students through Science and Arts April 22, 2016 - 11:48am Addthis Mentoring Matters: ...

  12. MPA Materials Matter December 2015 (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MPA Materials Matter December 2015 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MPA Materials Matter December 2015 This is the December 2015 issue of the MPA Materials Matter ...

  13. The equation of state of nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Gandolfi, Stefano; Carlson, Joseph Allen

    2015-06-30

    A brief status report of research on equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter is provided, along with two graphs.

  14. Dark Matter Annihilation at the Galactic Center

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, Timothy Ryan

    2013-06-01

    Observations by the WMAP and PLANCK satellites have provided extraordinarily accurate observations on the densities of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy in the universe. These observations indicate that our universe is composed of approximately ve times as much dark matter as baryonic matter. However, e orts to detect a particle responsible for the energy density of dark matter have been unsuccessful. Theoretical models have indicated that a leading candidate for the dark matter is the lightest supersymmetric particle, which may be stable due to a conserved R-parity. This dark matter particle would still be capable of interacting with baryons via weak-force interactions in the early universe, a process which was found to naturally explain the observed relic abundance of dark matter today. These residual annihilations can persist, albeit at a much lower rate, in the present universe, providing a detectable signal from dark matter annihilation events which occur throughout the universe. Simulations calculating the distribution of dark matter in our galaxy almost universally predict the galactic center of the Milky Way Galaxy (GC) to provide the brightest signal from dark matter annihilation due to its relative proximity and large simulated dark matter density. Recent advances in telescope technology have allowed for the rst multiwavelength analysis of the GC, with suitable e ective exposure, angular resolution, and energy resolution in order to detect dark matter particles with properties similar to those predicted by the WIMP miracle. In this work, I describe ongoing e orts which have successfully detected an excess in -ray emission from the region immediately surrounding the GC, which is di cult to describe in terms of standard di use emission predicted in the GC region. While the jury is still out on any dark matter interpretation of this excess, I describe several related observations which may indicate a dark matter origin. Finally, I discuss the

  15. Dark matter in a bouncing universe

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E.; Kang, Jin U; Li, Changhong E-mail: jin.u.kang2@gmail.com

    2014-11-01

    We investigate a new scenario of dark matter production in a bouncing universe, in which dark matter was produced completely out of equilibrium in the contracting as well as expanding phase. We explore possibilities of using dark matter as a probe of the bouncing universe, focusing on the relationship between a critical temperature of the bouncing universe and the present relic abundance of dark matter.

  16. Operations & Maintenance Best Practices Guide: Front Matter

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Guide describes the front matter of the Operations and Maintenance Best Practices: a Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency.

  17. ,"California Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data for" ,"Data 1","California Heat Content of Natural Gas ... 10:59:46 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: California Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed

  18. ,"Virginia Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Heat Content of Natural Gas ... 11:00:21 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Virginia Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed

  19. ,"Oklahoma Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Oklahoma Heat Content of Natural Gas ... 11:00:12 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Oklahoma Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed

  20. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    About Us » Organization Organization Organization OCIO Organizational Chart (Printable) News & Blog CIO Leadership Organization Contact Us

  1. Dark matter from Affleck-Dine baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kusenko, Alexander

    1999-07-15

    Fragmentation of the Affleck-Dine condensate into Q-balls could fill the Universe with dark matter either in the form of stable baryonic balls, or LSP produced from the decay of unstable Q-balls. The dark matter and the ordinary matter in the Universe may share the same origin.

  2. Geometry Matters | The Ames Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Geometry Matters Researchers have discovered how the geometry of gold nanoparticles affects their images. Gold nanoparticles can be imaged optically and their movements can be seen using a technique known as differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. How gold nanoparticles appear in these images depends upon their environment. This can be used to learn about time-dependent nanoscale processes. However, an outstanding question has been whether or not the geometry of the gold particles

  3. Scalar graviton as dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Pirogov, Yu. F.

    2015-06-15

    The basics of the theory of unimodular bimode gravity built on the principles of unimodular gauge invariance/relativity and general covariance are exposed. Besides the massless tensor graviton of General Relativity, the theory includes an (almost) massless scalar graviton treated as the gravitational dark matter. A spherically symmetric vacuum solution describing the coherent scalar-graviton field for the soft-core dark halos, with the asymptotically flat rotation curves, is demonstrated as an example.

  4. Tabulated equation of state for supernova matter including full nuclear ensemble

    SciTech Connect

    Buyukcizmeci, N.; Botvina, A. S.; Mishustin, I. N. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, J.W. Goethe University, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    This is an introduction to the tabulated database of stellar matter properties calculated within the framework of the Statistical Model for Supernova Matter (SMSM). The tables present thermodynamical characteristics and nuclear abundances for 31 values of baryon density (10{sup 8} < ?/?{sub 0} < 0.32, ?{sub 0} = 0.15 fm{sup 3} is the normal nuclear matter density), 35 values of temperature (0.2 MeV < T < 25 MeV), and 28 values of electron-to-baryon ratio (0.02 < Y{sub e} < 0.56). The properties of stellar matter in ? equilibrium are also considered. The main ingredients of the SMSM are briefly outlined, and the data structure and content of the tables are explained.

  5. Organic Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Mielke

    2009-02-27

    Intense magnetic fields are an essential tool for understanding layered superconductors. Fundamental electronic properties of organic superconductors are revealed in intense (60 tesla) magnetic fields. Properties such as the topology of the Fermi surface and the nature of the superconducting order parameter are revealed. With modest maximum critical temperatures~13K the charge transfer salt organic superconductors prove to be incredibly valuable materials as their electronically clean nature and layered (highly anisotropic) structures yield insights to the high temperature superconductors. Observation of de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas quantum oscillatory phenomena, magnetic field induced superconductivity and re-entrant superconductivity are some of the physical phenomena observed in the charge transfer organic superconductors. In this talk, I will discuss the nature of organic superconductors and give an overview of the generation of intense magnetic fields; from the 60 tesla millisecond duration to the extreme 1000 tesla microsecond pulsed magnetic fields.

  6. Organizing Committee

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced Scientific Computing Research An ASCR / NERSC Workshop January 5-6, 2011 Dr. Karen Pao ASCR Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for Services Richard Gerber NERSC User Services John Shalf NERSC Advanced Technologies Group Harvey Wasserman NERSC User Services Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:22

  7. Organizing Committee

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee R. Todd Anderson Program Manager, BER Climate and Environmental Sciences Anjuli Barnzai Program Manager, BER Climate and Environmental Sciences Susan Gregurick Program Manager, BER Biological Systems Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for Services Richard Gerber NERSC User Services Harvey Wasserman NERSC System Architecture Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:21

  8. Organizing Committee

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Science August 3-4, 2010 Dr. John Mandrekas Advanced Fusion Simulations; FES HPC Allocations Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for Services Richard Gerber NERSC User Services Alice Koniges NERSC Advanced Technologies Harvey Wasserman NERSC User Services Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:21

  9. Organizing Committee

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics November 12-13, 2009 Amber Boehnlein Division Scientist, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, on assignment to DOE Office of HEP. Glen Crawford Program Manager, Research and Technology Division, DOE Office of HEP. Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for Services Richard Gerber NERSC User Services Harvey

  10. Organizing Committee

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences An ASCR / BES / NERSC Workshop February 9-10, 2010 Jim Davenport Program Manager for Theoretical Condensed Material Physics Mark R. Pederson Program Manager for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry Nicholas B. Woodward Program Manager, Geosciences Research Program Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for

  11. Visual Analysis of Weblog Content

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Payne, Deborah A.; McColgin, Dave; Cramer, Nick O.; Love, Douglas V.

    2007-03-26

    In recent years, one of the advances of the World Wide Web is social media and one of the fastest growing aspects of social media is the blogosphere. Blogs make content creation easy and are highly accessible through web pages and syndication. With their growing influence, a need has arisen to be able to monitor the opinions and insight revealed within their content. In this paper we describe a technical approach for analyzing the content of blog data using a visual analytic tool, IN-SPIRE, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We highlight the capabilities of this tool that are particularly useful for information gathering from blog data.

  12. Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter Emissions Characteristics Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter Emissions Characteristics ...

  13. Direct search for dark matter with DarkSide

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Agnes, P.

    2015-11-16

    Here, the DarkSide experiment is designed for the direct detection of Dark Matter with a double phase liquid Argon TPC operating underground at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. The TPC is placed inside a 30 tons liquid organic scintillator sphere, acting as a neutron veto, which is in turn installed inside a 1 kt water Cherenkov detector. The current detector is running since November 2013 with a 50 kg atmospheric Argon fill and we report here the first null results of a Dark Matter search for a (1422 ± 67) kg.d exposure. This result correspond to a 90% CL uppermore » limit on the WIMP-nucleon cross section of 6.1 × 10-44 cm2 (for a WIMP mass of 100 GeV/c2) and it's currently the most sensitive limit obtained with an Argon target.« less

  14. Direct search for dark matter with DarkSide

    SciTech Connect

    Agnes, P.

    2015-11-16

    Here, the DarkSide experiment is designed for the direct detection of Dark Matter with a double phase liquid Argon TPC operating underground at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. The TPC is placed inside a 30 tons liquid organic scintillator sphere, acting as a neutron veto, which is in turn installed inside a 1 kt water Cherenkov detector. The current detector is running since November 2013 with a 50 kg atmospheric Argon fill and we report here the first null results of a Dark Matter search for a (1422 ± 67) kg.d exposure. This result correspond to a 90% CL upper limit on the WIMP-nucleon cross section of 6.1 × 10-44 cm2 (for a WIMP mass of 100 GeV/c2) and it's currently the most sensitive limit obtained with an Argon target.

  15. SECTION J - TABLE OF CONTENTS

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Conformed to Mod 0108 DE-NA0000622 Section J Page i PART III - LIST OF DOCUMENTS, EXHIBITS, AND OTHER ATTACHMENTS SECTION J LIST OF APPENDICES TABLE OF CONTENTS Appendix A ...

  16. JOBAID-LAUNCHING ONLINE CONTENT

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this jobaid you will learn how to launch Online Content "Items" or Courses. In the LMS you can launch most anything as an "item": documents, courses, webpages and track users that have completed...

  17. Cold fusion in condensed matter

    SciTech Connect

    Schommers, W.; Politis, C. )

    1989-01-01

    A model for cold fusion in condensed matter is proposed (cold fusion of deuterons in palladium). It is assumed that the palladium-deuterium system forms an alloy, i.e., it is assumed that Pd ions as well as d/sup +/ ions are embedded in an uniform background of negative charge (conduction electrons). The model is based on an interaction potential for deuterons in solid palladium which has been estimated by means of a theoretical picture well known in the physics of liquids. In particular, the following effects are possible: 1. Cold fusion in condensed matter can take place. 2. The observed energy should be larger than that given by the fusion reactions. 3. Hitherto unknown nuclear processes must not be postulated as reported by Fleischmann and Pons. 4. The deuterons are mobile. 5. The deuterons can form close-packed clusters, and in principle a fusion reaction can take place within such a cluster. 6. Not only /sup 3/He should be produced in Pd but possible /sup 4/He too. From their theoretical picture, it can be concluded that experimental results will be strongly dependent on the condition of the materials used in the experiments. This can possible explain that only a part of experiments could show up cold fusion. A well defined condition (lattice defects, different phases, impurities, etc.) of the materials is probably the most critical point in connection with the observation of cold fusion in condensed matter. The effect should also be influenced by lattice dilatations. Experiments with other materials instead of palladium (e.g. vanadium, titanium, lanthanide metals, and different alloys) should be probably more informative.

  18. ARM - Measurement - Ice water content

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    content ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Ice water content The concentration (mass/vol) of ice water particles in a cloud. Categories Cloud Properties, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including

  19. Organization Chart | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Organization Chart Organization Chart Organization Chart Printable PDF Mission Leadership

  20. Dark Matter in the MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Cotta, R.C.; Gainer, J.S.; Hewett, J.L.; Rizzo, T.G.; /SLAC

    2009-04-07

    We have recently examined a large number of points in the parameter space of the phenomenological MSSM, the 19-dimensional parameter space of the CP-conserving MSSM with Minimal Flavor Violation. We determined whether each of these points satisfied existing experimental and theoretical constraints. This analysis provides insight into general features of the MSSM without reference to a particular SUSY breaking scenario or any other assumptions at the GUT scale. This study opens up new possibilities for SUSY phenomenology both in colliders and in astrophysical experiments. Here we shall discuss the implications of this analysis relevant to the study of dark matter.

  1. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms asmore » triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator Φ with a coupling λ. We identify a number of “flavor-safe” scenarios for the structure of λ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of λ turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed.« less

  2. Flavored dark matter beyond minimal flavor violation

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3)x associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter ? which transforms asmoretriplet under U(3)x , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator ? with a coupling ?. We identify a number of flavor-safe scenarios for the structure of ? which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. For dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. The combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of ? turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed.less

  3. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms as triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator Φ with a coupling λ. We identify a number of “flavor-safe” scenarios for the structure of λ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of λ turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed.

  4. How cold is cold dark matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Neelakanta, Jayanth T. E-mail: jtneelak@syr.edu

    2014-03-01

    If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be non-interacting and non-relativistic by definition. In most cold dark matter models however, dark matter particles inherit a non-vanishing velocity dispersion from interactions in the early universe, a velocity that redshifts with cosmic expansion but certainly remains non-zero. In this article, we place model-independent constraints on the dark matter temperature to mass ratio, whose square root determines the dark matter velocity dispersion. We only assume that dark matter particles decoupled kinetically while non-relativistic, when galactic scales had not entered the horizon yet, and that their momentum distribution has been Maxwellian since that time. Under these assumptions, using cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum observations, we place upper limits on the temperature to mass ratio of cold dark matter today (away from collapsed structures). These limits imply that the present cold dark matter velocity dispersion has to be smaller than 54 m/s. Cold dark matter has to be quite cold, indeed.

  5. High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Coburn, Thomas T.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

  6. A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Coburn, T.T.

    1988-07-26

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

  7. A Matter of Quantum Voltages

    SciTech Connect

    Sellner, Bernhard; Kathmann, Shawn M.

    2014-11-14

    Voltages inside matter are relevant to crystallization, materials science, biology, catalysis, and aqueous chemistry. Electron holography is able to measure the variation of voltages in matter and modern supercomputers allow the calculation of quantum voltages with practically unlimited spatial and temporal resolution of bulk systems. Of particular interest is the Mean Inner Potential (Vo) - the spatial average of these voltages. Voltages are very sensitive to the distribution of electrons and provide metrics to understand interactions in condensed phases. In the present study, we find excellent agreement with measurements of Vo for vitrified water and salt crystals and demonstrate the impact of covalent and ionic bonding as well as intermolecular/atomic interactions. Furthermore, we predict Vo as well as the fluctuations of these voltages in aqueous NaCl electrolytes and characterize the changes in their behavior as the resolution increases below the size of atoms. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  8. Contents

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Photo courtesy of Rocky Flats Workers seed the Rocky Flats site with native grasses. NTS ... To achieve the To use this feature, go to http:webappa.nv.doe.govappshsidefault.htm. ...

  9. CONTENTS

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    responsible contractor's processes and, as a minimum, shall be signed and dated by the following: 1. Technical Approver (see Appendix A for definition) 2. Manager responsible...

  10. Contents

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    items, remeasurements and stranded cost recoveries 101 Note 5 - Finance income and ... 147 Note 33 - Sensitivities on areas of estimation and uncertainty 148 Note 34 - ...

  11. Contents

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... by creating a set of ALOHA save files or (b) to be able to rerun a scenario in the future. ... for elevation, latitude, and longitude to calculate solar radiation and air pressure. ...

  12. Contents

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Unicorn subcritical experiment completes key milestone New communication system takes ... Employees outside Las Vegas - toll-free (877) 209-8516 New communication system takes ...

  13. contents

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Within a restricted area, such as a substation, one of the goals of a highly secure SCADA ... system is able to deter successful replacement or impersonation and manipulation ...

  14. Chapter 4 - Administrative Matters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    - Administrative Matters Chapter 4 - Administrative Matters 4.6 Assigning Identifying Numbers Outside of the Strategic Integrated Procurement Enterprise System (STRIPES) 4.2_Requirements_for_Contracting_with_Public_Relations_Firms_0.pdf (23.77 KB) More Documents & Publications AcqGuide4.2-OPAM Acquisition Guide Chapter 31.205-1 - Contracting with Public Relations Firms Chapter 4 - Administrative Matters

  15. Classified Matter Protection and Control Handbook

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    DOE HANDBOOK Classified Matter Protection and Control Handbook U.S. Department of Energy AREA SANS Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-HDBK-1223-2016 NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE i DOE-HDBK-1223-2016 i FOREWORD The protection of classified matter is of paramount importance in fulfilling security responsibilities in connection with the Department of Energy (DOE). Classified matter includes documents, electronic media, and

  16. ALICE: The Quest for 'Primordial' Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Fabjan, C. W.

    2008-04-21

    ALICE - An LHC Ion Collider Experiment - is being prepared to study, in an optimized and dedicated approach, the physics of nuclear matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density. The LHC Ion programme is the logical sequel in the quest to study the novel form of matter, the Quark-Gluon Plasma, the form of matter believed to have existed in our Universe during the first microsecond after the Big Bang. The status of ALICE, its research programme and discovery potential are presented.

  17. TASI 2008 Lectures on Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.

    2009-01-01

    Based on lectures given at the 2008 Theoretical Advanced Study Institute (TASI), I review here some aspects of the phenomenology of particle dark matter, including the process of thermal freeze-out in the early universe, and the direct and indirect detection of WIMPs. I also describe some of the most popular particle candidates for dark matter and summarize the current status of the quest to discover dark matter's particle identity.

  18. COLLOQUIUM: Environmental Condensed Matter Physics | Princeton Plasma

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Lab April 24, 2013, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: Environmental Condensed Matter Physics Professor Brad Marston Brown University The physics of condensed matter provides a unique perspective on materials and systems of environmental relevance. I discuss three ways in which concepts and methods of condensed matter physics bear upon the quest for a sustainable future. Electronic devices made from metal oxides may enable new approaches to renewable energy, such

  19. Course Overview Pump Systems Matter Optimization | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Course Overview Pump Systems Matter Optimization Attendees of the "Pump Systems Optimization" one-day course will gain valuable new skills to help them improve...

  20. Terra Matters PLLC | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    to: navigation, search Name: Terra Matters, PLLC Place: Seattle, Washington Zip: 98122 Product: Boutique consultancy providing advice on sustainable design and business...

  1. ALS Reveals New State of Matter

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    universe" of sorts. Some researchers believe that the conditions inside this new state of matter can be manipulated (for example, by bringing it into contact with a...

  2. Neutrino signals from dark matter decay

    SciTech Connect

    Covi, Laura; Grefe, Michael; Ibarra, Alejandro; Tran, David E-mail: michael.grefe@desy.de E-mail: david.tran@ph.tum.de

    2010-04-01

    We investigate different neutrino signals from the decay of dark matter particles to determine the prospects for their detection, and more specifically if any spectral signature can be disentangled from the background in present and future neutrino observatories. If detected, such a signal could bring an independent confirmation of the dark matter interpretation of the dramatic rise in the positron fraction above 10 GeV recently observed by the PAMELA satellite experiment and offer the possibility of distinguishing between astrophysical sources and dark matter decay or annihilation. In combination with other signals, it may also be possible to distinguish among different dark matter decay channels.

  3. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    the properties of all. In disciplines such as condensed matter or plasma physics, one force often dominates over the others, allowing smaller forces to be neglected in physical...

  4. Astrophysical tests of mirror dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ciarcelluti, P.

    2008-08-29

    Mirror matter is a self-collisional dark matter candidate. If exact mirror parity is a conserved symmetry of the nature, there could exist a parallel hidden (mirror) sector of the Universe which has the same kind of particles and the same physical laws of our (visible) sector. The two sectors interact each other only via gravity, therefore mirror matter is naturally 'dark'. The most promising way to test this dark matter candidate is to look at its astrophysical signatures, as Big Bang nucleosynthesis, primordial structure formation and evolution, cosmic microwave background and large scale structure power spectra.

  5. Jelly Bean Universe (Dark Matter / Dark Energy)

    ScienceCinema

    Kurt Riesselmann

    2010-01-08

    Fermilab's Kurt Riesselmann explains how to make a jelly bean universe to help explain the mysteries of dark matter and dark energy.

  6. Jelly Bean Universe (Dark Matter / Dark Energy)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt Riesselmann

    2009-09-10

    Fermilab's Kurt Riesselmann explains how to make a jelly bean universe to help explain the mysteries of dark matter and dark energy.

  7. Dark matter annihilation or unresolved astrophysical sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dark matter annihilation or unresolved ... cosmic gamma-ray background (CGB) is a longstanding mystery in high-energy astrophysics. ...

  8. Dipolar dark matter with massive bigravity

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchet, Luc; Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2015-12-14

    Massive gravity theories have been developed as viable IR modifications of gravity motivated by dark energy and the problem of the cosmological constant. On the other hand, modified gravity and modified dark matter theories were developed with the aim of solving the problems of standard cold dark matter at galactic scales. Here we propose to adapt the framework of ghost-free massive bigravity theories to reformulate the problem of dark matter at galactic scales. We investigate a promising alternative to dark matter called dipolar dark matter (DDM) in which two different species of dark matter are separately coupled to the two metrics of bigravity and are linked together by an internal vector field. We show that this model successfully reproduces the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales (i.e. MOND) as a result of a mechanism of gravitational polarisation. The model is safe in the gravitational sector, but because of the particular couplings of the matter fields and vector field to the metrics, a ghost in the decoupling limit is present in the dark matter sector. However, it might be possible to push the mass of the ghost beyond the strong coupling scale by an appropriate choice of the parameters of the model. Crucial questions to address in future work are the exact mass of the ghost, and the cosmological implications of the model.

  9. Short-Pulse Laser-Matter Computational Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Town, R; Tabak, M

    2004-11-02

    For three days at the end of August 2004, 55 plasma scientists met at the Four Points by Sheraton in Pleasanton to discuss some of the critical issues associated with the computational aspects of the interaction of short-pulse high-intensity lasers with matter. The workshop was organized around the following six key areas: (1) Laser propagation/interaction through various density plasmas: micro scale; (2) Anomalous electron transport effects: From micro to meso scale; (3) Electron transport through plasmas: From meso to macro scale; (4) Ion beam generation, transport, and focusing; (5) ''Atomic-scale'' electron and proton stopping powers; and (6) K{alpha} diagnostics.

  10. Scientists Mix Matter and Anti-Matter Results to Resolve Decade...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Fans of science and science fiction have been warned that mixing matter with anti-matter can yield explosive results. And that's just what physicists were counting on, in hopes of ...

  11. Hadronization line in stringy matter

    SciTech Connect

    Biro, Tamas S.; Cleymans, Jean

    2008-09-15

    The equation of state of the string model with linear strings comes close to describing the lattice quantum chromodynamics results and allows for the E/N{approx_equal}6T{sub 0}=1GeV relation found in phenomenological statistical model. The E/N value is derived from the zero pressure condition in quark matter and is a fairly general result. The baryochemical potential dependence of the hadron gas can be met if it is interpreted in the framework of an additive quark model. The conclusion is reached that stringy models explain the E/N=6T{sub 0} relation naturally and independently of the value of the string tension.

  12. Scientists Mix Matter and Anti-Matter Results to Resolve Decade-Old Proton

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Puzzle | Jefferson Lab Scientists Mix Matter and Anti-Matter Results to Resolve Decade-Old Proton Puzzle The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, or CLAS, in Jefferson Lab's Experimental Hall B was used to measure electrons during the experiment. The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, or CLAS, in Jefferson Lab's Experimental Hall B was used to measure electrons during the experiment. Scientists Mix Matter and Anti-Matter to Resolve Decade-Old Proton Puzzle Fans of science and science

  13. Spin polarized asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron star matter within the lowest order constrained variational method

    SciTech Connect

    Bordbar, G. H.; Bigdeli, M.

    2008-01-15

    In this paper, we calculate properties of the spin polarized asymmetrical nuclear matter and neutron star matter, using the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method with the AV{sub 18}, Reid93, UV{sub 14}, and AV{sub 14} potentials. According to our results, the spontaneous phase transition to a ferromagnetic state in the asymmetrical nuclear matter as well as neutron star matter do not occur.

  14. Ethanol Blend Effects On Direct Injection Spark-Ignition Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Barone, Teresa L

    2010-01-01

    Direct injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected counterparts, and are now appearing increasingly in more U.S. vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged DISI engines are likely to be used in lieu of large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, to meet fuel economy standards for 2016. In addition to changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the 10% allowed by current law due to the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). In this study, we present the results of an emissions analysis of a U.S.-legal stoichiometric, turbocharged DISI vehicle, operating on ethanol blends, with an emphasis on detailed particulate matter (PM) characterization. Gaseous species, particle mass, and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. For the gaseous species and particle mass measurements, dilution was carried out using a full flow constant volume sampling system (CVS). For the particle number concentration and size distribution measurements, a micro-tunnel dilution system was employed. The vehicles were fueled by a standard test gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. During steady-state operation, the geometric mean diameter of the particle-number size

  15. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    About Us Organization Organization Organization Download Printable PDF PDF icon Organization Chart - Dated: 07122015 Key Resources PMCDP EVMS PARS IIe FPD Resource Center PM ...

  16. ,"Texas Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Heat Content of Natural Gas ...2016 6:34:00 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Texas Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed

  17. Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosol Particulates at the Southern Great

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plains Site Field Campaign Report (Program Document) | SciTech Connect Program Document: Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosol Particulates at the Southern Great Plains Site Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosol Particulates at the Southern Great Plains Site Field Campaign Report The purpose of this study was to measure the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) fractions of PM2.5 particulate matter at the U.S. Department

  18. Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J.; Zhuang, Ye; Almlie, Jay C.

    2012-01-10

    Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

  19. Origin of ΔN{sub eff} as a result of an interaction between dark radiation and dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bjaelde, Ole Eggers; Das, Subinoy; Moss, Adam E-mail: subinoy@physik.rwth-aachen.de

    2012-10-01

    Results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) and recently from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) have indicated the possible existence of an extra radiation component in addition to the well known three neutrino species predicted by the Standard Model of particle physics. In this paper, we explore the possibility of the apparent extra dark radiation being linked directly to the physics of cold dark matter (CDM). In particular, we consider a generic scenario where dark radiation, as a result of an interaction, is produced directly by a fraction of the dark matter density effectively decaying into dark radiation. At an early epoch when the dark matter density is negligible, as an obvious consequence, the density of dark radiation is also very small. As the Universe approaches matter radiation equality, the dark matter density starts to dominate thereby increasing the content of dark radiation and changing the expansion rate of the Universe. As this increase in dark radiation content happens naturally after Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), it can relax the possible tension with lower values of radiation degrees of freedom measured from light element abundances compared to that of the CMB. We numerically confront this scenario with WMAP+ACT and WMAP+SPT data and derive an upper limit on the allowed fraction of dark matter decaying into dark radiation.

  20. Ratcheting Up The Search for Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Samuel Dylan

    2014-01-01

    The last several years have included remarkable advances in two of the primary areas of fundamental particle physics: the search for dark matter and the discovery of the Higgs boson. This dissertation will highlight some contributions made on the forefront of these exciting fields. Although the circumstantial evidence supporting the dark matter hypothesis is now almost undeniably significant, indisputable direct proof is still lacking. As the direct searches for dark matter continue, we can maximize our prospects of discovery by using theoretical techniques complementary to the observational searches to rule out additional, otherwise accessible parameter space. In this dissertation, I report bounds on a wide range of dark matter theories. The models considered here cover the spectrum from the canonical case of self-conjugate dark matter with weak-scale interactions, to electrically charged dark matter, to non-annihilating, non-fermionic dark matter. These bounds are obtained from considerations of astrophysical and cosmological data, including, respectively: diffuse gamma ray photon observations; structure formation considerations, along with an explication of the novel local dark matter structure due to galactic astrophysics; and the existence of old pulsars in dark-matter-rich environments. I also consider the prospects for a model of neutrino dark matter which has been motivated by a wide set of seemingly contradictory experimental results. In addition, I include a study that provides the tools to begin solving the speculative ``inverse'' problem of extracting dark matter properties solely from hypothetical nuclear energy spectra, which we may face if dark matter is discovered with multiple direct detection experiments. In contrast to the null searches for dark matter, we have the example of the recent discovery of the Higgs boson. The Higgs boson is the first fundamental scalar particle ever observed, and precision measurements of the production and decay of

  1. Nuclear and neutron matter studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wiringa, R.B.; Akmal, A.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1995-08-01

    We are studying nuclear and neutron matter with the new Argonne v{sub 18} NN and Urbana 3N potentials. We use variational wave functions and a diagrammatic cluster expansion with Fermi hypernetted and single-operator chain (FHNC/SOC) integral equations to evaluate the energy expectation value. Initial results show some interesting differences with our previous calculations with the older Argonne v{sub 14} potential. In particular, there are a number of diagrams involving L{center_dot}S and L{sup 2} terms which were small with the older model and were rather crudely estimated or even neglected. It appears that these terms are more important with the new potential and will have to be evaluated more accurately. Work on this subject is in progress. A simple line of attack is to just add additional diagrams at the three-body cluster level. A longer term approach may be to adapt some of the methods for evaluating nucleon clusters used in the few-body and closed shell nuclei described above.

  2. SECTION J - TABLE OF CONTENTS

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Conformed to Mod 0108 DE-NA0000622 Section J Page i PART III - LIST OF DOCUMENTS, EXHIBITS, AND OTHER ATTACHMENTS SECTION J LIST OF APPENDICES TABLE OF CONTENTS Appendix A Statement of Work (Replaced by Mod 002; Modified Mod 016; Replaced Mod 029) Appendix B Performance Evaluation Plan (Replaced by Mods 002, 016, 020, 029, 0084) Appendix C Contractor's Transition Plan Appendix D Sensitive Foreign Nations Control Appendix E Performance Guarantee Agreement(s) Appendix F National Work Breakdown

  3. TBU-0119 - In the Matter of Gennady Ozeryansky | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    PDF icon tbu0119.pdf More Documents & Publications TBU-0113 - In the Matter of Gennady Ozeryansky TBB-0119 In the Matter of Gennady Ozeryansky TBU-0117 - In the Matter of Gordon ...

  4. Overview of Pump Systems Matter | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Overview of Pump Systems Matter Overview of Pump Systems Matter Pump Systems Matter (PSM) is a non-profit (501(c) 3) educational foundation, established to educate the marketplace and promote pumping systems energy efficiency. G_Overview_of_Pump_Systems_Matter.pdf (1.04 MB) More Documents & Publications Summary of 2011 Accomplishments HI & PSM Course Overview Pump Systems Matter Optimization Pump Systems Matter Mission and Vision

  5. Pump Systems Matter Mission and Vision | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Pump Systems Matter Mission and Vision Pump Systems Matter Mission and Vision Pump Systems Matter(tm) (PSM) places a primary focus on pump systems education and outreach and addresses energy savings and total cost of pump ownership. C_Vision_&_Mission_of_Pump_Systems_Matter.pdf (56.49 KB) More Documents & Publications Overview of Pump Systems Matter Hydraulic Institute Member Benefits Course Overview Pump Systems Matter Optimization

  6. Quintessence with quadratic coupling to dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Boehmer, Christian G.; Chan, Nyein; Caldera-Cabral, Gabriela; Lazkoz, Ruth; Maartens, Roy

    2010-04-15

    We introduce a new form of coupling between dark energy and dark matter that is quadratic in their energy densities. Then we investigate the background dynamics when dark energy is in the form of exponential quintessence. The three types of quadratic coupling all admit late-time accelerating critical points, but these are not scaling solutions. We also show that two types of coupling allow for a suitable matter era at early times and acceleration at late times, while the third type of coupling does not admit a suitable matter era.

  7. Assembly of Repeat Content Using Next Generation Sequencing Data

    SciTech Connect

    labutti, Kurt; Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor; Copeland, Alex

    2014-03-17

    Repetitive organisms pose a challenge for short read assembly, and typically only unique regions and repeat regions shorter than the read length, can be accurately assembled. Recently, we have been investigating the use of Pacific Biosciences reads for de novo fungal assembly. We will present an assessment of the quality and degree of repeat reconstruction possible in a fungal genome using long read technology. We will also compare differences in assembly of repeat content using short read and long read technology.

  8. The Effective Field Theory of Dark Matter Direct Detection (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effective Field Theory of Dark Matter Direct Detection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Effective Field Theory of Dark Matter Direct Detection You are accessing a...

  9. An Effective Theory of Dirac Dark Matter (Journal Article) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: An Effective Theory of Dirac Dark Matter Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Effective Theory of Dirac Dark Matter A stable Dirac fermion with ...

  10. Detecting electron neutrinos from solar dark matter annihilation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Detecting electron neutrinos from solar dark matter annihilation by JUNO Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Detecting electron neutrinos from solar dark matter annihilation ...

  11. Precision Determination Of The Nonlinear Matter Power Spectrum...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Precision Determination Of The Nonlinear Matter Power Spectrum Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Precision Determination Of The Nonlinear Matter Power Spectrum You are...

  12. Properties of nuclear matter within the JISP16NNinteraction ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Properties of nuclear matter within the JISP16NNinteraction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Properties of nuclear matter within the JISP16NNinteraction Authors:...

  13. MPA Materials Matter December 2014 (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: MPA Materials Matter December 2014 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MPA Materials Matter December 2014 You are accessing a document from the ...

  14. MPA Materials Matter September 2014 (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MPA Materials Matter September 2014 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MPA Materials Matter September 2014 You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's...

  15. Sandia Energy - Control of Strong Light-Matter Coupling Using...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Control of Strong Light-Matter Coupling Using the Capacitance of Metamaterial Nanocavities Home Highlights - Energy Research Control of Strong Light-Matter Coupling Using the...

  16. MPA Materials Matter January 2015 (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MPA Materials Matter January 2015 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MPA Materials Matter January 2015 You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) ...

  17. MPA Materials Matter December 2015 (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MPA Materials Matter December 2015 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MPA Materials Matter December 2015 You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's ...

  18. In the OSTI Collections: Dark Matter and Dark Energy | OSTI,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dark Matter and Dark Energy Recent observations of the universe, combined with Einstein's ... consists of entities very different from the matter and energy long familiar to us. ...

  19. Electronic Structure of Warm Dense Matter via Multicenter Green...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic Structure of Warm Dense Matter via Multicenter Green's Function Technique Research Personnel Modeling The proposed research addresses the Warm Dense Matter area...

  20. Indirect detection of self-interacting asymmetric dark matter...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Indirect detection of self-interacting asymmetric dark matter Prev Next Title: Indirect detection of self-interacting asymmetric dark matter Authors: Pearce, Lauren ; ...

  1. Postinflationary Higgs Relaxation and the Origin of Matter-Antimatter...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Postinflationary Higgs Relaxation and the Origin of Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry Prev Next Title: Postinflationary Higgs Relaxation and the Origin of Matter-Antimatter ...

  2. Exploring the Nature of Matter | Jefferson Lab

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    of matter." And you might ask, what do they mean? At Jefferson Laboratory, we scatter electrons like Hofstadter did in the '50s when he explored nuclei. That's why one of our roads...

  3. Investigation of Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    This study focuses primarily on particulate matter mass analysis of a gasoline direct injection engine in a test cell with a chassis dynamometer. PDF icon p-10gibbs.pdf More ...

  4. Manual for Classified Matter Protection and Control

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1998-01-09

    Provides detailed requirements for the protection and control of classified matter which supplement DOE O 471.2A. Cancels DOE M 471.2-1 dated 09/26/1995.

  5. ALS Reveals New State of Matter

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    New State of Matter Print ALS user groups from Princeton and Stanford have been making waves this past year with several high-profile papers and extensive news coverage of...

  6. Supernova cooling in a dark matter smog

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yue

    2014-11-27

    A light hidden gauge boson with kinetic mixing with the usual photon is a popular setup in theories of dark matter. The supernova cooling via radiating the hidden boson is known to put an important constraint on the mixing. I consider the possible role dark matter, which under reasonable assumptions naturally exists inside supernova, can play in the cooling picture. Because the interaction between the hidden gauge boson and DM is likely unsuppressed, even a small number of dark matter compared to protons inside the supernova could dramatically shorten the free streaming length of the hidden boson. A picture of a dark matter “smog” inside the supernova, which substantially relaxes the cooling constraint, is discussed in detail.

  7. CONTENTS OF A VISIT REQUEST

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    CONTENTS OF A VISIT REQUEST All visit requests are required to be submitted via JPAS according to AFI 31-101 and the NISPOM. Our SMO code is KV1MFSCC6. Please do not send an annual visit request for the conference. Use the dates of the conference for the duration of the visit. Please list Bing Serafico, 505-853-0451 as the Point of Contract for the visit. NOTE: Only use the following information if your companies DO NOT have access to JPAS. All faxed visit request for personnel that are in JPAS

  8. Light mixed sneutrinos as thermal dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bélanger, G.; Kakizaki, M.; Park, E.K.; Kraml, S.

    2010-11-01

    In supersymmetric models with Dirac neutrino masses, a left-right mixed sneutrino can be a viable dark matter candidate. We examine the MSSM+ν-tilde {sub R} parameter space where this is the case with particular emphasis on light sneutrinos with masses below 10 GeV. We discuss implications for direct and indirect dark matter searches, including the relevant uncertainties, as well as consequences for collider phenomenology.

  9. The C-4 Dark Matter Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bonicalzi, Ricco; Collar, J. I.; Colaresi, J.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Fuller, Erin S.; Hai, M.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Kos, Marek S.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Cory T.; Reid, Douglas J.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Wiseman, Clinton G.; Yocum, K. M.

    2013-06-01

    Abstract We describe the experimental design of C-4, an expansion of the CoGeNT dark matter search to four identical detectors each approximately three times the mass of the p-type point contact (PPC) germanium diode presently taking data at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. Expected reductions of radioactive backgrounds and energy threshold are discussed, including an estimate of the additional sensitivity to low-mass dark matter candidates to be obtained with this search.

  10. Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Advanced diagnostics of experiments covering many orders of magnitude in strain rate Contact Eric Loomis (505) 665-3196 Email Dynamic materials experiments over a wide range of strain rates are essential to studying constitutive relations (e.g., plasticity), damage (e.g., spall), equations of state, phase transitions and kinetics, and novel materials. The Trident laser facility supplies unique,

  11. Organization Chart - Home

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    LSD Logo About Us People & Organization Research News & Events Safety Internal Resources Organization Chart Departments Scientific Staff Directory Committees Organization Chart...

  12. Identifying dark matter interactions in monojet searches

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Agrawal, Prateek; Rentala, Vikram

    2014-05-22

    We study the discrimination of quark-initiated jets from gluon-initiated jets in monojet searches for dark matter using the technique of averaged jet energy profiles. We demonstrate our results in the context of effective field theories of dark matter interactions with quarks and gluons, but our methods apply more generally to a wide class of models. Different effective theories of dark matter and the standard model backgrounds each have a characteristic quark/gluon fraction for the leading jet. When used in conjunction with the traditional cut-and-count monojet search, the jet energy profile can be used to set stronger bounds on contact interactionsmore » of dark matter. In the event of a discovery of a monojet excess at the 14 TeV LHC, contact interactions between dark matter with quarks or with gluons can be differentiated at the 95% confidence level. For a given rate at the LHC, signal predictions at direct detection experiments for different dark matter interactions can span five orders of magnitude. Lastly, the ability to identify these interactions allows us to make a tighter connection between LHC searches and direct detection experiments.« less

  13. Identifying dark matter interactions in monojet searches

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Rentala, Vikram

    2014-05-22

    We study the discrimination of quark-initiated jets from gluon-initiated jets in monojet searches for dark matter using the technique of averaged jet energy profiles. We demonstrate our results in the context of effective field theories of dark matter interactions with quarks and gluons, but our methods apply more generally to a wide class of models. Different effective theories of dark matter and the standard model backgrounds each have a characteristic quark/gluon fraction for the leading jet. When used in conjunction with the traditional cut-and-count monojet search, the jet energy profile can be used to set stronger bounds on contact interactions of dark matter. In the event of a discovery of a monojet excess at the 14 TeV LHC, contact interactions between dark matter with quarks or with gluons can be differentiated at the 95% confidence level. For a given rate at the LHC, signal predictions at direct detection experiments for different dark matter interactions can span five orders of magnitude. Lastly, the ability to identify these interactions allows us to make a tighter connection between LHC searches and direct detection experiments.

  14. Dark Forces and Light Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan; Weiner, Neal; Xue, Wei

    2012-09-01

    We consider a simple class of models in which the dark matter, X, is coupled to a new gauge boson, phi, with a relatively low mass (m_phi \\sim 100 MeV-3 GeV). Neither the dark matter nor the new gauge boson have tree-level couplings to the Standard Model. The dark matter in this model annihilates to phi pairs, and for a coupling of g_X \\sim 0.06 (m_X/10 GeV)^1/2 yields a thermal relic abundance consistent with the cosmological density of dark matter. The phi's produced in such annihilations decay through a small degree of kinetic mixing with the photon to combinations of Standard Model leptons and mesons. For dark matter with a mass of \\sim10 GeV, the shape of the resulting gamma-ray spectrum provides a good fit to that observed from the Galactic Center, and can also provide the very hard electron spectrum required to account for the observed synchrotron emission from the Milky Way's radio filaments. For kinetic mixing near the level naively expected from loop-suppressed operators (epsilon \\sim 10^{-4}), the dark matter is predicted to scatter elastically with protons with a cross section consistent with that required to accommodate the signals reported by DAMA/LIBRA, CoGeNT and CRESST-II.

  15. Quark matter symmetry energy and quark stars

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Peng-Cheng; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2014-01-10

    We extend the confined-density-dependent-mass (CDDM) model to include isospin dependence of the equivalent quark mass. Within the confined-isospin-density-dependent-mass (CIDDM) model, we study the quark matter symmetry energy, the stability of strange quark matter, and the properties of quark stars. We find that including isospin dependence of the equivalent quark mass can significantly influence the quark matter symmetry energy as well as the properties of strange quark matter and quark stars. While the recently discovered large mass pulsars PSR J1614–2230 and PSR J0348+0432 with masses around 2 M {sub ☉} cannot be quark stars within the CDDM model, they can be well described by quark stars in the CIDDM model. In particular, our results indicate that the two-flavor u-d quark matter symmetry energy should be at least about twice that of a free quark gas or normal quark matter within the conventional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in order to describe PSR J1614–2230 and PSR J0348+0432 as quark stars.

  16. Supersymmetric dark-matter Q-balls and their interactions in matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kusenko, Alexander; Loveridge, Lee C.; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2005-07-15

    Supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model contain nontopological solitons, Q-balls, which can be stable and can be a form of cosmological dark matter. Understanding the interaction of SUSY Q-balls with matter fermions is important for both astrophysical limits and laboratory searches for these dark-matter candidates. We show that a baryon scattering off a baryonic SUSY Q-ball can convert into its antiparticle with a high probability, while the baryon number of the Q-ball is increased by two units. For a SUSY Q-ball interacting with matter, this process dominates over those previously discussed in the literature.

  17. PNNL: IDREAM - Organization Chart

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    IDREAM Organizational Chart Enlarge Image | PDF version IDREAM Organization Chart

  18. Recovery of carboxylic acids from water by precipitation from organic solutions

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson; Starr, John

    1992-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are recovered from wet organic solutions by reducing the solutions' water content thus causing the acids to precipitate as recoverable crystals.

  19. Template:ContentAssist | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    ContentAssist Jump to: navigation, search This is the ContentAssist template. It is intended for inclusion on any page and will highlight extracted energy-related terms from the...

  20. Energy.gov Content Management System

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy.gov Content Management SystemEERE's websites are hosted in Energy.gov's Drupal content management system (CMS), which is maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's Public Affairs Office.

  1. Dark matter directional detection in non-relativistic effective theories

    SciTech Connect

    Catena, Riccardo

    2015-07-20

    We extend the formalism of dark matter directional detection to arbitrary one-body dark matter-nucleon interactions. The new theoretical framework generalizes the one currently used, which is based on 2 types of dark matter-nucleon interaction only. It includes 14 dark matter-nucleon interaction operators, 8 isotope-dependent nuclear response functions, and the Radon transform of the first 2 moments of the dark matter velocity distribution. We calculate the recoil energy spectra at dark matter directional detectors made of CF{sub 4}, CS{sub 2} and {sup 3}He for the 14 dark matter-nucleon interactions, using nuclear response functions recently obtained through numerical nuclear structure calculations. We highlight the new features of the proposed theoretical framework, and present our results for a spherical dark matter halo and for a stream of dark matter particles. This study lays the foundations for model independent analyses of dark matter directional detection experiments.

  2. Cosmological constraints on the gravitational interactions of matter and dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Yang; Salvado, Jordi; Stefanek, Ben A.

    2015-10-13

    Although there is overwhelming evidence of dark matter from its gravitational interaction, we still do not know its precise gravitational interaction strength or whether it obeys the equivalence principle. Using the latest available cosmological data and working within the framework of ΛCDM, we first update the measurement of the multiplicative factor of cosmology-relevant Newton’s constant over the standard laboratory-based value and find that it is consistent with one. In general relativity, dark matter equivalence principle breaking can be mimicked by a long-range dark matter force mediated by an ultra light scalar field. Using the Planck three year data, we find that the dark matter “fifth-force” strength is constrained to be weaker than 10{sup −4} of the gravitational force. We also introduce a phenomenological, post-Newtonian two-fluid description to explicitly break the equivalence principle by introducing a difference between dark matter inertial and gravitational masses. Depending on the decoupling time of the dark matter and ordinary matter fluids, the ratio of the dark matter gravitational mass to inertial mass is constrained to be unity at the 10{sup −6} level.

  3. Particulate matter pollution in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Vega R, E.; Mora P, V.; Mugica A, V.

    1998-12-31

    The levels of particulate matter are of concern since they may induce severe effects on public health and is the second atmospheric pollution problem in Mexico City. Another noticeable effect in large cities attributable to particulate matter, is the deterioration of visibility. In this paper the analysis of the data of TSP and PM10 during 1988 to 1996 is presented. The seasonal variation of particulate matter, the typical ratios of PM10/TSP and relationships of the two variables were determined. It was found that PM10 concentrations show an important tendency to decrease during this period, due to some control strategies, although this is not the case for TSP. The monthly trend exhibits a clear relationship with the dry (October through April) and wet (May through September) seasons. The particulate matter concentrations are lower during the wet season. The hourly behavior shows that the highest concentrations are correlated with the traffic rush hours. The most TSP polluted area was the northeast, meanwhile the southeast is the most PM10 polluted area. There is a clear evidence of the particulate matter transportation from these areas to other sites of the City.

  4. Working Group Report: Dark Matter Complementarity (Dark Matter in the Coming Decade: Complementary Paths to Discovery and Beyond)

    SciTech Connect

    Arrenberg, Sebastian; et al.,

    2013-10-31

    In this Report we discuss the four complementary searches for the identity of dark matter: direct detection experiments that look for dark matter interacting in the lab, indirect detection experiments that connect lab signals to dark matter in our own and other galaxies, collider experiments that elucidate the particle properties of dark matter, and astrophysical probes sensitive to non-gravitational interactions of dark matter. The complementarity among the different dark matter searches is discussed qualitatively and illustrated quantitatively in several theoretical scenarios. Our primary conclusion is that the diversity of possible dark matter candidates requires a balanced program based on all four of those approaches.

  5. Corrosion control of metals by organic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Ooij, W.J. van; Bierwagen, G.P.; Skerry, B.S.; Mills, D.

    1999-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive treatment of the entire field of corrosion control of metals, from mechanisms and testing procedures to modification of metal surfaces and interfaces by silanes and plasma techniques. They discuss the new, sophisticated analytical tools, such as Time-of-Flight SIMS and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and all materials -- metals, pretreatments, and paint systems. The contents include: (1) Corrosion under organic coatings; (2) Mechanisms of corrosion control by organic coatings; (3) Metal pretreatments; (4) Techniques to study organic coating-metal interfaces; (5) Modification of metal surfaces and interfaces; (6) corrosion testing; (7) Adhesion testing; (8) Paint systems; (9) Conclusions and prospects references.

  6. Cold Positrons from Decaying Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Boubekeur, Lotfi; Dodelson, Scott; Vives, Oscar

    2012-11-01

    Many models of dark matter contain more than one new particle beyond those in the Standard Model. Often heavier particles decay into the lightest dark matter particle as the Universe evolves. Here we explore the possibilities that arise if one of the products in a (Heavy Particle) $\\rightarrow$ (Dark Matter) decay is a positron, and the lifetime is shorter than the age of the Universe. The positrons cool down by scattering off the cosmic microwave background and eventually annihilate when they fall into Galactic potential wells. The resulting 511 keV flux not only places constraints on this class of models but might even be consistent with that observed by the INTEGRAL satellite.

  7. Cosmology of bigravity with doubly coupled matter

    SciTech Connect

    Comelli, D.; Crisostomi, M.; Koyama, K.; Pilo, L.; Tasinato, G.

    2015-04-20

    We study cosmology in the bigravity formulation of the dRGT model where matter couples to both metrics. At linear order in perturbation theory two mass scales emerge: an hard one from the dRGT potential, and an environmental dependent one from the coupling of bigravity with matter. At early time, the dynamics is dictated by the second mass scale which is of order of the Hubble scale. The set of gauge invariant perturbations that couples to matter follow closely the same behaviour as in GR. The remaining perturbations show no issue in the scalar sector, while problems arise in the tensor and vector sectors. During radiation domination, a tensor mode grows power-like at super-horizon scales. More dangerously, the only propagating vector mode features an exponential instability on sub-horizon scales. We discuss the consequences of such instabilities and speculate on possible ways to deal with them.

  8. Solitonic axion condensates modeling dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Castañeda Valle, David Mielke, Eckehard W.

    2013-09-15

    Instead of fluid type dark matter (DM), axion-like scalar fields with a periodic self-interaction or some truncations of it are analyzed as a model of galaxy halos. It is probed if such cold Bose–Einstein type condensates could provide a viable soliton type interpretation of the DM ‘bullets’ observed by means of gravitational lensing in merging galaxy clusters. We study solitary waves for two self-interacting potentials in the relativistic Klein–Gordon equation, mainly in lower dimensions, and visualize the approximately shape-invariant collisions of two ‘lump’ type solitons. -- Highlights: •An axion model of dark matter is considered. •Collision of axion type solitons are studied in a two dimensional toy model. •Relations to dark matter collisions in galaxy clusters are proposed.

  9. Hydrophobic organic contaminants in surficial sediments of Baltimore Harbor: Inventories and sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, J.T.F.; Baker, J.E.

    1999-05-01

    The heavily urbanized and industrialized Baltimore Harbor/Patapsco River/Back River system is one of the most highly contaminated regions of the Chesapeake Bay. In June 1996, surficial sediments were collected at 80 sites throughout the subestuarine system, including historically undersampled creek sand embayments. The samples were analyzed for a suite of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) consisting of 32 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 113 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. Total PAH and total PCB concentrations ranged from 90 to 46,200 and 8 to 2,150 ng/g dry weight, respectively. There was enormous spatial variability in the concentrations of HOCs, which was not well correlated to grain size or organic carbon content, suggesting nonequilibrium partitioning and/or proximity to sources as important factors explaining the observed spatial variability. High concentrations of both classes of HOCs were localized around major urban stormwater runoff discharges. Elevated PAH concentrations were also centered around the Sparrow`s Point Industrial Complex, most likely a result of the pyrolysis of coal during the production of steel. All but 1 of the 80 sites exceeded the effects range-low (ERL) for total PCBs and, of those sites, 40% exceeded the effects range-medium (ERM), suggesting toxicity to marine benthic organisms would frequently occur. Using principal component analysis, differences in PAH signatures were discerned. Higher molecular weight PAHs were enriched in signatures from sediments close to suspected sources (i.e., urban stormwater runoff and steel production complexes) compared to those patterns observed at sites further from outfalls or runoff. Due to varying solubilities and affinities for organic matter of the individual PAHs, partitioning of the heavier weight PAHs may enrich settling particles with high molecular weight PAHs. Lower molecular weight PAHs, having lower affinity for particles, may travel from the source to a

  10. Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) MaRIE will provide a capability to address the control of performance and production of materials at the mesoscale. MaRIE fills a critical gap in length scale between studies conducted at the integral scale at DARHT and U1a, and at the atomic scale at NIF and Z. MaRIE Why MaRIE NNSA does not currently have a capability to understand and test materials response regimes at resolution necessary to

  11. Dark matter detection in the BMSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Bernal, Nicolás; Goudelis, Andreas E-mail: andreas.goudelis@th.u-psud.fr

    2010-03-01

    The addition of non-renormalizable terms involving the Higgs fields to the MSSM (BMSSM) ameliorates the little hierarchy problem of the MSSM. For neutralino dark matter, new regions for which the relic abundance of the LSP is consistent with WMAP (as the bulk region and the stop coannihilation region) are now permitted. In this framework, we analyze in detail the direct dark matter detection prospects in a XENON-like experiment. On the other hand, we study the capability of detecting gamma-rays, antiprotons and positrons produced in the annihilation of neutralino LSPs in the Fermi and oncoming AMS-02 experiments.

  12. Axions as hot and cold dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Kwang Sik; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Fuminobu E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-02-01

    The presence of a hot dark matter component has been hinted at 3? by a combination of the results from different cosmological observations. We examine a possibility that pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons account for both hot and cold dark matter components. We show that the QCD axions can do the job for the axion decay constant f{sub a}?

  13. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  14. Science On Tap - Matter over. Antimatter

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Science On Tap - Matter over Antimatter Science On Tap - Matter over. Antimatter WHEN: Aug 20, 2015 5:30 PM - 7:00 PM WHERE: UnQuarked Wine Room 145 Central Park Square, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 87544 CONTACT: Jessica Privette 505 667-0375 CATEGORY: Bradbury INTERNAL: Calendar Login Science On Tap Event Description Science On Tap happens every third Thursday of the month, featuring a new topic each week. It begins with an informal 15-minute talk and is followed by a lively group discussion.

  15. Ordered organic-organic multilayer growth

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; Lunt, Richard R

    2015-01-13

    An ordered multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure is formed by depositing at least two layers of thin film crystalline organic materials successively wherein the at least two thin film layers are selected to have their surface energies within .+-.50% of each other, and preferably within .+-.15% of each other, whereby every thin film layer within the multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure exhibit a quasi-epitaxial relationship with the adjacent crystalline organic thin film.

  16. Ordered organic-organic multilayer growth

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lunt, Richard R.

    2016-04-05

    An ordered multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure is formed by depositing at least two layers of thin film crystalline organic materials successively wherein the at least two thin film layers are selected to have their surface energies within .+-.50% of each other, and preferably within .+-.15% of each other, whereby every thin film layer within the multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure exhibit a quasi-epitaxial relationship with the adjacent crystalline organic thin film.

  17. Exploratory Research - Using Volatile Organic Compounds to Separate Heterotrophic and Autotrophic Forest Soil Respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Scott D; Hatten, Jeffrey A

    2015-02-09

    The initial focus of this project was to develop a method to partition soil respiration into its components (autotrophic, heterotrophic etc.) using the fingerprint of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from soils. We were able to identify 63 different VOCs in our study; however, due to technical difficulties we were unable to take reliable measurements in order to test our hypotheses and develop this method. In the end, we changed the objectives of the project. Our new objectives were to characterize the effects of species and soil moisture regime on the composition of soil organic matter. We utilized the soils from the greenhouse experiment we had established for the soil VOC study and determined the lignin biomarker profiles of each of the treatments. We found that moisture had a significant effect on the carbon content of the soils with the low moisture treatments having higher carbon content than the high moisture treatments. We found that the relative yield of syringyl phenols (SP), ligin (Lig), and substituted fatty acids (SFA) were elevated in deciduous planted pots and reduced in conifer planted pots relative to plant-free treatments. Our results suggest nuttall oak preserved lignin and SFA, while loblolly pine lost lignin and SFA similarly to the plant free treatments. Since we did not find that the carbon concentrations of the soils were different between the species, nuttall oak probably replaced more native soil carbon than loblolly pine. This suggests that relative to loblolly pine, nuttall oak is a priming species. Since priming may impact soil carbon pools more than temperature or moisture, determining which species are priming species may facilitate an understanding of the interaction that land use and climate change may have on soil carbon pools.

  18. Dark Matter Searches with the Fermi-LAT in the Direction of Dwarf Spheroidals

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Matthew; Anderson, Brandon; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Conrad, Jan

    2015-07-13

    The dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies of the Milky Way are some of the most dark-matter-dominated objects known. Due to their proximity, high dark matter content, and lack of astrophysical backgrounds, dwarf spheroidal galaxies are widely considered to be among the most promising targets for the indirect detection of dark matter via gamma rays. Here we report on gamma-ray observations of Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies based on 6 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data processed with the new Pass 8 reconstruction and event-level analysis. None of the dwarf galaxies are significantly detected in gamma rays, and we present upper limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section from a combined analysis of the 15 most promising dwarf galaxies. The constraints derived are among the strongest to date using gamma rays and lie below the canonical thermal relic cross section for WIMPs of mass ≲ 100GeV annihilating via the bb-bar and τ⁺τ⁻ channels.

  19. A couplet from flavored dark matter

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Kilic, Can; Verhaaren, Christopher B.

    2015-08-17

    We show that a couplet, a pair of closely spaced photon lines, in the X-ray spectrum is a distinctive feature of lepton flavored dark matter models for which the mass spectrum is dictated by Minimal Flavor Violation. In this scenario, mass splittings between different dark matter flavors are determined by Standard Model Yukawa couplings and can naturally be small, allowing all three flavors to be long-lived and contribute to the observed abundance. Then, in the presence of a tiny source of flavor violation, heavier dark matter flavors can decay via a dipole transition on cosmological timescales, giving rise to threemore » photon lines. Two of these lines are closely spaced, and constitute the couplet. Provided the flavor violation is sufficiently small, the ratios of the line energies are determined in terms of the charged lepton masses, and constitute a prediction of this framework. Furthermore, for dark matter masses of order the weak scale, the couplet lies in the keV-MeV region, with a much weaker line in the eV-keV region. This scenario constitutes a potential explanation for the recent claim of the observation of a 3.5 keV line. As a result, the next generation of X-ray telescopes may have the necessary resolution to resolve the double line structure of such a couplet.« less

  20. Determining Supersymmetric Parameters With Dark Matter Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan; Taylor, Andrew M.; /Oxford U.

    2006-07-01

    In this article, we explore the ability of direct and indirect dark matter experiments to not only detect neutralino dark matter, but to constrain and measure the parameters of supersymmetry. In particular, we explore the relationship between the phenomenological quantities relevant to dark matter experiments, such as the neutralino annihilation and elastic scattering cross sections, and the underlying characteristics of the supersymmetric model, such as the values of {mu} (and the composition of the lightest neutralino), m{sub A} and tan {beta}. We explore a broad range of supersymmetric models and then focus on a smaller set of benchmark models. We find that by combining astrophysical observations with collider measurements, {mu} can often be constrained far more tightly than it can be from LHC data alone. In models in the A-funnel region of parameter space, we find that dark matter experiments can potentially determine m{sub A} to roughly {+-}100 GeV, even when heavy neutral MSSM Higgs bosons (A, H{sub 1}) cannot be observed at the LHC. The information provided by astrophysical experiments is often highly complementary to the information most easily ascertained at colliders.

  1. Electroweak fragmentation functions for dark matter annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Cavasonza, Leila Ali; Krämer, Michael; Pellen, Mathieu

    2015-02-18

    Electroweak corrections can play a crucial role in dark matter annihilation. The emission of gauge bosons, in particular, leads to a secondary flux consisting of all Standard Model particles, and may be described by electroweak fragmentation functions. To assess the quality of the fragmentation function approximation to electroweak radiation in dark matter annihilation, we have calculated the flux of secondary particles from gauge-boson emission in models with Majorana fermion and vector dark matter, respectively. For both models, we have compared cross sections and energy spectra of positrons and antiprotons after propagation through the galactic halo in the fragmentation function approximation and in the full calculation. Fragmentation functions fail to describe the particle fluxes in the case of Majorana fermion annihilation into light fermions: the helicity suppression of the lowest-order cross section in such models cannot be lifted by the leading logarithmic contributions included in the fragmentation function approach. However, for other classes of models like vector dark matter, where the lowest-order cross section is not suppressed, electroweak fragmentation functions provide a simple, model-independent and accurate description of secondary particle fluxes.

  2. Classified Matter Protection and Control Manual

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-04-17

    This Manual supplements DOE O 471.2A, Information Security Program, and provides detailed requirements for the protection and control of classified matter. Cancels DOE M 471.2-1B except Chapter III paragraphs 1 and 2, and Chapter IV.

  3. A couplet from flavored dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Kilic, Can; Verhaaren, Christopher B.

    2015-08-17

    We show that a couplet, a pair of closely spaced photon lines, in the X-ray spectrum is a distinctive feature of lepton flavored dark matter models for which the mass spectrum is dictated by Minimal Flavor Violation. In this scenario, mass splittings between different dark matter flavors are determined by Standard Model Yukawa couplings and can naturally be small, allowing all three flavors to be long-lived and contribute to the observed abundance. Then, in the presence of a tiny source of flavor violation, heavier dark matter flavors can decay via a dipole transition on cosmological timescales, giving rise to three photon lines. Two of these lines are closely spaced, and constitute the couplet. Provided the flavor violation is sufficiently small, the ratios of the line energies are determined in terms of the charged lepton masses, and constitute a prediction of this framework. Furthermore, for dark matter masses of order the weak scale, the couplet lies in the keV-MeV region, with a much weaker line in the eV-keV region. This scenario constitutes a potential explanation for the recent claim of the observation of a 3.5 keV line. As a result, the next generation of X-ray telescopes may have the necessary resolution to resolve the double line structure of such a couplet.

  4. Axino LSP baryogenesis and dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Monteux, Angelo; Shin, Chang Sub

    2015-05-20

    We discuss a new mechanism for baryogenesis, in which the baryon asymmetry is generated by the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) decay via baryonic R-parity-violating interactions. As a specific example, we use a supersymmetric axion model with an axino LSP. This scenario predicts large R-parity violation for the stop, and an upper limit on the squark masses between 15 and 130 TeV, for different choices of the Peccei-Quinn scale and the soft X{sub t} terms. We discuss the implications for the nature of dark matter in light of the axino baryogenesis mechanism, and find that both the axion and a metastable gravitino can provide the correct dark matter density. In the axion dark matter scenario, the initial misalignment angle is restricted to be O(1). On the other hand, the reheating temperature is linked to the PQ scale and should be higher than 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5} GeV in the gravitino dark matter scenario.

  5. Mystery of the Hidden Cosmos [Complex Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Lincoln, Don

    2015-06-16

    Scientists know there must be more matter in the universe than what is visible. Searches for this dark matter have focused on a single unseen particle, but decades of experiments have been unsuccessful at finding it. Exotic possibilities for dark matter are looking increasingly plausible. Rather than just one particle, dark matter could contain an entire world of particles and forces that barely interact with normal matter. Complex dark matter could form dark atoms and molecules and even clump together to make hidden galactic disks that overlap with the spiral arms of the Milky Way and other galaxies. Experiments are under way to search for evidence of such a dark sector.

  6. Dark-Matter-Induced Violation of the Weak Equivalence Principle

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Sean M.; Mantry, Sonny [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Stubbs, Christoper W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2009-07-03

    A long-range fifth force coupled to dark matter can induce a coupling to ordinary matter if the dark matter interacts with standard model fields. We consider constraints on such a scenario from both astrophysical observations and laboratory experiments. We also examine the case where the dark matter is a weakly interacting massive particle, and derive relations between the coupling to dark matter and the coupling to ordinary matter for different models. Currently, this scenario is most tightly constrained by galactic dynamics, but improvements in Eoetvoes experiments can probe unconstrained regions of parameter space.

  7. A 750 GeV portal: LHC phenomenology and dark matter candidates

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    D’Eramo, Francesco; de Vries, Jordy; Panci, Paolo

    2016-05-16

    We study the effective field theory obtained by extending the Standard Model field content with two singlets: a 750 GeV (pseudo-)scalar and a stable fermion. Accounting for collider productions initiated by both gluon and photon fusion, we investigate where the theory is consistent with both the LHC diphoton excess and bounds from Run 1. We analyze dark matter phenomenology in such regions, including relic density constraints as well as collider, direct, and indirect bounds. Scalar portal dark matter models are very close to limits from direct detection and mono-jet searches if gluon fusion dominates, and not constrained at all otherwise.more » In conclusion, pseudo-scalar models are challenged by photon line limits and mono-jet searches in most of the parameter space.« less

  8. Minimal semi-annihilating ℤ{sub N} scalar dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bélanger, Geneviève; Kannike, Kristjan; Pukhov, Alexander; Raidal, Martti

    2014-06-10

    We study the dark matter from an inert doublet and a complex scalar singlet stabilized by ℤ{sub N} symmetries. This field content is the minimal one that allows dimensionless semi-annihilation couplings for N>2. We consider explicitly the ℤ{sub 3} and ℤ{sub 4} cases and take into account constraints from perturbativity, unitarity, vacuum stability, necessity for the electroweak ℤ{sub N} preserving vacuum to be the global minimum, electroweak precision tests, upper limits from direct detection and properties of the Higgs boson. Co-annihilation and semi-annihilation of dark sector particles as well as dark matter conversion significantly modify the cosmic abundance and direct detection phenomenology.

  9. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Organization Organization The organizational structure of the Office of International Affairs (IA) is as follows: Office of Resource Management (IA-10) Office of the Deputy ...

  10. On the capture of dark matter by neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Güver, Tolga; Erkoca, Arif Emre; Sarcevic, Ina; Reno, Mary Hall E-mail: aeerkoca@gmail.com E-mail: ina@physics.arizona.edu

    2014-05-01

    We calculate the number of dark matter particles that a neutron star accumulates over its lifetime as it rotates around the center of a galaxy, when the dark matter particle is a self-interacting boson but does not self-annihilate. We take into account dark matter interactions with baryonic matter and the time evolution of the dark matter sphere as it collapses within the neutron star. We show that dark matter self-interactions play an important role in the rapid accumulation of dark matter in the core of the neutron star. We consider the possibility of determining an exclusion region of the parameter space for dark matter mass and dark matter interaction cross section with the nucleons as well as dark matter self-interaction cross section, based on the observation of old neutron stars. We show that for a dark matter density of 10{sup 3} GeV/cm{sup 3}and dark matter mass m{sub χ} ∼< 10 GeV, there is a potential exclusion region for dark matter interactions with nucleons that is three orders of magnitude more stringent than without self-interactions. The potential exclusion region for dark matter self-interaction cross sections is many orders of magnitude stronger than the current Bullet Cluster limit. For example, for high dark matter density regions, we find that for m{sub χ} ∼ 10 GeV when the dark matter interaction cross section with the nucleons ranges from σ{sub χn} ∼ 10{sup −52} cm{sup 2} to σ{sub χn} ∼ 10{sup −57} cm{sup 2}, the dark matter self-interaction cross section limit is σ{sub χχ} ∼< 10{sup −33} cm{sup 2}, which is about ten orders of magnitude stronger than the Bullet Cluster limit.

  11. Data management system for organic soil

    SciTech Connect

    Stinnette, P.

    1999-07-01

    A Data Management System for Organic Soil (DMSOS) has been developed that enables the acquisition, management and analysis of organic soil data as well as the presentation of results to be conducted effectively through a common interface. This development was in response to the data management needs of research investigating the engineering properties of organic soil and its extension to the stabilization of organic soil through dynamic replacement (DR). It is shown how the above functions are implemented efficiently using Windows-based software to perform comprehensive data management and analysis of data gathered from both laboratory and field tests. When the engineering properties of a given organic soil deposit are needed, a build-in Computer Advisor for Organic Soil Projects (CAOSP) predicts the properties from DMSOS based correlations. A unique and useful feature of the CAOSP is its ability to estimate the anticipated ultimate settlement of an organic soil deposit given the loading conditions and the moisture or organic content. Also incorporated in the DMSOS is a quality control system that utilizes computerized data acquisition/data management techniques in order to evaluate the degree of improvement of an organic soil layer at a given stage of treatment using DR.

  12. Process for recovering organic vapors from air

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.

    1985-01-01

    A process for recovering and concentrating organic vapor from a feed stream of air having an organic vapor content of no more than 20,000 ppm by volume. A thin semipermeable membrane is provided which has a feed side and a permeate side, a selectivity for organic vapor over air of at least 50, as measured by the ratio of organic vapor permeability to nitrogen permeability, and a permeability of organic vapor of at least 3.times.10.sup.-7 cm.sup.3 (STP) cm/cm.sup.2 sec.cm Hg. The feed stream is passed across the feed side of the thin semipermeable membrane while providing a pressure on the permeate side which is lower than the feed side by creating a partial vacuum on the permeate side so that organic vapor passes preferentially through the membrane to form an organic vapor depleted air stream on the feed side and an organic vapor enriched stream on the permeate side. The organic vapor which has passed through the membrane is compressed and condensed to recover the vapor as a liquid.

  13. Standard Format and Content for Emergency Plans

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-08-21

    This volume addresses recommended emergency plan format and content for Operational Emergency Base Programs and Operational Emergency Hazardous Material Programs. Canceled by DOE G 151.1-3.

  14. Position Paper for High Moisture Content Waste

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Nevada Test Site Generator Work Group High Moisture Content Waste Subgroup EXECUTIVE SUMMARY During the 1995 Annual Waste Generator Workshop, discussions were held regarding ...

  15. Energy.gov Content Management System Webforms

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    For Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) websites, Energy.gov's content management system (CMS) has the ability to create webforms.

  16. Method of loading organic materials with group III plus lanthanide and actinide elements

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Zane W.; Huei-Ho, Chuen; Brown, Gilbert M.; Hurlbut, Charles

    2003-04-08

    Disclosed is a composition of matter comprising a tributyl phosphate complex of a group 3, lanthanide, actinide, or group 13 salt in an organic carrier and a method of making the complex. These materials are suitable for use in solid or liquid organic scintillators, as in x-ray absorption standards, x-ray fluorescence standards, and neutron detector calibration standards.

  17. Muon fluxes from dark matter annihilation (Journal Article) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We calculate the muon flux from annihilation of the dark matter in the core of the Sun, in the ... We illustrate how muon energy distribution from dark matter annihilation ...

  18. Interactions of Highly Charged Ions With Matter - Research -...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Interactions of Highly Charged Ions With Matter Spectrum of K&1; x rays from a vanadium The interaction of high-energy heavy-ions with matter is a topic of importance in many areas ...

  19. Properties of Nuclear Matter Within the JISP16 NN Interaction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nuclear Matter Within the JISP16 NN Interaction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Properties of Nuclear Matter Within the JISP16 NN Interaction Authors: Shirokov, A M ; ...

  20. Science on the Hill: Why space weather matters

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Why space weather matters Science on the Hill: Why space weather matters Many people think of space as a silent, empty void and the sun as a distant source of light and heat. Not ...

  1. Open problems in condensed matter physics, 1987 (Conference)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Open problems in condensed matter physics, 1987 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Open problems in condensed matter physics, 1987 The 1970's and 1980's can be ...

  2. Properties of Nuclear Matter Within the JISP16 NN Interaction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Properties of Nuclear Matter Within the JISP16 NN Interaction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Properties of Nuclear Matter Within the JISP16 NN Interaction You are ...

  3. ,"West Virginia Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Heat Content of Natural Gas ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: West Virginia Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed

  4. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory and Licensing Matters | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy Regulatory Commission Regulatory and Licensing Matters Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory and Licensing Matters GC-52 provides legal advice to DOE regarding Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory and licensing matters of interest to DOE, either as an NRC license applicant or in connection with related authorities and responsibilities of DOE and NRC on nuclear material, nuclear waste, and nuclear nonproliferation matters. GC-52 attorneys provide advice and support on a

  5. Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - Chapter 5, Classified Matter

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Protection and Control | Department of Energy Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - Chapter 5, Classified Matter Protection and Control Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - Chapter 5, Classified Matter Protection and Control 2016 Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - Chapter 5, Classified Matter Protection and Control This, the largest chapter in the HQFMSP, describes the procedures required to properly protect classified matter from the day it is created to the

  6. Microbial cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOEpatents

    Kilbane, II, John J.

    1994-01-01

    A microbial process for selective cleavage of organic C--S bonds which may be used for reducing the sulfur content of sulfur-containing organic carbonaceous materials, Microorganisms of Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Bacillus sphaericus have been found which have the ability of selective cleavage of organic C--S bonds. Particularly preferred microorganisms are Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC 53968 and Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC 53969 and their derivatives.

  7. Microbial cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOEpatents

    Kilbane, J.J. II.

    1994-10-25

    A microbial process is described for selective cleavage of organic C-S bonds which may be used for reducing the sulfur content of sulfur-containing organic carbonaceous materials. Microorganisms of Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Bacillus sphaericus have been found which have the ability of selective cleavage of organic C-S bonds. Particularly preferred microorganisms are Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC 53968 and Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC 53969 and their derivatives.

  8. Departmental Organization and Management

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1993-06-10

    Effective immediately, the Departmental organization structure reflected in the chart at Attachment 1 has been approved.

  9. Transportation Organization and Functions

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Office of Packaging and Transportation list of organizations and functions, with a list of acronyms.

  10. Pions in the quark matter phase diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Zablocki, D.; Blaschke, D.; Anglani, R.

    2008-08-29

    The relationship between mesonic correlations and quantum condensates in the quark matter phase diagram is explored within a quantum field theoretical approach of the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio (NJL) type. Mean-field values in the scalar meson and diquark channels are order parameters signaling the occurrence of quark condensates, entailing chiral symmetry breaking ({chi}SB) and color superconductivity (2SC) in quark matter. We investigate the spectral properties of scalar and pseudoscalar meson excitations in the phase diagram in Gaussian approximation and show that outside the {chi}SB region where the pion is a zero-width bound state, there are two regions where it can be considered as a quasi-bound state with a lifetime exceeding that of a typical heavy-ion collision fireball: (A) the high-temperature {chi}SB crossover region at low densities and (B) the high-density color superconducting phase at temperatures below 100 MeV.

  11. Light Dark Matter in the NO$\

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzikoutelis, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    The neutrino oscillations experiment NOA is the agship of Fermi National Laboratory. The neutrino source NuMI is delivering record numbers of protons-on-target surpassing the most stringent dark matter production upper limits of current models in the under-10 GeV mass range. We take advantage of the sophisticated particle identication algorithms of the experiment to interrogate the data from the 300-ton, o-axis, low-Z, Near Detector of NOvA during the rst physics runs. We search for signatures of sub-GeV or Light Dark Matter (LDM), Axion-like-particles, and Heavy or Sterile Neutrinos that may scatter or decay in the volume of the detector.

  12. The XENON100 Dark Matter Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Tziaferi, E.

    2010-06-23

    The XENON100 experiment is searching for WIMPs, which are particles that may consist dark matter. It is located in the underground laboratory of Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy at a depth of {approx}3600 m.w.e.. The experiment description, its performance and the expected background based on Monte Carlo simulations and material screening along with the projected sensitivities of the experiment are presented. In addition, a brief description of the upgrade XENON100 detector is given.

  13. Energy Matters, September/October 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-13

    Energy Matters is a quarterly newsletter to update partners on Motor Challenge progress. This issue includes these topics: small town plastics manufacturer produces big local energy and cost savings; technical advances improve industrial energy efficiency; energy service companies: cost-savings partners for industry; choosing the right energy service company to prove the value of motor upgrades projects; energy assets: tapping the hidden value; steam workshops promote energy efficiency; performance optimization tips.

  14. Observations of Plasmons in Warm Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L; Neumayer, P; Lee, R W; Widmann, K; Pollaine, S W; Wallace, R J; Gregori, G; Holl, A; Bornath, T; Thiele, R; Schwarz, V; Kraeft, W; Redmer, R

    2006-09-05

    We present the first collective x-ray scattering measurements of plasmons in solid-density plasmas. The forward scattering spectra of a laser-produced narrow-band x-ray line from isochorically heated beryllium show that the plasmon frequency is a sensitive measure of the electron density. Dynamic structure calculations that include collisions and detailed balance match the measured plasmon spectrum indicating that this technique will enable new applications to determine the equation of state and compressibility of dense matter.

  15. Dark-matter harmonics beyond annual modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Samuel K.; Lisanti, Mariangela; Safdi, Benjamin R. E-mail: mlisanti@princeton.edu

    2013-11-01

    The count rate at dark-matter direct-detection experiments should modulate annually due to the motion of the Earth around the Sun. We show that higher-frequency modulations, including daily modulation, are also present and in some cases are nearly as strong as the annual modulation. These higher-order modes are particularly relevant if (i) the dark matter is light, O(10) GeV, (ii) the scattering is inelastic, or (iii) velocity substructure is present; for these cases, the higher-frequency modes are potentially observable at current and ton-scale detectors. We derive simple expressions for the harmonic modes as functions of the astrophysical and geophysical parameters describing the Earth's orbit, using an updated expression for the Earth's velocity that corrects a common error in the literature. For an isotropic halo velocity distribution, certain ratios of the modes are approximately constant as a function of nuclear recoil energy. Anisotropic distributions can also leave observable features in the harmonic spectrum. Consequently, the higher-order harmonic modes are a powerful tool for identifying a potential signal from interactions with the Galactic dark-matter halo.

  16. Geometrical aspects on the dark matter problem

    SciTech Connect

    Capistrano, A.J.S.; Cabral, L.A.

    2014-09-15

    In the present paper we apply Nashs theory of perturbative geometry to the study of dark matter gravity in a higher-dimensional spacetime. It is shown that the dark matter gravitational perturbations at local scale can be explained by the extrinsic curvature of the standard cosmology. In order to test our model, we use a spherically symmetric metric embedded in a five-dimensional bulk. As a result, considering a sample of 10 low surface brightness and 6 high surface brightness galaxies, we find a very good agreement with the observed rotation curves of smooth hybrid alpha-HI measurements. - Highlights: The metric perturbation and the embedding lead naturally to a brane-world-like higher dimensional structure. Nashs theorem as a cornerstone of the formation of geometrical structures. The dark matter gravitational perturbations at local scale can be explained by the extrinsic curvature. A good agreement was found with the observed rotation curves of smooth hybrid alpha-HI measurements.

  17. Web Content Analysis and Inventories: Template and FY 2014 Inventory...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Content Analysis and Inventories: Template and FY 2014 Inventory Web Content Analysis and ... It also includes a notes field, which can be used for a Web content analysis. Content ...

  18. Two-singlet model for light cold dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Abada, Abdessamad; Ghaffor, Djamal; Nasri, Salah

    2011-05-01

    We extend the standard model by adding two gauge-singlet Z{sub 2}-symmetric scalar fields that interact with visible matter only through the Higgs particle. One is a stable dark matter WIMP, and the other one undergoes a spontaneous breaking of the symmetry that opens new channels for the dark matter annihilation, hence lowering the mass of the WIMP. We study the effects of the observed dark matter relic abundance on the WIMP annihilation cross section and find that in most regions of the parameters' space, light dark matter is viable. We also compare the elastic-scattering cross section of our dark matter candidate off a nucleus with existing (CDMSII and XENON100) and projected (SuperCDMS and XENON1T) experimental exclusion bounds. We find that most of the allowed mass range for light dark matter will be probed by the projected sensitivity of the XENON1T experiment.

  19. Mixed crystal organic scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

    2014-09-16

    A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

  20. Training Program Content, 4/10/95

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objective of this surveillance is to evaluate the effectiveness of the contractor's program for establishing the content of training programs.  The process to be evaluated includes (1)...

  1. Widget:ContentAssist | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    ContentAssist Jump to: navigation, search This widget generates a bar of recommended reading related to the page on which it is embedded. Additionally, this widget mines the...

  2. Table of Contents for Desk Guide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    September, 2014 U. S. Department of Energy - Real Estate Desk Guide Revised 2014 Real Estate Desk Guide Table of Contents Chapter 1-- Purpose of Desk Guide............................................................................... 1 Chapter 2-- Introduction ................................................................................................. 3 Chapter 3-- Planning Policy ........................................................................................... 9 Chapter 4-- Real

  3. CONSTRAINTS ON THE MINIMUM ELECTRON LORENTZ FACTOR AND MATTER CONTENT OF JETS FOR A SAMPLE OF BRIGHT FERMI BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shi-Ju; Wu, Qingwen; Chen, Liang

    2014-11-01

    We fit (quasi-)simultaneous multi-waveband spectral energy distributions for a sample of low-synchrotron-peaked (LSP) blazars with a one-zone leptonic model. The seed photons that predominantly come from the broad line region (BLR) and infrared (IR) molecular torus are considered in the context of an external Compton process. We find that modeling with IR seed photons is systematically better than that with BLR photons based on a ?{sup 2} test, which suggests that ?-ray-emitting regions are most likely found outside the BLR. The minimum electron Lorentz factor, ?{sub min}, is constrained from the modeling of these LSP blazars with good soft X-ray data (ranging from 5 to 160 with a median value of 55), which plays a key role in jet power estimation. Assuming a one-to-one ratio of protons to electrons, we find that the jet power for LSP blazars is systematically higher than that of FR II radio galaxies at a 151 MHz radio luminosity, L {sub 151} {sub MHz} even though FR IIs are regarded as the same as LSP blazars in a unification scheme except at the jet viewing angle. A possible reason for this is that there are some e {sup } pairs in the jets of these blazars. If this is the case, we find that the number density of e {sup } pairs should be several times higher than that of e {sup }-p pairs by assuming the jet power is the same for LSP blazars and FR IIs at the given L {sub 151} {sub MHz}.

  4. BETO Quiz - Interactive Content | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    BETO Quiz - Interactive Content BETO Quiz - Interactive Content Welcome to the Bioenergy Quiz! Navigate through the quiz by clicking on the circular buttons and selecting the correct answers to the questions. Use the scrollbar to move down the page and view all of the information displayed. Hover over words and phrases highlighted in orange for an explanation of terms. Share the information by clicking on the buttons in the Share This block. Use the arrow button found in the bottom right-hand

  5. Laboratory Organization Chart

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Chief Information Officer Chief Financial Officer Biosciences EESA Climate & Ecosystem Sciences Division Energy Geosciences Division Download a printable Organization Chart ...

  6. Organizations | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Biosciences Division Environmental Science Division Mathematics and Computer Science Division Organizations Integrating research in the ...

  7. Community Organizing and Outreach

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Community Organizing and Outreach, call slides and discussion summary, April 23, 2015.

  8. Distinct optical properties of relativistically degenerate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, we use the collisional quantum magnetohydrodynamic (CQMHD) model to derive the transverse dielectric function of a relativistically degenerate electron fluid and investigate various optical parameters, such as the complex refractive index, the reflection and absorption coefficients, the skin-depth and optical conductivity. In this model we take into accounts effects of many parameters such as the atomic-number of the constituent ions, the electron exchange, electron diffraction effect and the electron-ion collisions. Study of the optical parameters in the solid-density, the warm-dense-matter, the big-planetary core, and the compact star number-density regimes reveals that there are distinct differences between optical characteristics of the latter and the former cases due to the fundamental effects of the relativistic degeneracy and other quantum mechanisms. It is found that in the relativistic degeneracy plasma regime, such as found in white-dwarfs and neutron star crusts, matter possess a much sharper and well-defined step-like reflection edge beyond the x-ray electromagnetic spectrum, including some part of gamma-ray frequencies. It is also remarked that the magnetic field intensity only significantly affects the plasma reflectivity in the lower number-density regime, rather than the high density limit. Current investigation confirms the profound effect of relativistic degeneracy on optical characteristics of matter and can provide an important plasma diagnostic tool for studying the physical processes within the wide scope of quantum plasma regimes be it the solid-density, inertial-confined, or astrophysical compact stars.

  9. Crystallization and collapse in relativistically degenerate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2013-04-15

    In this paper, it is shown that a mass density limit exists beyond which the relativistically degenerate matter would crystallize. The mass density limit, found here, is quite analogous to the mass limit predicted by Chandrasekhar for a type of compact stars called white dwarfs (M{sub Ch} Asymptotically-Equal-To 1.43 Solar Mass). In this study, the old problem of white dwarf core collapse, which has been previously investigated by Chandrasekhar using hydrostatic stability criteria, is revisited in the framework of the quantum hydrodynamics model by inspection of the charge screening at atomic scales in the relativistic degeneracy plasma regime taking into account the relativistic Fermi-Dirac statistics and electron interaction features such as the quantum statistical pressure, Coulomb attraction, electron exchange-correlation, and quantum recoil effects. It is revealed that the existence of ion correlation and crystallization of matter in the relativistically degenerate plasma puts a critical mass density limit on white dwarf core region. It is shown that a white dwarf star with a core mass density beyond this critical limit can undergo the spontaneous core collapse (SCC). The SCC phenomenon, which is dominantly caused by the electron quantum recoil effect (interference and localization of the electron wave function), leads to a new exotic state of matter. In such exotic state, the relativistic electron degeneracy can lead the white dwarf crystallized core to undergo the nuclear fusion and an ultimate supernova by means of the volume reduction (due to the enhanced compressibility) and huge energy release (due to the increase in cohesive energy), under the stars huge inward gravitational pressure. Moreover, it is found that the SCC phenomenon is significantly affected by the core composition (it is more probable for heavier plasmas). The critical mass density found here is consistent with the values calculated for core density of typical white dwarf stars.

  10. Organic photosensitive devices

    DOEpatents

    Rand, Barry P; Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-11-26

    The present invention generally relates to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices. More specifically, it is directed to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices having a photoactive organic region containing encapsulated nanoparticles that exhibit plasmon resonances. An enhancement of the incident optical field is achieved via surface plasmon polariton resonances. This enhancement increases the absorption of incident light, leading to a more efficient device.

  11. Splashback in accreting dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, Susmita; Dalal, Neal; Chamberlain, Robert T. E-mail: dalaln@illinois.edu

    2014-11-01

    Recent work has shown that density profiles in the outskirts of dark matter halos can become extremely steep over a narrow range of radius. This behavior is produced by splashback material on its first apocentric passage after accretion. We show that the location of this splashback feature may be understood quite simply, from first principles. We present a simple model, based on spherical collapse, that accurately predicts the location of splashback without any free parameters. The important quantities that determine the splashback radius are accretion rate and redshift.

  12. Classified Matter Protection and Control Manual

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-01-06

    Provides detailed requirements for the protection and control of classified matter which supplement DOE O 471.2A. Extended until 5-11-06 by DOE N 251.63, dated 5-11-05. This manual has been canceled by DOE M 471.2-1C except Chapter III paragraphs 1 and 2, and Chapter IV. Chapter IV was canceled by DOE O 471.4, Incidents of Security Concern, dated 3/17/2004. Cancels DOE M 471.2-1A.

  13. Hadronization measurements in cold nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Dupre, Raphael

    2015-05-01

    Hadronization is the non-perturbative process of QCD by which partons become hadrons. It has been studied at high energies through various processes, we focus here on the experiments of lepto-production of hadrons in cold nuclear matter. By studying the dependence of observables to the atomic number of the target, these experimentscan give information on the dynamic of the hadronization at the femtometer scale. In particular, we will present preliminary results from JLab Hall B (CLAS collaboration), which give unprecedented statistical precision. Then, we will present results of a phenomenological study showing how HERMES data can be described with pure energyloss models.

  14. Classified Matter Protection and Control Manual

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-07-14

    This Manual supplements DOE O 471.2A, Information Security Program, dated 3-27-97, and provides detailed requirements for the protection and control of classified matter. Cancels DOE M 471.2-1B, dated 1-6-99, except Chapter III paragraphs 1 and 2 and Chapter IV. DOE M 471.2-1B Chapter IV was canceled by DOE O 471.4, Incidents of Security Concern, dated 3-17-04. Change 1, dated 7-14-2004, modifies requirements in Chapter II, paragraph 8c. Extended until 5-11-06 by DOE N 251.63, dated 5-11-05.

  15. Antideuterons from decaying gravitino dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Delahaye, Timur; Grefe, Michael

    2015-07-08

    We study the possibility of improving the constraints on the lifetime of gravitino dark matter in scenarios with bilinear R-parity violation by estimating the amount of cosmic-ray antideuterons that can be produced in gravitino decays. Taking into account all different sources of theoretical uncertainties, we find that the margin of improvement beyond the limits already set by cosmic-ray antiproton data are quite narrow and unachievable for the next generation of experiments. However, we also identify more promising energy ranges for future experiments.

  16. FIA-12-0053- In the Matter of Arizona Nevada District Organization

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    On October 11, 2012, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) denied a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Appeal filed by the California Arizona Nevada District...

  17. Method Development: Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction of Particulate Matter on DPF Soot

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  18. FIA-12-0060- In the Matter of California-Arizona-Nevada District Organization Contract Compliance

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    On November 1, 2012, the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) issued a decision denying an appeal (Appeal) from a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) determination issued by the Department of Energy...

  19. FIA-12-0059- In the Matter of California Arizona Nevada District Organization

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    On October 31, 2012, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) denied a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Appeal filed by the California Arizona Nevada District...

  20. Evolution and current understanding of physicochemical characterization of particulate matter from reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion on a multicylinder light-duty engine

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Storey, John Morse; Curran, Scott J.; Lewis, Samuel A.; Barone, Teresa L.; Dempsey, Adam B.; Moses-DeBusk, Melanie; Hanson, Reed M.; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Northrop, William F.

    2016-08-04

    Low-temperature compression ignition combustion can result in nearly smokeless combustion, as indicated by a smoke meter or other forms of soot measurement that rely on absorbance due to elemental carbon content. Highly premixed low-temperature combustion modes do not form particulate matter in the traditional pathways seen with conventional diesel combustion. Previous research into reactivity controlled compression ignition particulate matter has shown, despite a near zero smoke number, significant mass can be collected on filter media used for particulate matter certification measurement. In addition, particulate matter size distributions reveal that a fraction of the particles survive heated double-dilution conditions. This papermore » summarizes research completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to date on characterizing the nature, chemistry and aftertreatment considerations of reactivity controlled compression ignition particulate matter and presents new research highlighting the importance of injection strategy and fuel composition on reactivity controlled compression ignition particulate matter formation. Particle size measurements and the transmission electron microscopy results do show the presence of soot particles; however, the elemental carbon fraction was, in many cases, within the uncertainty of the thermal–optical measurement. Particulate matter emitted during reactivity controlled compression ignition operation was also collected with a novel sampling technique and analyzed by thermal desorption or pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. Particulate matter speciation results indicated that the high boiling range of diesel hydrocarbons was likely responsible for the particulate matter mass captured on the filter media. Finally, to investigate potential fuel chemistry effects, either ethanol or biodiesel were incorporated to assess whether oxygenated fuels may enhance particle emission reduction.« less

  1. Baryonic matter perturbations in decaying vacuum cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Marttens, R.F. vom; Zimdahl, W.; Hiplito-Ricaldi, W.S. E-mail: wiliam.ricaldi@ufes.br

    2014-08-01

    We consider the perturbation dynamics for the cosmic baryon fluid and determine the corresponding power spectrum for a ?(t)CDM model in which a cosmological term decays into dark matter linearly with the Hubble rate. The model is tested by a joint analysis of data from supernovae of type Ia (SNIa) (Constitution and Union 2.1), baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO), the position of the first peak of the anisotropy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and large-scale-structure (LSS) data (SDSS DR7). While the homogeneous and isotropic background dynamics is only marginally influenced by the baryons, there are modifications on the perturbative level if a separately conserved baryon fluid is included. Considering the present baryon fraction as a free parameter, we reproduce the observed abundance of the order of 5% independently of the dark-matter abundance which is of the order of 32% for this model. Generally, the concordance between background and perturbation dynamics is improved if baryons are explicitly taken into account.

  2. ANTENNA-COUPLED LIGHT-MATTER INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    NOVOTNY, LUKAS

    2014-01-10

    This project is focused on antenna-coupled photon emission from single quantum emitters. The properties of optical antennas are tailored to control different photophysical parameters, such as the excited state lifetime, the saturation intensity, and the quantum yield [3]. Using a single molecule coupled to an optical antenna whose position and properties can be controllably adjusted we established a detailed and quantitative understanding of light-matter interactions in nanoscale environments. We have studied various quantum emitters: single molecules [11], quantum dots [7], rareearth ions [2], and NV centers in diamond [19]. We have systematically studied the interaction of these emitters with optical antennas. The overall objective was to establish a high-level of control over the light-matter interaction. In order to eliminate the coupling to the environment, we have taken a step further and explored the possibility of levitating the quantum emitter in high vacuum. What started as a side-project soon became a main activity in our research program and led us to the demonstration of vacuum trapping and cooling of a nanoscale particle [14].

  3. Tracking quintessence and cold dark matter candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Lola, S.; Pallis, C.; Tzelati, E. E-mail: kpallis@auth.gr

    2009-11-01

    We study the generation of a kination-dominated phase in the context of a quintessential model with an inverse-power-law potential and a Hubble-induced mass term for the quintessence field. The presence of kination is associated with an oscillating evolution of the quintessence field and the barotropic index. We find that, in sizeable regions of the parameter space, a tracker scaling solution can be reached sufficiently early to alleviate the coincidence problem. Other observational constraints originating from nucleosynthesis, the inflationary scale, the present acceleration of the universe and the dark-energy-density parameter can be also met. The impact of this modified kination-dominated phase on the thermal abundance of cold dark matter candidates is also investigated. We find that: 1. the enhancement of the relic abundance of the WIMPs with respect to the standard paradigm, crucially depends on the hierarchy between the freeze-out temperature and the temperature at which the extrema in the evolution of the quintessence field are encountered, and; 2. the relic abundance of e-WIMPs takes its present value close to the temperature at which the earliest extremum of the evolution of the quintessence field occurs and, as a consequence, both gravitinos and axinos arise as natural cold dark matter candidates. In the case of unstable gravitinos, the gravitino constraint can be satisfied for values of the initial temperature well above those required in the standard cosmology.

  4. Axion hot dark matter bounds after Planck

    SciTech Connect

    Archidiacono, Maria; Hannestad, Steen; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Raffelt, Georg; Wong, Yvonne Y.Y. E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk E-mail: raffelt@mpp.mpg.de

    2013-10-01

    We use cosmological observations in the post-Planck era to derive limits on thermally produced cosmological axions. In the early universe such axions contribute to the radiation density and later to the hot dark matter fraction. We find an upper limit m{sub a} < 0.67 eV at 95% C.L. after marginalising over the unknown neutrino masses, using CMB temperature and polarisation data from Planck and WMAP respectively, the halo matter power spectrum extracted from SDSS-DR7, and the local Hubble expansion rate H{sub 0} released by the Carnegie Hubble Program based on a recalibration of the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project sample. Leaving out the local H{sub 0} measurement relaxes the limit somewhat to 0.86 eV, while Planck+WMAP alone constrain the axion mass to 1.01 eV, the first time an upper limit on m{sub a} has been obtained from CMB data alone. Our axion limit is therefore not very sensitive to the tension between the Planck-inferred H{sub 0} and the locally measured value. This is in contrast with the upper limit on the neutrino mass sum, which we find here to range from ? m{sub ?} < 0.27 eV at 95% C.L. combining all of the aforementioned observations, to 0.84 eV from CMB data alone.

  5. Phenomenology of Dirac Neutralino Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Matthew R.; Hooper, Dan; Kumar, Jason

    2013-09-01

    In supersymmetric models with an unbroken R-symmetry (rather than only R-parity), the neutralinos are Dirac fermions rather than Majorana. In this article, we discuss the phenomenology of neutralino dark matter in such models, including the calculation of the thermal relic abundance, and constraints and prospects for direct and indirect searches. Due to the large elastic scattering cross sections with nuclei predicted in R-symmetric models, we are forced to consider a neutralino that is predominantly bino, with very little higgsino mixing. We find a large region of parameter space in which bino-like Dirac neutralinos with masses between 10 and 380 GeV can annihilate through slepton exchange to provide a thermal relic abundance in agreement with the observed cosmological density, without relying on coannihilations or resonant annihilations. The signatures for the indirect detection of Dirac neutralinos are very different than predicted in the Majorana case, with annihilations proceeding dominately to $\\tau^+ \\tau^-$, $\\mu^+ \\mu^-$ and $e^+ e^-$ final states, without the standard chirality suppression. And unlike Majorana dark matter candidates, Dirac neutralinos experience spin-independent scattering with nuclei through vector couplings (via $Z$ and squark exchange), leading to potentially large rates at direct detection experiments. These and other characteristics make Dirac neutralinos potentially interesting within the context of recent direct and indirect detection anomalies. We also discuss the case in which the introduction of a small Majorana mass term breaks the $R$-symmetry, splitting the Dirac neutralino into a pair of nearly degenerate Majorana states.

  6. The History of the APS Shock Compression of Condensed Matter Topical Group

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, J W

    2001-05-02

    In order to provide broader scientific recognition and to advance the science of shock compressed condensed matter, a group of American Physical Society (APS) members worked within the Society to make this field an active part of the APS. Individual papers were presented at APS meetings starting in the 1940's and shock wave sessions were organized starting with the 1967 Pasadena meeting. Shock wave topical conferences began in 1979 in Pullman, WA. Signatures were obtained on a petition in 1984 from a balanced cross-section of the shock wave community to form an APS Topical Group (TG). The APS Council officially accepted the formation of the Shock Compression of Condensed Matter (SCCM) TG at its October 1984 meeting. This action firmly aligned the shock wave field with a major physical science organization. Most early topical conferences were sanctioned by the APS while those held after 1992 were official APS meetings. The topical group organizes a shock wave topical conference in odd numbered years while participating in shock wave/high pressure sessions at APS general meetings in even numbered years.

  7. History of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, J W

    2001-10-19

    In order to provide broader scientific recognition and to advance the science of shock compressed condensed matter, a group of American Physical Society (APS) members worked within the Society to make this field an active part of the APS. Individual papers were presented at APS meetings starting in the 1940's and shock wave sessions were organized starting with the 1967 Pasadena meeting. Shock wave topical conferences began in 1979 in Pullman, WA. Signatures were obtained on a petition in 1984 from a balanced cross-section of the shock wave community to form an APS Topical Group (TG). The APS Council officially accepted the formation of the Shock Compression of Condensed Matter (SCCM) TG at its October 1984 meeting. This action firmly aligned the shock wave field with a major physical science organization. Most early topical conferences were sanctioned by the APS while those held after 1992 were official APS meetings. The topical group organizes a shock wave topical conference in odd numbered years while participating in shock wavehigh pressure sessions at APS general meetings in even numbered years.

  8. RH-TRU Waste Content Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2007-07-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is 3. The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR limits

  9. Mystery of the Hidden Cosmos [Complex Dark Matter

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Lincoln, Don

    2015-06-16

    Scientists know there must be more matter in the universe than what is visible. Searches for this dark matter have focused on a single unseen particle, but decades of experiments have been unsuccessful at finding it. Exotic possibilities for dark matter are looking increasingly plausible. Rather than just one particle, dark matter could contain an entire world of particles and forces that barely interact with normal matter. Complex dark matter could form dark atoms and molecules and even clump together to make hidden galactic disks that overlap with the spiral arms of the Milky Way and other galaxies. Experiments aremore » under way to search for evidence of such a dark sector.« less

  10. Constraining inflationary dark matter in the luminogenesis model

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Pham Q.; Ludwick, Kevin J.

    2015-09-09

    Using renormalization-group flow and cosmological constraints on inflation models, we exploit a unique connection between cosmological inflation and the dynamical mass of dark matter particles in the luminogenesis model, a unification model with the gauge group SU(3){sub C}×SU(6)×U(1){sub Y}, which breaks to the Standard Model with an extra gauge group for dark matter when the inflaton rolls into the true vacuum. In this model, inflaton decay gives rise to dark matter, which in turn decays to luminous matter in the right proportion that agrees with cosmological data. Some attractive features of this model include self-interacting dark matter, which may resolve the problems of dwarf galaxy structures and dark matter cusps at the centers of galaxies.

  11. Nucleation of strange matter in dense stellar cores

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, J.E. Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo ); Benvenuto, O.G. La Plata ); Vucetich, H. La Plata )

    1992-05-15

    We investigate the nucleation of strange quark matter inside hot, dense nuclear matter. Applying Zel'dovich's kinetic theory of nucleation we find a lower limit of the temperature {ital T} for strange-matter bubbles to appear, which happens to be satisfied inside the Kelvin-Helmholtz cooling era of a compact star life but not much after it. Our bounds thus suggest that a prompt conversion could be achieved, giving support to earlier expectations for nonstandard type-II supernova scenarios.

  12. Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ace056_stewart_2012_o.pdf (2.05 MB) More Documents & Publications Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions Vehicle

  13. Nuclear stopping power in warm and hot dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Faussurier, Gerald; Blancard, Christophe; Gauthier, Maxence

    2013-01-15

    We present a method to estimate the nuclear component of the stopping power of ions propagating in dense matter. Three kinds of effective pair potentials are proposed. Results from the warm dense matter regime and the domain of high energy density physics are presented and discussed for proton and helium. The role of ionic temperature is examined. The nuclear stopping power can play a noticeable role in hot dense matter.

  14. Mentoring Matters: Engaging Students through Science and Arts | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy Mentoring Matters: Engaging Students through Science and Arts Mentoring Matters: Engaging Students through Science and Arts April 22, 2016 - 11:48am Addthis Mentoring Matters: Engaging Students through Science and Arts Earlier this year, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Office, in partnership with the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) and the Idaho National Lab (INL), launched a Geothermal Design Challenge inviting high school and university teams

  15. Course Overview Pump Systems Matter Optimization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Course Overview Pump Systems Matter Optimization Course Overview Pump Systems Matter Optimization Attendees of the "Pump Systems Optimization" one-day course will gain valuable new skills to help them improve centrifugal pump system efficiency to reduce energy and operating costs while earning seven professional development hour (PDH) credits from the Hydraulic Institute. H_Course_ Overview_Pump_Systems_Matter_Optimization.pdf (632.71 KB) More Documents & Publications Summary of

  16. World's Most Sensitive Dark Matter Detector Gets an Upgrade

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    World's Most Sensitive Dark Matter Detector Gets an Upgrade World's Most Sensitive Dark Matter Detector Gets an Upgrade NERSC, Berkeley Lab Help LUX Experiment Gain Ground in Search for WIMPS December 15, 2015 Contact: Glenn Roberts Jr., geroberts@lbl.gov, 510-486-5582 LUX detector A view inside the LUX detector. Image: Matthew Kapust, Sanford Underground Research Facility The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) dark matter experiment, which operates nearly a mile underground at the Sanford

  17. Determination of terpenoid content in pine by organic solvent extraction and fast-GC analysis

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Harman-Ware, Anne E.; Sykes, Robert; Peter, Gary F.; Davis, Mark

    2016-01-25

    Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors, and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and after extractions to monitor the extraction efficiency. The pyrolysis studies indicated that the optimal extraction method used a 1:1 hexane/acetone solvent system at 22°C for 1 h. Extracts frommore » the hexane/acetone experiments were analyzed using a low thermal mass modular accelerated column heater for fast-GC/FID analysis. The most abundant terpenoids from the pine samples were quantified, using standard curves, and included the monoterpenes, α- and β-pinene, camphene, and δ-carene. Sesquiterpenes analyzed included caryophyllene, humulene, and α-bisabolene. In conclusion, diterpenoid resin acids were quantified in derivatized extractions, including pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, abietic, and neoabietic acids.« less

  18. Use of phosphoranimines to reduce organic carbonate content in Li-ion battery electrolytes

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Dufek, Eric J.; Klaehn, John R.; McNally, Joshua S.; Rollins, Harry W.; Jamison, David K.

    2016-05-09

    In this study, the use of phosphoranimines (PAs), a class of linear, monomeric phosphazenes, as electrolytes for Li-ion battery applications has been investigated as a route to improve safety and stability for Li-ion batteries. Of the potential PAs for use in battery applications, this work focuses on the initial synthetic preparation and analysis of N-trimethylsilyl-P,P-bis((2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)-P-ethylphosphoranimine (PA-5). PA-5 has high LiPF6 solubility in excess of 2 M, high thermal stability with a melting point below -80°C and high thermal stability as a neat compound to at least 250°C. As part of electrolyte blends, the inclusion of PA-5 shifts the onset ofmore » thermal degradation by close to 40°C at 35% loading and by 20°C at a 10% loading, improves the low temperature performance of the electrolyte, and when used as a primary solvent leads to increases in the flash point (by 20°C) when compared to more traditional EC:EMC blends. Cycling capabilities of full-coin cells with graphite negative electrodes and Li1+w[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]1-wO2 positive electrodes using PA-5:EC:EMC electrolyte blends are comparable with the performance seen for traditional EC:EMC blends. Analysis of the impact of the use of additives such as vinylene carbonate in PA-5:EC:EMC blended electrolyte results in enhanced capacity retention and improved coulombic efficiency.« less

  19. AVLIS documentation overview and tables of contents

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-15

    Three documents constitute the executive summary series in Data Package III: this document (Documentation Overview and Tables of Contents (E001)) plus the AVLIS Production Plant Executive Summary (E010) and the AVLIS Production Plant Overall Design Report (E020). They provide progressively greater detail on the key information and conclusions contained within the data package. The Executive Summary and Overall Design Report present summaries of each Data Package III document. They are intended to provide a global overview of AVLIS Production Plant deployment including program planning, project management, schedules, engineering design, production, operations, capital cost, and operating cost. The purpose of Overview and Tables of Contents is threefold: to briefly review AVLIS goals for Data Package III documentation, to present an overview of the contents of the data package, and to provide a useful guide to information contained in the numerous documents comprising the package.

  20. Radiation-Matter Coupling for Low Density Plasmas (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radiation-Matter Coupling for Low Density ... considered when constructing transport algorithms that are intended to provide ...

  1. Investigation of Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This study focuses primarily on particulate matter mass analysis of a gasoline direct injection engine in a test cell with a chassis dynamometer.

  2. Inert scalar dark matter in an extra dimension inspired model

    SciTech Connect

    Lineros, R.A.; Santos, F.A. Pereira dos E-mail: fabio.alex@fis.puc-rio.br

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we analyze a dark matter model inspired by theories with extra dimensions. The dark matter candidate corresponds to the first Kaluza–Klein mode of an real scalar added to the Standard Model. The tower of new particles enriches the calculation of the relic abundance. For large mass splitting, the model converges to the predictions of the inert singlet dark matter model. For nearly degenerate mass spectrum, coannihilations increase the cross-sections used for direct and indirect dark matter searches. Moreover, the Kaluza–Klein zero mode can mix with the SM higgs and further constraints can be applied.

  3. Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter Emissions Characteristics

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Findings of important implications for aftertreatment devices such as EGR coolers and diesel particulate filters, of physico-chemical changes observed in particulate matter during advanced combustion.

  4. Emerging Properties of Quantum Matter - Case Studies of Topological...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Emerging properties in quantum matter is a major theme of modern physics, with the promise ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM ...

  5. Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review ... Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions Vehicle Technologies Office ...

  6. Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit ... Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions Fuel-Neutral Studies of ...

  7. Systems Reiter, George 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Compton Scattering as a Probe of Hydrogen Bonded (and other) Systems Reiter, George 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND...

  8. Neutrino Coherent Scattering Rates at Direct Dark Matter Detectors...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutrino Coherent Scattering Rates at Direct Dark Matter Detectors Citation Details ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  9. Entanglement, Holography, and the Quantum Phases of Matter Sachdev...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Matter Sachdev, Subir Harvard University 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS Electrons in many interesting materials, such as the high temperature...

  10. Vector Dark Matter through a radiative Higgs portal

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    DiFranzo, Anthony; Fox, Patrick J.; Tait, Tim M. P.

    2016-04-21

    We study a model of spin-1 dark matter which interacts with the Standard Model predominantly via exchange of Higgs bosons. We propose an alternative UV completion to the usual Vector Dark Matter Higgs Portal, in which vector-like fermions charged under SU(2)more » $$_W \\times$$ U(1)$_Y$ and under the dark gauge group, U(1)$$^\\prime$$, generate an effective interaction between the Higgs and the dark matter at one loop. Furthermore, we explore the resulting phenomenology and show that this dark matter candidate is a viable thermal relic and satisfies Higgs invisible width constraints as well as direct detection bounds.« less

  11. IN THE MATTER OF: STATE OF NEW MEXICO ENVIRONMENT DEPARTMENT

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    IN THE MATTER OF: STATE OF NEW MEXICO ENVIRONMENT DEPARTMENT UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT ) ... Waste Act ("HWA"), the New Mexico Environment Department ("NMED") hereby orders the ...

  12. WIMP Dark Matter Limit-Direct Detection Data and Sensitivity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Interactive Plotter for WIMP Dark Matter Limit-Direct Detection Data on their website. ... Barbara Sponsoring Org: USDOE; National Science Foundation (NSF) Country of Publication: ...

  13. Quark-Gluon Plasma: a New State of Matter

    ScienceCinema

    Brookhaven Lab

    2010-01-08

    Physicist Peter Steinberg explains the nature of the quark gluon plasma (QGP), a new state of matter produced at Brookhaven Lab's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

  14. Upper bounds on asymmetric dark matter self annihilation cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Ellwanger, Ulrich; Mitropoulos, Pantelis E-mail: pantelis.mitropoulos@th.u-psud.fr

    2012-07-01

    Most models for asymmetric dark matter allow for dark matter self annihilation processes, which can wash out the asymmetry at temperatures near and below the dark matter mass. We study the coupled set of Boltzmann equations for the symmetric and antisymmetric dark matter number densities, and derive conditions applicable to a large class of models for the absence of a significant wash-out of an asymmetry. These constraints are applied to various existing scenarios. In the case of left- or right-handed sneutrinos, very large electroweak gaugino masses, or very small mixing angles are required.

  15. The Effective Field Theory of Dark Matter Direct Detection (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Effective Field Theory of Dark Matter Direct Detection Citation Details In-Document ... Sponsoring Org: US DOE Office of Science (DOE SC) Country of Publication: United States ...

  16. Reduction of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Reduction of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision Tree Based Control Using a non-parametric decision tree to measure transient PM could correctly identify 94% of high ...

  17. Three Ways to Bust Ghostly Dark Matter | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Ways to Bust Ghostly Dark Matter Three Ways to Bust Ghostly Dark Matter March 30, 2016 - 3:37pm Addthis Everything you can see is made of normal matter...but that’s only 4 percent of the universe. Find out how the National Labs search for the invisible “dark matter” scientists believe holds galaxies together. | Graphic above by <a href="/node/1332956">Carly Wilkins</a>, Energy Department. Illustrations below by <a href="/node/1676591">Greg

  18. Direct and indirect detection of dissipative dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, JiJi; Katz, Andrey; Shelton, Jessie E-mail: katz.andrey@gmail.com

    2014-06-01

    We study the constraints from direct detection and solar capture on dark matter scenarios with a subdominant dissipative component. This dissipative dark matter component in general has both a symmetric and asymmetric relic abundance. Dissipative dynamics allow this subdominant dark matter component to cool, resulting in its partial or total collapse into a smaller volume inside the halo (e.g., a dark disk) as well as a reduced thermal velocity dispersion compared to that of normal cold dark matter. We first show that these features considerably relax the limits from direct detection experiments on the couplings between standard model (SM) particles and dissipative dark matter. On the other hand, indirect detection of the annihilation of the symmetric dissipative dark matter component inside the Sun sets stringent and robust constraints on the properties of the dissipative dark matter. In particular, IceCube observations force dissipative dark matter particles with mass above 50 GeV to either have a small coupling to the SM or a low local density in the solar system, or to have a nearly asymmetric relic abundance. Possible helioseismology signals associated with purely asymmetric dissipative dark matter are discussed, with no present constraints.

  19. Analysis of the theoretical bias in dark matter direct detection

    SciTech Connect

    Catena, Riccardo

    2014-09-01

    Fitting the model ''A'' to dark matter direct detection data, when the model that underlies the data is ''B'', introduces a theoretical bias in the fit. We perform a quantitative study of the theoretical bias in dark matter direct detection, with a focus on assumptions regarding the dark matter interactions, and velocity distribution. We address this problem within the effective theory of isoscalar dark matter-nucleon interactions mediated by a heavy spin-1 or spin-0 particle. We analyze 24 benchmark points in the parameter space of the theory, using frequentist and Bayesian statistical methods. First, we simulate the data of future direct detection experiments assuming a momentum/velocity dependent dark matter-nucleon interaction, and an anisotropic dark matter velocity distribution. Then, we fit a constant scattering cross section, and an isotropic Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution to the simulated data, thereby introducing a bias in the analysis. The best fit values of the dark matter particle mass differ from their benchmark values up to 2 standard deviations. The best fit values of the dark matter-nucleon coupling constant differ from their benchmark values up to several standard deviations. We conclude that common assumptions in dark matter direct detection are a source of potentially significant bias.

  20. Quark-Gluon Plasma: a New State of Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Brookhaven Lab

    2009-07-08

    Physicist Peter Steinberg explains the nature of the quark gluon plasma (QGP), a new state of matter produced at Brookhaven Lab's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).