National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for offset slow growth

  1. Offset active galactic nuclei as tracers of galaxy mergers and supermassive black hole growth

    SciTech Connect

    Comerford, Julia M.; Greene, Jenny E.

    2014-07-10

    Offset active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are AGNs that are in ongoing galaxy mergers, which produce kinematic offsets in the AGNs relative to their host galaxies. Offset AGNs are also close relatives of dual AGNs. We conduct a systematic search for offset AGNs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by selecting AGN emission lines that exhibit statistically significant line-of-sight velocity offsets relative to systemic. From a parent sample of 18,314 Type 2 AGNs at z < 0.21, we identify 351 offset AGN candidates with velocity offsets of 50 km s{sup 1} < |?v| < 410 km s{sup 1}. When we account for projection effects in the observed velocities, we estimate that 4%-8% of AGNs are offset AGNs. We designed our selection criteria to bypass velocity offsets produced by rotating gas disks, AGN outflows, and gravitational recoil of supermassive black holes, but follow-up observations are still required to confirm our candidates as offset AGNs. We find that the fraction of AGNs that are offset candidates increases with AGN bolometric luminosity, from 0.7% to 6% over the luminosity range 43 < log (L{sub bol}) [erg s{sup 1}] <46. If these candidates are shown to be bona fide offset AGNs, then this would be direct observational evidence that galaxy mergers preferentially trigger high-luminosity AGNs. Finally, we find that the fraction of AGNs that are offset AGN candidates increases from 1.9% at z = 0.1 to 32% at z = 0.7, in step with the growth in the galaxy merger fraction over the same redshift range.

  2. Growth in global oil inventories slows, drawdown in stocks expected in late 2017

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Growth in global oil inventories slows, drawdown in stocks expected in late 2017 The growth in global oil inventories is expected to slow in response to stronger growth in world oil demand, with inventories now expected to be drawn down during the second half of next year. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said oil inventories will grow by just under 1 million barrels per day this year. Inventories will continue to grow during the first half of 2017 though

  3. Mechanism of abnormally slow crystal growth of CuZr alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, X. Q.; Lü, Y. J.

    2015-10-28

    Crystal growth of the glass-forming CuZr alloy is shown to be abnormally slow, which suggests a new method to identify the good glass-forming alloys. The crystal growth of elemental Cu, Pd and binary NiAl, CuZr alloys is systematically studied with the aid of molecular dynamics simulations. The temperature dependence of the growth velocity indicates the different growth mechanisms between the elemental and the alloy systems. The high-speed growth featuring the elemental metals is dominated by the non-activated collision between liquid-like atoms and interface, and the low-speed growth for NiAl and CuZr is determined by the diffusion across the interface. We find that, in contrast to Cu, Pd, and NiAl, a strong stress layering arisen from the density and the local order layering forms in front of the liquid-crystal interface of CuZr alloy, which causes a slow diffusion zone. The formation of the slow diffusion zone suppresses the interface moving, resulting in much small growth velocity of CuZr alloy. We provide a direct evidence of this explanation by applying the compressive stress normal to the interface. The compression is shown to boost the stress layering in CuZr significantly, correspondingly enhancing the slow diffusion zone, and eventually slowing down the crystal growth of CuZr alloy immediately. In contrast, the growth of Cu, Pd, and NiAl is increased by the compression because the low diffusion zones in them are never well developed.

  4. Training SVMs without offset

    SciTech Connect

    Steinwart, Ingo; Hush, Don; Scovel, Clint

    2009-01-01

    We develop, analyze, and test a training algorithm for support vector machine cla.'>sifiers without offset. Key features of this algorithm are a new stopping criterion and a set of working set selection strategies that, although inexpensive, do not lead to substantially more iterations than the optimal working set selection strategy. For these working set strategies, we establish convergence rates that coincide with the best known rates for SYMs with offset. We further conduct various experiments that investigate both the run time behavior and the performed iterations of the new training algorithm. It turns out, that the new algorithm needs less iterations and run-time than standard training algorithms for SYMs with offset.

  5. DEMONSTRATING SLOW GROWTH RATES IN OPAL FROM Y.M.,NV, USING MICRODIGESTION AND ION-PROBE URANIUM-SERIES DATING

    SciTech Connect

    J. PACES; L. NEYMARK; H. PERSING; J. WOODEN

    2000-07-25

    Thinly laminated (<0.01 mm) opal sheets and globules associated with calcite in fractures and cavities in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have U concentrations of 50 to 300 ppm. Previous uranium-series thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) analyses of 0.2- to 1-mm-thick subsamples resulted in a model of slow mineral growth at rates of 0.5 to 5 mm/m.y. To test this growth model using finer sampling resolution, in situ microdigestions were performed by applying a drop of hydrofluoric acid directly to opal surfaces within a small area encircled by jeweler's wax. After several minutes, the liquid was removed, spiked with a tracer solution, and analyzed by TIMS for both U and Th using a single rhenium filament with colloidal graphite. Solutions contained about 0.5 nanograms of U, equivalent to opal weights of 1 to 10 micrograms and dissolved-layer thicknesses less than 0.003 mm. Microdigested opal surfaces have Th-230/U ages of 5 to 10 thousand years (ka) in contrast to much older ages of 150 to 250 ka obtained previously from whole-globule digestions. Additional tests of the growth model were made on cross sections of identical opal globules using the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) with a 0.04-mm-diameter O-minus primary beam. Counting rates for Tho-246 and U-234 varied between 5 and 70 counts per second with Th-230/Th-232 activity ratios typically much greater than a million. The Th-230/U ages in the outer 0.3 mm of the globules ranged from about 30 ka at the outer edge to 400 ka at depth. Ages correlate with microstratigraphic depths and indicate average growth rates between 0.5 and 0.7 mm/m.y. Current U-series data do not resolve differential growth rates related to climate changes during this time period. However, both microdigestion and SHRIMP results confirm the previous TIMS-based model of slow, uniform rates of mineral growth in a hydrologically stable environment.

  6. Internal offsets and technological innovation: six case studies, Volume 9

    SciTech Connect

    Mogee, M.E.

    1982-04-01

    The experiences of six industrial firms with the new Federal policy of internal offsets are described. Offsets, regulatory reforms initiated by the Environmental Protection Agency and called by the generic title of emission trading, were introduced to allow continued economic growth in nonattainment areas and to stimulate innovation in pollution control and process technology by making it profitable for firms to create more reductions than the law now requires. The problems of defining and measuring innovation as well as presenting industrial firm perceptions of innovation associated with offset cases are discussed.

  7. Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets ...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets (2.6 MB) More Documents & Publications Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Transcript Questions ...

  8. Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Steve Erario Energy Programs Associate at Alarm.com March 13, 2013 2 * Steve Erario served as the Carbon Project Coordinator at MaineHousing, which houses the state of Maine's weatherization program. In that role, he helped develop the certified carbon offsets project from 2010 to 2012. Ultimately Steve managed the sale of carbon offsets to Chevrolet Motors, and the revenue from the sales are currently being used to weatherize

  9. Offset truss hex solar concentrator

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.E.; Sturgis, J.D.; Erikson, R.J.; Waligroski, G.A.; Scott, M.A.

    1991-10-08

    This paper describes a concentrating solar collector for use in a solar energy system. It comprises: a solar energy reflective surface having the configuration of a portion of a surface of revolution rotated about a prescribed focal axis, the portion of the surface of revolution being offset from the prescribed focal axis; and a solar energy receiver having a solar energy receiving aperture and a three-dimensional optical flux receiving surface exposed thereby, the three-dimensional optical flux receiving surface being symmetrical with respect to a plane containing a solar energy receiver axis which passes through and forms an acute angle with the prescribed focal axis and intersects the solar energy reflective surface, wherein the solar energy reflective surface is comprised of a plurality of interconnected reflector panel sections, each panel section containing a plurality of reflector facets the reflective surface of which effectively focus light reflected thereby to preselected surface portions of the optical flux collecting surface of the receiver that are symmetric with respect to the plane.

  10. Running Jobs Intermittently Slow

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Running Jobs Intermittently Slow Running Jobs Intermittently Slow October 2, 2014 Symptom: User jobs are seeing intermittent slowness, jobs can run very slow in certain stages or appear hung. This could happen to jobs having input/output on global file systems (/project, /global/homes, /global/scratch2). It could also happen to aplications using shared libraries, or CCM jobs on any Hopper file systems. The slowness is identified to be related to DVS/GPFS issues, the cause of slownwss yet

  11. Turbine blade tip with offset squealer

    DOEpatents

    Bunker, Ronald Scott

    2001-01-01

    An industrial turbine assembly comprises a plurality of rotating blade portions in a spaced relation with a stationary shroud. The rotating blade includes a root section, an airfoil having a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall defining an outer periphery and a tip portion having a tip cap. An offset squealer is disposed on the tip cap. The offset squealer is positioned inward from the outer periphery of the rotating blade. The offset squealer increases the flow resistance and reduces the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the blade tip portion so as to improve overall turbine efficiency.

  12. Self-Aligning Mirror Mechanism for Transmission Line Offset Correction...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-Aligning Mirror Mechanism for Transmission Line Offset Correction The Self-Aligning Mirror Mechanism for Transmission Line Offset Correction is a self-aligning mechanism which...

  13. International Carbon Reduction Offset Alliance ICROA | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Carbon Reduction Offset Alliance ICROA Jump to: navigation, search Name: International Carbon Reduction & Offset Alliance (ICROA) Place: United Kingdom Sector: Carbon Product:...

  14. Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Transcript...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Transcript Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Transcript This document contains the transcript for the ...

  15. Off-set stabilizer for comparator output

    DOEpatents

    Lunsford, James S.

    1991-01-01

    A stabilized off-set voltage is input as the reference voltage to a comparator. In application to a time-interval meter, the comparator output generates a timing interval which is independent of drift in the initial voltage across the timing capacitor. A precision resistor and operational amplifier charge a capacitor to a voltage which is precisely offset from the initial voltage. The capacitance of the reference capacitor is selected so that substantially no voltage drop is obtained in the reference voltage applied to the comparator during the interval to be measured.

  16. Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Transcript

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document contains the transcript for the Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets webinar held on March 12, 2013.

  17. Incentives for technological innovation in air pollution reduction: an ETIP policy research series. volume 9: internal offsets and technological innovation: six case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mogee, M.E.

    1982-04-01

    This report describes the experiences of six industrial firms with the new Federal policy of internal offsets. Offsets are part of a group of regulatory reforms initiated by the Environmental Protection Agency and called by the generic title of 'emission trading'. Offsets were introduced to allow continued economic growth in nonattainment areas and to stimulate innovation in pollution control and process technology by making it profitable for firms to create more reductions than the law now requires. The report discusses the problems of defining and measuring innovation as well as presenting industrial firm perceptions of innovation associated with offset cases.

  18. Interior micro-CT with an offset detector

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Kriti Sen; Gong, Hao; Ghasemalizadeh, Omid; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The size of field-of-view (FOV) of a microcomputed tomography (CT) system can be increased by offsetting the detector. The increased FOV is beneficial in many applications. All prior investigations, however, have been focused to the case in which the increased FOV after offset-detector acquisition can cover the transaxial extent of an object fully. Here, the authors studied a new problem where the FOV of a micro-CT system, although increased after offset-detector acquisition, still covers an interior region-of-interest (ROI) within the object. Methods: An interior-ROI-oriented micro-CT scan with an offset detector poses a difficult reconstruction problem, which is caused by both detector offset and projection truncation. Using the projection completion techniques, the authors first extended three previous reconstruction methods from offset-detector micro-CT to offset-detector interior micro-CT. The authors then proposed a novel method which combines two of the extended methods using a frequency split technique. The authors tested the four methods with phantom simulations at 9.4%, 18.8%, 28.2%, and 37.6% detector offset. The authors also applied these methods to physical phantom datasets acquired at the same amounts of detector offset from a customized micro-CT system. Results: When the detector offset was small, all reconstruction methods showed good image quality. At large detector offset, the three extended methods gave either visible shading artifacts or high deviation of pixel value, while the authors’ proposed method demonstrated no visible artifacts and minimal deviation of pixel value in both the numerical simulations and physical experiments. Conclusions: For an interior micro-CT with an offset detector, the three extended reconstruction methods can perform well at a small detector offset but show strong artifacts at a large detector offset. When the detector offset is large, the authors’ proposed reconstruction method can outperform the three

  19. Quantum gravity slows inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsamis, N.C. |; Woodard, R.P.

    1996-02-01

    We consider the quantum gravitational back-reaction on an initially inflating, homogeneous and isotropic universe whose topology is T{sup 3} {times} {Re}. Although there is no secular effect at one loop, an explicit calculation shows that two-loop processes act to slow the rate of expansion by an amount which becomes non-pertubatively large at late times. By exploiting Feynman`s tree theorem we show that all higher loops act in the same sense. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  20. The past and future of greenhouse gas offset projects

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, M.C.; Kosloff, L.H.

    1997-12-31

    Researchers now have almost 10 years of experience with on-the-ground carbon offset projects for climate change mitigation purposes. The field is evolving from one driven primarily by public and governmental relations, to one driven by companies` perceived need to adapt to anticipated national and international regulation of greenhouse gas emissions. Offset project participants are seeking to identify offset opportunities, come up the regulatory and technical learning curves, and identify new market opportunities. Offset projects being implemented today can be evaluated through several lenses including offset performance and benefit quantification, cost-effectiveness, and political and environmental acceptability. Careful evaluation of existing offset experience is important in order to guide national and international policy development. This paper will review the history and trends of offset project development, use existing experience to identify advantages and disadvantages associated with different offsets, and identify lessons that can guide future project development. The lead author carried out the CO{sub 2} benefit analysis for the first offset project (AES Corp.`s CARE Guatemala reforestation project), and has developed and evaluated dozens of domestic and international offset projects and proposals. The authors` company is currently implementing more than a half-dozen offset projects and they are intimately involved in ongoing technical and policy development of the field.

  1. Maryland's efforts to develop regulations creating an air emissions offset trading program

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, D.M.; Zaw-Mon, M.

    1999-07-01

    Under the federal Clean Air Act's New Source Review program, many companies located in or planning to locate in areas that do not meet federal air quality standards or in the Northeast Ozone Transport Region (northern Virginia to Maine) must obtain emission reductions (called offsets) of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides that are greater than the new emissions that will be released. This offset requirement allows growth in industry while protecting air quality against deterioration. Despite the federal offset requirement, a formal banking and trading program is not mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Still, a mechanism is needed to ensure that emission reduction credits (ERCs) are available for sources to use to meet the offset requirement. Currently, Maryland does not have regulations covering the sale or transfer of ERCs from one facility to another. Maryland works with industry on a case-by-case basis to identify potential sources of ERCs and to assist in obtaining them. Then, the offset requirement and the ERCs used to meet the offsets are incorporated into individual permits using various permitting mechanisms. Desiring certainty and stability in the banking and trading process, Maryland's business community has pressed for regulations to formalize Maryland's procedures. Working over several years through a stakeholder process, Maryland has developed concepts for a trading program and a draft regulation. This paper describes Maryland's current case-by-case banking and trading procedure and traces efforts to develop a regulation to formalize the process. The paper discusses complex policy issues related to establishing a banking and trading program, describes the principal elements of Maryland's draft regulation, and summarizes elements of other states' emissions banking and trading programs.

  2. Carbon Offsets for Forestry and Bioenergy: Researching Opportunities...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Researching Opportunities for Poor Rural Communities Jump to: navigation, search Name Carbon Offsets for Forestry and Bioenergy: Researching Opportunities for Poor Rural...

  3. Battery Second Use Offsets Electric Vehicle Expenses, Improves Grid

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Stability - News Feature | NREL Battery Second Use Offsets Electric Vehicle Expenses, Improves Grid Stability June 22, 2015 Photo of a man in a lab, holding cables. NREL's Jeremy Neubauer measures battery voltage in an environmental chamber at the Thermal Test Facility. NREL is identifying battery second use (B2U) strategies capable of offsetting vehicle expenses while improving utility grid stability. Photo by Dennis Schroeder Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) have the potential to

  4. PULSAR PAIR CASCADES IN MAGNETIC FIELDS WITH OFFSET POLAR CAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alex G.

    2011-12-20

    Neutron star magnetic fields may have polar caps (PCs) that are offset from the dipole axis, through field-line sweepback near the light cylinder or non-symmetric currents within the star. The effects of such offsets on electron-positron pair cascades are investigated, using simple models of dipole magnetic fields with small distortions that shift the PCs by different amounts or directions. Using a Monte Carlo pair cascade simulation, we explore the changes in the pair spectrum, multiplicity, and energy flux across the PC, as well as the trends in pair flux and pair energy flux with spin-down luminosity, L{sub sd}. We also give an estimate of the distribution of heating flux from returning positrons on the PC for different offsets. We find that even modest offsets can produce significant increases in pair multiplicity, especially for pulsars that are near or beyond the pair death lines for centered PCs, primarily because of higher accelerating fields. Pair spectra cover several decades in energy, with the spectral range of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) two orders of magnitude higher than for normal pulsars, and PC offsets allow significant extension of all spectra to lower pair energies. We find that the total PC pair luminosity L{sub pair} is proportional to L{sub sd}, with L{sub pair} {approx} 10{sup -3} L{sub sd} for normal pulsars and L{sub pair} {approx} 10{sup -2} L{sub sd} for MSPs. Remarkably, the total PC heating luminosity for even large offsets increases by less than a factor of two, even though the PC area increases by much larger factors, because most of the heating occurs near the magnetic axis.

  5. Anisotropic parameter estimation using velocity variation with offset analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Herawati, I.; Saladin, M.; Pranowo, W.; Winardhie, S.; Priyono, A.

    2013-09-09

    Seismic anisotropy is defined as velocity dependent upon angle or offset. Knowledge about anisotropy effect on seismic data is important in amplitude analysis, stacking process and time to depth conversion. Due to this anisotropic effect, reflector can not be flattened using single velocity based on hyperbolic moveout equation. Therefore, after normal moveout correction, there will still be residual moveout that relates to velocity information. This research aims to obtain anisotropic parameters, ? and ?, using two proposed methods. The first method is called velocity variation with offset (VVO) which is based on simplification of weak anisotropy equation. In VVO method, velocity at each offset is calculated and plotted to obtain vertical velocity and parameter ?. The second method is inversion method using linear approach where vertical velocity, ?, and ? is estimated simultaneously. Both methods are tested on synthetic models using ray-tracing forward modelling. Results show that ? value can be estimated appropriately using both methods. Meanwhile, inversion based method give better estimation for obtaining ? value. This study shows that estimation on anisotropic parameters rely on the accuracy of normal moveout velocity, residual moveout and offset to angle transformation.

  6. Questions Asked during the Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Webinar

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document contains the questions asked and the answers provided during the Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Webinar

  7. Slow Dynamics of Orbital Domains in Manganite

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Slow Dynamics of Orbital Domains in Manganite Print At the ALS, an international team of researchers has used low-energy coherent x rays to extract new knowledge about the...

  8. Resolved: Hopper /scratch file system slow

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Hopper /scratch file system slow Resolved: Hopper /scratch file system slow August 6, 2014 Symptom: Users have reported scripts hung when involving file copies from/to the /scratch file system, or jobs running in /scratch are slower than before since late last week. Workaround: If it is convenient, move your workflow to /scratch2 temporarily, avoid any reference to /scratch. It includes setting your input files directory, your batch job submission directory, your executable file location, and

  9. Valuation of carbon capture and sequestration under Greenhouse gas regulations: CCS as an offsetting activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lokey, Elizabeth

    2009-08-15

    When carbon capture and sequestration is conducted by entities that are not regulated, it could be counted as an offset that is fungible in the market or sold to a voluntary market. This paper addresses the complications that arise in accounting for carbon capture and sequestration as an offset, and methodologies that exist for accounting for CCS in voluntary and compliance markets. (author)

  10. Growth and Band Offsets of Epitaxial Lanthanide Oxides on GaN...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  11. Growth and Band Offsets of Epitaxial Lanthanide Oxides on GaN...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    M.T.T., 60 (6) (2012) 3 Jon Ihlefeld, Sandia National Laboratories Electronic Materials ... Undoped GaN Undoped AlGaN Doped AlGaN 2D Electron Gas Enhancement Mode (nominally ...

  12. International Energy Outlook 2014

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    April 1, 2015 | Palo Alto, CA by Howard Gruenspecht, Deputy Administrator Improvements in energy intensity largely offset impact of growth in GDP leading to slow growth in energy...

  13. Slowed demand ushers in summer season

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This article is the June 1996 market summary in uranium market. During this reporting period, there were six deals in the U3O8 spot market and three long-term deals for U3O8. There were four deals for UF6 conversion, and the spot market for uranium separation services had no transactions. This was little change from the previous month`s activities, and this slowness was reflected in the price trends of little or no increase.

  14. Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bonebrake, Eric; Casella, Andrew M.; Danon, Yaron; Devlin, M.; Gavron, Victor A.; Haight, R. C.; Imel, G. R.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Weltz, Adam

    2012-06-07

    This report documents the progress that has been completed in the first half of FY2012 in the MPACT-funded Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer project. Significant progress has been made on the algorithm development. We have an improve understanding of the experimental responses in LSDS for fuel-related material. The calibration of the ultra-depleted uranium foils was completed, but the results are inconsistent from measurement to measurement. Future work includes developing a conceptual model of an LSDS system to assay plutonium in used fuel, improving agreement between simulations and measurement, design of a thorium fission chamber, and evaluation of additional detector techniques.

  15. Counting graphene layers with very slow electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Lud?k; Mikmekov, Elika; Mllerov, Ilona; Lejeune, Michal

    2015-01-05

    The study aimed at collection of data regarding the transmissivity of freestanding graphene for electrons across their full energy scale down to the lowest energies. Here, we show that the electron transmissivity of graphene drops with the decreasing energy of the electrons and remains below 10% for energies below 30?eV, and that the slow electron transmissivity value is suitable for reliable determination of the number of graphene layers. Moreover, electrons incident below 50?eV release adsorbed hydrocarbon molecules and effectively clean graphene in contrast to faster electrons that decompose these molecules and create carbonaceous contamination.

  16. Improved Technique of Hydrogen Content Analysis by Slow Neutron Scattering

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Rainwater, L. J.; Havens, W. W. Jr.

    1945-02-28

    A slow-neutron-transmission method fro determining the H content of fluorcarbons is described (G.Y.)

  17. Modulational instability and associated rogue structures of slow magnetosonic wave in Hall magnetohydrodynamic plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Panwar, Anuraj; Ryu, Chang-Mo

    2014-06-15

    The modulational instability and associated rogue structures of a slow magnetosonic wave are investigated for a Hall magnetohydrodynamic plasma. Nonlinear Schrodinger equation is obtained by using the multiple scale method, which shows a modulationally unstable slow magnetosonic mode evolving into bright wavepackets. The dispersive effects induced by the Hall electron current increase with the increase in plasma β and become weaker as the angle of propagation increases. The growth rate of the modulational instability also increases with the increase in plasma β. The growth rate is greatest for the parallel propagation and drops to zero for perpendicular propagation. The envelope wavepacket of a slow magnetosonic is widened with less oscillations as plasma β increases. But the wavepacket becomes slightly narrower and more oscillatory as the angle of propagation increases. Further a non-stationary envelope solution of the Peregrine soliton is analyzed for rogue waves. The Peregrine soliton contracts temporally and expands spatially with increase in plasma β. However, the width of a slow magnetosonic Peregrine soliton decreases both temporally and spatially with increase of the propagation angle.

  18. The Rockstar Phase-Space Temporal HALO Finder and the Velocity Offsets of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cluster Cores (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The Rockstar Phase-Space Temporal HALO Finder and the Velocity Offsets of Cluster Cores Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Rockstar Phase-Space Temporal HALO Finder and the Velocity Offsets of Cluster Cores Authors: Behroozi, Peter S. ; Wechsler, Risa H. ; Wu, Hao-Yi Publication Date: 2012-12-21 OSTI Identifier: 1059673 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-15331 arXiv:1110.4372 DOE Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515 Resource Type: Journal

  19. Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer Research Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Gavron, Victor; Danon, Yaron; Weltz, Adam; Harris, Jason; Stewart, T.

    2013-03-22

    The MPACT-funded Lead Slowing Down Spectrometry (LSDS) project has been evaluating the feasibility of using LSDS techniques to assay fissile isotopes in used nuclear fuel assemblies. The approach has the potential to provide considerable improvement in the assay of fissile isotopic masses in fuel assemblies compared to other non-destructive techniques in a direct and independent manner. The LSDS collaborations suggests that the next step to in empirically testing the feasibility is to conduct measurements on fresh fuel assemblies to understand investigate self-attenuation and fresh mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel rodlets so we may betterto understand extraction of masses for 235U and 239Pu. While progressing toward these goals, the collaboration also strongly suggests the continued development of enabling technology such as detector development and algorithm development, thatwhich could provide significant performance benefits.

  20. Slow speed object detection for haul trucks

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-15

    Caterpillar integrates radar technology with its current camera based system. Caterpillar has developed the Integrated Object Detection System, a slow speed object detection system for mining haul trucks. Object detection is a system that aids the truck operator's awareness of their surroundings. The system consists of a color touch screen display along with medium- and short-range radar as well as cameras, harnesses and mounting hardware. It is integrated into the truck's Work Area Vision System (WAVS). After field testing in 2007, system commercialization began in 2008. Prototype systems are in operation in Australia, Utah and Arizona and the Integrated Object Detection System will be available in the fourth quarter of 2009 and on production trucks 785C, 789C, 793D and 797B. The article is adapted from a presentation by Mark Richards of Caterpillar to the Haulage & Loading 2009 conference, May, held in Phoenix, AZ. 1 fig., 5 photos.

  1. Dosimetric effects of rotational offsets in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yun; Catalano, Suzanne; Kelsey, Chris R.; Yoo, David S.; Yin, Fang-Fang; Cai, Jing

    2014-04-01

    To quantitatively evaluate dosimetric effects of rotational offsets in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer. Overall, 11 lung SBRT patients (8 female and 3 male; mean age: 75.0 years) with medially located tumors were included. Treatment plans with simulated rotational offsets of 1°, 3°, and 5° in roll, yaw, and pitch were generated and compared with the original plans. Both clockwise and counterclockwise rotations were investigated. The following dosimetric metrics were quantitatively evaluated: planning target volume coverage (PTV V{sub 100%}), max PTV dose (PTV D{sub max}), percentage prescription dose to 0.35 cc of cord (cord D{sub 0.35} {sub cc}), percentage prescription dose to 0.35 cc and 5 cc of esophagus (esophagus D{sub 0.35} {sub cc} and D{sub 5} {sub cc}), and volume of the lungs receiving at least 20 Gy (lung V{sub 20}). Statistical significance was tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test at the significance level of 0.05. Overall, small differences were found in all dosimetric matrices at all rotational offsets: 95.6% of differences were < 1% or < 1 Gy. Of all rotational offsets, largest change in PTV V{sub 100%}, PTV D{sub max}, cord D{sub 0.35} {sub cc}, esophagus D{sub 0.35} {sub cc}, esophagus D{sub 5} {sub cc}, and lung V{sub 20} was − 8.36%, − 6.06%, 11.96%, 8.66%, 6.02%, and − 0.69%, respectively. No significant correlation was found between any dosimetric change and tumor-to-cord/esophagus distances (R{sup 2} range: 0 to 0.44). Larger dosimetric changes and intersubject variations were observed at larger rotational offsets. Small dosimetric differences were found owing to rotational offsets up to 5° in lung SBRT for medially located tumors. Larger intersubject variations were observed at larger rotational offsets.

  2. Novel Slow Extraction Scheme for Proton Accelerators Using Pulsed Dipole

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Correctors and Crystals (Conference) | SciTech Connect Novel Slow Extraction Scheme for Proton Accelerators Using Pulsed Dipole Correctors and Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Novel Slow Extraction Scheme for Proton Accelerators Using Pulsed Dipole Correctors and Crystals Slow extraction of protons beams from circular accelerators is currently widely used for a variety of beam-based experiments. The method has some deficiencies including limited efficiency of extraction,

  3. 'Slow light' advance could speed optical computing, telecommunications

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    The effects of strong light-matter coupling used in slowing down light might create entangled photon pairs that lead to quantum computing capabilities beyond those of modern ...

  4. Novel Slow Extraction Scheme for Proton Accelerators Using Pulsed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ring at Fermilab. The proposed method of non-resonant slow extraction of protons by bent crystals in combination with orbit fast deflectors shows great promise in...

  5. Observable non-Gaussianity from gauge field production in slow...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Observable non-Gaussianity from gauge field production in slow roll inflation, and a challenging connection with magnetogenesis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  6. Implications of Low Electricity Demand Growth

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    2014 EIA Energy Conference July 14, 2014 | Washington, DC Jim Diefenderfer, Director, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, & Renewables Analysis U.S. Energy Information Administration Implications of low electricity demand growth Growth in electricity use slows, but still increases by 29% from 2012 to 2040 -2% 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 percent growth (3-year compounded annual growth rate) Source: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2014 Reference

  7. Using Measurements of Fill Factor at High Irradiance to Deduce Heterobarrier Band Offsets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J. M.; Steiner, M. A.; Kanevce, A.

    2011-07-01

    Using a 2D device simulation tool, we examine the high irradiance behavior of a single junction, GaAs concentrator cell as a function of the doping in the back surface confinement layer. The confinement layer is designed to be a barrier for both holes and electrons in the base of the solar cell. For a p-type base we show that the FF of the cell at high concentrations is a strong function of both the magnitude of the valence band offset and the doping level in the barrier. In short, for a given valence band offset (VBO), there is a critical barrier doping, below which the FF drops rapidly with lower doping. This behavior is confirmed experimentally for a GaInP/GaAs double heterostructure solar cell where the critical doping concentration (at 500 suns) in the back surface confinement layer is ~1e18 cm-3 for a VBO of 300 meV.

  8. Asymmetric band offsets in silicon heterojunction solar cells: Impact on device performance

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Seif, Johannes Peter; Menda, Deneb; Descoeudres, Antoine; Barraud, Loris; Özdemir, Orhan; Ballif, Christophe; De Wolf, Stefaan

    2016-08-01

    Here, amorphous/crystalline silicon interfaces feature considerably larger valence than conduction band offsets. In this article, we analyze the impact of such band offset asymmetry on the performance of silicon heterojunction solar cells. To this end, we use silicon suboxides as passivation layers -- inserted between substrate and (front or rear) contacts -- since such layers enable intentionally exacerbated band-offset asymmetry. Investigating all topologically possible passivation layer permutations and focussing on light and dark current-voltage characteristics, we confirm that to avoid fill factor losses, wider-bandgap silicon oxide films (of at least several nanometer thin) should be avoided in hole-collecting contacts. Asmore » a consequence, device implementation of such films as window layers -- without degraded carrier collection -- demands electron collection at the front and hole collection at the rear. Furthermore, at elevated operating temperatures, once possible carrier transport barriers are overcome by thermionic (field) emission, the device performance is mainly dictated by the passivation of its surfaces. In this context, compared to the standard amorphous silicon layers, the wide-bandgap oxide layers applied here passivate remarkably better at these temperatures, which may represent an additional benefit under practical operation conditions.« less

  9. A new target concept for production of slow positrons

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Y.L; White, M.

    1995-01-01

    Slow positrons in the energy range up to a few keV are useful for material sciences and surface studies. The Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator (linac) was designed to produce 8-mA of 450-MeV positrons. A 200-MeV, 1.7-Ampere electron beam impinges on a 7-mm-thick (2 radiation lengths) tungsten target, resulting in bremsstrahlung pair production of electrons and positrons. The existing target was optimized for high energy positron production, and most slow positrons produced by the electron-gamma shower remain trapped inside. The linac could also be used to produce slow positrons, and a modified target could increase the low energy positron yield. Use of a multilayer or segmented target reduces self-absorption by the target, and thus more fully utilizes the incident beam power for slow positron production. A slow positron yield of 10{sup 9}/sec is expected from the existing incident electron beam. Multilayer targets could probably be used by other accelerator-based slow positron sources to improve slow positron yield without increasing the incident beam power. Two variations of a multilayer target concept are presented and discussed in this paper.

  10. Slow Mo Guys and Cold Spray | GE Global Research

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Slow Mo Guys and Cold Spray Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Slow Mo Guys and Cold Spray ) The Slow Mo Guys came to GE Global Research in Niskayuna to film our researchers demonstrate a process called "cold spray", in which metal powders are sprayed at high velocities to build a part or add

  11. Halden In-Reactor Test to Exhibit PWR Axial Offset Anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    P.Bennett, B. Beverskog, R.Suther

    2004-12-01

    Many PWRs have encountered the axial offset anomaly (AOA) since the early 1990s, and these experiences have been reported widely. AOA is a phenomenon associated with localized boron hideout in corrosion product deposits (crud) on fuel surfaces. Several mitigation approaches have been developed or are underway to either delay the onset of AOA or avoid it entirely. This study describes the first phase of an experimental program designed to investigate whether the use of enriched boric acid (EBA) in the reactor coolant can mitigate AOA.

  12. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Pub

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Trends in economic activity Growth in business fixed investment offsets slow growth in labor force Growth in the output of the U.S. economy depends on increases in the labor force,...

  13. Nuclear Symbiosis - A Means to Achieve Sustainable Nuclear Growth while Limiting the Spread of Sensititive Nuclear Technology

    SciTech Connect

    David Shropshire

    2009-09-01

    Global growth of nuclear energy in the 21st century is creating new challenges to limit the spread of nuclear technology without hindering adoption in countries now considering nuclear power. Independent nuclear states desire autonomy over energy choices and seek energy independence. However, this independence comes with high costs for development of new indigenous fuel cycle capabilities. Nuclear supplier states and expert groups have proposed fuel supply assurance mechanisms such as fuel take-back services, international enrichment services and fuel banks in exchange for recipient state concessions on the development of sensitive technologies. Nuclear states are slow to accept any concessions to their rights under the Non-Proliferation Treaty. To date, decisions not to develop indigenous fuel cycle capabilities have been driven primarily by economics. However, additional incentives may be required to offset a nuclear state’s perceived loss of energy independence. This paper proposes alternative economic development incentives that could help countries decide to forgo development of sensitive nuclear technologies. The incentives are created through a nuclear-centered industrial complex with “symbiotic” links to indigenous economic opportunities. This paper also describes a practical tool called the “Nuclear Materials Exchange” for identifying these opportunities.

  14. Fracture mapping in geothermal fields with long-offset induction logging

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Takasugi, Shinji; Uchida, Toshihiro; Kasameyer, P.; Lee, Ki Ha; Lippmann, M.

    1997-01-01

    The mapping of producing fractures in a geothermal field is an important technical objective in field development. Locating, orientating, and assessing producing fractures can guide drilling programs and optimize the placement of production and injection wells. A long-offset multicomponent borehole induction resistivity tool capable of surviving the high temperatures encountered in geothermal wells has recently been developed and tested in a high temperature environment. Several characteristics of this device make it ideal for detecting producing fractures. Whereas commercial induction logging devices have strong source-receiver separations of 1 m, this device has multiple sensors with separation of 8 m, allowing for deeper penetrations and the ability to straddle fracture-induced washout zones in boreholes. The three-component measurements also make it possible to map the strike and inclination of nearby fractures and other three-dimensional structures. This in turn allows for accurate projection of these structures into the space between wells.

  15. Offset-free rail-to-rail derandomizing peak detect-and-hold circuit

    DOEpatents

    DeGeronimo, Gianluigi; O'Connor, Paul; Kandasamy, Anand

    2003-01-01

    A peak detect-and-hold circuit eliminates errors introduced by conventional amplifiers, such as common-mode rejection and input voltage offset. The circuit includes an amplifier, three switches, a transistor, and a capacitor. During a detect-and-hold phase, a hold voltage at a non-inverting in put terminal of the amplifier tracks an input voltage signal and when a peak is reached, the transistor is switched off, thereby storing a peak voltage in the capacitor. During a readout phase, the circuit functions as a unity gain buffer, in which the voltage stored in the capacitor is provided as an output voltage. The circuit is able to sense signals rail-to-rail and can readily be modified to sense positive, negative, or peak-to-peak voltages. Derandomization may be achieved by using a plurality of peak detect-and-hold circuits electrically connected in parallel.

  16. Measuring coalignment of retroreflectors with large lateral incoming-outgoing beam offset

    SciTech Connect

    Schütze, Daniel Sheard, Benjamin S.; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten; Farrant, David; Shaddock, Daniel A.

    2014-03-15

    A method based on phase-shifting Fizeau interferometry is presented with which retroreflectors with large incoming-outgoing beam separations can be tested. The method relies on a flat Reference Bar that is used to align two auxiliary mirrors parallel to each other to extend the aperture of the interferometer. The method is applied to measure the beam coalignment of a prototype Triple Mirror Assembly of the GRACE Follow-On Laser Ranging Interferometer, a future satellite-to-satellite tracking device for Earth gravimetry. The Triple Mirror Assembly features a lateral beam offset of incoming and outgoing beam of 600 mm, whereas the acceptance angle for the incoming beam is only about ±2 mrad. With the developed method, the beam coalignment of the prototype Triple Mirror Assembly was measured to be 9 μrad with a repeatability of below 1 μrad.

  17. Heterojunction band offsets and dipole formation at BaTiO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Balaz, Snjezana; Zeng, Zhaoquan; Brillson, Leonard J.; Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff, Columbus, Ohio 43210

    2013-11-14

    We used a complement of photoemission and cathodoluminescence techniques to measure formation of the BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) on SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) heterojunction band offset grown monolayer by monolayer by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) provided core level and valence band edge energies to monitor the valence band offset in-situ as the first few crystalline BTO monolayers formed on the STO substrate. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) measured Fermi level positions within the band gap, work functions, and ionization potentials of the growing BTO film. Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy measured energies and densities of interface states at the buried heterojunction. Kraut-based XPS heterojunction band offsets provided evidence for STO/BTO heterojunction linearity, i.e., commutativity and transitivity. In contrast, UPS and XPS revealed a large dipole associated either with local charge transfer or strain-induced polarization within the BTO epilayer.

  18. Prospects for international trade in environmental services: An analysis of international carbon emission off-sets

    SciTech Connect

    Swisher, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation presents a case study analysis in which the costs to a US electric utility of reducing its carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions are compared with the costs of carbon-saving forestry projects in Costa Rica and Guatemala. The results show that a large electric utility in the south-central US would find it relatively inexpensive, even profitable given a conducive regulatory treatment, to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions by a few percent over the next ten years, through direct investment in energy end-use efficiency improvements. In comparison, the costs of the forestry projects studied in Central America range from $1/TC to a worst-case value of about $55/TC, with most project costs between $5 and $13/TC, depending on the type of project, the climate, and the opportunity cost of land. The total amount of CO{sub 2} storage potential is significant, about 100 million tons per country, but not enough to suggest that forestry can offset more than a few percent of global CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel use. These case studies suggest that international trade in the environmental service of reducing global CO{sub 2} accumulation could have significant economic and ecological benefits. A transaction in which a utility pays for forestry projects in exchange for credit against an emission reduction policy is an example of an international carbon emission offset (ICEO). ICEO's could provide a currency for funding carbon-saving services as a way to comply with national policies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, as long as compliance is allowed through investments in other countries. This type of North-South transfer is necessary to reconcile economic efficiency and international equity, because of the disparity between the national allocations of responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions and opportunities for emission reductions.

  19. Radiative forcing and temperature response to changes in urban albedos and associated CO2 offsets

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, Surabi; Akbari, Hashem; Mahanama, Sarith; Sednev, Igor; Levinson, Ronnen

    2010-02-12

    The two main forcings that can counteract to some extent the positive forcings from greenhouse gases from pre-industrial times to present-day are the aerosol and related aerosol-cloud forcings, and the radiative response to changes in surface albedo. Here, we quantify the change in radiative forcing and land surface temperature that may be obtained by increasing the albedos of roofs and pavements in urban areas in temperate and tropical regions of the globe by 0.1. Using the catchment land surface model (the land model coupled to the GEOS-5 Atmospheric General Circulation Model), we quantify the change in the total outgoing (outgoing shortwave+longwave) radiation and land surface temperature to a 0.1 increase in urban albedos for all global land areas. The global average increase in the total outgoing radiation was 0.5 Wm{sup -2}, and temperature decreased by {approx}0.008 K for an average 0.003 increase in surface albedo. These averages represent all global land areas where data were available from the land surface model used and are for the boreal summer (June-July-August). For the continental U.S. the total outgoing radiation increased by 2.3 Wm{sup -2}, and land surface temperature decreased by {approx}0.03 K for an average 0.01 increase in surface albedo. Based on these forcings, the expected emitted CO{sub 2} offset for a plausible 0.25 and 0.15 increase in albedos of roofs and pavements, respectively, for all global urban areas, was found to be {approx} 57 Gt CO{sub 2}. A more meaningful evaluation of the impacts of urban albedo increases on global climate and the expected CO{sub 2} offsets would require simulations which better characterizes urban surfaces and represents the full annual cycle.

  20. Intensity offset and correction of solid spectral library samples measured behind glass

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Redding, Rebecca L.; Su, Yin-Fong; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2013-05-18

    Accurate and calibrated diffuse reflectance spectra libraries of solids are becoming more important for hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing exploitation. Many solids are in the form of powders or granules and in order to measure their diffuse reflectance spectra in the laboratory, it is often necessary to place the samples behind a transparent medium such as glass or quartz for the UV, visible or near-infrared spectral regions to prevent their unwanted dispersal into the instrument or laboratory environment. Using both experimental and theoretical methods we have found that for the case of fused quartz this leads to an intensity offset in the reflectance values. Although expected dispersive effects were observed for the fused quartz window in the UV, the measured hemispherical reflectance values are predominantly vertically shifted by the reflectance from the air-quartz and sample-quartz interfaces with intensity dependent offsets leading to measured values up to nearly 6% too high for a 2% reflectance surface, 3.8% too high for 10% reflecting materials, approximately correct (to within experimental error) for 40% to 60% diffuse reflecting surfaces, and 2% too low for 99% reflecting Spectralon surfaces. For the diffuse reflectance case, the measured values are uniformly too low due to the glass, with differences nearly 6% too high for reflectance values approaching 99%. The deviations arise from the added reflections from the quartz surfaces as verified by theory, modeling and experiment. Empirical correction factors were implemented into post-processing software to redress the artifact for hemispherical and diffuse reflectance data across the 300 nm to 2300 nm range.

  1. Offsets between the X-ray and the Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich-effect peaks in merging galaxy clusters and their cosmological implications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Congyao; Yu, Qingjuan; Lu, Youjun

    2014-12-01

    Observations reveal that the peaks of the X-ray map and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect map of some galaxy clusters are offset from each other. In this paper, we perform a set of hydrodynamical simulations of mergers of two galaxy clusters to investigate the spatial offset between the maxima of the X-ray and the SZ surface brightness of the merging clusters. We find that significantly large SZ-X-ray offsets (>100 kpc) can be produced during the major mergers of galaxy clusters (with mass > 1 10{sup 14} M {sub ?}). The significantly large offsets are mainly caused by a 'jump effect' that occurs between the primary and secondary pericentric passages of the two merging clusters, during which the X-ray peak may jump to the densest gas region located near the center of the small cluster, but the SZ peak remains near the center of the large one. Our simulations show that merging systems with higher masses and larger initial relative velocities may result in larger offset sizes and longer offset time durations; and only nearly head-on mergers are likely to produce significantly large offsets. We further investigate the statistical distribution of the SZ-X-ray offset sizes and find that (1) the number distribution of the offset sizes is bimodal with one peak located at low offsets ?0 and the other at large offsets ?350-450 h {sup 1} kpc, but the objects with intermediate offsets are scarce; and (2) the probabilities of the clusters in the mass range higher than 2 10{sup 14} h {sup 1} M {sub ?} that have offsets larger than 20, 50, 200, 300, and 500 h {sup 1} kpc are 34.0%, 11.1%, 8.0%, 6.5%, and 2.0%, respectively, at z = 0.7. The probability is sensitive to the underlying pairwise velocity distribution and the merger rate of clusters. We suggest that the SZ-X-ray offsets provide a probe to the cosmic velocity fields on the cluster scale and the cluster merger rate, and future observations on the SZ-X-ray offsets for a large number of clusters may put strong

  2. ON THE SOURCE OF PROPAGATING SLOW MAGNETOACOUSTIC WAVES IN SUNSPOTS

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, S. Krishna; Jess, D. B.; Khomenko, Elena

    2015-10-10

    Recent high-resolution observations of sunspot oscillations using simultaneously operated ground- and space-based telescopes reveal the intrinsic connection between different layers of the solar atmosphere. However, it is not clear whether these oscillations are externally driven or generated in situ. We address this question by using observations of propagating slow magnetoacoustic waves along a coronal fan loop system. In addition to the generally observed decreases in oscillation amplitudes with distance, the observed wave amplitudes are also found to be modulated with time, with similar variations observed throughout the propagation path of the wave train. Employing multi-wavelength and multi-instrument data, we study the amplitude variations with time as the waves propagate through different layers of the solar atmosphere. By comparing the amplitude modulation period in different layers, we find that slow magnetoacoustic waves observed in sunspots are externally driven by photospheric p-modes, which propagate upward into the corona before becoming dissipated.

  3. Slow Waveguide Structures for Particle Accelerators - Energy Innovation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Early Stage R&D Early Stage R&D Find More Like This Return to Search Slow Waveguide Structures for Particle Accelerators Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryA waveguide design that can save time and money in the construction and tuning of a particle accelerator was developed by ORNL researchers. Particle accelerators use electromagnetic

  4. Slow Neutron Velocity Spectrometer Transmission Studies Of Pu

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Havens, W. W. Jr.; Melkonian, E.; Rainwater, L. J.; Levin, M.

    1951-05-28

    The slow neutron transmission of several samples of Pu has been investigated with the Columbia Neutron Velocity Spectrometer. Data are presented in two groups, those covering the energy region from 0 to 6 ev, and those covering the region above 6 ev. Below 6 ev the resolution was relatively good, and a detailed study of the cross section variation was made. Work above 6 ev consisted of merely locating levels and obtaining a rough idea of their strengths.

  5. Slow relaxation of cascade-induced defects in Fe

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Osetsky, Yuri N.; Stoller, Roger E.; Xu, Haixuan

    2015-02-17

    On-the-fly kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations are performed to investigate slow relaxation of non-equilibrium systems. Point defects induced by 25 keV cascades in α -Fe are shown to lead to a characteristic time-evolution, described by the replenish and relax mechanism. Then, we produce an atomistically-based assessment of models proposed to explain the slow structural relaxation by focusing on the aggregation of 50 vacancies and 25 self-interstital atoms (SIA) in 10-lattice-parameter α-Fe boxes, two processes that are closely related to cascade annealing and exhibit similar time signature. Four atomistic effects explain the timescales involved in the evolution: defect concentration heterogeneities, concentration-enhancedmore » mobility, cluster-size dependent bond energies and defect-induced pressure. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the two main classes of models to explain slow structural relaxation, the Eyring model and the Gibbs model, both play a role to limit the rate of relaxation of these simple point-defect systems.« less

  6. Slow relaxation of cascade-induced defects in Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Osetsky, Yuri N.; Stoller, Roger E.; Xu, Haixuan

    2015-02-17

    On-the-fly kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations are performed to investigate slow relaxation of non-equilibrium systems. Point defects induced by 25 keV cascades in α -Fe are shown to lead to a characteristic time-evolution, described by the replenish and relax mechanism. Then, we produce an atomistically-based assessment of models proposed to explain the slow structural relaxation by focusing on the aggregation of 50 vacancies and 25 self-interstital atoms (SIA) in 10-lattice-parameter α-Fe boxes, two processes that are closely related to cascade annealing and exhibit similar time signature. Four atomistic effects explain the timescales involved in the evolution: defect concentration heterogeneities, concentration-enhanced mobility, cluster-size dependent bond energies and defect-induced pressure. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the two main classes of models to explain slow structural relaxation, the Eyring model and the Gibbs model, both play a role to limit the rate of relaxation of these simple point-defect systems.

  7. Slow Wave Excitation in the ICRF and HHFW Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C. K.; Valeo, E. J.; Hosea, J. C.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Wilson, J. R.; Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Ryan, P. M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Wright, J. C.; Smithe, D. N.

    2011-12-23

    Theoretical considerations and high spatial resolution numerical simulations of radio frequency (rf) wave heating in tokamaks and in spherical toruses (ST) indicate that fast waves launched into tokamaks in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) or into spherical toruses in the high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) regime may excite a short wavelength slow mode inside of the plasma discharge due to the presence of hot electrons that satisfy the condition {omega}slow wave may be related to the electrostatic ion cyclotron wave that propagates for frequencies above the fundamental ion cyclotron frequency in warm plasmas or to a high frequency version of a kinetic Alfven wave. This slow wave, if physically real, would provide another path for rf power absorption in tokamaks and ST devices.

  8. Fracture mapping in geothermal fields with long-offset induction logging

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Takasugi, Shinji; Uchida, Toshihiro

    1997-12-31

    The mapping of producing fractures in a geothermal field is an important technical objective in field development. Locating, orienting, and assessing producing fractures can guide drilling programs and optimize the placement of production and injection wells. A long-offset multicomponent borehole induction resistivity tool capable of surviving the high temperatures encountered in geothermal wells has recently been developed in a NEDO project, {open_quotes}Deep-Seated Geothermal Reservoirs,{close_quotes} and tested in a high temperature environment. Several characteristics of this device make it ideal for detecting producing fractures. Whereas commercial induction logging devices have source-receiver separations of 1 m, this device has multiple sensors with separations up to 8 m, allowing for deeper penetration and the ability to straddle fracture-induced washout zones in boreholes. The three-component measurements also make it possible to map the strike and inclination of nearby fractures and other three-dimensional structures. This, in turn, allows for accurate projection of these structures into the space between wells. In this paper, we describe the design of the tool and show results of a performance test carried out in an oil-field steam flood. Data from vertical sensors are compared to conventional logging results and indicate the recent formation of a low-resistivity zone associated with high temperatures due to steam flood breakthrough. Horizontal field data indicate that the high-temperature zone is irregular in the vicinity of the borehole and more pronounced closest to the steam injector.

  9. Neogene tectonics of northern Central America prior to offset across the polochic fault

    SciTech Connect

    Burkart, B.; Sanchez-Barreda, L.A.; Deaton, B.C.

    1985-01-01

    The reconstruction which removes 130 km of documented left slip across the Polochic fault of northern Guatemala and southern Chiapas juxtaposes the foundered block of the Gulf of Tehuantepec and extensional terrane of Guatemala, lining up prolongations of the Motagua and Jocotan faults with known structures along the coastal margin of the Chiapas massif and within the Gulf. Coast-parallel faults with sinistral displacement, located along the margins of the Chiapas depression, were also active during the Miocene time interval of south-easterly migration of the Gulf of Tehuantepec block. Extensional terrane is well expressed in Guatemala and Honduras south of the Jocotan boundary fault, beginning where the southeasterly-moving block encounters the abrupt bend in the boundary fault. This complex plate boundary became simpler when the left-lateral, east-west-trending Polochic fault sliced across the isthmus in late Miocene, offsetting Laramide structures and the arcuate Neogene plate boundary faults. During its time of major activity the Polochic served as the principal plate boundary fault, across which the major displacement occurred. Today the western part of the NOAM-CARIB plate boundary is diffuse. From western Guatemala and southern Chiapas, where buckling and locking of the Polochic fault has taken place, displacement is distributed among countless shears which extend in a belt from western Guatemala across the Chiapas massif to the western landframe of the Gulf of Tehuantepec.

  10. Controlling the conduction band offset for highly efficient ZnO nanorods based perovskite solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Juan; Shi, Jiangjian; Li, Dongmei; Luo, Yanhong; Meng, Qingbo

    2015-08-17

    The mechanism of charge recombination at the interface of n-type electron transport layer (n-ETL) and perovskite absorber on the carrier properties in the perovskite solar cell is theoretically studied. By solving the one dimensional diffusion equation with different boundary conditions, it reveals that the interface charge recombination in the perovskite solar cell can be suppressed by adjusting the conduction band offset (ΔE{sub C}) at ZnO ETL/perovskite absorber interface, thus leading to improvements in cell performance. Furthermore, Mg doped ZnO nanorods ETL has been designed to control the energy band levels. By optimizing the doping amount of Mg, the conduction band minimum of the Mg doped ZnO ETL has been raised up by 0.29 eV and a positive ΔE{sub C} of about 0.1 eV is obtained. The photovoltage of the cell is thus significantly increased due to the relatively low charge recombination.

  11. Microsoft Word - Highlights.docx

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    growth will slow to 2.6 Bcfd in 2012 and 0.4 Bcfd in 2013, as the reduction in drilling activity is offset by growth in production from liquids-rich natural gas...

  12. Determination of Band Offsets between the High-k Dielectric LaAlO3...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    found that band gaps of high-k dielectric films are also significantly affected by film growth conditions. Therefore, we can not rely on previously published LaAlO3 band gap...

  13. Improving the Material Response for Slow Heat of Energetic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A L

    2010-03-08

    The goal of modern high explosive slow heat cookoff modeling is to understand the level of mechanical violence. This requires understanding the coupled thermal-mechanical-chemical system that such an environment creates. Recent advances have improved our ability to predict the time to event, and we have been making progress on predicting the mechanical response. By adding surface tension to the product gas pores in the high explosive, we have been able to reduce the current model's tendency to overpressurize confinement vessels. We describe the model and demonstrate how it affects a LX-10 STEX experiment. Issues associated with current product gas equations of state are described and examined.

  14. Universality of the Volume Bound in Slow-Roll Eternal Inflation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Universality of the Volume Bound in Slow-Roll Eternal Inflation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Universality of the Volume Bound in Slow-Roll Eternal Inflation You ...

  15. Band offsets of n-type electron-selective contacts on cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) for photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Riley E. E-mail: buonassisi@mit.edu; Lee, Yun Seog; Buonassisi, Tonio E-mail: buonassisi@mit.edu; Young, Matthew; Dameron, Arrelaine; Teeter, Glenn; Park, Helen Hejin; Chua, Danny; Gordon, Roy G.

    2014-12-29

    The development of cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) photovoltaics (PVs) is limited by low device open-circuit voltages. A strong contributing factor to this underperformance is the conduction-band offset between Cu{sub 2}O and its n-type heterojunction partner or electron-selective contact. In the present work, a broad range of possible n-type materials is surveyed, including ZnO, ZnS, Zn(O,S), (Mg,Zn)O, TiO{sub 2}, CdS, and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Band offsets are determined through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and optical bandgap measurements. A majority of these materials is identified as having a negative conduction-band offset with respect to Cu{sub 2}O; the detrimental impact of this on open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) is evaluated through 1-D device simulation. These results suggest that doping density of the n-type material is important as well, and that a poorly optimized heterojunction can easily mask changes in bulk minority carrier lifetime. Promising heterojunction candidates identified here include Zn(O,S) with [S]/[Zn] ratios >70%, and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which both demonstrate slightly positive conduction-band offsets and high V{sub OC} potential. This experimental protocol and modeling may be generalized to evaluate the efficiency potential of candidate heterojunction partners for other PV absorbers, and the materials identified herein may be promising for other absorbers with low electron affinities.

  16. Chemically assembled double-dot single-electron transistor analyzed by the orthodox model considering offset charge

    SciTech Connect

    Kano, Shinya; Maeda, Kosuke; Majima, Yutaka; Tanaka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu

    2015-10-07

    We present the analysis of chemically assembled double-dot single-electron transistors using orthodox model considering offset charges. First, we fabricate chemically assembled single-electron transistors (SETs) consisting of two Au nanoparticles between electroless Au-plated nanogap electrodes. Then, extraordinary stable Coulomb diamonds in the double-dot SETs are analyzed using the orthodox model, by considering offset charges on the respective quantum dots. We determine the equivalent circuit parameters from Coulomb diamonds and drain current vs. drain voltage curves of the SETs. The accuracies of the capacitances and offset charges on the quantum dots are within ±10%, and ±0.04e (where e is the elementary charge), respectively. The parameters can be explained by the geometrical structures of the SETs observed using scanning electron microscopy images. Using this approach, we are able to understand the spatial characteristics of the double quantum dots, such as the relative distance from the gate electrode and the conditions for adsorption between the nanogap electrodes.

  17. Shallow melt apparatus for semicontinuous czochralski crystal growth

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Tihu; Ciszek, Theodore F.

    2006-01-10

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  18. Slow processes in startup scenarios of long-pulse gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Nusinovich, G. S.; Sinitsyn, O. V.; Antonsen, T. M. Jr.; Vlasov, A. N.; Cauffman, S. R.; Felch, K. L.

    2006-08-15

    A gyrotron startup scenario describes the variation of gyrotron parameters during onset of a pulse. This typically includes variations in beam parameters during the voltage rise, in the course of which the operating mode is excited and then driven to high efficiency operation while suppressing other parasitic modes. For long-pulse gyrotrons, however, additional processes with longer time constants should also be considered as part of the startup scenario. Such slow processes include ion neutralization of the beam space charge, thermal expansion of cavity walls caused by their ohmic heating, and reduction of the beam current due to emission cooling of the cathode. In the present paper, we analyze the importance of these effects on the stability and efficiency of gyrotron operation.

  19. Cosmic slowing down of acceleration for several dark energy parametrizations

    SciTech Connect

    Magaña, Juan; Cárdenas, Víctor H.; Motta, Verónica E-mail: victor.cardenas@uv.cl

    2014-10-01

    We further investigate slowing down of acceleration of the universe scenario for five parametrizations of the equation of state of dark energy using four sets of Type Ia supernovae data. In a maximal probability analysis we also use the baryon acoustic oscillation and cosmic microwave background observations. We found the low redshift transition of the deceleration parameter appears, independently of the parametrization, using supernovae data alone except for the Union 2.1 sample. This feature disappears once we combine the Type Ia supernovae data with high redshift data. We conclude that the rapid variation of the deceleration parameter is independent of the parametrization. We also found more evidence for a tension among the supernovae samples, as well as for the low and high redshift data.

  20. Tailoring the slow light behavior in terahertz metasurfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Manjappa, Manukumara; Cong, Longqing; Singh, Ranjan; Chiam, Sher-Yi; Bettiol, Andrew A.; Zhang, Weili

    2015-05-04

    We experimentally study the effect of near field coupling on the transmission of light in terahertz metasurfaces. Our results show that tailoring the coupling between the resonators modulates the amplitude of resulting electromagnetically induced transmission, probed under different types of asymmetries in the coupled system. Observed change in the transmission amplitude is attributed to the change in the amount of destructive interference between the resonators in the vicinity of strong near field coupling. We employ a two-particle model to theoretically study the influence of the coupling between bright and quasi-dark modes on the transmission properties of the system and we find an excellent agreement with our observed results. Adding to the enhanced transmission characteristics, our results provide a deeper insight into the metamaterial analogues of atomic electromagnetically induced transparency and offer an approach to engineer slow light devices, broadband filters, and attenuators at terahertz frequencies.

  1. Valence band offsets of two rare earth oxides on AlxGa1-xN (0≤x≤0...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    earth oxides on AlxGa1-xN (0x0.67) as measured by photoelectron spectroscopy. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Valence band offsets of two rare earth oxides on ...

  2. A policy synthesis approach for slowing global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Timilsina, G.R.

    1996-12-31

    Global warming is a burning environmental issue today but confronting with subjective as well as policy conflicts. The findings of various studies indicate that developed countries that are capable of affording effective measures towards the global warming mitigation have fewer incentives for doing so because they will have a minimal damage from global warming. The developing countries, although they will have greater damage, are unlikely to divert their development budget for taking preventive actions towards global warming. The only solution in this situation is to design a policy that encourages all the nation in the world to participate in the programs for slowing global warming. Without active participation of all nations, it seems unlikely to reduce the global warming problem in an effective way. This study presents a qualitative policy recommendation extracted from a comprehensive analysis of the findings of several studies conducted so far in this field. This study has categorized the policy approaches for mitigating the global warming in three groups: Engineering approach, forestry approach and economic approach.

  3. Experimental Investigation of the Root Cause Mechanism and Effectiveness of Mitigating Actions for Axial Offset Anomaly in Pressurized Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Said Abdel-Khalik

    2005-07-02

    Axial offset anomaly (AOA) in pressurized water reactors refers to the presence of a significantly larger measured negative axial offset deviation than predicted by core design calculations. The neutron flux depression in the upper half of high-power rods experiencing significant subcooled boiling is believed to be caused by the concentration of boron species within the crud layer formed on the cladding surface. Recent investigations of the root-cause mechanism for AOA [1,2] suggest that boron build-up on the fuel is caused by precipitation of lithium metaborate (LiBO2) within the crud in regions of subcooled boiling. Indirect evidence in support of this hypothesis was inferred from operating experience at Callaway, where lithium return and hide-out were, respectively, observed following power reductions and power increases when AOA was present. However, direct evidence of lithium metaborate precipitation within the crud has, heretofore, not been shown because of its retrograde solubility. To this end, this investigation has been undertaken in order to directly verify or refute the proposed root-cause mechanism of AOA, and examine the effectiveness of possible mitigating actions to limit its impact in high power PWR cores.

  4. Shallow Melt Apparatus for Semicontinuous Czochralski Crystal Growth

    DOEpatents

    Wang, T.; Ciszek, T. F.

    2006-01-10

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  5. Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer FY2013 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Gavron, Victor A.; Danon, Yaron; Weltz, Adam; Harris, Jason; Stewart, T.

    2013-10-29

    Executive Summary The Lead Slowing Down Spectrometry (LSDS) project, funded by the Materials Protection And Control Technology campaign, has been evaluating the feasibility of using LSDS techniques to assay fissile isotopes in used nuclear fuel assemblies. The approach has the potential to provide considerable improvement in the assay of fissile isotopic masses in fuel assemblies compared to other non-destructive techniques in a direct and independent manner. This report is a high level summary of the progress completed in FY2013. This progress included: • Fabrication of a 4He scintillator detector to detect fast neutrons in the LSDS operating environment. Testing of the detector will be conducted in FY2014. • Design of a large area 232Th fission chamber. • Analysis using the Los Alamos National Laboratory perturbation model estimated the required number of neutrons for an LSDS measurement to be 10 to the 16th source neutrons. • Application of the algorithms developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to LSDS measurement data of various fissile samples conducted in 2012. The results concluded that the 235U could be measured to 2.7% and the 239Pu could be measured to 6.3%. Significant effort is yet needed to demonstrate the applicability of these algorithms for used-fuel assemblies, but the results reported here are encouraging in demonstrating that we are making progress toward that goal. • Development and cost-analysis of a research plan for the next critical demonstration measurements. The plan suggests measurements on fresh fuel sub assemblies as a means to experimentally test self-attenuation and the use of fresh mixed-oxide fuel as a means to test simultaneous measurement of 235U and 239Pu.

  6. Dancoff's solution for the number of collisions necessary to slow down

    SciTech Connect

    Ruby, L.

    1984-01-01

    A succession of authors, following in the footsteps of Glasstone and Edlund, have perpetuated the same estimate for the number of collisions to slow down. Investigation of the slowing down distribution by Dancoff and others has been shown to correspond to a more meaningful estimate. Dancoff's treatment, probably the most concise of any thus far proposed, is discussed in detail.

  7. Determination of heterojunction band offsets between CdS bulk and PbS quantum dots using photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandari, Khagendra P.; Mahabaduge, Hasitha; Ellingson, Randy J.; Choi, Hyekyoung; Jeong, Sohee

    2014-09-29

    Photoelectron spectroscopy was used to measure the energy discontinuity in the valence band (ΔE{sub V}) of a CdS/PbS quantum dot (QD) heterojunction for which the PbS QD layer was deposited using solution based layer-by-layer dip coating method on top of RF magnetron sputtered CdS. A value of ΔE{sub V} = 1.73 eV was obtained using the Cd 3d and Pb 4f energy levels as references. Given the band gap energies of the CdS and PbS-QD layers, the conduction band offset ΔE{sub C} was determined to be 0.71 eV.

  8. Simulating Solid-Solid Phase Transition in Shape-Memory Alloy Microstructure by Face-Offsetting Method

    SciTech Connect

    Bellur Ramaswamy, Ravi S.; Tortorelli, Daniel A.; Fried, Eliot; Jiao Xiangmin

    2008-02-15

    Advances in the understanding of martensitic transformations (diffusionless, solid-solid phase transformations) have been instrumental to the recent discovery of new low hysteresis alloys. However, some key fundamental issues must be better understood to design still better alloys. Restricting attention to antiplane shear, we use finite element analysis to model the shape-memory alloy microstructure within the Abeyaratne-Knowles continuum thermomechanical framework and use an interface kinetic relation of the kind proposed by Rosakis and Tsai. Geometric singularities and topological changes associated with microstructural evolution pose significant numerical challenges. We address such challenges with a recently developed front-tracking scheme called the face-offsetting method (FOM) to explicitly model phase interfaces. Initial results demonstrate the effectiveness of FOM in resolving needle-like twinned microstructures.

  9. Electronic properties of InP (001)/HfO{sub 2} (001) interface: Band offsets and oxygen dependence

    SciTech Connect

    KC, Santosh; Dong, Hong; Longo, Roberto C.; Xiong, Ka; Wang, Weichao; Wallace, Robert M.; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2014-01-14

    Using ab-initio methods, atomic structures and electronic properties of InP (001)/HfO{sub 2} (001) interface are studied within the framework of density functional theory. We examine the InP/HfO{sub 2} model interface electronic structures under varying oxidation conditions. The effects of indium and phosphorous concentrations on interfacial bonding, defect states, band offsets, and the thermodynamic stability at the interface are also investigated. The origin of interfacial gap states in InP (001)/HfO{sub 2} (001) interface are proposed, mainly from the P-rich oxides, which is validated by our experimental work. This highlights the importance of surface passivation prior to high-κ deposition based on the in situ spectroscopic results of atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} on InP.

  10. Determination of the valence-band offset of CdS/CIS solar cell devices by target factor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Niles, D.W.; Contreras, M.; Ramanathan, K.; Noufi, R.

    1996-05-01

    X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) is used to determine and compare the valence-band offsets ({Delta}E{sub v}) for CdS grown by chemical bath deposition on single-crystal and thin-film CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS). The thin-film CIS device was suitable for photovoltaic energy production. By sputtering through the CdS/CIS interface and reducing the depth profile with target factor analysis, the magnitude of {Delta}E{sub v} was determined to be {Delta}E{sub v} = 1.06 {+-} 0.15 eV for both the single-crystal and thin-film interfaces. This determination of {Delta}E{sub v} is about 0.25 eV larger than many previously reported estimations CdS grown by physical vapor deposition on CIS and helps explain the record performance of CdS/CIS photovoltaic devices.

  11. Constraints on the richness-mass relation and the optical-SZE positional offset distribution for SZE-selected clusters

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Saro, A.

    2015-10-12

    In this study, we cross-match galaxy cluster candidates selected via their Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signatures in 129.1 deg2 of the South Pole Telescope 2500d SPT-SZ survey with optically identified clusters selected from the Dark Energy Survey science verification data. We identify 25 clusters between 0.1 ≲ z ≲ 0.8 in the union of the SPT-SZ and redMaPPer (RM) samples. RM is an optical cluster finding algorithm that also returns a richness estimate for each cluster. We model the richness λ-mass relation with the following function 500> ∝ Bλln M500 + Cλln E(z) and use SPT-SZ cluster masses and RM richnessesmore » λ to constrain the parameters. We find Bλ=1.14+0.21–0.18 and Cλ=0.73+0.77–0.75. The associated scatter in mass at fixed richness is σlnM|λ = 0.18+0.08–0.05 at a characteristic richness λ = 70. We demonstrate that our model provides an adequate description of the matched sample, showing that the fraction of SPT-SZ-selected clusters with RM counterparts is consistent with expectations and that the fraction of RM-selected clusters with SPT-SZ counterparts is in mild tension with expectation. We model the optical-SZE cluster positional offset distribution with the sum of two Gaussians, showing that it is consistent with a dominant, centrally peaked population and a subdominant population characterized by larger offsets. We also cross-match the RM catalogue with SPT-SZ candidates below the official catalogue threshold significance ξ = 4.5, using the RM catalogue to provide optical confirmation and redshifts for 15 additional clusters with ξ ε [4, 4.5].« less

  12. A slow neutron polarimeter for the measurement of parity-odd neutron rotary power

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, W. M.; Anderson, E.; Bass, T. D.; Dawkins, J. M.; Fry, J.; Haddock, C.; Horton, J. C.; Luo, D.; Micherdzinska, A. M.; Walbridge, S. B.; Barrn-Palos, L.; Maldonado-Velzquez, M.; Bass, C. D.; Crawford, B. E.; Crawford, C.; Esposito, D.; Gardiner, H.; Gan, K.; Heckel, B. R.; Swanson, H. E. [University of Washington and others

    2015-05-15

    We present the design, description, calibration procedure, and an analysis of systematic effects for an apparatus designed to measure the rotation of the plane of polarization of a transversely polarized slow neutron beam as it passes through unpolarized matter. This device is the neutron optical equivalent of a crossed polarizer/analyzer pair familiar from light optics. This apparatus has been used to search for parity violation in the interaction of polarized slow neutrons in matter. Given the brightness of existing slow neutron sources, this apparatus is capable of measuring a neutron rotary power of d?/dz = 1 10{sup ?7} rad/m.

  13. Gain and offset calibration reduces variation in exposure-dependent SNR among systems with identical digital flat-panel detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, Charles E.; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy Y.; Lofton, Brad K.; White, R. Allen

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The conditions under which vendor performance criteria for digital radiography systems are obtained do not adequately simulate the conditions of actual clinical imaging with respect to radiographic technique factors, scatter production, and scatter control. Therefore, the relationship between performance under ideal conditions and performance in clinical practice remains unclear. Using data from a large complement of systems in clinical use, the authors sought to develop a method to establish expected performance criteria for digital flat-panel radiography systems with respect to signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) versus detector exposure under clinical conditions for thoracic imaging. Methods: The authors made radiographic exposures of a patient-equivalent chest phantom at 125 kVp and 180 cm source-to-image distance. The mAs value was modified to produce exposures above and below the mAs delivered by automatic exposure control. Exposures measured free-in-air were corrected to the imaging plane by the inverse square law, by the attenuation factor of the phantom, and by the Bucky factor of the grid for the phantom, geometry, and kilovolt peak. SNR was evaluated as the ratio of the mean to the standard deviation (SD) of a region of interest automatically selected in the center of each unprocessed image. Data were acquired from 18 systems, 14 of which were tested both before and after gain and offset calibration. SNR as a function of detector exposure was interpolated using a double logarithmic function to stratify the data into groups of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mR exposure (1.8, 4.5, 9.0, 18, and 45 {mu}Gy air KERMA) to the detector. Results: The mean SNR at each exposure interval after calibration exhibited linear dependence on the mean SNR before calibration (r{sup 2} = 0.9999). The dependence was greater than unity (m = 1.101 {+-} 0.006), and the difference from unity was statistically significant (p < 0.005). The SD of mean SNR after calibration also

  14. Constraining sub-parsec binary supermassive black holes in quasars with multi-epoch spectroscopy. II. The population with kinematically offset broad Balmer emission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xin; Shen, Yue; Bian, Fuyan; Loeb, Abraham; Tremaine, Scott

    2014-07-10

    A small fraction of quasars have long been known to show bulk velocity offsets (of a few hundred to thousands of km s{sup 1}) in the broad Balmer lines with respect to the systemic redshift of the host galaxy. Models to explain these offsets usually invoke broad-line region gas kinematics/asymmetry around single black holes (BHs), orbital motion of massive (?sub-parsec (sub-pc)) binary black holes (BBHs), or recoil BHs, but single-epoch spectra are unable to distinguish between these scenarios. The line-of-sight (LOS) radial velocity (RV) shifts from long-term spectroscopic monitoring can be used to test the BBH hypothesis. We have selected a sample of 399 quasars with kinematically offset broad H? lines from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Seventh Data Release quasar catalog, and have conducted second-epoch optical spectroscopy for 50 of them. Combined with the existing SDSS spectra, the new observations enable us to constrain the LOS RV shifts of broad H? lines with a rest-frame baseline of a few years to nearly a decade. While previous work focused on objects with extreme velocity offset (>10{sup 3} km s{sup 1}), we explore the parameter space with smaller (a few hundred km s{sup 1}) yet significant offsets (99.7% confidence). Using cross-correlation analysis, we detect significant (99% confidence) radial accelerations in the broad H? lines in 24 of the 50 objects, of ?10-200 km s{sup 1} yr{sup 1} with a median measurement uncertainty of ?10 km s{sup 1} yr{sup 1}, implying a high fraction of variability of the broad-line velocity on multi-year timescales. We suggest that 9 of the 24 detections are sub-pc BBH candidates, which show consistent velocity shifts independently measured from a second broad line (either H? or Mg II) without significant changes in the broad-line profiles. Combining the results on the general quasar population studied in Paper I, we find a tentative anti-correlation between the velocity offset in the first-epoch spectrum and

  15. Constraints on the richness-mass relation and the optical-SZE positional offset distribution for SZE-selected clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Saro, A.

    2015-10-12

    In this study, we cross-match galaxy cluster candidates selected via their Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signatures in 129.1 deg2 of the South Pole Telescope 2500d SPT-SZ survey with optically identified clusters selected from the Dark Energy Survey science verification data. We identify 25 clusters between 0.1 ≲ z ≲ 0.8 in the union of the SPT-SZ and redMaPPer (RM) samples. RM is an optical cluster finding algorithm that also returns a richness estimate for each cluster. We model the richness λ-mass relation with the following function 500> ∝ Bλln M500 + Cλln E(z) and use SPT-SZ cluster masses and RM richnesses λ to constrain the parameters. We find Bλ=1.14+0.21–0.18 and Cλ=0.73+0.77–0.75. The associated scatter in mass at fixed richness is σlnM|λ = 0.18+0.08–0.05 at a characteristic richness λ = 70. We demonstrate that our model provides an adequate description of the matched sample, showing that the fraction of SPT-SZ-selected clusters with RM counterparts is consistent with expectations and that the fraction of RM-selected clusters with SPT-SZ counterparts is in mild tension with expectation. We model the optical-SZE cluster positional offset distribution with the sum of two Gaussians, showing that it is consistent with a dominant, centrally peaked population and a subdominant population characterized by larger offsets. We also cross-match the RM catalogue with SPT-SZ candidates below the official catalogue threshold significance ξ = 4.5, using the RM catalogue to provide optical confirmation and redshifts for 15 additional clusters with ξ ε [4, 4.5].

  16. Universality of the Volume Bound in Slow-Roll Eternal Inflation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    It has recently been shown that in single field slow-roll inflation the total volume cannot grow by a factor larger than esup Ssub dS2 without becoming infinite. The bound is ...

  17. SLOW MAGNETOACOUSTIC WAVES OBSERVED ABOVE A QUIET-SUN REGION IN A DARK CAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jiajia; Zhou Zhenjun; Wang Yuming; Liu Rui; Liao Chijian; Shen Chenglong; Zheng Huinan; Miao Bin; Su Zhenpeng; Wang, S.; Wang Bin E-mail: ymwang@ustc.edu.cn

    2012-10-20

    Waves play a crucial role in diagnosing the plasma properties of various structures in the solar corona and coronal heating. Slow magnetoacoustic (MA) waves are one of the important types of magnetohydrodynamic waves. In past decades, numerous slow MA waves were detected above active regions and coronal holes, but were rarely found elsewhere. Here, we investigate a 'tornado'-like structure consisting of quasi-periodic streaks within a dark cavity at about 40-110 Mm above a quiet-Sun region on 2011 September 25. Our analysis reveals that these streaks are actually slow MA wave trains. The properties of these wave trains, including phase speed, compression ratio, and kinetic energy density, are similar to those of the reported slow MA waves, except that the period of these waves is about 50 s, much shorter than the typical reported values (3-5 minutes).

  18. Slow-roll inflation preceded by a topological defect phase à la Chaplygin

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    gas (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Slow-roll inflation preceded by a topological defect phase à la Chaplygin gas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Slow-roll inflation preceded by a topological defect phase à la Chaplygin gas Authors: Bouhmadi-López, Mariam ; Chen, Pisin ; Huang, Yu-Chien ; Lin, Yu-Hsiang Publication Date: 2013-05-16 OSTI Identifier: 1102691 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review D Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume:

  19. Structure and method for controlling band offset and alignment at a crystalline oxide-on-semiconductor interface

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    2003-11-25

    A crystalline oxide-on-semiconductor structure and a process for constructing the structure involves a substrate of silicon, germanium or a silicon-germanium alloy and an epitaxial thin film overlying the surface of the substrate wherein the thin film consists of a first epitaxial stratum of single atomic plane layers of an alkaline earth oxide designated generally as (AO).sub.n and a second stratum of single unit cell layers of an oxide material designated as (A'BO.sub.3).sub.m so that the multilayer film arranged upon the substrate surface is designated (AO).sub.n (A'BO.sub.3).sub.m wherein n is an integer repeat of single atomic plane layers of the alkaline earth oxide AO and m is an integer repeat of single unit cell layers of the A'BO.sub.3 oxide material. Within the multilayer film, the values of n and m have been selected to provide the structure with a desired electrical structure at the substrate/thin film interface that can be optimized to control band offset and alignment.

  20. Rapid growth in CO2 emissions after the 2008-2009 global financial crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Glen P.; Marland, Gregg; Le Quere, Corinne; Boden, Thomas A; Canadell, Josep; Raupach, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production grew 5.9% in 2010, surpassed 9 Pg of carbon (Pg C) for the first time, and more than offset the 1.4% decrease in 2009. The impact of the 2008 2009 global financial crisis (GFC) on emissions has been short-lived owing to strong emissions growth in emerging economies, a return to emissions growth in developed economies, and an increase in the fossil-fuel intensity of the world economy.

  1. Controlling condensation and frost growth with chemical micropatterns

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Boreyko, Jonathan B.; Hansen, Ryan R.; Murphy, Kevin R.; Nath, Saurabh; Retterer, Scott T.; Collier, C. Patrick

    2016-01-22

    Frost growth on chilled hydrophobic surfaces is an inter-droplet phenomenon, where frozen droplets harvest water from supercooled liquid droplets to grow ice bridges that propagate across the surface in a chain reaction. To date, no surface has been able to passively prevent the in-plane growth of frost across the population of supercooled condensate. Here, we demonstrate that when the nucleation sites for supercooled condensate are properly controlled with chemical micropatterns, the speed of frost growth can be slowed and even halted entirely. This stoppage of frost growth is attributed to the large interdroplet separation between condensate upon the onset ofmore » freezing, which was controlled by the pitch of the chemical patterns and by deliberately triggering an early freezing event. Lastly, these findings reveal that frost growth can be passively suppressed by designing surfaces to spatially control nucleation sites and/or temporally control the onset of freezing events.« less

  2. A point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kadioglu, Samet Y.; Berry, Ray A.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2015-05-01

    We introduce a point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems. The method treats the solution variables of interest (that can be located at cell centers, cell edges, or cell nodes) implicitly and the rest of the information related to same or other variables are handled explicitly. The method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods, except it involves a few additional function(s) evaluation steps. Moreover, the method is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. This new approach exhibits the simplicity of implementation of explicit methods and the stability of implicit methods. It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration wherein one would like to perform time integrations with very large time steps. Because the method can be time inaccurate for fast transient problems, particularly with larger time steps, an appropriate solution strategy for a problem that evolves from a fast to a slow transient would be to integrate the fast transient with an explicit or semi-implicit technique and then switch to this point implicit method as soon as the time variation slows sufficiently. We have solved several test problems that result from scalar or systems of flow equations. Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very efficiently; and its implementation is very robust.

  3. Conduction band offset at GeO{sub 2}/Ge interface determined by internal photoemission and charge-corrected x-ray photoelectron spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W. F.; Nishimula, T.; Nagashio, K.; Kita, K.; Toriumi, A.

    2013-03-11

    We report a consistent conduction band offset (CBO) at a GeO{sub 2}/Ge interface determined by internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) and charge-corrected X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). IPE results showed that the CBO value was larger than 1.5 eV irrespective of metal electrode and substrate type variance, while an accurate determination of valence band offset (VBO) by XPS requires a careful correction of differential charging phenomena. The VBO value was determined to be 3.60 {+-} 0.2 eV by XPS after charge correction, thus yielding a CBO (1.60 {+-} 0.2 eV) in excellent agreement with the IPE results. Such a large CBO (>1.5 eV) confirmed here is promising in terms of using GeO{sub 2} as a potential passivation layer for future Ge-based scaled CMOS devices.

  4. AN APPARATUS FOR MEASURING ANNULAR OFFSET BETWEEN A FIRST METAL TUBE AND A SECOND METAL TUBE SPATIALLY DISPOSED WITHIN THE FIRST TUBE

    DOEpatents

    Spanner, J.C.

    1963-08-01

    An apparatus for measurirg the amount of offset from concentricity between a first metal tube mounted within a second metal tube comprises a first pair of like sensing coils mounted diametrically opposite each other adjacent to the interior of the first tube and a second pair of sensirg coils identical to the first pair of coils mounted diametrically opposite each other adjacent to tue interior surfuce of the first tube and spatinlly displaced 90 degrees from the first pair of sensing coils. An a-c signal at a frequency such that the resultant electromagnetic energy from the sensing coils passes through the first tube and is essentially totally attenuated by the second tube is alternately provided to each pair of coils. Differential measurement of the effective impedance of the sensing coils in each of the pairs gives the amount of offset. (AEC)

  5. Measurement of the valence band-offset in a PbSe/ZnO heterojunction by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Li Lin; Qiu Jijun; Weng Binbin; Yuan Zijian; Shi Zhisheng; Li Xiaomin; Gan Xiaoyan; Sellers, Ian R.

    2012-12-24

    A heterojunction of PbSe/ZnO has been grown by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to directly measure the valence-band offset (VBO) of the heterojunction. The VBO, {Delta}E{sub V}, was determined as 2.51 {+-} 0.05 eV using the Pb 4p{sup 3/2} and Zn 2p{sup 3/2} core levels as a reference. The conduction-band offset, {Delta}E{sub C}, was, therefore, determined to be 0.59 {+-} 0.05 eV based on the above {Delta}E{sub V} value. This analysis indicates that the PbSe/ZnO heterojunction forms a type I (Straddling Gap) heterostructure.

  6. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    FINDING LARGE APERTURE FRACTURES IN GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE AREAS USING A THREE-COMPONENT LONG- OFFSET SURFACE SEISMIC SURVEY, PSInSAR, AND KINEMATIC ANALYSIS Principal Investigator : William Teplow, US Geothermal, Inc. Presenter: Ian Warren, US Geothermal, Inc. INNOVATIVE EXPLORATION TECHNIQUES Project Officer: Ava Coy / Erik Swanton Total Project Funding: $3.77 Million April 2013 This presentation does not contain any proprietary confidential, or otherwise restricted information. 2 | US DOE

  7. Method for solid state crystal growth

    DOEpatents

    Nolas, George S.; Beekman, Matthew K.

    2013-04-09

    A novel method for high quality crystal growth of intermetallic clathrates is presented. The synthesis of high quality pure phase crystals has been complicated by the simultaneous formation of both clathrate type-I and clathrate type-II structures. It was found that selective, phase pure, single-crystal growth of type-I and type-II clathrates can be achieved by maintaining sufficient partial pressure of a chemical constituent during slow, controlled deprivation of the chemical constituent from the primary reactant. The chemical constituent is slowly removed from the primary reactant by the reaction of the chemical constituent vapor with a secondary reactant, spatially separated from the primary reactant, in a closed volume under uniaxial pressure and heat to form the single phase pure crystals.

  8. Spectroscopic investigations of band offsets of MgO|Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N epitaxial heterostructures with varying AlN content

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, Elizabeth A.; Brumbach, Michael; Allerman, Andrew A.; Atcitty, Stanley; Baca, Albert G.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Kaplar, Robert J.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.

    2015-09-07

    Epitaxial (111) MgO films were prepared on (0001) Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N via molecular-beam epitaxy for x = 0 to x = 0.67. Valence band offsets of MgO to Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N were measured using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as 1.65 ± 0.07 eV, 1.36 ± 0.05 eV, and 1.05 ± 0.09 eV for x = 0, 0.28, and 0.67, respectively. This yielded conduction band offsets of 2.75 eV, 2.39 eV, and 1.63 eV for x = 0, 0.28, and 0.67, respectively. All band offsets measured between MgO and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N provide a > 1 eV barrier height to the semiconductor.

  9. Band offset determination of mixed As/Sb type-II staggered gap heterostructure for n-channel tunnel field effect transistor application

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y.; Jain, N.; Hudait, M. K.; Mohata, D. K.; Datta, S.; Lubyshev, D.; Fastenau, J. M.; Liu, A. K.

    2013-01-14

    The experimental study of the valence band offset ({Delta}E{sub v}) of a mixed As/Sb type-II staggered gap GaAs{sub 0.35}Sb{sub 0.65}/In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As heterostructure used as source/channel junction of n-channel tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) grown by molecular beam epitaxy was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Cross-sectional transmission electron micrograph shows high crystalline quality at the source/channel heterointerface. XPS results demonstrate a {Delta}E{sub v} of 0.39 {+-} 0.05 eV at the GaAs{sub 0.35}Sb{sub 0.65}/In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As heterointerface. The conduction band offset was calculated to be {approx}0.49 eV using the band gap values of source and channel materials and the measured valence band offset. An effective tunneling barrier height of 0.21 eV was extracted, suggesting a great promise for designing a metamorphic mixed As/Sb type-II staggered gap TFET device structure for low-power logic applications.

  10. Slow light Mach-Zehnder interferometer as label-free biosensor with scalable sensitivity

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Qin, Kun; Hu, Shuren; Retterer, Scott T.; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Weiss, Sharon M.

    2016-02-05

    Our design, fabrication, and characterization of a label-free Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) optical biosensor that incorporates a highly dispersive one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal in one arm are presented. The sensitivity of this slow light MZI-based sensor scales with the length of the slow light photonic crystal region. The numerically simulated sensitivity of a MZI sensor with a 16 μm long slow light region is 115,000 rad/RIU-cm, which is sevenfold higher than traditional MZI biosensors with millimeter-length sensing regions. Moreover, the experimental bulk refractive index detection sensitivity of 84,000 rad/RIU-cm is realized and nucleic acid detection is also demonstrated.

  11. Existence domains of slow and fast ion-acoustic solitons in two-ion space plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Maharaj, S. K.; Bharuthram, R.; Singh, S. V. Lakhina, G. S.

    2015-03-15

    A study of large amplitude ion-acoustic solitons is conducted for a model composed of cool and hot ions and cool and hot electrons. Using the Sagdeev pseudo-potential formalism, the scope of earlier studies is extended to consider why upper Mach number limitations arise for slow and fast ion-acoustic solitons. Treating all plasma constituents as adiabatic fluids, slow ion-acoustic solitons are limited in the order of increasing cool ion concentrations by the number densities of the cool, and then the hot ions becoming complex valued, followed by positive and then negative potential double layer regions. Only positive potentials are found for fast ion-acoustic solitons which are limited only by the hot ion number density having to remain real valued. The effect of neglecting as opposed to including inertial effects of the hot electrons is found to induce only minor quantitative changes in the existence regions of slow and fast ion-acoustic solitons.

  12. Matched slow optical soliton pairs via biexciton coherence in quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Wenxing; Chen Aixi; Lee, Ray-Kuang; Wu Ying

    2011-07-15

    We theoretically investigate the simultaneous formation and stable propagation of slow optical soliton pairs in semiconductor quantum dots with a four-level biexciton-exciton cascade configuration. Owing to the destructive interference set up by two continuous wave control fields that couple to a biexciton state, the linear as well as nonlinear dispersion can be dramatically enhanced simultaneously with the absorptions of two weak probe fields being almost suppressed. These results reveal that the detrimental distortions of the two weak-pulsed probe fields due to dispersion effects can be well balanced by the self-phase modulation effect under very low input light intensity, which leads to the slow temporal optical soliton pairs with matched group velocity and amplitude. We also show that the propagation of slow optical solitons can be strongly modified by the biexciton coherence.

  13. COMMISSIONING RESULTS OF SLOW EXTRACTION OF HEAVY IONS FROM THE AGS BOOSTER.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K A; Bellavia, S; Binello, S; Brelsford, B; Dumont, D; Eng, W; Gardner, G; Gassner, D; Glenn, J W; Hammons, L; Hock, J; Hoff, L; Hutchinson, E; Jamilkowski, J; Kling, N; Kotlyar, Y; Krishock, A; Lockey, R; Mapes, M; Marneris, I; Marr, G; McNerney, A; Meyer, A; Morris, J; Naylor, C; Nemesure, S; Phillips, D; Rusek, A; Ryan, J; Shrey, T; Snydstrup, L; Tsoupas, N; Vankuik, B; Zahariou-Cohen, K

    2003-05-12

    Brookhaven's AGS Booster has been modified to deliver slow extracted beam to a new beam line, the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). This facility was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. The design of the resonant extraction system has been described in [1]. A more detailed description, which includes predictions of the slow extracted beam time structure has been described in [2]. In this report we will present results of the system commissioning and performance.

  14. Relativistic kinetic theory of pitch angle scattering, slowing down, and energy deposition in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Robiche, J.; Rax, J.M.

    2004-10-01

    The collisional dynamics of a relativistic electron population in a Lorentzian plasma are investigated and analyzed within the framework of kinetic theory. The relativistic Fokker-Planck equation describing both slowing down and pitch angle scattering is derived, analyzed, and solved. The analytical Green function is used to express the electron range, the range straggling, and the mean radial dispersion as a function of the plasma parameters. Compared to standard slowing down theories, the inclusion of the pitch angle scattering without any Gaussian approximation appears to be essential to calculate these quantities.

  15. Enhanced four-wave mixing in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Hao E-mail: tg2342@columbia.edu; Gu, Tingyi E-mail: tg2342@columbia.edu McMillan, James F.; Wong, Chee Wei E-mail: tg2342@columbia.edu; Petrone, Nicholas; Zande, Arend van der; Hone, James C.; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guoqiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Feng, Guoying; Zhou, Shouhuan

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate the enhanced four-wave mixing of monolayer graphene on slow-light silicon photonic crystal waveguides. 200-μm interaction length, a four-wave mixing conversion efficiency of −23 dB is achieved in the graphene-silicon slow-light hybrid, with an enhanced 3-dB conversion bandwidth of about 17 nm. Our measurements match well with nonlinear coupled-mode theory simulations based on the measured waveguide dispersion, and provide an effective way for all-optical signal processing in chip-scale integrated optics.

  16. Slow dynamics of nanocomposite polymer aerogels as revealed by X-ray photocorrelation spectroscopy (XPCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Hernndez, Rebeca, E-mail: rhernandez@ictp.csic.es, E-mail: aurora.nogales@csic.es; Mijangos, Carmen [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologa de Polmeros, ICTP-CSIC, Juan de la Cierva, 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)] [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologa de Polmeros, ICTP-CSIC, Juan de la Cierva, 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Nogales, Aurora, E-mail: rhernandez@ictp.csic.es, E-mail: aurora.nogales@csic.es; Ezquerra, Tiberio A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)] [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Sprung, Michael [Petra III at DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)] [Petra III at DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-01-14

    We report on a novel slow dynamics of polymer xerogels, aerogels, and nanocomposite aerogels with iron oxide nanoparticles, as revealed by X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. The polymer aerogel and its nanocomposite aerogels, which are porous in nature, exhibit hyper-diffusive dynamics at room temperature. In contrast, non-porous polymer xerogels exhibit an absence of this peculiar dynamics. This slow dynamical process has been assigned to a relaxation of the characteristic porous structure of these materials and not to the presence of nanoparticles.

  17. Wind Farm Growth Through the Years | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Farm Growth Through the Years Wind Farm Growth Through the Years August 6, 2013 - 8:32am Addthis 1975 Start Slow Stop Year Wind Farms Homes Powered Added Current Year 833 Wind Farms Online. Enough to Power 15 M Homes Data provided by the EIA. The number of homes powered is estimated through conversion factors provided by the EIA. Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs As we publish the 2012 Wind Technologies Market Report, we are excited

  18. Polarization rotation of slow light with orbital angular momentum in ultracold atomic gases

    SciTech Connect

    Ruseckas, Julius; Juzeliunas, Gediminas; Oehberg, Patrik; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2007-11-15

    We consider the propagation of slow light with an orbital angular momentum (OAM) in a moving atomic medium. We have derived a general equation of motion and applied it in analyzing propagation of slow light with an OAM in a rotating medium, such as a vortex lattice. We have shown that the OAM of slow light manifests itself in a rotation of the polarization plane of linearly polarized light. To extract a pure rotational phase shift, we suggest to measure a difference in the angle of the polarization plane rotation by two consecutive light beams with opposite OAM. The differential angle {delta}{alpha}{sub l} is proportional to the rotation frequency of the medium {omega}{sub rot} and the winding number l of light, and is inversely proportional to the group velocity of light. For slow light the angle {delta}{alpha}{sub l} should be large enough to be detectable. The effect can be used as a tool for measuring the rotation frequency {omega}{sub rot} of the medium.

  19. Slowing-Down Dynamics of Fast Particles in Plasmas via the Fokker-Planck Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.; Lisak, M.; Andersson, F.; Fueloep, T.

    2004-01-15

    A detailed discussion is given of the effects of energy diffusion and pitch-angle scattering on the slowing-down dynamics of a beam of monoenergetic particles being released with unidirectional velocity. Approximate solutions are given for characteristic averaged quantities like the pitch-angle averaged distribution function and different physically relevant velocity moments. The relation to previous exact investigations is discussed.

  20. ACTIV: Sandwich Detector Activity from In-Pile Slowing-Down Spectra Experiment

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2013-08-01

    ACTIV calculates the activities of a sandwich detector, to be used for in-pile measurements in slowing-down spectra below a few keV. The effect of scattering with energy degradation in the filter and in the detectors has been included to a first approximation.

  1. Arbitrary amplitude slow electron-acoustic solitons in three-electron temperature space plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mbuli, L. N.; Maharaj, S. K.; Bharuthram, R.; Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S.

    2015-06-15

    We examine the characteristics of large amplitude slow electron-acoustic solitons supported in a four-component unmagnetised plasma composed of cool, warm, hot electrons, and cool ions. The inertia and pressure for all the species in this plasma system are retained by assuming that they are adiabatic fluids. Our findings reveal that both positive and negative potential slow electron-acoustic solitons are supported in the four-component plasma system. The polarity switch of the slow electron-acoustic solitons is determined by the number densities of the cool and warm electrons. Negative potential solitons, which are limited by the cool and warm electron number densities becoming unreal and the occurrence of negative potential double layers, are found for low values of the cool electron density, while the positive potential solitons occurring for large values of the cool electron density are only limited by positive potential double layers. Both the lower and upper Mach numbers for the slow electron-acoustic solitons are computed and discussed.

  2. Tensor to scalar ratio and large scale power suppression from pre-slow roll initial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lello, Louis; Boyanovsky, Daniel, E-mail: lal81@pitt.edu, E-mail: boyan@pitt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O'Hara St, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We study the corrections to the power spectra of curvature and tensor perturbations and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r in single field slow roll inflation with standard kinetic term due to initial conditions imprinted by a ''fast-roll'' stage prior to slow roll. For a wide range of initial inflaton kinetic energy, this stage lasts only a few e-folds and merges smoothly with slow-roll thereby leading to non-Bunch-Davies initial conditions for modes that exit the Hubble radius during slow roll. We describe a program that yields the dynamics in the fast-roll stage while matching to the slow roll stage in a manner that is independent of the inflationary potentials. Corrections to the power spectra are encoded in a ''transfer function'' for initial conditions T{sub ?}(k), P{sub ?}(k) = P{sup BD}{sub ?}(k)T{sub ?}(k), implying a modification of the ''consistency condition'' for the tensor to scalar ratio at a pivot scale k{sub 0}: r(k{sub 0}) = ?8n{sub T}(k{sub 0})[T{sub T}(k{sub 0})/T{sub R}(k{sub 0})]. We obtain T{sub ?}(k) to leading order in a Born approximation valid for modes of observational relevance today. A fit yields T{sub ?}(k) = 1+A{sub ?}k{sup ?p}cos [2??k/H{sub sr}+?{sub ?}], with 1.5?slow roll inflation, where curvature and tensor perturbations feature the same p,? for a wide range of initial conditions. These corrections lead to both a suppression of the quadrupole and oscillatory features in both P{sub R}(k) and r(k{sub 0}) with a period of the order of the Hubble scale during slow roll inflation. The results are quite general and independent of the specific inflationary potentials, depending solely on the ratio of kinetic to potential energy ? and the slow roll parameters ?{sub V}, ?{sub V} to leading order in slow roll. For a wide range of ? and the values of ?{sub V};?{sub V} corresponding to the upper bounds from Planck, we find that the low quadrupole is consistent with the results from Planck, and

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic slow mode with drifting He{sup ++}: Implications for coronal seismology and the solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Hollweg, Joseph V.; Verscharen, Daniel; Chandran, Benjamin D. G. E-mail: daniel.verscharen@unh.edu

    2014-06-10

    The MHD slow mode wave has application to coronal seismology, MHD turbulence, and the solar wind where it can be produced by parametric instabilities. We consider analytically how a drifting ion species (e.g. He{sup ++}) affects the linear slow mode wave in a mainly electron-proton plasma, with potential consequences for the aforementioned applications. Our main conclusions are as follows. 1. For wavevectors highly oblique to the magnetic field, we find solutions that are characterized by very small perturbations of total pressure. Thus, our results may help to distinguish the MHD slow mode from kinetic Alfvén waves and non-propagating pressure-balanced structures, which can also have very small total pressure perturbations. 2. For small ion concentrations, there are solutions that are similar to the usual slow mode in an electron-proton plasma, and solutions that are dominated by the drifting ions, but for small drifts the wave modes cannot be simply characterized. 3. Even with zero ion drift, the standard dispersion relation for the highly oblique slow mode cannot be used with the Alfvén speed computed using the summed proton and ion densities, and with the sound speed computed from the summed pressures and densities of all species. 4. The ions can drive a non-resonant instability under certain circumstances. For low plasma beta, the threshold drift can be less than that required to destabilize electromagnetic modes, but damping from the Landau resonance can eliminate this instability altogether, unless T{sub e} /T{sub p} >> 1.

  4. A fast grain-growth mechanism revealed in nanocrystalline ceramic-oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J

    2014-01-01

    Grain growth problem in nanocrystalline ceramic-oxides renders their highly attractive properties practically unusable due to limited understanding on the underlying grain growth mechanisms. Two conventional 'slow' grain-growth mechanisms, i.e., curvature-driven and grainrotation driven, are shown to be thermally active, and the discovery of a 'fast' disorder-driven mechanism is revealed using molecular dynamics simulation on nanocrystalline ceria, in conjunction with experimental observations. We elucidate that this disorder mechanism drives the unexpected fast grain growth observed experimentally during synthesis and irradiation conditions.

  5. Reforms, environmental concerns spurring growth opportunities for gas, electricity in U.S., Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, M.

    1998-06-29

    As the 21st century approaches, deregulation of developed economies, economic liberalization, and an emphasis on cleaner fuels are creating significant growth opportunities for electricity, natural gas, and other forms of energy on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The paper discusses the US status, European vs. US fuel use, dominant fuels vs. strategies, fuel use trends, opportunities for electricity growth, and trends and observations. An additional section describes the slowing of the trillion dollar international independent power market.

  6. North American terrestrial CO2 uptake largely offset by CH4 and N2O emissions: toward a full accounting of the greenhouse gas budget

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Tian, Hanqin; Chen, Guangsheng; Lu, Chaoqun; Xu, Xiaofeng; Hayes, Daniel J.; Ren, Wei; Pan, Shufen; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2014-03-14

    The terrestrial ecosystems of North America have been identified as a sink of atmospheric CO2 though there is no consensus on the magnitude. However, the emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O) may offset or even overturn the climate cooling effect induced by the CO2 sink. Using a coupled biogeochemical model, in this study, we have estimated the combined global warming potentials (GWP) of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes in North American terrestrial ecosystems and quantified the relative contributions of environmental factors to the GWP changes during 1979–2010. The uncertainty range for contemporary global warming potential has been quantifiedmore » by synthesizing the existing estimates from inventory, forward modeling, and inverse modeling approaches. Our “best estimate” of net GWP for CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes was₋0.50 ± 0.27 Pg CO2 eq/year (1 Pg=1015 g) in North American terrestrial ecosystems during 2001–2010. The emissions of CH4 and N2O from terrestrial ecosystems had offset about two thirds (73% ± 14%) of the land CO2 sink in the North American continent, showing large differences across the three countries, with offset ratios of 57% ± 8% in US, 83% ± 17 % in Canada and 329% ± 119 % in Mexico. Climate change and elevated tropospheric ozone concentration have contributed the most to GWP increase, while elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration have contributed the most to GWP reduction. Extreme drought events over certain periods could result in a positive GWP. By integrating the existing estimates, we have found a wide range of uncertainty for the combined GWP. In conclusion, from both climate change science and policy perspectives, it is necessary to integrate ground and satellite observations with models for a more accurate accounting of these three greenhouse gases in North America.« less

  7. THE SLOW-MODE NATURE OF COMPRESSIBLE WAVE POWER IN SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, G. G.; Klein, K. G.; TenBarge, J. M.; Bale, S. D.; Chen, C. H. K.; Salem, C. S.

    2012-07-01

    We use a large, statistical set of measurements from the Wind spacecraft at 1 AU, and supporting synthetic spacecraft data based on kinetic plasma theory, to show that the compressible component of inertial range solar wind turbulence is primarily in the kinetic slow mode. The zero-lag cross-correlation C({delta}n, {delta}B{sub ||}) between proton density fluctuations {delta}n and the field-aligned (compressible) component of the magnetic field {delta}B{sub ||} is negative and close to -1. The typical dependence of C({delta}n, {delta}B{sub ||}) on the ion plasma beta {beta}{sub i} is consistent with a spectrum of compressible wave energy that is almost entirely in the kinetic slow mode. This has important implications for both the nature of the density fluctuation spectrum and for the cascade of kinetic turbulence to short wavelengths, favoring evolution to the kinetic Alfven wave mode rather than the (fast) whistler mode.

  8. Multiple scattering of slow ions in a partially degenerate electron fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Popoff, Romain; Maynard, Gilles; Deutsch, Claude

    2009-10-15

    We extend former investigation to a partially degenerate electron fluid at any temperature of multiple slow ion scattering at T=0. We implement an analytic and mean-field interpolation of the target electron dielectric function between T=0 (Lindhard) and T{yields}{infinity} (Fried-Conte). A specific attention is given to multiple scattering of proton projectiles in the keV energy range, stopped in a hot-electron plasma at solid density.

  9. Observation of slow dangling-bond relaxation in [ital p]-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Carlen, M.W.; Xu, Y.; Crandall, R.S. )

    1995-01-15

    Using junction-capacitance methods, we study the thermal charge emission of holes trapped in the dangling-bond defect [ital D] of [ital p]-type [ital a]-Si:H. Over a significant temperature range, we find a linear temperature-independent relation between emission time and the residence time of the hole on the [ital D] defect. We attribute this characteristic to a structural-relaxation process that is slow in disordered materials.

  10. D0 Superconducting Solenoid Quench Data and Slow Dump Data Acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, D.; /Fermilab

    1998-06-09

    This Dzero Engineering note describes the method for which the 2 Tesla Superconducting Solenoid Fast Dump and Slow Dump data are accumulated, tracked and stored. The 2 Tesla Solenoid has eleven data points that need to be tracked and then stored when a fast dump or a slow dump occur. The TI555(Texas Instruments) PLC(Programmable Logic Controller) which controls the DC power circuit that powers the Solenoid, also has access to all the voltage taps and other equipment in the circuit. The TI555 constantly logs these eleven points in a rotating memory buffer. When either a fast dump(dump switch opens) or a slow dump (power supply turns off) occurs, the TI555 organizes the respective data and will down load the data to a file on DO-CCRS2. This data in this file is moved over ethernet and is stored in a CSV (comma separated format) file which can easily be examined by Microsoft Excel or any other spreadsheet. The 2 Tesla solenoid control system also locks in first fault information. The TI555 decodes the first fault and passes it along to the program collecting the data and storing it on DO-CCRS2. This first fault information is then part of the file.

  11. Monte Carlo analysis of neutron slowing-down-time spectrometer for fast reactor spent fuel assay

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jianwei; Lineberry, Michael

    2007-07-01

    Using the neutron slowing-down-time method as a nondestructive assay tool to improve input material accountancy for fast reactor spent fuel reprocessing is under investigation at Idaho State University. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to simulate the neutron slowing down process in different slowing down spectrometers, namely, lead and graphite, and determine their main parameters. {sup 238}U threshold fission chamber response was simulated in the Monte Carlo model to represent the spent fuel assay signals, the signature (fission/time) signals of {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu were simulated as a convolution of fission cross sections and neutron flux inside the spent fuel. {sup 238}U detector signals were analyzed using linear regression model based on the signatures of fissile materials in the spent fuel to determine weight fractions of fissile materials in the Advanced Burner Test Reactor spent fuel. The preliminary results show even though lead spectrometer showed a better assay performance than graphite, graphite spectrometer could accurately determine weight fractions of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu given proper assay energy range were chosen. (authors)

  12. Cation mixing, band offsets and electric fields at LaAlO3/SrTiO3(001) heterojunctions with variable La:Al atom ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, Liang; Droubay, Timothy C.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Sushko, P. V.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2011-08-01

    Interfacial intermixing and electronic structure were investigated at thin (35 unit cells.), epitaxial La1 ? xAl1 + xO3/SrTiO3(001) heterojunctions for x = 0 and 0.05. Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals rather extensive cation intermixing for all films, independent of composition. The valence band offset for the nominally stoichiometric (x = 0) film is 0.16 0.10 eV, with the valence band maximum of SrTiO3 being deeper in binding energy than that of LaAlO3. Similar values are obtained for x = 0.05. There is no measurable band bending in either the LaAlO3 or the SrTiO3 near the interface. These results are at odds with first principles theoretical predictions based on perfect stoichiometry and an abrupt interface model. However, inclusion of intermixing in the compositional description of the interface results in successful prediction of the valence band offset and absence of band bending.

  13. Structural properties and band offset determination of p-channel mixed As/Sb type-II staggered gap tunnel field-effect transistor structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y.; Jain, N.; Hudait, M. K.; Mohata, D. K.; Datta, S.; Lubyshev, D.; Fastenau, J. M.; Liu, A. K.

    2012-09-10

    The structural properties and band offset determination of p-channel staggered gap In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As/GaAs{sub 0.35}Sb{sub 0.65} heterostructure tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) were investigated. High resolution x-ray diffraction revealed that the active layers are strained with respect to 'virtual substrate.' Dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry confirmed an abrupt junction profile at the In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As/GaAs{sub 0.35}Sb{sub 0.65} heterointerface and minimal level of intermixing between As and Sb atoms. The valence band offset of 0.37 {+-} 0.05 eV was extracted from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A staggered band lineup was confirmed at the heterointerface with an effective tunneling barrier height of 0.13 eV. Thus, MBE-grown staggered gap In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As/GaAs{sub 0.35}Sb{sub 0.65} TFET structures are a promising p-channel option to provide critical guidance for the future design of mixed As/Sb type-II based complementary logic and low power devices.

  14. The dynamic nature of crystal growth in pores

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Godinho, Jose R. A.; Gerke, Kirill M.; Stack, Andrew G.; Lee, Peter D.

    2016-09-12

    We report that the kinetics of crystal growth in porous media controls a variety of natural processes such as ore genesis and crystallization induced fracturing that can trigger earthquakes and weathering, as well as, sequestration of CO2 and toxic metals into geological formations. Progress on understanding those processes has been limited by experimental difficulties of dynamically studying the reactive surface area and permeability during pore occlusion. Here, we show that these variables cause a time-dependency of barite growth rates in microporous silica. The rate is approximately constant and similar to that observed on free surfaces if fast flow velocities predominatemore » and if the time-dependent reactive surface area is accounted for. As the narrower flow paths clog, local flow velocities decrease, which causes the progressive slowing of growth rates. We conclude that mineral growth in a microporous media can be estimated based on free surface studies when a) the growth rate is normalized to the time-dependent surface area of the growing crystals, and b) the local flow velocities are above the limit at which growth is transport-limited. Lastly, accounting for the dynamic relation between microstructure, flow velocity and growth rate is shown to be crucial towards understanding and predicting precipitation in porous rocks.« less

  15. The nonlinear theory of slow-wave electron cyclotron masers with inclusion of the beam velocity spread

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Ling-Bao; Wang, Hong-Yu; Hou, Zhi-Ling; Jin, Hai-Bo; Du, Chao-Hai

    2013-12-15

    The nonlinear theory of slow-wave electron cyclotron masers (ECM) with an initially straight electron beam is developed. The evolution equation of the nonlinear beam electron energy is derived. The numerical studies of the slow-wave ECM efficiency with inclusion of Gaussian beam velocity spread are presented. It is shown that the velocity spread reduces the interaction efficiency. -- Highlights: •The theory of slow-wave electron cyclotron masers is considered. •The calculation of efficiency under the resonance condition is presented. •The efficiency under Gaussian velocity spreads has been obtained.

  16. Measurement of the scattering cross section of slow neutrons on liquid parahydrogen from neutron transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Grammer, K. B.; Alarcon, R.; Barrn-Palos, L.; Blyth, D.; Bowman, J. D.; Calarco, J.; Crawford, C.; Craycraft, K.; Evans, D.; Fomin, N.; Fry, J.; Gericke, M.; Gillis, R. C.; Greene, G. L.; Hamblen, J.; Hayes, C.; Kucuker, S.; Mahurin, R.; Maldonado-Velzquez, M.; Martin, E.; McCrea, M.; Mueller, P. E.; Musgrave, M.; Nann, H.; Penttil, S. I.; Snow, W. M.; Tang, Z.; Wilburn, W. S.

    2015-05-08

    Liquid hydrogen is a dense Bose fluid whose equilibrium properties are both calculable from first principles using various theoretical approaches and of interest for the understanding of a wide range of questions in many-body physics. Unfortunately, the pair correlation function g(r) inferred from neutron scattering measurements of the differential cross section d?/d? from different measurements reported in the literature are inconsistent. We have measured the energy dependence of the total cross section and the scattering cross section for slow neutrons with energies between 0.43 and 16.1 meV on liquid hydrogen at 15.6 K (which is dominated by the parahydrogen component) using neutron transmission measurements on the hydrogen target of the NPDGamma collaboration at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The relationship between the neutron transmission measurement we perform and the total cross section is unambiguous, and the energy range accesses length scales where the pair correlation function is rapidly varying. At 1 meV our measurement is a factor of 3 below the data from previous work. We present evidence that these previous measurements of the hydrogen cross section, which assumed that the equilibrium value for the ratio of orthohydrogen and parahydrogen has been reached in the target liquid, were in fact contaminated with an extra nonequilibrium component of orthohydrogen. Liquid parahydrogen is also a widely used neutron moderator medium, and an accurate knowledge of its slow neutron cross section is essential for the design and optimization of intense slow neutron sources. Furthermore, we describe our measurements and compare them with previous work.

  17. Measurement of the scattering cross section of slow neutrons on liquid parahydrogen from neutron transmission

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Grammer, K. B.; Alarcon, R.; Barrón-Palos, L.; Blyth, D.; Bowman, J. D.; Calarco, J.; Crawford, C.; Craycraft, K.; Evans, D.; Fomin, N.; et al

    2015-05-08

    Liquid hydrogen is a dense Bose fluid whose equilibrium properties are both calculable from first principles using various theoretical approaches and of interest for the understanding of a wide range of questions in many-body physics. Unfortunately, the pair correlation function g(r) inferred from neutron scattering measurements of the differential cross section dσ/dΩ from different measurements reported in the literature are inconsistent. We have measured the energy dependence of the total cross section and the scattering cross section for slow neutrons with energies between 0.43 and 16.1 meV on liquid hydrogen at 15.6 K (which is dominated by the parahydrogen component)more » using neutron transmission measurements on the hydrogen target of the NPDGamma collaboration at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The relationship between the neutron transmission measurement we perform and the total cross section is unambiguous, and the energy range accesses length scales where the pair correlation function is rapidly varying. At 1 meV our measurement is a factor of 3 below the data from previous work. We present evidence that these previous measurements of the hydrogen cross section, which assumed that the equilibrium value for the ratio of orthohydrogen and parahydrogen has been reached in the target liquid, were in fact contaminated with an extra nonequilibrium component of orthohydrogen. Liquid parahydrogen is also a widely used neutron moderator medium, and an accurate knowledge of its slow neutron cross section is essential for the design and optimization of intense slow neutron sources. Furthermore, we describe our measurements and compare them with previous work.« less

  18. Measurement of the scattering cross section of slow neutrons on liquid parahydrogen from neutron transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Grammer, K. B.; Alarcon, R.; Barrón-Palos, L.; Blyth, D.; Bowman, J. D.; Calarco, J.; Crawford, C.; Craycraft, K.; Evans, D.; Fomin, N.; Fry, J.; Gericke, M.; Gillis, R. C.; Greene, G. L.; Hamblen, J.; Hayes, C.; Kucuker, S.; Mahurin, R.; Maldonado-Velázquez, M.; Martin, E.; McCrea, M.; Mueller, P. E.; Musgrave, M.; Nann, H.; Penttilä, S. I.; Snow, W. M.; Tang, Z.; Wilburn, W. S.

    2015-05-08

    Liquid hydrogen is a dense Bose fluid whose equilibrium properties are both calculable from first principles using various theoretical approaches and of interest for the understanding of a wide range of questions in many-body physics. Unfortunately, the pair correlation function g(r) inferred from neutron scattering measurements of the differential cross section dσ/dΩ from different measurements reported in the literature are inconsistent. We have measured the energy dependence of the total cross section and the scattering cross section for slow neutrons with energies between 0.43 and 16.1 meV on liquid hydrogen at 15.6 K (which is dominated by the parahydrogen component) using neutron transmission measurements on the hydrogen target of the NPDGamma collaboration at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The relationship between the neutron transmission measurement we perform and the total cross section is unambiguous, and the energy range accesses length scales where the pair correlation function is rapidly varying. At 1 meV our measurement is a factor of 3 below the data from previous work. We present evidence that these previous measurements of the hydrogen cross section, which assumed that the equilibrium value for the ratio of orthohydrogen and parahydrogen has been reached in the target liquid, were in fact contaminated with an extra nonequilibrium component of orthohydrogen. Liquid parahydrogen is also a widely used neutron moderator medium, and an accurate knowledge of its slow neutron cross section is essential for the design and optimization of intense slow neutron sources. Furthermore, we describe our measurements and compare them with previous work.

  19. Improving the Material Response for Slow Heat of Energetic Materials (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A L

    2010-12-15

    The goal of modern high explosive slow heat cookoff modeling is to understand the level of mechanical violence. This requires understanding the coupled thermal-mechanical-chemical system that such an environment creates. Recent advances have improved our ability to predict the time to event, and we have been making progress on predicting the mechanical response. By adding surface tension to the product gas pores in the high explosive, we have been able to reduce the current model's tendency to over-pressurize confinement vessels. We describe the model and demonstrate how it affects a LX-10 STEX experiment. Issues associated with current product gas equations of state are described and examined.

  20. Possible Diamond-Like Nanoscale Structures Induced by Slow Highly-Charged Ions on Graphite (HOPG)

    SciTech Connect

    Sideras-Haddad, E.; Schenkel, T.; Shrivastava, S.; Makgato, T.; Batra, A.; Weis, C. D.; Persaud, A.; Erasmus, R.; Mwakikunga, B.

    2009-01-06

    The interaction between slow highly-charged ions (SHCI) of different charge states from an electron-beam ion trap and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces is studied in terms of modification of electronic states at single-ion impact nanosizeareas. Results are presented from AFM/STM analysis of the induced-surface topological features combined with Raman spectroscopy. I-V characteristics for a number of different impact regions were measured with STM and the results argue for possible formation of diamond-like nanoscale structures at the impact sites.

  1. The Pingding segment of the Altyn Tagh Fault (91 °E): Holocene slip-rate determination from cosmogenic radionuclide dating of offset fluvial terraces

    SciTech Connect

    Meriaux, A. -S.; Van der Woerd, J.; Tapponnier, P.; Ryerson, F. J.; Finkel, R. C.; Lasserre, C.; Xu, X.

    2012-09-25

    Morphochronologic slip-rates on the Altyn Tagh Fault (ATF) along the southern front of the Pingding Shan at ~90.5°E are determined by cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) dating of seven offset terraces at two sites. The terraces are defined based upon morphology, elevation and dating, together with fieldwork and high-resolution satellite analysis. The majority of the CRN model ages fall within narrow ranges (<2 ka) on the four main terraces (T1, T2, T3 and T3′), and allow a detailed terrace chronology. Bounds on the terrace ages and offsets of 5 independent terraces yield consistent slip-rate estimates. The long-term slip-rate of 13.9 ± 1.1 mm/yr is defined at the 95% confidence level, as the joint rate probability distribution of the rate derived from each independent terrace. It falls within the bounds of all the rates defined on the central Altyn Tagh Fault between the Cherchen He (86.4°E) and Akato Tagh (~88°E) sites. This rate is ~10 mm/yr less than the upper rate determined near Tura at ~87°E, in keeping with the inference of an eastward decreasing rate due to progressive loss of slip to thrusts branching off the fault southwards but it is greater than the 9 ± 4 mm/yr rate determined at ~90°E by GPS surveys and other geodetic short-term rates defined elsewhere along the ATF. Furthermore, whether such disparate rates will ultimately be reconciled by a better understanding of fault mechanics, resolved transient deformations during the seismic cycle or by more accurate measurements made with either approach remains an important issue.

  2. The Pingding segment of the Altyn Tagh Fault (91 °E): Holocene slip-rate determination from cosmogenic radionuclide dating of offset fluvial terraces

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Meriaux, A. -S.; Van der Woerd, J.; Tapponnier, P.; Ryerson, F. J.; Finkel, R. C.; Lasserre, C.; Xu, X.

    2012-09-25

    Morphochronologic slip-rates on the Altyn Tagh Fault (ATF) along the southern front of the Pingding Shan at ~90.5°E are determined by cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) dating of seven offset terraces at two sites. The terraces are defined based upon morphology, elevation and dating, together with fieldwork and high-resolution satellite analysis. The majority of the CRN model ages fall within narrow ranges (<2 ka) on the four main terraces (T1, T2, T3 and T3′), and allow a detailed terrace chronology. Bounds on the terrace ages and offsets of 5 independent terraces yield consistent slip-rate estimates. The long-term slip-rate of 13.9 ± 1.1more » mm/yr is defined at the 95% confidence level, as the joint rate probability distribution of the rate derived from each independent terrace. It falls within the bounds of all the rates defined on the central Altyn Tagh Fault between the Cherchen He (86.4°E) and Akato Tagh (~88°E) sites. This rate is ~10 mm/yr less than the upper rate determined near Tura at ~87°E, in keeping with the inference of an eastward decreasing rate due to progressive loss of slip to thrusts branching off the fault southwards but it is greater than the 9 ± 4 mm/yr rate determined at ~90°E by GPS surveys and other geodetic short-term rates defined elsewhere along the ATF. Furthermore, whether such disparate rates will ultimately be reconciled by a better understanding of fault mechanics, resolved transient deformations during the seismic cycle or by more accurate measurements made with either approach remains an important issue.« less

  3. Slowing of Femtosecond Laser-Generated Nanoparticles in a Background Gas

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Rouleau, Christopher M.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Geohegan, David B.

    2014-11-25

    The slowing of Pt nanoparticles in argon background gas was characterized by Rayleigh scattering imaging using a plume of nanoparticles generated by femtosecond laser through thin film ablation (fs-TTFA) of 20 nanometers-thick Pt films. The ablation was performed at threshold laser energy fluences for complete film removal to provide a well-defined plume consisting almost entirely of nanoparticles traveling with a narrow velocity distribution, providing a unique system to unambiguously characterize the slowing of nanoparticles during interaction with background gases. Nanoparticles of ~200 nm diameter were found to decelerate in background Ar gas with pressures less than 50 Torr in goodmore » agreement with a linear drag model in the Epstein regime. Based on this model, the stopping distance of small nanoparticles in the plume was predicted and tested by particle collection in an off-axis geometry, and size distribution analysis by transmission electron microscopy. These results permit a basis to interpret nanoparticle propagation through background gases in laser ablation plumes that contain mixed components.« less

  4. Development for fissile assay in recycled fuel using lead slowing down spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yong Deok; Je Park, C.; Kim, Ho-Dong; Song, Kee Chan

    2013-07-01

    A future nuclear energy system is under development to turn spent fuels produced by PWRs into fuels for a SFR (Sodium Fast Reactor) through the pyrochemical process. The knowledge of the isotopic fissile content of the new fuel is very important for fuel safety. A lead slowing down spectrometer (LSDS) is under development to analyze the fissile material content (Pu{sup 239}, Pu{sup 241} and U{sup 235}) of the fuel. The LSDS requires a neutron source, the neutrons will be slowed down through their passage in a lead medium and will finally enter the fuel and will induce fission reactions that will be analysed and the isotopic content of the fuel will be then determined. The issue is that the spent fuel emits intense gamma rays and neutrons by spontaneous fission. The threshold fission detector screens the prompt fast fission neutrons and as a result the LSDS is not influenced by the high level radiation background. The energy resolution of LSDS is good in the range 0.1 eV to 1 keV. It is also the range in which the fission reaction is the most discriminating for the considered fissile isotopes. An electron accelerator has been chosen to produce neutrons with an adequate target through (e{sup -},γ)(γ,n) reactions.

  5. Frequency-dependent damping in propagating slow magneto-acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, S. Krishna; Banerjee, D.; Van Doorsselaere, T.

    2014-07-10

    Propagating slow magneto-acoustic waves are often observed in polar plumes and active region fan loops. The observed periodicities of these waves range from a few minutes to a few tens of minutes and their amplitudes were found to decay rapidly as they travel along the supporting structure. Previously, thermal conduction, compressive viscosity, radiation, density stratification, and area divergence were identified to be some of the causes for change in the slow wave amplitude. Our recent studies indicate that the observed damping in these waves is frequency-dependent. We used imaging data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly to study this dependence in detail and for the first time via observations we attempted to deduce a quantitative relation between the damping length and frequency of these oscillations. We developed a new analysis method to obtain this relation. The observed frequency dependence does not seem to agree with the current linear wave theory and it was found that the waves observed in the polar regions show a different dependence from those observed in the on-disk loop structures despite the similarity in their properties.

  6. Proceedings of the workshop on opportunities for atomic physics using slow, highly-charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The study of atomic physics with highly-charged ions is an area of intense activity at the present time because of a convergence of theoretical interest and advances in experimental techniques. The purpose of the Argonne ''Workshop on Opportunities for Atomic Physics Using Slow, Highly-Charged Ions'' was to bring together atomic, nuclear, and accelerator physicists in order to identify what new facilities would be most useful for the atomic physics community. The program included discussion of existing once-through machines, advanced ion sources, recoil ion techniques, ion traps, and cooler rings. One of the topics of the Workshop was to discuss possible improvement to the ANL Tandem-Linac facility (ATLAS) to enhance the capability for slowing down ions after they are stripped to a high-charge state (the Accel/Decel technique). Another topic was the opportunity for atomic physics provided by the ECR ion source which is being built for the Uranium Upgrade of ATLAS. 18 analytics were prepared for the individual papers in this volume.

  7. One dimensional full wave analysis of slow-to-fast mode conversion in lower hybrid frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Guo-Zhang; Gao, Zhe

    2014-12-15

    The linear conversion from the slow wave to the fast wave in the lower hybrid range of frequencies is analyzed numerically by using the set of field equations describing waves in a cold plane-stratified plasma. The equations are solved as a two-point boundary value problem, where the polarizations of each mode are set consistently in the boundary conditions. The scattering coefficients and the field patterns are obtained for various density profiles. It is shown that, for large density scale length, the results agree well with the traditional cognitions. In contrast, the reflected component and the probable transmitted-converted component from the conversion region, which are neglected in the usual calculations, become significant when the scale length is smaller than the wavelength of the mode. The inclusion of these new components will improve the accuracy of the simulated propagation and deposition for the injected rf power when the conversion process is involved within a sharp-varying density profile. Meanwhile, the accessibility of the incident slow wave for the low frequency case is also affected by the scale length of the density profile.

  8. Enhanced traveling wave amplification of co-planar slow wave structure by extended phase-matching

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, Andrew; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar; Shin, Young-Min

    2015-09-15

    The electron beam co-propagating with slow waves in a staggered double grating array (SDGA) efficiently amplifies millimeter and sub-millimeter waves over a wide spectrum. Our theoretical and numerical analyses show that the power amplification in the fundamental passband is enhanced by the extended beam-wave phase-matching. Particle-in-cell simulations on the SDGA slow wave structure, designed with 10.4 keV and 50–100 mA sheet beam, indicate that maintaining beam-wave synchronization along the entire length of the circuit improves the gain by 7.3% leading to a total gain of 28 dB, corresponding to 62 W saturated power at the middle of operating band, and a 3-dB bandwidth of 7 GHz with 10.5% at V-band (73.5 GHz center frequency) with saturated peak power reaching 80 W and 28 dB at 71 GHz. These results also show a reasonably good agreement with analytic calculations based on Pierce small signal gain theory.

  9. Preliminary study of slow and fast ultrasonic waves using MR images of trabecular bone phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Solis-Najera, S. E. E-mail: angel.perez@ciencias.unam.mx Neria-Pérez, J. A. E-mail: angel.perez@ciencias.unam.mx Medina, L. E-mail: angel.perez@ciencias.unam.mx; Garipov, R.; Rodríguez, A. O.

    2014-11-07

    Cancellous bone is a complex tissue that performs physiological and biomechanical functions in all vertebrates. It is made up of trabeculae that, from a simplified structural viewpoint, can be considered as plates and beams in a hyperstatic structure that change with time leading to osteoporosis. Several methods has been developed to study the trabecular bone microstructure among them is the Biot’s model which predicts the existence of two longitudinal waves in porous media; the slow and the fast waves, that can be related to porosity of the media. This paper is focused on the experimental detection of the two Biot’s waves of a trabecular bone phantom, consisting of a trabecular network of inorganic hydroxyapatite. Experimental measurements of both waves were performed using through transmission ultrasound. Results had shown clearly that the propagation of two waves propagation is transversal to the trabecular alignment. Otherwise the waves are overlapped and a single wave seems to be propagated. To validate these results, magnetic resonance images were acquired to assess the trabecular direction, and to assure that the pulses correspond to the slow and fast waves. This approach offers a methodology for non-invasive studies of trabecular bones.

  10. The Intense Slow Positron Beam Facility at the NC State University PULSTAR Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hawari, Ayman I.; Moxom, Jeremy; Hathaway, Alfred G.; Brown, Benjamin; Xu, Jun

    2009-03-10

    An intense slow positron beam is in its early stages of operation at the 1-MW open-pool PULSTAR research reactor at North Carolina State University. The positron beam line is installed in a beam port that has a 30-cmx30-cm cross sectional view of the core. The positrons are created in a tungsten converter/moderator by pair-production using gamma rays produced in the reactor core and by neutron capture reactions in cadmium cladding surrounding the tungsten. Upon moderation, slow ({approx}3 eV) positrons that are emitted from the moderator are electrostatically extracted, focused and magnetically guided until they exit the reactor biological shield with 1-keV energy, approximately 3-cm beam diameter and an intensity exceeding 6x10{sup 8} positrons per second. A magnetic beam switch and transport system has been installed and tested that directs the beam into one of two spectrometers. The spectrometers are designed to implement state-of-the-art PALS and DBS techniques to perform positron and positronium annihilation studies of nanophases in matter.

  11. Phosphorus removal from slow-cooled steelmaking slags: Grain size determination and liberation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fregeau-Wu, E.; Iwasaki, I.

    1995-07-01

    The major obstacle in recycling steelmaking slags to the blast furnace is their phosphorus content. Removal of the phosphorus, which is primarily associated with the silicate and phosphate phases, would allow for greater recycle of these slags for their iron, manganese, and lime contents. Calculations show that separation of the silicates from the oxide phases would remove nearly 90% of the phosphorus from the slag. The variable grain size of the as-received slag made liberation by fine grinding difficult. Therefore, slow-cooling experiments were undertaken to improve the grain size distribution. The grain size distributions were determined using in-situ image analysis. The samples were ground to their apparent liberation size and high gradient magnetic separation was used to separate the magnetic oxides from the nonmagnetic silicates and phosphates. Liberation analysis and modeling was performed on selected separation products for discussion of benefication characteristics.

  12. Two energy scales and slow crossover in YbAl3

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.M.; Ebihara, T.; Riseborough, P.S.; Booth, C.H.; Pagliuso, P.G.; Sarrao, J.L.; Thompson, J.D.

    2002-01-15

    We present results for YbAl{sub 3} which show that the susceptibility {chi}(T), 4f occupation number n{sub f}(T) and the entropy S(T) exhibit a slow crossover between the Fermi liquid and local moment regimes. In addition both {chi}(T) and the linear specific heat coefficient {gamma} = C/T exhibit low temperature peaks that imply that in addition to the Kondo scale (T{sub K} {approx} 500K) there is a second low temperature scale (T{sub coh} {approx} 50K) for the onset of coherence. We discuss these results in the context of Nozieres' exhaustion in the Anderson lattice.

  13. A 0.14 THz relativistic coaxial overmoded surface wave oscillator with metamaterial slow wave structure

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Weijie; Wang, Jianguo Chen, Zaigao; Cai, Libing; Wang, Yue; Wang, Guangqiang; Qiao, Hailiang

    2014-12-15

    This paper presents a new kind of device for generating the high power terahertz wave by using a coaxial overmoded surface wave oscillator with metamaterial slow wave structure (SWS). A metallic metamaterial SWS is used to avoid the damage of the device driven by a high-voltage electron beam pulse. The overmoded structure is adopted to make it much easy to fabricate and assemble the whole device. The coaxial structure is used to suppress the mode competition in the overmoded device. Parameters of an electron beam and geometric structure are provided. Particle-in-cell simulation results show that the high power terahertz wave at the frequency of 0.14 THz is generated with the output power 255 MW and conversion efficiency about 21.3%.

  14. All-metal metamaterial slow-wave structure for high-power sources with high efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanshuai; Duan, Zhaoyun Tang, Xianfeng; Wang, Zhanliang; Zhang, Yabin; Gong, Yubin; Feng, Jinjun

    2015-10-12

    In this paper, we have proposed a metamaterial (MTM) which is suitable for the compact high-power vacuum electron devices. For example, an S-band slow-wave structure (SWS) based on the all-metal MTMs has been studied by both simulation and experiment. The results show that this MTM SWS is very helpful to miniaturize the high-power vacuum electron devices and largely improve the output power and the electronic efficiency. The simulation model of an S-band MTM backward wave oscillator (BWO) is built, and the particle-in-cell simulated results are presented here: a 2.454 GHz signal is generated and its peak output power is 4.0 MW with a higher electronic efficiency of 31.5% relative to the conventional BWOs.

  15. Ion thermal effects on slow mode solitary waves in plasmas with two adiabatic ion species

    SciTech Connect

    Nsengiyumva, F. Hellberg, M. A. Mace, R. L.

    2015-09-15

    Using both the Sagdeev and Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) methods, ion thermal effects on slow mode ion acoustic solitons and double layers are investigated in a plasma with two adiabatic positive ion species. It is found that reducing the gap between the two ion thermal speeds by increasing the relative temperature of the cool ions increases the typical soliton/double layer speeds for all values of the ion-ion density ratio and reduces the range in the density ratio that supports double layers. The effect of increasing the relative cool ion temperature on the soliton/double layer amplitudes depends on the relative densities. For lower values of the ion density ratio, an increase in cool ion temperature leads to a significant decrease in soliton/double layer amplitude, so one may find that solitons of all permissible speeds lie within the range of KdV theory.

  16. Lead Slowing Down Spectrometry Analysis of Data from Measurements on Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Danon, Yaron; Weltz, Adam; Gavron, Victor A.; Harris, Jason; Stewart, Trevor N.

    2015-01-12

    Improved non-destructive assay of isotopic masses in used nuclear fuel would be valuable for nuclear safeguards operations associated with the transport, storage and reprocessing of used nuclear fuel. Our collaboration is examining the feasibility of using lead slowing down spectrometry techniques to assay the isotopic fissile masses in used nuclear fuel assemblies. We present the application of our analysis algorithms on measurements conducted with a lead spectrometer. The measurements involved a single fresh fuel pin and discrete 239Pu and 235U samples. We are able to describe the isotopic fissile masses with root mean square errors over seven different configurations to 6.35% for 239Pu and 2.7% for 235U over seven different configurations. Funding Source(s):

  17. Analysis of Spent Fuel Assemblies Using a Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Gavron, Victor A.; Smith, Leon E.; Ressler, Jennifer J.

    2009-04-21

    We analyze the potential of using Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer technology for assaying spent fuel. This initial study demonstrates that it may be feasible to design a system that will provide approximately 1% statistical precision in the determination of the 239Pu concentration in a pressurized water reactor spent-fuel assembly, for intermediate-to-high burnup levels, using commercial neutron sources, and an array of ultra-high-purity 238U threshold fission detectors. LSDS technology can also determine the concentration of 241Pu and 235U. There is indication that missing pins can be detected, as can asymmetry in the fuel bundle. The analytical model used to perform the viability assessment is described, as are the systematic effects that were not incorporated in this analysis, but could significantly degrade actual performance. These results provide the justification for the initiation of followup studies that will incorporate the complete suite of effects that impact the accuracy of LSDS measurements.

  18. INERTIAL RANGE TURBULENCE OF FAST AND SLOW SOLAR WIND AT 0.72 AU AND SOLAR MINIMUM

    SciTech Connect

    Teodorescu, Eliza; Echim, Marius; Munteanu, Costel; Zhang, Tielong; Bruno, Roberto; Kovacs, Peter

    2015-05-10

    We investigate Venus Express observations of magnetic field fluctuations performed systematically in the solar wind at 0.72 Astronomical Units (AU), between 2007 and 2009, during the deep minimum of solar cycle 24. The power spectral densities (PSDs) of the magnetic field components have been computed for time intervals that satisfy the data integrity criteria and have been grouped according to the type of wind, fast and slow, defined for speeds larger and smaller, respectively, than 450 km s{sup −1}. The PSDs show higher levels of power for the fast wind than for the slow. The spectral slopes estimated for all PSDs in the frequency range 0.005–0.1 Hz exhibit a normal distribution. The average value of the trace of the spectral matrix is −1.60 for fast solar wind and −1.65 for slow wind. Compared to the corresponding average slopes at 1 AU, the PSDs are shallower at 0.72 AU for slow wind conditions suggesting a steepening of the solar wind spectra between Venus and Earth. No significant time variation trend is observed for the spectral behavior of both the slow and fast wind.

  19. Renewable Energy Growth Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 2014, Act H 7727 created the Renewable Energy Growth (REG) program with the goal to promote installation of grid connected renewable energy within the load zones of electric distribution...

  20. ARM - Measurement - Hygroscopic growth

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsHygroscopic growth ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hygroscopic growth The rate that aerosol particles grow at relative humidity values less than 100 percent. Sometimes supersaturation conditions are used in making this measurement. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the

  1. Regional companies eye growth

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Regional companies eye growth Regional companies eye growth Adaptive Radio Technologies, Los Alamos Visualization Associates, Mesa Tech International Inc., and ThermaSun Inc. were awarded from the Venture Acceleration Fund. August 21, 2009 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new

  2. Smart Cities - Smart Growth

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Smart Cities - Smart Growth The United States Secretaries of Commerce will co-lead a Business Development Mission to China from April 12-17, 2015. This mission will promote U.S. clean technology products and services in the areas of green building/construction, energy efficiency, carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) and environmental technologies in support of the Smart Cities-Smart Growth theme. On November 12, President Obama and President Xi jointly announced the two countries'

  3. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOEpatents

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Takahashi, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  4. Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometry for Spent Fuel Assay: FY11 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Casella, Andrew M.; Haight, R. C.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Danon, Yaron; Hatchett, D.; Becker, Bjorn; Devlin, M.; Imel, G. R.; Beller, D.; Gavron, A.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Bowyer, Sonya M.; Gesh, Christopher J.; O'Donnell, J. M.

    2011-08-01

    Executive Summary Developing a method for the accurate, direct, and independent assay of the fissile isotopes in bulk materials (such as used fuel) from next-generation domestic nuclear fuel cycles is a goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle R&D, Material Protection and Control Technology (MPACT) Campaign. To meet this goal, MPACT supports a multi-institutional collaboration to study the feasibility of Lead Slowing Down Spectroscopy (LSDS). This technique is an active nondestructive assay method that has the potential to provide independent, direct measurement of Pu and U isotopic masses in used fuel with an uncertainty considerably lower than the approximately 10% typical of today’s confirmatory assay methods. This document is a progress report for FY2011 collaboration activities. Progress made by the collaboration in FY2011 continues to indicate the promise of LSDS techniques applied to used fuel. PNNL developed an empirical model based on calibration of the LSDS to responses generated from well-characterized used fuel. The empirical model demonstrated the potential for the direct and independent assay of the sum of the masses of 239Pu and 241Pu to within approximately 3% over a wide used fuel parameter space. Similar results were obtained using a perturbation approach developed by LANL. Benchmark measurements have been successfully conducted at LANL and at RPI using their respective LSDS instruments. The ISU and UNLV collaborative effort is focused on the fabrication and testing of prototype fission chambers lined with ultra-depleted 238U and 232Th, and uranium deposition on a stainless steel disc using spiked U3O8 from room temperature ionic liquid was successful, with improving thickness obtained. In FY2012, the collaboration plans a broad array of activities. PNNL will focus on optimizing its empirical model and minimizing its reliance on calibration data, as well continuing efforts on developing an analytical model. Additional measurements are

  5. MAP: Watch 30 Years of U.S. Solar Industry Growth | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    MAP: Watch 30 Years of U.S. Solar Industry Growth MAP: Watch 30 Years of U.S. Solar Industry Growth January 30, 2015 - 10:25am Addthis 1984 Start Slow Stop Year Solar Plants Homes Powered 682 Solar Plants Online. Enough to Power 1.7 M Homes Source: Preliminary data from the 2013 EIA-860 report. Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs This week the Energy Department announced a new SunShot Technology-to-Market funding opportunity, providing

  6. Statistical detection of slow-mode waves in solar polar regions with SDO/AIA

    SciTech Connect

    Su, J. T.

    2014-10-01

    Observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory are utilized to statistically investigate the propagating quasi-periodic oscillations in the solar polar plume and inter-plume regions. On average, the periods are found to be nearly equal in the three coronal channels of AIA 171 Å, 193 Å, and 211 Å, and the wavelengths increase with temperature from 171 Å, 193 Å, and 211 Å. The phase speeds may be inferred from the above parameters. Furthermore, the speed ratios of v {sub 193}/v {sub 171} and v {sub 211}/v {sub 171} are derived, e.g., 1.4 ± 0.8 and 2.0 ± 1.9 in the plume regions, respectively, which are equivalent to the theoretical ones for acoustic waves. We find that there are no significant differences for the detected parameters between the plume and inter-plume regions. To our knowledge, this is the first time that we have simultaneously obtained the phase speeds of slow-mode waves in the three channels in the open coronal magnetic structures due to the method adopted in the present work, which is able to minimize the influence of the jets or eruptions on wave signals.

  7. Simplified treatment of exact resonance elastic scattering model in deterministic slowing down equation

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, M.; Wada, K.; Kitada, T.

    2012-07-01

    Simplified treatment of resonance elastic scattering model considering thermal motion of heavy nuclides and the energy dependence of the resonance cross section was implemented into NJOY [1]. In order to solve deterministic slowing down equation considering the effect of up-scattering without iterative calculations, scattering kernel for heavy nuclides is pre-calculated by the formula derived by Ouisloumen and Sanchez [2], and neutron spectrum in up-scattering term is expressed by NR approximation. To check the verification of the simplified treatment, the treatment is applied to U-238 for the energy range from 4 eV to 200 eV. Calculated multi-group capture cross section of U-238 is greater than that of conventional method and the increase of the capture cross sections is remarkable as the temperature becomes high. Therefore Doppler coefficient calculated in UO{sub 2} fuel pin is calculated more negative value than that on conventional method. The impact on Doppler coefficient is equivalent to the results of exact treatment of resonance elastic scattering reported in previous studies [2-7]. The agreement supports the validation of the simplified treatment and therefore this treatment is applied for other heavy nuclide to evaluate the Doppler coefficient in MOX fuel. The result shows that the impact of considering thermal agitation in resonance scattering in Doppler coefficient comes mainly from U-238 and that of other heavy nuclides such as Pu-239, 240 etc. is not comparable in MOX fuel. (authors)

  8. SPECTRAL SLOPE VARIATION AT PROTON SCALES FROM FAST TO SLOW SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, R.; Trenchi, L.; Telloni, D.

    2014-09-20

    We investigated the behavior of the spectral slope of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations at proton scales for selected high-resolution time intervals from the WIND and MESSENGER spacecraft at 1 AU and 0.56 AU, respectively. The analysis was performed within the profile of high-speed streams, moving from fast to slow wind regions. The spectral slope showed a large variability between –3.75 and –1.75 and a robust tendency for this parameter to be steeper within the trailing edge, where the speed is higher, and to be flatter within the subsequent slower wind, following a gradual transition between these two states. The value of the spectral index seems to depend firmly on the power associated with the fluctuations within the inertial range; the higher the power, the steeper the slope. Our results support previous analyses suggesting that there must be some response of the dissipation mechanism to the level of the energy transfer rate along the inertial range.

  9. Vibronic structure of VO{sub 2} probed by slow photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jongjin B.; Weichman, Marissa L.; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2014-01-21

    We report high-resolution anion photoelectron spectra of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}{sup −}) obtained by slow electron velocity-map imaging of trapped and cryogenically cooled anions. Vibrationally resolved spectra are obtained for photodetachment to the first three neutral electronic states, giving an electron affinity of 1.8357(5) eV for the X-tilde{sup 2} A{sub 1} ground state and term energies of 0.1845(8) eV and 0.8130(5) eV for the A-tilde{sup 2}B{sub 1} and B-tilde{sup 2}A{sub 1} excited states, respectively. The vibrational fundamentals ν{sub 1} and ν{sub 2} are obtained for all three states. Experimental assignments are confirmed by energies from electronic structure calculations and Franck-Condon spectral simulations. These simulations support assigning the anion ground state as the X-tilde{sup 3}B{sub 1} state. With this assignment, photodetachment to the B-tilde{sup 2}A{sub 1} state involves a nominally forbidden two-electron transition, suggesting extensive configuration interaction in neutral VO{sub 2}.

  10. Design concepts for a pulse power test facility to simulate EMP surges. Part II. Slow pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Dethlefsen, R.

    1985-10-01

    The work described in this report was sponsored by the Division of Electric Energy Systems (EES) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) through a subcontract with the Power Systems Technology Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The work deals with the effect of high altitude nuclear bursts on electric power systems. In addition to fast voltage transients, slow, quasi-dc currents are also induced into extended power systems with grounded neutral connections. Similar phenomena at lower magnitude are generated by solar induced electromagnetic pulses (EMP). These have caused power outages, related to solar storms, at northern latitudes. The applicable utility experience is reviewed in order to formulate an optimum approach to future testing. From a wide variety of options two pulser designs were selected as most practical, a transformer-rectifier power supply, and a lead acid battery pulser. both can be mounted on a trailer as required for field testing on utility systems. The battery system results in the least cost. Testing on power systems requires that the dc pulser pass high values of alternating current, resulting from neutral imbalance or from potential fault currents. Batteries have a high ability to pass alternating currents. Most other pulser options must be protected by an ac bypass in the form of an expensive capacitor bank. 8D truck batteries can meet the original specification of 1 kA test current. Improved batteries for higher discharge currents are available.

  11. Emission of secondary particles from metals and insulators at impact of slow highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, T.

    1996-10-31

    Emission of secondary electrons and ions from clean Au, CxHy-Au, and SiO{sub 2} surfaces at impact of slow (v{approx}0.3 v{sub Bohr}) ions were measured as function of incident ion charge for 1+{le}q{le}75+. Electron yields from thermal SiO{sub 2} films (150 mm on Si) were found to be lower than those from the other two for q>3+. Yields of negative secondary ions from SiO{sub 2} and CxHy-Au were recorded in parallel with electron emission data and exhibit a q{sub 4} dependency on incident ion charge. Direct comparison of collisional and electronic contributions to secondary ion production from SiO{sub 2} films using a beam of charge state equilibrated Xe (at 2.75 keV/u) shows positive and negative secondary ion yield increases with incident ion charge of >400. Results are discussed in relation to key signatures of electronic sputtering by Coulomb explosions.

  12. Advanced slow-magic angle spinning probe for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Wind, Robert A.; Hu, Jian Zhi; Minard, Kevin R.; Rommereim, Donald N.

    2006-01-24

    The present invention relates to a probe and processes useful for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy instruments. More particularly, the invention relates to a MR probe and processes for obtaining resolution enhancements of fluid objects, including live specimens, using an ultra-slow (magic angle) spinning (MAS) of the specimen combined with a modified phase-corrected magic angle turning (PHORMAT) pulse sequence. Proton NMR spectra were measured of the torso and the top part of the belly of a female BALBc mouse in a 2T field, while spinning the animal at a speed of 1.5 Hz. Results show that even in this relatively low field with PHORMAT, an isotropic spectrum is obtained with line widths that are a factor 4.6 smaller than those obtained in a stationary mouse. Resolution of 1H NMR metabolite spectra are thus significantly enhanced. Results indicate that PHORMAT has the potential to significantly increase the utility of 1H NMR spectroscopy for in vivo biochemical, biomedical and/or medical applications involving large-sized biological objects such as mice, rats and even humans within a hospital setting. For small-sized objects, including biological objects, such as excised tissues, organs, live bacterial cells, and biofilms, use of PASS at a spinning rate of 30 Hz and above is preferred.

  13. ISOTOPIC MASS FRACTIONATION OF SOLAR WIND: EVIDENCE FROM FAST AND SLOW SOLAR WIND COLLECTED BY THE GENESIS MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Heber, Veronika S.; Baur, Heinrich; Wieler, Rainer; Bochsler, Peter; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Neugebauer, Marcia; Reisenfeld, Daniel B.; Wiens, Roger C.

    2012-11-10

    NASA's Genesis space mission returned samples of solar wind collected over {approx}2.3 years. We present elemental and isotopic compositions of He, Ne, and Ar analyzed in diamond-like carbon targets from the slow and fast solar wind collectors to investigate isotopic fractionation processes during solar wind formation. The solar wind provides information on the isotopic composition for most volatile elements for the solar atmosphere, the bulk Sun and hence, on the solar nebula from which it formed 4.6 Ga ago. Our data reveal a heavy isotope depletion in the slow solar wind compared to the fast wind composition by 63.1 {+-} 2.1 per mille for He, 4.2 {+-} 0.5 per mille amu{sup -1} for Ne and 2.6 {+-} 0.5 per mille amu{sup -1} for Ar. The three Ne isotopes suggest that isotopic fractionation processes between fast and slow solar wind are mass dependent. The He/H ratios of the collected slow and fast solar wind samples are 0.0344 and 0.0406, respectively. The inefficient Coulomb drag model reproduces the measured isotopic fractionation between fast and slow wind. Therefore, we apply this model to infer the photospheric isotopic composition of He, Ne, and Ar from our solar wind data. We also compare the isotopic composition of oxygen and nitrogen measured in the solar wind with values of early solar system condensates, probably representing solar nebula composition. We interpret the differences between these samples as being due to isotopic fractionation during solar wind formation. For both elements, the magnitude and sign of the observed differences are in good agreement with the values predicted by the inefficient Coulomb drag model.

  14. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.; Zhou, Nan

    2009-05-18

    The time when energy-related carbon emissions come overwhelmingly from developed countries is coming to a close. China has already overtaken the United States as the world's leading emitter of greenhouse gas emissions. The economic growth that China has experienced is not expected to slow down significantly in the long term, which implies continued massive growth in energy demand. This paper draws on the extensive expertise from the China Energy Group at LBNL on forecasting energy consumption in China, but adds to it by exploring the dynamics of demand growth for electricity in the residential sector -- and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. This paper forecasts ownership growth of each product using econometric modeling, in combination with historical trends in China. The products considered (refrigerators, air conditioners, fans, washing machines, lighting, standby power, space heaters, and water heating) account for 90percent of household electricity consumption in China. Using this method, we determine the trend and dynamics of demandgrowth and its dependence on macroeconomic drivers at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, we present scenarios for reducing residential consumption through efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, thus allowing for a technologically realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities specifically in the Chinese context.

  15. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Weston, David

    2015-08-11

    The present invention is directed to the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain GM30 deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-13340, compositions containing the GM30 strain, and methods of using the GM30 strain to enhance plant growth and/or enhance plant resistance to pathogens.

  16. Near-infrared structure of fast and slow-rotating disk galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Schechtman-Rook, Andrew; Bershady, Matthew A.

    2014-11-10

    We investigate the stellar disk structure of six nearby edge-on spiral galaxies using high-resolution JHK {sub s}-band images and three-dimensional radiative transfer models. To explore how mass and environment shape spiral disks, we selected galaxies with rotational velocities between 69 km s{sup 1} 150 km s{sup 1}) galaxies, only NGC 4013 has the super-thin+thin+thick nested disk structure seen in NGC 891 and the Milky Way, albeit with decreased oblateness, while NGC 1055, a disturbed massive spiral galaxy, contains disks with h{sub z} ? 200 pc. NGC 4565, another fast-rotator, contains a prominent ring at a radius ?5 kpc but no super-thin disk. Despite these differences, all fast-rotating galaxies in our sample have inner truncations in at least one of their disks. These truncations lead to Freeman Type II profiles when projected face-on. Slow-rotating galaxies are less complex, lacking inner disk truncations and requiring fewer disk components to reproduce their light distributions. Super-thin disk components in undisturbed disks contribute ?25% of the total K {sub s}-band light, up to that of the thin-disk contribution. The presence of super-thin disks correlates with infrared flux ratios; galaxies with super-thin disks have f{sub K{sub s}}/f{sub 60} {sub ?m}?0.12 for integrated light, consistent with super-thin disks being regions of ongoing star-formation. Attenuation-corrected vertical color gradients in (J K {sub s}) correlate with the observed disk structure and are consistent with population gradients with young-to-intermediate ages closer to the mid-plane, indicating that disk heatingor coolingis a ubiquitous phenomenon.

  17. Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometry Time Spectral Analysis for Spent Fuel Assay: FY11 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bowyer, Sonya M.; Casella, Andrew M.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Warren, Glen A.

    2011-09-30

    Developing a method for the accurate, direct, and independent assay of the fissile isotopes in bulk materials (such as used fuel) from next-generation domestic nuclear fuel cycles is a goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle R&D, Material Protection and Control Technology (MPACT) Campaign. To meet this goal, MPACT supports a multi-institutional collaboration, of which PNNL is a part, to study the feasibility of Lead Slowing Down Spectroscopy (LSDS). This technique is an active nondestructive assay method that has the potential to provide independent, direct measurement of Pu and U isotopic masses in used fuel with an uncertainty considerably lower than the approximately 10% typical of today's confirmatory assay methods. This document is a progress report for FY2011 PNNL analysis and algorithm development. Progress made by PNNL in FY2011 continues to indicate the promise of LSDS analysis and algorithms applied to used fuel. PNNL developed an empirical model based on calibration of the LSDS to responses generated from well-characterized used fuel. The empirical model, which accounts for self-shielding effects using empirical basis vectors calculated from the singular value decomposition (SVD) of a matrix containing the true self-shielding functions of the used fuel assembly models. The potential for the direct and independent assay of the sum of the masses of 239Pu and 241Pu to within approximately 3% over a wide used fuel parameter space was demonstrated. Also, in FY2011, PNNL continued to develop an analytical model. Such efforts included the addition of six more non-fissile absorbers in the analytical shielding function and the non-uniformity of the neutron flux across the LSDS assay chamber. A hybrid analytical-empirical approach was developed to determine the mass of total Pu (sum of the masses of 239Pu, 240Pu, and 241Pu), which is an important quantity in safeguards. Results using this hybrid method were of approximately the same accuracy as the pure

  18. Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometry Time Spectral Analysis for Spent Fuel Assay: FY12 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Casella, Andrew M.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Warren, Glen A.

    2012-09-28

    Executive Summary Developing a method for the accurate, direct, and independent assay of the fissile isotopes in bulk materials (such as used fuel) from next-generation domestic nuclear fuel cycles is a goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle R&D, Material Protection and Control Technology (MPACT) Campaign. To meet this goal, MPACT supports a multi-institutional collaboration, of which PNNL is a part, to study the feasibility of Lead Slowing Down Spectroscopy (LSDS). This technique is an active nondestructive assay method that has the potential to provide independent, direct measurement of Pu and U isotopic masses in used fuel with an uncertainty considerably lower than the approximately 10% typical of today’s confirmatory methods. This document is a progress report for FY2012 PNNL analysis and algorithm development. Progress made by PNNL in FY2012 continues to indicate the promise of LSDS analysis and algorithms applied to used fuel assemblies. PNNL further refined the semi-empirical model developed in FY2011 based on singular value decomposition (SVD) to numerically account for the effects of self-shielding. The average uncertainty in the Pu mass across the NGSI-64 fuel assemblies was shown to be less than 3% using only six calibration assemblies with a 2% uncertainty in the isotopic masses. When calibrated against the six NGSI-64 fuel assemblies, the algorithm was able to determine the total Pu mass within <2% uncertainty for the 27 diversion cases also developed under NGSI. Two purely empirical algorithms were developed that do not require the use of Pu isotopic fission chambers. The semi-empirical and purely empirical algorithms were successfully tested using MCNPX simulations as well applied to experimental data measured by RPI using their LSDS. The algorithms were able to describe the 235U masses of the RPI measurements with an average uncertainty of 2.3%. Analyses were conducted that provided valuable insight with regard to design requirements (e

  19. ON THE LOW-FREQUENCY BOUNDARY OF SUN-GENERATED MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE IN THE SLOW SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Shergelashvili, Bidzina M.; Fichtner, Horst

    2012-06-20

    New aspects of the slow solar wind turbulent heating and acceleration are investigated. A physical meaning of the lower boundary of the Alfven wave turbulent spectra in the solar atmosphere and the solar wind is studied and the significance of this natural parameter is demonstrated. Via an analytical and quantitative treatment of the problem we show that a truncation of the wave spectra from the lower frequency side, which is a consequence of the solar magnetic field structure and its cyclic changes, results in a significant reduction of the heat production and acceleration rates. An appropriate analysis is presented regarding the link of the considered problem with existing observational data and slow solar wind initiation scenarios.

  20. Electrochemical Solution Growth: Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth - Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Electrochemical Solution Growth: Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (886 KB) Technology Marketing SummarySandia National Laboratories has developed a disruptive new crystal growth technology, called Electrochemical Solution Growth (ESG).

  1. Identification of genetically homozygous rapid and slow acetylators of drugs and environmental carcinogens among established inbred rabbit strains

    SciTech Connect

    Hein, D.W.; Smolen, T.N.; Fox, R.R.; Weber, W.W.

    1982-10-01

    Liver and gut mucosa N-acetyltransferase (NAT) cytosol (105,000 x g) was prepared from selected lines of New Zealand White rapid and slow acetylator rabbits bred and housed at the University of Michigan, and from inbred and partially inbred rabbits obtained from The Jackson Laboratory. Liver NAT activity was determined with p-aminobenzoic acid, p-aminosalicylic acid, procainamide, sulfamethazine, isoniazid and 2-aminofluorene as substrates. Gut mucosal NAT activity was determined with 2-aminofluorene. A gene dose-response relationship was observed for both liver NAT and gut mucosa NAT with all substrates tested. Highest levels were always observed in homozygous rapid acetylator inbred strains (B/J, III/J, IIIC/J, III/DwJ, IIIEP/J and IIIVO/J), lower levels in obligate heterozygous rapid acetylator rabbits and lowest levels in homozygous slow acetylator inbred (ACEP/J, III/cdJ, IIIVO/ahJ, and IIIVO/vptJ) and outbred rabbits. The differences in magnitude of liver NAT activity level between acetylator genotypes was dependent on the substrate employed, progressively increasing in the following order: p-aminobenzoic acid, p-aminosalicyclic acid, procainamide, sulfamethazine, isoniazid, 2-aminofluorene. The determination of kinetic constants for liver p-aminosalicyclic acid NAT activity indicated a 2-fold difference in apparent Vmax between rapid acetylator genotypes and a 30-fold difference between rapid and slow acetylator phenotypes. In addition, the apparent Km for p-aminosalicyclic acid was significantly lower in the slow acetylators than in the rapid acetylators.

  2. Slowing of magnetic reconnection concurrent with weakening plasma inflows and increasing collisionality in strongly-driven laser-plasma experiments

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, M.? J.; Li, C.? K.; Fox, W.; Zylstra, A.? B.; Stoeckl, C.; Sguin, F.? H.; Frenje, J.? A.; Petrasso, R.? D.

    2015-05-20

    An evolution of magnetic reconnection behavior, from fast jets to the slowing of reconnection and the establishment of a stable current sheet, has been observed in strongly driven, ? ? 20 laser-produced plasma experiments. This process has been inferred to occur alongside a slowing of plasma inflows carrying the oppositely-directed magnetic fields as well as the evolution of plasma conditions from collisionless to collisional. High-resolution proton radiography has revealed unprecedented detail of the forced interaction of magnetic fields and super-Alfvnic electron jets (Vjet ~ 20VA) ejected from the reconnection region, indicating that two-fluid or collisionless magnetic reconnection occurs early inmoretime. The absence of jets and the persistence of strong, stable magnetic fields at late times indicates that the reconnection process slows down, while plasma flows stagnate and plasma conditions evolve to a cooler, denser, more collisional state. These results demonstrate that powerful initial plasma flows are not sufficient to force a complete reconnection of magnetic fields, even in the strongly-driven regime.less

  3. Flux enhancement of slow-moving particles by Sun or Jupiter: Can they be detected on Earth?

    SciTech Connect

    Patla, Bijunath R.; Nemiroff, Robert J.; Hoffmann, Dieter H. H.; Zioutas, Konstantin

    2014-01-10

    Slow-moving particles capable of interacting solely with gravity might be detected on Earth as a result of the gravitational lensing induced focusing action of the Sun. The deflection experienced by these particles is inversely proportional to the square of their velocities, and as a result their focal lengths will be shorter. We investigate the velocity dispersion of these slow-moving particles, originating from distant point-like sources, for imposing upper and lower bounds on the velocities of such particles in order for them to be focused onto Earth. Stars, distant galaxies, and cluster of galaxies, etc., may all be considered as point-like sources. We find that fluxes of such slow-moving and non-interacting particles must have speeds between ?0.01 and .14 times the speed of light, c. Particles with speeds less than ?0.01c will undergo way too much deflection to be focused, although such individual particles could be detected. At the caustics, the magnification factor could be as high as ?10{sup 6}. We impose lensing constraints on the mass of these particles in order for them to be detected with large flux enhancements that are greater than 10{sup 9} eV. An approximate mass density profile for Jupiter is used to constrain particle velocities for lensing by Jupiter. We show that Jupiter could potentially focus particles with speeds as low as ?0.001c, which the Sun cannot.

  4. Slowing of magnetic reconnection concurrent with weakening plasma inflows and increasing collisionality in strongly-driven laser-plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M.? J.; Li, C.? K.; Fox, W.; Zylstra, A.? B.; Stoeckl, C.; Sguin, F.? H.; Frenje, J.? A.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-05-20

    An evolution of magnetic reconnection behavior, from fast jets to the slowing of reconnection and the establishment of a stable current sheet, has been observed in strongly-driven, ? ? 20 laser-produced plasma experiments. This process has been inferred to occur alongside a slowing of plasma inflows carrying the oppositely-directed magnetic fields as well as the evolution of plasma conditions from collisionless to collisional. High-resolution proton radiography has revealed unprecedented detail of the forced interaction of magnetic fields and super-Alfvnic electron jets (Vjet~ 20VA) ejected from the reconnection region, indicating that two-fluid or collisionless magnetic reconnection occurs early in time. The absence of jets and the persistence of strong, stable magnetic fields at late times indicates that the reconnection process slows down, while plasma flows stagnate and plasma conditions evolve to a cooler, denser, more collisional state. These results demonstrate that powerful initial plasma flows are not sufficient to force a complete reconnection of magnetic fields, even in the strongly-driven regime.

  5. Slowing of magnetic reconnection concurrent with weakening plasma inflows and increasing collisionality in strongly-driven laser-plasma experiments

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, M.  J.; Li, C.  K.; Fox, W.; Zylstra, A.  B.; Stoeckl, C.; Séguin, F.  H.; Frenje, J.  A.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-05-20

    An evolution of magnetic reconnection behavior, from fast jets to the slowing of reconnection and the establishment of a stable current sheet, has been observed in strongly-driven, β ≲ 20 laser-produced plasma experiments. This process has been inferred to occur alongside a slowing of plasma inflows carrying the oppositely-directed magnetic fields as well as the evolution of plasma conditions from collisionless to collisional. High-resolution proton radiography has revealed unprecedented detail of the forced interaction of magnetic fields and super-Alfvénic electron jets (Vjet~ 20VA) ejected from the reconnection region, indicating that two-fluid or collisionless magnetic reconnection occurs early in time. Themore » absence of jets and the persistence of strong, stable magnetic fields at late times indicates that the reconnection process slows down, while plasma flows stagnate and plasma conditions evolve to a cooler, denser, more collisional state. These results demonstrate that powerful initial plasma flows are not sufficient to force a complete reconnection of magnetic fields, even in the strongly-driven regime.« less

  6. Slowing of magnetic reconnection concurrent with weakening plasma inflows and increasing collisionality in strongly-driven laser-plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M.  J.; Li, C.  K.; Fox, W.; Zylstra, A.  B.; Stoeckl, C.; Séguin, F.  H.; Frenje, J.  A.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-05-20

    An evolution of magnetic reconnection behavior, from fast jets to the slowing of reconnection and the establishment of a stable current sheet, has been observed in strongly-driven, β ≲ 20 laser-produced plasma experiments. This process has been inferred to occur alongside a slowing of plasma inflows carrying the oppositely-directed magnetic fields as well as the evolution of plasma conditions from collisionless to collisional. High-resolution proton radiography has revealed unprecedented detail of the forced interaction of magnetic fields and super-Alfvénic electron jets (Vjet~ 20VA) ejected from the reconnection region, indicating that two-fluid or collisionless magnetic reconnection occurs early in time. The absence of jets and the persistence of strong, stable magnetic fields at late times indicates that the reconnection process slows down, while plasma flows stagnate and plasma conditions evolve to a cooler, denser, more collisional state. These results demonstrate that powerful initial plasma flows are not sufficient to force a complete reconnection of magnetic fields, even in the strongly-driven regime.

  7. Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio October 6, 2010 - 2:26pm Addthis Lorelei Laird Writer, Energy Empowers Editor's Note: Yesterday Secretary Chu announced that solar panels and a solar hot water heater will be added to the White House by the end of next spring. This entry is cross-posted from the Energy Empowers blog and deals with how the continued growth of solar power is not only a boon for industry, but for local economies as well. The solar industry

  8. Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometry for Spent Fuel Assay: FY12 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Casella, Andrew M.; Danon, Yaron; Devlin, M.; Gavron, A.; Haight, R. C.; Harris, Jason; Imel, G. R.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Stewart, T.; Weltz, Adam

    2012-10-01

    Executive Summary The Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle R&D, Material Protection and Control Technology (MPACT) Campaign is supporting a multi-institutional collaboration to study the feasibility of using Lead Slowing Down Spectroscopy (LSDS) to conduct direct, independent and accurate assay of fissile isotopes in used fuel assemblies. The collaboration consists of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI), Idaho State University (ISU). There are three main challenges to implementing LSDS to assay used fuel assemblies. These challenges are the development of an algorithm for interpreting the data with an acceptable accuracy for the fissile masses, the development of suitable detectors for the technique, and the experimental benchmarking of the approach. This report is a summary of the progress in these areas made by the collaboration during FY2012. Significant progress was made on the project in FY2012. Extensive characterization of a “semi-empirical” algorithm was conducted. For example, we studied the impact on the accuracy of this algorithm by the minimization of the calibration set, uncertainties in the calibration masses, and by the choice of time window. Issues such a lead size, number of required neutrons, placement of the neutron source and the impact of cadmium around the detectors were also studied. In addition, new algorithms were developed that do not require the use of plutonium fission chambers. These algorithms were applied to measurement data taken by RPI and shown to determine the 235U mass within 4%. For detectors, a new concept for a fast neutron detector involving 4He recoil from neutron scattering was investigated. The detector has the potential to provide a couple of orders of magnitude more sensitivity than 238U fission chambers. Progress was also made on the more conventional approach of using 232Th fission chambers as fast neutron detectors. For

  9. FACET Emittance Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Frederico, J; Hogan, M.J.; Nosochkov, Y.; Litos, M.D.; Raubenheimer, T.; /SLAC

    2011-04-05

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The FACET beamline consists of a chicane and final focus system to compress the 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron bunches to {approx}20 {micro}m long and {approx}10 {micro}m wide. Simulations of the FACET beamline indicate the short-duration and large, 1.5% rms energy spread beams may suffer a factor of four emittance growth from a combination of chromaticity, incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR), and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Emittance growth is directly correlated to head erosion in plasma wakefield acceleration and is a limiting factor in single stage performance. Studies of the geometric, CSR, and ISR components are presented. Numerical calculation of the rms emittance can be overwhelmed by long tails in the simulated phase space distributions; more useful definitions of emittance are given. A complete simulation of the beamline is presented as well, which agrees with design specifications.

  10. Time-dependent Protein-directed Growth of Gold Nanoparticles within a Single Crystal of Lysozyme

    SciTech Connect

    H Wei; Z Wang; J Zhang; S House; Y Gao; L Yang; H Robinson; L Tan; H Xing; C Hou

    2011-12-31

    Gold nanoparticles are useful in biomedical applications due to their distinct optical properties and high chemical stability. Reports of the biogenic formation of gold colloids from gold complexes has also led to an increased level of interest in the biomineralization of gold. However, the mechanism responsible for biomolecule-directed gold nanoparticle formation remains unclear due to the lack of structural information about biological systems and the fast kinetics of biomimetic chemical systems in solution. Here we show that intact single crystals of lysozyme can be used to study the time-dependent, protein-directed growth of gold nanoparticles. The protein crystals slow down the growth of the gold nanoparticles, allowing detailed kinetic studies to be carried out, and permit a three-dimensional structural characterization that would be difficult to achieve in solution. Furthermore, we show that additional chemical species can be used to fine-tune the growth rate of the gold nanoparticles.

  11. Global Green Growth Institute | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Growth Institute Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT Green Growth Strategy Support Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleGlobalGreenGrowthIn...

  12. SLOW PATCHY EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET PROPAGATING FRONTS ASSOCIATED WITH FAST CORONAL MAGNETO-ACOUSTIC WAVES IN SOLAR ERUPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Chen, P. F.

    2015-08-15

    Using the high spatiotemporal resolution extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we conduct a statistical study of the observational properties of the coronal EUV propagating fronts. We find that it might be a universal phenomenon for two types of fronts to coexist in a large solar eruptive event. It is consistent with the hybrid model of EUV propagating fronts, which predicts that coronal EUV propagating fronts consist of both a fast magneto-acoustic wave and a nonwave component. We find that the morphologies, propagation behaviors, and kinematic features of the two EUV propagating fronts are completely different from each other. The fast magneto-acoustic wave fronts are almost isotropic. They travel continuously from the flaring region across multiple magnetic polarities to global distances. On the other hand, the slow nonwave fronts appear as anisotropic and sequential patches of EUV brightening. Each patch propagates locally in the magnetic domains where the magnetic field lines connect to the bottom boundary and stops at the magnetic domain boundaries. Within each magnetic domain, the velocities of the slow patchy nonwave component are an order of magnitude lower than that of the fast-wave component. However, the patches of the slow EUV propagating front can jump from one magnetic domain to a remote one. The velocities of such a transit between different magnetic domains are about one-third to one-half of those of the fast-wave component. The results show that the velocities of the nonwave component, both within one magnetic domain and between different magnetic domains, are highly nonuniform due to the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field in the lower atmosphere.

  13. Ferromagnetic interactions and slow magnetic relaxation behaviors of two lanthanide coordination polymers bridged by 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ming; Li, Xiuhua; Cui, Ping; Zhao, Bin

    2015-03-15

    Two lanthanide-based frameworks: (Ln(phen)(NDA){sub 1.5}(H{sub 2}O)){sub n} (Ln=Gd(1), NDA=2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate anion, phen=1,10-phenanthroline), and ([Dy(phen)(NDA){sub 1.5}]·0.5H{sub 2}NDA){sub n} (2) were structurally and magnetically characterized. Compound 1 exhibits 2D layer structure, belonging to the triclinic system with space group P−1, while compound 2 features a 3D framework with space group P−1. The magnetic studies revealed that ferromagnetic coupling existed between adjacent lanthanide ions in 1 and 2, and frequency-dependence out-of-phase signals in the measurement of alternate-current susceptibilities were observed for 2, albeit without reaching the characteristic maxima above 2 K, implying slow magnetic relaxation behavior in 2. After the application of a dc field, good peak shapes of ac signal were obtained and got the energy barrier ΔE/k{sub B}=29 K and the pre-exponential factor τ{sub 0}=4.47×10{sup −7} s at 2000 Oe field; and when the dc field was in 5000 Oe, giving ΔE/k{sub B}=40 K and τ{sub 0}=2.82×10{sup −6}. - Graphical abstract: Two novel lanthanide-based frameworks 1 and 2 were structurally and magnetically characterized. The results revealed that ferromagnetic coupling exists between adjacent lanthanide ions in 1 and 2, and 2 displayed slow magnetic relaxation behavior with the energy barrier of 29 K. - Highlights: • Two lanthanide frameworks were synthesized and magnetically characterized. • The magnetism studies indicate slow magnetic relaxation behavior in 2. • Weak ferromagnetic coupling existing between adjacent lanthanide centers.

  14. Monitoring CO2 Storage at Cranfield, Mississippi with Time-Lapse Offset VSP – Using Integration and Modeling to Reduce Uncertainty

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Daley, Thomas M.; Hendrickson, Joel; Queen, John H.

    2014-12-31

    A time-lapse Offset Vertical Seismic Profile (OVSP) data set was acquired as part of a subsurface monitoring program for geologic sequestration of CO2. The storage site at Cranfield, near Natchez, Mississippi, is part of a detailed area study (DAS) site for geologic carbon sequestration operated by the U.S. Dept. of Energy’s Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB). The DAS site includes three boreholes, an injection well and two monitoring wells. The project team selected the DAS site to examine CO2 sequestration multiphase fluid flow and pressure at the interwell scale in a brine reservoir. The time-lapse (TL) OVSP was partmore » of an integrated monitoring program that included well logs, crosswell seismic, electrical resistance tomography and 4D surface seismic. The goals of the OVSP were to detect the CO2 induced change in seismic response, give information about the spatial distribution of CO2 near the injection well and to help tie the high-resolution borehole monitoring to the 4D surface data. The VSP data were acquired in well CFU 31-F1, which is the ~3200 m deep CO2 injection well at the DAS site. A preinjection survey was recorded in late 2009 with injection beginning in December 2009, and a post injection survey was conducted in Nov 2010 following injection of about 250 kT of CO2. The sensor array for both surveys was a 50-level, 3-component, Sercel MaxiWave system with 15 m (49 ft) spacing between levels. The source for both surveys was an accelerated weight drop, with different source trucks used for the two surveys. Consistent time-lapse processing was applied to both data sets. Time-lapse processing generated difference corridor stacks to investigate CO2 induced reflection amplitude changes from each source point. Corridor stacks were used for amplitude analysis to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for each shot point. Spatial variation in reflectivity (used to ‘map’ the plume) was similar in magnitude to the

  15. Monitoring CO2 Storage at Cranfield, Mississippi with Time-Lapse Offset VSP Using Integration and Modeling to Reduce Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, Thomas M.; Hendrickson, Joel; Queen, John H.

    2014-12-31

    A time-lapse Offset Vertical Seismic Profile (OVSP) data set was acquired as part of a subsurface monitoring program for geologic sequestration of CO2. The storage site at Cranfield, near Natchez, Mississippi, is part of a detailed area study (DAS) site for geologic carbon sequestration operated by the U.S. Dept. of Energys Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB). The DAS site includes three boreholes, an injection well and two monitoring wells. The project team selected the DAS site to examine CO2 sequestration multiphase fluid flow and pressure at the interwell scale in a brine reservoir. The time-lapse (TL) OVSP was part of an integrated monitoring program that included well logs, crosswell seismic, electrical resistance tomography and 4D surface seismic. The goals of the OVSP were to detect the CO2 induced change in seismic response, give information about the spatial distribution of CO2 near the injection well and to help tie the high-resolution borehole monitoring to the 4D surface data. The VSP data were acquired in well CFU 31-F1, which is the ~3200 m deep CO2 injection well at the DAS site. A preinjection survey was recorded in late 2009 with injection beginning in December 2009, and a post injection survey was conducted in Nov 2010 following injection of about 250 kT of CO2. The sensor array for both surveys was a 50-level, 3-component, Sercel MaxiWave system with 15 m (49 ft) spacing between levels. The source for both surveys was an accelerated weight drop, with different source trucks used for the two surveys. Consistent time-lapse processing was applied to both data sets. Time-lapse processing generated difference corridor stacks to investigate CO2 induced reflection amplitude changes from each source point. Corridor stacks were used for amplitude analysis to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for each shot point. Spatial variation in reflectivity

  16. Quartz crystal growth

    DOEpatents

    Baughman, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for growing single crystals from an amorphous substance that can undergo phase transformation to the crystalline state in an appropriate solvent. The process is carried out in an autoclave having a lower dissolution zone and an upper crystallization zone between which a temperature differential (.DELTA.T) is maintained at all times. The apparatus loaded with the substance, solvent, and seed crystals is heated slowly maintaining a very low .DELTA.T between the warmer lower zone and cooler upper zone until the amorphous substance is transformed to the crystalline state in the lower zone. The heating rate is then increased to maintain a large .DELTA.T sufficient to increase material transport between the zones and rapid crystallization. .alpha.-Quartz single crystal can thus be made from fused quartz in caustic solvent by heating to 350.degree. C. stepwise with a .DELTA.T of 0.25.degree.-3.degree. C., increasing the .DELTA.T to about 50.degree. C. after the fused quartz has crystallized, and maintaining these conditions until crystal growth in the upper zone is completed.

  17. Experimental observation of sub-terahertz backward-wave amplification in a multi-level microfabricated slow-wave circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Baik, Chan-Wook Ahn, Ho Young; Kim, Yongsung; Lee, Jooho; Hong, Seogwoo; Lee, Sang Hun; Choi, Jun Hee; Kim, Sunil; Kim, Jong Min; Hwang, Sungwoo; Jeon, So-Yeon; Yu, SeGi; Collins, George; Read, Michael E.; Lawrence Ives, R.

    2015-11-09

    In our earlier paper dealing with dispersion retrieval from ultra-deep, reactive-ion-etched, slow-wave circuits on silicon substrates, it was proposed that splitting high-aspect-ratio circuits into multilevels enabled precise characterization in sub-terahertz frequency regime. This achievement prompted us to investigate beam-wave interaction through a vacuum-sealed integration with a 15-kV, 85-mA, thermionic, electron gun. Our experimental study demonstrates sub-terahertz, backward-wave amplification driven by an external oscillator. The measured output shows a frequency downshift, as well as power amplification, from beam loading even with low beam perveance. This offers a promising opportunity for the development of terahertz radiation sources, based on silicon technologies.

  18. Electron emission and defect formation in the interaction of slow,highly charged ions with diamond surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sideras-Haddad, E.; Shrivastava, S.; Rebuli, D.B.; Persaud, A.; Schneider, D.H.; Schenkel, T.

    2006-05-31

    We report on electron emission and defect formation in theinteraction between slow (v~;0.3 vBohr) highly charged ions (SHCI) withinsulating (type IIa) and semiconducting (type IIb) diamonds. Electronemission induced by 31Pq+ (q=5 to 13), and 136Xeq+ (q=34 to 44) withkinetic energies of 9 kVxq increase linearly with the ion charge states,reaching over 100 electrons per ion for high xenon charge states withoutsurface passivation of the diamond with hydrogen. Yields from bothdiamond types are up to a factor of two higher then from reference metalsurfaces. Crater like defects with diameters of 25 to 40 nm are formed bythe impact of single Xe44+ ions. High secondary electron yields andsingle ion induced defects enable the formation of single dopant arrayson diamond surfaces.

  19. EVIDENCE OF THERMAL CONDUCTION SUPPRESSION IN A SOLAR FLARING LOOP BY CORONAL SEISMOLOGY OF SLOW-MODE WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tongjiang; Ofman, Leon; Provornikova, Elena; Sun, Xudong; Davila, Joseph M.

    2015-09-20

    Analysis of a longitudinal wave event observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory is presented. A time sequence of 131 Å images reveals that a C-class flare occurred at one footpoint of a large loop and triggered an intensity disturbance (enhancement) propagating along it. The spatial features and temporal evolution suggest that a fundamental standing slow-mode wave could be set up quickly after meeting of two initial disturbances from the opposite footpoints. The oscillations have a period of ∼12 minutes and a decay time of ∼9 minutes. The measured phase speed of 500 ± 50 km s{sup −1} matches the sound speed in the heated loop of ∼10 MK, confirming that the observed waves are of slow mode. We derive the time-dependent temperature and electron density wave signals from six AIA extreme-ultraviolet channels, and find that they are nearly in phase. The measured polytropic index from the temperature and density perturbations is 1.64 ± 0.08 close to the adiabatic index of 5/3 for an ideal monatomic gas. The interpretation based on a 1D linear MHD model suggests that the thermal conductivity is suppressed by at least a factor of 3 in the hot flare loop at 9 MK and above. The viscosity coefficient is determined by coronal seismology from the observed wave when only considering the compressive viscosity dissipation. We find that to interpret the rapid wave damping, the classical compressive viscosity coefficient needs to be enhanced by a factor of 15 as the upper limit.

  20. Differential regulation of apoptosis in slow and fast twitch muscles of aged female F344BN rats

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Rice, Kevin M.; Manne, Nandini D. P. K.; Gadde, Murali K.; Paturi, Satyanarayana; Arvapalli, Ravikumar; Blough, Eric

    2015-03-28

    Age-related muscle atrophy is characterized by decreases in muscle mass and is thought be mediated, at least in part, by increases in myocyte apoptosis. Recent data has demonstrated that the degree of muscle loss with aging may differ between males and females while other work has suggested that apoptosis as indicated by DNA fragmentation may be regulated differently in fast- and slow-twitch muscles. Herein, we investigate how aging affects the regulation of muscle apoptosis in the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow-twitch soleus muscles of young (6-month), aged (26-month), and very aged (30-month) female Fischer 344/NNiaHSD × Brown Norway/BiNiamore » (F344BN) rats. Tissue sections were stained with hydroethidium for ROS and protein extract was subjected to immunoblotting for assessing apoptotic markers. Our data suggest that decreases in muscle mass were associated with increased DNA fragmentation (TUNEL positive) and increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) as determined by hydroethidium staining in both the EDL and soleus. Similar to our previous work using aged male animals, we observed that the time course and magnitude of changes in Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-9, and cleavage of α-fodrin protein were regulated differently between muscles. As a result, These data suggest that aging in the female F344BN rat is associated with decreases in muscle mass, elevations in ROS level, increased muscle cell DNA fragmentation, and alterations in cell membrane integrity and that apoptotic mechanisms may differ between fiber types.« less

  1. Differential regulation of apoptosis in slow and fast twitch muscles of aged female F344BN rats

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Kevin M.; Manne, Nandini D. P. K.; Gadde, Murali K.; Paturi, Satyanarayana; Arvapalli, Ravikumar; Blough, Eric

    2015-03-28

    Age-related muscle atrophy is characterized by decreases in muscle mass and is thought be mediated, at least in part, by increases in myocyte apoptosis. Recent data has demonstrated that the degree of muscle loss with aging may differ between males and females while other work has suggested that apoptosis as indicated by DNA fragmentation may be regulated differently in fast- and slow-twitch muscles. Herein, we investigate how aging affects the regulation of muscle apoptosis in the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow-twitch soleus muscles of young (6-month), aged (26-month), and very aged (30-month) female Fischer 344/NNiaHSD × Brown Norway/BiNia (F344BN) rats. Tissue sections were stained with hydroethidium for ROS and protein extract was subjected to immunoblotting for assessing apoptotic markers. Our data suggest that decreases in muscle mass were associated with increased DNA fragmentation (TUNEL positive) and increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) as determined by hydroethidium staining in both the EDL and soleus. Similar to our previous work using aged male animals, we observed that the time course and magnitude of changes in Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-9, and cleavage of α-fodrin protein were regulated differently between muscles. As a result, These data suggest that aging in the female F344BN rat is associated with decreases in muscle mass, elevations in ROS level, increased muscle cell DNA fragmentation, and alterations in cell membrane integrity and that apoptotic mechanisms may differ between fiber types.

  2. Growth and properties of Lithium Salicylate single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zaitseva, N; Newby, J; Hull, G; Saw, C; Carman, L; Cherepy, N; Payne, S

    2009-02-13

    An attractive feature of {sup 6}Li containing fluorescence materials that determines their potential application in radiation detection is the capture reaction with slow ({approx}< 100 keV) neutrons: {sup 6}Li + n = {sup 4}He + {sup 3}H + 4.8MeV. The use of {sup 6}Li-salicylate (LiSal, LiC{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 3}) for thermal neutron detection was previously studied in liquid and polycrystalline scintillators. The studies showed that both liquid and polycrystalline LiSal scintillators could be utilized in pulse shape discrimination (PSD) techniques that enable separation of neutrons from the background gamma radiation. However, it was found that the efficiency of neutron detection using LiSal in liquid solutions was severely limited by its low solubility in commonly used organic solvents like, for example, toluene or xylene. Better results were obtained with neutron detectors containing the compound in its crystalline form, such as pressed pellets, or microscopic-scale (7-14 micron) crystals dispersed in various media. The expectation drown from these studies was that further improvement of pulse height, PSD, and efficiency characteristics could be reached with larger and more transparent LiSal crystals, growth of which has not been reported so far. In this paper, we present the first results on growth and characterization of relatively large, a cm-scale size, single crystals of LiSal with good optical quality. The crystals were grown both from aqueous and anhydrous (methanol) media, mainly for neutron detection studies. However, the results on growth and structural characterization may be interesting for other fields where LiSal, together with other alkali metal salicylates, is used for biological, medical, and chemical (as catalyst) applications.

  3. Celecoxib offsets the negative renal influences of cyclosporine via modulation of the TGF-?1/IL-2/COX-2/endothelin ET{sub B} receptor cascade

    SciTech Connect

    El-Gowelli, Hanan M.; Helmy, Maged W.; Ali, Rabab M.; El-Mas, Mahmoud M.

    2014-03-01

    Endothelin (ET) signaling provokes nephrotoxicity induced by the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine A (CSA). We tested the hypotheses that (i): celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, counterbalances renal derangements caused by CSA in rats and (ii) the COX-2/endothelin ET{sub B} receptor signaling mediates the CSA-celecoxib interaction. Ten-day treatment with CSA (20 mg/kg/day) significantly increased biochemical indices of renal function (serum urea, creatinine), inflammation (interleukin-2, IL-2) and fibrosis (transforming growth factor-?{sub 1}, TGF-?{sub 1}). Histologically, CSA caused renal tubular atrophy along with interstitial fibrosis. These detrimental renal effects of CSA were largely reduced in rats treated concurrently with celecoxib (10 mg/kg/day). We also report that cortical glomerular and medullary tubular protein expressions of COX-2 and ET{sub B} receptors were reduced by CSA and restored to near-control values in rats treated simultaneously with celecoxib. The importance of ET{sub B} receptors in renal control and in the CSA-celecoxib interaction was further verified by the findings (i) most of the adverse biochemical, inflammatory, and histopathological profiles of CSA were replicated in rats treated with the endothelin ET{sub B} receptor antagonist BQ788 (0.1 mg/kg/day, 10 days), and (ii) the BQ788 effects, like those of CSA, were alleviated in rats treated concurrently with celecoxib. Together, the data suggest that the facilitation of the interplay between the TGF-?1/IL-2/COX-2 pathway and the endothelin ET{sub B} receptors constitutes the cellular mechanism by which celecoxib ameliorates the nephrotoxic manifestations of CSA in rats. - Highlights: Celecoxib abolishes nephrotoxic manifestations of CSA in rats. Blockade of ETB receptors by BQ788 mimicked the nephrotoxic effects of CSA. CSA or BQ788 reduces renal protein expression of COX-2 and endothelin ETB receptors. Enhanced TGF?1/IL-2/COX2/ETB signaling

  4. Isotropic Monte Carlo Grain Growth

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2013-04-25

    IMCGG performs Monte Carlo simulations of normal grain growth in metals on a hexagonal grid in two dimensions with periodic boundary conditions. This may be performed with either an isotropic or a misorientation - and incliantion-dependent grain boundary energy.

  5. Study of radial growth rate and size control of silicon nanocrystals in square-wave-modulated silane plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen-Tran, Th.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.; Patriarche, G.

    2007-09-10

    The growth of silicon nanocrystals in high pressure and high dilution silane plasmas is investigated by using the temporal evolution of the self-bias on the radio frequency electrode and transmission electron microscopy. A square-wave-modulated plasma was used in order to control the growth of monodispersed nanoparticles with sizes smaller than 12 nm. To this end, the plasma on time was kept below 1 s. The radial growth rate of nanoparticles was varied in the range from 7.5 to 75 nm/s by changing silane partial pressure. Nanoparticles grown in silane-helium discharges have been found amorphous while they are crystalline in silane-hydrogen-argon discharges. Surprisingly, the crystallization in the gaseous phase does not depend on how slow or fast the particles grow but on the presence of atomic hydrogen.

  6. Conditioning biomass for microbial growth (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conditioning biomass for microbial growth Title: Conditioning biomass for microbial growth You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) DOE Patents. This ...

  7. Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers with Air DC Plasma Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon ...

  8. Another slow year

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This article is a review of the petroleum activity in the Middle East. The article is accompanied by a detailed color map showing the activity in the area. Highlights of the article include the fact that Saudi Arabia's drilling and development activity has sunk to its lowest level in many years. The article also points out that discoveries are increasing production in North and South Yemen as well as in Syria. The article also highlights the fact that Qatar is beginning work on its massive North gas field in the Gulf. Also attention is paid to the effects of the Iranian and Iraq war on each other's oil and gas activities. The article also mentions the drilling activity of Dubai and Oman.

  9. Running Jobs Intermittently Slow

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    happen to jobs having inputoutput on global file systems (project, globalhomes, globalscratch2). It could also happen to aplications using shared libraries, or CCM jobs...

  10. Line-driven winds revisited in the context of Be stars: ?-slow solutions with high k values

    SciTech Connect

    Silaj, J.; Jones, C. E.; Cur, M.

    2014-11-01

    The standard, or fast, solutions of m-CAK line-driven wind theory cannot account for slowly outflowing disks like the ones that surround Be stars. It has been previously shown that there exists another family of solutionsthe ?-slow solutionsthat is characterized by much slower terminal velocities and higher mass-loss rates. We have solved the one-dimensional m-CAK hydrodynamical equation of rotating radiation-driven winds for this latter solution, starting from standard values of the line force parameters (?, k, and ?), and then systematically varying the values of ? and k. Terminal velocities and mass-loss rates that are in good agreement with those found in Be stars are obtained from the solutions with lower ? and higher k values. Furthermore, the equatorial densities of such solutions are comparable to those that are typically assumed in ad hoc models. For very high values of k, we find that the wind solutions exhibit a new kind of behavior.

  11. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF A SLOW-RISE, MULTISTEP X1.6 FLARE AND THE ASSOCIATED ERUPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Yurchyshyn, V.; Kumar, P.; Cho, K.-S.; Lim, E.-K.; Abramenko, V. I.

    2015-10-20

    Using multiwavelength observations, we studied a slow-rise, multistep X1.6 flare that began on 2014 November 7 as a localized eruption of core fields inside a δ-sunspot and later engulfed the entire active region (AR). This flare event was associated with formation of two systems of post-eruption arcades (PEAs) and several J-shaped flare ribbons showing extremely fine details, irreversible changes in the photospheric magnetic fields, and it was accompanied by a fast and wide coronal mass ejection. Data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory and IRIS spacecraft, along with the ground-based data from the New Solar Telescope, present evidence that (i) the flare and the eruption were directly triggered by a flux emergence that occurred inside a δ-sunspot at the boundary between two umbrae; (ii) this event represented an example of the formation of an unstable flux rope observed only in hot AIA channels (131 and 94 Å) and LASCO C2 coronagraph images; (iii) the global PEA spanned the entire AR and was due to global-scale reconnection occurring at heights of about one solar radius, indicating the global spatial and temporal scale of the eruption.

  12. Effect of non-uniform slow wave structure in a relativistic backward wave oscillator with a resonant reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Changhua; Xiao, Renzhen; Sun, Jun; Song, Zhimin; Huo, Shaofei; Bai, Xianchen; Shi, Yanchao; Liu, Guozhi

    2013-11-15

    This paper provides a fresh insight into the effect of non-uniform slow wave structure (SWS) used in a relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) with a resonant reflector. Compared with the uniform SWS, the reflection coefficient of the non-uniform SWS is higher, leading to a lower modulating electric field in the resonant reflector and a larger distance to maximize the modulation current. Moreover, for both types of RBWOs, stronger standing-wave field takes place at the rear part of the SWS. In addition, besides Cerenkov effects, the energy conversion process in the RBWO strongly depends on transit time effects. Thus, the matching condition between the distributions of harmonic current and standing wave field provides a profound influence on the beam-wave interaction. In the non-uniform RBWO, the region with a stronger standing wave field corresponds to a higher fundamental harmonic current distribution. Particle-in-cell simulations show that with a diode voltage of 1.02 MV and beam current of 13.2 kA, a microwave power of 4 GW has been obtained, compared to that of 3 GW in the uniform RBWO.

  13. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-05-09

    A device is described for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient`s skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures. 5 figs.

  14. Nonlinear structural crack growth monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Donald E.; Hively, Lee M.; Holdaway, Ray F.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for the detection, through nonlinear manipulation of data, of an indicator of imminent failure due to crack growth in structural elements. The method is a process of determining energy consumption due to crack growth and correlating the energy consumption with physical phenomena indicative of a failure event. The apparatus includes sensors for sensing physical data factors, processors or the like for computing a relationship between the physical data factors and phenomena indicative of the failure event, and apparatus for providing notification of the characteristics and extent of such phenomena.

  15. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    A device for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient's skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures.

  16. 2015 NREL Industry Growth Forum

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    During NREL’s 2015 Industry Growth Forum, 30 competitively selected clean energy startups will pitch their businesses to investors and compete to win the NREL Best Venture Award.  One of the...

  17. SBA Growth Accelerator Fund Competition

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is accepting applications for the Growth Accelerator Fund Competition to identify the nation's innovative accelerators and similar organizations and award them cash prizes they may use to fund their operations costs and allow them to bring startup competitions to scale and new ideas to life.

  18. Direct flow crystal growth system

    DOEpatents

    Montgomery, Kenneth E.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    1992-01-01

    A crystal is grown in a constantly filtered solution which is flowed directly into the growing face of a crystal. In a continuous flow system, solution at its saturation temperature is removed from a crystal growth tank, heated above its saturation temperature, filtered, cooled back to its saturation temperature, and returned to the tank.

  19. CRACK GROWTH ANALYSIS OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

    2003-10-01

    Defects and Flaws control the structural and functional property of ceramics. In determining the reliability and lifetime of ceramics structures it is very important to quantify the crack growth behavior of the ceramics. In addition, because of the high variability of the strength and the relatively low toughness of ceramics, a statistical design approach is necessary. The statistical nature of the strength of ceramics is currently well recognized, and is usually accounted for by utilizing Weibull or similar statistical distributions. Design tools such as CARES using a combination of strength measurements, stress analysis, and statistics are available and reasonably well developed. These design codes also incorporate material data such as elastic constants as well as flaw distributions and time-dependent properties. The fast fracture reliability for ceramics is often different from their time-dependent reliability. Further confounding the design complexity, the time-dependent reliability varies with the environment/temperature/stress combination. Therefore, it becomes important to be able to accurately determine the behavior of ceramics under simulated application conditions to provide a better prediction of the lifetime and reliability for a given component. In the present study, Yttria stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) of 9.6 mol% Yttria composition was procured in the form of tubes of length 100 mm. The composition is of interest as tubular electrolytes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Rings cut from the tubes were characterized for microstructure, phase stability, mechanical strength (Weibull modulus) and fracture mechanisms. The strength at operating condition of SOFCs (1000 C) decreased to 95 MPa as compared to room temperature strength of 230 MPa. However, the Weibull modulus remains relatively unchanged. Slow crack growth (SCG) parameter, n = 17 evaluated at room temperature in air was representative of well studied brittle materials. Based on the results, further work

  20. Progress on Establishing the Feasibility of Lead Slowing Down Spectroscopy for Direct Measurement of Plutonium in Used Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bowyer, Sonya M.; Casella, Andrew M.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Smith, L. E.; Gavron, A.; Devlin, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Danon, Yaron; Becker, Bjorn; Imel, G. R.; Beller, D.

    2012-07-19

    Developing a method for the accurate, direct, and independent assay of the fissile isotopes in bulk materials (such as used fuel) of next-generation domestic nuclear fuel cycles is a goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle R&D, Material Protection and Control Technology (MPACT) Campaign. To meet this goal, MPACT continues to support a multi-institutional collaboration to address the feasibility of Lead Slowing Down Spectroscopy (LSDS) as an active nondestructive assay method that has the potential to provide independent, direct measurement of Pu and U isotopic masses in used fuel with an uncertainty considerably lower than the approximately 10% typical of today’s confirmatory assay methods. An LSDS is comprised of a stack of lead (typically 1-6 m3) in which materials to be measured are placed in the lead and a pulse of neutrons is injected. The neutrons in this pulse lose energy due to inelastic and (subsequently) elastic scattering and the average energy of the neutrons decreases as the time increases by a well-defined relationship. In the interrogation energy region (~0.1-1000 eV) the neutrons have little energy spread (~30%) about the average neutron energy. Due to this characteristic, the energy of the (assay) neutrons can then be determined by measuring the time elapsed since the neutron pulse. By measuring the induced fission neutrons emitted from the used fuel, it is possible to determine isotopic-mass content by unfolding the unique structure of isotopic resonances across the interrogation energy region. This paper will present efforts on the development of time-spectral analysis algorithms, fast neutron detector advances, and validation and testing measurements.

  1. Method for crystal growth control

    DOEpatents

    Yates, Douglas A.; Hatch, Arthur E.; Goldsmith, Jeff M.

    1981-01-01

    The growth of a crystalline body of a selected material is controlled so that the body has a selected cross-sectional shape. The apparatus is of the type which includes the structure normally employed in known capillary die devices as well as means for observing at least the portion of the surfaces of the growing crystalline body and the meniscus (of melt material from which the body is being pulled) including the solid/liquid/vapor junction in a direction substantially perpendicular to the meniscus surface formed at the junction when the growth of the crystalline body is under steady state conditions. The cross-sectional size of the growing crystalline body can be controlled by determining which points exhibit a sharp change in the amount of reflected radiation of a preselected wavelength and controlling the speed at which the body is being pulled or the temperature of the growth pool of melt so as to maintain those points exhibiting a sharp change at a preselected spatial position relative to a predetermined reference position. The improvement comprises reference object means positioned near the solid/liquid/vapor junction and capable of being observed by the means for observing so as to define said reference position so that the problems associated with convection current jitter are overcome.

  2. Growth and characterization of new semiorganic nonlinear optical and piezoelectric lithium sulfate monohydrate oxalate single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Harsh; Sinha, Nidhi; Kumar, Binay

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • A new semiorganic single crystal of LSO grown by slow evaporation technique. • Morphological studies of the LSO crystal deduced by BFDH law. • In the UV–vis spectrum wide transparent region and large band gap were found. • SHG is equal to KDP crystal and d{sub 33} was found to be equal to 6pC/N. • Grown crystal belongs to softer category. - Abstract: New semiorganic crystal of lithium sulfate monohydrate oxalate (LSO) for nonlinear application was synthesized by controlled slow evaporation method. The growth rate of various planes of the grown crystal was estimated by morphological study. Single crystal XRD analysis confirmed that the crystal belongs to triclinic lattice with space group P1. High transparency (∼95%) with large band gap (4.57 eV) was analyzed by UV–vis studies. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy were used to identify various functional groups present in the LSO crystal. SHG efficiency was found to be equal to the KDP crystal. Thermal stability (up to 117.54 °C) and melting point (242 °C) of the crystal were studied by TG-DTA. In dielectric measurements, the value of dielectric constant decreases with increase in frequency. Hardness studies confirmed soft nature of crystals. The piezoelectric coefficient was found to be 6pC/N along [0 0 1].

  3. Growth rate and the cutoff wavelength of the Darrieus-Landau instability in laser ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Modestov, Mikhail; Bychkov, Vitaly; Valiev, Damir; Marklund, Mattias

    2009-10-15

    The main characteristics of the linear Darrieus-Landau instability in the laser ablation flow are investigated. The dispersion relation of the instability is found numerically as a solution to an eigenvalue stability problem, taking into account the continuous structure of the flow. The results are compared to the classical Darrieus-Landau instability of a usual slow flame. The difference between the two cases is due to the specific features of laser ablation: sonic velocities of hot plasma and strong temperature dependence of thermal conduction. It is demonstrated that the Darrieus-Landau instability in laser ablation is much stronger than in the classical case. In particular, the maximum growth rate in the case of laser ablation is about three times larger than that for slow flames. The characteristic length scale of the Darrieus-Landau instability in the ablation flow is comparable to the total distance from the ablation zone to the critical zone of laser light absorption. The possibility of experimental observations of the Darrieus-Landau instability in laser ablation is discussed.

  4. Sandbag Carbon Offset Map | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Organization: Sandbag Sector: Energy, Land Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Biomass, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Hydrogen, Industry, Solar, Wind Topics: Market analysis...

  5. Homebuyer Solar Option and Solar Offset Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Senate Bill 1 of 2006, which established the statewide California Solar Initiative, also required the California Energy Commission (CEC) to implement regulations that require sellers of production...

  6. Joint implementation: Biodiversity and greenhouse gas offsets

    SciTech Connect

    Cutright, N.J.

    1996-11-01

    One of the most pressing environmental issues today is the possibility that projected increases in global emissions of greenhouse gases form increased deforestation, development, and fossil-fuel combustion could significantly alter global climate patterns. Under the terms of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed in Rio de janeiro during the June 19923 Earth Summit, the United States and other industrialized countries committed to balancing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels in the year 2000. Included in the treaty is a provision titled {open_quotes}Joint Implementation,{close_quotes} whereby industrialized countries assist developing countries in jointly modifying long-term emission trends, either through emission reductions or by protecting and enhancing greenhouse gas sinks (carbon sequestration). The US Climate Action Plan, signed by President Clinton in 1993, calls for voluntary climate change mitigation measures by various sectors, and the action plan included a new program, the US Initiative on Joint Implementation. Wisconsin Electric decided to invest in a JI project because its concept encourages creative, cost-effective solutions to environmental problems through partnering, international cooperation, and innovation. The project chosen, a forest preservation and management effort in Belize, will sequester more than five million tons of carbon dioxide over a 40-year period, will become economically self-sustaining after ten years, and will have substantial biodiversity benefits. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Tremorgenic slow slip regions may be deeper and warmer and may slip slower than nontremorgenic regions

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery-Brown, E. K.; Syracuse, E. M.

    2015-09-17

    The slow slip events (SSEs) are observed worldwide and often coincide with tectonic tremor. Notable examples of SSEs lacking observed tectonic tremor, however, occur beneath Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, the Boso Peninsula, Japan, {near San Juan Bautista on the San Andreas Fault, California, and recently in Central Ecuador. These SSEs are similar to other worldwide SSEs in many ways (e.g., size or duration), but lack the concurrent tectonic tremor observed elsewhere; instead they trigger swarms of regular earthquakes. We investigate the physical conditions that may distinguish these non-tremor-genic SSEs from those associated with tectonic tremor including: slip velocity, pressure, temperature, fluids and fault asperities, although we cannot eliminate the possibility that tectonic tremor may be obscured in highly attenuating regions. Slip velocities of SSEs at Kilauea Volcano (~10?? m/s) and Boso Peninsula (~10?? m/s) are among the fastest SSEs worldwide. Kilauea Volcano, the Boso Peninsula and Central Ecuador are also among the shallowest SSEs worldwide, and thus have lower confining pressures and cooler temperatures in their respective slow slip zones. {Fluids also likely contribute to tremor generation, and no corresponding zone of high vp/vs has been noted at Kilauea or Boso. We suggest that the relatively faster slip velocities at Kilauea Volcano and the Boso Peninsula result from specific physical conditions that may also be responsible for triggering swarms of regular earthquakes adjacent to the slow slip, while different conditions produce slower SSE velocities elsewhere and trigger tectonic tremor.

  8. New Partners for Smart Growth Conference

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Partners for Smart Growth Conference is the nation's largest smart growth and sustainability conference. The three-day conference is themed, "Practical Tools and Innovative Strategies for Creating Great Communities."

  9. Fuel Cell Growth Markets | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Growth Markets Fuel Cell Growth Markets Presented at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held Nov. 16, 2009 htmwg_nov09_fuel_cell_growth.pdf (1.1 MB) More Documents & Publications Accelerated Testing Validation Minutes of the Fall 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop Summary Report

  10. Modeling delamination growth in composites

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, E.D. Jr.; Mello, F.J.

    1996-12-01

    A method for modeling the initiation and growth of discrete delaminations in shell-like composite structures is presented. The laminate is divided into two or more sublaminates, with each sublaminate modeled with four-noded quadrilateral shell elements. A special, eight-noded hex constraint element connects opposing sublaminate shell elements. It supplies the nodal forces and moments needed to make the two opposing shell elements act as a single shell element until a prescribed failure criterion is satisfied. Once the failure criterion is attained, the connection is broken, creating or growing a discrete delamination. This approach has been implemented in a 3D finite element code. This code uses explicit time integration, and can analyze shell-like structures subjected to large deformations and complex contact conditions. The shell elements can use existing composite material models that include in-plane laminate failure modes. This analysis capability was developed to perform crashworthiness studies of composite structures, and is useful whenever there is a need to estimate peak loads, energy absorption, or the final shape of a highly deformed composite structure. This paper describes the eight-noded hex constraint element used to model the initiation and growth of a delamination, and discusses associated implementation issues. Particular attention is focused on the delamination growth criterion, and it is verified that calculated results do not depend on element size. In addition, results for double cantilever beam and end notched flexure specimens are presented and compared to measured data to assess the ability of the present approach to model a growing delamination.

  11. Plenum type crystal growth process

    DOEpatents

    Montgomery, Kenneth E.

    1992-01-01

    Crystals are grown in a tank which is divided by a baffle into a crystal growth region above the baffle and a plenum region below the baffle. A turbine blade or stirring wheel is positioned in a turbine tube which extends through the baffle to generate a flow of solution from the crystal growing region to the plenum region. The solution is pressurized as it flows into the plenum region. The pressurized solution flows back to the crystal growing region through return flow tubes extending through the baffle. Growing crystals are positioned near the ends of the return flow tubes to receive a direct flow of solution.

  12. LanzaTech- Capturing Carbon. Fueling Growth.

    SciTech Connect

    2014-03-07

    LanzaTech will design a gas fermentation system that will significantly improve the rate at which methane gas is delivered to a biocatalyst. Current gas fermentation processes are not cost effective compared to other gas-to-liquid technologies because they are too slow for large-scale production. If successful, LanzaTech's system will process large amounts of methane at a high rate, reducing the energy inputs and costs associated with methane conversion.

  13. LanzaTech- Capturing Carbon. Fueling Growth.

    ScienceCinema

    NONE

    2016-07-12

    LanzaTech will design a gas fermentation system that will significantly improve the rate at which methane gas is delivered to a biocatalyst. Current gas fermentation processes are not cost effective compared to other gas-to-liquid technologies because they are too slow for large-scale production. If successful, LanzaTech's system will process large amounts of methane at a high rate, reducing the energy inputs and costs associated with methane conversion.

  14. Method of monitoring crystal growth

    DOEpatents

    Sachs, Emanual M.

    1982-01-01

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring the growth of a crystalline body from a liquid meniscus in a furnace. The system provides an improved human/machine interface so as to reduce operator stress, strain and fatigue while improving the conditions for observation and control of the growing process. The system comprises suitable optics for forming an image of the meniscus and body wherein the image is anamorphic so that the entire meniscus can be viewed with good resolution in both the width and height dimensions. The system also comprises a video display for displaying the anamorphic image. The video display includes means for enhancing the contrast between any two contrasting points in the image. The video display also comprises a signal averager for averaging the intensity of at least one preselected portions of the image. The value of the average intensity, can in turn be utilized to control the growth of the body. The system and method are also capable of observing and monitoring multiple processes.

  15. Apparatus for monitoring crystal growth

    DOEpatents

    Sachs, Emanual M.

    1981-01-01

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring the growth of a crystalline body from a liquid meniscus in a furnace. The system provides an improved human/machine interface so as to reduce operator stress, strain and fatigue while improving the conditions for observation and control of the growing process. The system comprises suitable optics for forming an image of the meniscus and body wherein the image is anamorphic so that the entire meniscus can be viewed with good resolution in both the width and height dimensions. The system also comprises a video display for displaying the anamorphic image. The video display includes means for enhancing the contrast between any two contrasting points in the image. The video display also comprises a signal averager for averaging the intensity of at least one preselected portions of the image. The value of the average intensity, can in turn be utilized to control the growth of the body. The system and method are also capable of observing and monitoring multiple processes.

  16. Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and Developing New Growth Engines Jump to: navigation, search Name Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change...

  17. Geological pattern formation by growth and dissolution in aqueous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Meakin

    2010-03-01

    Although many geological processes take place on time scales that are very long compared with the human experience, essentially all geological processes, fast or slow, are far from equilibrium processes. Surprisingly often, geological processes lead to the formation of quite simple and distinctive patterns, which hint at an underlying simplicity in many complex geological systems.. The ability to predict the seasons was critically important to early human society, and Halley’s prediction of the return of the comet that bears his name is still considered to be a scientific milestone. Spatial patterns have also attracted attention because of their aesthetic appeal, which depends in subtle ways on a combination of regularity and irregularity. In recent decades, rapid growth in the capabilities of digital computers has facilitated the simulation of pattern formation processes, and computer simulations have become an important tool for evaluating theoretical concepts and for scientific discovery. Computer technology in combination with other technologies such as high resolution digital cameras, scanning microprobes (atomic force microscopy AFM), confocal microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), for example) has facilitated the quantitative characterization of patterns over a wide range of scales and has enabled rapid advances in our ability to understand the links between large scale pattern formation and microscopic processes. The ability to quantitatively characterize patterns is important because it enables a more rigorous comparison between the predictions of computer models and real world patterns and their formation.In some cases, the idea that patterns with a high degree of regularity have simple origins appears to be justified, but in other cases, such as the formation of almost perfectly circular stone rings due to freeze-thaw cycles simple patterns appear to be the consequence of quite complex processes. In other cases, it has been shown that

  18. Growth of a tectonic ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, R.W.; Messerich, J.A.; Johnson, A.M.

    1997-12-31

    The 28 June 1992 Landers, California, earthquake of M 7.6 created an impressive record of surface rupture and ground deformation. Fractures extend over a length of more than 80 km including zones of right-lateral shift, steps in the fault zones, fault intersections and vertical changes. Among the vertical changes was the growth of a tectonic ridge described here. In this paper the authors describe the Emerson fault zone and the Tortoise Hill ridge including the relations between the fault zone and the ridge. They present data on the horizontal deformation at several scales associated with activity within the ridge and belt of shear zones and show the differential vertical uplifts. And, they conclude with a discussion of potential models for the observed deformation.

  19. Well having inhibited microbial growth

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Brady D.; Dooley, Kirk J.

    2006-08-15

    The invention includes methods of inhibiting microbial growth in a well. A packing material containing a mixture of a first material and an antimicrobial agent is provided to at least partially fill a well bore. One or more access tubes are provided in an annular space around a casing within the well bore. The access tubes have a first terminal opening located at or above a ground surface and have a length that extends from the first terminal opening at least part of the depth of the well bore. The access tubes have a second terminal opening located within the well bore. An antimicrobial material is supplied into the well bore through the first terminal opening of the access tubes. The invention also includes well constructs.

  20. Conditioning biomass for microbial growth

    DOEpatents

    Bodie, Elizabeth A; England, George

    2015-03-31

    The present invention relates to methods for improving the yield of microbial processes that use lignocellulose biomass as a nutrient source. The methods comprise conditioning a composition comprising lignocellulose biomass with an enzyme composition that comprises a phenol oxidizing enzyme. The conditioned composition can support a higher rate of growth of microorganisms in a process. In one embodiment, a laccase composition is used to condition lignocellulose biomass derived from non-woody plants, such as corn and sugar cane. The invention also encompasses methods for culturing microorganisms that are sensitive to inhibitory compounds in lignocellulose biomass. The invention further provides methods of making a product by culturing the production microorganisms in conditioned lignocellulose biomass.

  1. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOEpatents

    Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    1992-07-21

    A method is disclosed for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B[sub x]O[sub y] are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T[sub m1] of the oxide of boron (T[sub m1]=723 K for boron oxide B[sub 2]O[sub 3]), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T[sub m2] of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm[sup 2]. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 [mu]m. 7 figs.

  2. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOEpatents

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.

    1992-01-01

    A method for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B.sub.x O.sub.y are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T.sub.m1 of the oxide of boron (T.sub.m1 =723.degree. K. for boron oxide B.sub.2 O.sub.3), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T.sub.m2 of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm.sup.2. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 .mu.m.

  3. Tremor–genic slow slip regions may be deeper and warmer and may slip slower than non–tremor–genic regions

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Montgomery-Brown, E. K.; Syracuse, E. M.

    2015-09-17

    The slow slip events (SSEs) are observed worldwide and often coincide with tectonic tremor. Notable examples of SSEs lacking observed tectonic tremor, however, occur beneath Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, the Boso Peninsula, Japan, {near San Juan Bautista on the San Andreas Fault, California, and recently in Central Ecuador. These SSEs are similar to other worldwide SSEs in many ways (e.g., size or duration), but lack the concurrent tectonic tremor observed elsewhere; instead they trigger swarms of regular earthquakes. We investigate the physical conditions that may distinguish these non-tremor-genic SSEs from those associated with tectonic tremor including: slip velocity, pressure, temperature, fluidsmore » and fault asperities, although we cannot eliminate the possibility that tectonic tremor may be obscured in highly attenuating regions. Slip velocities of SSEs at Kilauea Volcano (~10⁻⁶ m/s) and Boso Peninsula (~10⁻⁷ m/s) are among the fastest SSEs worldwide. Kilauea Volcano, the Boso Peninsula and Central Ecuador are also among the shallowest SSEs worldwide, and thus have lower confining pressures and cooler temperatures in their respective slow slip zones. {Fluids also likely contribute to tremor generation, and no corresponding zone of high vp/vs has been noted at Kilauea or Boso. We suggest that the relatively faster slip velocities at Kilauea Volcano and the Boso Peninsula result from specific physical conditions that may also be responsible for triggering swarms of regular earthquakes adjacent to the slow slip, while different conditions produce slower SSE velocities elsewhere and trigger tectonic tremor.« less

  4. Tremor–genic slow slip regions may be deeper and warmer and may slip slower than non–tremor–genic regions

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery-Brown, E. K.; Syracuse, E. M.

    2015-09-17

    The slow slip events (SSEs) are observed worldwide and often coincide with tectonic tremor. Notable examples of SSEs lacking observed tectonic tremor, however, occur beneath Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, the Boso Peninsula, Japan, {near San Juan Bautista on the San Andreas Fault, California, and recently in Central Ecuador. These SSEs are similar to other worldwide SSEs in many ways (e.g., size or duration), but lack the concurrent tectonic tremor observed elsewhere; instead they trigger swarms of regular earthquakes. We investigate the physical conditions that may distinguish these non-tremor-genic SSEs from those associated with tectonic tremor including: slip velocity, pressure, temperature, fluids and fault asperities, although we cannot eliminate the possibility that tectonic tremor may be obscured in highly attenuating regions. Slip velocities of SSEs at Kilauea Volcano (~10⁻⁶ m/s) and Boso Peninsula (~10⁻⁷ m/s) are among the fastest SSEs worldwide. Kilauea Volcano, the Boso Peninsula and Central Ecuador are also among the shallowest SSEs worldwide, and thus have lower confining pressures and cooler temperatures in their respective slow slip zones. {Fluids also likely contribute to tremor generation, and no corresponding zone of high vp/vs has been noted at Kilauea or Boso. We suggest that the relatively faster slip velocities at Kilauea Volcano and the Boso Peninsula result from specific physical conditions that may also be responsible for triggering swarms of regular earthquakes adjacent to the slow slip, while different conditions produce slower SSE velocities elsewhere and trigger tectonic tremor.

  5. Comparing range data across the slow-time dimension to correct motion measurement errors beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W. (Albuquerque, NM); Heard, Freddie E. (Albuquerque, NM); Cordaro, J. Thomas (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-08-17

    Motion measurement errors that extend beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be corrected by effectively decreasing the range resolution of the SAR in order to permit measurement of the error. Range profiles can be compared across the slow-time dimension of the input data in order to estimate the error. Once the error has been determined, appropriate frequency and phase correction can be applied to the uncompressed input data, after which range and azimuth compression can be performed to produce a desired SAR image.

  6. ARM - Lesson Plans: Rate of Coral Growth

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Rate of Coral Growth Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Rate of Coral Growth Objective The objective is to understand the fact that the growth of coral depends on water depth and the effect of sea level changes on corals. Materials Each student or group of students

  7. Synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOEpatents

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2007-01-23

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain that binds a heparin-binding growth factor receptor, covalently bound to a hydrophobic linker, which is in turn covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  8. Conditioning biomass for microbial growth (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conditioning biomass for microbial growth Title: Conditioning biomass for microbial growth The present invention relates to methods for improving the yield of microbial processes that use lignocellulose biomass as a nutrient source. The methods comprise conditioning a composition comprising lignocellulose biomass with an enzyme composition that comprises a phenol oxidizing enzyme. The conditioned composition can support a higher rate of growth of microorganisms in a process. In one embodiment, a

  9. VP 100: Growth in solar means growth in Ohio | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Growth in solar means growth in Ohio VP 100: Growth in solar means growth in Ohio October 6, 2010 - 10:57am Addthis DuPont is betting on major growth in the market for solar energy -- and therefore for its Tedlar film, a durable backing for silicon solar panels. | Photo Courtesy of DuPont DuPont is betting on major growth in the market for solar energy -- and therefore for its Tedlar film, a durable backing for silicon solar panels. | Photo Courtesy of DuPont Lorelei Laird Writer, Energy

  10. GROWTH AND ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON NANOSPIKE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: GROWTH AND ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON NANOSPIKE THIN FILM ELECTRODES Authors: Sheridan, Leah B 1 ; Hensley, Dale K 1 ; Lavrik, Nickolay V 1 ; Smith, ...

  11. "Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    9, 2012, 4:15pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium "Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection", Dr. Bryan Czech, resident, Center for the Advancement of the Steady State...

  12. Crystallographic evidence for simultaneous growth in graphic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Crystallographic evidence for simultaneous growth in graphic granite ... Publication Date: 2015-08-21 OSTI Identifier: 1178828 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  13. The slow ionized wind and rotating disklike system that are associated with the high-mass young stellar object G345.4938+01.4677

    SciTech Connect

    Guzmn, Andrs E.; Garay, Guido; Bronfman, Leonardo; Mardones, Diego; Rodrguez, Luis F.; Moran, James; Brooks, Kate J.; Nyman, Lars-ke; Sanhueza, Patricio

    2014-12-01

    We report the detection, made using ALMA, of the 92 GHz continuum and hydrogen recombination lines (HRLs) H40?, H42?, and H50? emission toward the ionized wind associated with the high-mass young stellar object G345.4938+01.4677. This is the luminous central dominating source located in the massive and dense molecular clump associated with IRAS 165623959. The HRLs exhibit Voigt profiles, which is a strong signature of Stark broadening. We successfully reproduce the observed continuum and HRLs simultaneously using a simple model of a slow ionized wind in local thermodynamic equilibrium, with no need for a high-velocity component. The Lorentzian line wings imply electron densities of 5 10{sup 7} cm{sup 3} on average. In addition, we detect SO and SO{sub 2} emission arising from a compact (?3000 AU) molecular core associated with the central young star. The molecular core exhibits a velocity gradient that is perpendicular to the jet-axis, which we interpret as evidence of rotation. The set of observations toward G345.4938+01.4677 are consistent with it being a young high-mass star associated with a slow photo-ionized wind.

  14. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to the electrical treatment of biological tissue. In particular, the present invention discloses a device that produces discrete electrical pulse trains for treating osteoporosis and accelerating bone growth. According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention consists of an electrical circuit configuration capable of generating Bassett-type waveforms shown with alternative signals provide for the treatment of either fractured bones or osteoporosis. The signal generator comprises a quartz clock, an oscillator circuit, a binary divider chain, and a plurality of simple, digital logic gates. Signals are delivered efficiently, with little or no distortion, and uniformly distributed throughout the area of injury. Perferably, power is furnished by widely available and inexpensive radio batteries, needing replacement only once in several days. The present invention can be affixed to a medical cast without a great increase in either weight or bulk. Also, the disclosed stimulator can be used to treat osteoporosis or to strengthen a healing bone after the cast has been removed by attaching the device to the patient`s skin or clothing.

  15. Molecular analyses of nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions affecting plant growth and yield. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, K.J.

    1998-11-01

    Mitochondria have a central role in the production of cellular energy. The biogenesis and functioning of mitochondria depends on the expression of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. One approach to investigating the role of nuclear-mitochondrial cooperation in plant growth and development is to identify combinations of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes that result in altered but sublethal phenotypes. Plants that have certain maize nuclear genotypes in combination with cytoplasmic genomes from more distantly-related teosintes can exhibit incompatible phenotypes, such as reduced plant growth and yield and cytoplasmic male sterility, as well as altered mitochondrial gene expression. The characterization of these nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions was the focus of this grant. The authors were investigating the effects of two maize nuclear genes, RcmI and Mct, on mitochondrial function and gene expression. Plants with the teosinte cytoplasms and homozygous for the recessive rcm allele are small (miniature) and-slow-growing and the kernels are reduced in size. The authors mapped this locus to molecular markers on chromosome 7 and attempted to clone this locus by transposon tagging. The effects of the nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction on mitochondrial function and mitochondrial protein profiles were also studied.

  16. Particle growth in silane-hydrogen discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Kujundzic, Damir; Gallagher, Alan

    2006-02-01

    The growth of silicon particles has been measured in silane-hydrogen radio-frequency (rf) discharges using a typical hydrogen/silane dilution ratio (20) and the pressure range (1.2-2.2 Torr) used for the production of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films and devices. By operating brief discharges without gas flow, the particle size is obtained from the afterglow diffusion and the particle density from the scattered-light intensity. These small-reactor data thus provide the expected particle size and density versus location-in a commercial large-area-isothermal-flowing-gas reactor. Particle growth rate is a strong function of pressure, whereas film growth rate is almost independent of pressure. Both growth rates are sensitive to rf voltage, although particle growth is more sensitive.

  17. Guidance for growth factors, projections, and control strategies for the 15 percent rate-of-progress plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Section 182(b)(1) of the Clean Air Act (Act) requires all ozone nonattainment areas classified as moderate and above to submit a State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision by November 15, 1993, which describes, in part, how the areas will achieve an actual volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions reduction of at least 15 percent during the first 6 years after enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). In addition, the SIP revision must describe how any growth in emissions from 1990 through 1996 will be fully offset. It is important to note that section 182(b)(1) also requires the SIP for moderate areas to provide for reductions in VOC and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions as necessary to attain the national primary ambient air quality standard for ozone by November 15, 1996. The guidance document focuses on the procedures for developing 1996 projected emissions inventories and control measures which moderate and above ozone nonattainment areas must include in their rate-of-progress plans. The document provides technical guidance to support the policy presented in the 'General Preamble: Implementation of Title I of the CAAA of 1990' (57 FR 13498).

  18. Effect of the size of experimental channels of the lead slowing-down spectrometer SVZ-100 (Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow) on the moderation constant

    SciTech Connect

    Latysheva, L. N.; Bergman, A. A.; Sobolevsky, N. M.; Ilic, R. D.

    2013-04-15

    Lead slowing-down (LSD) spectrometers have a low energy resolution (about 30%), but their luminosity is 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} times higher than that of time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometers. A high luminosity of LSD spectrometers makes it possible to use them to measure neutron cross section for samples of mass about several micrograms. These features specify a niche for the application of LSD spectrometers in measuring neutron cross sections for elements hardly available in macroscopic amounts-in particular, for actinides. A mathematical simulation of the parameters of SVZ-100 LSD spectrometer of the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR, Moscow) is performed in the present study on the basis of the MCNPX code. It is found that the moderation constant, which is the main parameter of LSD spectrometers, is highly sensitive to the size and shape of detecting volumes in calculations and, hence, to the real size of experimental channels of the LSD spectrometer.

  19. Appendix B: High Economic Growth case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    B High Economic Growth case projections This page inTenTionally lefT blank 43 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 High Economic Growth case projections Table B1. World total primary energy consumption by region, High Economic Growth case, 2011-40 (quadrillion Btu) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 120.6 118.1 128.2 132.3 137.0 142.4 150.1 0.9 United States a 96.8 94.4

  20. Understanding Ice Supersaturation, Particle Growth, and Number Concentration in Cirrus Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Comstock, Jennifer M.; Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David O.; Yang, P.

    2008-12-10

    Many factors control the ice supersaturation and microphysical properties in cirrus clouds. We explore the effects of dynamic forcing, ice nucleation mechanisms, and ice crystal growth rate on the evolution and distribution of water vapor and cloud properties in cirrus clouds using a detailed microphysical model and remote sensing measurements obtained at the Department of Energys Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility located near Lamont, OK. To help understand dynamic scales important in cirrus formation, we force the model using both large-scale forcing derived using ARM variational analysis, and mean mesoscale velocity derived from radar Doppler velocity measurements. Both heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation processes are explored, where we have implemented a rigorous classical theory heterogeneous nucleation scheme to compare with empirical representations. We evaluate model simulations by examining both bulk cloud properties and distributions of measured radar reflectivity, lidar extinction, and water vapor profiles, as well as retrieved cloud microphysical properties. This approach allows for independent verification of both the large and small particle modes of the particle size distribution. Our results suggest that mesoscale variability is the primary mechanism needed to reproduce observed quantities, while nucleation mechanism is secondary. Slow ice crystal growth tends to overestimate the number of small ice crystals, but does not seem to influence bulk properties such as ice water path and cloud thickness. The most realistic simulations as compared with observations are forced using mesoscale waves, include fast ice crystal growth, and initiate ice by either homogeneous or heterogeneous nucleation. Ice crystal number concentrations on the order of 10-100 L-1 produce results consistent with both lidar and radar observations during a cirrus event observed on 7 December 1999, which has an optical depth range typical of

  1. Geothermal Energy Growth Continues, Industry Survey Reports

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A survey released by the Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) shows continued growth in the number of new geothermal power projects under development in the United States, a 20% increase since January of this year.

  2. Growth, structural and optical characterization of L-histidine 4-nitrophenolate (LHPNP) single crystals for NLO applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevan, M.; Ramachandran, K.; Anandan, P.; Arivanandhan, M. E-mail: royhaya@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp; Hayakawa, Y. E-mail: royhaya@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp

    2014-10-15

    Using slow evaporation solution growth technique, single crystals of L-histidine-4-nitro phenolate has been grown from the solution. Structural analyses were carried out by powder x-ray diffraction, FT-Raman, Fourier Transform Infrared and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectral methods to conform the grown crystals. Thermal stability of the grown crystals was studied by thermo-gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA). UV-Vis spectral analysis has been carried out to find the transparency of the grown crystal. Nonlinear optical property has been confirmed by Kurtz powder technique. The PL measurements were carried out in Perkin Elmer LS 55 Luminescence spectrometer using 410 nm as excitation wavelength. The observed properties have confirmed that the grown crystal is suitable for nonlinear optical applications.

  3. Faster plant growth in a safe, economical way

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Faster plant growth in a safe, economical way Faster plant growth in a safe, economical way When applied to plants, Take-Off(tm) speeds crop emergence, increases growth rates and ...

  4. Apparatus for silicon web growth of higher output and improved growth stability

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Charles S.; Piotrowski, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    This disclosure describes an apparatus to improve the web growth attainable from prior web growth configurations. This apparatus modifies the heat loss at the growth interface in a manner that minimizes thickness variations across the web, especially regions of the web adjacent to the two bounding dendrites. In the unmodified configuration, thinned regions of web, adjacent to the dendrites, were found to be the origin of crystal degradation which ultimately led to termination of the web growth. According to the present invention, thinning adjacent to the dendrites is reduced and the incidence of crystal degradation is similarly reduced.

  5. Republic of Macedonia-Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Republic of Macedonia-Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program AgencyCompany Organization Energy...

  6. Growth morphology and properties of metals on graphene (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Growth morphology and properties of metals on graphene Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on December 1, 2016 Title: Growth morphology ...

  7. Low Carbon Growth: a Potential Path for Mexico - GHG Abatement...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    "ESMAP Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program" Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLowCarbonGrowth:aPotentialPathforMexico-GHGAbatementCostCurve&...

  8. ClimateWorks-Egypt-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    ClimateWorks-Egypt-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Retrieved from "http:...

  9. Enhancing Plant Growth and Stress Tolerance through Use of Fungi...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Enhancing Plant Growth and Stress Tolerance through Use of Fungi and Bacteria that Comprise Plant Microbiomes Enhancing Plant Growth and Stress Tolerance through Use of Fungi and ...

  10. Low Carbon Green Growth: Integrated Policy Approach to Climate...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Growth: Integrated Policy Approach to Climate Change for Asia-Pacific Developing Countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Low Carbon Green Growth:...

  11. Ghana Goes for Green Growth: National Engagement on Climate Change...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Ghana Goes for Green Growth: National Engagement on Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Ghana Goes for Green Growth: National Engagement on...

  12. Thailand-Green Growth Planning | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search Name Thailand-Green Growth Planning AgencyCompany Organization Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) Partner Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA)...

  13. Cambodia-Green Growth Planning | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search Name Cambodia-Green Growth Planning AgencyCompany Organization Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) Partner Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA)...

  14. Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    "GGGI is dedicated to pioneering and diffusing a new model of economic growth, known as "green growth," that simultaneously targets key aspects of economic performance, such as...

  15. Green Growth e-Learning | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Green Growth e-Learning AgencyCompany Organization: Green Growth Best Practice Initiative (GGBPI) Focus Area: Economic Development, Energy...

  16. Peru-Green Growth Planning | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    navigation, search Name Peru-Green Growth Planning AgencyCompany Organization Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) Partner Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA)...

  17. Jordan-Green Growth Planning | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    navigation, search Name Jordan-Green Growth Planning AgencyCompany Organization Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) Partner Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA)...

  18. Ethiopia-Green Growth Planning | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search Name Ethiopia-Green Growth Planning AgencyCompany Organization Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI), Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) Partner...

  19. Neutrino mass, dark energy, and the linear growth factor (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    dark energy, and the linear growth factor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutrino mass, dark energy, and the linear growth factor We study the degeneracies between ...

  20. Atomistic mechanisms for bilayer growth of graphene on metal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atomistic mechanisms for bilayer growth of graphene on metal substrates Title: Atomistic mechanisms for bilayer growth of graphene on metal substrates Authors: Chen, Wei ; Cui, ...

  1. Suppression of Grain Boundaries in Graphene Growth on Superstructured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Suppression of Grain Boundaries in Graphene Growth on Superstructured Mn-Cu(111) Surface Title: Suppression of Grain Boundaries in Graphene Growth on Superstructured Mn-Cu(111) ...

  2. Nanoparticles to Mitigate Biofilm Growth. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoparticles to Mitigate Biofilm Growth. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoparticles to Mitigate Biofilm Growth. Abstract not provided. Authors: Altman, Susan Jeanne ...

  3. From Climate Finance to Financing Green Growth | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    green growth and the importance of developing the right policies to support a transition towards the low carbon economy. It assesses the financing needs of green growth in...

  4. Indonesia-Low Carbon Growth Project | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Growth Project Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia Low Carbon Growth Project AgencyCompany Organization United Kingdom Department for International Development Partner...

  5. Kenya-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name Kenya-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks, Project...

  6. India-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name India-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks, Project...

  7. Brazil-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name Brazil-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks, Project...

  8. Poland-Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Poland-Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program AgencyCompany Organization Energy Sector Management...

  9. Guyana-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name Guyana-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks, Project...

  10. Mexico-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks, Project...

  11. Malaysia-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Malaysia-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name Malaysia-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks,...

  12. Indonesia-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks, Project...

  13. Egypt-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name Egypt-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks, Project...

  14. Ethiopia-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Ethiopia-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name Ethiopia-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks,...

  15. Understanding Cost Growth and Performance Shortfalls in Pioneer...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Cost Growth and Performance Shortfalls in Pioneer Process Plants Understanding Cost Growth and Performance Shortfalls in Pioneer Process Plants This report presents an empirical ...

  16. China-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name China-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks, Project...

  17. Innovation Ecosystems Spur Rapid Growth for Startups, Entrepreneurs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Innovation Ecosystems Spur Rapid Growth for Startups, Entrepreneurs Innovation Ecosystems Spur Rapid Growth for Startups, Entrepreneurs September 14, 2011 - 4:22pm Addthis Rich ...

  18. Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons Learned Roadmap for Infrastructure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons Learned Roadmap for Infrastructure Development Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons Learned Roadmap for Infrastructure Development Presented at ...

  19. Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin films Prev Next Title: Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin films Authors: Lee, Shinbuhm ...

  20. OECD-Fostering Innovation for Green Growth | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Fostering Innovation for Green Growth Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: OECD-Fostering Innovation for Green Growth AgencyCompany Organization:...

  1. Underwater slow current turbo generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wracsaricht, L.J.

    1981-12-15

    A self-contained electrical generating device for placement in a naturally flowing stream. The generating device converts the kinetic energy generated by fluid flow or gravity contained within the flowing stream whether river or ocean current into useful electric energy using blade configuration and placement to maximize the usable energy. The present invention also using auxiliary means to increase the rate of flow of the fluid by the blades of the generator thus increasing the energy capable of conversion. The rotor and the stator are located radially outwardly from the rotating hub of the generating system and are supported by spoke like legs thus greatly reducing any resistance to water flow, minimizing the disturbance to the flowing stream and maximizing the relative linear velocity between the rotor and the stator.

  2. Economic growth, carrying capacity, and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Arrow, K.; Bolin, B.; Costanza, R.; Dasgupta, P.; Folke, C.; Maeler, K.G.; Holling, C.S.; Jansson, B.O.; Levin, S.; Perrings, C.

    1995-04-28

    National and international economic policy has usually ignored the environment. In areas where the environment is beginning to impinge on policy, as in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), it remains a tangential concern, and the presumption is often made that economic growth and economic liberalization (including the liberalization of international trade) are, in some sense, good for the environment. This notion has meant that economy-wide policy reforms designed to promote growth and liberalization have been encouraged with little regard to their environmental consequences, presumably on the assumption that these consequences would either take care of themselves or could be dealt with separately. In this article, we discuss the relation between economic growth and environmental quality, and the link between economic activity and the carrying capacity and resilience of the environment.

  3. Role of nucleation in nanodiamond film growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lifshitz, Y.; Lee, C.H.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, W.J.; Bello, I.; Lee, S.T.

    2006-06-12

    Nanodiamond films were deposited using different microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition schemes following several nucleation pretreatment methods. The nucleation efficiency and the films structure were investigated using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. C{sub 2} dimer growth (CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2} in 90% Ar) cannot nucleate diamond and works only on existing diamond surfaces. The methyl radical process (up to 20% CH{sub 4} in H{sub 2}) allows some nucleation probability on appropriate substrates. Prolonged bias enhanced nucleation initiates both diamond nucleation and growth. C{sub 2} dimer growth results in pure nanodiamond free of amorphous carbon, while prolonged bias enhanced nucleation forms an amorphous carbon/nanodiamond composite.

  4. Creep crack growth in ductile alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Argon, A.S.; Lau, C.W.; Ozmat, B.; Parks, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Creep crack growth in ductile alloys involves considerable fragmentation of the crack tip region in its early phases of growth. This is a result of the defocusing action of crack tip blunting by both distortional and cavitational strains on the distribution of intergranular creep damage and is affected significantly by the initial sharpness of the crack. Specific models of intergranular damage combining non-steady creep flow, evolution and growth of grain boundary facet cracks in the inelastic deformation field leading to final fracture have been developed. When used in conjunction with finite element programs for crack tips, these damage models can explain such crack extension modes. The combination of mechanistic three dimensional damage models and large strain finite element codes, promise to be of wide-spread utility in predicting the development of creep damage under complex loading histories.

  5. Efg Crystal Growth Apparatus And Method

    DOEpatents

    Mackintosh, Brian H.; Ouellette, Marc

    2003-05-13

    An improved mechanical arrangement controls the introduction of silicon particles into an EFG (Edge-defined Film-fed Growth) crucible/die unit for melt replenishment during a crystal growth run. A feeder unit injects silicon particles upwardly through a center hub of the crucible/die unit and the mechanical arrangement intercepts the injected particles and directs them so that they drop into the melt in a selected region of the crucible and at velocity which reduces splashing, whereby to reduce the likelihood of interruption of the growth process due to formation of a solid mass of silicon on the center hub and adjoining components. The invention also comprises use of a Faraday ring to alter the ratio of the electrical currents flowing through primary and secondary induction heating coils that heat the crucible die unit and the mechanical arrangement.

  6. Crystal growth and annealing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gianoulakis, Steven E.; Sparrow, Robert

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for producing crystals that minimizes birefringence even at large crystal sizes, and is suitable for production of CaF.sub.2 crystals. The method of the present invention comprises annealing a crystal by maintaining a minimal temperature gradient in the crystal while slowly reducing the bulk temperature of the crystal. An apparatus according to the present invention includes a thermal control system added to a crystal growth and annealing apparatus, wherein the thermal control system allows a temperature gradient during crystal growth but minimizes the temperature gradient during crystal annealing. An embodiment of the present invention comprises a secondary heater incorporated into a conventional crystal growth and annealing apparatus. The secondary heater supplies heat to minimize the temperature gradients in the crystal during the annealing process. The secondary heater can mount near the bottom of the crucible to effectively maintain appropriate temperature gradients.

  7. Growth Kinetics and Modeling of Direct Oxynitride Growth with NO-O2 Gas Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Everist, Sarah; Nelson, Jerry; Sharangpani, Rahul; Smith, Paul Martin; Tay, Sing-Pin; Thakur, Randhir

    1999-05-03

    We have modeled growth kinetics of oxynitrides grown in NO-O2 gas mixtures from first principles using modified Deal-Grove equations. Retardation of oxygen diffusion through the nitrided dielectric was assumed to be the dominant growth-limiting step. The model was validated against experimentally obtained curves with good agreement. Excellent uniformity, which exceeded expected walues, was observed.

  8. On the Issue of the {zeta} series convergence and loop corrections in the generation of observable primordial non-Gaussianity in slow-roll inflation. II. The trispectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Yeinzon; Valenzuela-Toledo, Cesar A.

    2010-01-15

    We calculate the trispectrum T{sub {zeta}}of the primordial curvature perturbation {zeta}, generated during a slow-roll inflationary epoch by considering a two-field quadratic model of inflation with canonical kinetic terms. We consider loop contributions as well as tree-level terms, and show that it is possible to attain very high, including observable, values for the level of non-Gaussianity {tau}{sub NL} if T{sub {zeta}}is dominated by the one-loop contribution. Special attention is paid to the claim in J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 02 (2009) 017 that, in the model studied in this paper and for the specific inflationary trajectory we choose, the quantum fluctuations of the fields overwhelm the classical evolution. We argue that such a claim actually does not apply to our model, although more research is needed in order to understand the role of quantum diffusion. We also consider the probability that an observer in an ensemble of realizations of the density field sees a non-Gaussian distribution. In that respect, we show that the probability associated to the chosen inflationary trajectory is non-negligible. Finally, the levels of non-Gaussianity f{sub NL} and {tau}{sub NL} in the bispectrum B{sub {zeta}}and trispectrum T{sub {zeta}}of {zeta}, respectively, are also studied for the case in which {zeta} is not generated during inflation.

  9. Study on the mechanism of diametral cladding strain and mixed-oxide fuel element breaching in slow-ramp extended overpower transients

    SciTech Connect

    Tomoyuki Uwaba; Seiichiro Maeda; Tomoyasu Mizuno; Melissa C. Teague

    2012-10-01

    Cladding strain caused by fuel/cladding mechanical interaction (FCMI) was evaluated for mixed-oxide fuel elements subjected to 7090% slow-ramp extended overpower transient tests in the experimental breeder reactor II. Calculated transient-induced cladding strains were correlated with cumulative damage fractions (CDFs) using cladding strength correlations. In a breached high-smeared density solid fuel element with low strength cladding, cladding thermal creep strain was significantly increased to approximately half the transient-induced cladding strain that was considered to be caused by the tertiary creep when the CDF was close to the breach criterion (=1.0), with the remaining strain due to instantaneous plastic deformation. In low-smeared density annular fuel elements, FCMI load was significantly mitigated and resulted in little cladding strain. The CDFs of the annular fuel elements were lower than 0.01 at the end of the overpower transient, indicating a substantial margin to breach. A substantial margin to breach was also maintained in a high-smeared density fuel element with high strength cladding.

  10. Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculants for enhancing plant growth

    DOEpatents

    Triplett, Eric W.; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; Chelius, Marisa K.

    2008-07-01

    A biological inoculant for enhancing the growth of plants is disclosed. The inoculant includes the bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101, Pantoea agglomerans P102, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Klebsiella pneumoniae zmvsy, Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z152, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PA15, with or without a carrier. The inoculant also includes strains of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and K. pneumoniae which are able to enhance the growth of cereal grasses. Also disclosed are the novel bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101 and P102, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and zmvsy.

  11. Direct growth of graphene on Si(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Thanh Trung, Pham Joucken, Frdric; Colomer, Jean-Franois; Robert, Sporken; Campos-Delgado, Jessica; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Hackens, Benot; Santos, Cristiane N.

    2014-06-14

    Due to the need of integrated circuit in the current silicon technology, the formation of graphene on Si wafer is highly desirable, but is still a challenge for the scientific community. In this context, we report the direct growth of graphene on Si(111) wafer under appropriate conditions using an electron beam evaporator. The structural quality of the material is investigated in detail by reflection high energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Our experimental results confirm that the quality of graphene is strongly dependent on the growth time during carbon atoms deposition.

  12. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry growth studies on the Al-doped ZnO films deposited by remote plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Volintiru, I.; Creatore, M.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de

    2008-02-01

    In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) was applied to study the pyramidlike and pillarlike growth of Al doped ZnO (AZO) films deposited by means of remote plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition for transparent conductive oxide applications. Real time SE studies in the visible region allowed discerning between the two growth modes by addressing the time evolution of the bulk and surface roughness layer thickness. While the pillarlike mode is characterized by a constant growth rate, a slower rate in the initial stage (up to 150-200 nm film thickness), compared to the bulk, is observed for the growth of pyramidlike AZO films. The two modes differ also in terms of surface roughness development: a saturation behavior is observed for film thickness above 150-200 nm in the case of the pyramidlike films, while a slow linear increase with film thickness characterizes the pillarlike mode. By extending the SE analysis of the AZO films to the near infrared region, valuable information about the in grain properties could be extracted: excellent in grain mobility values, i.e., larger than 100 and 50 cm{sup 2}/V s, are determined for the pyramidlike and pillarlike AZO layers, respectively. The comparison between the outcome of the in situ real time SE studies and the ex situ electrical and chemical characterization highlights the limitations in the electron transport occurring in both types of films and allows one to address routes toward further improvement in AZO conductivity.

  13. UV absorption control of thin film growth

    DOEpatents

    Biefeld, Robert M.; Hebner, Gregory A.; Killeen, Kevin P.; Zuhoski, Steven P.

    1991-01-01

    A system for monitoring and controlling the rate of growth of thin films in an atmosphere of reactant gases measures the UV absorbance of the atmosphere and calculates the partial pressure of the gases. The flow of reactant gases is controlled in response to the partial pressure.

  14. Emittance growth from electron beam modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2009-12-01

    In linac ring colliders like MeRHIC and eRHIC a modulation of the electron bunch can lead to a modulation of the beam beam tune shift and steering errors. These modulations can lead to emittance growth. This note presents simple formulas to estimate these effects which generalize some previous results.

  15. Growth Of Oriented Crystals At Polymerized Membranes

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah H. , Berman, Amir

    2000-01-25

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the growth and alignment of crystals at biopolymeric films. The methods and compositions of the present invention provide means to generate a variety of dense crystalline ceramic films, with totally aligned crystals, at low temperatures and pressures, suitable for use with polymer and plastic substrates.

  16. Quantitative assessment of growth plate activity

    SciTech Connect

    Harcke, H.T.; Macy, N.J.; Mandell, G.A.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    In the immature skeleton the physis or growth plate is the area of bone least able to withstand external forces and is therefore prone to trauma. Such trauma often leads to premature closure of the plate and results in limb shortening and/or angular deformity (varus or valgus). Active localization of bone seeking tracers in the physis makes bone scintigraphy an excellent method for assessing growth plate physiology. To be most effective, however, physeal activity should be quantified so that serial evaluations are accurate and comparable. The authors have developed a quantitative method for assessing physeal activity and have applied it ot the hip and knee. Using computer acquired pinhole images of the abnormal and contralateral normal joints, ten regions of interest are placed at key locations around each joint and comparative ratios are generated to form a growth plate profile. The ratios compare segmental physeal activity to total growth plate activity on both ipsilateral and contralateral sides and to adjacent bone. In 25 patients, ages 2 to 15 years, with angular deformities of the legs secondary to trauma, Blount's disease, and Perthes disease, this technique is able to differentiate abnormal segmental physeal activity. This is important since plate closure does not usually occur uniformly across the physis. The technique may permit the use of scintigraphy in the prediction of early closure through the quantitative analysis of serial studies.

  17. Melt dumping in string stabilized ribbon growth

    DOEpatents

    Sachs, Emanuel M.

    1986-12-09

    A method and apparatus for stabilizing the edge positions of a ribbon drawn from a melt includes the use of wettable strings drawn in parallel up through the melt surface, the ribbon being grown between the strings. A furnace and various features of the crucible used therein permit continuous automatic growth of flat ribbons without close temperature control or the need for visual inspection.

  18. Energy scarcity and economic growth reconsidered

    SciTech Connect

    Uri, N.D.

    1995-05-01

    This analysis is concerned with the effect of energy scarcity on economic growth in the US. After defining the notion of scarcity and introducing two measures of scarcity, namely unit costs and relative energy price, changes in the trend in resource scarcity are investigated for natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil over the most recent three decades. Each of the energy resources became significantly more scarce during the decade of the 1970s in the Malthusian stock scarcity and Malthusian flow scarcity sense. Unit costs exhibit a similar change for natural gas and crude oil but not for bituminous coal and anthracite coal. The situation reversed itself during the 1980s. Natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil all became significantly less scarce during the 1980s than the 1970s. That is, the increase in scarcity as measured by relative energy prices observed during the 1970s was not reversed completely during the 1980s for natural gas and crude oil. Unit costs for natural gas and crude oil demonstrate analogous patterns and test results. Given that change has take place, it has implications for future economic growth to the extent that resource scarcity and economic growth are interrelated. To see whether this is a relevant concern, subsequent to the examination of changing trends in resource scarcity, an objective effort is made to identify a long-run equilibrium relationship between energy scarcity and economic growth. Relying on cointegration techniques, only for crude oil is there a suggestion that resource scarcity has affected economic growth in the US over the period 1889--1992. 56 refs.

  19. Atomistic simulations of brittle crack growth.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyt, Jeffrey John

    2007-04-01

    Ceramic materials such as lead zirconium titanates (PZT), low temperature co-fired ceramics and silica glasses are used in several of Sandia's mission critical components. Brittle fracture, either during machining and processing or after many years in service, remains a serious reliability and cost issue. Despite its technological importance, brittle fracture remains poorly understand, especially the onset and propagation of sub-critical cracks. However, some insights into the onset of fracture can be gleaned from the atomic scale structure of the amorphous material. In silica for example, it is well known [1] that the Si-O-Si bonds are relatively weak and, in angle distribution functions determined from scattering experiments, the bonds exhibit a wide spread around a peak at 150. By contrast the O-Si-O bonds are strong with a narrow peak in the distribution around the 109 dictated by the SiO{sub 4} tetrahedron. In addition, slow energy release in silica, as deduced from dissolution experiments, depends on the distribution of 3-fold and higher rings in the amorphous structure. The purpose of this four month LDRD project was to investigate the atomic structure of silica in the bulk and in the vicinity of a crack tip using molecular dynamics simulations. Changes in the amorphous structure in the neighborhood of an atomically sharp tip may provide important clues as to the initiation sites and the stress intensity required to propagate a sub-critical crack.

  20. A slow-forming isopeptide bond in the structure of the major pilin SpaD from Corynebacterium diphtheriae has implications for pilus assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Hae Joo; Paterson, Neil G.; Kim, Chae Un; Middleditch, Martin; Chang, Chungyu; Ton-That, Hung; Baker, Edward N.

    2014-05-01

    Two crystal structures of the major pilin SpaD from C. diphtheriae have been determined at 1.87 and 2.5 Å resolution. The N-terminal domain is found to contain an isopeptide bond that forms slowly over time in the recombinant protein. Given its structural context, this provides insight into the relationship between internal isopeptide-bond formation and pilus assembly. The Gram-positive organism Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the cause of diphtheria in humans, expresses pili on its surface which it uses for adhesion and colonization of its host. These pili are covalent protein polymers composed of three types of pilin subunit that are assembled by specific sortase enzymes. A structural analysis of the major pilin SpaD, which forms the polymeric backbone of one of the three types of pilus expressed by C. diphtheriae, is reported. Mass-spectral and crystallographic analysis shows that SpaD contains three internal Lys–Asn isopeptide bonds. One of these, shown by mass spectrometry to be located in the N-terminal D1 domain of the protein, only forms slowly, implying an energy barrier to bond formation. Two crystal structures, of the full-length three-domain protein at 2.5 Å resolution and of a two-domain (D2-D3) construct at 1.87 Å resolution, show that each of the three Ig-like domains contains a single Lys–Asn isopeptide-bond cross-link, assumed to give mechanical stability as in other such pili. Additional stabilizing features include a disulfide bond in the D3 domain and a calcium-binding loop in D2. The N-terminal D1 domain is more flexible than the others and, by analogy with other major pilins of this type, the slow formation of its isopeptide bond can be attributed to its location adjacent to the lysine used in sortase-mediated polymerization during pilus assembly.

  1. Rovibronic structure in slow photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy of CH{sub 2}CN{sup −} and CD{sub 2}CN{sup −}

    SciTech Connect

    Weichman, Marissa L.; Kim, Jongjin B.; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2014-03-14

    We report high-resolution anion photoelectron spectra of the cryogenically cooled cyanomethide anion, CH{sub 2}CN{sup −}, and its isotopologue, CD{sub 2}CN{sup −}, using slow photoelectron velocity-map imaging (SEVI) spectroscopy. Electron affinities of 12 468(2) cm{sup −1} for CH{sub 2}CN and 12 402(2) cm{sup −1} for CD{sub 2}CN are obtained, demonstrating greater precision than previous experiments. New vibrational structure is resolved for both neutral species, especially activity of the ν{sub 5} hydrogen umbrella modes. The ν{sub 6} out-of-plane bending mode fundamental frequency is measured for the first time in both systems and found to be 420(10) cm{sup −1} for CH{sub 2}CN and 389(8) cm{sup −1} for CD{sub 2}CN. Some rotational structure is resolved, allowing for accurate extraction of vibrational frequencies. Temperature-dependent SEVI spectra show marked effects ascribed to controlled population of low-lying anion vibrational levels. We directly measure the inversion splitting between the first two vibrational levels of the anion ν{sub 5} umbrella mode in both species, finding a splitting of 130(20) cm{sup −1} for CH{sub 2}CN{sup −} and 81(20) cm{sup −1} for CD{sub 2}CN{sup −}. Franck-Condon forbidden activity is observed and attributed to mode-specific vibrational autodetachment from the CH{sub 2}CN{sup −} and CD{sub 2}CN{sup −} dipole bound excited states. We also refine the binding energy of the anion dipole bound states to 39 and 42 cm{sup −1}, respectively, for CH{sub 2}CN{sup −} and CD{sub 2}CN{sup −}.

  2. Fe sub 3 Al-type iron aluminides: Aqueous corrosion properties in a range of electrolytes and slow-strain-rate ductilities during aqueous corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, R.A.; Kim, J.G. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1992-08-01

    The Fe{sub 3}Al-type iron aluminides have undergone continued development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for enhancement of mechanical and corrosion properties. Improved alloys and thermomechanical processing methods have evolved. The overall purpose of the project herein described was to evaluate the aqueous corrosion properties of the most recent alloy compositions in a wide range of possibly-aggressive solutions and under several different types of corrosion-test conditions. The work supplements previous aqueous-corrosion studies on iron aluminides by the present authors. Four stages of this one-year aqueous-corrosion investigation are described. First the corrosion properties of selected iron aluminides were evaluated by means of electrochemical tests and longer-time immersion tests in a range of acidic, basic and chloride solutions. Theses tests were performed under non-crevice conditions, i.e. the specimens were not designed to contain crevice geometries. Second, the iron-aluminide alloy that proved most resistance to chloride-induced localized corrosion under non-crevice conditions was further evaluated under more-severe crevice conditions by electrochemical and immersion testing. Third, in order to study the relative roles of Fe, Al, Cr and Mo in the formation of passive films, the chemical compositions of passive films were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). And fourth, in order to study aqueous-corrosion effects on the ductilities of iron aluminides as related to hydrogen embrittlement and/or stress-corrosion cracking, slow-strain-rate corrosion (SSRC) tests were conducted over a range of electrochemical potentials.

  3. Fe{sub 3}Al-type iron aluminides: Aqueous corrosion properties in a range of electrolytes and slow-strain-rate ductilities during aqueous corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, R.A.; Kim, J.G.

    1992-08-01

    The Fe{sub 3}Al-type iron aluminides have undergone continued development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for enhancement of mechanical and corrosion properties. Improved alloys and thermomechanical processing methods have evolved. The overall purpose of the project herein described was to evaluate the aqueous corrosion properties of the most recent alloy compositions in a wide range of possibly-aggressive solutions and under several different types of corrosion-test conditions. The work supplements previous aqueous-corrosion studies on iron aluminides by the present authors. Four stages of this one-year aqueous-corrosion investigation are described. First the corrosion properties of selected iron aluminides were evaluated by means of electrochemical tests and longer-time immersion tests in a range of acidic, basic and chloride solutions. Theses tests were performed under non-crevice conditions, i.e. the specimens were not designed to contain crevice geometries. Second, the iron-aluminide alloy that proved most resistance to chloride-induced localized corrosion under non-crevice conditions was further evaluated under more-severe crevice conditions by electrochemical and immersion testing. Third, in order to study the relative roles of Fe, Al, Cr and Mo in the formation of passive films, the chemical compositions of passive films were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). And fourth, in order to study aqueous-corrosion effects on the ductilities of iron aluminides as related to hydrogen embrittlement and/or stress-corrosion cracking, slow-strain-rate corrosion (SSRC) tests were conducted over a range of electrochemical potentials.

  4. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOEpatents

    Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1987-10-23

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In molecular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating. 1 tab.

  5. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOEpatents

    Drummond, Timothy J.; Ginley, David S.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  6. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOEpatents

    Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1989-05-09

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  7. Epitaxial growth of silicon for layer transfer

    DOEpatents

    Teplin, Charles; Branz, Howard M

    2015-03-24

    Methods of preparing a thin crystalline silicon film for transfer and devices utilizing a transferred crystalline silicon film are disclosed. The methods include preparing a silicon growth substrate which has an interface defining substance associated with an exterior surface. The methods further include depositing an epitaxial layer of silicon on the silicon growth substrate at the surface and separating the epitaxial layer from the substrate substantially along the plane or other surface defined by the interface defining substance. The epitaxial layer may be utilized as a thin film of crystalline silicon in any type of semiconductor device which requires a crystalline silicon layer. In use, the epitaxial transfer layer may be associated with a secondary substrate.

  8. Nymex futures, options volumes continue growth

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.P. )

    1990-01-22

    The 1980s has been a decade of learning and growth for the members of the energy futures industry. As the New York Mercantile Exchange introduced new contracts, the energy industry gradually came to understand the value of futures trading to any business plan, especially during turbulent times in the mid-1980s. The result: explosive growth in the latter half of the decade. The author discusses how, as a new decade begins, new challenges are unfolding. Increased liberalization and deregulation of the energy market are trends both at home and abroad. There is increased demand for energy while environmental pressures mount and U.S. production declines. Future production and exports of the energy-rich Soviet Union and consumption patterns of the Eastern Bloc countries are uncertain.

  9. Appendix B: High Economic Growth case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    3 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 High Economic Growth case projections Table B1. World total primary energy consumption by region, High Economic Growth case, 2011-40 (quadrillion Btu) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 120.6 118.1 128.2 132.3 137.0 142.4 150.1 0.9 United States a 96.8 94.4 103.1 105.9 108.5 111.4 116.2 0.7 Canada 14.5 14.5 15.1 15.8 16.6 17.6 18.8 0.9

  10. Industry Growth Forum Cultivates Clean Energy Entrepreneurship -

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Continuum Magazine | NREL Five men sitting in yellow chairs on a stage during a discussion at an event panel session. Panel discussion at the 2013 Industry Growth Forum. From left: Michael Knotek, Deputy Undersecretary for Science and Energy, DOE; Tom Morehouse, Principal Deputy Asst. Secretary of Defense, Operational Energy Plans and Programs, DOD; Dan Arvizu, NREL Director; Ilan Gur, Program Director and Technology to Market Senior Advisor, ARPA-E; and Rick Brenner, Director, Agricultural

  11. 1979 revenue growth belies utility industry problems

    SciTech Connect

    Lincicome, R.

    1980-06-01

    Despite growth in revenues during 1979, electric utilities are greatly troubled by high inflation, restricted capital, and the lack of rate relief from utility commissions. The growth, although smaller than normal, will likely convince commissions to respond to rate increase requests by authorizing only the smallest possible increases. With inflationary pressures eroding utility companies' financial base, the benefits of rate increases are wiped out after a year or so, necessitating a return to the commissions for futher adjustments. This up-down cycling is reflected in the report of the performances of the top one hundred utility companies. Earning growth statistics, sales data, financial statistics, and company performances (electric sales, customers served, revenues, and after-tax net income) of top one hundred electric utilities are given in separate tables for 1979. Overall, kWh sales were up 2.9%; revenues were up 13.4%; net income was up 8.1%; and overall earnings performance was a weak increase of 9.4%. (SAC)

  12. Growth process for gallium nitride porous nanorods

    DOEpatents

    Wildeson, Isaac Harshman; Sands, Timothy David

    2015-03-24

    A GaN nanorod and formation method. Formation includes providing a substrate having a GaN film, depositing SiN.sub.x on the GaN film, etching a growth opening through the SiN.sub.x and into the GaN film, growing a GaN nanorod through the growth opening, the nanorod having a nanopore running substantially through its centerline. Focused ion beam etching can be used. The growing can be done using organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. The nanopore diameter can be controlled using the growth opening diameter or the growing step duration. The GaN nanorods can be removed from the substrate. The SiN.sub.x layer can be removed after the growing step. A SiO.sub.x template can be formed on the GaN film and the GaN can be grown to cover the SiO.sub.x template before depositing SiN.sub.x on the GaN film. The SiO.sub.x template can be removed after growing the nanorods.

  13. Economics of Future Growth in Photovoltaics Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Basore, Paul A.; Chung, Donald; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-06-14

    The past decade's record of growth in the photovoltaics manufacturing industry indicates that global investment in manufacturing capacity for photovoltaic modules tends to increase in proportion to the size of the industry. The slope of this proportionality determines how fast the industry will grow in the future. Two key parameters determine this slope. One is the annual global investment in manufacturing capacity normalized to the manufacturing capacity for the previous year (capacity-normalized capital investment rate, CapIR, units $/W). The other is how much capital investment is required for each watt of annual manufacturing capacity, normalized to the service life of the assets (capacity-normalized capital demand rate, CapDR, units $/W). If these two parameters remain unchanged from the values they have held for the past few years, global manufacturing capacity will peak in the next few years and then decline. However, it only takes a small improvement in CapIR to ensure future growth in photovoltaics. Any accompanying improvement in CapDR will accelerate that growth.

  14. Theoretical priors on modified growth parametrisations

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Yong-Seon; Hollenstein, Lukas; Caldera-Cabral, Gabriela; Koyama, Kazuya E-mail: Lukas.Hollenstein@unige.ch E-mail: Kazuya.Koyama@port.ac.uk

    2010-04-01

    Next generation surveys will observe the large-scale structure of the Universe with unprecedented accuracy. This will enable us to test the relationships between matter over-densities, the curvature perturbation and the Newtonian potential. Any large-distance modification of gravity or exotic nature of dark energy modifies these relationships as compared to those predicted in the standard smooth dark energy model based on General Relativity. In linear theory of structure growth such modifications are often parameterised by virtue of two functions of space and time that enter the relation of the curvature perturbation to, first, the matter over- density, and second, the Newtonian potential. We investigate the predictions for these functions in Brans-Dicke theory, clustering dark energy models and interacting dark energy models. We find that each theory has a distinct path in the parameter space of modified growth. Understanding these theoretical priors on the parameterisations of modified growth is essential to reveal the nature of cosmic acceleration with the help of upcoming observations of structure formation.

  15. Home Performance with ENERGY STAR -- 10 Years of Continued Growth...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Home Performance with ENERGY STAR -- 10 Years of Continued Growth Home Performance with ENERGY STAR -- 10 Years of Continued Growth Provides an overview of the HPwES program, ...

  16. Global Green Growth Forum (3GF) | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    find new green avenues to growth. Green growth has to be at the core of a sustainable strategy to get us out of the economic crisis. To advance this global agenda, Denmark as well...

  17. ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth Print Thursday, 24 April 2014 09:46 Lithium-ion ...

  18. Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin films ...

  19. Ukraine-Capacity Building for Low Carbon Growth | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Ukraine-Capacity Building for Low Carbon Growth (Redirected from UNDP-Capacity Building for Low Carbon Growth in Ukraine) Jump to: navigation, search Name UNDP-Capacity Building...

  20. Ukraine-Capacity Building for Low Carbon Growth | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Ukraine-Capacity Building for Low Carbon Growth Jump to: navigation, search Name UNDP-Capacity Building for Low Carbon Growth in Ukraine AgencyCompany Organization United Nations...

  1. Strain induced grain boundary migration effects on grain growth of an austenitic stainless steel during static and metadynamic recrystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Paggi, A.; Angella, G.; Donnini, R.

    2015-09-15

    Static and metadynamic recrystallization of an AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel was investigated at 1100 °C and 10{sup −} {sup 2} s{sup −} {sup 1} strain rate. The kinetics of recrystallization was determined through double hit compression tests. Two strain levels were selected for the first compression hit: ε{sub f} = 0.15 for static recrystallization (SRX) and 0.25 for metadynamic recrystallization (MDRX). Both the as-deformed and the recrystallized microstructures were investigated through optical microscopy and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) technique. During deformation, strain induced grain boundary migration appeared to be significant, producing a square-like grain boundary structure aligned along the directions of the maximum shear stresses in compression. EBSD analysis revealed to be as a fundamental technique that the dislocation density was distributed heterogeneously in the deformed grains. Grain growth driven by surface energy reduction was also investigated, finding that it was too slow to explain the experimental data. Based on microstructural results, it was concluded that saturation of the nucleation sites occurred in the first stages of recrystallization, while grain growth driven by strain induced grain boundary migration (SIGBM) dominated the subsequent stages. - Highlights: • Recrystallization behavior of a stainless steel was investigated at 1100 °C. • EBSD revealed that the dislocation density distribution was heterogeneous during deformation. • Saturation of nucleation sites occurred in the first stages of recrystallization. • Strain induced grain boundary migration (SIGBM) effects were significant. • Grain growth driven by SIGBM dominated the subsequent stages.

  2. POWERING NEW MARKETS: ENERGY STORAGE POISED FOR GROWTH | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy POWERING NEW MARKETS: ENERGY STORAGE POISED FOR GROWTH POWERING NEW MARKETS: ENERGY STORAGE POISED FOR GROWTH "Powering New Markets: Energy Storage Poised For Growth" report (3.02 MB) More Documents & Publications Financing Innovation to Address Global Climate Change LPO_BROCHURE_CSP POWERING NEW MARKETS: ENERGY STORAGE POISED FOR GROWTH Powering New Markets: Utility-scale Photovoltaic Solar

  3. Growth histories in bimetric massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Marcus; Buchberger, Igor; Enander, Jonas; Mrtsell, Edvard; Sjrs, Stefan E-mail: igor.buchberger@kau.se E-mail: edvard@fysik.su.se

    2012-12-01

    We perform cosmological perturbation theory in Hassan-Rosen bimetric gravity for general homogeneous and isotropic backgrounds. In the de Sitter approximation, we obtain decoupled sets of massless and massive scalar gravitational fluctuations. Matter perturbations then evolve like in Einstein gravity. We perturb the future de Sitter regime by the ratio of matter to dark energy, producing quasi-de Sitter space. In this more general setting the massive and massless fluctuations mix. We argue that in the quasi-de Sitter regime, the growth of structure in bimetric gravity differs from that of Einstein gravity.

  4. Crystal growth under external electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Uda, Satoshi; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Nozawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Kozo

    2014-10-06

    This is a review article concerning the crystal growth under external electric fields that has been studied in our lab for the past 10 years. An external field is applied electrostatically either through an electrically insulating phase or a direct injection of an electric current to the solid-interface-liquid. The former changes the chemical potential of both solid and liquid and controls the phase relationship while the latter modifies the transport and partitioning of ionic solutes in the oxide melt during crystallization and changes the solute distribution in the crystal.

  5. Philippines' downstream sector poised for growth

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    This paper reports that the Philippines' downstream sector is poised for sharp growth. Despite a slip in refined products demand in recent years, Philippines products demand will rebound sharply by 2000, East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu, predicts. Philippines planned refinery expansions are expected to meet that added demand, EWC Director Fereidun Fesharaki says. Like the rest of the Asia-Pacific region, product specifications are changing, but major refiners in the area expect to meet the changes without major case outlays. At the same time, Fesharaki says, push toward deregulation will further bolster the outlook for the Philippines downstream sector.

  6. Stimulatory and inhibitory mechanisms of slow muscle-specific myosin heavy chain gene expression in fish: Transient and transgenic analysis of torafugu MYH{sub M86-2} promoter in zebrafish embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Asaduzzaman, Md.; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Bhuiyan, Sharmin Siddique; Asakawa, Shuichi; Watabe, Shugo

    2013-04-01

    The myosin heavy chain gene, MYH{sub M86-2}, exhibited restricted expression in slow muscle fibers of torafugu embryos and larvae, suggesting its functional roles for embryonic and larval muscle development. However, the transcriptional mechanisms involved in its expression are still ambiguous. The present study is the first extensive analysis of slow muscle-specific MYH{sub M86-2} promoter in fish for identifying the cis-elements that are crucial for its expression. Combining both transient transfection and transgenic approaches, we demonstrated that the 2614 bp 5′-flanking sequences of MYH{sub M86-2} contain a sufficient promoter activity to drive gene expression specific to superficial slow muscle fibers. By cyclopamine treatment, we also demonstrated that the differentiation of such superficial slow muscle fibers depends on hedgehog signaling activity. The deletion analyses defined an upstream fragment necessary for repressing ectopic MYH{sub M86-2} expression in the fast muscle fibers. The transcriptional mechanism that prevents MYH{sub M86-2} expression in the fast muscle fibers is mediated through Sox6 binding elements. We also demonstrated that Sox6 may function as a transcriptional repressor of MYH{sub M86-2} expression. We further discovered that nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) binding elements plays a key role and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) binding elements participate in the transcriptional regulation of MYH{sub M86-2} expression. - Highlights: ► MYH{sub M86-2} is highly expressed in slow muscle fibers of torafugu embryos and larvae. ► MYH{sub M86-2} promoter activity depends on the hedgehog signaling. ► Sox6 binding elements inhibits MYH{sub M86-2} expression in fast muscle fibers. ► Sox6 elements function as transcriptional repressor of MYH{sub M86-2} promoter activity. ► NFAT and MEF2 binding elements play a key role for directing MYH{sub M86-2} expression.

  7. Construction Cost Growth for New Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kubic, Jr., William L.

    2014-05-25

    Cost growth and construction delays are problems that plague many large construction projects including the construction of new Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. A study was conducted to evaluate cost growth of large DOE construction projects. The purpose of the study was to compile relevant data, consider the possible causes of cost growth, and recommend measures that could be used to avoid extreme cost growth in the future. Both large DOE and non-DOE construction projects were considered in this study. With the exception of Chemical and Metallurgical Research Building Replacement Project (CMRR) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), cost growth for DOE Nuclear facilities is comparable to the growth experienced in other mega construction projects. The largest increase in estimated cost was found to occur between early cost estimates and establishing the project baseline during detailed design. Once the project baseline was established, cost growth for DOE nuclear facilities was modest compared to non-DOE mega projects.

  8. Precision growth index using the clustering of cosmic structures and growth data

    SciTech Connect

    Pouri, Athina; Basilakos, Spyros; Plionis, Manolis E-mail: svasil@academyofathens.gr

    2014-08-01

    We use the clustering properties of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) and the growth rate data provided by the various galaxy surveys in order to constrain the growth index ?) of the linear matter fluctuations. We perform a standard ?{sup 2}-minimization procedure between theoretical expectations and data, followed by a joint likelihood analysis and we find a value of ?=0.560.05, perfectly consistent with the expectations of the ?CDM model, and ?{sub m0}=0.290.01, in very good agreement with the latest Planck results. Our analysis provides significantly more stringent growth index constraints with respect to previous studies, as indicated by the fact that the corresponding uncertainty is only ?0.09?. Finally, allowing ? to vary with redshift in two manners (Taylor expansion around z=0, and Taylor expansion around the scale factor), we find that the combined statistical analysis between our clustering and literature growth data alleviates the degeneracy and obtain more stringent constraints with respect to other recent studies.

  9. ZnO nanorod growth by plasma-enhanced vapor phase transport with different growth durations

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chang-Yong; Oh, Hee-bong; Ryu, Hyukhyun; Yun, Jondo; Lee, Won-Jae

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the structural properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by plasma-enhanced vapor phase transport (PEVPT) were investigated. Plasma-treated oxygen gas was used as the oxygen source for the ZnO growth. The structural properties of ZnO nanostructures grown for different durations were measured by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The authors comprehensively analyzed the growth of the ZnO nanostructures with different growth durations both with and without the use of plasma-treated oxygen gas. It was found that PEVPT has a significant influence on the growth of the ZnO nanorods. PEVPT with plasma-treated oxygen gas facilitated the generation of nucleation sites, and the resulting ZnO nanorod structures were more vertical than those prepared by conventional VPT without plasma-treated oxygen gas. As a result, the ZnO nanostructures grown using PEVPT showed improved structural properties compared to those prepared by the conventional VPT method.

  10. Long-term control of root growth

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  11. Cadmium zinc sulfide by solution growth

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Wen S.

    1992-05-12

    A process for depositing thin layers of a II-VI compound cadmium zinc sulfide (CdZnS) by an aqueous solution growth technique with quality suitable for high efficiency photovoltaic or other devices which can benefit from the band edge shift resulting from the inclusion of Zn in the sulfide. A first solution comprising CdCl.sub.2 2.5H.sub.2 O, NH.sub.4 Cl, NH.sub.4 OH and ZnCl.sub.2, and a second solution comprising thiourea ((NH.sub.2).sub.2 CS) are combined and placed in a deposition cell, along with a substrate to form a thin i.e. 10 nm film of CdZnS on the substrate. This process can be sequentially repeated with to achieve deposition of independent multiple layers having different Zn concentrations.

  12. Domain epitaxy for thin film growth

    DOEpatents

    Narayan, Jagdish

    2005-10-18

    A method of forming an epitaxial film on a substrate includes growing an initial layer of a film on a substrate at a temperature T.sub.growth, said initial layer having a thickness h and annealing the initial layer of the film at a temperature T.sub.anneal, thereby relaxing the initial layer, wherein said thickness h of the initial layer of the film is greater than a critical thickness h.sub.c. The method further includes growing additional layers of the epitaxial film on the initial layer subsequent to annealing. In some embodiments, the method further includes growing a layer of the film that includes at least one amorphous island.

  13. Appendix B: High Economic Growth case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    4 Appendix B Table B2. World gross domestic product (GDP) by region expressed in purchasing power parity, High Economic Growth case, 2011-40 (billion 2010 dollars) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 18,616 19,080 24,230 28,258 32,427 36,956 42,539 2.9 United States a 15,021 15,369 19,590 22,852 26,146 29,678 34,146 2.9 Canada 1,396 1,422 1,717 1,921 2,143 2,398 2,680 2.3 Mexico and Chile 2,200 2,288 2,923 3,485

  14. Lid for improved dendritic web growth

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Charles S.; Kochka, Edgar L.; Piotrowski, Paul A.; Seidensticker, Raymond G.

    1992-03-24

    A lid for a susceptor in which a crystalline material is melted by induction heating to form a pool or melt of molten material from which a dendritic web of essentially a single crystal of the material is pulled through an elongated slot in the lid and the lid has a pair of generally round openings adjacent the ends of the slot and a groove extends between each opening and the end of the slot. The grooves extend from the outboard surface of the lid to adjacent the inboard surface providing a strip contiguous with the inboard surface of the lid to produce generally uniform radiational heat loss across the width of the dendritic web adjacent the inboard surface of the lid to reduce thermal stresses in the web and facilitate the growth of wider webs at a greater withdrawal rate.

  15. MIX and Instability Growth from Oblique Shock

    SciTech Connect

    Molitoris, J D; Batteux, J D; Garza, R G; Tringe, J W; Souers, P C; Forbes, J W

    2011-07-22

    We have studied the formation and evolution of shock-induced mix resulting from interface features in a divergent cylindrical geometry. In this research a cylindrical core of high-explosive was detonated to create an oblique shock wave and accelerate the interface. The interfaces studied were between the high-explosive/aluminum, aluminum/plastic, and finally plastic/air. Pre-emplaced surface features added to the aluminum were used to modify this interface. Time sequence radiographic imaging quantified the resulting instability formation from the growth phase to over 60 {micro}s post-detonation. Thus allowing the study of the onset of mix and evolution to turbulence. The plastic used here was porous polyethylene. Radiographic image data are compared with numerical simulations of the experiments.

  16. Abnormal grain growth in AISI 304L stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Shirdel, M.; Mirzadeh, H.; Parsa, M.H.

    2014-11-15

    The microstructural evolution during abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in 304L stainless steel was studied in a wide range of annealing temperatures and times. At relatively low temperatures, the grain growth mode was identified as normal. However, at homologous temperatures between 0.65 (850 °C) and 0.7 (900 °C), the observed transition in grain growth mode from normal to abnormal, which was also evident from the bimodality in grain size distribution histograms, was detected to be caused by the dissolution/coarsening of carbides. The microstructural features such as dispersed carbides were characterized by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and microhardness. Continued annealing to a long time led to the completion of secondary recrystallization and the subsequent reappearance of normal growth mode. Another instance of abnormal grain growth was observed at homologous temperatures higher than 0.8, which may be attributed to the grain boundary faceting/defaceting phenomenon. It was also found that when the size of abnormal grains reached a critical value, their size will not change too much and the grain growth behavior becomes practically stagnant. - Highlights: • Abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in AISI 304L stainless steel • Exaggerated grain growth due to dissolution/coarsening of carbides • The enrichment of carbide particles by titanium • Abnormal grain growth due to grain boundary faceting at very high temperatures • The stagnancy of abnormal grain growth by annealing beyond a critical time.

  17. Laboratory Evidence for Stochastic Plasma-Wave Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, D. R.; Hole, M. J.; Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H.; Dallaqua, R.

    2007-11-16

    The first laboratory confirmation of stochastic growth theory is reported. Floating potential fluctuations are measured in a vacuum arc centrifuge using a Langmuir probe. Statistical analysis of the energy density reveals a lognormal distribution over roughly 2 orders of magnitude, with a high-field nonlinear cutoff whose spatial dependence is consistent with the predicted eigenmode profile. These results are consistent with stochastic growth and nonlinear saturation of a spatially extended eigenmode, the first evidence for stochastic growth of an extended structure.

  18. ARM - Lesson Plans: Plant Growth and Carbon Dioxide

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Plant Growth and Carbon Dioxide Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Plant Growth and Carbon Dioxide Objective The objective is to show how carbon dioxide in the air affects plant growth. Materials Each group of students will need the following: Graph paper Pencil

  19. Before the Subcommittee on Economic Growth, Job Creation and Regulatory

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Affairs - House Committee on Oversight and Governmant Reform | Department of Energy Economic Growth, Job Creation and Regulatory Affairs - House Committee on Oversight and Governmant Reform Before the Subcommittee on Economic Growth, Job Creation and Regulatory Affairs - House Committee on Oversight and Governmant Reform Written statement of Nicholas Whitcombe, Former Acting Director, Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing Loan Program Submitted to the Subcommittee on Economic Growth,

  20. A novel long noncoding RNA AK001796 acts as an oncogene and is involved in cell growth inhibition by resveratrol in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qiaoyuan; Xu, Enwu; Dai, Jiabin; Liu, Binbin; Han, Zhiyuan; Wu, Jianjun; Zhang, Shaozhu; Peng, Baoying; Zhang, Yajie; Jiang, Yiguo

    2015-06-01

    Lung cancer is the most common form of cancer throughout the world. The specific targeting of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) by resveratrol opened a new avenue for cancer chemoprevention. In this study, we found that 21 lncRNAs were upregulated and 19 lncRNAs were downregulated in lung cancer A549 cells with 25 μmol/L resveratrol treatment determined by microarray analysis. AK001796, the lncRNA with the most clearly altered expression, was overexpressed in lung cancer tissues and cell lines, but its expression was downregulated in resveratrol-treated lung cancer cells. By monitoring cell proliferation and growth in vitro and tumor growth in vivo, we observed a significant reduction in cell viability in lung cancer cells and a slow growth in the tumorigenesis following AK001796 knockdown. We also found that AK001796 knockdown caused a cell-cycle arrest, with significant increases in the percentage of cells in G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} in lung cancer cells. By using cell cycle pathway-specific PCR arrays, we detected changes in a number of cell cycle-related genes related to lncRNA AK001796 knockdown. We further investigated whether AK001796 participated in the anticancer effect of resveratrol and the results showed that reduced lncRNA AK001796 level potentially impaired the inhibitory effect of resveratrol on cell proliferation. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the changes in an lncRNA expression profile induced by resveratrol in lung cancer. - Highlights: • LncRNA AK001796 played an oncogenic role in lung carcinogenesis. • LncRNA AK001796 was downregulated in resveratrol-treated lung cancer cells. • LncRNA AK001796 was involved in the inhibition of cell growth by resveratrol.

  1. Green Growth in Motion: Sharing Korea's Experience | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    lt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"" Hide Map Language: English Green Growth in Motion: Sharing Korea's Experience Screenshot References:...

  2. Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth in Developing...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Growth in Developing Asia AgencyCompany Organization Asian Development Bank Partner Japan, United Kingdom Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Non-renewable Energy, Buildings,...

  3. Philippines-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Growth in Developing Asia AgencyCompany Organization Asian Development Bank Partner Japan, United Kingdom Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Non-renewable Energy, Buildings,...

  4. Indonesia-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Growth in Developing Asia AgencyCompany Organization Asian Development Bank Partner Japan, United Kingdom Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Non-renewable Energy, Buildings,...

  5. Vietnam-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Growth in Developing Asia AgencyCompany Organization Asian Development Bank Partner Japan, United Kingdom Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Non-renewable Energy, Buildings,...

  6. High pressure floating zone growth and structural properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    quantum paraelectric BaFe12O19 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High pressure floating zone growth and structural properties of ferrimagnetic quantum ...

  7. Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth and properties Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films:...

  8. Growth Mode and Substrate Symmetry Dependent Strain in Epitaxial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dependent Strain in Epitaxial Graphene. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Growth Mode and Substrate Symmetry Dependent Strain in Epitaxial Graphene. Abstract not provided. ...

  9. Thermodynamic and kinetic control of the lateral Si wire growth

    SciTech Connect

    Dedyulin, Sergey N. Goncharova, Lyudmila V.

    2014-03-24

    Reproducible lateral Si wire growth has been realized on the Si (100) surface. In this paper, we present experimental evidence showing the unique role that carbon plays in initiating lateral growth of Si wires on a Si (100) substrate. Once initiated in the presence of ?5 ML of C, lateral growth can be achieved in the range of temperatures, T?=?450650?C, and further controlled by the interplay of the flux of incoming Si atoms with the size and areal density of Au droplets. Critical thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the growth are discussed in detail.

  10. Catalyzing Low Carbon Growth in Developing Countries | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Growth in Developing Countries: Public Finance Mechanisms to scale up private sector investment in climate solutions AgencyCompany Organization: United Nations Environment...

  11. Amplified Demand for Solar Trackers to Boost Market Growth in...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Amplified Demand for Solar Trackers to Boost Market Growth in Middle East and Africa Home > Groups > Solar Permitting Roadmap Development Wayne31jan's picture Submitted by...

  12. Green Growth Best Practice Initiative (GGBPI) | Open Energy Informatio...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    (ICI) of the German Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature, Conservation, and Nuclear Safety, European Climate Foundation (ECF), Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI),...

  13. Delayed Frost Growth on Jumping-Drop Superhydrophobic Surfaces...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Delayed Frost Growth on Jumping-Drop Superhydrophobic Surfaces Citation ... Here, we report that subcooled condensate on a chilled ...

  14. The origins of growth stresses in amorphous semiconductor thin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: The origins of growth stresses in amorphous semiconductor thin films. Citation Details In-Document ... Publication Date: 2003-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 917484 Report ...

  15. Controlled Nucleation and Growth of Pillared Paddlewheel Framework...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Controlled Nucleation and Growth of Pillared Paddlewheel Framework Nanostacks onto Chemically Modified Surfaces. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Controlled Nucleation ...

  16. Recent Trends in Car Usage in Advanced Economies - Slower Growth...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Trends in Car Usage in Advanced Economies - Slower Growth Ahead? Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Recent Trends in Car Usage in Advanced Economies -...

  17. Epitaxial Growth of Strontium Bismuth Tantalate/Niobate of Buffered...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Strontium Bismuth TantalateNiobate of Buffered Magnesium Oxide Substrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Epitaxial Growth of Strontium Bismuth TantalateNiobate ...

  18. Numerical Simulation of Ni Grain Growth in a Thermal Gradient

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    665C Numerical Simulation of Ni Grain Growth in a Thermal Gradient Sandia National Laboratories John A. Mitchell and Veena Tikare Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque New ...

  19. Branching Mechanisms in Surfactant Micellar Growth (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Branching Mechanisms in Surfactant Micellar Growth Authors: Tang, M ; Carter, W C Publication Date: 2012-08-20 OSTI Identifier: 1169255 ...

  20. Controlling condensation and frost growth with chemical micropatterns...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Frost growth on chilled hydrophobic surfaces is an inter-droplet phenomenon, where frozen ... can be passively suppressed by designing surfaces to spatially control nucleation sites ...

  1. Fatigue crack growth behavior of Ti-1100 at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, D.C.; Nicholas, T.

    1995-12-31

    Effects of temperature, frequency, and cycles with superimposed hold times are evaluated in Ti-1100 in order to study the complex creep-fatigue-environment interactions in this material. Crack growth rate tests conducted at cyclic loading frequency of 1.0 Hz show that raising the temperature from 593 to 650 C has only a slightly detrimental effect on crack growth rate, although these temperatures produce growth rates significantly higher than at room temperature. From constant {Delta}K tests, the effects of temperature at constant frequency show a minimum crack growth rate at 250 C. From the minimum crack growth rate at 250 C, the crack growth rate increases linearly with temperature. Increases in frequency at constant temperatures of 593 and 650 C produce a continuous decrease in growth rate in going from 0.001 to 1.0 Hz, although the behavior is primarily cycle dependent in this region. Tests at 1.0 Hz with superimposed hold times from 1 to 1,000 s are used to evaluate creep-fatigue-environment interactions. Hold times at maximum load are found to initially decrease and then increase the cyclic crack growth rate with increasing duration. This is attributed to crack-tip blunting during short hold times and environmental degradation at long hold times. Hold times at minimum load show no change in growth rates, indicating that there is no net environmental degradation to the bulk material beyond that experienced during the baseline 1 Hz cycling.

  2. Develop low emissions growth scenarios | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    low emissions growth scenarios Jump to: navigation, search Stage 3 LEDS Home Introduction to Framework Assess current country plans, policies, practices, and capacities...

  3. WEF-Green Growth Partnerships Initiative | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    World Economic Forum Partner Global Green Growth Institute, Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN), United Kingdom Government Sector Energy, Land, Climate Topics...

  4. Low Carbon Growth Plans: A Sectoral Approach to Climate Protection...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    to Climate Protection Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Low Carbon Growth Plans: A Sectoral Approach to Climate Protection AgencyCompany Organization:...

  5. Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Country Studies Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program AgencyCompany Organization Energy Sector Management Assistance Program of the...

  6. Breaking of Symmetry in Graphene Growth on Metal Substrates ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Breaking of Symmetry in Graphene Growth on Metal Substrates Not Available Temp HTML Storage 2: Artyukhov, Vasilii I.; Hao, Yufeng; Ruoff, Rodney S.; Yakobson, Boris I. Temp Plain ...

  7. Stress evolution during growth in direct-current-sputtered zinc...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CRYSTAL GROWTH; DIRECT CURRENT; FLOW STRESS; OXYGEN; OXYGEN IONS; RADIOWAVE RADIATION; ...

  8. Big-Data RHEED analysis for understanding epitaxial film growth...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the relevant behaviors, the timing and nature of a disordered to ordered growth change, ... and baselines, isolating the assymetric nature of the step density function and the ...

  9. NREL Industry Growth Forum Attracts Clean Energy Startups and...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Industry Growth Forum Attracts Clean Energy Startups and Investors Forum to feature business presentations from 30 clean energy startups, networking opportunities, panels and...

  10. Before the Subcommittee on Economic Growth, Job Creation and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Written statement of Nicholas Whitcombe, Former Acting Director, Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing Loan Program Submitted to the Subcommittee on Economic Growth, Job ...

  11. TianDi Growth Capital | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Venture capital investor interested in projects in Wind energy, Electric vehicles, Energy-efficient lighting, Biodiesel and Clean water. References: TianDi Growth Capital1...

  12. Understanding Metal Directed-Assembly Growth of Single-Crystal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The deterministic growth of oriented crystalline organic nanowires (CONs) from the vapor-solid chemical reaction (VSCR) between small-molecule reactants and metal nanoparticles has ...

  13. New Model Demonstrates Offshore Wind Industry's Job Growth Potential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    at relatively conservative levels of deployment and domestic supply chain growth. ... The Wind Program is also working with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management to advance a ...

  14. Adsorption of Organic Molecules May Explain Growth of Newly Nucleated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Adsorption of Organic Molecules May Explain Growth of Newly Nucleated Clusters and New Particle Formation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Adsorption of Organic Molecules ...

  15. Small Town Using Wind Power to Offset Electricity Costs

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wind turbines will be used to supply electricity for the town hall, maintenance building, library and help power the town's water system.

  16. Less electricity use this summer slightly offset by higher power...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    8% in their summer electricity bills. EIA forecasts that more electricity will be generated this year by natural gas, solar energy, and wind and less from coal-fired power plants.

  17. Missouri: EERE Funds Help Offset City Electricity Expenses |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    residential homes for one year. The City of Ballwin planned to install a 40-kilowatt (kW) solar panel array. However, due to lower-than-expected installation costs, the undertaking...

  18. Nighttime Offset and Capping Experiment Results of the Isothermal...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    period (IOP) held at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site compared data from a number of currently available and prototype instruments mounted on trackers with shading balls. ...

  19. World pipeline work set for rapid growth

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This paper reports on international pipeline construction which has entered a fast-growth period, accelerated by the new political and economic realities around the world and increasing demand for natural gas, crude oil and refined petroleum products. Many projects are under way or in planning for completion in the mid- to late 1990s in Europe, South America, Asia and the Middle East. Pipeline And Gas Journal's projection calls for construction or other work on 30,700 miles of new natural gas, crude oil and refined products pipelines in the 1992-93 period outside Canada and the U.S. These projects will cost an estimated $30 billion-plus. Natural gas pipelines will comprise most of the mileage, accounting for almost 23,000 miles at an estimated cost of $26.3 billion. Products pipelines, planned or under construction, will add another 5,800 miles at a cost of $2.8 billion. Crude oil pipelines, at a minimum, will total 1,900 new miles at a cost of slightly under $1 billion.

  20. Susceptor for EFG crystal growth apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Menna, Andrew A.

    1996-09-03

    An improved susceptor for a crucible/die assembly for growing tubular crystalline structures by the EFG process is provided. The crucible/die assembly comprises a die having a substantially polygonally-shaped top end surface for supporting a film of silicon feed material that is replenished from a melt in the crucible through capillary action. A hollow crystalline body is grown from the film of silicon material on the top end surface of the die. The heat susceptor is made of graphite or similar material, and has a peripheral configuration similar to that of the die. Further, the upper surface of the heat susceptor has a central land and a plurality of circumferentially-spaced upwardly extending projections. The central land thermally contacts a central portion of the lower surface of the crucible/die, and the projections thermally contact the lower surface of the crucible/die at its corners, whereby a temperature distribution is provided that permits growth of hollow bodies having more nearly constant thickness walls.

  1. Growth mechanisms, polytypism, and real structure of kaolinite microcrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Samotoin, N. D.

    2008-09-15

    The mechanisms of growth of kaolinite microcrystals (0.1-5.0 {mu}m in size) at deposits related to the cluvial weathering crust, as well as to the low-temperature and medium-temperature hydrothermal processes of transformations of minerals in different rocks in Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Czechia, Vietnam, India, Cuba, and Madagascar, are investigated using transmission electron microscopy and vacuum decoration with gold. It is established that kaolinite microcrystals grow according to two mechanisms: the mechanism of periodic formation of two-dimensional nuclei and the mechanism of spiral growth. The spiral growth of kaolinite microcrystals is dominant and occurs on steps of screw dislocations that differ in sign and magnitude of the Burgers vector along the c axis. The layered growth of kaolinite originates from a widespread source in the form of a step between polar (+ and -) dislocations, i.e., a growth analogue of the Frank-Read dislocation source. The density of growth screw dislocations varies over a wide range and can be as high as {approx}10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}. Layered stepped kaolinite growth pyramids for all mechanisms of growth on the (001) face of kaolinite exhibit the main features of the triclinic 1Tc and real structures of this mineral.

  2. Partial growth plate closure: apex view on bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Howman-Giles, R.; Trochei, M.; Yeates, K.; Middleton, R.; Barrett, I.; Scougall, J.; Whiteway, D.

    1985-01-01

    A new technique of using /sup 99m/Tc bone scan to assess partial closure of the growth plate is described. The site and degree of osseous fusion can be obtained by using the apex view. The technique has the potential of assessing serially the growth of a plate before and after surgery.

  3. Workshop on nuclear power growth and nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F

    2010-01-01

    It is widely viewed that an expansion of nuclear power would have positive energy, economic and environmental benefits for the world. However, there are concerns about the economic competitiveness, safety and proliferation and terrorism risks of nuclear power. The prospects for a dramatic growth in nuclear power will depend on the ability of governments and industry to address these concerns, including the effectiveness of, and the resources devoted to, plans to develop and implement technologies and approaches that strengthen nonproliferation, nuclear materials accountability and nuclear security. In his Prague speech, President Obama stated: 'we should build a new framework for civil nuclear cooperation, including an international fuel bank, so that countries can access peaceful power without increasing the risks of proliferation. That must be the right of every nation that renounces nuclear weapons, especially developing countries embarking on peaceful programs. And no approach will succeed if it's based on the denial of rights to nations that play by the rules. We must harness the power of nuclear energy on behalf of our efforts to combat climate change, and to advance peace opportunity for all people.' How can the President's vision, which will rekindle a vigorous public debate over the future of nuclear power and its relation to proliferation, be realized? What critical issues will frame the reemerging debate? What policies must be put into place to address these issues? Will US policy be marked more by continuity or change? To address these and other questions, the Los Alamos National Laboratory in cooperation with the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars will host a workshop on the future of nuclear power and nonproliferation.

  4. Growth Rates of Global Energy Systems and Future Outlooks

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeoek, Mikael; Li, Junchen; Johansson, Kersti; Snowden, Simon

    2012-03-15

    The world is interconnected and powered by a number of global energy systems using fossil, nuclear, or renewable energy. This study reviews historical time series of energy production and growth for various energy sources. It compiles a theoretical and empirical foundation for understanding the behaviour underlying global energy systems' growth. The most extreme growth rates are found in fossil fuels. The presence of scaling behaviour, i.e. proportionality between growth rate and size, is established. The findings are used to investigate the consistency of several long-range scenarios expecting rapid growth for future energy systems. The validity of such projections is questioned, based on past experience. Finally, it is found that even if new energy systems undergo a rapid 'oil boom'-development-i.e. they mimic the most extreme historical events-their contribution to global energy supply by 2050 will be marginal.

  5. Observation of Single Colloidal Platinum Nanocrystal Growth Trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Haimei; Smith, Rachel; Jun, Young-wook; Kisielowski, Christian; Dahmen, Ulrich; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2009-02-09

    It is conventionally assumed that the growth of monodisperse colloidal nanocrystals requires a temporally discrete nucleation followed by monomer attachment onto the existing nuclei. However, recent studies have reported violations of this classical growth model, and have suggested that inter-particle interactions are also involved during the growth. Mechanisms of nanocrystal growth still remain controversial. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy, we show that platinum nanocrystals can grow either by monomer attachment from solution onto the existing particles or by coalescence between the particles. Surprisingly, an initially broad size distribution of the nanocrystals can spontaneously narrow. We suggest that nanocrystals take different pathways of growth based on their size- and morphology-dependent internal energies. These observations are expected to be highly relevant for other nanocrystal systems.

  6. Guidance system for low angle silicon ribbon growth

    DOEpatents

    Jewett, David N.; Bates, Herbert E.; Milstein, Joseph B.

    1986-07-08

    In a low angle silicon sheet growth process, a puller mechanism advances a seed crystal and solidified ribbon from a cooled growth zone in a melt at a low angle with respect to the horizontal. The ribbon is supported on a ramp adjacent the puller mechanism. Variations in the vertical position of the ribbon with respect to the ramp are isolated from the growth end of the ribbon by (1) growing the ribbon so that it is extremely thin, preferably less than 0.7 mm, (2) maintaining a large growth zone, preferably one whose length is at least 5.0 cm, and (3) spacing the ramp from the growth zone by at least 15 cm.

  7. Validating hydrodynamic growth in National Ignition Facility implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J. L. Casey, D. T.; Hurricane, O. A.; Raman, K. S.; Robey, H. F.; Smalyuk, V. A.

    2015-05-15

    We present new hydrodynamic growth experiments at the National Ignition Facility, which extend previous measurements up to Legendre mode 160 and convergence ratio 4, continuing the growth factor dispersion curve comparison of the low foot and high foot pulses reported by Casey et al. [Phys. Rev. E 90, 011102(R) (2014)]. We show that the high foot pulse has lower growth factor and lower growth rate than the low foot pulse. Using novel on-capsule fiducial markers, we observe that mode 160 inverts sign (changes phase) for the high foot pulse, evidence of amplitude oscillations during the Richtmyer-Meshkov phase of a spherically convergent system. Post-shot simulations are consistent with the experimental measurements for all but the shortest wavelength perturbations, reinforcing the validity of radiation hydrodynamic simulations of ablation front growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules.

  8. String stabilized ribbon growth a method for seeding same

    DOEpatents

    Sachs, Emanuel M. (39 Harding Ave., Belmont, MA 02178)

    1987-08-25

    This invention is a method of initiating or seeding the growth of a crystalline or polycrystalline ribbon by the String Stabilized Ribbon Growth Method. The method for seeding the crystal growth comprises contacting a melt surface with a seed and two strings used in edge stabilization. The wetted strings attach to the wetted seed as a result of the freezing of the liquid melt. Upon drawing the seed, which is attached to the strings, away from the melt surface a melt liquid meniscus, a seed junction, and a growth interface forms. Further pulling of the attached seed causes a crystal ribbon to grow at the growth interface. The boundaries of the growing ribbon are: at the top the seed junction, at the bottom the freezing boundary of the melt liquid meniscus, and at the edges frozen-in strings.

  9. Growth plate closure: Apex view on bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, P.H.; Trochei, M.; Yeates, K.

    1984-01-01

    Angular deformities of the extremities in children following premature closure of the growth plate are well known. The deformities depend on the position of an osseus bridge which forms between the epiphysis and metaphysis. Several surgical procedures including resection of the osseus bridge have been described, however, delineation of the site of fusion is difficult to define. The commonest site of growth plate arrest is the distal femoral or proximal tibial growth plate. A new technique using the bone scan has been developed which accurately defines the area and position of these osseus bridges. Two hours after injection of technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate apex views of the affected distal femoral growth plate were performed. The knee was flexed into its smallest angle. Using a pinhole collimator the gamma camera was angled to face the affected growth plate end on. The image was collected onto computer and analysed by: (I) regions of interest over segments of the growth plate to calculate the relative area of total growth plate affected: (II) generating histograms: (III) thresholding or performing isocontours to accentuate abnormal areas. The growth plate is normally uniformly increased when compared to the normal shaft of the bone. Fusion across the plate appears as an area of diminished uptake. The apex view gives a unique functional map of the growth plate such that abnormal areas are displayed, and the site, size and position of osseus fusion obtained. The technique has the potential for determining the metabolic activity of the growth plate before and after surgery. Serial studies will allow assessment of regneration of the plate and reformation of new osseus bridges.

  10. Methods of preparing flexible photovoltaic devices using epitaxial liftoff, and preserving the integrity of growth substrates used in epitaxial growth

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Lee, Kyusang; Shiu, Kuen-Ting

    2013-02-19

    There is disclosed methods of making photosensitive devices, such as flexible photovoltaic (PV) devices, through the use of epitaxial liftoff. Also described herein are methods of preparing flexible PV devices comprising a structure having a growth substrate, wherein the selective etching of protective layers yields a smooth growth substrate that us suitable for reuse.

  11. Methods of preparing flexible photovoltaic devices using epitaxial liftoff, and preserving the integrity of growth substrates used in epitaxial growth

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Lee, Kyusang; Shiu, Kuen-Ting

    2015-01-06

    There is disclosed methods of making photosensitive devices, such as flexible photovoltaic (PV) devices, through the use of epitaxial liftoff. Also described herein are methods of preparing flexible PV devices comprising a structure having a growth substrate, wherein the selective etching of protective layers yields a smooth growth substrate that us suitable for reuse.

  12. Manufacturing process to reduce large grain growth in zirconium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Rosecrans, P.M.

    1984-08-01

    It is an object of the present invention to provide a procedure for desensitizing zirconium-based alloys to large grain growth (LGG) during thermal treatment above the recrystallization temperature of the alloy. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a method for treating zirconium-based alloys which have been cold-worked in the range of 2 to 8% strain to reduce large grain growth. It is another object of the present invention to provide a method for fabricating a zirconium alloy clad nuclear fuel element wherein the zirconium clad is resistant to large grain growth.

  13. Dual chain synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOEpatents

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua

    2009-10-06

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  14. Dual chain synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOEpatents

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua

    2012-04-24

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  15. Kinetics of monolayer graphene growth by segregation on Pd(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, H. S.; Murata, Y.; Kodambaka, S., E-mail: kodambaka@ucla.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ebnonnasir, A.; Ciobanu, C. V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science Program, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Nie, S.; McCarty, K. F. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    Using in situ low-energy electron microscopy and density functional theory calculations, we follow the growth of monolayer graphene on Pd(111) via surface segregation of bulk-dissolved carbon. Upon lowering the substrate temperature, nucleation of graphene begins on graphene-free Pd surface and continues to occur during graphene growth. Measurements of graphene growth rates and Pd surface work functions establish that this continued nucleation is due to increasing C adatom concentration on the Pd surface with time. We attribute this anomalous phenomenon to a large barrier for attachment of C adatoms to graphene coupled with a strong binding of the non-graphitic C to the Pd surface.

  16. Visualization of Growth Curve Data from Phenotype MicroarrayExperiments

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, Janet S.; Joyner, Dominique C.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Bethel, E. Wes

    2007-04-19

    Phenotype microarrays provide a technology to simultaneouslysurvey the response of an organism to nearly 2,000 substrates, includingcarbon, nitrogen and potassium sources; varying pH; varying saltconcentrations; and antibiotics. In order to more quickly and easily viewand compare the large number of growth curves produced by phenotypemicroarray experiments, we have developed software to produce and displaycolor images, each of which corresponds to a set of 96 growth curves.Using color images to represent growth curves data has proven to be avaluable way to assess experiment quality, compare replicates, facilitatecomparison of the responses of different organisms, and identifysignificant phenotypes. The color images are linked to traditional plotsof growth versus time, as well as to information about the experiment,organism, and substrate. In order to share and view information and dataproject-wide, all information, plots, and data are accessible using onlya Web browser.

  17. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride semiconductor compounds

    DOEpatents

    Melnik, Yuriy; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2015-03-17

    Methods are disclosed for growing group III-nitride semiconductor compounds with advanced buffer layer technique. In an embodiment, a method includes providing a suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. The method includes forming an AlN buffer layer by flowing an ammonia gas into a growth zone of the processing chamber, flowing an aluminum halide containing precursor to the growth zone and at the same time flowing additional hydrogen halide or halogen gas into the growth zone of the processing chamber. The additional hydrogen halide or halogen gas that is flowed into the growth zone during buffer layer deposition suppresses homogeneous AlN particle formation. The hydrogen halide or halogen gas may continue flowing for a time period while the flow of the aluminum halide containing precursor is turned off.

  18. Nanoscale selective area growth of thick, dense, uniform, In...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Nanoscale selective area growth of thick, dense, uniform, In-rich, InGaN nanostructure arrays on GaNsapphire template Authors: Sundaram, S. 1 ; Puybaret, R. 2 ; El ...

  19. Crystal growth and structure determinations of potassium hafnates...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystal growth and structure determinations of potassium hafnates: Ksub 2Hfsub 2Osub 5 and Ksub 4Hfsub 5Osub 12 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crystal ...

  20. Step-by-step growth of complex oxide microstructures (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This content will become publicly available on June 10, 2016 Title: Step-by-step growth of ... will become publicly available on June 10, 2016 Publisher's Version of Record 10.1002...

  1. Cart or Horse: Transport and Economic Growth | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    it can constrain growth, as congestion and unreliable transport systems can exact a heavy price. But as long as the transport system is "good enough", the returns to greater...

  2. The US Geothermal Industry: Three Decades of Growth | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Three Decades of Growth Abstract Over the last three decades the U.S. geothermal power-generation industry has grown to be the largest in the world,with over 2700 MW of...

  3. Branching Mechanisms in Surfactant Micellar Growth (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Branching Mechanisms in Surfactant Micellar Growth Citation ... 1169255 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-575474 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  4. Growth and Discovery of Novel Materials | The Ames Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Growth and Discovery of Novel Materials During this SULI program the student will learn how to grow single crystals of novel intermetallic compounds as part of the on-going Ames...

  5. NREL Growth Forum Brings Together Clean Energy Innovators - News Releases |

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Growth Forum Brings Together Clean Energy Innovators Event recognizes the top startup businesses and clean energy technologies November 5, 2015 The Industry Growth Forum, hosted by the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), this week attracted more than 400 investors, entrepreneurs, technologists and thought leaders to Denver. At the conclusion of the event three companies were honored with Best Venture and Outstanding Venture Awards. The two-day forum

  6. NREL Industry Growth Forum Attracts Clean Energy Entrepreneurs and

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Investors - News Releases | NREL Industry Growth Forum Attracts Clean Energy Entrepreneurs and Investors Forum to feature business presentations from 30 clean energy startups, networking opportunities, compelling panels and speakers September 19, 2014 Thirty clean energy companies will present their business cases to a panel of investors and industry experts Oct. 28 and 29 in Denver, as the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosts its annual Industry Growth

  7. NREL's Industry Growth Forum Brings Together Energy Innovators - News

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL NREL's Industry Growth Forum Brings Together Energy Innovators Event Highlights Clean Energy Technologies and Startup Businesses November 10, 2011 The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 24th Industry Growth Forum this week attracted more than 500 investors, entrepreneurs, scientists and policymakers to Denver. The three-day forum highlighted clean energy industry technology and business developments. As part of the forum, NREL also hosted

  8. NREL's Industry Growth Forum Brings Together Energy Innovators - News

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL NREL's Industry Growth Forum Brings Together Energy Innovators Event recognizes the top clean energy technologies and startup businesses October 30, 2014 The Industry Growth Forum hosted by the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) this week attracted nearly 400 investors, entrepreneurs, scientists and thought leaders to Denver. Last night, three companies where honored with Best Venture and Outstanding Venture Awards. The two-day forum highlighted

  9. Photosynthesis and Biomass Growth (7 Activities) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Photosynthesis and Biomass Growth (7 Activities) Photosynthesis and Biomass Growth (7 Activities) Below is information about the student activity/lesson plan from your search. Grades 9-12 Subject Bioenergy Summary Introduce your students to the power of plants! Photosynthesis is arguably the most important form of energy transformation and is a fundamental concept for students of all ages. Projects listed in this section should be used as an exciting starting point for both classroom and science

  10. Forest County Potawatomi Tribe Cuts Emissions, Promotes Green Growth |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Forest County Potawatomi Tribe Cuts Emissions, Promotes Green Growth Forest County Potawatomi Tribe Cuts Emissions, Promotes Green Growth February 23, 2012 - 6:29pm Addthis The Forest County Potawatomi Tribe's solar system is providing heating, cooling, and electricity to the Tribe's administration building in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Photo from the Forest County Potawatomi Tribe. The Forest County Potawatomi Tribe's solar system is providing heating, cooling, and

  11. Fun Fact Friday: Fueling Growth | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fueling Growth Fun Fact Friday: Fueling Growth January 3, 2014 - 1:53pm Addthis Fuel cells, which work like batteries but don’t run down or need recharging, are ideal for powering material handling equipment, like forklifts and airport baggage carts, because they reduce recharging time and cut carbon pollution. Recent Energy Department reports indicate the fuel cell and hydrogen industry is continuing to grow. | Photo courtesy of Plug Power, Inc. Fuel cells, which work like batteries but

  12. Regional safety initiative's fifth year continues growth and offerings |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Regional safety initiative's fifth year continues growth and offerings Regional safety initiative's fifth year continues growth and offerings September 1, 2016 - 10:42am Addthis Each year, Safety Fest TN has grown in its attendance and in its offerings. In 2015, the event recorded more than 850 participants representing 172 organizations from 79 cities in 6 states, and the expectations for 2016 are even higher. Each year, Safety Fest TN has grown in its attendance and in

  13. Multibump solutions for quasilinear elliptic equations with critical growth

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jiaquan; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Xian

    2013-12-15

    The current paper is concerned with constructing multibump solutions for a class of quasilinear Schrdinger equations with critical growth. This extends the classical results of Coti Zelati and Rabinowitz [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 45, 12171269 (1992)] for semilinear equations as well as recent work of Liu, Wang, and Guo [J. Funct. Anal. 262, 40404102 (2012)] for quasilinear problems with subcritical growth. The periodicity of the potentials is used to glue ground state solutions to construct multibump bound state solutions.

  14. Technological Advancements Paving the Way for Geothermal Growth |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Technological Advancements Paving the Way for Geothermal Growth Technological Advancements Paving the Way for Geothermal Growth February 12, 2013 - 2:47pm Addthis Preliminary results show an increase in 2012 year-end geothermal capacity Washington, D.C. (Geothermal Energy Association) - As the Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) prepares to release its annual development report at the State of the Geothermal Energy Industry Briefing on February 26 in Washington,

  15. Improved Growth of High-Temperature Superconductors with HF Pressure

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Control - Energy Innovation Portal Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Improved Growth of High-Temperature Superconductors with HF Pressure Control Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication A new method of HF control for synthesizing YBCO using the BaF2 ex situ process (83 KB) Graphical representation of the removal of hydrogen fluoride gas by the absorber during growth of

  16. Ethanol-induced impairment of polyamine homeostasis – A potential cause of neural tube defect and intrauterine growth restriction in fetal alcohol syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Haghighi Poodeh, Saeid; Alhonen, Leena; Salonurmi, Tuire; Savolainen, Markku J.

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. • Alcohol administration perturbs polyamine levels in the tissues with various patterns. • Total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc is critical for development. • The deficiency is associated with reduction in endothelial cell sprouting in the head. • Retarded migration of neural crest cells may cause development of neural tube defect. - Abstract: Introduction: Polyamines play a fundamental role during embryogenesis by regulating cell growth and proliferation and by interacting with RNA, DNA and protein. The polyamine pools are regulated by metabolism and uptake from exogenous sources. The use of certain inhibitors of polyamine synthesis causes similar defects to those seen in alcohol exposure e.g. retarded embryo growth and endothelial cell sprouting. Methods: CD-1 mice received two intraperitoneal injections of 3 g/kg ethanol at 4 h intervals 8.75 days post coitum (dpc). The fetal head, trunk, yolk sac and placenta were collected at 9.5 and 12.5 dpc and polyamine concentrations were determined. Results: No measurable quantity of polyamines could be detected in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc, 12 h after ethanol exposure. Putrescine was not detectable in the trunk of the embryo at that time, whereas polyamines in yolk sac and placenta were at control level. Polyamine deficiency was associated with slow cell growth, reduction in endothelial cell sprouting, an altered pattern of blood vessel network formation and consequently retarded migration of neural crest cells and growth restriction. Discussion: Our results indicate that the polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. Alcohol administration, at the critical stage, perturbs polyamine levels with various patterns, depending on the tissue and its developmental stage. The total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc may explain why this

  17. Japan-Economics of Climate Change and Low Carbon Growth Strategies...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    and Low Carbon Growth Strategies in Northeast Asia Jump to: navigation, search Name Japan-Economics of Climate Change and Low Carbon Growth Strategies in Northeast Asia Agency...

  18. Fatigue crack growth behavior of Al-Li alloy 1441

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, R.V.; Parida, B.K.

    1995-12-31

    Fatigue crack growth behavior of Al-Li alloy 1441 having a marginally lower lithium content, compared to 80xx and 20xx series Al-Li alloys is presented in this paper. This investigation was conducted on single edge tension--SE(T)--specimens, under constant amplitude as well as under MiniLCA flight spectrum loading with the specific objective of determining the effects of stress ratio, orientation, thickness and cladding. Three thicknesses were considered: 1.2 mm(clad and unclad), 2.0 mm(clad and unclad) and 8.0 mm unclad. Constant amplitude fatigue tests were conducted at stress ratios of {minus}0.3, 0.1 and 0.7. Testing was performed under ambient conditions and along three orientations, namely L-T, T-L and L+45 degrees. Crack growth characteristics of this alloy are compared with that of BS:L73 (2014-T4 equivalent) for assessing the possibility of replacing BS:L73. Significant effect of stress ratio on crack growth rate was observed in all thicknesses. However, in case of 1.2 and 2.0 mm thick sheets, the effect was minimal at intermediate-crack growth regime. The orientation of the specimen does not adversely affect the fatigue crack growth behavior of 8.0 mm and 2.0 mm thick specimens. However, for 1.2 mm unclad sheet crack growth resistance in L-T direction was found to be superior to that along T-L direction. In majority of test cases considered, no significant effect was observed on crack growth rate due to thickness or cladding. Crack growth characteristics of Al-Li alloy 1441 and Al-Cu alloy BS:L73 under constant amplitude as well as MiniLCA spectrum loading are similar in the low and intermediate-crack growth rate regime. Based on these observations, it is felt that this Al-Li alloy has the potential for future aerospace applications.

  19. Vertical zone melt growth of GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.L.; Nordquist, P.E.R.; Gorman, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    A Vertical Zone Melt (VZM) technique has been applied to the single crystal growth of GaAs. A pyrolytic boron nitride crucible and a (100) oriented seed were used along with liquid encapsulation by boric oxide. In the case of GaAs, the ampoule was pressurized with either argon or argensic vapor from elemental arsenic at pressures ranging from 1 to 2 atmospheres. A molten zone length of 22 mm gave a growth interface which is nearly flat and resulted in routine single crystal growth. Temperature gradients of 4{degrees}C/cm. and 9{degrees}C/cm. have produced dislocation densities of <1000/cm{sup 2} and 2000-5000/cm{sup 2} respectively for 34 mm diameter crystals of GaAs. Post growth cooling rates for GaAs have been 35, 160 and 500{degrees}C/hr. The cooling rate has been found to affect the number and size of arsenic precipitates and the EL2 concentration in the GaAs crystal. The effects of these and other growth parameters on the crystalline perfection and electrical properties of the crystals will be discussed.

  20. Atomistic mechanisms for bilayer growth of graphene on metal substrates

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Chen, Wei; Cui, Ping; Zhu, Wenguang; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Gao, Yanfei; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-08

    Epitaxial growth on metal substrates has been shown to be the most powerful approach in producing large-scale high-quality monolayer graphene, yet it remains a major challenge to realize uniform bilayer graphene growth. Here we carry out a comparative study of the atomistic mechanisms for bilayer graphene growth on the (111) surfaces of Cu and Ni, using multiscale approaches combining first-principles calculations and rate-equation analysis. We first show that the relatively weak graphene-Cu interaction enhances the lateral diffusion and effective nucleation of C atoms underneath the graphene island, thereby making it more feasible to grow bilayer graphene on Cu. In contrast,more » the stronger graphene-Ni interaction suppresses the lateral mobility and dimerization of C atoms underneath the graphene, making it unlikely to achieve controlled growth of bilayer graphene on Ni. We then determine the critical graphene size beyond which nucleation of the second layer will take place. Intriguingly, the critical size exhibits an effective inverse "Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier" effect, becoming smaller for faster C migration from the Cu surface to the graphene-Cu interface sites across the graphene edge. Lastly, these findings allow us to propose a novel alternating growth scheme to realize mass production of bilayer graphene.« less

  1. Atomistic mechanisms for bilayer growth of graphene on metal substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei; Cui, Ping; Zhu, Wenguang; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Gao, Yanfei; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-08

    Epitaxial growth on metal substrates has been shown to be the most powerful approach in producing large-scale high-quality monolayer graphene, yet it remains a major challenge to realize uniform bilayer graphene growth. Here we carry out a comparative study of the atomistic mechanisms for bilayer graphene growth on the (111) surfaces of Cu and Ni, using multiscale approaches combining first-principles calculations and rate-equation analysis. We first show that the relatively weak graphene-Cu interaction enhances the lateral diffusion and effective nucleation of C atoms underneath the graphene island, thereby making it more feasible to grow bilayer graphene on Cu. In contrast, the stronger graphene-Ni interaction suppresses the lateral mobility and dimerization of C atoms underneath the graphene, making it unlikely to achieve controlled growth of bilayer graphene on Ni. We then determine the critical graphene size beyond which nucleation of the second layer will take place. Intriguingly, the critical size exhibits an effective inverse "Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier" effect, becoming smaller for faster C migration from the Cu surface to the graphene-Cu interface sites across the graphene edge. Lastly, these findings allow us to propose a novel alternating growth scheme to realize mass production of bilayer graphene.

  2. Concrete growth problems and remedial measures at TVA projects

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Most concrete structures are designed and detailed to provide for a volume decrease without excessive cracking. Occasionally, however, a concrete structure exhibits a long-term increase in volume termed concrete growth. Concrete growth may result from a variety of reactions, such as the hydration of unstable oxides included in the concrete mix, or the oxidation of minerals or from an outside attack of sulfates. The most important reaction creating concrete growth is that between minor alkali hydroxides from cement and the concrete aggregates. Two distinctly different harmful reactions have been recognized: the alkali-silicate and alkali-carbonate reactions. Concrete deteriorating from an alkali-aggregate reaction, regardless of the type, develops an obvious network of cracks called pattern or map cracking. These alkali-aggregate reactions and their accompanying concrete growth have presented numerous problems at TVA's Fontana Dam, Chickamauga Dam and lock, and Hiwassee Dam. Much has been learned about alkali-aggregate reaction since 1940. Most harmful reactions can now be prevented in proposed structures by interpreting the results of standard test methods. It is not possible, however, in existing structures to determine how far the growth phenomenon has progressed, how long the effects will have to be dealt with, or what the future effects will be. A program of close surveillance and monitoring is maintained at these projects, and problems are dealt with as they arise.

  3. Mask-Assisted Seeded Growth of Segmented Metallic Heteronanostructures

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Crane, Cameron C.; Tao, Jing; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Yimei; Chen, Jingyi

    2014-12-04

    Controlling the deposition of exotic metals in the seeded growth of multi-metal nanostructures is challenging. This work describes a seeded growth method assisted by a mask for synthesis of segmented binary or ternary metal nanostructures. Silica is used as a mask to partially block the surface of a seed and a second metal is subsequently deposited on the exposed area, forming a bimetallic heterodimer. The initial demonstration was carried out on a Au seed, followed by deposition of Pd or Pt on the seed. It was found that Pd tends to spread out laterally on the seed while Pt inclinesmore » to grow vertically into branched topology on Au. Without removal of the SiO₂ mask, Pt could be further deposited on the unblocked Pd of the Pd-Au dimer to form a Pt-Pd-Au trimer. The mask-assisted seeded growth provides a general strategy to construct segmented metallic nanoarchitectures.« less

  4. Growth of and defect reduction in nanoscale materials

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Kenneth J.; Mickelson, William E.; Zettl, Alex K.

    2011-01-04

    Methods by which the growth of a nanostructure may be precisely controlled by an electrical current are described here. In one embodiment, an interior nanostructure is grown to a predetermined geometry inside another nanostructure, which serves as a reaction chamber. The growth is effected by a catalytic agent loaded with feedstock for the interior nanostructure. Another embodiment allows a preexisting marginal quality nanostructure to be zone refined into a higher-quality nanostructure by driving a catalytic agent down a controlled length of the nanostructure with an electric current. In both embodiments, the speed of nanostructure formation is adjustable, and the growth may be stopped and restarted at will. The catalytic agent may be doped or undoped to produce semiconductor effects, and the bead may be removed via acid etching.

  5. The early growth of the first black holes

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Haardt, Francesco

    2016-03-04

    With detections of quasars powered by increasingly massive black holes at increasingly early times in cosmic history over the past decade, there has been correspondingly rapid progress made on the theory of early black hole formation and growth. Here, we review the emerging picture of how the first massive black holes formed from the primordial gas and then grew to supermassive scales. We discuss the initial conditions for the formation of the progenitors of these seed black holes, the factors dictating the initial masses with which they form, and their initial stages of growth via accretion, which may occur atmore » super-Eddington rates. Lastly, we briefly discuss how these results connect to large-scale simulations of the growth of supermassive black holes in the first billion years after the Big Bang.« less

  6. Mask-Assisted Seeded Growth of Segmented Metallic Heteronanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, Cameron C.; Tao, Jing; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Yimei; Chen, Jingyi

    2014-12-04

    Controlling the deposition of exotic metals in the seeded growth of multi-metal nanostructures is challenging. This work describes a seeded growth method assisted by a mask for synthesis of segmented binary or ternary metal nanostructures. Silica is used as a mask to partially block the surface of a seed and a second metal is subsequently deposited on the exposed area, forming a bimetallic heterodimer. The initial demonstration was carried out on a Au seed, followed by deposition of Pd or Pt on the seed. It was found that Pd tends to spread out laterally on the seed while Pt inclines to grow vertically into branched topology on Au. Without removal of the SiO₂ mask, Pt could be further deposited on the unblocked Pd of the Pd-Au dimer to form a Pt-Pd-Au trimer. The mask-assisted seeded growth provides a general strategy to construct segmented metallic nanoarchitectures.

  7. Growth Mode Transition in Complex Oxide Heteroepitaxy: Atomically Resolved Studies

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Tselev, Alexander; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Gianfrancesco, Anthony G.; Qiao, Liang; Meyer, Tricia L.; Lee, Ho Nyung; Biegalski, Michael D.; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2016-04-04

    Here we performed investigations of the atomic-scale surface structure of epitaxial La5/8Ca3/8MnO3 thin films as a model system dependent on growth conditions in pulsed laser deposition with emphasis on film growth kinetics. Postdeposition in situ scanning tunneling microscopy was combined with in operando reflective high-energy electron diffraction to monitor the film growth and ex situ X-ray diffraction for structural analysis. We find a correlation between the out-of-plane lattice parameter and both adspecies mobility and height of the Ehrlich–Schwoebel barrier, with mobility of adatoms greater over the cationically stoichiometric terminations. We find that the data suggest that the out-of-plane lattice parametermore » is dependent on the mechanism of epitaxial strain relaxation, which is controlled by the oxidative power of the deposition environment.« less

  8. Predicting crack growth in continuous-fiber composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cordes, J.A.; Yazici, R.

    1995-12-31

    Pre-notched composite lamina with unidirectional fibers were studied experimentally and using finite element analysis. Experiments were conducted on notched graphite/aluminum and glass/epoxy panels and the results were compared to a finite element method. Under remote tensile loading, cracks in the graphite/aluminum panels propagated perpendicular to the applied load without stable crack growth. In the glass/epoxy panels, crack propagation was initially stable and parallel to the fibers. A nonlinear damage zone method (DZM) was used to predict the crack growth directions, estimate damages, model stable and unstable crack growths, and predict the loads at failure. For both materials, the predicted loads at failure were within 20% of experimental loads.

  9. Growth of filaments and saturation of the filamentation instability

    SciTech Connect

    Gedalin, M.; Medvedev, M.; Spitkovsky, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Vaivads, A.; Perri, S.

    2010-03-15

    The filamentation instability of counterstreaming beams is a nonresonant hydrodynamic-type instability whose growth rate is a smooth function of the wavelength (scale). As a result, perturbations with all unstable wavelengths develop, and the growth saturates due to the saturation of available current. For a given scale, the magnetic field at saturation is proportional to the scale. As a result, the instability develops in a nearly linear regime, where the unstable modes stop growing as soon as the saturation of the corresponding wavelength is reached. At each moment there exists a dominant scale of the magnetic field which is the scale that reached saturation at this particular time. The smaller scales do not disappear and can be easily distinguished in the current structure. The overall growth of the instability stops when the loss of the streaming ion energy because of deceleration is comparable to the initial ion energy.

  10. Mask-Assisted Seeded Growth of Segmented Metallic Heteronanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, Cameron C.; Tao, Jing; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Yimei; Chen, Jingyi

    2014-12-04

    Controlling the deposition of exotic metals in the seeded growth of multi-metal nanostructures is challenging. This work describes a seeded growth method assisted by a mask for synthesis of segmented binary or ternary metal nanostructures. Silica is used as a mask to partially block the surface of a seed and a second metal is subsequently deposited on the exposed area, forming a bimetallic heterodimer. The initial demonstration was carried out on a Au seed, followed by deposition of Pd or Pt on the seed. It was found that Pd tends to spread out laterally on the seed while Pt inclines to grow vertically into branched topology on Au. Without removal of the SiO? mask, Pt could be further deposited on the unblocked Pd of the Pd-Au dimer to form a Pt-Pd-Au trimer. The mask-assisted seeded growth provides a general strategy to construct segmented metallic nanoarchitectures.

  11. Computer Simulation of Bubble Growth in Metals Due to He

    SciTech Connect

    FOILES, STEPHEN M.; HOYT, JEFFREY J.

    2001-03-01

    Atomistic simulations of the growth of helium bubbles in metals are performed. The metal is represented by embedded atom method potentials for palladium. The helium bubbles are treated via an expanding repulsive spherical potential within the metal lattice. The simulations predict bubble pressures that decrease monotonically with increasing helium to metal ratios. The swelling of the material associated with the bubble growth is also computed. It is found that the rate of swelling increases with increasing helium to metal ratio consistent with experimental observations on the swelling of metal tritides. Finally, the detailed defect structure due to the bubble growth was investigated. Dislocation networks are observed to form that connect the bubbles. Unlike early model assumptions, prismatic loops between the bubbles are not retained. These predictions are compared to available experimental evidence.

  12. Resolved: Hopper /scratch file system slow

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    your input files directory, your batch job submission directory, your executable file location, and the TMPDIR setting (which is set to SCRATCH by default). Status: This...

  13. Slow Dynamics of Orbital Domains in Manganite

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    specific electron wave functions self-organize. Interactions between these electron shells determine the patterns formed by the orbitals and, among other things, will even...

  14. Slow Dynamics of Orbital Domains in Manganite

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    in order to study their domain motion. By using these soft x rays generated at the ALS, one of the ... we can understand the movement of the electronic domain structure. ...

  15. Slow Dynamics of Orbital Domains in Manganite

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    we can understand the movement of the electronic domain structure. A typical image from a digital camera for x rays (CCD) showing a soft x-ray speckle pattern. The close-up...

  16. Slow Dynamics of Orbital Domains in Manganite

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    technique with photons of light that have wavelengths a billion times smaller than radio waves in order to study their domain motion. By using these soft x rays generated at...

  17. Slow oscillations of dispersion-managed solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwig, H.; Boehm, M.; Hause, A.; Mitschke, F.

    2010-03-15

    In dispersion-managed fibers, soliton-like solutions with periodically recurring shapes exist. These so called dispersion-managed solitons are relevant for fiber-optic telecommunication. In this article we address their behavior when there is deviation from the stationary solution, which is accompanied by the excitation of a long-lived periodic oscillation. We give a possible interpretation by applying soliton radiation beat analysis, a method capable of analyzing the soliton content.

  18. Nuclear energy output slows as climate warms

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, David

    2014-06-01

    New reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the US government say the window is closing for actions to avert the worst effects of warming.

  19. Slow beam raster system at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, C.; Beaufait, J.; Carlini, R.; Cuevas, C.; Vulcan, W.; Wines, R.

    1994-07-07

    A bedstead air-core raster magnet is being installed now, it will be used at CEBAF to scan the beam on the Hall C polarized target and the beam dump with fixed frequency 60 Hz in horizontal, 103.4 Hz in vertical. The x and y raster magnets are driven by Variac transformer and SUMIT-OMO inverter respectively. Both of them provide an approximate sine current waveform with peak current 20 A, corresponding to a maximum deflection angle 1 mr.

  20. Slow Dynamics of Orbital Domains in Manganite

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    "see" things that are invisible at all other energies. The researchers measured a diffraction peak that is due solely to the orbital ordering of the d-electron shells in a...

  1. Radiocarbon Based Ages and Growth Rates: Hawaiian Deep Sea Corals

    SciTech Connect

    Roark, E B; Guilderson, T P; Dunbar, R B; Ingram, B L

    2006-01-13

    The radial growth rates and ages of three different groups of Hawaiian deep-sea 'corals' were determined using radiocarbon measurements. Specimens of Corallium secundum, Gerardia sp., and Leiopathes glaberrima, were collected from 450 {+-} 40 m at the Makapuu deep-sea coral bed using a submersible (PISCES V). Specimens of Antipathes dichotoma were collected at 50 m off Lahaina, Maui. The primary source of carbon to the calcitic C. secundum skeleton is in situ dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Using bomb {sup 14}C time markers we calculate radial growth rates of {approx} 170 {micro}m y{sup -1} and ages of 68-75 years on specimens as tall as 28 cm of C. secundum. Gerardia sp., A. dichotoma, and L. glaberrima have proteinaceous skeletons and labile particulate organic carbon (POC) is their primary source of architectural carbon. Using {sup 14}C we calculate a radial growth rate of 15 {micro}m y{sup -1} and an age of 807 {+-} 30 years for a live collected Gerardia sp., showing that these organisms are extremely long lived. Inner and outer {sup 14}C measurements on four sub-fossil Gerardia spp. samples produce similar growth rate estimates (range 14-45 {micro}m y{sup -1}) and ages (range 450-2742 years) as observed for the live collected sample. Similarly, with a growth rate of < 10 {micro}m y{sup -1} and an age of {approx}2377 years, L. glaberrima at the Makapuu coral bed, is also extremely long lived. In contrast, the shallow-collected A. dichotoma samples yield growth rates ranging from 130 to 1,140 {micro}m y{sup -1}. These results show that Hawaiian deep-sea corals grow more slowly and are older than previously thought.

  2. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha in plutonium-239-induced lung neoplasms in dogs: investigations of autocrine mechanisms of growth

    SciTech Connect

    Gillett, N.A.; Stegelmeier, B.L.; Chang, I.Y.; Kelly, G. )

    1991-06-01

    We have previously shown that 47% of radiation-induced lung neoplasms in dogs exhibit increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study, we investigated the expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha), a ligand for EGFR, to determine if an autocrine mechanism for growth stimulation was present in these tumors. As determined by immunohistochemistry, 59% (26/44) of the lung neoplasms examined had increased expression of TGF-alpha. Expression of TGF-alpha was not related to the etiology of the tumor, e.g., spontaneous or plutonium-induced; however, it was related to the phenotype of the tumor. Statistical analysis of the correlation of EGFR and TGF-alpha expression within the same tumor did not show a positive association; however, specific phenotypes did have statistically significant expression of EGFR or TGF-alpha, suggesting that overexpression of either the ligand or its receptor conferred a growth advantage to the neoplasm. Twenty-seven percent (32/117) of radiation-induced proliferative epithelial foci expressed TGF-alpha, and a portion of those foci (8/32) expressed both EGFR and TGF-alpha. This supports the hypothesis that these foci represent preneoplastic lesions, and suggests that those foci exhibiting increased expression of the growth factor or its receptor are at greater risk for progressing to neoplasia.

  3. NREL's Industry Growth Forum Attracts Clean Energy Investors - News

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL NREL's Industry Growth Forum Attracts Clean Energy Investors 22nd Forum to Feature 34 Clean Energy Companies October 9, 2008 Thirty-four clean energy companies will present their business cases to a panel of investors and industry experts in Denver Nov. 3-5 as the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosts the 22nd NREL Industry Growth Forum. The 34 companies were selected through an application and review process and will compete for the

  4. NREL's Industry Growth Forum Attracts Clean Energy Investors - News

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL NREL's Industry Growth Forum Attracts Clean Energy Investors 25th Forum to Feature 30 Clean Energy Companies September 17, 2012 Thirty clean energy companies will present their business cases to a panel of investors and industry experts in Denver Oct. 23-24 as the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosts the 25th NREL Industry Growth Forum. The 30 companies were selected through an application and review process and will compete for the

  5. Material and methods to increase plant growth and yield

    SciTech Connect

    Kirst, Matias

    2015-09-15

    The present invention relates to materials and methods for modulating growth rates, yield, and/or resistance to drought conditions in plants. In one embodiment, a method of the invention comprises increasing expression of an hc1 gene (or a homolog thereof that provides for substantially the same activity), or increasing expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene thereof, in a plant, wherein expression of the hc1 gene or expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene results in increased growth rate, yield, and/or drought resistance in the plant.

  6. Aggregated Purchasing and Workplace Charging Can Drive EV Market Growth |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Aggregated Purchasing and Workplace Charging Can Drive EV Market Growth Aggregated Purchasing and Workplace Charging Can Drive EV Market Growth November 24, 2014 - 11:06am Addthis Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz with the utility industry's first plug-in electric hybrid drivetrain Class 5 bucket truck at the White House event on November 18, 2014. The truck, which is owned by Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), features up to 40 miles of all-electric range and

  7. III-V Growth on Silicon Toward a Multijunction Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Geisz, J.; Olson, J.; McMahon, W.; Friedman, D.; Kibbler, A.; Kramer, C.; Young, M.; Duda, A.; Ward, S.; Ptak, A.; Kurtz, S.; Wanlass, M.; Ahrenkiel, P.; Jiang, C. S.; Moutinho, H.; Norman, A.; Jones, K.; Romero, M.; Reedy, B.

    2005-11-01

    A III-V on Si multijunction solar cell promises high efficiency at relatively low cost. The challenges to epitaxial growth of high-quality III-Vs on Si, though, are extensive. Lattice-matched (LM) dilute-nitride GaNPAs solar cells have been grown on Si, but their performance is limited by defects related to the nitrogen. Advances in the growth of lattice-mismatched (LMM) materials make more traditional III-Vs, such as GaInP and GaAsP, very attractive for use in multijunction solar cells on silicon.

  8. Buckyball microwave plasmas: Fragmentation and diamond-film growth

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Buckyball microwave plasmas: Fragmentation and diamond-film growth Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Buckyball microwave plasmas: Fragmentation and diamond-film growth Microwave discharges (2.45 GHz) have been generated in C{sub 60}-containing Ar produced by flowing Ar over fullerene-containing soot. Optical spectroscopy shows that the spectrum is dominated by the d{sup 3}{Pi}g-a{sup 3}{Pi}u Swan bands of C{sub 2} and

  9. Crystal growth and annealing for minimized residual stress

    DOEpatents

    Gianoulakis, Steven E.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for producing crystals that minimizes birefringence even at large crystal sizes, and is suitable for production of CaF.sub.2 crystals. The method of the present invention comprises annealing a crystal by maintaining a minimal temperature gradient in the crystal while slowly reducing the bulk temperature of the crystal. An apparatus according to the present invention includes a thermal control system added to a crystal growth and annealing apparatus, wherein the thermal control system allows a temperature gradient during crystal growth but minimizes the temperature gradient during crystal annealing.

  10. Promoting Sustainable Economic Growth in Mexico (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.; Butheau, M.; Sandor, D.

    2013-11-01

    Mexico is the second largest economy in Latin America, with rapid growth occurring in the industrial and services sectors. A forward-thinking country on climate change, the nation recognizes that the threat of higher temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, and more frequent weather-related disasters could pose a substantial risk to its expanding economy.

  11. Controlled epitaxial graphene growth within removable amorphous carbon corrals

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, James; Hu, Yike; Hankinson, John; Guo, Zelei; Heer, Walt A. de; Kunc, Jan; Berger, Claire

    2014-07-14

    We address the question of control of the silicon carbide (SiC) steps and terraces under epitaxial graphene on SiC and demonstrate amorphous carbon (aC) corrals as an ideal method to pin SiC surface steps. aC is compatible with graphene growth, structurally stable at high temperatures, and can be removed after graphene growth. For this, aC is first evaporated and patterned on SiC, then annealed in the graphene growth furnace. There at temperatures above 1200?C, mobile SiC steps accumulate at the aC corral that provide effective step flow barriers. Aligned step free regions are thereby formed for subsequent graphene growth at temperatures above 1330?C. Atomic force microscopy imaging supports the formation of step-free terraces on SiC with the step morphology aligned to the aC corrals. Raman spectroscopy indicates the presence of good graphene sheets on the step-free terraces.

  12. Three Regional Partnerships Target Technology Commercialization, Job Growth

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A project aimed at spurring growth in clean technologies — the Igniting Innovation Cleantech Acceleration Network -- is helping to support the economically depressed area surrounding Orlando, Florida by providing an extensive network of resources for entrepreneurs. It's one of three that the Energy Department is funding through the i6 Green Challenge.

  13. Characterization of secondary phases in modified vertical bridgman growth czt

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, Martine

    2009-07-10

    CdZnTe or 'CZT' crystals are highly suitable for use as a room temperature based spectrometer for the detection and characterization of gamma radiation. Over the last decade, the methods for growing high quality CZT have improved the quality of the produced crystals however there are material features that can influence the performance of these materials as radiation detectors. For example, various structural heterogeneities within the CZT crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), and secondary phases (SP) can have a negative impact on the detector performance. In this study, a CZT material was grown by the modified vertical Bridgman growth (MVB) method with zone leveled growth without excess Te in the melt. Visual observations of material from the growth of this material revealed significant voids and SP. Three samples from this material was analyzed using various analytical techniques to evaluate its electrical properties, purity and detector performance as radiation spectrometers and to determine the morphology, dimension and elemental/structural composition of one of the SP in this material. This material was found to have a high resistivity but poor radiation spectrometer performance. It had SP that were rich in polycrystalline aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), metallic Te and polycrystalline CdZnTe and 15 to 50 {micro}m in diameter. Bulk elemental analyses of sister material from elsewhere in the boule did not contain high levels of Al so there is considerable elemental impurity heterogeneity within the boule from this growth.

  14. Inclusion free cadmium zinc tellurium and cadmium tellurium crystals and associated growth method

    DOEpatents

    Bolotnikov, Aleskey E.; James, Ralph B.

    2010-07-20

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for crystal growth of cadmium zinc tellurium (CZT) and cadmium tellurium (CdTe) crystals with an inverted growth reactor chamber. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables growth of single, large, high purity CZT and CdTe crystals that can be used, for example, in X-ray and gamma detection, substrates for infrared detectors, or the like. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables reductions in the presence of Te inclusions, which are recognized as an important limiting factor in using CZT or CdTe as radiation detectors. The inverted growth reactor chamber can be utilized with existing crystal growth techniques such as the Bridgman crystal growth mechanism and the like. In an exemplary embodiment, the inverted growth reactor chamber is a U-shaped ampoule.

  15. Large-volume protein crystal growth for neutron macromolecular crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Joseph D.; Baird, James K.; Coates, Leighton; Garcia-Ruiz, Juan M.; Hodge, Teresa A.; Huang, Sijay

    2015-03-30

    Neutron macromolecular crystallography (NMC) is the prevailing method for the accurate determination of the positions of H atoms in macromolecules. As neutron sources are becoming more available to general users, finding means to optimize the growth of protein crystals to sizes suitable for NMC is extremely important. Historically, much has been learned about growing crystals for X-ray diffraction. However, owing to new-generation synchrotron X-ray facilities and sensitive detectors, protein crystal sizes as small as in the nano-range have become adequate for structure determination, lessening the necessity to grow large crystals. Here, some of the approaches, techniques and considerations for the growth of crystals to significant dimensions that are now relevant to NMC are revisited. We report that these include experimental strategies utilizing solubility diagrams, ripening effects, classical crystallization techniques, microgravity and theoretical considerations.

  16. Crystallization in supercooled liquid Cu: Homogeneous nucleation and growth

    SciTech Connect

    E, J. C.; Wang, L.; Luo, S. N.; Cai, Y.; Wu, H. A.

    2015-02-14

    Homogeneous nucleation and growth during crystallization of supercooled liquid Cu are investigated with molecular dynamics simulations, and the microstructure is characterized with one- and two-dimensional x-ray diffraction. The resulting solids are single-crystal or nanocrystalline, containing various defects such as stacking faults, twins, fivefold twins, and grain boundaries; the microstructure is subject to thermal fluctuations and extent of supercooling. Fivefold twins form via sequential twinning from the solid-liquid interfaces. Critical nucleus size and nucleation rate at 31% supercooling are obtained from statistical runs with the mean first-passage time and survival probability methods, and are about 14 atoms and 10{sup 32} m{sup −3}s{sup −1}, respectively. The bulk growth dynamics are analyzed with the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami law and manifest three stages; the Avrami exponent varies in the range of 1–19, which also depends on thermal fluctuations and supercooling.

  17. Co-GISAXS technique for investigating surface growth dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Rainville, Meliha G.; Hoskin, Christa; Ulbrandt, Jeffrey G.; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec R.; Zhou, Hua; Headrick, Randall L.; Ludwig, Jr., Karl F.

    2015-12-08

    Detailed quantitative measurement of surface dynamics during thin film growth is a major experimental challenge. Here X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy with coherent hard X-rays is used in a Grazing-Incidence Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (i.e. Co-GISAXS) geometry as a new tool to investigate nanoscale surface dynamics during sputter deposition of a-Si and a-WSi2 thin films. For both films, kinetic roughening during surface growth reaches a dynamic steady state at late times in which the intensity autocorrelation function g2(q,t) becomes stationary. The g2(q,t) functions exhibit compressed exponential behavior at all wavenumbers studied. The overall dynamics are complex, but the most surface sensitive sections of the structure factor and correlation time exhibit power law behaviors consistent with dynamical scaling.

  18. U.S. Government Supports Low Emission Economic Growth

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-01

    Countries around the world face the challenge of maintaining long-term sustainable economic growth and development under the threat of climate change. By identifying and pursuing a sustainable development pathway now, they are better positioned to reach their economic growth goals while addressing climate change impacts and lowering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Low emission development strategies - development plans that promote sustainable social and economic development while reducing long-term GHG emissions - provide a pathway to preparing for a global low emission future. Partner country governments are working with the U.S. government through the Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to further their national development objectives.

  19. Chemical beam epitaxy growth of III–V semiconductor nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Mohummed Noori, Farah T.

    2013-12-16

    Indium- Arsenide (InAs) nanowires were grown in a high vacuum chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) unit on InAs(111) wafers substrates at 425–454°C. Two types of nanogold were used as orientation catalyst, 40nm and 80nm. The measurements were performed using scanning electron microscopy showed that uniform nanowires. The nanowires orient vertically in the InAs nanowire scanning electron microscopy of an array 80nm diameter InAs nanowire with length is in the range 0.5–1 μm and of an array 40nm diameter with length is in the range 0.3–0.7μm. The nanowire length with growth time shows that the linear increase of nanowires start to grow as soon as TMIn is available. The growth rate with temperature was studied.

  20. Kelp growth on an ocean farm in relation to fertilizing

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, V.A.; North, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    Results of fertilizing experiments on the test farm supported previous evidence that low macronutrient supplies limit kelp growth in offshore surface water. Enhanced N contents of blade tissues from adult and juvenile plants and enhanced growth of juvenile plants indicates that artificially upwelled deep water could provide a suitable source of nutrients. However, measurement of harvestable production depends on our ability to prevent damage to plants by currents and abrasion, which would be edge effects on a large-scale ocean farm. Three adult Macrocystis plants have been held successfully on the test farm for one year by locating them away from major structural elements. At least ten times that many plants, suitably protected and fertilized with deep water, are necessary to accomplish the immediate goal of determining yield. The test farm is now being redesigned to meet these requirements.

  1. On the origin of radiation growth of hcp crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Golubov, Stanislav I; Barashev, Aleksandr; Stoller, Roger E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present work is to study theoretically the radiation growth (RG) of hcp-type materials with a particular focus on the effect of one-dimensionally (1-D) migrating clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs), which are steadily produced in displacement cascades under neutron or heavy-ion irradiation. A reaction-diffusion model is developed for the description of RG in single hcp-type metallic crystals. The model reproduces all RG stages observed in neutron-irradiated annealed samples of pure Zr and Zr alloys, such as high strain rate at low, strain saturation at intermediate and breakaway growth at relatively high irradiation doses. In addition, it accounts for the striking observations of negative strains in prismatic directions and coexistence of vacancy- and SIA-type prismatic loops. The role of cold work in RG behavior and alignment of the vacancy-type loops along basal planes are revealed and the maximum strain rate is estimated.

  2. Large-volume protein crystal growth for neutron macromolecular crystallography

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Ng, Joseph D.; Baird, James K.; Coates, Leighton; Garcia-Ruiz, Juan M.; Hodge, Teresa A.; Huang, Sijay

    2015-03-30

    Neutron macromolecular crystallography (NMC) is the prevailing method for the accurate determination of the positions of H atoms in macromolecules. As neutron sources are becoming more available to general users, finding means to optimize the growth of protein crystals to sizes suitable for NMC is extremely important. Historically, much has been learned about growing crystals for X-ray diffraction. However, owing to new-generation synchrotron X-ray facilities and sensitive detectors, protein crystal sizes as small as in the nano-range have become adequate for structure determination, lessening the necessity to grow large crystals. Here, some of the approaches, techniques and considerations for themore » growth of crystals to significant dimensions that are now relevant to NMC are revisited. We report that these include experimental strategies utilizing solubility diagrams, ripening effects, classical crystallization techniques, microgravity and theoretical considerations.« less

  3. Thermodynamic modelling of growth-restriction effects in aluminium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Quested, T.E. . E-mail: teq20@cam.ac.uk; Dinsdale, A.T.; Greer, A.L.

    2005-03-01

    The amount and type of alloying elements in aluminium affect the as-cast microstructure through the dependence of solidified fraction on undercooling. This can be quantified by the growth-restriction parameter Q. Phase-diagram calculations using the CALPHAD method show the effects of thermodynamic parameters on Q. In binary systems, the deviation from linear dependence of Q on solute concentration is assessed. In ternary alloys, model systems elucidate the role of solute interaction in the liquid and solid, and can be used to interpret the behaviour in actual systems. Growth restriction is discussed in relation to solidification modelling and the attainment of a fine, equiaxed microstructure in wrought and shape-casting alloys.

  4. Carbon nanotube forests growth using catalysts from atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bingan; Zhang, Can; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Xie, Rongsi; Zhong, Guofang; Robertson, John; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Cepek, Cinzia

    2014-04-14

    We have grown carbon nanotubes using Fe and Ni catalyst films deposited by atomic layer deposition. Both metals lead to catalytically active nanoparticles for growing vertically aligned nanotube forests or carbon fibres, depending on the growth conditions and whether the substrate is alumina or silica. The resulting nanotubes have narrow diameter and wall number distributions that are as narrow as those grown from sputtered catalysts. The state of the catalyst is studied by in-situ and ex-situ X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. We demonstrate multi-directional nanotube growth on a porous alumina foam coated with Fe prepared by atomic layer deposition. This deposition technique can be useful for nanotube applications in microelectronics, filter technology, and energy storage.

  5. Emittance growth in the DARHT Axis-II Downstream Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, Jr., Carl August; Schulze, Martin E.

    2015-04-14

    Using a particle-in-cell (PIC) code, we investigated the possibilities for emittance growth through the quadrupole magnets of the system used to transport the high-current electron beam from an induction accelerator to the bremsstrahlung converter target used for flash radiography. We found that even highly mismatched beams exhibited little emittance growth (< 6%), which we attribute to softening of their initial hard edge current distributions. We also used this PIC code to evaluate the accuracy of emittance measurements using a solenoid focal scan following the quadrupole magnets. If the beam is round after the solenoids, the simulations indicate that the measurement is highly accurate, but it is substantially inaccurate for elliptical beams

  6. Bay State announces growth strategies to cope with changes

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    A top executive for New England`s biggest independent gas distributor says deregulation of the utility industry offers unprecedented opportunities for growth, but getting there will radically change the way it does business. To achieve dramatic growth, Bay State Gas Co. needs to base their strategies on anticipating the changes in the industry and aggressively positioning themselves to capture the new opportunities that the new business environment is creating. This includes: accelerating the unbundling of transportation service all the way to the residential customer level; forging strategic relationships with retail energy product and service companies as a means of increasing throughput on Bay State`s system; implementing performance-based rates that provide financial incentives for lowering costs and improving customer service; accelerating the implementation of sophisticated information systems to streamline key business processes; and aggressively expanding Bay State`s nonregulated Energy Products and Services business. These steps are discussed.

  7. Step-by-step growth of complex oxide microstructures

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Datskos, Panos G.; Cullen, David A.; Sharma, Jaswinder K.

    2015-06-10

    The synthesis of complex and hybrid oxide microstructures is of fundamental interest and practical applications. However, the design and synthesis of such structures is a challenging task. We developed a solution phase process to synthesize complex silica and silica titania hybrid microstructures by exploiting the emulsion droplet based shape control and step by step growth. The strategy is robust and can be extended to make complex hybrid structures made of two or more materials while each having its own shape.

  8. Analysis of kicker noise induced beam emittance growth

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang W.; Sandberg, J.; Ahrens, L.; Blacker, I.M.; Brennan, M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Huang, H.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Marr, G.; Mernick, K.; Mi, J.; Minty, M.; Naylor, C.; Roser, T.; Shrey, T.; van Kuik, B.; Zelenski, A.

    2012-05-20

    Over the last few years, physicists have occasionally observed the presence of noise acting on the RHIC beams leading to emittance growth at high beam energies. While the noise was sporadic in the past, it became persistent during the Run-11 setup period. An investigation diagnosed the source as originating from the RHIC dump kicker system. Once identified the issue was quickly resolved. We report in this paper the investigation result, circuit analysis, measured and simulated waveforms, solutions, and future plans.

  9. Climate indices strongly influence old-growth forest carbon exchange

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Wharton, Sonia; Falk, Matthias

    2016-04-13

    We present a decade and a half (1998–2013) of carbon dioxide fluxes from an old-growth stand in the American Pacific Northwest to identify ecosystem-level responses to Pacific teleconnection patterns, including the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This study provides the longest, continuous record of old-growth eddy flux data to date from one of the longest running Fluxnet stations in the world. From 1998 to 2013, average annual net ecosystem exchange (FNEE) at Wind River AmeriFlux was –32 ± 84 g C m–2 yr–1 indicating that the late seral forest is on average a small net sink of atmospheric carbon. However, interannualmore » variability is high (>300 g C m–2 yr–1) and shows that the stand switches from net carbon sink to source in response to climate drivers associated with ENSO. The old-growth forest is a much stronger sink during La Niña years (mean FNEE = –90 g C m–2 yr–1) than during El Niño when the stand turns carbon neutral or into a small net carbon source (mean FNEE = +17 g C m–2 yr–1). Forest inventory data dating back to the 1930s show a similar correlation with the lower frequency Pacific North American (PNA) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) whereby higher aboveground net primary productivity (FANPP) is associated with cool phases of both the PNA and PDO. Furthermore, these measurements add evidence that carbon exchange in old-growth stands may be more sensitive to climate variability across shorter time scales than once thought.« less

  10. Techniques for Growth of Lattice-Matched Semiconductor Layers - Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Techniques for Growth of Lattice-Matched Semiconductor Layers For the fabrication of multi-junction solar cells, light emitting diodes, and high speed transistors National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document

  11. Biomass growth restriction in a packed bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, William L.; Compere, Alicia L.

    1978-01-01

    When carrying out continuous biologically catalyzed reactions with anaerobic microorganisms attached to a support in an upflow packed bed column, growth of the microorganisms is restricted to prevent the microorganisms from plugging the column by limiting the availability of an essential nutrient and/or by the presence of predatory protozoa which consume the anaerobic microorganisms. A membrane disruptive detergent may be provided in the column to lyse dead microorganisms to make them available as nutrients for live microorganisms.

  12. Material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Adler, H.I.

    1984-10-09

    A material and method is disclosed for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria which includes a nutrient media containing a hydrogen donor and sterile membrane fragments of bacteria having an electron transfer system which reduces oxygen to water. Dissolved oxygen in the medium is removed by adding the sterile membrane fragments to the nutrient medium and holding the medium at a temperature of about 10 to about 60 C until the dissolved oxygen is removed. No Drawings

  13. Growth of mercuric iodide single crystals from dimethylsulfoxide

    DOEpatents

    Carlston, Richard C.

    1976-07-13

    Dimethylsulfoxide is used as a solvent for the growth of red mercuric iodide (HgI.sub.2) crystals for use in radiation detectors. The hygroscopic property of the solvent allows controlled amounts of water to enter into the solvent phase and diminish the large solubility of HgI.sub.2 so that the precipitating solid collects as well-defined euhedral crystals which grow into a volume of several cc.

  14. Material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Adler, Howard I.

    1984-01-01

    A material and method for promoting the growth of anaerobic bacteria which includes a nutrient media containing a hydrogen donor and sterile membrane fragments of bacteria having an electron transfer system which reduces oxygen to water. Dissolved oxygen in the medium is removed by adding the sterile membrane fragments to the nutrient medium and holding the medium at a temperature of about 10.degree. to about 60.degree. C. until the dissolved oxygen is removed.

  15. Growth of Quantum Wires on Step-Bunched Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Feng

    2005-02-01

    This proposal initiates a combined theoretical and experimental multidisciplinary research effort to explore a novel approach for growing metallic and magnetic nanowires on step-bunched semiconductor and dielectric substrates, and to lay the groundwork for understanding the growth mechanisms and the electronic, electrical, and magnetic properties of metallic and magnetic nanowires. The research will focus on four topics: (1) fundamental studies of step bunching and self-organization in a strained thin film for creating step-bunched substrates. (2) Interaction between metal adatoms (Al,Cu, and Ni) and semiconductor (Si and SiGe) and dielectric (CaF2) surface steps. (3) growth and characterization of metallic and magnetic nanowires on step-bunched templates. (4) fabrication of superlattices of nanowires by growing multilayer films. We propose to attack these problems at both a microscopic and macroscopic level, using state-of-the-art theoretical and experimental techniques. Multiscale (electronic-atomic-continuum) theories will be applied to investigate growth mechanisms of nanowires: mesoscopic modeling and simulation of step flow growth of strained thin films, in particular, step bunching and self-organization will be carried out within the framework of continuum linear elastic theory; atomistic calculation of interaction between metal adatoms and semiconductor and dielectric surface steps will be done by large-scale computations using first-principles total-energy methods. In parallel, thin films and nanowires will be grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and the resultant structure and morphology will be characterized at the atomic level up to micrometer range, using a combination of different surface/interface probes, including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM, atomic resolution), atomic force microscopy (AFM, nanometer resolution), low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM, micrometer resolution), reflectance high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), and x

  16. Flux growth utilizing the reaction between flux and crucible

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, J. -Q.

    2015-01-22

    Flux growth involves dissolving the components of the target compound in an appropriate flux at high temperatures and then crystallizing under supersaturation controlled by cooling or evaporating the flux. A refractory crucible is generally used to contain the high temperature melt. Moreover, the reaction between the melt and crucible materials can modify the composition of the melt, which typically results in growth failure, or contaminates the crystals. Thus one principle in designing a flux growth is to select suitable flux and crucible materials thus to avoid any reaction between them. In this paper, we review two cases of flux growth in which the reaction between flux and Al2O3 crucible tunes the oxygen content in the melt and helps the crystallization of desired compositions. For the case of La5Pb3O, the Al2O3 crucible oxidizes La to form a passivating La2O3 layer which not only prevents further oxidization of La in the melt but also provides [O] to the melt. Finally, in the case of La0.4Na0.6Fe2As2, it is believed that the Al2O3 crucible reacts with NaAsO2 and the reaction consumes oxygen in the melt thus maintaining an oxygen-free environment.

  17. Conditions for super-adiabatic droplet growth after entrainment mixing

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Yang, Fan; Shaw, Raymond; Xue, Huiwen

    2016-07-29

    Cloud droplet response to entrainment and mixing between a cloud and its environment is considered, accounting for subsequent droplet growth during adiabatic ascent following a mixing event. The vertical profile for liquid water mixing ratio after a mixing event is derived analytically, allowing the reduction to be predicted from the mixing fraction and from the temperature and humidity for both the cloud and environment. It is derived for the limit of homogeneous mixing. The expression leads to a critical height above the mixing level: at the critical height the cloud droplet radius is the same for both mixed and unmixedmore » parcels, and the critical height is independent of the updraft velocity and mixing fraction. Cloud droplets in a mixed parcel are larger than in an unmixed parcel above the critical height, which we refer to as the “super-adiabatic” growth region. Analytical results are confirmed with a bin microphysics cloud model. Using the model, we explore the effects of updraft velocity, aerosol source in the environmental air, and polydisperse cloud droplets. Results show that the mixed parcel is more likely to reach the super-adiabatic growth region when the environmental air is humid and clean. It is also confirmed that the analytical predictions are matched by the volume-mean cloud droplet radius for polydisperse size distributions. The findings have implications for the origin of large cloud droplets that may contribute to onset of collision–coalescence in warm clouds.« less

  18. Resource demand growth and sustainability due to increased world consumption

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Balatsky, Alexander V.; Balatsky, Galina I.; Borysov, Stanislav S.

    2015-03-20

    The paper aims at continuing the discussion on sustainability and attempts to forecast the impossibility of the expanding consumption worldwide due to the planet’s limited resources. As the population of China, India and other developing countries continue to increase, they would also require more natural and financial resources to sustain their growth. We coarsely estimate the volumes of these resources (energy, food, freshwater) and the gross domestic product (GDP) that would need to be achieved to bring the population of India and China to the current levels of consumption in the United States. We also provide estimations for potentially neededmore » immediate growth of the world resource consumption to meet this equality requirement. Given the tight historical correlation between GDP and energy consumption, the needed increase of GDP per capita in the developing world to the levels of the U.S. would deplete explored fossil fuel reserves in less than two decades. These estimates predict that the world economy would need to find a development model where growth would be achieved without heavy dependence on fossil fuels.« less

  19. Resource demand growth and sustainability due to increased world consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Alexander V.; Balatsky, Galina I.; Borysov, Stanislav S.

    2015-03-20

    The paper aims at continuing the discussion on sustainability and attempts to forecast the impossibility of the expanding consumption worldwide due to the planet’s limited resources. As the population of China, India and other developing countries continue to increase, they would also require more natural and financial resources to sustain their growth. We coarsely estimate the volumes of these resources (energy, food, freshwater) and the gross domestic product (GDP) that would need to be achieved to bring the population of India and China to the current levels of consumption in the United States. We also provide estimations for potentially needed immediate growth of the world resource consumption to meet this equality requirement. Given the tight historical correlation between GDP and energy consumption, the needed increase of GDP per capita in the developing world to the levels of the U.S. would deplete explored fossil fuel reserves in less than two decades. These estimates predict that the world economy would need to find a development model where growth would be achieved without heavy dependence on fossil fuels.

  20. Method and apparatus for aluminum nitride monocrystal boule growth

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Shaoping

    2009-04-28

    A crystal growth setup within a physical vapor transport growth furnace system for producing AlN monocrystal boules at high temperatures includes a crucible effective to contain an AlN source material and a growing AlN crystal boule. This crucible has a thin wall thickness in at least that portion housing the growing AlN crystal boule. Other components include a susceptor, in case of an inductive heating, or a heater, in case of a resistive heating, a thermal insulation enclosing the susceptor or heater effective to provide a thermal gradient inside the crucible in the range of 5-100.degree. C./cm and a furnace chamber capable of being operated from a vacuum (<0.1 torr) to a gas pressure of at least 4000 torr through filling or flowing a nitrogen gas or a mixture of nitrogen gas and argon gas. The high temperatures contribute to a high boule growth rate and the thin wall thickness contributes to reduced imparted stress during boule removal.