National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for normal densities derived

  1. Density- and wavefunction-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ? 20

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, J. Robert; Volkov, Anatoliy

    2015-03-01

    The widely used pseudoatom formalism in experimental X-ray charge-density studies makes use of real spherical harmonics when describing the angular component of aspherical deformations of the atomic electron density in molecules and crystals. The analytical form of the density-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonic functions for up to l ? 7 and the corresponding normalization coefficients were reported previously by Paturle & Coppens. It was shown that the analytical form for normalization coefficients is available primarily forl ? 4. Only in very special cases it is possible to derive an analytical representation of the normalization coefficients for 4 < l ? 7. In most cases for l > 4 the density normalization coefficients were calculated numerically to within seven significant figures. In this study we review the literature on the density-normalized spherical harmonics, clarify the existing notations, use the PaturleCoppens method in the Wolfram Mathematicasoftware to derive the Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ? 20 and determine the density normalization coefficients to 35 significant figures, and computer-generate a Fortran90 code. The article primarily targets researchers who work in the field of experimental X-ray electron density, but may be of some use to all who are interested in Cartesian spherical harmonics.

  2. Density- and wavefunction-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Michael, J. Robert; Volkov, Anatoliy

    2015-03-01

    The widely used pseudoatom formalism in experimental X-ray charge-density studies makes use of real spherical harmonics when describing the angular component of aspherical deformations of the atomic electron density in molecules and crystals. The analytical form of the density-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonic functions for up to l ≤ 7 and the corresponding normalization coefficients were reported previously by Paturle & Coppens. It was shown that the analytical form for normalization coefficients is available primarily forl ≤ 4. Only in very special cases it is possible to derive an analytical representation of the normalization coefficients for 4 < l ≤ 7.more » In most cases for l > 4 the density normalization coefficients were calculated numerically to within seven significant figures. In this study we review the literature on the density-normalized spherical harmonics, clarify the existing notations, use the Paturle–Coppens method in the Wolfram Mathematicasoftware to derive the Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20 and determine the density normalization coefficients to 35 significant figures, and computer-generate a Fortran90 code. The article primarily targets researchers who work in the field of experimental X-ray electron density, but may be of some use to all who are interested in Cartesian spherical harmonics.« less

  3. Density- and wavefunction-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, J. Robert; Volkov, Anatoliy

    2015-03-01

    The widely used pseudoatom formalism in experimental X-ray charge-density studies makes use of real spherical harmonics when describing the angular component of aspherical deformations of the atomic electron density in molecules and crystals. The analytical form of the density-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonic functions for up to l ≤ 7 and the corresponding normalization coefficients were reported previously by Paturle & Coppens. It was shown that the analytical form for normalization coefficients is available primarily forl ≤ 4. Only in very special cases it is possible to derive an analytical representation of the normalization coefficients for 4 < l ≤ 7. In most cases for l > 4 the density normalization coefficients were calculated numerically to within seven significant figures. In this study we review the literature on the density-normalized spherical harmonics, clarify the existing notations, use the Paturle–Coppens method in the Wolfram Mathematicasoftware to derive the Cartesian spherical harmonics for l ≤ 20 and determine the density normalization coefficients to 35 significant figures, and computer-generate a Fortran90 code. The article primarily targets researchers who work in the field of experimental X-ray electron density, but may be of some use to all who are interested in Cartesian spherical harmonics.

  4. Normal and abnormal evolution of argon metastable density in high-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H.; You, S. J.

    2015-05-15

    A controversial problem on the evolution of Ar metastable density as a function of electron density (increasing trend versus decreasing trend) was resolved by discovering the anomalous evolution of the argon metastable density with increasing electron density (discharge power), including both trends of the metastable density [Daltrini et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061504 (2008)]. Later, by virtue of an adequate physical explanation based on a simple global model, both evolutions of the metastable density were comprehensively understood as part of the abnormal evolution occurring at low- and high-density regimes, respectively, and thus the physics behind the metastable evolution has seemed to be clearly disclosed. In this study, however, a remarkable result for the metastable density behavior with increasing electron density was observed: even in the same electron density regime, there are both normal and abnormal evolutions of metastable-state density with electron density depending on the measurement position: The metastable density increases with increasing electron density at a position far from the inductively coupled plasma antenna but decreases at a position close to the antenna. The effect of electron temperature, which is spatially nonuniform in the plasma, on the electron population and depopulation processes of Argon metastable atoms with increasing electron density is a clue to understanding the results. The calculated results of the global model, including multistep ionization for the argon metastable state and measured electron temperature, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  5. Mineral density volume gradients in normal and diseased human tissues

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; Candell, Susan; Case, Thomas; Browning, Alyssa; Marshall, Grayson W.; Yun, Wenbing; Lau, S. H.; Webb, Samuel; Ho, Sunita P.; Aikawa, Elena

    2015-04-09

    Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD) value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) and Ca to zinc (Zn) elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-raymore » fluorescence (XRF) using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males) contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095mg/cc, bone: 570-1415mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770mg/cc). A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49), hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46), cementum (1.51), and bone (1.68) were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765) and in cementum (595-990), highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations.« less

  6. Mineral density volume gradients in normal and diseased human tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; Candell, Susan; Case, Thomas; Browning, Alyssa; Marshall, Grayson W.; Yun, Wenbing; Lau, S. H.; Webb, Samuel; Ho, Sunita P.; Aikawa, Elena

    2015-04-09

    Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD) value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) and Ca to zinc (Zn) elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males) contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095mg/cc, bone: 570-1415mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770mg/cc). A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49), hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46), cementum (1.51), and bone (1.68) were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765) and in cementum (595-990), highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations.

  7. Distinct p53 genomic binding patterns in normal and cancer-derived human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Botcheva K.; McCorkle S. R.; McCombie W. R.; Dunn J. J.; Anderson C. W.

    2011-12-15

    We report here genome-wide analysis of the tumor suppressor p53 binding sites in normal human cells. 743 high-confidence ChIP-seq peaks representing putative genomic binding sites were identified in normal IMR90 fibroblasts using a reference chromatin sample. More than 40% were located within 2 kb of a transcription start site (TSS), a distribution similar to that documented for individually studied, functional p53 binding sites and, to date, not observed by previous p53 genome-wide studies. Nearly half of the high-confidence binding sites in the IMR90 cells reside in CpG islands, in marked contrast to sites reported in cancer-derived cells. The distinct genomic features of the IMR90 binding sites do not reflect a distinct preference for specific sequences, since the de novo developed p53 motif based on our study is similar to those reported by genome-wide studies of cancer cells. More likely, the different chromatin landscape in normal, compared with cancer-derived cells, influences p53 binding via modulating availability of the sites. We compared the IMR90 ChIPseq peaks to the recently published IMR90 methylome1 and demonstrated that they are enriched at hypomethylated DNA. Our study represents the first genome-wide, de novo mapping of p53 binding sites in normal human cells and reveals that p53 binding sites reside in distinct genomic landscapes in normal and cancer-derived human cells.

  8. Fundamental gaps with approximate density functionals: The derivative discontinuity revealed from ensemble considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Kraisler, Eli; Kronik, Leeor

    2014-05-14

    The fundamental gap is a central quantity in the electronic structure of matter. Unfortunately, the fundamental gap is not generally equal to the Kohn-Sham gap of density functional theory (DFT), even in principle. The two gaps differ precisely by the derivative discontinuity, namely, an abrupt change in slope of the exchange-correlation energy as a function of electron number, expected across an integer-electron point. Popular approximate functionals are thought to be devoid of a derivative discontinuity, strongly compromising their performance for prediction of spectroscopic properties. Here we show that, in fact, all exchange-correlation functionals possess a derivative discontinuity, which arises naturally from the application of ensemble considerations within DFT, without any empiricism. This derivative discontinuity can be expressed in closed form using only quantities obtained in the course of a standard DFT calculation of the neutral system. For small, finite systems, addition of this derivative discontinuity indeed results in a greatly improved prediction for the fundamental gap, even when based on the most simple approximate exchange-correlation density functional the local density approximation (LDA). For solids, the same scheme is exact in principle, but when applied to LDA it results in a vanishing derivative discontinuity correction. This failure is shown to be directly related to the failure of LDA in predicting fundamental gaps from total energy differences in extended systems.

  9. Derivative discontinuity and exchange-correlation potential of meta-GGAs in density-functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Eich, F. G.; Hellgren, Maria

    2014-12-14

    We investigate fundamental properties of meta-generalized-gradient approximations (meta-GGAs) to the exchange-correlation energy functional, which have an implicit density dependence via the Kohn-Sham kinetic-energy density. To this purpose, we construct the most simple meta-GGA by expressing the local exchange-correlation energy per particle as a function of a fictitious density, which is obtained by inverting the Thomas-Fermi kinetic-energy functional. This simple functional considerably improves the total energy of atoms as compared to the standard local density approximation. The corresponding exchange-correlation potentials are then determined exactly through a solution of the optimized effective potential equation. These potentials support an additional bound state and exhibit a derivative discontinuity at integer particle numbers. We further demonstrate that through the kinetic-energy density any meta-GGA incorporates a derivative discontinuity. However, we also find that for commonly used meta-GGAs the discontinuity is largely underestimated and in some cases even negative.

  10. Target normal sheath acceleration of foil ions by laser-trapped hot electrons from a long subcritical-density preplasma

    SciTech Connect

    Luan, S. X.; Yu, Wei; Shen, B. F.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yu, M. Y.; Zhuo, H. B.; Xu, Han; Wong, A. Y.; Wang, J. W.

    2014-12-15

    In a long subcritical density plasma, an ultrashort ultraintense laser pulse can self-organize into a fast but sub-relativistic propagating structure consisting of the modulated laser light and a large number of trapped electrons from the plasma. Upon impact of the structure with a solid foil target placed in the latter, the remaining laser light is reflected, but the dense and hot trapped electrons pass through the foil, together with the impact-generated target-frontsurface electrons to form a dense hot electron cloud at the back of the target suitable for enhancing target normal sheath acceleration of the target-backsurface ions. The accelerated ions are well collimated and of high charge and energy densities, with peak energies a full order of magnitude higher than that from target normal sheath acceleration without the subcritical density plasma. In the latter case, the space-charge field accelerating the ions is limited since they are formed only by the target-frontsurface electrons during the very short instant of laser reflection.

  11. Adjusting lidar-derived digital terrain models in coastal marshes based on estimated aboveground biomass density

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Medeiros, Stephen; Hagen, Scott; Weishampel, John; Angelo, James

    2015-03-25

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from airborne lidar are traditionally unreliable in coastal salt marshes due to the inability of the laser to penetrate the dense grasses and reach the underlying soil. To that end, we present a novel processing methodology that uses ASTER Band 2 (visible red), an interferometric SAR (IfSAR) digital surface model, and lidar-derived canopy height to classify biomass density using both a three-class scheme (high, medium and low) and a two-class scheme (high and low). Elevation adjustments associated with these classes using both median and quartile approaches were applied to adjust lidar-derived elevation values closer tomore » true bare earth elevation. The performance of the method was tested on 229 elevation points in the lower Apalachicola River Marsh. The two-class quartile-based adjusted DEM produced the best results, reducing the RMS error in elevation from 0.65 m to 0.40 m, a 38% improvement. The raw mean errors for the lidar DEM and the adjusted DEM were 0.61 ± 0.24 m and 0.32 ± 0.24 m, respectively, thereby reducing the high bias by approximately 49%.« less

  12. Adjusting lidar-derived digital terrain models in coastal marshes based on estimated aboveground biomass density

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, Stephen; Hagen, Scott; Weishampel, John; Angelo, James

    2015-03-25

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from airborne lidar are traditionally unreliable in coastal salt marshes due to the inability of the laser to penetrate the dense grasses and reach the underlying soil. To that end, we present a novel processing methodology that uses ASTER Band 2 (visible red), an interferometric SAR (IfSAR) digital surface model, and lidar-derived canopy height to classify biomass density using both a three-class scheme (high, medium and low) and a two-class scheme (high and low). Elevation adjustments associated with these classes using both median and quartile approaches were applied to adjust lidar-derived elevation values closer to true bare earth elevation. The performance of the method was tested on 229 elevation points in the lower Apalachicola River Marsh. The two-class quartile-based adjusted DEM produced the best results, reducing the RMS error in elevation from 0.65 m to 0.40 m, a 38% improvement. The raw mean errors for the lidar DEM and the adjusted DEM were 0.61 ± 0.24 m and 0.32 ± 0.24 m, respectively, thereby reducing the high bias by approximately 49%.

  13. TH-A-BRF-01: A Probabilistic Bayesian Approach to Derive Electron Density From MRI for Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Gudur, M; Hara, W; Wang, L; Xing, L; Li, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: MRI significantly improves the accuracy and reliability of target delineation for patient simulation and treatment planning in radiation therapy, due to its superior soft tissue contrast as compared to CT. An MRI based simulation will reduce cost and simplify clinical workflow with zero ionizing radiation. However, MRI lacks the key electron density information. The purpose of this work is to develop a reliable method to derive electron density from MRI. Methods: We adopt a probabilistic Bayesian approach for electron density mapping based on T1-weighted head MRI. For each voxel, we compute conditional probability of electron densities given its: (1) T1 intensity and (2) geometry in a reference anatomy, obtained by deformable image registration between the MRI of test patient and atlas. Intensity and geometry information are combined into a unifying posterior probability density function whose mean gives the electron density. Mean absolute HU error between the estimated and true CT, as well as ROC's for bone detection (HU>200) were calculated for 8 patients. The performance was compared with a global intensity approach based on T1 and no density correction (set whole head to water). Results: The proposed technique significantly reduced the errors in electron density estimation, with a mean absolute HU error of 132, compared with 139 for deformable registration (p=10{sup ?3}), 371 for the intensity approach (p=10{sup ?5}) and 282 without density correction (p=210{sup ?4}). For 90% sensitivity in bone detection, the proposed method had a specificity of 85% and that for deformable registration, intensity and without density correction are 80%, 24% and 10% respectively. Conclusion: The proposed unifying method provides accurate electron density estimation and bone detection from MRI of the head with highly heterogeneous regions. This paves the way for accurate dose calculation and generating reference images for patient setup in MRI-based treatment planning.

  14. Electron density and electron temperature measurement in a bi-Maxwellian electron distribution using a derivative method of Langmuir probes

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Ikjin; Chung, ChinWook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Youn Moon, Se [High-Enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)] [High-Enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    In plasma diagnostics with a single Langmuir probe, the electron temperature T{sub e} is usually obtained from the slope of the logarithm of the electron current or from the electron energy probability functions of current (I)-voltage (V) curve. Recently, Chen [F. F. Chen, Phys. Plasmas 8, 3029 (2001)] suggested a derivative analysis method to obtain T{sub e} by the ratio between the probe current and the derivative of the probe current at a plasma potential where the ion current becomes zero. Based on this method, electron temperatures and electron densities were measured and compared with those from the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) measurement in Maxwellian and bi-Maxwellian electron distribution conditions. In a bi-Maxwellian electron distribution, we found the electron temperature T{sub e} obtained from the method is always lower than the effective temperatures T{sub eff} derived from EEDFs. The theoretical analysis for this is presented.

  15. On the accuracy of stratospheric aerosol extinction derived from in situ size distribution measurements and surface area density derived from remote SAGE II and HALOE extinction measurements

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Kovilakam, Mahesh; Deshler, Terry

    2015-08-26

    In situ stratospheric aerosol measurements, from University of Wyoming optical particle counters (OPCs), are compared with Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE) II (versions 6.2 and 7.0) and Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) satellite measurements to investigate differences between SAGE II/HALOE-measured extinction and derived surface area and OPC-derived extinction and surface area. Coincident OPC and SAGE II measurements are compared for a volcanic (1991-1996) and nonvolcanic (1997 2005) period. OPC calculated extinctions agree with SAGE II measurements, within instrumental uncertainty, during the volcanic period, but have been a factor of 2 low during the nonvolcanic period. Three systematic errors associated with themore » OPC measurements, anisokineticity, inlet particle evaporation, and counting efficiency, were investigated. An overestimation of the OPC counting efficiency is found to be the major source of systematic error. With this correction OPC calculated extinction increases by 15 30% (30 50%) for the volcanic (nonvolcanic) measurements. These changes significantly improve the comparison with SAGE II and HALOE extinctions in the nonvolcanic cases but slightly degrade the agreement in the volcanic period. These corrections have impacts on OPC-derived surface area density, exacerbating the poor agreement between OPC and SAGE II (version 6.2) surface areas. This disparity is reconciled with SAGE II version 7.0 surface areas. For both the volcanic and nonvolcanic cases these changes in OPC counting efficiency and in the operational SAGE II surface area algorithm leave the derived surface areas from both platforms in significantly better agreement and within the 40% precision of the OPC moment calculations.« less

  16. On the accuracy of stratospheric aerosol extinction derived from in situ size distribution measurements and surface area density derived from remote SAGE II and HALOE extinction measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kovilakam, Mahesh; Deshler, Terry

    2015-08-26

    In situ stratospheric aerosol measurements, from University of Wyoming optical particle counters (OPCs), are compared with Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE) II (versions 6.2 and 7.0) and Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) satellite measurements to investigate differences between SAGE II/HALOE-measured extinction and derived surface area and OPC-derived extinction and surface area. Coincident OPC and SAGE II measurements are compared for a volcanic (1991-1996) and nonvolcanic (1997 2005) period. OPC calculated extinctions agree with SAGE II measurements, within instrumental uncertainty, during the volcanic period, but have been a factor of 2 low during the nonvolcanic period. Three systematic errors associated with the OPC measurements, anisokineticity, inlet particle evaporation, and counting efficiency, were investigated. An overestimation of the OPC counting efficiency is found to be the major source of systematic error. With this correction OPC calculated extinction increases by 15 30% (30 50%) for the volcanic (nonvolcanic) measurements. These changes significantly improve the comparison with SAGE II and HALOE extinctions in the nonvolcanic cases but slightly degrade the agreement in the volcanic period. These corrections have impacts on OPC-derived surface area density, exacerbating the poor agreement between OPC and SAGE II (version 6.2) surface areas. This disparity is reconciled with SAGE II version 7.0 surface areas. For both the volcanic and nonvolcanic cases these changes in OPC counting efficiency and in the operational SAGE II surface area algorithm leave the derived surface areas from both platforms in significantly better agreement and within the 40% precision of the OPC moment calculations.

  17. Departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium in cutting arc plasmas derived from electron and gas density measurements using a two-wavelength quantitative Schlieren technique

    SciTech Connect

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Artana, G.; Kelly, H.

    2011-03-15

    A two-wavelength quantitative Schlieren technique that allows inferring the electron and gas densities of axisymmetric arc plasmas without imposing any assumption regarding statistical equilibrium models is reported. This technique was applied to the study of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) departures within the core of a 30 A high-energy density cutting arc. In order to derive the electron and heavy particle temperatures from the inferred density profiles, a generalized two-temperature Saha equation together with the plasma equation of state and the quasineutrality condition were employed. Factors such as arc fluctuations that influence the accuracy of the measurements and the validity of the assumptions used to derive the plasma species temperature were considered. Significant deviations from chemical equilibrium as well as kinetic equilibrium were found at elevated electron temperatures and gas densities toward the arc core edge. An electron temperature profile nearly constant through the arc core with a value of about 14000-15000 K, well decoupled from the heavy particle temperature of about 1500 K at the arc core edge, was inferred.

  18. Determination of defect density of state distribution of amorphous silicon solar cells by temperature derivative capacitance-frequency measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Guangtao Swaaij, R. A. C. M. M. van; Dobrovolskiy, S.; Zeman, M.

    2014-01-21

    In this contribution, we demonstrate the application temperature dependent capacitance-frequency measurements (C-f) to n-i-p hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells that are forward-biased. By using a forward bias, the C-f measurement can detect the density of defect states in a particular energy range of the interface region. For this contribution, we have carried out this measurement method on n-i-p a-Si:H solar cells of which the intrinsic layer has been exposed to a H{sub 2}-plasma before p-type layer deposition. After this treatment, the open-circuit voltage and fill factor increased significantly, as well as the blue response of the solar cells as is concluded from external quantum efficiency. For single junction, n-i-p a-Si:H solar cells initial efficiency increased from 6.34% to 8.41%. This performance enhancement is believed to be mainly due to a reduction of the defect density in the i-p interface region after the H{sub 2}-plasma treatment. These results are confirmed by the C-f measurements. After H{sub 2}-plasma treatment, the defect density in the intrinsic layer near the i-p interface region is lower and peaks at an energy level deeper in the band gap. These C-f measurements therefore enable us to monitor changes in the defect density in the interface region as a result of a hydrogen plasma. The lower defect density at the i-p interface as detected by the C-f measurements is supported by dark current-voltage measurements, which indicate a lower carrier recombination rate.

  19. Normal and tumor-derived myoepithelial cells differ in their ability to interact with luminal breast epithelial cells for polarity and basement membrane deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Villadsen, Rene; Rank, Fritz; Bissell, Mina J.; Petersen, Ole William

    2001-10-04

    recapitulated in culture and that one reason for the ability of myoepithelial cells to induce polarity is because they are the only source of laminin-1 in the breast in vivo. A further conclusion is that a majority of tumor-derived/-associated myoepithelial cells are deficient in their ability to impart polarity because they have lost their ability to synthesize sufficient or functional laminin-1. These results have important implications for the role of myoepithelial cells in maintenance of polarity in normal breast and how they may function as structural tumor suppressors.

  20. Derivation of general analytic gradient expressions for density-fitted post-Hartree-Fock methods: An efficient implementation for the density-fitted second-order MllerPlesset perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bozkaya, U?ur

    2014-09-28

    General analytic gradient expressions (with the frozen-core approximation) are presented for density-fitted post-HF methods. An efficient implementation of frozen-core analytic gradients for the second-order MllerPlesset perturbation theory (MP2) with the density-fitting (DF) approximation (applying to both reference and correlation energies), which is denoted as DF-MP2, is reported. The DF-MP2 method is applied to a set of alkanes, conjugated dienes, and noncovalent interaction complexes to compare the computational cost of single point analytic gradients with MP2 with the resolution of the identity approach (RI-MP2) [F. Weigend and M. Hser, Theor. Chem. Acc. 97, 331 (1997); R. A. Distasio, R. P. Steele, Y. M. Rhee, Y. Shao, and M. Head-Gordon, J. Comput. Chem. 28, 839 (2007)]. In the RI-MP2 method, the DF approach is used only for the correlation energy. Our results demonstrate that the DF-MP2 method substantially accelerate the RI-MP2 method for analytic gradient computations due to the reduced input/output (I/O) time. Because in the DF-MP2 method the DF approach is used for both reference and correlation energies, the storage of 4-index electron repulsion integrals (ERIs) are avoided, 3-index ERI tensors are employed instead. Further, as in case of integrals, our gradient equation is completely avoid construction or storage of the 4-index two-particle density matrix (TPDM), instead we use 2- and 3-index TPDMs. Hence, the I/O bottleneck of a gradient computation is significantly overcome. Therefore, the cost of the generalized-Fock matrix (GFM), TPDM, solution of Z-vector equations, the back transformation of TPDM, and integral derivatives are substantially reduced when the DF approach is used for the entire energy expression. Further application results show that the DF approach introduce negligible errors for closed-shell reaction energies and equilibrium bond lengths.

  1. Accelerating Monte Carlo molecular simulations by reweighting and reconstructing Markov chains: Extrapolation of canonical ensemble averages and second derivatives to different temperature and density conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kadoura, Ahmad; Sun, Shuyu Salama, Amgad

    2014-08-01

    Accurate determination of thermodynamic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids is of great interest to many applications, especially in petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Molecular simulation has many appealing features, especially its requirement of fewer tuned parameters but yet better predicting capability; however it is well known that molecular simulation is very CPU expensive, as compared to equation of state approaches. We have recently introduced an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to regenerate rapidly Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMCs) at different thermodynamic conditions from the existing data points that have been pre-computed with expensive classical simulation. This technique can speed up the simulation more than a million times, making the regenerated molecular simulation almost as fast as equation of state approaches. In this paper, this technique is first briefly reviewed and then numerically investigated in its capability of predicting ensemble averages of primary quantities at different neighboring thermodynamic conditions to the original simulated MCMCs. Moreover, this extrapolation technique is extended to predict second derivative properties (e.g. heat capacity and fluid compressibility). The method works by reweighting and reconstructing generated MCMCs in canonical ensemble for Lennard-Jones particles. In this paper, system's potential energy, pressure, isochoric heat capacity and isothermal compressibility along isochors, isotherms and paths of changing temperature and density from the original simulated points were extrapolated. Finally, an optimized set of Lennard-Jones parameters (?, ?) for single site models were proposed for methane, nitrogen and carbon monoxide.

  2. SU-E-J-19: Accuracy of Dual-Energy CT-Derived Relative Electron Density for Proton Therapy Dose Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, J; Duan, X; Kruse, J; Herman, M; Bues, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the suitability of dual-energy CT (DECT) to calculate relative electron density (RED) of tissues for accurate proton therapy dose calculation. Methods: DECT images of RED tissue surrogates were acquired at 80 and 140 kVp. Samples (RED=0.19−2.41) were imaged in a water-equivalent phantom in a variety of configurations. REDs were calculated using the DECT numbers and inputs of the high and low energy spectral weightings. DECT-derived RED was compared between geometric configurations and for variations in the spectral inputs to assess the sensitivity of RED accuracy versus expected values. Results: RED accuracy was dependent on accurate spectral input influenced by phantom thickness and radius from the phantom center. Material samples located at the center of the phantom generally showed the best agreement to reference RED values, but only when attenuation of the surrounding phantom thickness was accounted for in the calculation spectra. Calculated RED changed by up to 10% for some materials when the sample was located at an 11 cm radius from the phantom center. Calculated REDs under the best conditions still differed from reference values by up to 5% in bone and 14% in lung. Conclusion: DECT has previously been used to differentiate tissue types based on RED and Z for binary tissue-type segmentation. To improve upon the current standard of empirical conversion of CT number to RED for treatment planning dose calculation, DECT methods must be able to calculate RED to better than 3% accuracy throughout the image. The DECT method is sensitive to the accuracy of spectral inputs used for calculation, as well as to spatial position in the anatomy. Effort to address adjustments to the spectral calculation inputs based on position and phantom attenuation will be required before DECT-determined RED can achieve a consistent level of accuracy for application in dose calculation.

  3. Gedanken densities and exact constraints in density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Perdew, John P.; Department of Chemistry, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 ; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Sun, Jianwei; Burke, Kieron

    2014-05-14

    Approximations to the exact density functional for the exchange-correlation energy of a many-electron ground state can be constructed by satisfying constraints that are universal, i.e., valid for all electron densities. Gedanken densities are designed for the purpose of this construction, but need not be realistic. The uniform electron gas is an old gedanken density. Here, we propose a spherical two-electron gedanken density in which the dimensionless density gradient can be an arbitrary positive constant wherever the density is non-zero. The Lieb-Oxford lower bound on the exchange energy can be satisfied within a generalized gradient approximation (GGA) by bounding its enhancement factor or simplest GGA exchange-energy density. This enhancement-factor bound is well known to be sufficient, but our gedanken density shows that it is also necessary. The conventional exact exchange-energy density satisfies no such local bound, but energy densities are not unique, and the simplest GGA exchange-energy density is not an approximation to it. We further derive a strongly and optimally tightened bound on the exchange enhancement factor of a two-electron density, which is satisfied by the local density approximation but is violated by all published GGA's or meta-GGA’s. Finally, some consequences of the non-uniform density-scaling behavior for the asymptotics of the exchange enhancement factor of a GGA or meta-GGA are given.

  4. Computing Instantaneous Frequency by normalizing Hilbert Transform

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Norden E.

    2005-05-31

    This invention presents Normalized Amplitude Hilbert Transform (NAHT) and Normalized Hilbert Transform(NHT), both of which are new methods for computing Instantaneous Frequency. This method is designed specifically to circumvent the limitation set by the Bedorsian and Nuttal Theorems, and to provide a sharp local measure of error when the quadrature and the Hilbert Transform do not agree. Motivation for this method is that straightforward application of the Hilbert Transform followed by taking the derivative of the phase-angle as the Instantaneous Frequency (IF) leads to a common mistake made up to this date. In order to make the Hilbert Transform method work, the data has to obey certain restrictions.

  5. Normal Conducting CLIC Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Erk

    2006-01-03

    The CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) multi-lateral study group based at CERN is studying the technology for an electron-positron linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy up to 5 TeV. In contrast to the International Linear Collider (ILC) study which has chosen to use super-conducting cavities with accelerating gradients in the range of 30-40 MV/m to obtain centre-of-mass collision energies of 0.5-1 TeV, the CLIC study aims to use a normal-conducting system based on two-beam technology with gradients of 150 MV/m. It is generally accepted that this change in technology is not only necessary but the only viable choice for a cost-effective multi-TeV collider. The CLIC study group is studying the technology issues of such a machine, and is in particular developing state-of-the-art 30 GHz molybdenum-iris accelerating structures and power extraction and transfer structures (PETS). The accelerating structure has a new geometry which includes fully-profiled RF surfaces optimised to minimize surface fields, and hybrid damping using both iris slots and radial waveguides. A newly-developed structure-optimisation procedure has been used to simultaneously balance surface fields, power flow, short and long-range transverse wakefields, RF-to-beam efficiency and the ratio of luminosity to input power. The slotted irises allow a simple structure fabrication by high-precision high-speed 3D milling of just four pieces, and an even easier bolted assembly in a vacuum chamber.

  6. Reformulation of Density Functional Theory for N-Representable Densities and the Resolution of the v-Representability Problem

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Gonis, A.; Zhang, X. G.; Stocks, G. M.; Nicholson, D. M.

    2015-10-23

    Density functional theory for the case of general, N-representable densities is reformulated in terms of density functional derivatives of expectation values of operators evaluated with wave functions leading to a density, making no reference to the concept of potential. The developments provide a complete solution of the v-representability problem by establishing a mathematical procedure that determines whether a density is v-representable and in the case of an affirmative answer determines the potential (within an additive constant) as a derivative with respect to the density of a constrained search functional. It also establishes the existence of an energy functional of themore » density that, for v-representable densities, assumes its minimum value at the density describing the ground state of an interacting many-particle system. The theorems of Hohenberg and Kohn emerge as special cases of the formalism.« less

  7. Reformulation of Density Functional Theory for N-Representable Densities and the Resolution of the v-Representability Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Gonis, A.; Zhang, X. G.; Stocks, G. M.; Nicholson, D. M.

    2015-10-23

    Density functional theory for the case of general, N-representable densities is reformulated in terms of density functional derivatives of expectation values of operators evaluated with wave functions leading to a density, making no reference to the concept of potential. The developments provide a complete solution of the v-representability problem by establishing a mathematical procedure that determines whether a density is v-representable and in the case of an affirmative answer determines the potential (within an additive constant) as a derivative with respect to the density of a constrained search functional. It also establishes the existence of an energy functional of the density that, for v-representable densities, assumes its minimum value at the density describing the ground state of an interacting many-particle system. The theorems of Hohenberg and Kohn emerge as special cases of the formalism.

  8. Plasma ionization frequency, edge-to-axis density ratio, and density on axis of a cylindrical gas discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Palacio Mizrahi, J. H.

    2014-06-15

    A rigorous derivation of expressions, starting from the governing equations, for the ionization frequency, edge-to-axis ratio of plasma density, plasma density at the axis, and radially averaged plasma density in a cylindrical gas discharge has been obtained. The derived expressions are simple and involve the relevant parameters of the discharge: Cylinder radius, axial current, and neutral gas pressure. The found expressions account for ion inertia, ion temperature, and changes in plasma ion collisionality.

  9. Density functional theory for carbon dioxide crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yiwen; Mi, Jianguo Zhong, Chongli

    2014-05-28

    We present a density functional approach to describe the solid?liquid phase transition, interfacial and crystal structure, and properties of polyatomic CO{sub 2}. Unlike previous phase field crystal model or density functional theory, which are derived from the second order direct correlation function, the present density functional approach is based on the fundamental measure theory for hard-sphere repulsion in solid. More importantly, the contributions of enthalpic interactions due to the dispersive attractions and of entropic interactions arising from the molecular architecture are integrated in the density functional model. Using the theoretical model, the predicted liquid and solid densities of CO{sub 2} at equilibrium triple point are in good agreement with the experimental values. Based on the structure of crystal-liquid interfaces in different planes, the corresponding interfacial tensions are predicted. Their respective accuracies need to be tested.

  10. Visualization of electronic density

    SciTech Connect

    Grosso, Bastien; Cooper, Valentino R.; Pine, Polina; Hashibon, Adham; Yaish, Yuval; Adler, Joan

    2015-04-22

    An atoms volume depends on its electronic density. Although this density can only be evaluated exactly for hydrogen-like atoms, there are many excellent numerical algorithms and packages to calculate it for other materials. 3D visualization of charge density is challenging, especially when several molecular/atomic levels are intertwined in space. We explore several approaches to 3D charge density visualization, including the extension of an anaglyphic stereo visualization application based on the AViz package to larger structures such as nanotubes. We will describe motivations and potential applications of these tools for answering interesting questions about nanotube properties.

  11. Visualization of electronic density

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Grosso, Bastien; Cooper, Valentino R.; Pine, Polina; Hashibon, Adham; Yaish, Yuval; Adler, Joan

    2015-04-22

    An atom’s volume depends on its electronic density. Although this density can only be evaluated exactly for hydrogen-like atoms, there are many excellent numerical algorithms and packages to calculate it for other materials. 3D visualization of charge density is challenging, especially when several molecular/atomic levels are intertwined in space. We explore several approaches to 3D charge density visualization, including the extension of an anaglyphic stereo visualization application based on the AViz package to larger structures such as nanotubes. We will describe motivations and potential applications of these tools for answering interesting questions about nanotube properties.

  12. α -cluster asymptotic normalization coefficients for nuclear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    -cluster asymptotic normalization coefficients for nuclear astrophysics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: -cluster asymptotic normalization coefficients for nuclear ...

  13. Density-dependent covariant energy density functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Lalazissis, G. A.

    2012-10-20

    Relativistic nuclear energy density functionals are applied to the description of a variety of nuclear structure phenomena at and away fromstability line. Isoscalar monopole, isovector dipole and isoscalar quadrupole giant resonances are calculated using fully self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle randomphase approximation, based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubovmodel. The impact of pairing correlations on the fission barriers in heavy and superheavy nuclei is examined. The role of pion in constructing desnity functionals is also investigated.

  14. Aerosol Behavior Log-Normal Distribution Model.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2001-10-22

    HAARM3, an acronym for Heterogeneous Aerosol Agglomeration Revised Model 3, is the third program in the HAARM series developed to predict the time-dependent behavior of radioactive aerosols under postulated LMFBR accident conditions. HAARM3 was developed to include mechanisms of aerosol growth and removal which had not been accounted for in the earlier models. In addition, experimental measurements obtained on sodium oxide aerosols have been incorporated in the code. As in HAARM2, containment gas temperature, pressure,more » and temperature gradients normal to interior surfaces are permitted to vary with time. The effects of reduced density on sodium oxide agglomerate behavior and of nonspherical shape of particles on aerosol behavior mechanisms are taken into account, and aerosol agglomeration due to turbulent air motion is considered. Also included is a capability to calculate aerosol concentration attenuation factors and to restart problems requiring long computing times.« less

  15. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Don N.

    2014-11-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

  16. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1997-06-10

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3{prime} noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

  17. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  18. Anomalous density for Bose gases at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Boudjemaa, A.; Benarous, M.

    2011-10-15

    We analyze the behavior of the anomalous density as function of the radial distance at different temperatures in a variational framework. We show that the temperature dependence of the anomalous density agrees with the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) calculations. Comparisons between the normal and anomalous fractions at low temperature show that the latter remains higher and, consequently, the neglect of the anomalous density may destabilize the condensate. These results are compatible with those of Yukalov. Surprisingly, the study of the anomalous density in terms of the interaction parameter shows that the dip in the central density is destroyed for sufficiently weak interactions. We explain this effect.

  19. Level Densities and Radiative Strength Functions in 56FE and 57FE

    SciTech Connect

    Tavukcu, E

    2002-12-10

    Understanding nuclear level densities and radiative strength functions is important for pure and applied nuclear physics. Recently, the Oslo Cyclotron Group has developed an experimental method to extract level densities and radiative strength functions simultaneously from the primary {gamma} rays after a light-ion reaction. A primary {gamma}-ray spectrum represents the {gamma}-decay probability distribution. The Oslo method is based on the Axel-Brink hypothesis, according to which the primary {gamma}-ray spectrum is proportional to the product of the level density at the final energy and the radiative strength function. The level density and the radiative strength function are fit to the experimental primary {gamma}-ray spectra, and then normalized to known data. The method works well for heavy nuclei. The present measurements extend the Oslo method to the lighter mass nuclei {sup 56}Fe and {sup 57}Fe. The experimental level densities in {sup 56}Fe and {sup 57}Fe reveal step structure. This step structure is a signature for nucleon pair breaking. The predicted pairing gap parameter is in good agreement with the step corresponding to the first pair breaking. Thermodynamic quantities for {sup 56}Fe and {sup 57}Fe are derived within the microcanonical and canonical ensembles using the experimental level densities. Energy-temperature relations are considered using caloric curves and probability density functions. The differences between the thermodynamics of small and large systems are emphasized. The experimental heat capacities are compared with the recent theoretical calculations obtained in the Shell Model Monte Carlo method. Radiative strength functions in {sup 56}Fe and {sup 57}Fe have surprisingly high values at low {gamma}-ray energies. This behavior has not been observed for heavy nuclei, but has been observed in other light- and medium-mass nuclei. The origin of this low {gamma}-ray energy effect remains unknown.

  20. Normalized Elution Time Prediction Utility

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2011-02-17

    This program is used to compute the predicted normalized elution time (NET) for a list of peptide sequences. It includes the Kangas/Petritis neural network trained model, the Krokhin hydrophobicity model, and the Mant hydrophobicity model. In addition, it can compute the predicted strong cation exchange (SCX) fraction (on a 0 to 1 scale) in which a given peptide will appear.

  1. Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities

    SciTech Connect

    Granados, Carlos G.; Weiss, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In the partonic (or light-front) description of relativistic systems the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent charge and magnetization densities in transverse space. This formulation allows one to identify the chiral components of nucleon structure as the peripheral densities at transverse distances b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and compute them in a parametrically controlled manner. A dispersion relation connects the large-distance behavior of the transverse charge and magnetization densities to the spectral functions of the Dirac and Pauli form factors near the two--pion threshold at timelike t = 4 M{ sub {pi}}{sup 2}, which can be computed in relativistic chiral effective field theory. Using the leading-order approximation we (a) derive the asymptotic behavior (Yukawa tail) of the isovector transverse densities in the "chiral" region b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and the "molecular" region b = O(M{sub N}{sup 2}/M{sub {pi}}{sup 3}); (b) perform the heavy-baryon expansion of the transverse densities; (c) explain the relative magnitude of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities in a simple mechanical picture; (d) include Delta isobar intermediate states and study the peripheral transverse densities in the large-N{ sub c} limit of QCD; (e) quantify the region of transverse distances where the chiral components of the densities are numerically dominant; (f) calculate the chiral divergences of the b{sup 2}-weighted moments of the isovector transverse densities (charge and anomalous magnetic radii) in the limit M{sub {pi}} -> 0 and determine their spatial support. Our approach provides a concise formulation of the spatial structure of the nucleon's chiral component and offers new insights into basic properties of the chiral expansion. It relates the information extracted from low-t elastic form factors to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes.

  2. Cascaded target normal sheath acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. P.; Shen, B. F.; Zhang, X. M.; Wang, X. F.; Xu, J. C.; Zhao, X. Y.; Yu, Y. H.; Yi, L. Q.; Shi, Y.; Zhang, L. G.; Xu, T. J.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2013-11-15

    A cascaded target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) scheme is proposed to simultaneously increase energy and improve energy spread of a laser-produced mono-energetic proton beam. An optimum condition that uses the maximum sheath field to accelerate the center of the proton beam is theoretically found and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. An initial 10 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 21 MeV with energy spread decreased from 5% to 2% under the optimum condition during the process of the cascaded TNSA. The scheme opens a way to scale proton energy lineally with laser energy.

  3. Density Equalizing Map Projections

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    1995-07-01

    A geographic map is mathematically transformed so that the subareas of the map are proportional to a given quantity such as population. In other words, population density is equalized over the entire map. The transformed map can be used as a display tool, or it can be statistically analyzed. For example, cases of disease plotted on the transformed map should be uniformly distributed at random, if disease rates are everywhere equal. Geographic clusters of diseasemore » can be readily identified, and their statistical significance determined, on a density equalized map.« less

  4. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W.

    1994-01-01

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

  5. Energy in density gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Vranjes, J.; Kono, M.

    2015-01-15

    Inhomogeneous plasmas and fluids contain energy stored in inhomogeneity and they naturally tend to relax into lower energy states by developing instabilities or by diffusion. But the actual amount of energy in such inhomogeneities has remained unknown. In the present work, the amount of energy stored in a density gradient is calculated for several specific density profiles in a cylindrical configuration. This is of practical importance for drift wave instability in various plasmas, and, in particular, in its application in models dealing with the heating of solar corona because the instability is accompanied with stochastic heating, so the energy contained in inhomogeneity is effectively transformed into heat. It is shown that even for a rather moderate increase of the density at the axis in magnetic structures in the corona by a factor 1.5 or 3, the amount of excess energy per unit volume stored in such a density gradient becomes several orders of magnitude greater than the amount of total energy losses per unit volume (per second) in quiet regions in the corona. Consequently, within the life-time of a magnetic structure such energy losses can easily be compensated by the stochastic drift wave heating.

  6. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOEpatents

    Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-06

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

  7. A DENSITY-INDEPENDENT FORMULATION OF SMOOTHED PARTICLE HYDRODYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Makino, Junichiro

    2013-05-01

    The standard formulation of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) assumes that the local density distribution is differentiable. This assumption is used to derive the spatial derivatives of other quantities. However, this assumption breaks down at the contact discontinuity. At the contact discontinuity, the density of the low-density side is overestimated while that of the high-density side is underestimated. As a result, the pressure of the low-density (high-density) side is overestimated (underestimated). Thus, unphysical repulsive force appears at the contact discontinuity, resulting in the effective surface tension. This tension suppresses fluid instabilities. In this paper, we present a new formulation of SPH, which does not require the differentiability of density. Instead of the mass density, we adopt the internal energy density (pressure) and its arbitrary function, which are smoothed quantities at the contact discontinuity, as the volume element used for the kernel integration. We call this new formulation density-independent SPH (DISPH). It handles the contact discontinuity without numerical problems. The results of standard tests such as the shock tube, Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, point-like explosion, and blob tests are all very favorable to DISPH. We conclude that DISPH solved most of the known difficulties of the standard SPH, without introducing additional numerical diffusion or breaking the exact force symmetry or energy conservation. Our new SPH includes the formulation proposed by Ritchie and Thomas as a special case. Our formulation can be extended to handle a non-ideal gas easily.

  8. Density Log | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Density Log Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Density Log Details Activities (7) Areas (6) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration...

  9. Rock Density | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Density Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Rock Density Details Activities (2) Areas (2) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique...

  10. Analytic cubic and quartic force fields using density-functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ringholm, Magnus; Gao, Bin; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J.; Ruud, Kenneth; Jonsson, Dan; High Performance Computing Group, University of Tromsø—The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø ; Bast, Radovan; Ekström, Ulf; Helgaker, Trygve

    2014-01-21

    We present the first analytic implementation of cubic and quartic force constants at the level of Kohn–Sham density-functional theory. The implementation is based on an open-ended formalism for the evaluation of energy derivatives in an atomic-orbital basis. The implementation relies on the availability of open-ended codes for evaluation of one- and two-electron integrals differentiated with respect to nuclear displacements as well as automatic differentiation of the exchange–correlation kernels. We use generalized second-order vibrational perturbation theory to calculate the fundamental frequencies of methane, ethane, benzene, and aniline, comparing B3LYP, BLYP, and Hartree–Fock results. The Hartree–Fock anharmonic corrections agree well with the B3LYP corrections when calculated at the B3LYP geometry and from B3LYP normal coordinates, suggesting that the inclusion of electron correlation is not essential for the reliable calculation of cubic and quartic force constants.

  11. Orbital-optimized density cumulant functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, Alexander Yu. Schaefer, Henry F.

    2013-11-28

    In density cumulant functional theory (DCFT) the electronic energy is evaluated from the one-particle density matrix and two-particle density cumulant, circumventing the computation of the wavefunction. To achieve this, the one-particle density matrix is decomposed exactly into the mean-field (idempotent) and correlation components. While the latter can be entirely derived from the density cumulant, the former must be obtained by choosing a specific set of orbitals. In the original DCFT formulation [W. Kutzelnigg, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 171101 (2006)] the orbitals were determined by diagonalizing the effective Fock operator, which introduces partial orbital relaxation. Here we present a new orbital-optimized formulation of DCFT where the energy is variationally minimized with respect to orbital rotations. This introduces important energy contributions and significantly improves the description of the dynamic correlation. In addition, it greatly simplifies the computation of analytic gradients, for which expressions are also presented. We offer a perturbative analysis of the new orbital stationarity conditions and benchmark their performance for a variety of chemical systems.

  12. High Energy Density Capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: Recapping is developing a capacitor that could rival the energy storage potential and price of todays best EV batteries. When power is needed, the capacitor rapidly releases its stored energy, similar to lightning being discharged from a cloud. Capacitors are an ideal substitute for batteries if their energy storage capacity can be improved. Recapping is addressing storage capacity by experimenting with the material that separates the positive and negative electrodes of its capacitors. These separators could significantly improve the energy density of electrochemical devices.

  13. High-Density and Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Have Opposing Roles in Regulating Tumor-Initiating Cells and Sensitivity to Radiation in Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, Adam R.; Atkinson, Rachel L.; Reddy, Jay P.; Debeb, Bisrat G.; Larson, Richard; Li, Li; Masuda, Hiroko; Brewer, Takae; Atkinson, Bradley J.; Brewster, Abeena; Ueno, Naoto T.; Woodward, Wendy A.

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: We previously demonstrated that cholesterol-lowering agents regulate radiation sensitivity of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) cell lines in vitro and are associated with less radiation resistance among IBC patients who undergo postmastectomy radiation. We hypothesized that decreasing IBC cellular cholesterol induced by treatment with lipoproteins would increase radiation sensitivity. Here, we examined the impact of specific transporters of cholesterol (ie lipoproteins) on the responses of IBC cells to self-renewal and to radiation in vitro and on clinical outcomes in IBC patients. Methods and Materials: Two patient-derived IBC cell lines, SUM 149 and KPL4, were incubated with low-density lipoproteins (LDL), very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), or high-density lipoproteins (HDL) for 24 hours prior to irradiation (0-6 Gy) and mammosphere formation assay. Cholesterol panels were examined in a cohort of patients with primary IBC diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Lipoprotein levels were then correlated to patient outcome, using the log rank statistical model, and examined in multivariate analysis using Cox regression. Results: VLDL increased and HDL decreased mammosphere formation compared to untreated SUM 149 and KPL4 cells. Survival curves showed enhancement of survival in both of the IBC cell lines when pretreated with VLDL and, conversely, radiation sensitization in all cell lines when pretreated with HDL. In IBC patients, higher VLDL values (>30 mg/dL) predicted a lower 5-year overall survival rate than normal values (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.9 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-3.45], P=.035). Lower-than-normal patient HDL values (<60 mg/dL) predicted a lower 5-year overall survival rate than values higher than 60 mg/dL (HR = 3.21 [95% CI: 1.25-8.27], P=.015). Conclusions: This study discovered a relationship among the plasma levels of lipoproteins, overall patient response, and radiation resistance in IBC patients

  14. Low density microcellular foams

    DOEpatents

    LeMay, J.D.

    1991-11-19

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular foam which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 [mu]m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process. 8 figures.

  15. Low density microcellular foams

    DOEpatents

    LeMay, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular from which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 .mu.m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process.

  16. Low density microcellular foams

    DOEpatents

    LeMay, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular foam which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 .mu.m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process.

  17. Low density microcellular foams

    DOEpatents

    Aubert, James H.; Clough, Roger L.; Curro, John G.; Quintana, Carlos A.; Russick, Edward M.; Shaw, Montgomery T.

    1987-01-01

    Low density, microporous polymer foams are provided by a process which comprises forming a solution of polymer and a suitable solvent followed by rapid cooling of the solution to form a phase-separated system and freeze the phase-separated system. The phase-separated system comprises a polymer phase and a solvent phase, each of which is substantially continuous within the other. The morphology of the polymer phase prior to and subsequent to freezing determine the morphology of the resultant foam. Both isotropic and anisotropic foams can be produced. If isotropic foams are produced, the polymer and solvent are tailored such that the solution spontaneously phase-separates prior to the point at which any component freezes. The morphology of the resultant polymer phase determines the morphology of the resultant foam and the morphology of the polymer phase is retained by cooling the system at a rate sufficient to freeze one or both components of the system before a change in morphology can occur. Anisotropic foams are produced by forming a solution of polymer and solvent that will not phase separate prior to freezing of one or both components of the solution. In such a process, the solvent typically freezes before phase separation occurs. The morphology of the resultant frozen two-phase system determines the morphology of the resultant foam. The process involves subjecting the solution to essentially one-dimensional cooling. Means for subjecting such a solvent to one-dimensional cooling are also provided. Foams having a density of less than 0.1 g/cc and a uniform cell size of less than 10 .mu.m and a volume such that the foams have a length greater than 1 cm are provided.

  18. Low density microcellular foams

    DOEpatents

    Aubert, J.H.; Clough, R.L.; Curro, J.G.; Quintana, C.A.; Russick, E.M.; Shaw, M.T.

    1985-10-02

    Low density, microporous polymer foams are provided by a process which comprises forming a solution of polymer and a suitable solvent followed by rapid cooling of the solution to form a phase-separated system and freeze the phase-separated system. The phase-separated system comprises a polymer phase and a solvent phase, each of which is substantially continuous within the other. The morphology of the polymer phase prior to and subsequent to freezing determine the morphology of the resultant foam. Both isotropic and anisotropic foams can be produced. If isotropic foams are produced, the polymer and solvent are tailored such that the solution spontaneously phase-separates prior to the point at which any component freezes. The morphology of the resultant polymer phase determines the morphology of the reusltant foam and the morphology of the polymer phase is retained by cooling the system at a rate sufficient to freeze one or both components of the system before a change in morphology can occur. Anisotropic foams are produced by forming a solution of polymer and solvent that will not phase separate prior to freezing of one or both components of the solution. In such a process, the solvent typically freezes before phase separation occurs. The morphology of the resultant frozen two-phase system determines the morphology of the resultant foam. The process involves subjecting the solution to essentially one-dimensional cooling. Foams having a density of less than 0.1 g/cc and a uniform cell size of less than 10 ..mu..m and a volume such that the foams have a length greater than 1 cm are provided.

  19. Paper area density measurement from forward transmitted scattered light

    DOEpatents

    Koo, Jackson C.

    2001-01-01

    A method whereby the average paper fiber area density (weight per unit area) can be directly calculated from the intensity of transmitted, scattered light at two different wavelengths, one being a non-absorpted wavelength. Also, the method makes it possible to derive the water percentage per fiber area density from a two-wavelength measurement. In the optical measuring technique optical transmitted intensity, for example, at 2.1 microns cellulose absorption line is measured and compared with another scattered, optical transmitted intensity reference in the nearby spectrum region, such as 1.68 microns, where there is no absorption. From the ratio of these two intensities, one can calculate the scattering absorption coefficient at 2.1 microns. This absorption coefficient at this wavelength is, then, experimentally correlated to the paper fiber area density. The water percentage per fiber area density can be derived from this two-wavelength measurement approach.

  20. High Current Density, Long Duration Cycling of Soluble Organic Active

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Species for Non-Aqueous Redox Flow Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research 15, 2016, Research Highlights High Current Density, Long Duration Cycling of Soluble Organic Active Species for Non-Aqueous Redox Flow Batteries Chemical structures of phenothiazine derivatives investigated and cycling performance of the most soluble derivative (MEEPT): (a) Charge-discharge curves; (b) capacities and efficiencies as a function of cycle number. Scientific Achievement We simultaneously

  1. High Energy Density Microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, R.M. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)

    1999-04-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the RF98 Workshop entitled `High Energy Density Microwaves` held in California in October, 1998. The topics discussed were predominantly accelerator{minus}related. The Workshop dealt, for the most part, with the generation and control of electron beams, the amplification of RF signals, the design of mode converters, and the effect of very high RF field gradients. This Workshop was designed to address the concerns of the microwave tube industry worldwide, the plasma physicists who deal with very high beam currents and gigawatts of RF power, and researchers in accelerator centers around the world. Papers were presented on multibeam klystrons, gyrotron development, plasmas in microwave tubes, RF breakdown, and alternatives to conventional linear coliders at 1 TeV and above. The Workshop was partially sponsored by the US Department of Energy. There were 46 papers presented at the conference,out of which 19 have been abstracted for the Energy,Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  2. Electromagnetic fluctuations and normal modes of a drifting relativistic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ruyer, C.; Gremillet, L.; Bénisti, D.; Bonnaud, G.

    2013-11-15

    We present an exact calculation of the power spectrum of the electromagnetic fluctuations in a relativistic equilibrium plasma described by Maxwell-Jüttner distribution functions. We consider the cases of wave vectors parallel or normal to the plasma mean velocity. The relative contributions of the subluminal and supraluminal fluctuations are evaluated. Analytical expressions of the spatial fluctuation spectra are derived in each case. These theoretical results are compared to particle-in-cell simulations, showing a good reproduction of the subluminal fluctuation spectra.

  3. Vortices in normal part of proximity system

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, V. G.

    2015-05-26

    It is shown that the order parameter Δ induced in the normal part of superconductor-normal-superconductor proximity system is modulated in the magnetic field differently from vortices in bulk superconductors. Whereas Δ turns zero at vortex centers, the magnetic structure of these vortices differs from that of Abrikosov's.

  4. Vortices in normal part of proximity system

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Kogan, V. G.

    2015-05-26

    It is shown that the order parameter ? induced in the normal part of superconductor-normal-superconductor proximity system is modulated in the magnetic field differently from vortices in bulk superconductors. Whereas ? turns zero at vortex centers, the magnetic structure of these vortices differs from that of Abrikosov's.

  5. Dilatometric measurements of helium densities in bubbles arising from tritium decay in tantalum

    SciTech Connect

    Schober, T.; Lasser, R.; Golczewski, J.; Dieker, C.; Trinkaus, H.

    1985-06-01

    The swelling rates of the bulk tritides TaT/sub 0.42/ and TaT/sub 0.103/ were measured at room temperature using the technique of strain gauges. Such swelling is expected in tritides because of the decay of tritium to /sup 3/He and the subsequent precipitation of gas bubbles. Observations were made for up to 10 months. Almost-linear swelling was found in the first months for both tritides, indicative of a constant /sup 3/He density in the bubbles. The slopes of the linear parts of the expansion curves normalized to the T concentration were almost identical in the two cases considered. From this a /sup 3/He-to-Ta atom volume ratio, v/sub He//..cap omega..< or =0.52 +- 0.03 in the bubbles was derived, which is in good agreement with recent but less direct spectroscopic measurements of /sup 4/He densities in bubbles formed after room-temperature implantation into other metals. Corrections for the presence of self-interstitials and their clusters and due to the elastic relaxation of the bubbles were considered. Calculated bubble pressures were in the vicinity of 5 GPa, which is close to the expected threshold pressure for athermal bubble growth.

  6. Soil Density/Moisture Gauge

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This scenario provides the planning instructions, guidance, and evaluation forms necessary to conduct an exercise involving a highway shipment of a soil moisture/density gauge (Class 7 -...

  7. Derived Annual Estimates

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    74-1988 For Methodology Concerning the Derived Estimates Total Consumption of Offsite-Produced Energy for Heat and Power by Industry Group, 1974-1988 Total Energy *** Electricity...

  8. Derived Concentration Technical Standard

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    196-2011 April 2011 DOE STANDARD DERIVED CONCENTRATION TECHNICAL STANDARD U.S. Department of Energy AREA ENVR Washington, D.C. 20585 Not Measurement Sensitive This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.doe.gov/nuclearsafety/ns/techstds/standard/standard.html DOE-STD-1196-2011 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Derived Concentration Technical Standard was a collaborative effort sponsored by the DOE Office of Environmental Policy and

  9. Category:Rock Density | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Rock Density Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Rock Density page? For detailed information on Rock Density as...

  10. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral direct normal irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    direct normal irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave spectral direct normal irradiance The narrow spectral range of measurements coming directly from the sun whose wavelength falls within the solar range of 0.4 and 4 {mu}m. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream

  11. Attractor comparisons based on density

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, T. L.

    2015-01-15

    Recognizing a chaotic attractor can be seen as a problem in pattern recognition. Some feature vector must be extracted from the attractor and used to compare to other attractors. The field of machine learning has many methods for extracting feature vectors, including clustering methods, decision trees, support vector machines, and many others. In this work, feature vectors are created by representing the attractor as a density in phase space and creating polynomials based on this density. Density is useful in itself because it is a one dimensional function of phase space position, but representing an attractor as a density is also a way to reduce the size of a large data set before analyzing it with graph theory methods, which can be computationally intensive. The density computation in this paper is also fast to execute. In this paper, as a demonstration of the usefulness of density, the density is used directly to construct phase space polynomials for comparing attractors. Comparisons between attractors could be useful for tracking changes in an experiment when the underlying equations are too complicated for vector field modeling.

  12. Derivation of a Multiparameter Gamma Model for Analyzing the Residence-Time Distribution Function for Nonideal Flow Systems as an Alternative to the Advection-Dispersion Equation

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Embry, Irucka; Roland, Victor; Agbaje, Oluropo; Watson, Valetta; Martin, Marquan; Painter, Roger; Byl, Tom; Sharpe, Lonnie

    2013-01-01

    A new residence-time distribution (RTD) function has been developed and applied to quantitative dye studies as an alternative to the traditional advection-dispersion equation (AdDE). The new method is based on a jointly combined four-parameter gamma probability density function (PDF). The gamma residence-time distribution (RTD) function and its first and second moments are derived from the individual two-parameter gamma distributions of randomly distributed variables, tracer travel distance, and linear velocity, which are based on their relationship with time. The gamma RTD function was used on a steady-state, nonideal system modeled as a plug-flow reactor (PFR) in the laboratory to validate themore » effectiveness of the model. The normalized forms of the gamma RTD and the advection-dispersion equation RTD were compared with the normalized tracer RTD. The normalized gamma RTD had a lower mean-absolute deviation (MAD) (0.16) than the normalized form of the advection-dispersion equation (0.26) when compared to the normalized tracer RTD. The gamma RTD function is tied back to the actual physical site due to its randomly distributed variables. The results validate using the gamma RTD as a suitable alternative to the advection-dispersion equation for quantitative tracer studies of non-ideal flow systems.« less

  13. Phenomenological Relativistic Energy Density Functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Lalazissis, G. A.; Kartzikos, S.; Niksic, T.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.

    2009-08-26

    The framework of relativistic nuclear energy density functionals is applied to the description of a variety of nuclear structure phenomena, not only in spherical and deformed nuclei along the valley of beta-stability, but also in exotic systems with extreme isospin values and close to the particle drip-lines. Dynamical aspects of exotic nuclear structure is explored using the fully consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model. Recent applications of energy density functionals with explicit density dependence of the meson-nucleon couplings are presented.

  14. Induced supersolidity in a mixture of normal and hard-core bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Tapan; Das, B. P.; Pai, Ramesh V.

    2010-01-01

    We present a scenario where a supersolid is induced in one of the components of a mixture of two species bosonic atoms where there are no long-range interactions. We study a system of normal and hard-core boson mixture with only the former possessing long-range interactions. We consider three cases: the first where the total density is commensurate and the other two where it is incommensurate to the lattice. By suitable choices of the densities of normal and hard-core bosons and the interaction strengths between them, we predict that the charge density wave and the supersolid orders can be induced in the hard-core species as a result of the competing interatomic interactions.

  15. Low density carbonized composite foams

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Fung-Ming

    1993-01-01

    A carbonized composite foam having a density less than about 50 mg/cm.sup.3 and individual cell sizes no greater than about 1 .mu.m in diameter is described, and the process of making it.

  16. Low density carbonized composite foams

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Fung-Ming

    1991-01-01

    A carbonized composite foam having a density less than about 50 mg/cm.sup.3 and individual cell sizes no greater than about 1 .mu.m in diameter is described, and the process of making it.

  17. Is the assumption of normality or log-normality for continuous response data critical for benchmark dose estimation?

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Kan; Gift, Jeffrey S.; Setzer, R. Woodrow

    2013-11-01

    Continuous responses (e.g. body weight) are widely used in risk assessment for determining the benchmark dose (BMD) which is used to derive a U.S. EPA reference dose. One critical question that is not often addressed in doseresponse assessments is whether to model the continuous data as normally or log-normally distributed. Additionally, if lognormality is assumed, and only summarized response data (i.e., mean standard deviation) are available as is usual in the peer-reviewed literature, the BMD can only be approximated. In this study, using the hybrid method and relative deviation approach, we first evaluate six representative continuous doseresponse datasets reporting individual animal responses to investigate the impact on BMD/BMDL estimates of (1) the distribution assumption and (2) the use of summarized versus individual animal data when a log-normal distribution is assumed. We also conduct simulation studies evaluating model fits to various known distributions to investigate whether the distribution assumption has influence on BMD/BMDL estimates. Our results indicate that BMDs estimated using the hybrid method are more sensitive to the distribution assumption than counterpart BMDs estimated using the relative deviation approach. The choice of distribution assumption has limited impact on the BMD/BMDL estimates when the within dose-group variance is small, while the lognormality assumption is a better choice for relative deviation method when data are more skewed because of its appropriateness in describing the relationship between mean and standard deviation. Additionally, the results suggest that the use of summarized data versus individual response data to characterize log-normal distributions has minimal impact on BMD estimates. - Highlights: We investigate to what extent the distribution assumption can affect BMD estimates. Both real data analysis and simulation study are conducted. BMDs estimated using hybrid method are more sensitive to

  18. Low density metal hydride foams

    DOEpatents

    Maienschein, Jon L.; Barry, Patrick E.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a low density foam having a porosity of from 0 to 98% and a density less than about 0.67 gm/cc, prepared by heating a mixture of powered lithium hydride and beryllium hydride in an inert atmosphere at a temperature ranging from about 455 to about 490 K for a period of time sufficient to cause foaming of said mixture, and cooling the foam thus produced. Also disclosed is the process of making the foam.

  19. Wave-function functionals for the density

    SciTech Connect

    Slamet, Marlina; Pan Xiaoyin; Sahni, Viraht

    2011-11-15

    We extend the idea of the constrained-search variational method for the construction of wave-function functionals {psi}[{chi}] of functions {chi}. The search is constrained to those functions {chi} such that {psi}[{chi}] reproduces the density {rho}(r) while simultaneously leading to an upper bound to the energy. The functionals are thereby normalized and automatically satisfy the electron-nucleus coalescence condition. The functionals {psi}[{chi}] are also constructed to satisfy the electron-electron coalescence condition. The method is applied to the ground state of the helium atom to construct functionals {psi}[{chi}] that reproduce the density as given by the Kinoshita correlated wave function. The expectation of single-particle operators W={Sigma}{sub i}r{sub i}{sup n}, n=-2,-1,1,2, W={Sigma}{sub i}{delta}(r{sub i}) are exact, as must be the case. The expectations of the kinetic energy operator W=-(1/2){Sigma}{sub i}{nabla}{sub i}{sup 2}, the two-particle operators W={Sigma}{sub n}u{sup n}, n=-2,-1,1,2, where u=|r{sub i}-r{sub j}|, and the energy are accurate. We note that the construction of such functionals {psi}[{chi}] is an application of the Levy-Lieb constrained-search definition of density functional theory. It is thereby possible to rigorously determine which functional {psi}[{chi}] is closer to the true wave function.

  20. Bubble Density Dependent Functionals to Describe Deformation and Stress Equilibrium Evolution for In-Reactor Nuclear Fuel Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, Ray B.

    2008-07-01

    Future designs of nuclear fuels require an increased understanding of fission gas bubble density evolution. Derivations will be provided for a generic Boltzmann bubble density evolution equation, a bubble density deformation field equation, and a Cauchy stress/bubble-pressure equilibrium equation. (author)

  1. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    normal irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in broad bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4{mu}m, that comes directly from the Sun without being scattered or absorbed in the atmosphere, passes through a unit area perpendicular to the direction from the Sun. Categories Radiometric Instruments

  2. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband direct normal irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    normal irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband direct normal irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4{mu}m, that comes directly from the Sun without being scattered or absorbed in the atmosphere, passes through a unit area perpendicular to the direction from the Sun. Categories Radiometric Instruments

  3. High Density Sensor Network Development | The Ames Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    High Density Sensor Network Development

  4. Normal butane/iso-butane separation

    SciTech Connect

    Volles, W.K.; Cusher, N.A.

    1986-08-26

    This patent describes an improved pressure swing adsorption process for the separation of iso-butane from normal butane in an adsorption system having at least three adsorbent beds, each bed of which undergoes, on a cyclic basis and a processing sequence comprising: introducing a feed gas mixture of iso-butane and normal butane at an upper adsorption pressure to the feed end of the bed capable of selectively adsorbing normal butane as the more selectivity adsorbable component of the gas mixture. The iso-butane as the less readily adsorbable component passes through the bed and is discharged from the discharge end. The feed gas introduction is continued as a normal butane adsorption front is formed in the bed and passes through the bed from the feed end and breaks through at the discharge end of the bed, a portion of the iso-butane effluent stream thus discharged being diverted for passage as purge gas to another bed in the system; and countercurrently depressurizing the bed with release of gas from the feed end.

  5. Modeling pore corrosion in normally open gold- plated copper connectors.

    SciTech Connect

    Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moffat, Harry K.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Enos, David George; Serna, Lysle M.; Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2008-09-01

    The goal of this study is to model the electrical response of gold plated copper electrical contacts exposed to a mixed flowing gas stream consisting of air containing 10 ppb H{sub 2}S at 30 C and a relative humidity of 70%. This environment accelerates the attack normally observed in a light industrial environment (essentially a simplified version of the Battelle Class 2 environment). Corrosion rates were quantified by measuring the corrosion site density, size distribution, and the macroscopic electrical resistance of the aged surface as a function of exposure time. A pore corrosion numerical model was used to predict both the growth of copper sulfide corrosion product which blooms through defects in the gold layer and the resulting electrical contact resistance of the aged surface. Assumptions about the distribution of defects in the noble metal plating and the mechanism for how corrosion blooms affect electrical contact resistance were needed to complete the numerical model. Comparisons are made to the experimentally observed number density of corrosion sites, the size distribution of corrosion product blooms, and the cumulative probability distribution of the electrical contact resistance. Experimentally, the bloom site density increases as a function of time, whereas the bloom size distribution remains relatively independent of time. These two effects are included in the numerical model by adding a corrosion initiation probability proportional to the surface area along with a probability for bloom-growth extinction proportional to the corrosion product bloom volume. The cumulative probability distribution of electrical resistance becomes skewed as exposure time increases. While the electrical contact resistance increases as a function of time for a fraction of the bloom population, the median value remains relatively unchanged. In order to model this behavior, the resistance calculated for large blooms has been weighted more heavily.

  6. A Density Functional Approach to Polarizable Models: A Kim-Gordon-Response Density Interaction Potential for Molecular Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Tabacchi, G; Hutter, J; Mundy, C

    2005-04-07

    A combined linear response--frozen electron density model has been implemented in a molecular dynamics scheme derived from an extended Lagrangian formalism. This approach is based on a partition of the electronic charge distribution into a frozen region described by Kim-Gordon theory, and a response contribution determined by the instaneous ionic configuration of the system. The method is free from empirical pair-potentials and the parameterization protocol involves only calculations on properly chosen subsystems. They apply this method to a series of alkali halides in different physical phases and are able to reproduce experimental structural and thermodynamic properties with an accuracy comparable to Kohn-Sham density functional calculations.

  7. Pushing schedule derivation method

    SciTech Connect

    Henriquez, B.

    1996-12-31

    The development of a Pushing Schedule Derivation Method has allowed the company to sustain the maximum production rate at CSH`s Coke Oven Battery, in spite of having single set oven machinery with a high failure index as well as a heat top tendency. The stated method provides for scheduled downtime of up to two hours for machinery maintenance purposes, periods of empty ovens for decarbonization and production loss recovery capability, while observing lower limits and uniformity of coking time.

  8. High-density fluid compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, D.C.

    1981-09-29

    Clear, high-density fluids suitable for use as well completion, packing, and perforation media comprise aqueous solutions of zinc bromide and calcium bromide having densities lying in the range of about 14.5 up to about 18.0 pounds per gallon and measured PH's lying in the range of about 3.5 up to about 6.0. Optionally, such fluids may also comprise calcium chloride and/or a soluble film-forming amine-based corrosion inhibitor. Such fluids under conditions of ordinary use exhibit low corrosion rates and have crystallization points lying well below the range of temperatures under which they are used.

  9. Improving experimental phases for strong reflections prior to density modification

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Read, Randy J.

    2013-09-20

    Experimental phasing of diffraction data from macromolecular crystals involves deriving phase probability distributions. These distributions are often bimodal, making their weighted average, the centroid phase, improbable, so that electron-density maps computed using centroid phases are often non-interpretable. Density modification brings in information about the characteristics of electron density in protein crystals. In successful cases, this allows a choice between the modes in the phase probability distributions, and the maps can cross the borderline between non-interpretable and interpretable. Based on the suggestions by Vekhter [Vekhter (2005), Acta Cryst. D61, 899–902], the impact of identifying optimized phases for a small number ofmore » strong reflections prior to the density-modification process was investigated while using the centroid phase as a starting point for the remaining reflections. A genetic algorithm was developed that optimizes the quality of such phases using the skewness of the density map as a target function. Phases optimized in this way are then used in density modification. In most of the tests, the resulting maps were of higher quality than maps generated from the original centroid phases. In one of the test cases, the new method sufficiently improved a marginal set of experimental SAD phases to enable successful map interpretation. Lastly, a computer program,SISA, has been developed to apply this method for phase improvement in macromolecular crystallography.« less

  10. Plasma digital density determining device

    DOEpatents

    Sprott, Julien C.; Lovell, Thomas W.; Holly, Donald J.

    1976-01-01

    The density of a decaying plasma in an electrically conducting enclosure is determined by applying an excitation to the cavity formed by the enclosure and counting digitally the number of resonant frequencies traversed by the combination of the cavity and the decaying plasma.

  11. High energy density thermal cell

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, A.N.

    1980-04-29

    A thermal battery is described that uses a calcium anode and a catholyte consisting of a mixture of lithium, potassium, nitrate and chloride ions. The device is operable over a temperature range of about 150 to 600/sup 0/C and produces a long lasting, high energy density output.

  12. Normal Conducting RF Cavity for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; DeMello, A.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Summers, D.

    2010-05-23

    Normal conducting RF cavities must be used for the cooling section of the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), currently under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. Eight 201-MHz cavities are needed for the MICE cooling section; fabrication of the first five cavities is complete. We report the cavity fabrication status including cavity design, fabrication techniques and preliminary low power RF measurements.

  13. Statistical density modification using local pattern matching

    DOEpatents

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2007-01-23

    A computer implemented method modifies an experimental electron density map. A set of selected known experimental and model electron density maps is provided and standard templates of electron density are created from the selected experimental and model electron density maps by clustering and averaging values of electron density in a spherical region about each point in a grid that defines each selected known experimental and model electron density maps. Histograms are also created from the selected experimental and model electron density maps that relate the value of electron density at the center of each of the spherical regions to a correlation coefficient of a density surrounding each corresponding grid point in each one of the standard templates. The standard templates and the histograms are applied to grid points on the experimental electron density map to form new estimates of electron density at each grid point in the experimental electron density map.

  14. On the density limit in the helicon plasma sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kotelnikov, Igor A.

    2014-12-15

    Existence of the density limit in the helicon plasma sources is revisited. The low- and high-frequency regimes of a helicon plasma source operation are distinguished. In the low-frequency regime with ω<√(ω{sub ci}ω{sub ce}), the density limit is deduced from the Golant-Stix criterion of the accessibility of the lower hybrid resonance. In the high-frequency case, ω>√(ω{sub ci}ω{sub ce}), an appropriate limit is given by the Shamrai-Taranov criterion. Both these criteria are closely related to the phenomenon of the coalescence of the helicon wave with the Trivelpiece-Gould mode. We draw a conclusion that the derived density limits are not currently achieved in existing devices, perhaps, because of high energy cost of gas ionization.

  15. Nonlinear upper hybrid waves and the induced density irregularities

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Spencer P.

    2015-08-15

    Upper hybrid waves are excited parametrically by the O-mode high-frequency heater waves in the ionospheric heating experiments. These waves grow to large amplitudes and self-induced density perturbations provide nonlinear feedback. The lower hybrid resonance modifies the nonlinear feedback driven by the ponderomotive force; the nonlinear equation governing the envelope of the upper hybrid waves is derived. Solutions in symmetric alternating functions, in non-alternating periodic functions, as well as in solitary functions are shown. The impact of lower hybrid resonance on the envelope of the upper hybrid waves is explored; the results show that both the spatial period and amplitude are enlarged. The average fluctuation level of induced density irregularities is also enhanced. In the soliton form, the induced density cavity is widened considerably.

  16. ARM - Lesson Plans: Air Density and Temperature

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Air Density and Temperature Objective The objective of this activity is to investigate the effect of temperature on the density of air. ...

  17. High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Capabilities High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids science-innovationassetsimagesicon-science.jpg High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids National security depends on science and ...

  18. Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional VaryMatrix.png Collaboration with mathematicians and computational...

  19. Dynamics and diffusion mechanism of low-density liquid silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, B.; Wang, Z. Y.; Dong, F.; Guo, Y. R.; Zhang, R. J.; Zheng, Y. X.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.; Chen, L. Y.

    2015-11-05

    A first-order phase transition from a high-density liquid to a low-density liquid has been proposed to explain the various thermodynamic anomies of water. It also has been proposed that such liquid–liquid phase transition would exist in supercooled silicon. Computer simulation studies show that, across the transition, the diffusivity drops roughly 2 orders of magnitude, and the structures exhibit considerable tetrahedral ordering. The resulting phase is a highly viscous, low-density liquid silicon. Investigations on the atomic diffusion of such a novel form of liquid silicon are of high interest. Here we report such diffusion results from molecular dynamics simulations using the classical Stillinger–Weber (SW) potential of silicon. We show that the atomic diffusion of the low-density liquid is highly correlated with local tetrahedral geometries. We also show that atoms diffuse through hopping processes within short ranges, which gradually accumulate to an overall random motion for long ranges as in normal liquids. There is a close relationship between dynamical heterogeneity and hopping process. We point out that the above diffusion mechanism is closely related to the strong directional bonding nature of the distorted tetrahedral network. Here, our work offers new insights into the complex behavior of the highly viscous low density liquid silicon, suggesting similar diffusion behaviors in other tetrahedral coordinated liquids that exhibit liquid–liquid phase transition such as carbon and germanium.

  20. Dynamics and diffusion mechanism of low-density liquid silicon

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Shen, B.; Wang, Z. Y.; Dong, F.; Guo, Y. R.; Zhang, R. J.; Zheng, Y. X.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.; Chen, L. Y.

    2015-11-05

    A first-order phase transition from a high-density liquid to a low-density liquid has been proposed to explain the various thermodynamic anomies of water. It also has been proposed that such liquid–liquid phase transition would exist in supercooled silicon. Computer simulation studies show that, across the transition, the diffusivity drops roughly 2 orders of magnitude, and the structures exhibit considerable tetrahedral ordering. The resulting phase is a highly viscous, low-density liquid silicon. Investigations on the atomic diffusion of such a novel form of liquid silicon are of high interest. Here we report such diffusion results from molecular dynamics simulations using themore » classical Stillinger–Weber (SW) potential of silicon. We show that the atomic diffusion of the low-density liquid is highly correlated with local tetrahedral geometries. We also show that atoms diffuse through hopping processes within short ranges, which gradually accumulate to an overall random motion for long ranges as in normal liquids. There is a close relationship between dynamical heterogeneity and hopping process. We point out that the above diffusion mechanism is closely related to the strong directional bonding nature of the distorted tetrahedral network. Here, our work offers new insights into the complex behavior of the highly viscous low density liquid silicon, suggesting similar diffusion behaviors in other tetrahedral coordinated liquids that exhibit liquid–liquid phase transition such as carbon and germanium.« less

  1. Symbolic computation of solitons in the normal dispersion regime of inhomogeneous optical fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wenjun; Tain Bo; Li Min; Jiang Yan; Qu Qixing; Wang Pan; Sun Kun

    2011-06-30

    A nonlinear Schroedinger equation with varying dispersion, nonlinearity and gain (or absorption) is studied for ultrashort optical pulses propagating in inhomogeneous optical fibres in the case of normal dispersion. Using the modified Hirota method and symbolic computation, the bilinear form and analytic soliton solution are derived. Stable bright and dark solitons are observed in the normal dispersion regime. A periodically varying soliton and compressed soliton without any fluctuation are obtained. Combined and kink-shaped solitons are observed. Possibly applicable soliton control techniques, which are used to design dispersion-managed systems, are proposed. The proposed techniques may find applications in soliton management communication links, soliton compression and soliton control. (solitons)

  2. Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC Document explains how to use estimated ...

  3. Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel...

  4. Algae Derived Biofuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jahan, Kauser

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  5. Density variations and anomalies in palladium compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Back, D.; Jones, T.; Ransick, M.; Walburg, T.; Werkmeister, D.

    1992-05-14

    Low-density compacts of palladium powder have relative densities of about 30{plus minus}10% TD. The variations in density are of concern for operations such as chemical/hydrogen pump systems because heat, mass, and momentum transport properties can be affected. Variations in density result from the inherent nature and interacting forces of UASA compaction of powder in cylinders. In addition to these expected variations, discontinuous density anomalies, such as cracks or high density ridges, are also found. An anomaly of particular concern was found to resemble a steer's head.'' it is a symmetrical region of low density located at or near the center of a compact. Typically, this region is surrounded by a band of high density, compacted palladium that sometimes exceeds the density of the surrounding compact matrix by a factor of three. This report examines these density variations and anomalies both theoretically and empirically.

  6. Density variations and anomalies in palladium compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Back, D.; Jones, T.; Ransick, M.; Walburg, T.; Werkmeister, D.

    1992-05-14

    Low-density compacts of palladium powder have relative densities of about 30{plus_minus}10% TD. The variations in density are of concern for operations such as chemical/hydrogen pump systems because heat, mass, and momentum transport properties can be affected. Variations in density result from the inherent nature and interacting forces of UASA compaction of powder in cylinders. In addition to these expected variations, discontinuous density anomalies, such as cracks or high density ridges, are also found. An anomaly of particular concern was found to resemble a ``steer`s head.`` it is a symmetrical region of low density located at or near the center of a compact. Typically, this region is surrounded by a band of high density, compacted palladium that sometimes exceeds the density of the surrounding compact matrix by a factor of three. This report examines these density variations and anomalies both theoretically and empirically.

  7. Probability distribution of the vacuum energy density

    SciTech Connect

    Duplancic, Goran; Stefancic, Hrvoje; Glavan, Drazen

    2010-12-15

    As the vacuum state of a quantum field is not an eigenstate of the Hamiltonian density, the vacuum energy density can be represented as a random variable. We present an analytical calculation of the probability distribution of the vacuum energy density for real and complex massless scalar fields in Minkowski space. The obtained probability distributions are broad and the vacuum expectation value of the Hamiltonian density is not fully representative of the vacuum energy density.

  8. DIFFUSE MOLECULAR CLOUD DENSITIES FROM UV MEASUREMENTS OF CO ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Paul F.

    2013-09-10

    We use UV measurements of interstellar CO toward nearby stars to calculate the density in the diffuse molecular clouds containing the molecules responsible for the observed absorption. Chemical models and recent calculations of the excitation rate coefficients indicate that the regions in which CO is found have hydrogen predominantly in molecular form and that collisional excitation is by collisions with H{sub 2} molecules. We carry out statistical equilibrium calculations using CO-H{sub 2} collision rates to solve for the H{sub 2} density in the observed sources without including effects of radiative trapping. We have assumed kinetic temperatures of 50 K and 100 K, finding this choice to make relatively little difference to the lowest transition. For the sources having T{sup ex}{sub 10} only for which we could determine upper and lower density limits, we find (n(H{sub 2})) = 49 cm{sup -3}. While we can find a consistent density range for a good fraction of the sources having either two or three values of the excitation temperature, there is a suggestion that the higher-J transitions are sampling clouds or regions within diffuse molecular cloud material that have higher densities than the material sampled by the J = 1-0 transition. The assumed kinetic temperature and derived H{sub 2} density are anticorrelated when the J = 2-1 transition data, the J = 3-2 transition data, or both are included. For sources with either two or three values of the excitation temperature, we find average values of the midpoint of the density range that is consistent with all of the observations equal to 68 cm{sup -3} for T{sup k} = 100 K and 92 cm{sup -3} for T{sup k} = 50 K. The data for this set of sources imply that diffuse molecular clouds are characterized by an average thermal pressure between 4600 and 6800 K cm{sup -3}.

  9. WARM MOLECULAR HYDROGEN EMISSION IN NORMAL EDGE-ON GALAXIES NGC 4565 AND NGC 5907

    SciTech Connect

    Laine, Seppo; Appleton, Philip N.; Gottesman, Stephen T.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Garland, Catherine A. E-mail: apple@ipac.caltech.ed E-mail: mashby@cfa.harvard.ed

    2010-09-15

    We have observed warm molecular hydrogen in two nearby edge-on disk galaxies, NGC 4565 and NGC 5907, using the Spitzer high-resolution infrared spectrograph. The 0-0 S(0) 28.2 {mu}m and 0-0 S(1) 17.0 {mu}m pure rotational lines were detected out to 10 kpc from the center of each galaxy on both sides of the major axis, and in NGC 4565 the S(0) line was detected at r = 15 kpc on one side. This location is beyond the transition zone where diffuse neutral atomic hydrogen starts to dominate over cold molecular gas and marks a transition from a disk dominated by high surface-brightness far-infrared (far-IR) emission to that of a more quiescent disk. It also lies beyond a steep drop in the radio continuum emission from cosmic rays (CRs) in the disk. Despite indications that star formation activity decreases with radius, the H{sub 2} excitation temperature and the ratio of the H{sub 2} line and the far-IR luminosity surface densities, {Sigma}(L{sub H{sub 2}})/{Sigma}(L{sub TIR}), change very little as a function of radius, even into the diffuse outer region of the disk of NGC 4565. This suggests that the source of excitation of the H{sub 2} operates over a large range of radii and is broadly independent of the strength and relative location of UV emission from young stars. Although excitation in photodissociation regions is the most common explanation for the widespread H{sub 2} emission, CR heating or shocks cannot be ruled out. At r = 15 kpc in NGC 4565, outside the main UV- and radio-continuum-dominated disk, we derived a higher than normal H{sub 2} to 7.7 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission ratio, but this is likely due to a transition from mainly ionized PAH molecules in the inner disk to mainly neutral PAH molecules in the outer disk. The inferred mass surface densities of warm molecular hydrogen in both edge-on galaxies differ substantially, being 4(-60) M{sub sun} pc{sup -2} and 3(-50) M{sub sun} pc{sup -2} at r = 10 kpc for NGC 4565 and NGC 5907

  10. DENSITY CONTROL IN A REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, J. Jr.

    1961-10-24

    A reactor is described in which natural-uranium bodies are located in parallel channels which extend through the graphite mass in a regular lattice. The graphite mass has additional channels that are out of the lattice and contain no uranium. These additional channels decrease in number per unit volume of graphite from the center of the reactor to the exterior and have the effect of reducing the density of the graphite more at the center than at the exterior, thereby spreading neutron activity throughout the reactor. (AEC)

  11. Overview Report: Normal and Emergency Operation Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2011-05-01

    This is an overview report to document and illustrate methods used in a project entitled “Normal and Emergency Operations Visualization” for a utility company, conducted in 2009-2010 timeframe with funding from the utility company and the U.S. Department of Energy. The original final report (about 180 pages) for the project is not available for distribution because it alludes to findings that assessed the design of an operational system that contained proprietary information; this abridged version contains descriptions of methods and some findings to illustrate the approach used, while avoiding discussion of sensitive or proprietary information. The client has approved this abridged version of the report for unlimited distribution to give researchers and collaborators the benefit of reviewing the research concepts and methods that were applied in this study.

  12. THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AND THE SURFACE DENSITY PROFILE OF NGC 6231

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, Hwankyung; Sana, Hugues; Bessell, Michael S. E-mail: H.Sana@uva.nl

    2013-02-01

    We have performed new wide-field photometry of the young open cluster NGC 6231 to study the shape of the initial mass function (IMF) and mass segregation. We also investigated the reddening law toward NGC 6231 from optical to mid-infrared color excess ratios, and found that the total-to-selective extinction ratio is R{sub V} = 3.2, which is very close to the normal value. But many early-type stars in the cluster center show large color excess ratios. We derived the surface density profiles of four member groups, and found that they reach the surface density of field stars at about 10', regardless of stellar mass. The IMF of NGC 6231 is derived for the mass range 0.8-45 M{sub Sun }. The slope of the IMF of NGC 6231 ({Gamma} = -1.1 {+-} 0.1) is slightly shallower than the canonical value, but the difference is marginal. In addition, the mass function varies systematically, and is a strong function of radius-it is very shallow at the center, and very steep at the outer ring suggesting the cluster is mass segregated. We confirm the mass segregation for the massive stars (m {approx}> 8 M{sub Sun }) by a minimum spanning tree analysis. Using a Monte Carlo method, we estimate the total mass of NGC 6231 to be about 2.6 ({+-} 0.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun }. We constrain the age of NGC 6231 by comparison with evolutionary isochrones. The age of the low-mass stars ranges from 1 to 7 Myr with a slight peak at 3 Myr. However, the age of the high-mass stars depends on the adopted models and is 3.5 {+-} 0.5 Myr from the non-rotating or moderately rotating models of Brott et al. as well as the non-rotating models of Ekstroem et al. But the age is 4.0-7.0 Myr if the rotating models of Ekstroem et al. are adopted. This latter age is in excellent agreement with the timescale of ejection of the high-mass runaway star HD 153919 from NGC 6231, albeit the younger age cannot be entirely excluded.

  13. Oxides having high energy densities

    DOEpatents

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-09-10

    Certain disclosed embodiments generally relate to oxide materials having relatively high energy and/or power densities. Various aspects of the embodiments are directed to oxide materials having a structure B.sub.i(M.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2, for example, a structure Li.sub.j(Ni.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2 such as Li(Ni.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5)O.sub.2. In this structure, Y represents one or more atoms, each independently selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metals, transition metals, Group 14 elements, Group 15, or Group 16 elements. In some embodiments, such an oxide material may have an O3 crystal structure, and/or a layered structure such that the oxide comprises a plurality of first, repeating atomic planes comprising Li, and a plurality of second, repeating atomic planes comprising Ni and/or Y.

  14. Derived Annual Estimates of Manufacturing Energy Consumption...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    > Derived Annual Estimates - Executive Summary Derived Annual Estimates of Manufacturing Energy Consumption, 1974-1988 Figure showing Derived Estimates Executive Summary This...

  15. General properties of different models used to predict normal tissue complications due to radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuperman, V. Y.

    2008-11-15

    In the current study the author analyzes general properties of three different models used to predict normal tissue complications due to radiation: (1) Surviving fraction of normal cells in the framework of the linear quadratic (LQ) equation for cell kill, (2) the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model for normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), and (3) generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD). For all considered cases the author assumes fixed average dose to an organ of interest. The author's goal is to establish whether maximizing dose uniformity in the irradiated normal tissues is radiobiologically beneficial. Assuming that NTCP increases with increasing overall cell kill, it is shown that NTCP in the LQ model is maximized for uniform dose. Conversely, NTCP in the LKB and gEUD models is always smaller for a uniform dose to a normal organ than that for a spatially varying dose if parameter n in these models is small (i.e., n<1). The derived conflicting properties of the considered models indicate the need for more studies before these models can be utilized clinically for plan evaluation and/or optimization of dose distributions. It is suggested that partial-volume irradiation can be used to establish the validity of the considered models.

  16. Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Short Standing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Short Standing Wave Structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Short Standing ...

  17. A method for estimating direct normal solar irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment

    SciTech Connect

    Janjai, Serm

    2010-09-15

    In order to investigate a potential use of concentrating solar power technologies and select an optimum site for these technologies, it is necessary to obtain information on the geographical distribution of direct normal solar irradiation over an area of interest. In this work, we have developed a method for estimating direct normal irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment. The method starts with the estimation of global irradiation on a horizontal surface from MTSAT-1R satellite data and other ground-based ancillary data. Then a satellite-based diffuse fraction model was developed and used to estimate the diffuse component of the satellite-derived global irradiation. Based on this estimated global and diffuse irradiation and the solar radiation incident angle, the direct normal irradiation was finally calculated. To evaluate its performance, the method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation at seven pyrheliometer stations in Thailand. It was found that values of monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation from the measurements and those estimated from the proposed method are in reasonable agreement, with a root mean square difference of 16% and a mean bias of -1.6%, with respect to mean measured values. After the validation, this method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation over Thailand by using MTSAT-1R satellite data for the period from June 2005 to December 2008. Results from the calculation were displayed as hourly and yearly irradiation maps. These maps reveal that the direct normal irradiation in Thailand was strongly affected by the tropical monsoons and local topography of the country. (author)

  18. Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-24

    High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1#22; m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.

  19. Thermodynamics of technetium: Reconciling theory and experiment using density functional perturbation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Weck, Philippe F.; Kim, Eunja

    2015-06-11

    The structure, lattice dynamics and thermodynamic properties of bulk technetium were investigated within the framework of density functional theory. The phonon density of states spectrum computed with density functional perturbation theory closely matches inelastic coherent neutron scattering measurements. The thermal properties of technetium were derived from phonon frequencies calculated within the quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA), which introduces a volume dependence of phonon frequencies as a part of the anharmonic effect. As a result, the predicted thermal expansion and isobaric heat capacity of technetium are in excellent agreement with available experimental data for temperatures up to ~1600 K.

  20. On the v-representabilty problem in density functional theory: Application to non-interacting systems

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Dane, Markus; Gonis, Antonios

    2016-07-05

    Based on a computational procedure for determining the functional derivative with respect to the density of any antisymmetric N-particle wave function for a non-interacting system that leads to the density, we devise a test as to whether or not a wave function known to lead to a given density corresponds to a solution of a Schrödinger equation for some potential. We examine explicitly the case of non-interacting systems described by Slater determinants. Here, numerical examples for the cases of a one-dimensional square-well potential with infinite walls and the harmonic oscillator potential illustrate the formalism.

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTOR HAVING LOCALIZED AREAS OF HIGH THERMAL NEUTRON DENSITIES

    DOEpatents

    Newson, H.W.

    1958-06-01

    A nuclear reactor for the irradiation of materials designed to provide a localized area of high thermal neutron flux density in which the materials to be irradiated are inserted is described. The active portion of the reactor is comprised of a cubicle graphite moderator of about 25 feet in length along each axis which has a plurality of cylindrical channels for accommodatirg elongated tubular-shaped fuel elements. The fuel elements have radial fins for spacing the fuel elements from the channel walls, thereby providing spaces through which a coolant may be passed, and also to serve as a heatconductirg means. Ducts for accommnodating the sample material to be irradiated extend through the moderator material perpendicular to and between parallel rows of fuel channels. The improvement is in the provision of additional fuel element channels spaced midway between 2 rows of the regular fuel channels in the localized area surrounding the duct where the high thermal neutron flux density is desired. The fuel elements normally disposed in the channels directly adjacent the duct are placed in the additional channels, and the channels directly adjacent the duct are plugged with moderator material. This design provides localized areas of high thermal neutron flux density without the necessity of providing additional fuel material.

  2. Toward a self-consistent model of the interaction between an ultra-intense, normally incident laser pulse with an overdense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Debayle, A.; ETSI Aeronáuticos. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 ; Sanz, J.; Gremillet, L.; Mima, K.

    2013-05-15

    Following a recent work by Sanz et al. [Phys. Rev. E 85, 046411 (2012)], we elaborate upon a one-dimensional model describing the interaction between an ultra-intense, normally incident laser pulse and an overdense plasma. The analytical solutions of the reflected laser field, the electrostatic field, and the plasma surface oscillation are obtained within the cold-fluid approximation. The high-order harmonic spectrum is calculated from the exact solution of the plasma surface oscillations. In agreement with particle-in-cell simulations, two regimes of harmonic generation are predicted: for moderately relativistic laser intensities, or high plasma densities, the harmonic spectrum is determined by the discontinuity in the derivative of the reflected field when the electron plasma boundary oscillates across the fixed ion boundary. For higher intensities, the electron plasma boundary is confined inside the ion region and oscillates at relativistic velocities, giving rise to a train of reflected attosecond pulses. In both cases, the harmonic spectrum obeys an asymptotic ω{sup −4} scaling. The acceleration of electrons and the related laser absorption efficiency are computed by a test particle method. The model self-consistently reproduces the transition between the “anomalous skin effect” and the “J × B” heating predicted by particle-in-cell simulations. Analytical estimates of the different scalings are presented.

  3. High Density Fuel Development for Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Wachs; Dennis Keiser; Mitchell Meyer; Douglas Burkes; Curtis Clark; Glenn Moore; Jan-Fong Jue; Totju Totev; Gerard Hofman; Tom Wiencek; Yeon So Kim; Jim Snelgrove

    2007-09-01

    An international effort to develop, qualify, and license high and very high density fuels has been underway for several years within the framework of multi-national RERTR programs. The current development status is the result of significant contributions from many laboratories, specifically CNEA in Argentina, AECL in Canada, CEA in France, TUM in Germany, KAERI in Korea, VNIIM, RDIPE, IPPE, NCCP and RIARR in Russia, INL, ANL and Y-12 in USA. These programs are mainly engaged with UMo dispersion fuels with densities from 6 to 8 gU/cm3 (high density fuel) and UMo monolithic fuel with density as high as 16 gU/cm3 (very high density fuel). This paper, mainly focused on the French & US programs, gives the status of high density UMo fuel development and perspectives on their qualification.

  4. Quartz resonator fluid density and viscosity monitor

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Stephen J.; Wiczer, James J.; Cernosek, Richard W.; Frye, Gregory C.; Gebert, Charles T.; Casaus, Leonard; Mitchell, Mary A.

    1998-01-01

    A pair of thickness-shear mode resonators, one smooth and one with a textured surface, allows fluid density and viscosity to be independently resolved. A textured surface, either randomly rough or regularly patterned, leads to trapping of liquid at the device surface. The synchronous motion of this trapped liquid with the oscillating device surface allows the device to weigh the liquid; this leads to an additional response that depends on liquid density. This additional response enables a pair of devices, one smooth and one textured, to independently resolve liquid density and viscosity; the difference in responses determines the density while the smooth device determines the density-viscosity product, and thus, the pair determines both density and viscosity.

  5. The Quantum Energy Density: Improved E

    SciTech Connect

    Krogel, Jaron; Yu, Min; Kim, Jeongnim; Ceperley, David M.

    2013-01-01

    We establish a physically meaningful representation of a quantum energy density for use in Quantum Monte Carlo calculations. The energy density operator, dened in terms of Hamiltonian components and density operators, returns the correct Hamiltonian when integrated over a volume containing a cluster of particles. This property is demonstrated for a helium-neon \\gas," showing that atomic energies obtained from the energy density correspond to eigenvalues of isolated systems. The formation energies of defects or interfaces are typically calculated as total energy dierences. Using a model of delta-doped silicon (where dopant atoms form a thin plane) we show how interfacial energies can be calculated more eciently with the energy density, since the region of interest is small. We also demonstrate how the energy density correctly transitions to the bulk limit away from the interface where the correct energy is obtainable from a separate total energy calculation.

  6. Control of target-normal-sheath-accelerated protons from a guiding cone

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, D. B.; Zhuo, H. B.; Yang, X. H.; Yu, T. P.; Shao, F. Q.; Pukhov, A.

    2015-06-15

    It is demonstrated through particle-in-cell simulations that target-normal-sheath-accelerated protons can be well controlled by using a guiding cone. Compared to a conventional planar target, both the collimation and number density of proton beams are substantially improved, giving a high-quality proton beam which maintained for a longer distance without degradation. The effect is attributed to the radial electric field resulting from the charge due to the hot target electrons propagating along the cone surface. This electric field can effectively suppress the spatial spread of the protons after the expansion of the hot electrons.

  7. Method of synthesizing a low density material

    DOEpatents

    Lorensen, L.E.; Monaco, S.B.

    1987-02-27

    A novel method of synthesizing a polymeric material of low density of the order of 50mg/cc or less. Such a low density material has applications in many areas including laser target fabrication. The method comprises preparing a polymer blend of two incompatible polymers as a major and a minor phase by mixing them and extruding the mixture, and then selectively extracting the major component, to yield a fine, low density structure.

  8. Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional

    SciTech Connect

    Bertulani, Carlos A.

    2014-09-10

    This grant had two components: Density functional theory and pairing and Nuclear reactions. This final report summarizes the activities for this SciDAC-2 project.

  9. Uncertainty Quantification for Nuclear Density Functional Theory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Uncertainty Quantification for Nuclear Density Functional Theory and Information Content of New Measurements Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly...

  10. Screening potential in high density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Amari, M.; Arranz, J. P.; Butaux, J.; Nguyen, H.

    1997-01-05

    On the basis of a two-ion center model, an accurate closed form of the screening potential is suggested for intermediate and high density plasmas.

  11. Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities Granados...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    dynamics and peripheral transverse densities Granados, Carlos G. Uppsala University (Sweden); Weiss, Christian JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States) 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY...

  12. Calculating Atomic Number Densities for Uranium

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    1993-01-01

    Provides method to calculate atomic number densities of selected uranium compounds and hydrogenous moderators for use in nuclear criticality safety analyses at gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment facilities.

  13. Mini-review of Electron Density Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, Joan; Adler, Omri; Kreif, Meytal; Cohen, Or; Grosso, Bastien; Hashibon, Adham; Cooper, Valentino R

    2015-01-01

    We describe both educational and research oriented examples of electronic density visualization with AViz. Several detailed cases are presented and the procedures for their preparation are described.

  14. Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS Nuclear structure; nuclear energy density functional Word Cloud ...

  15. 3-D capacitance density imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, G.E.

    1988-03-18

    A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved. 7 figs.

  16. High Energy Density Ultracapacitors | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es038smith2011p.pdf (1.95 MB) More Documents & Publications High Energy Density Ultracapacitors ...

  17. Derivative

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Robert C. Jones, Colleen M. Beck, and Barbara A. Holz Division of Earth and Ecosystem Sciences Cultural Resources Technical Report No.102 Desert Research Institute Las Vegas, ...

  18. Particle visualization in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering. II. Absolute density dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Britun, Nikolay Palmucci, Maria; Konstantinidis, Stephanos; Snyders, Rony

    2015-04-28

    Time-resolved characterization of an Ar-Ti high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge has been performed. The present, second, paper of the study is related to the discharge characterization in terms of the absolute density of species using resonant absorption spectroscopy. The results on the time-resolved density evolution of the neutral and singly-ionized Ti ground state atoms as well as the metastable Ti and Ar atoms during the discharge on- and off-time are presented. Among the others, the questions related to the inversion of population of the Ti energy sublevels, as well as to re-normalization of the two-dimensional density maps in terms of the absolute density of species, are stressed.

  19. Genome Wide Evaluation of Normal Human Tissue in Response to...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Wide Evaluation of Normal Human Tissue in Response to Controlled, In vivo Low-Dose Low LET Ionizing Radiation Exposure: Pathways and Mechanisms Final Report, September 2013 Rocke,...

  20. Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology-...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology- An example from the Raft River detachment, Basin and Range, western United States Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  1. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and ...

  2. Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly. McConnell, Paul E.; Wauneka, Robert; Saltzstein, Sylvia J.; Sorenson, Ken B. Abstract not provided. Sandia...

  3. Enhancing critical current density of cuprate superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Chaudhari, Praveen

    2015-06-16

    The present invention concerns the enhancement of critical current densities in cuprate superconductors. Such enhancement of critical current densities include using wave function symmetry and restricting movement of Abrikosov (A) vortices, Josephson (J) vortices, or Abrikosov-Josephson (A-J) vortices by using the half integer vortices associated with d-wave symmetry present in the grain boundary.

  4. High bandwidth vapor density diagnostic system

    DOEpatents

    Globig, Michael A.; Story, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    A high bandwidth vapor density diagnostic system for measuring the density of an atomic vapor during one or more photoionization events. The system translates the measurements from a low frequency region to a high frequency, relatively noise-free region in the spectrum to provide improved signal to noise ratio.

  5. High density laser-driven target

    DOEpatents

    Lindl, John D.

    1981-01-01

    A high density target for implosion by laser energy composed of a central quantity of fuel surrounded by a high-Z pusher shell with a low-Z ablator-pusher shell spaced therefrom forming a region filled with low-density material.

  6. Sol-gel derived sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Sigman, Michael E.; Dindal, Amy B.

    2003-11-11

    Described is a method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles for the production of copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent material. The method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles comprises adding a basic solution to an aqueous metal alkoxide mixture for a pH.ltoreq.8 to hydrolyze the metal alkoxides. Then, allowing the mixture to react at room temperature for a precalculated period of time for the mixture to undergo an increased in viscosity to obtain a desired pore size and surface area. The copolymerized mixture is then added to an immiscible, nonpolar solvent that has been heated to a sufficient temperature wherein the copolymerized mixture forms a solid upon the addition. The solid is recovered from the mixture, and is ready for use in an active sampling trap or activated for use in a passive sampling trap.

  7. Neutral depletion and the helicon density limit

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, R. M.; Galante, M. E.; Carr, J. Jr.; Lusk, G.; McCarren, D. W.; Scime, E. E.

    2013-12-15

    It is straightforward to create fully ionized plasmas with modest rf power in a helicon. It is difficult, however, to create plasmas with density >10{sup 20} m{sup ?3}, because neutral depletion leads to a lack of fuel. In order to address this density limit, we present fast (1 MHz), time-resolved measurements of the neutral density at and downstream from the rf antenna in krypton helicon plasmas. At the start of the discharge, the neutral density underneath the antenna is reduced to 1% of its initial value in 15 ?s. The ionization rate inferred from these data implies that the electron temperature near the antenna is much higher than the electron temperature measured downstream. Neutral density measurements made downstream from the antenna show much slower depletion, requiring 14 ms to decrease by a factor of 1/e. Furthermore, the downstream depletion appears to be due to neutral pumping rather than ionization.

  8. Core density turbulence in the HSX Stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, C. B.; Brower, D. L.; Anderson, D. T.; Anderson, F. S. B.; Briesemeister, Alexis R.; Likin, K. M.

    2015-10-23

    Broadband turbulent density fluctuations are explored in the helically symmetric stellarator experiment (HSX) by investigating changes related to plasma heating power and location. No fluctuation response is observed to occur with large changes in electron temperature and its gradient, thereby eliminating temperature gradient as a driving mechanism. Instead, measurements reveal that density turbulence varies inversely with electron density scale length. This response is consistent with density gradient drive as one might expect for trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence. In general, the plasma stored energy and particle confinement are higher for discharges with reduced fluctuations in the plasma core. When the density fluctuation amplitude is reduced, increased plasma rotation is also evident suggesting a role is being played by intrinsic plasma flow.

  9. Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, M.A.; Morris, R.S.

    1986-09-16

    Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorption agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure. 3 figs.

  10. Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, Myles A.; Morris, Robert S.

    1986-09-16

    Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorbtion agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure.

  11. Synthesis, Consolidation and Characterization of Sol-gel Derived Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Cervantes, O

    2010-06-01

    Energetic composite powders consisting of sol-gel (SG) derived nanostructured tungsten oxide were produced with various amounts of micrometer-scale tantalum fuel metal. Such energetic composite powders were ignition-tested and results show that the powders are not sensitive to friction, spark and/or impact ignition. Initial consolidation experiments, using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique, on the SG derived nanostructured tungsten oxide produced samples with higher relative density than can be achieved with commercially available tungsten oxide. The SG derived nanostructured tungsten oxide with immobilized tantalum fuel metal (Ta - WO3) energetic composite was consolidated to a density of 9.17 g·cm-3 or 93% relative density. In addition, those samples were consolidated without significant pre-reaction of the constituents, thus retaining their stored chemical energy.

  12. Ions in solution: Density corrected density functional theory (DC-DFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Min-Cheol; Sim, Eunji; Burke, Kieron

    2014-05-14

    Standard density functional approximations often give questionable results for odd-electron radical complexes, with the error typically attributed to self-interaction. In density corrected density functional theory (DC-DFT), certain classes of density functional theory calculations are significantly improved by using densities more accurate than the self-consistent densities. We discuss how to identify such cases, and how DC-DFT applies more generally. To illustrate, we calculate potential energy surfaces of HO·Cl{sup −} and HO·H{sub 2}O complexes using various common approximate functionals, with and without this density correction. Commonly used approximations yield wrongly shaped surfaces and/or incorrect minima when calculated self consistently, while yielding almost identical shapes and minima when density corrected. This improvement is retained even in the presence of implicit solvent.

  13. Giant increase in critical current density of KxFe2-ySe₂ single crystals

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Lei, Hechang; Petrovic, C.

    2011-12-28

    The critical current density Jabc of KxFe2-ySe₂ single crystals can be enhanced by more than one order of magnitude, up to ~2.1×10⁴ A/cm² by the post annealing and quenching technique. A scaling analysis reveals the universal behavior of the normalized pinning force as a function of the reduced field for all temperatures, indicating the presence of a single vortex pinning mechanism. The main pinning sources are three-dimensional (3D) point-like normal cores. The dominant vortex interaction with pinning centers is via spatial variations in critical temperature Tc (“δTc pinning”).

  14. Periodic subsystem density-functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Genova, Alessandro; Pavanello, Michele; Ceresoli, Davide

    2014-11-07

    By partitioning the electron density into subsystem contributions, the Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) formulation of subsystem Density Functional Theory (DFT) has recently emerged as a powerful tool for reducing the computational scaling of Kohn–Sham DFT. To date, however, FDE has been employed to molecular systems only. Periodic systems, such as metals, semiconductors, and other crystalline solids have been outside the applicability of FDE, mostly because of the lack of a periodic FDE implementation. To fill this gap, in this work we aim at extending FDE to treat subsystems of molecular and periodic character. This goal is achieved by a dual approach. On one side, the development of a theoretical framework for periodic subsystem DFT. On the other, the realization of the method into a parallel computer code. We find that periodic FDE is capable of reproducing total electron densities and (to a lesser extent) also interaction energies of molecular systems weakly interacting with metallic surfaces. In the pilot calculations considered, we find that FDE fails in those cases where there is appreciable density overlap between the subsystems. Conversely, we find FDE to be in semiquantitative agreement with Kohn–Sham DFT when the inter-subsystem density overlap is low. We also conclude that to make FDE a suitable method for describing molecular adsorption at surfaces, kinetic energy density functionals that go beyond the GGA level must be employed.

  15. Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Panjehpour, Masoud; Overholt, Bergein F.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample.

  16. Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.; Panjehpour, M.; Overholt, B.F.

    1996-12-03

    An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample. 5 figs.

  17. BHR equations re-derived with immiscible particle effects

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarzkopf, John Dennis; Horwitz, Jeremy A.

    2015-05-01

    Compressible and variable density turbulent flows with dispersed phase effects are found in many applications ranging from combustion to cloud formation. These types of flows are among the most challenging to simulate. While the exact equations governing a system of particles and fluid are known, computational resources limit the scale and detail that can be simulated in this type of problem. Therefore, a common method is to simulate averaged versions of the flow equations, which still capture salient physics and is relatively less computationally expensive. Besnard developed such a model for variable density miscible turbulence, where ensemble-averaging was applied to the flow equations to yield a set of filtered equations. Besnard further derived transport equations for the Reynolds stresses, the turbulent mass flux, and the density-specific volume covariance, to help close the filtered momentum and continuity equations. We re-derive the exact BHR closure equations which include integral terms owing to immiscible effects. Physical interpretations of the additional terms are proposed along with simple models. The goal of this work is to extend the BHR model to allow for the simulation of turbulent flows where an immiscible dispersed phase is non-trivially coupled with the carrier phase.

  18. Redox Chemistry of Anthraquinone Derivatives Via Simulations...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    August 27, 2014, Research Highlights Redox Chemistry of Anthraquinone Derivatives Via ... S. Assary, Investigation of the Redox Chemistry of Anthraquinone Derivatives Using ...

  19. Low density, resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, Richard W.

    1991-01-01

    The polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde under alkaline conditions results in the formation of surface functionalized polymer "Clusters". The covalent crosslinking of these "clusters" produces gels which when processed under supercritical conditions, produce low density, organic aerogels (density.ltoreq.100 mg/cc; cell size .ltoreq.0.1 microns). The aerogels are transparent, dark red in color and consist of interconnected colloidal-like particles with diameters of about 100.circle.. These aerogels may be further carbonized to form low density carbon foams with cell size of about 0.1 micron.

  20. Low density, resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, Richard W.

    1989-01-01

    The polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde under alkaline conditions results in the formation of surface functionalized polymer "clusters". The covalent crosslinking of these "clusters" produces gels which when processed under supercritical conditions, produce low density, organic aerogels (density .ltoreq.100 mg/cc; cell size .ltoreq.0.1 microns). The aerogels are transparent, dark red in color and consist of interconnected colloidal-like particles with diameters of about 100 .ANG.. These aerogels may be further carbonized to form low density carbon foams with cell size of about 0.1 micron.

  1. Low density, resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, R.W.

    1989-10-10

    The polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde under alkaline conditions results in the formation of surface functionalized polymer clusters. The covalent crosslinking of these clusters produces gels which when processed under supercritical conditions, produce low density, organic aerogels (density [<=]100 mg/cc; cell size [<=]0.1 microns). The aerogels are transparent, dark red in color and consist of interconnected colloidal-like particles with diameters of about 100 [angstrom]. These aerogels may be further carbonized to form low density carbon foams with cell size of about 0.1 micron.

  2. Low density, resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, R.W.

    1988-05-26

    The polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde under alkaline conditions results in the formation of surface functionalized polymer ''clusters''. The covalent crosslinking of these ''clusters'' produces gels which when processed under supercritical conditions, produce low density, organic aerogels (density less than or equal to100 mg/cc; cell size less than or equal to0.1 microns). The aerogels are transparent,dark red in color and consist of interconnected colloidal-like particles with diameters of about 100 A/degree/. These aerogels may be further carbonized to form low density carbon foams with cell size of about 0.1 micron. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Density equalizing map projections (cartograms) in public health applications

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W.

    1998-05-01

    In studying geographic disease distributions, one normally compares rates among arbitrarily defined geographic subareas (e.g. census tracts), thereby sacrificing some of the geographic detail of the original data. The sparser the data, the larger the subareas must be in order to calculate stable rates. This dilemma is avoided with the technique of Density Equalizing Map Projections (DEMP){copyright}. Boundaries of geographic subregions are adjusted to equalize population density over the entire study area. Case locations plotted on the transformed map should have a uniform distribution if the underlying disease risk is constant. On the transformed map, the statistical analysis of the observed distribution is greatly simplified. Even for sparse distributions, the statistical significance of a supposed disease cluster can be calculated with validity. The DEMP algorithm was applied to a data set previously analyzed with conventional techniques; namely, 401 childhood cancer cases in four counties of California. The distribution of cases on the transformed map was analyzed visually and statistically. To check the validity of the method, the identical analysis was performed on 401 artificial cases randomly generated under the assumption of uniform risk. No statistically significant evidence for geographic non-uniformity of rates was found, in agreement with the original analysis performed by the California Department of Health Services.

  4. Density controlled carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng F.; Tu, Yi

    2008-12-16

    CNT materials comprising aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with pre-determined site densities, catalyst substrate materials for obtaining them and methods for forming aligned CNTs with controllable densities on such catalyst substrate materials are described. The fabrication of films comprising site-density controlled vertically aligned CNT arrays of the invention with variable field emission characteristics, whereby the field emission properties of the films are controlled by independently varying the length of CNTs in the aligned array within the film or by independently varying inter-tubule spacing of the CNTs within the array (site density) are disclosed. The fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) formed utilizing the carbon nanotube material of the invention is also described.

  5. Breast Density and Cancer | GE Global Research

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Breast Cancer Awareness Series: Understanding Breast Density Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in ...

  6. Separation of carbon nanotubes in density gradients

    DOEpatents

    Hersam, Mark C.; Stupp, Samuel I.; Arnold, Michael S.

    2012-02-07

    The separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), by chirality and/or diameter, using centrifugation of compositions of SWNTs in and surface active components in density gradient media.

  7. Separation of carbon nanotubes in density gradients

    DOEpatents

    Hersam, Mark C.; Stupp, Samuel I.; Arnold, Michael S.

    2010-02-16

    The separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), by chirality and/or diameter, using centrifugation of compositions of SWNTs in and surface active components in density gradient media.

  8. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOEpatents

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J.; Owens, William J.

    1985-01-01

    A high density peg which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  9. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOEpatents

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-01-29

    A high density peg is disclosed which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 4 figs.

  10. Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities Citation Details ... Report Number(s): JLAB-THY--13-1763; DOEOR--23177-2641 Journal ID: ISSN 1029-8479; TRN: ...

  11. Communication: Embedded fragment stochastic density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, Daniel; Baer, Roi; Rabani, Eran

    2014-07-28

    We develop a method in which the electronic densities of small fragments determined by Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) are embedded using stochastic DFT to form the exact density of the full system. The new method preserves the scaling and the simplicity of the stochastic DFT but cures the slow convergence that occurs when weakly coupled subsystems are treated. It overcomes the spurious charge fluctuations that impair the applications of the original stochastic DFT approach. We demonstrate the new approach on a fullerene dimer and on clusters of water molecules and show that the density of states and the total energy can be accurately described with a relatively small number of stochastic orbitals.

  12. High Energy Density Ultracapacitors | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. esp22smith.pdf (1.09 MB) More Documents & Publications High Energy Density Ultracapacitors ...

  13. Shock compression of low-density foams

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, N.C.

    1993-07-01

    Shock compression of very low density micro-cellular materials allows entirely new regimes of hot fluid states to be investigated experimentally. Using a two-stage light-gas gun to generate strong shocks, temperatures of several eV are readily achieved at densities of roughly 0.5--1 g/cm{sup 3} in large, uniform volumes. The conditions in these hot, expanded fluids are readily found using the Hugoniot jump conditions. We will briefly describe the basic methodology for sample preparation and experimental measurement of shock velocities. We present data for several materials over a range of initial densities. This paper will explore the applications of these methods for investigations of equations of state and phase diagrams, spectroscopy, and plasma physics. Finally, we discus the need for future work on these and related low-density materials.

  14. Highly collimated monoenergetic target-surface electron acceleration in near-critical-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, J. Y.; Chen, L. M.; Huang, K.; Ma, Y.; Zhao, J. R.; Yan, W. C.; Ma, J. L.; Wei, Z. Y.; Li, D. Z.; Aeschlimann, M.; Zhang, J.

    2015-03-30

    Optimized-quality monoenergetic target surface electron beams at MeV level with low normalized emittance (0.03π mm mrad) and high charge (30 pC) per shot have been obtained from 3 TW laser-solid interactions at a grazing incidence. The 2-Dimension particle-in-cell simulations suggest that electrons are wake-field accelerated in a large-scale, near-critical-density preplasma. It reveals that a bubble-like structure as an accelerating cavity appears in the near-critical-density plasma region and travels along the target surface. A bunch of electrons are pinched transversely and accelerated longitudinally by the wake field in the bubble. The outstanding normalized emittance and monochromaticity of such highly collimated surface electron beams could make it an ideal beam for fast ignition or may serve as an injector in traditional accelerators.

  15. Capacitance-level/density monitor for fluidized-bed combustor

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.; Utt, Carroll E.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple segment three-terminal type capacitance probe with segment selection, capacitance detection and compensation circuitry and read-out control for level/density measurements in a fluidized-bed vessel is provided. The probe is driven at a high excitation frequency of up to 50 kHz to sense quadrature (capacitive) current related to probe/vessel capacitance while being relatively insensitive to the resistance current component. Compensation circuitry is provided for generating a negative current of equal magnitude to cancel out only the resistive component current. Clock-operated control circuitry separately selects the probe segments in a predetermined order for detecting and storing this capacitance measurement. The selected segment acts as a guarded electrode and is connected to the read-out circuitry while all unselected segments are connected to the probe body, which together form the probe guard electrode. The selected probe segment capacitance component signal is directed to a corresponding segment channel sample and hold circuit dedicated to that segment to store the signal derived from that segment. This provides parallel outputs for display, computer input, etc., for the detected capacitance values. The rate of segment sampling may be varied to either monitor the dynamic density profile of the bed (high sampling rate) or monitor average bed characteristics (slower sampling rate).

  16. JTA8B Normal Mechanical Discussion Meeting Minutes January 7...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: JTA8B Normal Mechanical Discussion Meeting Minutes January,7, 2016 ; 2016-01-07 - 2016-01-07 ; Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States Research Org: ...

  17. Probabilistic Density Function Method for Stochastic ODEs of Power Systems with Uncertain Power Input

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peng; Barajas-Solano, David A.; Constantinescu, Emil; Abhyankar, S.; Ghosh, Donetta L.; Smith, Barry; Huang, Zhenyu; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2015-09-22

    Wind and solar power generators are commonly described by a system of stochastic ordinary differential equations (SODEs) where random input parameters represent uncertainty in wind and solar energy. The existing methods for SODEs are mostly limited to delta-correlated random parameters (white noise). Here we use the Probability Density Function (PDF) method for deriving a closed-form deterministic partial differential equation (PDE) for the joint probability density function of the SODEs describing a power generator with time-correlated power input. The resulting PDE is solved numerically. A good agreement with Monte Carlo Simulations shows accuracy of the PDF method.

  18. General relation between density of states and dwell times in mesoscopic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Iannaccone, G. Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Informazione: Elettronica, Informatica e Telecomunicazioni, Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Via Diotisalvi 2, I-56126 Pisa )

    1995-02-15

    A relevant relation between the dwell time and the density of states for a three-dimensional system of arbitrary shape with an arbitrary number of incoming channels is derived. This result extends the one obtained by Gasparian and co-workers for the case of a one-dimensional symmetrical potential barrier. We believe that such a strong relation is rich in physical significance because the dwell time is the most widely accepted time measure of a particle's dynamics and the density of states in a given region is one of the most relevant properties of a system in equilibrium.

  19. Method and means for a spatial and temporal probe for laser-generated plumes based on density gradients

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Chen, G.

    1990-05-01

    A method and means are disclosed for a spatial and temporal probe for laser generated plumes based on density gradients includes generation of a plume of vaporized material from a surface by an energy source. The probe laser beam is positioned so that the plume passes through the probe laser beam. Movement of the probe laser beam caused by refraction from the density gradient of the plume is monitored. Spatial and temporal information, correlated to one another, is then derived. 15 figs.

  20. Method and means for a spatial and temporal probe for laser-generated plumes based on density gradients

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Chen, Guoying

    1990-05-01

    A method and means for a spatial and temporal probe for laser generated plumes based on density gradients includes generation of a plume of vaporized material from a surface by an energy source. The probe laser beam is positioned so that the plume passes through the probe laser beam. Movement of the probe laser beam caused by refraction from the density gradient of the plume is monitored. Spatial and temporal information, correlated to one another, is then derived.

  1. Financial derivative pricing under probability operator via Esscher transfomation

    SciTech Connect

    Achi, Godswill U.

    2014-10-24

    The problem of pricing contingent claims has been extensively studied for non-Gaussian models, and in particular, Black- Scholes formula has been derived for the NIG asset pricing model. This approach was first developed in insurance pricing{sup 9} where the original distortion function was defined in terms of the normal distribution. This approach was later studied6 where they compared the standard Black-Scholes contingent pricing and distortion based contingent pricing. So, in this paper, we aim at using distortion operators by Cauchy distribution under a simple transformation to price contingent claim. We also show that we can recuperate the Black-Sholes formula using the distribution. Similarly, in a financial market in which the asset price represented by a stochastic differential equation with respect to Brownian Motion, the price mechanism based on characteristic Esscher measure can generate approximate arbitrage free financial derivative prices. The price representation derived involves probability Esscher measure and Esscher Martingale measure and under a new complex valued measure φ (u) evaluated at the characteristic exponents φ{sub x}(u) of X{sub t} we recuperate the Black-Scholes formula for financial derivative prices.

  2. THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF FERMENTATION-DERIVED OXYGENATES TO FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    At present ethanol generated from renewable resources through fermentation process is the dominant biofuel. But ethanol suffers from undesirable fuel properties such as low energy density and high water solubility. The production capacity of fermentation derived oxygenates are projected to rise in near future beyond the current needs. The conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon compounds that are similar to gasoline, diesel and jet fuel is considered as one of the viable option. In this chapter the thermo catalytic conversion of oxygenates generated through fermentation to fuel range hydrocarbons will be discussed.

  3. ON THE SIZE, SHAPE, AND DENSITY OF DWARF PLANET MAKEMAKE

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M. E.

    2013-04-10

    A recent stellar occultation by the dwarf planet Makemake provided an excellent opportunity to measure the size and shape of one of the largest objects in the Kuiper belt. The analysis of these results provided what were reported to be precise measurements of the lengths of the projected axes, the albedo, and even the density of Makemake, but these results were, in part, derived from qualitative arguments. We reanalyzed the occultation timing data using a quantitative statistical description, and, in general, found the previously reported results on the shape of Makemake to be unjustified. In our solution, in which we use our inference from photometric data that Makemake is being viewed nearly pole-on, we find a 1{sigma} upper limit to the projected elongation of Makemake of 1.02, with measured equatorial diameter of 1434 {+-} 14 km and a projected polar diameter of 1422 {+-} 14 km, yielding an albedo of 0.81{sup +0.01}{sub -0.02}. If we remove the external constraint on the pole position of Makemake, we find instead a 1{sigma} upper limit to the elongation of 1.06, with a measured equatorial diameter of 1434{sup +48}{sub -18} km and a projected polar diameter of 1420{sup +18}{sub -24} km, yielding an albedo of 0.81{sup +0.03}{sub -0.05}. Critically, we find that the reported measurement of the density of Makemake was based on the misapplication of the volatile retention models. A corrected analysis shows that the occultation measurements provide no meaningful constraint on the density of Makemake.

  4. Upgrading of biorenewables to high energy density fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, John C; Batista, Enrique R; Chen, Weizhong; Currier, Robert P; Dirmyer, Matthew R; John, Kevin D; Kim, Jin K; Keith, Jason; Martin, Richard L; Pierpont, Aaron W; Silks Ill, L. A. "" Pete; Smythe, Mathan C; Sutton, Andrew D; Taw, Felicia L; Trovitch, Ryan J; Vasudevan, Kalyan V; Waidmann, Christopher R; Wu, Ruilian; Baker, R. Thomas; Schlaf, Marcel

    2010-12-07

    According to a recent report, lignocellulose is the most abundant renewable biological resource on earth, with an annual production of {approx} 200 x 10{sup 9} tons. Conversion of lignocellulosics derived from wood, agricultural wastes, and woody grasses into liquid fuels and value-added chemical feedstocks is an active area of research that has seen an explosion of effort due to the need to replace petroleum based sources. The carbohydrates D-glucose (C{sub 6}), L-arabinose (C{sub 5}), and D-xylose (C{sub 5}) are readily obtained from the hydrolysis of lignocellulose and constitute the most abundant renewable organic carbon source on the planet. Because they are naturally produced on such a large scale, these sugars have the greatest potential to displace petrochemical derived transportation fuel. Recent efforts in our laboratories aimed towards the production of high energy density transportation fuels from carbohydrates have been structured around the parameters of selective carbohydrate carbon chain extension chemistries, low reaction temperatures, and the desired use of water or neat substrate as the solvent. Some of our efforts in this regard will be presented.

  5. Normal Force and Drag Force in Magnetorheological Finishing

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, C.; Shafrir, S.N.; Lambropoulos, J.C.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2010-01-13

    The material removal in magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is known to be controlled by shear stress, tau, which equals drag force, Fd, divided by spot area, As. However, it is unclear how the normal force, Fn, affects the material removal in MRF and how the measured ratio of drag force to normal force Fd/Fn, equivalent to coefficient of friction, is related to material removal. This work studies, for the first time for MRF, the normal force and the measured ratio Fd/Fn as a function of material mechanical properties. Experimental data were obtained by taking spots on a variety of materials including optical glasses and hard ceramics with a spot-taking machine (STM). Drag force and normal force were measured with a dual load cell. Drag force decreases linearly with increasing material hardness. In contrast, normal force increases with hardness for glasses, saturating at high hardness values for ceramics. Volumetric removal rate decreases with normal force across all materials. The measured ratio Fd/Fn shows a strong negative linear correlation with material hardness. Hard materials exhibit a low coefficient of friction. The volumetric removal rate increases with the measured ratio Fd/Fn which is also correlated with shear stress, indicating that the measured ratio Fd/Fn is a useful measure of material removal in MRF.

  6. SU-E-I-18: CT Scanner QA Using Normalized CTDI Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Randazzo, M; Tambasco, M; Russell, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To create a ratio of weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDIw) data normalized to in-air measurements (CTDIair) as a function of beam quality to create a look-up table for frequent, rapid quality assurance (QA) checks of CTDI. Methods: The CTDIw values were measured according to TG-63 protocol using a pencil ionization chamber (Unfors Xi CT detector) and head and body Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms (16 and 32 cm diameter, respectively). Single scan dose profiles were measured at each clinically available energy (80,100,120,140 kVp) on three different CT scanners (two Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash and one GE Optima), using a tube current of 400 mA, a one second rotation time, and the widest available beam width (32 × 0.6 mm and 16 × 1.25 mm, respectively). These values were normalized to CTDIair measurements using the same conditions as CTDIw. The ratios (expressed in cGy/R) were assessed for each scanner as a function of each energy's half value layer (HVL) paired with the phantom's appropriate bow tie filter measured in mmAl. Results: Normalized CTDI values vary linearly with HVL for both the head and body phantoms. The ratios for the two Siemens machines are very similar at each energy. Compared to the GE scanner, these values vary between 10–20% for each kVp setting. Differences in CTDIair contribute most to the deviation of the ratios across machines. Ratios are independent of both mAs and collimation. Conclusion: Look-up tables constructed of normalized CTDI values as a function of HVL can be used to derive CTDIw data from only three in-air measurements (one for CTDIair and two with added filtration for HVL) to allow for simple, frequent QA checks without CT phantom setup. Future investigations will involve comparing results with Monte Carlo simulations for validation.

  7. Method and apparatus for measuring surface density of explosive and inert dust in stratified layers

    DOEpatents

    Sapko, Michael J.; Perlee, Henry E.

    1988-01-01

    A method for determining the surface density of coal dust on top of rock dust or rock dust on top of coal dust is disclosed which comprises directing a light source at either a coal or rock dust layer overlaying a substratum of the other, detecting the amount of light reflected from the deposit, generating a signal from the reflected light which is converted into a normalized output (V), and calculating the surface density from the normalized output. The surface density S.sub.c of coal dust on top of rock dust is calculated according to the equation: S.sub.c =1/-a.sub.c ln(V) wherein a.sub.c is a constant for the coal dust particles, and the surface density S.sub.r of rock dust on top of coal dust is determined by the equation: ##EQU1## wherein a.sub.r is a constant based on the properties of the rock dust particles. An apparatus is also disclosed for carrying out the method of the present invention.

  8. Evolving Density and Static Mechanical Properties in Plutonium from Self-Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, B W; Thompson, S R; Lema, K E; Hiromoto, D S; Ebbinghaus, B B

    2008-07-31

    Plutonium, because of its self-irradiation by alpha decay, ages by means of lattice damage and helium in-growth. These integrated aging effects result in microstructural and physical property changes. Because these effects would normally require decades to measure, studies are underway to assess the effects of extended aging on the physical properties of plutonium alloys by incorporating roughly 7.5 weight % of highly specific activity isotope {sup 238}Pu into the {sup 239}Pu metal to accelerate the aging process. This paper presents updated results of self-irradiation effects on {sup 238}Pu-enriched alloys measured by immersion density, dilatometry, and tensile tests. After nearly 90 equivalent years of aging, both the immersion density and dilatometry show that the enriched alloys continue to decreased in density by {approx}0.002% per year, without void swelling. Quasi-static tensile measurements show that the aging process increases the strength of plutonium alloys.

  9. Binder enhanced refuse derived fuel

    DOEpatents

    Daugherty, Kenneth E.; Venables, Barney J.; Ohlsson, Oscar O.

    1996-01-01

    A refuse derived fuel (RDF) pellet having about 11% or more particulate calcium hydroxide which is utilized in a combustionable mixture. The pellets are used in a particulate fuel bring a mixture of 10% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of the RDF pellet which contains calcium hydroxide as a binder, with 50% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of a sulphur containing coal. Combustion of the mixture is effective to produce an effluent gas from the combustion zone having a reduced SO.sub.2 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of effluent gas from similar combustion materials not containing the calcium hydroxide.

  10. COMMENTS ON ANOMALOUS EFFECTS IN CHARGING OF PD POWDERS WITH HIGH DENSITY HYDROGEN ISOTOPES

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, K.

    2009-10-01

    In Kitamura, et al, Pd-containing materials are exposed to isotopes of hydrogen and anomalous results obtained. These are claimed to be a replication of another experiment conducted by Arata and Zhang. Erroneous basic assumptions are pointed out herein that alter the derived conclusions significantly. The final conclusion is that the reported results are likely normal chemistry combined with noise. Thus the claim to have proven that cold fusion is occurring in these systems is both premature and unlikely.

  11. High power density solid oxide fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2004-10-12

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O (LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  12. Statistical approach to nuclear level density

    SciTech Connect

    Sen'kov, R. A.; Horoi, M.; Zelevinsky, V. G.

    2014-10-15

    We discuss the level density in a finite many-body system with strong interaction between the constituents. Our primary object of applications is the atomic nucleus but the same techniques can be applied to other mesoscopic systems. We calculate and compare nuclear level densities for given quantum numbers obtained by different methods, such as nuclear shell model (the most successful microscopic approach), our main instrument - moments method (statistical approach), and Fermi-gas model; the calculation with the moments method can use any shell-model Hamiltonian excluding the spurious states of the center-of-mass motion. Our goal is to investigate statistical properties of nuclear level density, define its phenomenological parameters, and offer an affordable and reliable way of calculation.

  13. Fabrication of low density ceramic material

    DOEpatents

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.; Sheinberg, H.

    1985-01-01

    A precursor mixture and a method of making a low-density ceramic structural material are disclosed. The precursor mixture includes hollow microballoons, typically made of glass, together with a cementing agent capable of being cured by microwave irradiation. A preferred cementing agent is liquid hydrated potassium silicate, which is mixed with the glass microballoons to form a slurry. Upon irradiation the potassium silicate is dehydrated to form a solid porous matrix in which the microballoons are evenly distributed. Ground glass or other filling agents may be included in the slurry to enhance the properties of the final product. Low-density structural ceramics having densities on the order of 0.1 to 0.3 are obtained.

  14. Fragment transition density method to calculate electronic coupling for excitation energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Voityuk, Alexander A.

    2014-06-28

    A general approach, the Fragment Transition Density (FTD) scheme, is introduced to estimate electronic coupling for excitation energy transfer in a molecular system. Within this method, the excitation energies and transition densities of the system are used to derive the coupling matrix element. The scheme allows one to treat systems where exciton donor and acceptor are close together and their exchange interaction and orbital overlap are significant. The FTD method can be applied in combination with any quantum mechanical approach to treat excited states of general nature including single-, double-, and higher excitations. Using FTD approach, we derive excitonic couplings for several systems computed with the CIS, TD DFT and MS-CASPT2 methods. In particular, it is shown that the estimated coupling values in DNA ?-stacks are strongly affected by the short-range electronic interaction of adjacent nucleobases.

  15. Interaction picture density matrix quantum Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Fionn D. Lee, D. K. K.; Foulkes, W. M. C.; Blunt, N. S.; Shepherd, James J.; Spencer, J. S.

    2015-07-28

    The recently developed density matrix quantum Monte Carlo (DMQMC) algorithm stochastically samples the N-body thermal density matrix and hence provides access to exact properties of many-particle quantum systems at arbitrary temperatures. We demonstrate that moving to the interaction picture provides substantial benefits when applying DMQMC to interacting fermions. In this first study, we focus on a system of much recent interest: the uniform electron gas in the warm dense regime. The basis set incompleteness error at finite temperature is investigated and extrapolated via a simple Monte Carlo sampling procedure. Finally, we provide benchmark calculations for a four-electron system, comparing our results to previous work where possible.

  16. NEUTRON DENSITY CONTROL IN A NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Young, G.J.

    1959-06-30

    The method and means for controlling the neutron density in a nuclear reactor is described. It describes the method and means for flattening the neutron density distribution curve across the reactor by spacing the absorbing control members to varying depths in the central region closer to the center than to the periphery of the active portion of the reactor to provide a smaller neutron reproduction ratio in the region wherein the members are inserted, than in the remainder of the reactor thereby increasing the over-all potential power output.

  17. Low density, microcellular foams, preparation, and articles

    DOEpatents

    Young, Ainslie T.; Marsters, Robert G.; Moreno, Dawn K.

    1984-01-01

    A microcellular low density foam of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) which is particularly useful for forming targets for inertial confinement fusion has been developed. Articles made from the foam have been machined to tolerances of 0.0001 inch, although the densities of the fragile foam are low (about 10 to about 100 mg/cc) and the cell sizes are small (about 10 to about 30 .mu.m). Methods for forming the foam and articles are given; and the yield strength of the foam of the invention is higher than was obtained in other structures of this same material.

  18. Low density, microcellular foams, preparation, and articles

    DOEpatents

    Young, A.T.

    1982-03-03

    A microcellular low-density foam of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) particularly useful for forming targets for inertial confinement fusion has been developed. Articles made from the foam have been machined to tolerances of 0.0001 inch, although the densities of the fragile foam are low (about 10 to about 100 mg/cc) and the cell sizes are small (about 10 to about 30 ..mu..m). Methods for forming the foam and articles are given. The yield strength of the foam of the invention is higher than was obtained in other structures of this same material.

  19. Correction of steel casing effect for density log using numerical and experimental methods in the slim borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Seho; Shin, Jehyun; Kim, Jongman; Won, Byeongho

    2015-03-10

    Density log is widely applied for a variety of fields such as the petroleum exploration, mineral exploration, and geotechnical survey. The logging condition of density log is normally open holes but there are frequently cased boreholes. The primary calibration curve by slim hole logging manufacturer is normally the calibration curves for the variation of borehole diameter. In this study, we have performed the correction of steel casing effects using numerical and experimental methods. We have performed numerical modeling using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code based on Monte Carlo method, and field experimental method from open and cased hole log. In this study, we used the FDGS (Formation Density Gamma Sonde) for slim borehole with a 100 mCi 137Cs source, three inch borehole and steel casing. The casing effect between numerical and experimental method is well matched.

  20. A new method for determining the plasma electron density using three-color interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, Hiroyuki; Kawano, Yasunori; Itami, Kiyoshi

    2012-06-15

    A new method for determining the plasma electron density using the fractional fringes on three-color interferometer is proposed. Integrated phase shift on each interferometer is derived without using the temporal history of the fractional fringes. The dependence on the fringe resolution and the electrical noise are simulated on the wavelengths of CO{sub 2} laser. Short-time integrations of the fractional fringes enhance the reliability of this method.

  1. Physics of Radiation-driven Islands Near the Tokamak Density Limit

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Gates, L. Delgado-Apricio and R.B. White

    2013-01-10

    In previous work [1], the onset criterion for radiation driven islands [2] in combination with a simple cylindrical model of tokamak current channel behavior was shown to be consistent with the empirical scaling of the tokamak density limit [3]. A number of the unexplained phenomena at the density limit are consistent with this novel physics mechanism. In this work, a more formal theoretical underpinning, consistent with cylindrical tearing mode theory, is developed for the onset criteria of these modes. The appropriate derivation of the radiation-driven addition to the modified Rutherford equation is discussed. Additionally, the ordering of the terms in the MRE is examined in a regime near the density limit. It is hoped that given the apparent success of this simple model in explaining the observed global scalings will lead to a more comprehensive analysis of the possibility that radiation driven islands are the physics mechanism responsible for the density limit. In particular, with modern diagnostic capabilities detailed measurements of current densities, electron densities and impurity concentrations at rational surfaces should be possible, enabling verification of the concepts described above.

  2. Fast magnetic reconnection in low-density electron-positron plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bessho, Naoki; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2010-10-15

    Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations have been performed to study magnetic reconnection in low-density electron-positron plasmas without a guide magnetic field. Impulsive reconnection rates become of the order of unity when the background density is much smaller than 10% of the density in the initial current layer. It is demonstrated that the outflow speed is less than the upstream Alfven speed, and that the time derivative of the density must be taken into account in the definition of the reconnection rate. The reconnection electric fields in the low-density regime become much larger than the ones in the high-density regime, and it is possible to accelerate the particles to high energies more efficiently. The inertial term in the generalized Ohm's law is the most dominant term that supports a large reconnection electric field. An effective collisionless resistivity is produced and tracks the extension of the diffusion region in the late stage of the reconnection dynamics, and significant broadening of the diffusion region is observed. Because of the broadening of the diffusion region, no secondary islands, which have been considered to play a role to limit the diffusion region, are generated during the extension of the diffusion region in the outflow direction.

  3. Durable high-density data storage

    SciTech Connect

    Stutz, R.A.; Lamartine, B.C.

    1996-09-01

    This paper will discuss the Focus Ion Beam (FIB) milling process, media life considerations, and methods of reading the micromilled data. The FIB process for data storage provides a new non-magnetic storage method for archiving large amounts of data. The process stores data on robust materials such as steel, silicon, and gold coated silicon. The storage process was developed to provide a method to insure the long term storage life of data. We estimate the useful life of data written on silicon or gold coated silicon to be a few thousand years. The process uses an ion beam to carve material from the surface much like stone cutting. The deeper information is carved into the media the longer the expected life of the information. The process can read information in three formats: (1) binary at densities of 3.5 Gbits/cm{sup 2}, (2) alphanumeric at optical or non-optical density, and (3) graphical at optical and non-optical density. The formats can be mixed on the same media; and thus it is possible to record, in a human readable format, instructions that can be read using an optical microscope. These instructions provide guidance on reading the higher density information.

  4. Quantum crystallographic charge density of urea

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Wall, Michael E.

    2016-06-08

    Standard X-ray crystallography methods use free-atom models to calculate mean unit-cell charge densities. Real molecules, however, have shared charge that is not captured accurately using free-atom models. To address this limitation, a charge density model of crystalline urea was calculated using high-level quantum theory and was refined against publicly available ultra-high-resolution experimental Bragg data, including the effects of atomic displacement parameters. The resulting quantum crystallographic model was compared with models obtained using spherical atom or multipole methods. Despite using only the same number of free parameters as the spherical atom model, the agreement of the quantum model with the datamore » is comparable to the multipole model. The static, theoretical crystalline charge density of the quantum model is distinct from the multipole model, indicating the quantum model provides substantially new information. Hydrogen thermal ellipsoids in the quantum model were very similar to those obtained using neutron crystallography, indicating that quantum crystallography can increase the accuracy of the X-ray crystallographic atomic displacement parameters. Lastly, the results demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of integrating fully periodic quantum charge density calculations into ultra-high-resolution X-ray crystallographic model building and refinement.« less

  5. Interferometer for the measurement of plasma density

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Abram R.

    1980-01-01

    An interferometer which combines the advantages of a coupled cavity interferometer requiring alignment of only one light beam, and a quadrature interferometer which has the ability to track multi-fringe phase excursions unambiguously. The device utilizes a Bragg cell for generating a signal which is electronically analyzed to unambiguously determine phase modulation which is proportional to the path integral of the plasma density.

  6. Density waves in the Calogero model - revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Bardek, V. Feinberg, J. Meljanac, S.

    2010-03-15

    The Calogero model bears, in the continuum limit, collective excitations in the form of density waves and solitary modulations of the density of particles. This sector of the spectrum of the model was investigated, mostly within the framework of collective-field theory, by several authors, over the past 15 years or so. In this work we shall concentrate on periodic solutions of the collective BPS-equation (also known as 'finite amplitude density waves'), as well as on periodic solutions of the full static variational equations which vanish periodically (also known as 'large amplitude density waves'). While these solutions are not new, we feel that our analysis and presentation add to the existing literature, as we explain in the text. In addition, we show that these solutions also occur in a certain two-family generalization of the Calogero model, at special points in parameter space. A compendium of useful identities associated with Hilbert transforms, including our own proofs of these identities, appears in Appendix A. In Appendix B we also elucidate in the present paper some fine points having to do with manipulating Hilbert-transforms, which appear ubiquitously in the collective field formalism. Finally, in order to make this paper self-contained, we briefly summarize in Appendix C basic facts about the collective field formulation of the Calogero model.

  7. Optical based tactile shear and normal load sensor

    DOEpatents

    Salisbury, Curt Michael

    2015-06-09

    Various technologies described herein pertain to a tactile sensor that senses normal load and/or shear load. The tactile sensor includes a first layer and an optically transparent layer bonded together. At least a portion of the first layer is made of optically reflective material. The optically transparent layer is made of resilient material (e.g., clear silicone rubber). The tactile sensor includes light emitter/light detector pair(s), which respectively detect either normal load or shear load. Light emitter(s) emit light that traverses through the optically transparent layer and reflects off optically reflective material of the first layer, and light detector(s) detect and measure intensity of reflected light. When a normal load is applied, the optically transparent layer compresses, causing a change in reflected light intensity. When shear load is applied, a boundary between optically reflective material and optically absorptive material is laterally displaced, causing a change in reflected light intensity.

  8. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1998-11-03

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3` noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to appropriate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. This invention also provides normalized cDNA libraries generated by the above-described method and uses of the generated libraries. 19 figs.

  9. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1998-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to appropriate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. This invention also provides normalized cDNA libraries generated by the above-described method and uses of the generated libraries.

  10. Derivative couplings between TDDFT excited states obtained by direct differentiation in the Tamm-Dancoff approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Qi; Fatehi, Shervin; Alguire, Ethan; Subotnik, Joseph E.; Shao, Yihan

    2014-07-14

    Working within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation, we calculate the derivative couplings between time-dependent density-functional theory excited states by assuming that the Kohn-Sham superposition of singly excited determinants represents a true electronic wavefunction. All Pulay terms are included in our derivative coupling expression. The reasonability of our approach can be established by noting that, for closely separated electronic states in the infinite basis limit, our final expression agrees exactly with the Chernyak-Mukamel expression (with transition densities from response theory). Finally, we also validate our approach empirically by analyzing the behavior of the derivative couplings around the T{sub 1}/T{sub 2} conical intersection of benzaldehyde.

  11. Analytic derivation of the map of null rays passing near a naked singularity

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Takahiro; Singh, T. P.

    2001-06-15

    Recently the energy emission from a naked singularity forming in spherical dust collapse has been investigated. This radiation is due to particle creation in a curved spacetime. In this discussion, the central role is played by the mapping formula between the incoming and the outgoing null coordinates. For the self-similar model, this mapping formula has been derived analytically. But for the model with C{sup {infinity}} density profile, the mapping formula has been obtained only numerically. In the present paper, we argue that the singular nature of the mapping is determined by the local geometry around the point at which the singularity is first formed. If this is the case, it would be natural to expect that the mapping formula can be derived analytically. In the present paper, we analytically rederive the same mapping formula for the model with C{sup {infinity}} density profile that has been earlier derived using a numerical technique.

  12. ?Linear Gas Jet with Tailored Density Profile"

    SciTech Connect

    KRISHNAN, Mahadevan

    2012-12-10

    Supersonic, highly collimated gas jets and gas-filled capillary discharge waveguides are two primary targets of choice for Laser Plasma Accelerators (LPA) . Present gas jets have lengths of only 2-4 mm at densities of 1-4E19 cm-3, sufficient for self trapping and electron acceleration to energies up to ~150 MeV. Capillary structures 3 cm long have been used to accelerate beams up to 1 GeV. Capillary discharges used in LPAs serve to guide the pump laser and optimize the energy gain. A wall-stabilized capillary discharge provides a transverse profile across the channel that helps guide the laser and combat diffraction. Gas injection via a fast nozzle at one end provides some longitudinal density control, to improve the coupling. Gas jets with uniform or controlled density profiles may be used to control electron bunch injection and are being integrated into capillary experiments to add tuning of density. The gas jet for electron injection has not yet been optimized. Our Ph-I results have provided the LPA community with an alternative path to realizing a 2-3GeV electron bunch using just a gas jet. For example, our slit/blade combination gives a 15-20mm long acceleration path with tunable density profile, serving as an alternative to a 20-mm long capillary discharge with gas injection at one end. In Ph-II, we will extend these results to longer nozzles, to see whether we can synthesize 30 or 40-mm long plasma channels for LPAs.

  13. Probability density function method for variable-density pressure-gradient-driven turbulence and mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Bakosi, Jozsef; Ristorcelli, Raymond J

    2010-01-01

    Probability density function (PDF) methods are extended to variable-density pressure-gradient-driven turbulence. We apply the new method to compute the joint PDF of density and velocity in a non-premixed binary mixture of different-density molecularly mixing fluids under gravity. The full time-evolution of the joint PDF is captured in the highly non-equilibrium flow: starting from a quiescent state, transitioning to fully developed turbulence and finally dissipated by molecular diffusion. High-Atwood-number effects (as distinguished from the Boussinesq case) are accounted for: both hydrodynamic turbulence and material mixing are treated at arbitrary density ratios, with the specific volume, mass flux and all their correlations in closed form. An extension of the generalized Langevin model, originally developed for the Lagrangian fluid particle velocity in constant-density shear-driven turbulence, is constructed for variable-density pressure-gradient-driven flows. The persistent small-scale anisotropy, a fundamentally 'non-Kolmogorovian' feature of flows under external acceleration forces, is captured by a tensorial diffusion term based on the external body force. The material mixing model for the fluid density, an active scalar, is developed based on the beta distribution. The beta-PDF is shown to be capable of capturing the mixing asymmetry and that it can accurately represent the density through transition, in fully developed turbulence and in the decay process. The joint model for hydrodynamics and active material mixing yields a time-accurate evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress anisotropy without resorting to gradient diffusion hypotheses, and represents the mixing state by the density PDF itself, eliminating the need for dubious mixing measures. Direct numerical simulations of the homogeneous Rayleigh-Taylor instability are used for model validation.

  14. Unbiased reduced density matrices and electronic properties from full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Overy, Catherine; Blunt, N. S.; Shepherd, James J.; Booth, George H.; Cleland, Deidre; Alavi, Ali

    2014-12-28

    Properties that are necessarily formulated within pure (symmetric) expectation values are difficult to calculate for projector quantum Monte Carlo approaches, but are critical in order to compute many of the important observable properties of electronic systems. Here, we investigate an approach for the sampling of unbiased reduced density matrices within the full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo dynamic, which requires only small computational overheads. This is achieved via an independent replica population of walkers in the dynamic, sampled alongside the original population. The resulting reduced density matrices are free from systematic error (beyond those present via constraints on the dynamic itself) and can be used to compute a variety of expectation values and properties, with rapid convergence to an exact limit. A quasi-variational energy estimate derived from these density matrices is proposed as an accurate alternative to the projected estimator for multiconfigurational wavefunctions, while its variational property could potentially lend itself to accurate extrapolation approaches in larger systems.

  15. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1996-01-09

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form. The method comprises: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3` noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

  16. Closeness to spheres of hypersurfaces with normal curvature bounded below

    SciTech Connect

    Borisenko, A A; Drach, K D

    2013-11-30

    For a Riemannian manifold M{sup n+1} and a compact domain Ω⊂ M{sup n+1} bounded by a hypersurface ∂Ω with normal curvature bounded below, estimates are obtained in terms of the distance from O to ∂Ω for the angle between the geodesic line joining a fixed interior point O in Ω to a point on ∂Ω and the outward normal to the surface. Estimates for the width of a spherical shell containing such a hypersurface are also presented. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  17. Method for construction of normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1996-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  18. Nonlinear normal modes modal interactions and isolated resonance curves

    SciTech Connect

    Kuether, Robert J.; Renson, L.; Detroux, T.; Grappasonni, C.; Kerschen, G.; Allen, M. S.

    2015-05-21

    The objective of the present study is to explore the connection between the nonlinear normal modes of an undamped and unforced nonlinear system and the isolated resonance curves that may appear in the damped response of the forced system. To this end, an energy balance technique is used to predict the amplitude of the harmonic forcing that is necessary to excite a specific nonlinear normal mode. A cantilever beam with a nonlinear spring at its tip serves to illustrate the developments. Furthermore, the practical implications of isolated resonance curves are also discussed by computing the beam response to sine sweep excitations of increasing amplitudes.

  19. Nonlinear normal modes modal interactions and isolated resonance curves

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Kuether, Robert J.; Renson, L.; Detroux, T.; Grappasonni, C.; Kerschen, G.; Allen, M. S.

    2015-05-21

    The objective of the present study is to explore the connection between the nonlinear normal modes of an undamped and unforced nonlinear system and the isolated resonance curves that may appear in the damped response of the forced system. To this end, an energy balance technique is used to predict the amplitude of the harmonic forcing that is necessary to excite a specific nonlinear normal mode. A cantilever beam with a nonlinear spring at its tip serves to illustrate the developments. Furthermore, the practical implications of isolated resonance curves are also discussed by computing the beam response to sine sweepmore » excitations of increasing amplitudes.« less

  20. Charge density stabilised local electron spin pair states in insulating polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Serra, S.; Dissado, L. A.

    2014-12-14

    A model is presented that addresses the energy stability of localized electron states in insulating polymers with respect to delocalized free electron-like states at variable charge densities. The model was derived using an effective Hamiltonian for the total energy of electrons trapped in large polarons and spin-paired bipolarons, which includes the electrostatic interaction between charges that occurs when the charge density exceeds the infinite dilution limit. The phase diagram of the various electronic states with respect to the charge density is derived using parameters determined from experimental data for polyethylene, and it is found that a phase transition from excess charge in the form of stable polarons to a stable state of bipolarons with charge = 2 and spin number S = 0 is predicted for a charge density between 0.2 C/m{sup 3} and ∼2 C/m{sup 3}. This transition is consistent with a change from low mobility charge transport to charge transport in the form of pulses with a mobility orders of magnitude higher that has been observed in several insulating polymers.

  1. Stabilizing laser energy density on a target during pulsed laser...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Stabilizing laser energy density on a target during pulsed laser deposition of thin films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stabilizing laser energy density on a ...

  2. Distribution of Radiation Density in a Homogeneous Cloudy Laye

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    of Radiation Density in a Homogeneous Cloudy Layer S. V. Dvoryashin, K. A. Shukorov, A. H. ... method) allowing calculating radiation density in homogeneous and non-uniform ...

  3. Real-Time Simultaneous Measurements of Size, Density, and Composition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Simultaneous Measurements of Size, Density, and Composition of Single Ultrafine Diesel Tailpipe Particles Real-Time Simultaneous Measurements of Size, Density, and Composition of ...

  4. Density Functional Theory Approach to Nuclear Fission (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Density Functional Theory Approach to Nuclear Fission Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Density Functional Theory Approach to Nuclear Fission You are accessing a document ...

  5. Density Functional Theory Study of Surface Carbonate Formation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Density Functional Theory Study of Surface Carbonate Formation on BaO(001) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Density Functional Theory Study of Surface Carbonate Formation ...

  6. Time Adaptive Conditional Kernel Density Estimation for Wind...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Time Adaptive Conditional Kernel Density Estimation for Wind Power Forecasting Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Time Adaptive Conditional Kernel Density Estimation for ...

  7. Probability Density Function Method for Langevin Equations with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Probability Density Function Method for Langevin Equations with Colored Noise Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probability Density Function Method for Langevin Equations ...

  8. Pairing Nambu-Goldstone Modes within Nuclear Density Functional...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pairing Nambu-Goldstone Modes within Nuclear Density Functional Theory Citation Details ... Title: Pairing Nambu-Goldstone Modes within Nuclear Density Functional Theory Authors: ...

  9. Research on Factors Relating to Density and Climate Change |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    on Factors Relating to Density and Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Research on Factors Relating to Density and Climate Change Agency...

  10. Using Radio Waves to Control Fusion Plasma Density

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Radio Waves to Control Fusion Plasma Density Using Radio Waves to Control Fusion Plasma Density Simulations Run at NERSC Support Fusion Experiments at MIT, General Atomics ...

  11. Combinatorial nuclear level-density model (Journal Article) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Combinatorial nuclear level-density model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Combinatorial nuclear level-density model You are accessing a document from the Department ...

  12. XUV Absorption by Solid Density Aluminum (Journal Article) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    XUV Absorption by Solid Density Aluminum Citation Details In-Document Search Title: XUV Absorption by Solid Density Aluminum An inverse bremsstrahlung model for plasmas and simple ...

  13. Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors 2012 ...

  14. Ultra Low Density Amorphous Shape Memory polymer Foams. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ultra Low Density Amorphous Shape Memory polymer Foams. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra Low Density Amorphous Shape Memory polymer Foams. You are accessing a ...

  15. Controlling the Actuation Rate of Low Density Shape Memory Polymer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Density Shape Memory Polymer Foams in Water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Controlling the Actuation Rate of Low Density Shape Memory Polymer Foams in Water Authors: ...

  16. High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    An interagency task force report identified four research categories within the field of HEDP: astrophysics, high energy density nuclear physics, high energy density laboratory ...

  17. Accuracy of density functionals for molecular electronics: The...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accuracy of density functionals for molecular electronics: The Anderson junction Title: Accuracy of density functionals for molecular electronics: The Anderson junction Authors: ...

  18. Molecular adsorption on metal surfaces with van der Waals density...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Molecular adsorption on metal surfaces with van der Waals density functionals Title: Molecular adsorption on metal surfaces with van der Waals density functionals Authors: Li, Guo ...

  19. Error Analysis in Nuclear Density Functional Theory (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Error Analysis in Nuclear Density Functional Theory Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Error Analysis in Nuclear Density Functional Theory Authors: Schunck, N ; McDonnell,...

  20. Error Analysis in Nuclear Density Functional Theory (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Error Analysis in Nuclear Density Functional Theory Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Error Analysis in Nuclear Density Functional Theory You are accessing a document...

  1. High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program NNSA invests in next ...

  2. Low density biodegradable shape memory polyurethane foams for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Low density biodegradable shape memory polyurethane foams for embolic biomedical applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low density biodegradable shape memory...

  3. The problem of the universal density functional and the density matrix functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bobrov, V. B. Trigger, S. A.

    2013-04-15

    The analysis in this paper shows that the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem is the constellation of two statements: (i) the mathematically rigorous Hohenberg-Kohn lemma, which demonstrates that the same ground-state density cannot correspond to two different potentials of an external field, and (ii) the hypothesis of the existence of the universal density functional. Based on the obtained explicit expression for the nonrel-ativistic particle energy in a local external field, we prove that the energy of the system of more than two non-interacting electrons cannot be a functional of the inhomogeneous density. This result is generalized to the system of interacting electrons. It means that the Hohenberg-Kohn lemma cannot provide justification of the universal density functional for fermions. At the same time, statements of the density functional theory remain valid when considering any number of noninteracting ground-state bosons due to the Bose condensation effect. In the framework of the density matrix functional theory, the hypothesis of the existence of the universal density matrix functional corresponds to the cases of noninteracting particles and to interaction in the Hartree-Fock approximation.

  4. Metastatic prostatic pulmonary nodules with normal bone image

    SciTech Connect

    Petras, A.F.; Wollett, F.C.

    1983-11-01

    Asymptomatic prostatic caricnoma presented as multiple bilateral pulmonary modules in a patient without any evidence of skeletal involvement by normal bone image. Percutaneous biopsy provided the initial clue to diagnosis. The authors recommend that asymptomatic prostatic carcinoma be included in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules, even when there is no evidence of skeletal metastasis.

  5. Deep Borehole Disposal Remediation Costs for Off-Normal Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, John T.; Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-08-17

    This memo describes rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates for a set of off-normal (accident) scenarios, as defined for two waste package emplacement method options for deep borehole disposal: drill-string and wireline. It summarizes the different scenarios and the assumptions made for each, with respect to fishing, decontamination, remediation, etc.

  6. Microwaving of normally opaque and semi-opaque substances

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1990-07-17

    Disclosed is a method of heating small particles using microwave radiation which are not normally capable of being heated by microwaves. The surfaces of the particles are coated with a material which is transparent to microwave radiation in order to cause microwave coupling to the particles and thus accomplish heating of the particles.

  7. Microwaving of normally opaque and semi-opaque substances

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell; Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1990-01-01

    Method of heating small particles using microwave radiation which are not normally capable of being heated by microwaves. The surfaces of the particles are coated with a material which is transparent to microwave radiation in order to cause microwave coupling to the particles and thus accomplish heating of the particles.

  8. Terrestrial Food-Chain Model for Normal Operations.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    1991-10-01

    Version 00 TERFOC-N calculates radiation doses to the public due to atmospheric releases of radionuclides in normal operations of nuclear facilities. The code estimates the highest individual dose and the collective dose from four exposure highways: internal doses from ingestion and inhalation, external doses from cloudshine and groundshine.

  9. Ultra-high density diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Padmore, Howard A.; Voronov, Dmytro L.; Cambie, Rossana; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2012-12-11

    A diffraction grating structure having ultra-high density of grooves comprises an echellette substrate having periodically repeating recessed features, and a multi-layer stack of materials disposed on the echellette substrate. The surface of the diffraction grating is planarized, such that layers of the multi-layer stack form a plurality of lines disposed on the planarized surface of the structure in a periodical fashion, wherein lines having a first property alternate with lines having a dissimilar property on the surface of the substrate. For example, in one embodiment, lines comprising high-Z and low-Z materials alternate on the planarized surface providing a structure that is suitable as a diffraction grating for EUV and soft X-rays. In some embodiments, line density of between about 10,000 lines/mm to about 100,000 lines/mm is provided.

  10. Inductor Geometry With Improved Energy Density

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, H; Ngo, KDT; Moss, J; Lim, MHF; Rey, E

    2014-10-01

    The "constant-flux" concept is leveraged to achieve high magnetic-energy density, leading to inductor geometries with height significantly lower than that of conventional products. Techniques to shape the core and to distribute the winding turns to shape a desirable field profile are described for the two basic classes of magnetic geometries: those with the winding enclosed by the core and those with the core enclosed by the winding. A relatively constant flux distribution is advantageous not only from the density standpoint, but also from the thermal standpoint via the reduction of hot spots, and from the reliability standpoint via the suppression of flux crowding. In this journal paper on a constant-flux inductor (CFI) with enclosed winding, the foci are operating principle, dc analysis, and basic design procedure. Prototype cores and windings were routed from powder-iron disks and copper sheets, respectively. The design of CFI was validated by the assembled inductor prototype.

  11. Global coherence of dust density waves

    SciTech Connect

    Killer, Carsten; Melzer, André

    2014-06-15

    The coherence of self-excited three-dimensional dust density waves has been experimentally investigated by comparing global and local wave properties. For that purpose, three-dimensional dust clouds have been confined in a radio frequency plasma with thermophoretic levitation. Global wave properties have been measured from the line-of-sight integrated dust density obtained from homogenous light extinction measurements. Local wave properties have been obtained from thin, two-dimensional illuminated laser slices of the cloud. By correlating the simultaneous global and local wave properties, the spatial coherence of the waves has been determined. We find that linear waves with small amplitudes tend to be fragmented, featuring an incoherent wave field. Strongly non-linear waves with large amplitudes, however, feature a strong spatial coherence throughout the dust cloud, indicating a high level of synchronization.

  12. Current density fluctuations and ambipolarity of transport

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, W.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C.

    1991-10-01

    The fluctuation in the plasma current density is measured in the MIST reversed field pinch experiment. Such fluctuations, and the measured radial profile of the k spectrum of magnetic fluctuations, supports the view and that low frequency fluctuations (f < 30 kHz) are tearing modes and high frequency fluctuations (30 kHz < f < 250 kHz) are localized turbulence in resonance with the local equilibrium magnetic field (i.e., k {center_dot} B = 0). Correlation of current density and magnetic fluctuations (< {tilde j}{parallel}{tilde B}{sub r} >) demonstrates that radial particle transport from particle motion parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field is ambipolar over the full frequency range.

  13. Current density fluctuations and ambipolarity of transport

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, W.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C.

    1991-10-01

    The fluctuation in the plasma current density is measured in the MIST reversed field pinch experiment. Such fluctuations, and the measured radial profile of the k spectrum of magnetic fluctuations, supports the view and that low frequency fluctuations (f < 30 kHz) are tearing modes and high frequency fluctuations (30 kHz < f < 250 kHz) are localized turbulence in resonance with the local equilibrium magnetic field (i.e., k {center dot} B = 0). Correlation of current density and magnetic fluctuations (< {tilde j}{parallel}{tilde B}{sub r} >) demonstrates that radial particle transport from particle motion parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field is ambipolar over the full frequency range.

  14. Energy flux density in a thermoacoustic couple

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, N.; Chen, S. |; Olson, R.; Swift, G.W.

    1996-06-01

    The hydro- and thermodynamical processes near and within a thermoacoustic couple are simulated and analyzed by numerical solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes, continuity, and energy equations for an ideal gas, concentrating on the time-averaged energy flux density in the gas. The numerical results show details of the heat sink at one end of the plates in the thermoacoustic couple. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Density fluctuations of polymers in disordered media

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, Joshua M.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2011-03-02

    We study self-avoiding random walks in an environment where sites are excluded randomly, in two and three dimensions. For a single polymer chain, we study the statistics of the time averaged monomer density and show that these are well described by multifractal statistics. This is true even far from the percolation transition of the disordered medium. We investigate solutions of chains in a disordered environment and show that the statistics cease to be multifractal beyond the screening length of the solution.

  16. Total-derivative supersymmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Haba, Naoyuki; Uekusa, Nobuhiro

    2010-05-15

    On an interval compactification in supersymmetric theory, boundary conditions for bulk fields must be treated carefully. If they are taken arbitrarily following the requirement that a theory is supersymmetric, the conditions could give redundant constraints on the theory. We construct a supersymmetric action integral on an interval by introducing brane interactions with which total-derivative terms under the supersymmetry transformation become zero due to a cancellation. The variational principle leads equations of motion and also boundary conditions for bulk fields, which determine boundary values of bulk fields. By estimating mass spectrum, spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in this simple setup can be realized in a new framework. This supersymmetry breaking does not induce a massless R axion, which is favorable for phenomenology. It is worth noting that fermions in hyper-multiplet, gauge bosons, and the fifth-dimensional component of gauge bosons can have zero-modes (while the other components are all massive as Kaluza-Klein modes), which fits the gauge-Higgs unification scenarios.

  17. High-density carbon ablator ignition path with low-density gas-filled rugby hohlraum

    SciTech Connect

    Amendt, Peter; Ho, Darwin D.; Jones, Ogden S.

    2015-04-15

    A recent low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc {sup 4}He) cylindrical hohlraum experiment on the National Ignition Facility has shown high laser-coupling efficiency (>96%), reduced phenomenological laser drive corrections, and improved high-density carbon capsule implosion symmetry [Jones et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 59(15), 66 (2014)]. In this Letter, an ignition design using a large rugby-shaped hohlraum [Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 112703 (2014)] for high energetics efficiency and symmetry control with the same low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc {sup 4}He) is developed as a potentially robust platform for demonstrating thermonuclear burn. The companion high-density carbon capsule for this hohlraum design is driven by an adiabat-shaped [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2277 (2002)] 4-shock drive profile for robust high gain (>10) 1-D ignition performance and large margin to 2-D perturbation growth.

  18. Effects of argon gas pressure on its metastable-state density in high-density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H.; You, S. J.

    2015-05-15

    The effect of argon gas pressure on its metastable density in inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs) is investigated by using the laser-induced fluorescence method. Our results show that the metastable-state density of argon varies with the gas pressure depending on the measurement position; the density decreases with the pressure at a position far from the ICP antenna, whereas it increases with the pressure at a position near the antenna. This contrast in the metastable-state density trend with the pressure is explained by considering the electron temperature variations at the two measurement positions. The theoretical interpretation and calculation using a global model are also addressed in detail in this paper.

  19. Spatially separated charge densities of electrons and holes in organic-inorganic halide perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dan; Liang, Chunjun E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Huimin; You, Fangtian; He, Zhiqun E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Chunxiu

    2015-02-21

    Solution-processable methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites exhibit remarkable high-absorption and low-loss properties for solar energy conversion. Calculation from density functional theory indicates the presence of non-equivalent halogen atoms in the unit cell because of the specific orientation of the organic cation. Considering the ?100? orientation as an example, I{sub 1}, one of the halogen atoms, differs from the other iodine atoms (I{sub 2} and I{sub 3}) in terms of its interaction with the organic cation. The valance-band-maximum (VBM) and conduction-band-minimum (CBM) states are derived mainly from 5p orbital of I{sub 1} atom and 6p orbital of Pb atom, respectively. The spatially separated charge densities of the electrons and holes justify the low recombination rate of the pure iodide perovskite. Chlorine substitution further strengthens the unique position of the I{sub 1} atom, leading to more localized charge density around the I{sub 1} atom and less charge density around the other atoms at the VBM state. The less overlap of charge densities between the VBM and CBM states explains the relatively lower carrier recombination rate of the iodine-chlorine mixed perovskite. Chlorine substitution significantly reduces the effective mass at a direction perpendicular to the Pb-Cl bond and organic axis, enhancing the carrier transport property of the mixed perovskite in this direction.

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of energy density in pressure retarded osmosis: The impact of solution volumes and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Reimund, Kevin K.; McCutcheon, Jeffrey R.; Wilson, Aaron D.

    2015-08-01

    A general method was developed for estimating the volumetric energy efficiency of pressure retarded osmosis via pressure-volume analysis of a membrane process. The resulting model requires only the osmotic pressure, π, and mass fraction, w, of water in the concentrated and dilute feed solutions to estimate the maximum achievable specific energy density, uu, as a function of operating pressure. The model is independent of any membrane or module properties. This method utilizes equilibrium analysis to specify the volumetric mixing fraction of concentrated and dilute solution as a function of operating pressure, and provides results for the total volumetric energy density of similar order to more complex models for the mixing of seawater and riverwater. Within the framework of this analysis, the total volumetric energy density is maximized, for an idealized case, when the operating pressure is π/(1+√w⁻¹), which is lower than the maximum power density operating pressure, Δπ/2, derived elsewhere, and is a function of the solute osmotic pressure at a given mass fraction. It was also found that a minimum 1.45 kmol of ideal solute is required to produce 1 kWh of energy while a system operating at “maximum power density operating pressure” requires at least 2.9 kmol. Utilizing this methodology, it is possible to examine the effects of volumetric solution cost, operation of a module at various pressure, and operation of a constant pressure module with various feed.

  1. A study of density modulation index in the inner heliospheric solar wind during solar cycle 23

    SciTech Connect

    Bisoi, Susanta Kumar; Janardhan, P.; Ingale, M.; Subramanian, P.; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Tokumaru, M.; Fujiki, K. E-mail: jerry@prl.res.in E-mail: p.subramanian@iiserpune.ac.in E-mail: tokumaru@stelab.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2014-11-01

    The ratio of the rms electron density fluctuations to the background density in the solar wind (density modulation index, ? {sub N} ? ?N/N) is of vital importance for understanding several problems in heliospheric physics related to solar wind turbulence. In this paper, we have investigated the behavior of ? {sub N} in the inner heliosphere from 0.26 to 0.82 AU. The density fluctuations ?N have been deduced using extensive ground-based observations of interplanetary scintillation at 327 MHz, which probe spatial scales of a few hundred kilometers. The background densities (N) have been derived using near-Earth observations from the Advanced Composition Explorer. Our analysis reveals that 0.001 ? ? {sub N} ? 0.02 and does not vary appreciably with heliocentric distance. We also find that ? {sub N} declines by 8% from 1998 to 2008. We discuss the impact of these findings on problems ranging from our understanding of Forbush decreases to the behavior of the solar wind dynamic pressure over the recent peculiar solar minimum at the end of cycle 23.

  2. Procedure for normalization of cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Bonaldo, M.D.; Soares, M.B.

    1997-12-30

    This invention provides a method to normalize a cDNA library constructed in a vector capable of being converted to single-stranded circles and capable of producing complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles comprising: (a) converting the cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles; (c) hybridizing the single-stranded circles converted in step (a) with complementary nucleic acid molecules of step (b) to produce partial duplexes to an appropriate Cot; (e) separating the unhybridized single-stranded circles from the hybridized single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 1 fig.

  3. A comparison of normal and worst case cement plant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Woodford, J.; Gossman, D.; Johnson, N.

    1996-12-31

    Lone Star Industries, Inc. in Cape Girardeau, Missouri conducted a trial burn in October, 1995. Two metals emissions test days were conducted. One of the test days was a worst case metals spiking day and one of the test days was a normal emissions day. This paper examines and compares the emissions from these two test days. Much has been made of metals emissions from hazardous waste burning cement kilns, but for the most part, this has been due to the worst case metals emissions data that became available from the 1992 BIF compliance testing performed and reported by 24 cement plants. By comparison, very little data exists on normal cement kiln emissions. This paper provides one comparison.

  4. Procedure for normalization of cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Bonaldo, Maria DeFatima; Soares, Marcelo Bento

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a cDNA library constructed in a vector capable of being converted to single-stranded circles and capable of producing complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles comprising: (a) converting the cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating complementary nucleic acid molecules to the single-stranded circles; (c) hybridizing the single-stranded circles converted in step (a) with complementary nucleic acid molecules of step (b) to produce partial duplexes to an appropriate Cot; (e) separating the unhybridized single-stranded circles from the hybridized single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Ion-Exchanged Derived Cathodes (IE-LL_NCM) for High Energy Density LIBs

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about ion-exchanged...

  6. Density functional with full exact exchange, balanced nonlocality of correlations, and constraint satisfaction

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Jianmin; Perdew, John P; Staroverov, Viktor N; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2008-01-01

    We construct a nonlocal density functional approximation with full exact exchange, while preserving the constraint-satisfaction approach and justified error cancellations of simpler semilocal functionals. This is achieved by interpolating between different approximations suitable for two extreme regions of the electron density. In a 'normal' region, the exact exchange-correlation hole density around an electron is semilocal because its spatial range is reduced by correlation and because it integrates over a narrow range to -1. These regions are well described by popular semilocal approximations (many of which have been constructed nonempirically), because of proper accuracy for a slowly-varying density or because of error cancellation between exchange and correlation. 'Abnormal' regions, where non locality is unveiled, include those in which exchange can dominate correlation (one-electron, nonuniform high-density, and rapidly-varying limits), and those open subsystems of fluctuating electron number over which the exact exchange-correlation hole integrates to a value greater than -1. Regions between these extremes are described by a hybrid functional mixing exact and semi local exchange energy densities locally (i.e., with a mixing fraction that is a function of position r and a functional of the density). Because our mixing fraction tends to 1 in the high-density limit, we employ full exact exchange according to the rigorous definition of the exchange component of any exchange-correlation energy functional. Use of full exact exchange permits the satisfaction of many exact constraints, but the nonlocality of exchange also requires balanced nonlocality of correlation. We find that this nonlocality can demand at least five empirical parameters (corresponding roughly to the four kinds of abnormal regions). Our local hybrid functional is perhaps the first accurate size-consistent density functional with full exact exchange. It satisfies other known exact constraints

  7. Bright and dark solitons in the normal dispersion regime of inhomogeneous optical fibers: Soliton interaction and soliton control

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wenjun; Tian Bo; Xu Tao; Sun Kun; Jiang Yan

    2010-08-15

    Symbolically investigated in this paper is a nonlinear Schroedinger equation with the varying dispersion and nonlinearity for the propagation of optical pulses in the normal dispersion regime of inhomogeneous optical fibers. With the aid of the Hirota method, analytic one- and two-soliton solutions are obtained. Relevant properties of physical and optical interest are illustrated. Different from the previous results, both the bright and dark solitons are hereby derived in the normal dispersion regime of the inhomogeneous optical fibers. Moreover, different dispersion profiles of the dispersion-decreasing fibers can be used to realize the soliton control. Finally, soliton interaction is discussed with the soliton control confirmed to have no influence on the interaction. The results might be of certain value for the study of the signal generator and soliton control.

  8. B-2 Bomber During In-flight Refueling Normal Heart

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Bomber During In-flight Refueling Normal Heart Image Technology to Detect Concealed Nuclear Material in Trucks and Cargo Containers Single Abnormality Possible Heart Attack Disc Drive Computer Chip MP3 Player Protein Structure Energy Research Energy Security As part of the nation's energy security strategy, there is renewed focus on nuclear energy. It is critical that fuel elements and the construction materials for new reactors be well characterized. LAN- SCE is developing the Materials Test

  9. Radiography to measure the longitudinal density gradients of Pd compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Back, D.D.

    1992-05-14

    This study used radiography to detect and quantify density gradients in green compacts of Palladium powder. Ultrasonic velocity measurements had been tried previously, but they were affected by material properties, in addition to the density, so that an alternative was sought. The alternative technique used radiographic exposures of a series of standard compacts whose density is known and correlated with the radiographic film density. These correlations are used to predict the density in subsequent compacts.

  10. Identification of cell density signal molecule

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, Richard I.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a novel proteinaceous cell density signal molecule (CDS) between 25 and 35 kD, which is secreted by fibroblastic primary avian tendon cells in culture, and causes the cells to self-regulate their proliferation and the expression of differentiated function. It effects an increase of procollagen production in avian tendon cell cultures of ten fold while proliferation rates are decreased. CDS, and the antibodies which recognize them, are important for the development of diagnostics and treatments for injuries and diseases involving connective tissues, particularly tendon. Also disclosed are methods of production and use.

  11. MULTIPLE THICKNESS TIMES DENSITY GAMMA GAGE

    DOEpatents

    Cherry, N.H.

    1962-07-24

    A device was developed for measuring simultaneously the thicknesses of two dissimilar materials superimposed on each other, such as coating of one material on another. The apparatus utilizes a double gamma radiation source producing radiation in two narrow band energy levels. The different materials attenuate the two bands of energy unequally with the result that a composite signal is received which can be analyzed to separate out the components due to the differing materials and indicate the thickness or densities of the two layers. (AEC)

  12. Method of high-density foil fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Blue, Craig A.; Sikka, Vinod K.; Ohriner, Evan K.

    2003-12-16

    A method for preparing flat foils having a high density includes the steps of mixing a powdered material with a binder to form a green sheet. The green sheet is exposed to a high intensity radiative source adapted to emit radiation of wavelengths corresponding to an absorption spectrum of the powdered material. The surface of the green sheet is heated while a lower sub-surface temperature is maintained. An apparatus for preparing a foil from a green sheet using a radiation source is also disclosed.

  13. Identification of cell density signal molecule

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, R.I.

    1998-04-21

    Disclosed herein is a novel proteinaceous cell density signal molecule (CDS) between 25 and 35 kD, which is secreted by fibroblastic primary avian tendon cells in culture, and causes the cells to self-regulate their proliferation and the expression of differentiated function. It effects an increase of procollagen production in avian tendon cell cultures of ten fold while proliferation rates are decreased. CDS, and the antibodies which recognize them, are important for the development of diagnostics and treatments for injuries and diseases involving connective tissues, particularly tendon. Also disclosed are methods of production and use. 2 figs.

  14. Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    From Bio-Derived Liquids Hydrogen From Bio Hydrogen From Bio - - Derived Liquids Derived Liquids Dave King, Yong Wang, PNNL BILIWIG Meeting Laurel, Maryland November 6, 2007 Innovation / Overview Innovation / Overview Innovation / Overview Project comprises two components z Ethanol steam reforming z Aqueous phase reforming (APR) Importance to small scale hydrogen production for distributed reforming for hydrogen production ‹ Ethanol is rapidly becoming an infrastructure fuel and is a logical

  15. Critical current density and mechanism of vortex pinning in KxFe2-ySe₂ doped with S

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Lei, Hechang; Petrovic, C.

    2011-08-15

    We report the critical current density Jc in KxFe2-ySe2-zSz crystals. The Jc can be enhanced significantly with optimal S doping (z=0.99). For K0.70(7)Fe1.55(7)Se1.01(2)S0.99(2), the weak fishtail effect is found for H II c. The normalized vortex pinning forces follow the scaling law with a maximum position at 0.41 of the reduced magnetic field. These results demonstrate that the small size normal point defects dominate the vortex pinning mechanism.

  16. Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs.

    Energy Saver

    Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs Transportation fuel Heat or electricity * Data are from literature, except heating oil is adjusted from 2011 winter average * ...

  17. DERIVATION OF STOCHASTIC ACCELERATION MODEL CHARACTERISTICS FOR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    FOR SOLAR FLARES FROM RHESSI HARD X-RAY OBSERVATIONS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: DERIVATION OF STOCHASTIC ACCELERATION MODEL CHARACTERISTICS FOR SOLAR FLARES ...

  18. Proceedings of refuse-derived fuel (RDF)

    SciTech Connect

    Saltiel, C. )

    1991-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF)-Quality. Standards and Processing. Topics covered include: An Overview of RDF Processing Systems: Current Status, Design Features, and Future Trends. The Impact of Recycling and Pre-Combustion Processing of Municipal Solid Waste on Fuel Properties and Steam Combustion. The Changing Role of Standards in the Marketing of RDF. Refuse Derived Fuel Quality Requirements for Firing in Utility, Industrial or Dedicated Boilers. Refuse-Derived Fuel Moisture Effects on Boiler Performance and Operability. Refuse Derived Fuels: Technology, Processing, Quality and Combustion Experiences.

  19. Tetrahydroquinoline Derivatives as Potent and Selective Factor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    as Potent and Selective Factor XIa Inhibitors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Tetrahydroquinoline Derivatives as Potent and Selective Factor XIa Inhibitors Authors: ...

  20. A comparison of parametric decay of oblique Langmuir wave in high and low density magneto-plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Shahid, M.; Hussain, A.; Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore-54000 ; Murtaza, G.

    2013-09-15

    The parametric decay instability of an obliquely propagating Langmuir wave into the low-frequency electromagnetic shear Alfven wave and the Left-Handed Circularly Polarized wave has been investigated in an electron-ion plasma, immersed in a uniform external magnetic field. Quantum magneto-hydrodynamic model has been used to find the linear and non-linear response of a high density quantum magneto-plasma. Going to the classical limit (??0) retrieves the results for low density classical plasma. Nonlinear dispersion relations and growth rates are derived with analytically and numerically. It is observed that growth rate in the high density degenerate magneto-plasma increases exponentially, while in the low density classical case it increases logarithmically.

  1. Developing density functional theory for Bose-Einstein condensates. The case of chemical bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Putz, Mihai V.

    2015-01-22

    Since the nowadays growing interest in Bose-Einstein condensates due to the expanded experimental evidence on various atomic systems within optical lattices in weak and strong coupling regimes, the connection with Density Functional Theory is firstly advanced within the mean field framework at three levels of comprehension: the many-body normalization condition, Thomas-Fermi limit, and the chemical hardness closure with the inter-bosonic strength and universal Hohenberg-Kohn functional. As an application the traditional Heitler-London quantum mechanical description of the chemical bonding for homopolar atomic systems is reloaded within the non-linear Schrödinger (Gross-Pitaevsky) Hamiltonian; the results show that a two-fold energetic solution is registered either for bonding and antibonding states, with the bosonic contribution being driven by the square of the order parameter for the Bose-Einstein condensate density in free (gas) motion, while the associate wave functions remain as in classical molecular orbital model.

  2. Reconstruction of the Electron Density of Molecules with Single-Axis Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Starodub, Dmitri

    2011-08-12

    Diffraction from the individual molecules of a molecular beam, aligned parallel to a single axis by a strong electric field or other means, has been proposed as a means of structure determination of individual molecules. As in fiber diffraction, all the information extractable is contained in a diffraction pattern from incidence of the diffracting beam normal to the molecular alignment axis. We present two methods of structure solution for this case. One is based on the iterative projection algorithms for phase retrieval applied to the coefficients of the cylindrical harmonic expansion of the molecular electron density. Another is the holographic approach utilizing presence of the strongly scattering reference atom for a specific molecule.

  3. High Energy Density Utracapacitors: Low-Cost, High Energy and Power Density, Nanotube-Enhanced Ultracapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: FastCAP is improving the performance of an ultracapacitor—a battery-like electronic device that can complement, and possibly even replace, an HEV or EV battery pack. Ultracapacitors have many advantages over conventional batteries, including long lifespans (over 1 million cycles, as compared to 10,000 for conventional batteries) and better durability. Ultracapacitors also charge more quickly than conventional batteries, and they release energy more quickly. However, ultracapacitors have fallen short of batteries in one key metric: energy density—high energy density means more energy storage. FastCAP is redesigning the ultracapacitor’s internal structure to increase its energy density. Ultracapacitors traditionally use electrodes made of irregularly shaped, porous carbon. FastCAP’s ultracapacitors are made of tiny, aligned carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes provide a regular path for ions moving in and out of the ultracapacitor’s electrode, increasing the overall efficiency and energy density of the device.

  4. Open-Shell Singlet Character of Stable Derivatives of Nonacene, Hexacene and Teranthene

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Xingfa; Jiang, Deen; Zhang, Prof. Shengbai; Chen, Zhongfang; Miller, Glen; Hodgson, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The electronic ground states of the recently synthesized stable nonacene derivatives (J. Am. Chem. Soc.2010, 132, 1261) are open-shell singlets with a polyradical nature instead of closed-shell singlets as originally assumed, according to the unrestricted broken spin-symmetry density functional theory (UBS-DFT) computations (at B3LYP/6-31G*). It is the bulky protecting groups, not the transfer from the open-shell singlet to closed-shell singlet ground state, that stabilizes these longest characterized acenes. Similar analyses also confirmed the open-shell singlet character of the hexacene and teranthene derivatives.

  5. High-accuracy measurements of the normal specular reflectance

    SciTech Connect

    Voarino, Philippe; Piombini, Herve; Sabary, Frederic; Marteau, Daniel; Dubard, Jimmy; Hameury, Jacques; Filtz, Jean Remy

    2008-05-01

    The French Laser Megajoule (LMJ) is designed and constructed by the French Commissariata l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Its amplifying section needs highly reflective multilayer mirrors for the flash lamps. To monitor and improve the coating process, the reflectors have to be characterized to high accuracy. The described spectrophotometer is designed to measure normal specular reflectance with high repeatability by using a small spot size of 100 {mu}m. Results are compared with ellipsometric measurements. The instrument can also perform spatial characterization to detect coating nonuniformity.

  6. Normal waves in media with light-induced anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, L.I.; Gancherenok, I.I.

    1986-03-01

    The structure of normal waves for arbitrary directions of light beams is studied within the framework of standard nonlinear-polarization spectroscopy. A connection is found between the polarization of these waves and the polarization of the intense field and the mechanism for the creation of the induced anisotropy. The feasibility of the spectroscopic application of these results is considered, and a method is proposed for the use of a noncollinear pump. Analysis of the possibility of achieving dual-mode lasing with orthogonal mode polarization is made based on the formalism developed.

  7. High energy density redox flow device

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, W. Craig; Ho, Bryan Y; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13

    Redox flow devices are described in which at least one of the positive electrode or negative electrode-active materials is a semi-solid or is a condensed ion-storing electroactive material, and in which at least one of the electrode-active materials is transported to and from an assembly at which the electrochemical reaction occurs, producing electrical energy. The electronic conductivity of the semi-solid is increased by the addition of conductive particles to suspensions and/or via the surface modification of the solid in semi-solids (e.g., by coating the solid with a more electron conductive coating material to increase the power of the device). High energy density and high power redox flow devices are disclosed. The redox flow devices described herein can also include one or more inventive design features. In addition, inventive chemistries for use in redox flow devices are also described.

  8. Not normally manned compression platforms for the North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kumaran, K.S.

    1994-12-31

    Gas turbine driven gas compressors have been widely used on manned offshore facilities. Similarly unmanned gas turbine driven compressor stations have been in operation onshore with major gas transmission companies in Europe, North America and elsewhere. This paper summarizes a recent joint industry study to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of Not Normally Manned (NNM) Offshore Compression Facilities in terms of reliability, availability and maintainability. Classification of not normally manned (or unmanned) offshore facilities in the UK North Sea is in accordance with HSE Operations Notice 8. ON8 specifies criteria for offshore visits, visit hours and number of personnel on board for the operation of NNM platforms. This paper describes a typical Southern North Sea gas platform being considered for NNM compressor application. The conclusions from the study was that NNM compression is technically feasible with the facilities being able to provide an availability in excess of 98%. Life cycle costs were of the order of 70% of manned facilities thus significantly improving field development economics.

  9. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, A.Z.; Mumford, S.L.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Yeung, E.; Mendola, P.; Mattison, D.R.; Schisterman, E.F.

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18-44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 {mu}g/l (0.19-0.43), of lead was 0.86 {mu}g/dl (0.68-1.20), and of mercury was 1.10 {mu}g/l (0.58-2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages.

  10. Measurement of pressure-displacement kinetics of hemoglobin in normal breast tissue with near-infrared spectral imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shudong; Pogue, Brian W.; Laughney, Ashley M.; Kogel, Christine A.; Paulsen, Keith D

    2009-04-01

    Applying localized external displacement to the breast surface can change the interstitial fluid pressure such that regional transient microvascular changes occur in oxygenation and vascular volume. Imaging these dynamic responses over time, while different pressures are applied, could provide selective temporal contrast for cancer relative to the surrounding normal breast. In order to investigate this possibility in normal breast tissue, a near-infrared spectral tomography system was developed that can simultaneously acquire data at three wavelengths with a 15 s time resolution per scan. The system was tested first with heterogeneous blood phantoms. Changes in regional blood concentrations were found to be linearly related to recovered mean hemoglobin concentration (HbT) values (R{sup 2}=0.9). In a series of volunteer breast imaging exams, data from 17 asymptomatic subjects were acquired under increasing and decreasing breast compression. Calculations show that a 10 mm displacement applied to the breast results in surface pressures in the range of 0-55 kPa depending on breast density. The recovered human data indicate that HbT was reduced under compression and the normalized change was significantly correlated to the applied pressure with a p value of 0.005. The maximum HbT decreases in breast tissue were associated with body mass index (BMI), which is a surrogate indicator of breast density. No statistically valid correlations were found between the applied pressure and the changes in tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) or water percentage (H2O) across the range of BMI values studied.

  11. File:Air Density Lab.pdf | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Air Density Lab.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:Air Density Lab.pdf Size of this preview: 463 599 pixels. Other resolution: 464 600...

  12. Initial energy density and gluon distribution from the glasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Initial energy density and gluon distribution from the glasma in heavy-ion collisions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Initial energy density and gluon distribution from the ...

  13. Effect of Lithium PFC Coatings on NSTX Density Control (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of Lithium PFC Coatings on NSTX Density Control Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of Lithium PFC Coatings on NSTX Density Control Lithium coatings on the ...

  14. Effect of Lithium PFC Coatings on NSTX Density Control (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of Lithium PFC Coatings on NSTX Density Control Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of Lithium PFC Coatings on NSTX Density Control You are accessing a ...

  15. Do Tumors in the Lung Deform During Normal Respiration? An Image Registration Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Jianzhou; Lei Peng; Shekhar, Raj; Li Huiling; Suntharalingam, Mohan; D'Souza, Warren D.

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether lung tumors may be described adequately using a rigid body assumption or whether they deform during normal respiration. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with early stage non-small-cell lung cancer underwent four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) simulation. The gross tumor volume (GTV) was delineated on the 4D CT images. Image registration was performed in the vicinity of the GTV. The volume of interest for registration was the GTV and minimal volume of surrounding non-GTV tissue. Three types of registration were performed: translation only, translation + rotation, and deformable. The GTV contour from end-inhale was mapped to end-exhale using the registration-derived transformation field. The results were evaluated using three metrics: overlap index (OI), root-mean-squared distance (RMS), and Hausdorff distance (HD). Results: After translation only image registration, on average OI increased by 21.3%, RMS and HD reduced by 1.2 mm and 2.0 mm, respectively. The succeeding increases in OI after translation + rotation and deformable registration were 1.1% and 1.4% respectively. The succeeding reductions in RMS were 0.1 mm and 0.2 mm respectively. No reduction in HD was observed after translation + rotation and deformable image registration compared with translation only registration. The difference in the results from the three registration scenarios was independent of GTV size and motion amplitude. Conclusions: The primary effect of normal respiration on lung tumors was the translation of tumors. Rotation and deformation of lung tumors was determined to be minimal.

  16. Orbital relaxation effects on Kohn–Sham frontier orbital energies in density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, DaDi; Zheng, Xiao; Li, Chen; Yang, Weitao

    2015-04-21

    We explore effects of orbital relaxation on Kohn–Sham frontier orbital energies in density functional theory by using a nonempirical scaling correction approach developed in Zheng et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 174105 (2013)]. Relaxation of Kohn–Sham orbitals upon addition/removal of a fractional number of electrons to/from a finite system is determined by a systematic perturbative treatment. The information of orbital relaxation is then used to improve the accuracy of predicted Kohn–Sham frontier orbital energies by Hartree–Fock, local density approximation, and generalized gradient approximation methods. The results clearly highlight the significance of capturing the orbital relaxation effects. Moreover, the proposed scaling correction approach provides a useful way of computing derivative gaps and Fukui quantities of N-electron finite systems (N is an integer), without the need to perform self-consistent-field calculations for (N ± 1)-electron systems.

  17. Surface density of spacetime degrees of freedom from equipartition law in theories of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanabhan, T.

    2010-06-15

    I show that the principle of equipartition, applied to area elements of a surface {partial_derivative}V which are in equilibrium at the local Davies-Unruh temperature, allows one to determine the surface number density of the microscopic spacetime degrees of freedom in any diffeomorphism invariant theory of gravity. The entropy associated with these degrees of freedom matches with the Wald entropy for the theory. This result also allows one to attribute an entropy density to the spacetime in a natural manner. The field equations of the theory can then be obtained by extremizing this entropy. Moreover, when the microscopic degrees of freedom are in local thermal equilibrium, the spacetime entropy of a bulk region resides on its boundary.

  18. Method of reducing the green density of a slip cast article

    DOEpatents

    Mangels, John A.; Dickie, Ray A.

    1985-01-01

    The method disclosed in this specification is one of reducing the green density of an article cast in a slip casting operation. The article is cast from a casting slip containing silicon metal particles, yttrium containing particles, and a small amount of a fluoride salt which is effective to suppress flocculation of the silicon metal particles by y.sup.+3 ions derived from the yttrium containing particles. The method is characterized by the following step. A small amount of compound which produces a cation which will partly flocculate the particles of silicon metal is added to the casting slip. The small amount of this compound is added so that when the casting slip is slip cast into a casting mold, the partly flocculated particles of silicon will interrupt an otherwise orderly packing of the particles of silicon and particles of yttrium. In this manner, the green density of the slip cast article is reduced and the article may be more easily nitrided.

  19. Ultra-nonlocality in density functional theory for photo-emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Uimonen, A.-M.; Stefanucci, G.; INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati; European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility , Louvain-la Neuve ; Leeuwen, R. van; European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility , Louvain-la Neuve

    2014-05-14

    We derive an exact expression for the photocurrent of photo-emission spectroscopy using time-dependent current density functional theory (TDCDFT). This expression is given as an integral over the Kohn-Sham spectral function renormalized by effective potentials that depend on the exchange-correlation kernel of current density functional theory. We analyze in detail the physical content of this expression by making a connection between the density-functional expression and the diagrammatic expansion of the photocurrent within many-body perturbation theory. We further demonstrate that the density functional expression does not provide us with information on the kinetic energy distribution of the photo-electrons. Such information can, in principle, be obtained from TDCDFT by exactly modeling the experiment in which the photocurrent is split into energy contributions by means of an external electromagnetic field outside the sample, as is done in standard detectors. We find, however, that this procedure produces very nonlocal correlations between the exchange-correlation fields in the sample and the detector.

  20. Bounds on the density of sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2013-05-01

    We derive lower bounds on the density of sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from the lack of significant clustering in the arrival directions of the highest energy events detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The density of uniformly distributed sources of equal intrinsic intensity was found to be larger than ∼ (0.06−5) × 10{sup −4} Mpc{sup −3} at 95% CL, depending on the magnitude of the magnetic deflections. Similar bounds, in the range (0.2−7) × 10{sup −4} Mpc{sup −3}, were obtained for sources following the local matter distribution.

  1. Impact of Millimeter-Level Margins on Peripheral Normal Brain Sparing for Gamma Knife Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Lijun; Sahgal, Arjun; Larson, David A.; Pinnaduwage, Dilini; Fogh, Shannon; Barani, Igor; Nakamura, Jean; McDermott, Michael; Sneed, Penny

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate how millimeter-level margins beyond the gross tumor volume (GTV) impact peripheral normal brain tissue sparing for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: A mathematical formula was derived to predict the peripheral isodose volume, such as the 12-Gy isodose volume, with increasing margins by millimeters. The empirical parameters of the formula were derived from a cohort of brain tumor and surgical tumor resection cavity cases (n=15) treated with the Gamma Knife Perfexion. This was done by first adding margins from 0.5 to 3.0 mm to each individual target and then creating for each expanded target a series of treatment plans of nearly identical quality as the original plan. Finally, the formula was integrated with a published logistic regression model to estimate the treatment-induced complication rate for stereotactic radiosurgery when millimeter-level margins are added. Results: Confirmatory correlation between the nominal target radius (ie, R{sub T}) and commonly used maximum target size was found for the studied cases, except for a few outliers. The peripheral isodose volume such as the 12-Gy volume was found to increase exponentially with increasing Δ/R{sub T}, where Δ is the margin size. Such a curve fitted the data (logarithmic regression, R{sup 2} >0.99), and the 12-Gy isodose volume was shown to increase steeply with a 0.5- to 3.0-mm margin applied to a target. For example, a 2-mm margin on average resulted in an increase of 55% ± 16% in the 12-Gy volume; this corresponded to an increase in the symptomatic necrosis rate of 6% to 25%, depending on the Δ/R{sub T} values for the target. Conclusions: Millimeter-level margins beyond the GTV significantly impact peripheral normal brain sparing and should be applied with caution. Our model provides a rapid estimate of such an effect, particularly for large and/or irregularly shaped targets.

  2. High current density cathode for electrorefining in molten electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Li, Shelly X.

    2010-06-29

    A high current density cathode for electrorefining in a molten electrolyte for the continuous production and collection of loose dendritic or powdery deposits. The high current density cathode eliminates the requirement for mechanical scraping and electrochemical stripping of the deposits from the cathode in an anode/cathode module. The high current density cathode comprises a perforated electrical insulated material coating such that the current density is up to 3 A/cm.sup.2.

  3. Development of High Power Density Driveline for Vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Power Density Driveline for Vehicles Development of High Power Density Driveline for Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting vss058_ajayi_2012_o.pdf (2.15 MB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of High Power Density Driveline for Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Development of High Power Density Driveline for

  4. Density of sodium chloride solutions at high temperatures and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; SEAWATER; DENSITY; SODIUM CHLORIDES; AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; CORRELATIONS; EQUATIONS; HIGH ...

  5. Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Journal Article: Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities In the partonic (or light-front) description of relativistic systems the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent charge and magnetization densities in transverse space. This formulation allows one to identify the chiral components of nucleon structure as the peripheral densities at

  6. ADIFOR: Fortran source translation for efficient derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.; Corliss, G.; Griewank, A.; Hovland, P. ); Carle, A. . Center for Research on Parallel Computation)

    1992-01-01

    The numerical methods employed in the solution of many scientific computing problems require the computation of derivatives of a function f: R{sup n} {yields} R{sup m}. Both the accuracy and the computational requirements of the derivative computation are usually of critical importance for the robustness and speed of the numerical method. ADIFOR (Automatic Differentiation In FORtran) is a source translation tool implemented using the data abstractions and program analysis capabilities of the ParaScope Parallel Programming Environment. ADIFOR accepts arbitrary Fortran-77 code defining the computation of a function and writes portable Fortran-77 code for the computation of its derivatives. In contrast to previous approaches, ADIFOR views automatic differentiation as a process of source translation that exploits computational context to reduce the cost of derivative computations. Experimental results show that ADIFOR can handle real-life codes, providing exact derivatives with a running time that is competitive with the standard divided-difference approximations of derivatives and which may perform orders of magnitude faster than divided-differences in cases. The computational scientist using ADIFOR is freed from worrying about the accurate and efficient computation of derivatives, even for complicated functions,'' and hence, is able to concentrate on the more important issues of algorithm design or system modeling. 35 refs.

  7. Quantum coherent switch utilizing commensurate nanoelectrode and charge density periodicities

    DOEpatents

    Harrison, Neil; Singleton, John; Migliori, Albert

    2008-08-05

    A quantum coherent switch having a substrate formed from a density wave (DW) material capable of having a periodic electron density modulation or spin density modulation, a dielectric layer formed onto a surface of the substrate that is orthogonal to an intrinsic wave vector of the DW material; and structure for applying an external spatially periodic electrostatic potential over the dielectric layer.

  8. Interacting boson model from energy density functionals: {gamma}-softness and the related topics

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, K.

    2012-10-20

    A comprehensive way of deriving the Hamiltonian of the interacting boson model (IBM) is described. Based on the fact that the multi-nucleon induced surface deformation in finite nucleus is simulated by effective boson degrees of freedom, the potential energy surface calculated with self-consistent mean-field method employing a given energy density functional (EDF) is mapped onto the IBM analog, and thereby the excitation spectra and transition rates with good symmetry quantum numbers are calculated. Recent applications of the proposed approach are reported: (i) an alternative robust interpretation of the {gamma}-soft nuclei and (ii) shape coexistence in lead isotopes.

  9. Tire-derived carbon composite anodes for sodium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Li, Yunchao; Paranthaman, M. Parans; Akato, Kokouvi; Naskar, Amit K.; Levine, Alan M.; Lee, Richard J.; Kim, Sang-Ok; Zhang, Jinshui; Dai, Sheng; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2016-04-04

    We report that hard-carbon materials are considered as one of the most promising anodes for the emerging sodium-ion batteries. Here, we report a low-cost, scalable waste tire-derived carbon as an anode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). The tire-derived carbons obtained by pyrolyzing the acid-treated tire at 1100 °C, 1400 °C and 1600 °C show capacities of 179, 185 and 203 mAh g-1, respectively, after 100 cycles at a current density of 20 mA g-1 in sodium-ion batteries with good electrochemical stability. The portion of the low-voltage plateau region in the charge-discharge curves increases as the heat-treatment temperature increases. The low-voltage plateaumore » is beneficial to enhance the energy density of the full cell. However, this plateau suffers rapid capacity fade at higher current densities. This study provides a new pathway for inexpensive, environmentally benign and value-added waste tire-derived products towards large-scale energy storage applications.« less

  10. Growing attraction of refuse-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.

    1981-09-08

    A review of Dr. Andrew Porteous' book, Refuse Derived Fuels is presented. The escalating price of fossil fuel, particularily oil, together with the high cost of handling and transporting refuse makes the idea of refuse-derived fuel production an attractive and economic proposition. Refuse-derived fuel production is discussed and the various manufacturing processes in the UK and the USA are described. The pyrolysis of refuse for the production of gas, oil or heat and the production of methane and ethyl alcohol or other possibilities for refuse conversion.

  11. Derivation of GFDM Based on OFDM Principles

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein Moradi; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

    2015-06-01

    This paper starts with discussing the principle based on which the celebrated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals are constructed. It then extends the same principle to construct the newly introduced generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM) signals. This novel derivation sheds light on some interesting properties of GFDM. In particular, our derivation seamlessly leads to an implementation of GFDM transmitter which has significantly lower complexity than what has been reported so far. Our derivation also facilitates a trivial understanding of how GFDM (similar to OFDM) can be applied in MIMO channels.

  12. SU-D-18A-04: Quantifying the Ability of Tumor Tracking to Spare Normal Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, A; Buzurovic, I; Hurwitz, M; Williams, C; Lewis, J; Mishra, P; Seco, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tumor tracking allows for smaller tissue volumes to be treated, potentially reducing normal tissue damage. However, tumor tracking is a more complex treatment and has little benefit in some scenarios. Here we quantify the benefit of tumor tracking for a range of patients by estimating the dose of radiation to organs at risk and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for both standard and tracking treatment plans. This comparison is performed using both patient 4DCT data and extended Cardiac-Torso (XCAT) digital phantoms. Methods: We use 4DCT data for 10 patients. Additionally, we generate digital phantoms with motion derived from measured patient long tumor trajectories to compare standard and tracking treatment plans. The standard treatment is based on the average intensity projection (AIP) of 4DCT images taken over a breath cycle. The tracking treatment is based on doses calculated on images representing the anatomy at each time point. It is assumed that there are no errors in tracking the target. The NTCP values are calculated based on RTOG guidelines. Results: The mean reduction in the mean dose delivered was 5.5% to the lungs (from 7.3 Gy to 6.9 Gy) and 4.0% to the heart (from 12.5 Gy to 12.0 Gy). The mean reduction in the max dose delivered was 13% to the spinal cord (from 27.6 Gy to 24.0 Gy), 2.5% to the carina (from 31.7 Gy to 30.9 Gy), and 15% to the esophagus (from 69.6 Gy to 58.9 Gy). The mean reduction in the probability of 2nd degree radiation pneumonitis (RP) was 8.7% (3.1% to 2.8%) and the mean reduction in the effective volume was 6.8% (10.8% to 10.2%). Conclusions: Tumor tracking has the potential to reduce irradiation of organs at risk, and consequentially reduce the normal tissue complication probability. The benefits vary based on the clinical scenario. This study is supported by Varian Medical Systems, Inc.

  13. Phenomenology of electrostatically charged droplet combustion in normal gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Eric K.; Koch, Jeremy A.; Kyritsis, Dimitrios C.

    2008-08-15

    Experimental findings are provided on the effect of electrostatically charging a fuel on single-burning droplet combustion in normal gravity. It was established that significant modification of the flame morphology and the droplet burning time could be achieved, solely by the droplet charge, without the application of external electric fields. Negative charging of the droplets of mixtures of isooctane with either ethanol or a commercially available anti-static additive generated intense motion of the flame and abbreviated the droplet burning time by as much as 40% for certain blend compositions. Positive charging of the droplets generated almost spherical flames, because electrostatic attraction toward the droplets countered the effect of buoyancy. By comparing combustion of droplets of the same conductivity but different compositions, coupling of electrostatics with combustion chemistry was established. (author)

  14. Density functional theory based generalized effective fragment potential method

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Kiet A. E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil; Pachter, Ruth E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil; Day, Paul N.

    2014-06-28

    We present a generalized Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) based effective fragment potential (EFP2-DFT) method for the treatment of solvent effects. Similar to the original Hartree-Fock (HF) based potential with fitted parameters for water (EFP1) and the generalized HF based potential (EFP2-HF), EFP2-DFT includes electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, polarization, and dispersion potentials, which are generated for a chosen DFT functional for a given isolated molecule. The method does not have fitted parameters, except for implicit parameters within a chosen functional and the dispersion correction to the potential. The electrostatic potential is modeled with a multipolar expansion at each atomic center and bond midpoint using Stone's distributed multipolar analysis. The exchange-repulsion potential between two fragments is composed of the overlap and kinetic energy integrals and the nondiagonal KS matrices in the localized molecular orbital basis. The polarization potential is derived from the static molecular polarizability. The dispersion potential includes the intermolecular D3 dispersion correction of Grimme et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 154104 (2010)]. The potential generated from the CAMB3LYP functional has mean unsigned errors (MUEs) with respect to results from coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples with a complete basis set limit (CCSD(T)/CBS) extrapolation, of 1.7, 2.2, 2.0, and 0.5 kcal/mol, for the S22, water-benzene clusters, water clusters, and n-alkane dimers benchmark sets, respectively. The corresponding EFP2-HF errors for the respective benchmarks are 2.41, 3.1, 1.8, and 2.5 kcal/mol. Thus, the new EFP2-DFT-D3 method with the CAMB3LYP functional provides comparable or improved results at lower computational cost and, therefore, extends the range of applicability of EFP2 to larger system sizes.

  15. Nanopatterned ferroelectrics for ultrahigh density rad-hard nonvolatile memories.

    SciTech Connect

    Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Stevens, Jeffrey; Scrymgeour, David; Gin, Aaron V.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew

    2010-09-01

    Radiation hard nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM) is a crucial component for DOE and DOD surveillance and defense applications. NVRAMs based upon ferroelectric materials (also known as FERAMs) are proven to work in radiation-rich environments and inherently require less power than many other NVRAM technologies. However, fabrication and integration challenges have led to state-of-the-art FERAMs still being fabricated using a 130nm process while competing phase-change memory (PRAM) has been demonstrated with a 20nm process. Use of block copolymer lithography is a promising approach to patterning at the sub-32nm scale, but is currently limited to self-assembly directly on Si or SiO{sub 2} layers. Successful integration of ferroelectrics with discrete and addressable features of {approx}15-20nm would represent a 100-fold improvement in areal memory density and would enable more highly integrated electronic devices required for systems advances. Towards this end, we have developed a technique that allows us to carry out block copolymer self-assembly directly on a huge variety of different materials and have investigated the fabrication, integration, and characterization of electroceramic materials - primarily focused on solution-derived ferroelectrics - with discrete features of {approx}20nm and below. Significant challenges remain before such techniques will be capable of fabricating fully integrated NVRAM devices, but the tools developed for this effort are already finding broader use. This report introduces the nanopatterned NVRAM device concept as a mechanism for motivating the subsequent studies, but the bulk of the document will focus on the platform and technology development.

  16. Mixing characteristics of compressible vortex rings interacting with normal shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Cetegen, B.M. . Mechanical Engineering Dept.); Hermanson, J.C. )

    1995-01-01

    Current interest in the interaction between compressible vortical flows and shock waves is largely motivated by the need to promote rapid, loss-effective mixing and combustion of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels for supersonic combustor applications. The instability mechanisms and mixing enhancement arising from the interaction of a compressible vortex ring with a normal shock wave were studied in a colinear, dual-shock tube. This flow geometry simulates features of the interaction of a shock wave with a jet containing streamwise vorticity, a configuration of significant interest for supersonic combustion applications. Flow visualization and quantitative concentration measurements were performed by planar laser Rayleigh scattering. For a given primary shock strength, interfacial instability is more evident in a weak vortex ring than in a strong vortex ring. In all cases, the identity of the vortex ring is lost after a sufficiently long time of interaction. The probability density function of the mixed fluid changes rapidly from a bimodal distribution to a single peak upon processing by a shock wave. The most probable concentration decreases with time, indicating a rapid increase in mixing and dilution of the vortex fluid. The mixing enhancement is most rapid for the case of a strong vortex ring interacting with a strong shock wave, somewhat slower for a weak vortex ring and a strong shock wave, and significantly slower for the case of a strong vortex ring and a weaker shock wave. These observations are consistent with the earlier numerical predictions.

  17. Anatomy of a normal fault with shale smear

    SciTech Connect

    Aydin, A. ); Eyal, Yehuda )

    1996-01-01

    Some faults are fluid pathways but others are barriers. The latter type is well known in the oil and gas industry and attributed to granulation and shale smear. Fault zone granulation has been the focus of many recent studies, but shale smearing remains relatively obscure. We describe the geometry and structure of a normal fault with shale smear in a 1500m thick sedimentary sequence of Cambrian to Neogene age in a graben 10km west of Elat in southern Israel. The fault has a trace length of about 2km and is marked entirely by what remains of a formation made up of a 60m lower shale unit, 25m of middle carbonates, and 35m of upper shale. Both shale units have been stretched over a planar discontinuity defined by the footwall cut-off planes of the underlying sandstone and limestone units for 250m, the magnitude of the normal slip. Thus, the fault geometry and the position of the shale units reveal a smearing process by which the shale units reduce their thickness or nearly vanish by thinning perpendicular to the fault and stretching parallel to the fault. In a few exposures, the lower shale unit is reduced from 60m to a thickness less than 0.5m. The middle carbonates display boudinage and form discontinuous lenses along the fault. The impact of the intense continuous deformation, the discontinuous deformation by the faults, joints and veins of the shale and surrounding competent rocks, and mixing of the shale with adjacent permeable units, on the hydraulics of the fault zone and its sealing potential need to be carefully evaluated. This study improves the present knowledge about how fault zones may incorporate shales therein act as lateral seals for hydrocarbons, and when and how this sealing potential may be breached.

  18. Anatomy of a normal fault with shale smear

    SciTech Connect

    Aydin, A.; Eyal, Yehuda

    1996-12-31

    Some faults are fluid pathways but others are barriers. The latter type is well known in the oil and gas industry and attributed to granulation and shale smear. Fault zone granulation has been the focus of many recent studies, but shale smearing remains relatively obscure. We describe the geometry and structure of a normal fault with shale smear in a 1500m thick sedimentary sequence of Cambrian to Neogene age in a graben 10km west of Elat in southern Israel. The fault has a trace length of about 2km and is marked entirely by what remains of a formation made up of a 60m lower shale unit, 25m of middle carbonates, and 35m of upper shale. Both shale units have been stretched over a planar discontinuity defined by the footwall cut-off planes of the underlying sandstone and limestone units for 250m, the magnitude of the normal slip. Thus, the fault geometry and the position of the shale units reveal a smearing process by which the shale units reduce their thickness or nearly vanish by thinning perpendicular to the fault and stretching parallel to the fault. In a few exposures, the lower shale unit is reduced from 60m to a thickness less than 0.5m. The middle carbonates display boudinage and form discontinuous lenses along the fault. The impact of the intense continuous deformation, the discontinuous deformation by the faults, joints and veins of the shale and surrounding competent rocks, and mixing of the shale with adjacent permeable units, on the hydraulics of the fault zone and its sealing potential need to be carefully evaluated. This study improves the present knowledge about how fault zones may incorporate shales therein act as lateral seals for hydrocarbons, and when and how this sealing potential may be breached.

  19. Current Density Scaling in Electrochemical Flow Capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyt, NC; Wainright, JS; Savinell, RF

    2015-02-18

    Electrochemical flow capacitors (EFCs) are a recently developed energy storage technology. One of the principal performance metrics of an EFC is the steady-state electrical current density that it can accept or deliver. Numerical models exist to predict this performance for specific cases, but here we present a study of how the current varies with respect to the applied cell voltage, flow rate, cell dimensions, and slurry properties using scaling laws. The scaling relationships are confirmed by numerical simulations and then subsequently by comparison to results from symmetric cell EFC experiments. This modeling approach permits the delimitation of three distinct operational regimes dependent on the values of two nondimensional combinations of the pertinent variables (specifically, a capacitive Graetz number and a conductivity ratio). Lastly, the models and nondimensional numbers are used to provide design guidance in terms of criteria for proper EFC operation. (C) The Author(s) 2015. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (CC BY, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse of the work in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. All rights reserved.

  20. Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Joe A.; Furnstahl, Dick; Horoi, Mihai; Lust, Rusty; Nazaewicc, Witek; Ng, Esmond; Thompson, Ian; Vary, James

    2012-12-30

    During the period of Dec. 1 2006 – Jun. 30, 2012, the UNEDF collaboration carried out a comprehensive study of all nuclei, based on the most accurate knowledge of the strong nuclear interaction, the most reliable theoretical approaches, the most advanced algorithms, and extensive computational resources, with a view towards scaling to the petaflop platforms and beyond. The long-term vision initiated with UNEDF is to arrive at a comprehensive, quantitative, and unified description of nuclei and their reactions, grounded in the fundamental interactions between the constituent nucleons. We seek to replace current phenomenological models of nuclear structure and reactions with a well-founded microscopic theory that delivers maximum predictive power with well-quantified uncertainties. Specifically, the mission of this project has been three-fold:  First, to find an optimal energy density functional (EDF) using all our knowledge of the nucleonic Hamiltonian and basic nuclear properties;  Second, to apply the EDF theory and its extensions to validate the functional using all the available relevant nuclear structure and reaction data;  Third, to apply the validated theory to properties of interest that cannot be measured, in particular the properties needed for reaction theory.

  1. State densities and spectrum fluctuations: Information propagation in complex nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    French, J.B.; Kota, V.K.B.

    1988-01-01

    At excitation energies in nuclei where the state density is unambiguously defined there is a sharp separation between the smoothed spectrum (which defines the density) and fluctuations about it which have recently been studied with a view to understanding some aspects of quantum chaos. We briefly review these two complementary subjects, paying special attention to: the role of the effective interaction in determining the density; the calculation of interacting-particle state and level densities, and of expectation values of interesting operators; the information about the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction which is carried both by the density and the fluctuations. 28 refs., 1 fig.

  2. SCM Forcing Data Derived from NWP Analyses

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jakob, Christian

    2008-01-15

    Forcing data, suitable for use with single column models (SCMs) and cloud resolving models (CRMs), have been derived from NWP analyses for the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites of Manus Island and Nauru.

  3. Tax Credit for Forest Derived Biomass

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Forest-derived biomass includes tree tops, limbs, needles, leaves, and other woody debris leftover from activities such as timber harvesting, forest thinning, fire suppression, or forest health m...

  4. Casimir Energy Associated With Fractional Derivative Field

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, S. C.

    2007-04-28

    Casimir energy associated with fractional derivative scalar massless field at zero and positive temperature can be obtained using the regularization based on generalized Riemann zeta function of Epstein-Hurwitz type.

  5. Current density partitioning in time-dependent current density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Mosquera, Martín A.; Wasserman, Adam; Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907

    2014-05-14

    We adapt time-dependent current density functional theory to allow for a fragment-based solution of the many-electron problem of molecules in the presence of time-dependent electric and magnetic fields. Regarding a molecule as a set of non-interacting subsystems that individually evolve under the influence of an auxiliary external electromagnetic vector-scalar potential pair, the partition 4-potential, we show that there are one-to-one mappings between this auxiliary potential, a sharply-defined set of fragment current densities, and the total current density of the system. The partition electromagnetic (EM) 4-potential is expressed in terms of the real EM 4-potential of the system and a gluing EM 4-potential that accounts for exchange-correlation effects and mutual interaction forces between fragments that are required to yield the correct electron dynamics. We prove the zero-force theorem for the fragmented system, establish a variational formulation in terms of action functionals, and provide a simple illustration for a charged particle in a ring.

  6. Spin and charge pseudogaps following Kondo effect in the normal state of the underdoped cuprates

    SciTech Connect

    Mojumder, M.A.

    1999-10-30

    A study of experimental results on various parameters of underdoped cuprates in the normal state combined with analytic calculation of Hall parameters assuming a two-channel Kondo model for the system leads to the conclusion that the spin and charge pseudogaps are, respectively, a Kondo hybridization gap and an incipient d-wave superconducting gap. The former occurs due to resonant scattering of doped holes by the magnetic Cu{sup 2+} ions while the latter occurs due to incoherent Cooper pairing of Kondo-compensated quasi-itinerant Cu d-orbitals via exchange of spin excitations. The author comments on the essential similarity of the high-T{sub c} and heavy fermion superconductors and a certain crossover at lower temperatures from the two-channel to the one-channel Kondo model. An expression has been derived for the Kondo contribution to the spectral function of the charge pseudogap. The author believes this work unravels the long-standing conundrum of the high-T{sub c} cuprates.

  7. Generalized Dix equation and analytic treatment of normal-movement velocity for anisotropic media

    SciTech Connect

    Grechka, V.; Tsvankin, I.; Cohen, J.K.

    1999-03-01

    Despite the complexity of wave propagation in anisotropic media, reflection moveout on conventional common-midpoint (CMP) spreads is usually well described by the normal-moveout (NMO) velocity defined in the zero-offset limit. In their recent work, Grechka and Tsvankin showed that the azimuthal variation of NMO velocity around a fixed CMP location generally has an elliptical form (i.e., plotting the NMO velocity in each azimuthal direction produces an ellipse) and is determined by the spatial derivatives of the slowness vector evaluated at the CMP location. This formalism is used here to develop exact solutions for the NMO velocity in anisotropic media of arbitrary symmetry. The high accuracy of the NMO expressions is illustrated by comparison with ray-traced reflection traveltimes in piecewise-homogeneous, azimuthally anisotropic models. The authors also apply the generalized Dix equation to field data collected over a fractured reservoir and show that P-wave moveout can be used to find the depth-dependent fracture orientation and to evaluate the magnitude of azimuthal anisotropy.

  8. Direct normal irradiance related definitions and applications: The circumsolar issue

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, P.; Espinar, B.; Geuder, N.; Gueymard, C.; Meyer, R.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Reinhardt, B.; Renne, D.; Segupta, M.; Wald, L.; Wilbert, S.

    2014-10-21

    The direct irradiance received on a plane normal to the sun, called direct normal irradiance (DNI), is of particular relevance to concentrated solar technologies, including concentrating solar thermal plants and concentrated photovoltaic systems. Following various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the DNI definition is related to the irradiance from a small solid angle of the sky, centered on the position of the sun. Half-angle apertures of pyrheliometers measuring DNI have varied over time, up to ≈10°. The current recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for this half-angle is 2.5°. Solar concentrating collectors have an angular acceptance function that can be significantly narrower, especially for technologies with high concentration ratios. The disagreement between the various interpretations of DNI, from the theoretical definition used in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modeling to practical definitions corresponding to specific measurements or conversion technologies is significant, especially in the presence of cirrus clouds or large concentration of aerosols. Under such sky conditions, the circumsolar radiation—i.e. the diffuse radiation coming from the vicinity of the sun—contributes significantly to the DNI ground measurement, although some concentrating collectors cannot utilize the bulk of it. These issues have been identified in the EU-funded projects MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate-Interim Implementation) and SFERA (Solar Facilities for the European Research Area), and have been discussed within a panel of international experts in the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) program of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Task 46 “Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting”. In accordance with these discussions, the terms of reference related to DNI are specified here. The important role of circumsolar radiation is evidenced

  9. Direct normal irradiance related definitions and applications: The circumsolar issue

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Blanc, P.; Espinar, B.; Geuder, N.; Gueymard, C.; Meyer, R.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Reinhardt, B.; Renne, D.; Segupta, M.; Wald, L.; et al

    2014-10-21

    The direct irradiance received on a plane normal to the sun, called direct normal irradiance (DNI), is of particular relevance to concentrated solar technologies, including concentrating solar thermal plants and concentrated photovoltaic systems. Following various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the DNI definition is related to the irradiance from a small solid angle of the sky, centered on the position of the sun. Half-angle apertures of pyrheliometers measuring DNI have varied over time, up to ≈10°. The current recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for this half-angle is 2.5°. Solar concentrating collectors have an angular acceptancemore » function that can be significantly narrower, especially for technologies with high concentration ratios. The disagreement between the various interpretations of DNI, from the theoretical definition used in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modeling to practical definitions corresponding to specific measurements or conversion technologies is significant, especially in the presence of cirrus clouds or large concentration of aerosols. Under such sky conditions, the circumsolar radiation—i.e. the diffuse radiation coming from the vicinity of the sun—contributes significantly to the DNI ground measurement, although some concentrating collectors cannot utilize the bulk of it. These issues have been identified in the EU-funded projects MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate-Interim Implementation) and SFERA (Solar Facilities for the European Research Area), and have been discussed within a panel of international experts in the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) program of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Task 46 “Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting”. In accordance with these discussions, the terms of reference related to DNI are specified here. The important role of circumsolar radiation is

  10. Equation of state and heavy-quark free energy at finite temperature and density in two flavor lattice QCD with Wilson quark action

    SciTech Connect

    Ejiri, S.; Maezawa, Y.; Ukita, N.; Aoki, S.; Hatsuda, T.; Ishii, N.; Kanaya, K.; Umeda, T.

    2010-07-01

    We study the equation of state at finite temperature and density in two-flavor QCD with the renormalization group improved gluon action and the clover-improved Wilson quark action on a 16{sup 3}x4 lattice. Along the lines of constant physics at m{sub PS}/m{sub V}=0.65 and 0.80, we compute the second and forth derivatives of the grand canonical partition function with respect to the quark chemical potential {mu}{sub q}=({mu}{sub u}+{mu}{sub d})/2 and the isospin chemical potential {mu}{sub I}=({mu}{sub u}-{mu}{sub d})/2 at vanishing chemical potentials, and study the behaviors of thermodynamic quantities at finite {mu}{sub q} using these derivatives for the case {mu}{sub I}=0. In particular, we study density fluctuations at nonezero temperature and density by calculating the quark number and isospin susceptibilities and their derivatives with respect to {mu}{sub q}. To suppress statistical fluctuations, we also examine new techniques applicable at low densities. We find a large enhancement in the fluctuation of the quark number when the density increased near the pseudocritical temperature, suggesting a critical point at finite {mu}{sub q} terminating the first order transition line between hadronic and quark-gluon-plasma phases. This result agrees with the previous results using staggered-type quark actions qualitatively. Furthermore, we study heavy-quark free energies and Debye screening masses at finite density by measuring the first and second derivatives of these quantities for various color channels of heavy quark-quark and quark-antiquark pairs. The results suggest that, to the leading order of {mu}{sub q}, the interaction between two quarks becomes stronger at finite densities, while that between quark and antiquark becomes weaker.

  11. The relationship between anatomic noise and volumetric breast density for digital mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Mainprize, James G.; Tyson, Albert H.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The appearance of parenchymal/stromal patterns in mammography have been characterized as having a Wiener power spectrum with an inverse power-law shape described by the exponential parameter, {beta}. The amount of fibroglandular tissue, which can be quantified in terms of volumetric breast density (VBD), influences the texture and appearance of the patterns formed in a mammogram. Here, a large study is performed to investigate the variations in {beta} in a clinical population and to indicate the relationship between {beta} and breast density. Methods: From a set of 2686 cranio-caudal normal screening mammograms, the parameter {beta} was extracted from log-log fits to the Wiener spectrum over the range 0.15-1 mm{sup -1}. The Wiener spectrum was calculated from regions of interest in the compression paddle contact region of the breast. An in-house computer program, Cumulus V, was used to extract the volumetric breast density and identify the compression paddle contact regions of the breast. The Wiener spectra were calculated with and without modulation transfer function (MTF) correction to determine the impact of VBD on the intrinsic anatomic noise. Results: The mean volumetric breast density was 25.5% ({+-}12.6%) over all images. The mean {beta} following a MTF correction which decreased the {beta} slightly ( Almost-Equal-To -0.08) was found to be 2.87. Varying the maximum of the spatial frequency range of the fits from 0.7 to 1.0, 1.25 or 1.5 mm{sup -1} showing small decreases in the result, although the effect of the quantum noise power component on reducing {beta} was clearly observed at 1.5 mm{sup -1}. Conclusions: The texture parameter, {beta}, was found to increase with VBD at low volumetric breast densities with an apparent leveling off at higher densities. The relationship between {beta} and VBD measured here can be used to create probabilistic models for computer simulations of detectability. As breast density is a known risk predictor for breast

  12. Human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells are superior to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cell therapy in regenerative medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Tomar, Geetanjali B.; Srivastava, Rupesh K.; Gupta, Navita; Barhanpurkar, Amruta P.; Pote, Satish T.; Jhaveri, Hiral M.; Mishra, Gyan C.; Wani, Mohan R.

    2010-03-12

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell lineages. Presently, bone marrow is considered as a prime source of MSCs; however, there are some drawbacks and limitations in use of these MSCs for cell therapy. In this study, we demonstrate that human gingival tissue-derived MSCs have several advantages over bone marrow-derived MSCs. Gingival MSCs are easy to isolate, homogenous and proliferate faster than bone marrow MSCs without any growth factor. Importantly, gingival MSCs display stable morphology and do not loose MSC characteristic at higher passages. In addition, gingival MSCs maintain normal karyotype and telomerase activity in long-term cultures, and are not tumorigenic. Thus, we reveal that human gingiva is a better source of MSCs than bone marrow, and large number of functionally competent clinical grade MSCs can be generated in short duration for cell therapy in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  13. Whistler wave radiation from a pulsed loop antenna located in a cylindrical duct with enhanced plasma density

    SciTech Connect

    Kudrin, Alexander V.; Shkokova, Natalya M.; Ferencz, Orsolya E.; Zaboronkova, Tatyana M.

    2014-11-15

    Pulsed radiation from a loop antenna located in a cylindrical duct with enhanced plasma density is studied. The radiated energy and its distribution over the spatial and frequency spectra of the excited waves are derived and analyzed as functions of the antenna and duct parameters. Numerical results referring to the case where the frequency spectrum of the antenna current is concentrated in the whistler range are reported. It is shown that under ionospheric conditions, the presence of an artificial duct with enhanced density can lead to a significant increase in the energy radiated from a pulsed loop antenna compared with the case where the same source is immersed in the surrounding uniform magnetoplasma. The results obtained can be useful in planning active ionospheric experiments with pulsed electromagnetic sources operated in the presence of artificial field-aligned plasma density irregularities that are capable of guiding whistler waves.

  14. Hybrid density functional theory description of N- and C-doping of NiO

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, Michael; Long, Run; English, Niall J.; Mooney, Damian A.

    2011-06-14

    The large intrinsic bandgap of NiO hinders its potential application as a photocatalyst under visible-light irradiation. In this study, we have performed first-principles screened exchange hybrid density functional theory with the HSE06 functional calculations of N- and C-doped NiO to investigate the effect of doping on the electronic structure of NiO. C-doping at an oxygen site induces gap states due to the dopant, the positions of which suggest that the top of the valence band is made up primarily of C 2p-derived states with some Ni 3d contributions, and the lowest-energy empty state is in the middle of the gap. This leads to an effective bandgap of 1.7 eV, which is of potential interest for photocatalytic applications. N-doping induces comparatively little dopant-Ni 3d interactions, but results in similar positions of dopant-induced states, i.e., the top of the valence band is made up of dopant 2p states and the lowest unoccupied state is the empty gap state derived from the dopant, leading to bandgap narrowing. With the hybrid density functional theory (DFT) results available, we discuss issues with the DFT corrected for on-site Coulomb description of these systems.

  15. Investigation of density limit processes in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Maingi, R.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Petrie, T.W.

    1999-02-01

    A series of experiments has been conducted in DIII-D to investigate density-limiting processes. The authors have studied divertor detachment and MARFEs on closed field lines and find semi-quantitative agreement with theoretical calculations of onset conditions. They have shown that the critical density for MARFE onset at low edge temperature scales as I{sub p}/a{sup 2}, i.e. similar to Greenwald scaling. They have also shown that the scaling of the critical separatrix density with heating power at partial detachment onset agrees with Borass` model. Both of these processes yield high edge density limits for reactors such as ITER. By using divertor pumping and pellet fueling they have avoided these and other processes and accessed densities > 1.5{times} Greenwald limit scaling with H-mode confinement, demonstrating that the Greenwald limit is not a fundamental limit on the core density.

  16. Textured-surface quartz resonator fluid density and viscosity monitor

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Stephen J.; Wiczer, James J.; Cernosek, Richard W.; Frye, Gregory C.; Gebert, Charles T.; Casaus, Leonard; Mitchell, Mary A.

    1998-08-25

    A pair of thickness-shear mode resonators, one smooth and one with a textured surface, allows fluid density and viscosity to be independently resolved. A textured surface, either randomly rough or regularly patterned, leads to trapping of liquid at the device surface. The synchronous motion of this trapped liquid with the oscillating device surface allows the device to weigh the liquid; this leads to an additional response that depends on liquid density. This additional response enables a pair of devices, one smooth and one textured, to independently resolve liquid density and viscosity; the difference in responses determines the density while the smooth device determines the density-viscosity product, and thus, the pair determines both density and viscosity.

  17. Prufer Transformations for the Normal Modes in Ocean Acoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Baggeroer, Arthur B.

    2010-09-06

    In 1926 Prufer introduced a method of transforming the second order Sturm-Liouville (SL) equation into two nonlinear first order differential equations for the phase oe and ''magnitude'', |oe{sup 2}+oe{sup 2}| for a Poincare phase space representation, (oe,oe). The useful property is the phase equation decouples from the magnitude one which leads to a nonlinear, two point boundary value problem for the eigenvalues, or SL numbers. The transformation has been used both theoretically, e.g. Atkinson, [1960] to prove certain properties of SL equations as well as numerically e.g Bailey [1978]. This paper examines the utility of the Prufer transformation in the context of numerical solutions for modes of the ocean acoustic wave equation. (Its use is certainly not well known in the ocean acoustics community.) Equations for the phase, oe, and natural logarithm of the ''magnitude'', ln(|oe{sup 2}+oe{sup 2}|) lead to same decoupling and a fast and efficient numerical solution with the SL eigenvalues mapping to the horizontal wavenubers. The Prufer transformation has stabilty problems for low order modes at high frequecies, so a numerically stable method of integrating the phase equation is derived. This seems to be the first time the these stability issues have been highlighted to provide a robust algorthim for the modes.

  18. Method for solvent extraction with near-equal density solutions

    DOEpatents

    Birdwell, Joseph F.; Randolph, John D.; Singh, S. Paul

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a modified centrifugal contactor for separating solutions of near equal density. The modified contactor has a pressure differential establishing means that allows the application of a pressure differential across fluid in the rotor of the contactor. The pressure differential is such that it causes the boundary between solutions of near-equal density to shift, thereby facilitating separation of the phases. Also disclosed is a method of separating solutions of near-equal density.

  19. Method for measuring the density of lightweight materials

    DOEpatents

    Snow, Samuel G.; Giacomelli, Edward J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a nondestructive method for measuring the density of articles composed of elements having a low atomic number such as plastic and carbon composites. The measurement is accomplished by striking the article with a collimated beam of X radiation, simultaneously monitoring the radiation scattered and the radiation transmitted by the article, then relating the ratio of the radiation scattered to the radiation transmitted with the density of the article. The above method is insensitive to all variables except density.

  20. Derivative expansion of the effective action

    SciTech Connect

    Cheyette, O.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes some methods for calculating derivative terms in the one loop effective action for a quantum field theory. The functional approach and background field method are first used to derive the general form of the one loop determinant. Then the determinant is expanded in powers of derivatives of the background fields. The form of this expansion is described for the simple case of an interacting scalar field, and then for the more complicated problem of a non-abelian gauge field. Finally, the expansion is applied to the task of calculating Higgs mass dependent effects in the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model, and all terms which grow with the Higgs mass M/sub H/ are found in the one loop approximation. The result of this calculation is used to find the dependence of the gauge boson mass ratio rho on M/sub H/, and also to estimate the size of corrections to W and Z scattering theorems.

  1. Second derivatives for approximate spin projection methods

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Lee M.; Hratchian, Hrant P.

    2015-02-07

    The use of broken-symmetry electronic structure methods is required in order to obtain correct behavior of electronically strained open-shell systems, such as transition states, biradicals, and transition metals. This approach often has issues with spin contamination, which can lead to significant errors in predicted energies, geometries, and properties. Approximate projection schemes are able to correct for spin contamination and can often yield improved results. To fully make use of these methods and to carry out exploration of the potential energy surface, it is desirable to develop an efficient second energy derivative theory. In this paper, we formulate the analytical second derivatives for the Yamaguchi approximate projection scheme, building on recent work that has yielded an efficient implementation of the analytical first derivatives.

  2. Dwarf galaxy dark matter density profiles inferred from stellar and gas kinematics

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Joshua J.; Simon, Joshua D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Bender, Ralf; Thomas, Jens [Max-Planck Institut fr extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrae, D-85741 Garching bei Mnchen (Germany); Van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; Van de Ven, Glenn [Max-Planck Institut fr Astronomie, Knigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Barentine, John C.; Gebhardt, Karl; Hill, Gary J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Murphy, Jeremy D. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Swaters, R. A., E-mail: jjadams@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: jja439@gmail.com [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We present new constraints on the density profiles of dark matter (DM) halos in seven nearby dwarf galaxies from measurements of their integrated stellar light and gas kinematics. The gas kinematics of low-mass galaxies frequently suggest that they contain constant density DM cores, while N-body simulations instead predict a cuspy profile. We present a data set of high-resolution integral-field spectroscopy on seven galaxies and measure the stellar and gas kinematics simultaneously. Using Jeans modeling on our full sample, we examine whether gas kinematics in general produce shallower density profiles than are derived from the stars. Although two of the seven galaxies show some localized differences in their rotation curves between the two tracers, estimates of the central logarithmic slope of the DM density profile, ?, are generally robust. The mean and standard deviation of the logarithmic slope for the population are ? = 0.67 0.10 when measured in the stars and ? = 0.58 0.24 when measured in the gas. We also find that the halos are not under-concentrated at the radii of half their maximum velocities. Finally, we search for correlations of the DM density profile with stellar velocity anisotropy and other baryonic properties. Two popular mechanisms to explain cored DM halos are an exotic DM component or feedback models that strongly couple the energy of supernovae into repeatedly driving out gas and dynamically heating the DM halos. While such models do not yet have falsifiable predictions that we can measure, we investigate correlations that may eventually be used to test models. We do not find a secondary parameter that strongly correlates with the central DM density slope, but we do find some weak correlations. The central DM density slope weakly correlates with the abundance of ? elements in the stellar population, anti-correlates with H I fraction, and anti-correlates with vertical orbital anisotropy. We expect, if anything, the opposite of these three

  3. The Effects of Highly Structured Low Density Carbon Nanotube...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbon Nanotube Networks on the Thermal Degradation Behaviour of Polysiloxanes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Effects of Highly Structured Low Density Carbon ...

  4. Radiation-Matter Coupling for Low Density Plasmas (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radiation-Matter Coupling for Low Density ... considered when constructing transport algorithms that are intended to provide ...

  5. 3-D capacitance density imaging of fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved.

  6. Near-surface Density Currents Observed in the Southeast Pacific...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Density currents preferentially occur in regions of open cells but also occur in regions ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: marine stratocumulus ...

  7. Ultra Low Density Shape Memory Polymer Foams With Tunable Physicochemi...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ThesisDissertation: Ultra Low Density Shape Memory Polymer Foams With Tunable Physicochemical Properties for Treatment of intracranial Aneurysms Citation Details In-Document ...

  8. CORRELATION BETWEEN GROUP LOCAL DENSITY AND GROUP LUMINOSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Xinfa; Yu Guisheng

    2012-11-10

    In this study, we investigate the correlation between group local number density and total luminosity of groups. In four volume-limited group catalogs, we can conclude that groups with high luminosity exist preferentially in high-density regions, while groups with low luminosity are located preferentially in low-density regions, and that in a volume-limited group sample with absolute magnitude limit M{sub r} = -18, the correlation between group local number density and total luminosity of groups is the weakest. These results basically are consistent with the environmental dependence of galaxy luminosity.

  9. Density Log At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area (Rowley...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Density Log At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area (Rowley, Et Al., 1987) Exploration...

  10. Rock Density At Alum Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Rock Density At Alum Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Alum Geothermal Area...

  11. Density Log At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area (Wilt...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Density Log At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area (Wilt & Haar, 1986) Exploration...

  12. Combined local-density and dynamical mean field theory calculations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Combined local-density and dynamical mean ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Combined ... This paper reports calculations for compressed Ce (4fsup ...

  13. Density functional theory and conductivity studies of boron-based...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The receptors are also potentially beneficial to rechargeable lithium ion and lithium air batteries. We apply Density Functional Theory (DFT) to show that an oxalate-based ...

  14. Inhomogeneity smoothing using density valley formed by ion beam...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in an ion-beam inertial confinement fusion pellets by numerical simulation. The simulation results show that the radiation energy is confined in the density valley, and the ...

  15. Key Parameters Governing the Energy Density of Rechargeable Li...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Rechargeable LiS Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Key Parameters Governing the Energy Density of Rechargeable LiS Batteries Authors: Gao, Jie ; ...

  16. Ultra Low Density and Highly Crosslinked Biocompatible Shape...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biocompatible Shape Memory Polyurethane Foams Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra Low Density and Highly Crosslinked Biocompatible Shape Memory Polyurethane Foams ...

  17. Internal field, density & temperature measurements in MTF plasmas...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Internal field, density & temperature measurements in MTF plasmas using Pulsed Polarimetry final report Authors: Smith, Roger J. Publication Date: 2014-08-11 OSTI ...

  18. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a ...

  19. A density-matching approach for optimization under uncertainty...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A density-matching approach for optimization under uncertainty Citation Details ... Journal Name: Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering Additional Journal ...

  20. Laser Propagation in Nanostructured Ultra-Low-Density Materials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    By design, the gas and aerogel targets will have identical densities and identical effective ionization states. Authors: Fournier, K. B. 1 ; Colvin, J. 1 ; Yogo, A 2 ; Kemp, ...

  1. Centrality evolution of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Centrality evolution of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density over a broad ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Centrality evolution of the charged-particle ...

  2. Particle Gas Target for High Density Laser Produced Plasmas Charles...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Particle Gas Target for High Density Laser Produced Plasmas Charles H. Skinner, Nathaniel Fisch, and Ernest Valeo This invention is a novel "particle gas" cell for achieving plasma ...

  3. Practicality of magnetic compression for plasma density control...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    control Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on March 16, 2017 Title: Practicality of magnetic compression for plasma density control ...

  4. Amplifying Magnetic Fields in High Energy Density Plasmas | U...

    Office of Science (SC)

    Amplifying Magnetic Fields in High Energy Density Plasmas Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) FES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of FES Funding Opportunities ...

  5. High Island Densities and Long Range Repulsive Interactions:...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    long range repulsive interactions. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and density functional theory calculations support this conclusion. In addition to answering an outstanding...

  6. Fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kennel, E.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Cessna, T.J.

    1999-06-30

    This project involves the simultaneous production of clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon and sulfur, along with value-added carbon nanofibers. This can be accomplished because the nanofiber production process removes carbon via a catalyzed pyrolysis reaction, which also has the effect of removing 99.9% of the sulfur, which is trapped in the nanofibers. The reaction is mildly endothermic, meaning that net energy production with real reductions in greenhouse emissions are possible. In Phase I research, the feasibility of generating clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon was demonstrated by the successful design, construction and operation of a facility capable of utilizing coal as well as natural gas as an inlet feedstock. In the case of coal, for example, reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be as much as 70% (normalized according to kilowatts produced), with the majority of carbon safely sequestered in the form of carbon nanofibers or coke. Both of these products are value-added commodities, indicating that low-emission coal fuel can be done at a profit rather than a loss as is the case with most clean-up schemes. The main results of this project were as follows: (1) It was shown that the nanofiber production process produces hydrogen as a byproduct. (2) The hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich hydrocarbon mixture can be consumed with net release of enthalpy. (3) The greenhouse gas emissions from both coal and natural gas are significantly reduced. Because coal consumption also creates coke, the carbon emission can be reduced by 75% per kilowatt-hour of power produced.

  7. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Carriera, Laura H.

    1983-01-01

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  8. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  9. Persistent Fe moments in the normal state of the pressure-induced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the normal state of the pressure-induced superconductor Ca0.67Sr0.33Fe2As2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Persistent Fe moments in the normal state of the ...

  10. One-electron reduced density matrices of strongly correlated harmonium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Cioslowski, Jerzy

    2015-03-21

    Explicit asymptotic expressions are derived for the reduced one-electron density matrices (the 1-matrices) of strongly correlated two- and three-electron harmonium atoms in the ground and first excited states. These expressions, which are valid at the limit of small confinement strength ?, yield electron densities and kinetic energies in agreement with the published values. In addition, they reveal the ?{sup 5/6} asymptotic scaling of the exchange components of the electron-electron repulsion energies that differs from the ?{sup 2/3} scaling of their Coulomb and correlation counterparts. The natural orbitals of the totally symmetric ground state of the two-electron harmonium atom are found to possess collective occupancies that follow a mixed power/Gaussian dependence on the angular momentum in variance with the simple power-law prediction of Hills asymptotics. Providing rigorous constraints on energies as functionals of 1-matrices, these results are expected to facilitate development of approximate implementations of the density matrix functional theory and ensure their proper description of strongly correlated systems.

  11. Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC Document explains how to use estimated energy rates and normalized weather data in determining an energy service company's (ESCO's) payments under a Federal energy savings performance contract (ESPC). Download the guidance on utility rate estimations and weather normalization in an ESPC. (105.41 KB) More Documents &

  12. Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation) Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. 03_dti_cost_analysis_bio-derived_liquids_reforming.pdf (471.59 KB) More Documents & Publications BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working

  13. Constraining higher derivative supergravity with scattering amplitudes

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Wang, Yifan; Yin, Xi

    2015-08-31

    We study supersymmetry constraints on higher derivative deformations of type IIB supergravity by consideration of superamplitudes. Thus, combining constraints of on-shell supervertices and basic results from string perturbation theory, we give a simple argument for the non-renormalization theorem of Green and Sethi, and some of its generalizations.

  14. High speed point derivative microseismic detector

    DOEpatents

    Uhl, James Eugene; Warpinski, Norman Raymond; Whetten, Ernest Blayne

    1998-01-01

    A high speed microseismic event detector constructed in accordance with the present invention uses a point derivative comb to quickly and accurately detect microseismic events. Compressional and shear waves impinging upon microseismic receiver stations disposed to collect waves are converted into digital data and analyzed using a point derivative comb including assurance of quiet periods prior to declaration of microseismic events. If a sufficient number of quiet periods have passed, the square of a two point derivative of the incoming digital signal is compared to a trip level threshold exceeding the determined noise level to declare a valid trial event. The squaring of the derivative emphasizes the differences between noise and signal, and the valid event is preferably declared when the trip threshold has been exceeded over a temporal comb width to realize a comb over a given time period. Once a trial event has been declared, the event is verified through a spatial comb, which applies the temporal event comb to additional stations. The detector according to the present invention quickly and accurately detects initial compressional waves indicative of a microseismic event which typically exceed the ambient cultural noise level by a small amount, and distinguishes the waves from subsequent larger amplitude shear waves.

  15. High speed point derivative microseismic detector

    DOEpatents

    Uhl, J.E.; Warpinski, N.R.; Whetten, E.B.

    1998-06-30

    A high speed microseismic event detector constructed in accordance with the present invention uses a point derivative comb to quickly and accurately detect microseismic events. Compressional and shear waves impinging upon microseismic receiver stations disposed to collect waves are converted into digital data and analyzed using a point derivative comb including assurance of quiet periods prior to declaration of microseismic events. If a sufficient number of quiet periods have passed, the square of a two point derivative of the incoming digital signal is compared to a trip level threshold exceeding the determined noise level to declare a valid trial event. The squaring of the derivative emphasizes the differences between noise and signal, and the valid event is preferably declared when the trip threshold has been exceeded over a temporal comb width to realize a comb over a given time period. Once a trial event has been declared, the event is verified through a spatial comb, which applies the temporal event comb to additional stations. The detector according to the present invention quickly and accurately detects initial compressional waves indicative of a microseismic event which typically exceed the ambient cultural noise level by a small amount, and distinguishes the waves from subsequent larger amplitude shear waves. 9 figs.

  16. Structures of Lung Cancer-Derived EGFR Mutants and Inhibitor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structures of Lung Cancer-Derived EGFR Mutants and Inhibitor Complexes: Mechanism of ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structures of Lung Cancer-Derived EGFR Mutants ...

  17. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...

    Energy Saver

    Meeting - November 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting - November 2007 The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming ...

  18. Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels This factsheet describes a project that ...

  19. High Temperature/Low Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    High TemperatureLow Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids High TemperatureLow Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids Presentation on High ...

  20. Symmetry Energy as a Function of Density and Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Danielewicz, Pawel; Lee, Jenny

    2007-10-26

    Energy in nuclear matter is, in practice, completely characterized at different densities and asymmetries, when the density dependencies of symmetry energy and of energy of symmetric matter are specified. The density dependence of the symmetry energy at subnormal densities produces mass dependence of nuclear symmetry coefficient and, thus, can be constrained by that latter dependence. We deduce values of the mass dependent symmetry coefficients, by using excitation energies to isobaric analog states. The coefficient systematic, for intermediate and high masses, is well described in terms of the symmetry coefficient values of a{sub a}{sup V} = (31.5-33.5) MeV for the volume coefficient and a{sub a}{sup S} = (9-12) MeV for the surface coefficient. These two further correspond to the parameter values describing density dependence of symmetry energy, of L{approx}95 MeV and K{sub sym}{approx}25 MeV.

  1. Wave induced density modification in RF sheaths and close to wave launchers

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eester, D.; Lu, Ling-Feng

    2015-12-10

    With the return to full metal walls - a necessary step towards viable fusion machines - and due to the high power densities of current-day ICRH (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating) or RF (radio frequency) antennas, there is ample renewed interest in exploring the reasons for wave-induced sputtering and formation of hot spots. Moreover, there is experimental evidence on various machines that RF waves influence the density profile close to the wave launchers so that waves indirectly influence their own coupling efficiency. The present study presents a return to first principles and describes the wave-particle interaction using a 2-time scale model involving the equation of motion, the continuity equation and the wave equation on each of the time scales. Through the changing density pattern, the fast time scale dynamics is affected by the slow time scale events. In turn, the slow time scale density and flows are modified by the presence of the RF waves through quasilinear terms. Although finite zero order flows are identified, the usual cold plasma dielectric tensor - ignoring such flows - is adopted as a first approximation to describe the wave response to the RF driver. The resulting set of equations is composed of linear and nonlinear equations and is tackled in 1D in the present paper. Whereas the former can be solved using standard numerical techniques, the latter require special handling. At the price of multiple iterations, a simple ’derivative switch-on’ procedure allows to reformulate the nonlinear problem as a sequence of linear problems. Analytical expressions allow a first crude assessment - revealing that the ponderomotive potential plays a role similar to that of the electrostatic potential arising from charge separation - but numerical implementation is required to get a feeling of the full dynamics. A few tentative examples are provided to illustrate the phenomena involved.

  2. High capacitance of coarse-grained carbide derived carbon electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Dyatkin, Boris; Gogotsi, Oleksiy; Malinovskiy, Bohdan; Zozulya, Yuliya; Simon, Patrice; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report exceptional electrochemical properties of supercapacitor electrodes composed of large, granular carbide-derived carbon (CDC) particles. We synthesized 70–250 μm sized particles with high surface area and a narrow pore size distribution, using a titanium carbide (TiC) precursor. Electrochemical cycling of these coarse-grained powders defied conventional wisdom that a small particle size is strictly required for supercapacitor electrodes and allowed high charge storage densities, rapid transport, and good rate handling ability. Moreover, the material showcased capacitance above 100 F g-1 at sweep rates as high as 250 mV s-1 in organic electrolyte. 250–1000 micron thick dense CDC films with up to 80 mg cm-2 loading showed superior areal capacitances. The material significantly outperformed its activated carbon counterpart in organic electrolytes and ionic liquids. Furthermore, large internal/external surface ratio of coarse-grained carbons allowed the resulting electrodes to maintain high electrochemical stability up to 3.1 V in ionic liquid electrolyte. In addition to presenting novel insights into the electrosorption process, these coarse-grained carbons offer a pathway to low-cost, high-performance implementation of supercapacitors in automotive and grid-storage applications.

  3. High capacitance of coarse-grained carbide derived carbon electrodes

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Dyatkin, Boris; Gogotsi, Oleksiy; Malinovskiy, Bohdan; Zozulya, Yuliya; Simon, Patrice; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report exceptional electrochemical properties of supercapacitor electrodes composed of large, granular carbide-derived carbon (CDC) particles. We synthesized 70–250 μm sized particles with high surface area and a narrow pore size distribution, using a titanium carbide (TiC) precursor. Electrochemical cycling of these coarse-grained powders defied conventional wisdom that a small particle size is strictly required for supercapacitor electrodes and allowed high charge storage densities, rapid transport, and good rate handling ability. Moreover, the material showcased capacitance above 100 F g-1 at sweep rates as high as 250 mV s-1 in organic electrolyte. 250–1000 micron thick dense CDC films withmore » up to 80 mg cm-2 loading showed superior areal capacitances. The material significantly outperformed its activated carbon counterpart in organic electrolytes and ionic liquids. Furthermore, large internal/external surface ratio of coarse-grained carbons allowed the resulting electrodes to maintain high electrochemical stability up to 3.1 V in ionic liquid electrolyte. In addition to presenting novel insights into the electrosorption process, these coarse-grained carbons offer a pathway to low-cost, high-performance implementation of supercapacitors in automotive and grid-storage applications.« less

  4. 3D ELECTRON DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE SOLAR CORONA DURING SOLAR MINIMA: ASSESSMENT FOR MORE REALISTIC SOLAR WIND MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Patoul, Judith de; Foullon, Claire; Riley, Pete E-mail: c.foullon@exeter.ac.uk

    2015-11-20

    Knowledge of the electron density distribution in the solar corona put constraints on the magnetic field configurations for coronal modeling and on initial conditions for solar wind modeling. We work with polarized SOHO/LASCO-C2 images from the last two recent minima of solar activity (1996–1997 and 2008–2010), devoid of coronal mass ejections. The goals are to derive the 4D electron density distributions in the corona by applying a newly developed time-dependent tomographic reconstruction method and to compare the results between the two solar minima and with two magnetohydrodynamic models. First, we confirm that the values of the density distribution in thermodynamic models are more realistic than in polytropic ones. The tomography provides more accurate distributions in the polar regions, and we find that the density in tomographic and thermodynamic solutions varies with the solar cycle in both polar and equatorial regions. Second, we find that the highest-density structures do not always correspond to the predicted large-scale heliospheric current sheet or its helmet streamer but can follow the locations of pseudo-streamers. We deduce that tomography offers reliable density distributions in the corona, reproducing the slow time evolution of coronal structures, without prior knowledge of the coronal magnetic field over a full rotation. Finally, we suggest that the highest-density structures show a differential rotation well above the surface depending on how they are magnetically connected to the surface. Such valuable information on the rotation of large-scale structures could help to connect the sources of the solar wind to their in situ counterparts in future missions such as Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus.

  5. Reduction of damage initiation density in fused silica optics via UV laser conditioning

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, John E.; Maricle, Stephen M.; Brusasco, Raymond M.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.

    2004-03-16

    The present invention provides a method for reducing the density of sites on the surface of fused silica optics that are prone to the initiation of laser-induced damage, resulting in optics which have far fewer catastrophic defects and are better capable of resisting optical deterioration upon exposure for a long period of time to a high-power laser beam having a wavelength of about 360 nm or less. The initiation of laser-induced damage is reduced by conditioning the optic at low fluences below levels that normally lead to catastrophic growth of damage. When the optic is then irradiated at its high fluence design limit, the concentration of catastrophic damage sites that form on the surface of the optic is greatly reduced.

  6. Fundamental Flaws In The Derivation Of Stevens' Law For Taste Within Norwich's Entropy Theory of Perception

    SciTech Connect

    Nizami, Lance

    2010-03-01

    Norwich's Entropy Theory of Perception (1975-present) is a general theory of perception, based on Shannon's Information Theory. Among many bold claims, the Entropy Theory presents a truly astounding result: that Stevens' Law with an Index of 1, an empirical power relation of direct proportionality between perceived taste intensity and stimulus concentration, arises from theory alone. Norwich's theorizing starts with several extraordinary hypotheses. First, 'multiple, parallel receptor-neuron units' without collaterals 'carry essentially the same message to the brain', i.e. the rate-level curves are identical. Second, sensation is proportional to firing rate. Third, firing rate is proportional to the taste receptor's 'resolvable uncertainty'. Fourth, the 'resolvable uncertainty' is obtained from Shannon's Information Theory. Finally, 'resolvable uncertainty' also depends upon the microscopic thermodynamic density fluctuation of the tasted solute. Norwich proves that density fluctuation is density variance, which is proportional to solute concentration, all based on the theory of fluctuations in fluid composition from Tolman's classic physics text, 'The Principles of Statistical Mechanics'. Altogether, according to Norwich, perceived taste intensity is theoretically proportional to solute concentration. Such a universal rule for taste, one that is independent of solute identity, personal physiological differences, and psychophysical task, is truly remarkable and is well-deserving of scrutiny. Norwich's crucial step was the derivation of density variance. That step was meticulously reconstructed here. It transpires that the appropriate fluctuation is Tolman's mean-square fractional density fluctuation, not density variance as used by Norwich. Tolman's algebra yields a 'Stevens Index' of -1 rather than 1. As 'Stevens Index' empirically always exceeds zero, the Index of -1 suggests that it is risky to infer psychophysical laws of sensory response from information theory

  7. Density impact on performance of composite Si/graphite electrodes

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Dufek, Eric J.; Picker, Michael; Petkovic, Lucia M.

    2016-01-27

    The ability of alkali-substituted binders for composite Si and graphite negative electrodes to minimize capacity fade for lithium ion batteries is investigated. Polymer films and electrodes are described and characterized by FTIR following immersion in electrolyte (1:2 EC:DMC) for 24 h. FTIR analysis following electrode formation displayed similar alkali-ion dependent shifts in peak location suggesting that changes in the vibrational structure of the binder are maintained after electrode formation. The Si and graphite composite electrodes prepared using the alkali-substituted polyacrylates were also exposed to electrochemical cycling and it has been found that the performance of the Na-substituted binder is superiormore » to a comparable density K-substituted system. However, in comparing performance across many different electrode densities attention needs to be placed on making comparisons at similar densities, as low density electrodes tend to exhibit lower capacity fade over cycling. This is highlighted by a 6% difference between a low density K-substituted electrode and a high density Na-substituted sample. As a result, this low variance between the two systems makes it difficult to quickly make a direct evaluation of binder performance unless electrode density is tightly controlled.« less

  8. Triamine chelants, their derivatives, complexes and conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Troutner, D.E.; John, C.S.; Pillai, M.R.A.

    1995-03-07

    A group of functionalized triamine chelants and their derivatives that form complexes with radioactive metal ions are disclosed. The complexes can be covalently attached to a protein or an antibody or antibody fragment and used for therapeutic and/or diagnostic purposes. The chelants are of the formula, as shown in the accompanying diagrams, wherein n, m, R, R{sup 1}, R{sup 2} and L are defined in the specification.

  9. Uncertainty estimates for derivatives and intercepts

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.L.

    1994-09-01

    Straight line least squares fits of experimental data are widely used in the analysis of test results to provide derivatives and intercepts. A method for evaluating the uncertainty in these parameters is described. The method utilizes conventional least squares results and is applicable to experiments where the independent variable is controlled, but not necessarily free of error. A Monte Carlo verification of the method is given.

  10. Triamine chelants, their derivatives, complexes and conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Troutner, David E.; John, Christy S.; Pillai, Maroor R. A.

    1995-01-01

    A group of functionalized triamine chelants and their derivatives that form complexes with radioactive metal ions are disclosed. The complexes can be covalently attached to a protein or an antibody or antibody fragment and used for therapeutic and/or diagnostic purposes. The chelants are of the formula: ##STR1## wherein n, m, R, R.sup.1, R.sup.2 and L are defined in the specification.

  11. Postmortem validation of breast density using dual-energy mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Molloi, Sabee Ducote, Justin L.; Ding, Huanjun; Feig, Stephen A.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Mammographic density has been shown to be an indicator of breast cancer risk and also reduces the sensitivity of screening mammography. Currently, there is no accepted standard for measuring breast density. Dual energy mammography has been proposed as a technique for accurate measurement of breast density. The purpose of this study is to validate its accuracy in postmortem breasts and compare it with other existing techniques. Methods: Forty postmortem breasts were imaged using a dual energy mammography system. Glandular and adipose equivalent phantoms of uniform thickness were used to calibrate a dual energy basis decomposition algorithm. Dual energy decomposition was applied after scatter correction to calculate breast density. Breast density was also estimated using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding and a fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Chemical analysis was used as the reference standard to assess the accuracy of different techniques to measure breast composition. Results: Breast density measurements using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean algorithm, and dual energy were in good agreement with the measured fibroglandular volume fraction using chemical analysis. The standard error estimates using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean, and dual energy were 9.9%, 8.6%, 7.2%, and 4.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to accurately measure breast density. The variability in breast density estimation using dual energy mammography was lower than reader assessment rankings, standard histogram thresholding, and fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Improved quantification of breast density is expected to further enhance its utility as a risk factor for breast cancer.

  12. Fitting FFT-derived spectra: Theory, tool, and application to solar radio spike decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Nita, Gelu M.; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Gary, Dale E.; Marin, William; Boone, Kristine

    2014-07-10

    Spectra derived from fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis of time-domain data intrinsically contain statistical fluctuations whose distribution depends on the number of accumulated spectra contributing to a measurement. The tail of this distribution, which is essential for separating the true signal from the statistical fluctuations, deviates noticeably from the normal distribution for a finite number of accumulations. In this paper, we develop a theory to properly account for the statistical fluctuations when fitting a model to a given accumulated spectrum. The method is implemented in software for the purpose of automatically fitting a large body of such FFT-derived spectra. We apply this tool to analyze a portion of a dense cluster of spikes recorded by our FASR Subsystem Testbed instrument during a record-breaking event that occurred on 2006 December 6. The outcome of this analysis is briefly discussed.

  13. Dynamic density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions: Theoretical development and application in the study of phase separation in gas-liquid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kikkinides, E. S.; Monson, P. A.

    2015-03-07

    Building on recent developments in dynamic density functional theory, we have developed a version of the theory that includes hydrodynamic interactions. This is achieved by combining the continuity and momentum equations eliminating velocity fields, so the resulting model equation contains only terms related to the fluid density and its time and spatial derivatives. The new model satisfies simultaneously continuity and momentum equations under the assumptions of constant dynamic or kinematic viscosity and small velocities and/or density gradients. We present applications of the theory to spinodal decomposition of subcritical temperatures for one-dimensional and three-dimensional density perturbations for both a van der Waals fluid and for a lattice gas model in mean field theory. In the latter case, the theory provides a hydrodynamic extension to the recently studied dynamic mean field theory. We find that the theory correctly describes the transition from diffusive phase separation at short times to hydrodynamic behaviour at long times.

  14. Notes on power of normality tests of error terms in regression models

    SciTech Connect

    Střelec, Luboš

    2015-03-10

    Normality is one of the basic assumptions in applying statistical procedures. For example in linear regression most of the inferential procedures are based on the assumption of normality, i.e. the disturbance vector is assumed to be normally distributed. Failure to assess non-normality of the error terms may lead to incorrect results of usual statistical inference techniques such as t-test or F-test. Thus, error terms should be normally distributed in order to allow us to make exact inferences. As a consequence, normally distributed stochastic errors are necessary in order to make a not misleading inferences which explains a necessity and importance of robust tests of normality. Therefore, the aim of this contribution is to discuss normality testing of error terms in regression models. In this contribution, we introduce the general RT class of robust tests for normality, and present and discuss the trade-off between power and robustness of selected classical and robust normality tests of error terms in regression models.

  15. Microstructural and crystallographic imperfections of MgB{sub 2} superconducting wire and their correlation with the critical current density

    SciTech Connect

    Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Alzayed, Nasser S.; Oh, Sangjun; Choi, Seyong; Maeda, Minoru; Hata, Satoshi; Shimada, Yusuke; Hossain, Md Shahriar Al; Kim, Jung Ho

    2014-01-15

    A comprehensive study of the effects of structural imperfections in MgB{sub 2} superconducting wire has been conducted. As the sintering temperature becomes lower, the structural imperfections of the MgB{sub 2} material are increased, as reflected by detailed X-ray refinement and the normal state resistivity. The crystalline imperfections, caused by lattice disorder, directly affect the impurity scattering between the π and σ bands of MgB{sub 2}, resulting in a larger upper critical field. In addition, low sintering temperature keeps the grain size small, which leads to a strong enhancement of pinning, and thereby, enhanced critical current density. Owing to both the impurity scattering and the grain boundary pinning, the critical current density, irreversibility field, and upper critical field are enhanced. Residual voids or porosities obviously remain in the MgB{sub 2}, however, even at low sintering temperature, and thus block current transport paths.

  16. Magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K.

    2012-05-15

    Recently, novel experiments on magnetic reconnection have been conducted in laser-produced plasmas in a high-energy-density regime. Individual plasma bubbles self-generate toroidal, mega-gauss-scale magnetic fields through the Biermann battery effect. When multiple bubbles are created at small separation, they expand into one another, driving reconnection of this field. Reconnection in the experiments was reported to be much faster than allowed by both Sweet-Parker, and even Hall-MHD theories, when normalized to the nominal magnetic fields self-generated by single bubbles. Through particle-in-cell simulations (both with and without a binary collision operator), we model the bubble interaction at parameters and geometry relevant to the experiments. This paper discusses in detail the reconnection regime of the laser-driven experiments and reports the qualitative features of simulations. We find substantial flux-pileup effects, which boost the relevant magnetic field for reconnection in the current sheet. When this is accounted for, the normalized reconnection rates are much more in line with standard two-fluid theory of reconnection. At the largest system sizes, we additionally find that the current sheet is prone to breakup into plasmoids.

  17. Observed galaxy number counts on the lightcone up to second order: II. Derivation

    SciTech Connect

    Bertacca, Daniele; Maartens, Roy; Clarkson, Chris E-mail: roy.maartens@gmail.com

    2014-11-01

    We present a detailed derivation of the observed galaxy number over-density on cosmological scales up to second order in perturbation theory. We include all relativistic effects that arise from observing on the past lightcone. The derivation is in a general gauge, and applies to all dark energy models (including interacting dark energy) and to metric theories of modified gravity. The result will be important for accurate cosmological parameter estimation, including non-Gaussianity, since all projection effects need to be taken into account. It also offers the potential for new probes of General Relativity, dark energy and modified gravity. This paper accompanies Paper I which presents the key results for the concordance model in Poisson gauge.

  18. Hydrofining of Athabasca derived heavy gas oil over Ni-W and Co-Mo catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, R.S.; Diaz-real, R.

    1987-01-01

    The hydrotreatment of heavy gas oil derived from Athabasca bitumen was studied in a trickle bed reactor over Ni-W and Co-Mo zeolite catalyst at 350-425/sup 0/C, 3.55 to 10.44 MPa, and LHSV of 1-4. The effects of temperature and liquid flow rates on the product were investigated. ASTM distillation, aniline point, viscosities and densities of the product oil were measured and correlated with various parameters. Activity of the catalysts for hydrodenitrogenation is compared.

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogenation-Derived Renewable Diesel

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Emerging Fuels Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogenation-Derived Renewable Diesel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogenation-Derived Renewable Diesel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogenation-Derived Renewable Diesel on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogenation-Derived Renewable Diesel on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogenation-Derived Renewable

  20. Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    from Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. 09_pnnl_h2_from_bio-derived_liquids.pdf (326.2 KB) More Documents & Publications Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), Hydrogen Separation and Purification Working Group (PURIWG) & Hydrogen Production Technical Team Renewable

  1. Dynamics of ionization-induced electron injection in the high density regime of laser wakefield acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Desforges, F. G.; Paradkar, B. S. Ju, J.; Audet, T. L.; Maynard, G.; Cros, B.; Hansson, M.; Senje, L.; Persson, A.; Lundh, O.; Wahlström, C.-G.; Dobosz-Dufrénoy, S.; Monot, P.; Vay, J.-L.

    2014-12-15

    The dynamics of ionization-induced electron injection in high density (∼1.2 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}) regime of laser wakefield acceleration is investigated by analyzing the betatron X-ray emission. In such high density operation, the laser normalized vector potential exceeds the injection-thresholds of both ionization-injection and self-injection due to self-focusing. In this regime, direct experimental evidence of early on-set of ionization-induced injection into the plasma wave is given by mapping the X-ray emission zone inside the plasma. Particle-In-Cell simulations show that this early on-set of ionization-induced injection, due to its lower trapping threshold, suppresses the trapping of self-injected electrons. A comparative study of the electron and X-ray properties is performed for both self-injection and ionization-induced injection. An increase of X-ray fluence by at least a factor of two is observed in the case of ionization-induced injection due to increased trapped charge compared to self-injection mechanism.

  2. Thulium heat source for high-endurance and high-energy density power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, C.E.; Kammeraad, J.E.; Van Konynenburg, R.; VanSant, J.H.

    1991-05-01

    We are studying the performance characteristics of radioisotope heat source designs for high-endurance and high-energy-density power systems that use thulium-170. Heat sources in the power range of 5--50 kW{sub th} coupled with a power conversion efficiency of {approximately}30%, can easily satisfy current missions for autonomous underwater vehicles. New naval missions will be possible because thulium isotope power systems have a factor of one-to-two hundred higher endurance and energy density than chemical and electrochemical systems. Thulium-170 also has several other attractive features, including the fact that it decays to stable ytterbium-170 with a half-life of four months. For terrestrial applications, refueling on that time scale should be acceptable in view of the advantage of its benign decay. The heat source designs we are studying account for the requirements of isotope production, shielding, and integration with power conversion components. These requirements are driven by environmental and safety considerations. Thulium is present in the form of thin refractory thulia disks that allow power conversion at high peak temperature. We give estimates of power system state points, performance, mass, and volume characteristics. Monte Carlo radiation analysis provides a detailed assessment of shield requirements and heat transfer under normal and distressed conditions is also considered. 11 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Probing topological relations between high-density and low-density regions of 2MASS with hexagon cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yongfeng; Xiao, Weike

    2014-02-01

    We introduced a new two-dimensional (2D) hexagon technique for probing the topological structure of the universe in which we mapped regions of the sky with high and low galaxy densities onto a 2D lattice of hexagonal unit cells. We defined filled cells as corresponding to high-density regions and empty cells as corresponding to low-density regions. The numbers of filled cells and empty cells were kept the same by controlling the size of the cells. By analyzing the six sides of each hexagon, we could obtain and compare the statistical topological properties of high-density and low-density regions of the universe in order to have a better understanding of the evolution of the universe. We applied this hexagonal method to Two Micron All Sky Survey data and discovered significant topological differences between the high-density and low-density regions. Both regions had significant (>5?) topological shifts from both the binomial distribution and the random distribution.

  4. Separation of solids by varying the bulk density of a fluid separating medium

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Palmer L.; Duffy, James B.; Tokarz, Richard D.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus for separating objects having a density greater than a selected density value from objects having a density less than said selected density value. The method typically comprises: (a) providing a separation vessel having an upper and lower portion, said vessel containing a liquid having a density exceeding said selected density value; (b) reducing the apparent density of the liquid to said selected density value by introducing solid, bubble-like bodies having a density less than that of the liquid into the lower portion of the vessel and permitting them to rise therethrough; (c) introducing the objects to be separated into the separation vessel and permitting the objects having a density greater than the apparent density of the liquid to sink to the lower portion of the vessel, while the objects having a density less than said selected density value float in the upper portion of the vessel; and (d) separately removing the higher density objects in the lower portion and the lower density objects in the upper portion from the separation vessel. The apparatus typically comprises: (a) a vessel containing a liquid having a density such that at least part of said objects having a density exceeding said selected density value will float therein; (b) means to place said objects into said vessel; (c) means to reduce the effective density of at least a portion of said liquid to said selected density value, whereby said objects having a density exceeding said selected density value sink into said liquid and said objects having a density less than said selected density value remain afloat, said means to adjust the effective density comprising solid, bubble-like bodies having a density less than said selected density value and means for introducing said bodies into said liquid; and (d) means for separately removing said objects having a density exceeding said selected density value and said objects having a density less than said selected density value

  5. Controlling the Actuation Rate of Low Density Shape Memory Polymer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Controlling the Actuation Rate of Low Density Shape Memory Polymer Foams in Water Authors: Singhal, P ; Boyle, T ; Infanger, S ; Letts, S ; Small, W ; Maitland, D J ; Wilson...

  6. Optical Properties of the Charge-Density-Wave Polychalcogenide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the rare-earth polychalcogenide Rsub 2Tesub 5 (R Nd, Sm and Gd) charge-density-wave (CDW) compounds by optical methods. From the absorption spectrum we extract the...

  7. Direct experimental determination of spectral densities of molecular complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Pachón, Leonardo A.; Brumer, Paul

    2014-11-07

    Determining the spectral density of a molecular system immersed in a proteomic scaffold and in contact to a solvent is a fundamental challenge in the coarse-grained description of, e.g., electron and energy transfer dynamics. Once the spectral density is characterized, all the time scales are captured and no artificial separation between fast and slow processes need to be invoked. Based on the fluorescence Stokes shift function, we utilize a simple and robust strategy to extract the spectral density of a number of molecular complexes from available experimental data. Specifically, we show that experimental data for dye molecules in several solvents, amino acid proteins in water, and some photochemical systems (e.g., rhodopsin and green fluorescence proteins), are well described by a three-parameter family of sub-Ohmic spectral densities that are characterized by a fast initial Gaussian-like decay followed by a slow algebraic-like decay rate at long times.

  8. Exact and approximate Kohn-Sham potentials in ensemble density...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Exact and approximate Kohn-Sham potentials in ensemble density-functional theory Authors: Yang, Zeng-hui ; Trail, John R. ; Pribram-Jones, Aurora ; Burke, Kieron ; Needs, ...

  9. Surface modification of low density silica and bridged polysilsesquioxane aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    DeFriend, K. A. (Kimberly A.); Loy, D. A. (Douglas A.); Salazar, K. V. (Kenneth V.); Wilson, K. V. (Kennard V.)

    2004-01-01

    Silica and bridged polysilsesquioxane aerogels are low density materials that are attractive for applications such as, thermal insulation, porous separation media or catalyst supports, adsorbents. However, aerogels are notoriously weak and brittle making it difficult to handle and machine monoliths into desired forms. This prevents the development of many applications that would otherwise benefit from the use of the low density materials. We will describe our efforts to chemically modify and mechanically enhance silica-based aerogels using chemical vapor techniques without sacrificing their characteristic low densities. Monolithic silica and organically bridged polysilsesquioxane aerogels were prepared by sol-gel polymerization of the respective methoxysilane monomers followed by supercritical carbon dioxide drying of the gels. Reactive modification of the gels with volatile silylating compounds during and after the drying process and these effects on the mechanical properties and density of the aerogels will be described.

  10. Low density biodegradable shape memory polyurethane foams for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low density ... OSTI Identifier: 1122211 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-623392 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Journal ...

  11. Ultra Low Density and Highly Crosslinked Biocompatible Shape...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra Low Density ... OSTI Identifier: 1111124 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-501951 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Journal ...

  12. A Comprehensive Study Of Fracture Patterns And Densities In The...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    specific knowledge of these in the Geysers area. (2)By locating zones of high fracture density it will be possible to reduce the cost of geothermal power development with the...

  13. Effect of Chemical Pressure on the Charge Density Wave Transition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The charge density wave transition is investigated in the bilayer family of rare-earth tritelluride RTesub 3 compounds (RSm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm) via high-resolution ...

  14. Low density lipoprotein fraction assay for cardiac disease risk

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, Ronald M.; Blanche, Patricia J.; Orr, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    A variable rate density gradient electrophoric gel is described which separate LDL subfractions with the precision of ultracentrifugation techniques. Also, an innovative bottom inlet mixing chamber particularly useful for producing these gels is described.

  15. Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Quadrilateral Cooperation on High-density Low-enriched Uranium Fuel Production: Fact Sheet ... world from the use of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) ...

  16. High power density fuel cell stack development for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pow, R.; Reindl, M.; Tilmetz, W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the joint development by Daimler-Benz and Ballard Power Systems of a high power-density fuel cell stack and its demonstration in a 6-passenger Minivan.

  17. The tokamak density limit: A thermo-resistive disruption mechanism...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The tokamak density limit: A thermo-resistive disruption mechanism Authors: Gates, D. A. 1 ; Brennan, D. P. 1 ; Delgado-Aparicio, L. 1 ; White, R. B. 1 + Show Author ...

  18. Controlling the Actuation Rate of Low Density Shape Memory Polymer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Memory Polymer Foams in Water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Controlling the Actuation Rate of Low Density Shape Memory Polymer Foams in Water You are accessing a ...

  19. Low density lipoprotein fraction assay for cardiac disease risk

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, R.M.; Blanche, P.J.; Orr, J.

    1999-07-20

    A variable rate density gradient electrophoric gel is described which separates LDL subfractions with the precision of ultracentrifugation techniques. Also, an innovative bottom inlet mixing chamber particularly useful for producing these gels is described. 8 figs.

  20. Plasma density diagnostic for capillary-discharge based plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plasma density diagnostic for capillary-discharge based plasma channels Authors: Daniels, J. 1 Search SciTech Connect for author "Daniels, J." Search SciTech Connect for...

  1. Optical Properties of the Charge-Density-Wave Polychalcogenide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optical Properties of the Charge-Density-Wave Polychalcogenide Compounds R2Te5 (RNd, Sm and Gd) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical Properties of the...

  2. Fact #661: February 7, 2011 Population Density | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    The density of the population in the U.S., measured as the number of people per square mile, affects the way goods and people are transported. The newly released 2010 Census data ...

  3. Efficient Real-Time Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Efficient Real-Time Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Method and its Application to a Collision of an Ion with a 2D Material Title: Efficient Real-Time Time-Dependent ...

  4. Probing Electron Dynamics with the Laplacian of the Momentum Density

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar, N.; MacDougall, Preston J.; Levit, M. Creon

    2012-09-24

    This chapter in the above-titled monograph presents topological analysis of the Laplacian of the electron momentum density in organic molecules. It relates topological features in this distribution to chemical and physical properties, particularly aromaticity and electron transport.

  5. Solving the Self-Interaction Problem in Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory. Application to Atoms

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Daene, M.; Gonis, A.; Nicholson, D. M.; Stocks, G. M.

    2014-10-14

    Previously, we proposed a computational methodology that addresses the elimination of the self-interaction error from the Kohn–Sham formulation of the density functional theory. We demonstrated how the exchange potential can be obtained, and presented results of calculations for atomic systems up to Kr carried out within a Cartesian coordinate system. In our paper, we provide complete details of this self-interaction free method formulated in spherical coordinates based on the explicit equidensity basis ansatz. We also prove analytically that derivatives obtained using this method satisfy the Virial theorem for spherical orbitals, where the problem can be reduced to one dimension. Wemore » present the results of calculations of ground-state energies of atomic systems throughout the periodic table carried out within the exchange-only mode.« less

  6. Low density biodegradable shape memory polyurethane foams for embolic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    biomedical applications (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Low density biodegradable shape memory polyurethane foams for embolic biomedical applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low density biodegradable shape memory polyurethane foams for embolic biomedical applications Authors: Singhal, P ; Small, W ; Cosgriff-Hernandez, E ; Maitland, D ; Wilson, T Publication Date: 2013-02-27 OSTI Identifier: 1122211 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-623392 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48

  7. Parity dependence of level densities in sup 49 V

    SciTech Connect

    York, B.W.

    1991-01-01

    In this research, we have studied {sup 48}Ti(p, p{sub 1}) and {sup 48}(p, p{sub 1}{gamma}) in an effort to determine the dependence of level densities on parity in the compound nucleus {sup 49}V. This nuclide was chosen because of the high level density of the {sup 49}V system (leading to good statistical accuracy) and because the target is zero spin (making the assignment of J easier). 5 refs., 3 figs.

  8. High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program Steady advances in increasing the energy, power, and brightness of lasers and particle beams and advances in pulsed power systems have made possible the exploration of matter at extremely high energy density in the laboratory. Exciting new experimental regimes are being realized by exploiting the scientific capabilities of existing ICF Office facilities, as well as the relevant Department of Defense (DoD) and university

  9. High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas NNSA's Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion and DOE's Office of Science established a joint program in HEDLP in 2008. Initially, this program was a combination of work that was funded as part of the NNSA's Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Program in the research area of high energy density physics and the DOE Office of Science's HEDLP Program and Innovative Confinement Concepts Program. Steady advances in increasing the

  10. Non-invasive fluid density and viscosity measurement

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2012-05-01

    The noninvasively measurement of the density and viscosity of static or flowing fluids in a section of pipe such that the pipe performs as the sensing apparatus, is described. Measurement of a suitable structural vibration resonance frequency of the pipe and the width of this resonance permits the density and viscosity to be determined, respectively. The viscosity may also be measured by monitoring the decay in time of a vibration resonance in the pipe.

  11. Density Functional Theory with Dissipation: Transport through Single Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kieron Burke

    2012-04-30

    A huge amount of fundamental research was performed on this grant. Most of it focussed on fundamental issues of electronic structure calculations of transport through single molecules, using density functional theory. Achievements were: (1) First density functional theory with dissipation; (2) Pseudopotential plane wave calculations with master equation; (3) Weak bias limit; (4) Long-chain conductance; and (5) Self-interaction effects in tunneling.

  12. Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Nanocomposite Capacitors | Department of Energy Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es160_brutchey_2012_p.pdf (2.23 MB) More Documents & Publications High Temperature Polymer Capacitor Dielectric Films 2016 SSL R&D WORKSHOP

  13. COLLOQUIUM: Frontiers in Plasma Science: A High Energy Density Perspective

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab January 13, 2016, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG AUDITORIUM COLLOQUIUM: Frontiers in Plasma Science: A High Energy Density Perspective Dr. Bruce A. Remington Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory The potential for ground-breaking research in plasma physics in high energy density (HED) regimes is compelling. The combination of HED facilities around the world spanning microjoules to megajoules, with time scales ranging from femtoseconds to microseconds enables

  14. A comparative density functional study on electrical properties of layered

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    penta-graphene (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A comparative density functional study on electrical properties of layered penta-graphene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A comparative density functional study on electrical properties of layered penta-graphene We present a comparative study of the influence of the number of layers, the biaxial strain in the range of -3% to 3%, and the stacking misalignments on the electronic properties of a new 2D carbon allotrope,

  15. Simulations of liquid ribidium expanded to the critical density

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M; Yang, L H; Pilgrim, W

    2006-05-16

    Quantum molecular dynamic simulations were used to examine the change in atomic and electronic structure in liquid rubidium along its liquid-vapor coexistence curve. Starting from the liquid at the triple point, with increasing expansion we observe a continuous increase in the electron localization leading to ion clustering near the metal-nonmetal transition at about twice the critical density, in agreement with electrical measurements, and to the presence of dimers near and below the critical density.

  16. Preface: Special Topic on Advances in Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Weitao

    2014-05-14

    This Special Topic Issue on the Advances in Density Functional Theory, published as a celebration of the fifty years of density functional theory, contains a retrospective article, a perspective article, and a collection of original research articles that showcase recent theoretical advances in the field. It provides a timely discussion reflecting a cross section of our understanding, and the theoretical and computational developments, which have significant implications in broad areas of sciences and engineering.

  17. COHERENCE AND INTERMITTENCY OF ELECTRON DENSITY IN SMALL-SCALE

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    COHERENCE AND INTERMITTENCY OF ELECTRON DENSITY IN SMALL-SCALE INTERSTELLAR TURBULENCE P. W. Terry and K. W. Smith Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas and Department of Physics, University of WisconsinYMadison, Madison, WI 53706; pwterry@wisc.edu Received 2006 December 14; accepted 2007 April 19 ABSTRACT Spatial intermittency in decaying kinetic Alfve ´n wave turbulence is investigated to determine if it produces non- Gaussian density fluctuations in

  18. Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly This report describes a test of an instrumented surrogate PWR fuel assembly on a truck trailer conducted to simulate normal conditions of truck transport. The purpose of the test was to measure strains and accelerations on a Zircaloy-4 fuel rod during the transport of the assembly on the truck. This test complements tests conducted

  19. Density-shear instability in electron magneto-hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, T. S. Hollerbach, R.; Lyutikov, M.

    2014-05-15

    We discuss a novel instability in inertia-less electron magneto-hydrodynamics (EMHD), which arises from a combination of electron velocity shear and electron density gradients. The unstable modes have a lengthscale longer than the transverse density scale, and a growth-rate of the order of the inverse Hall timescale. We suggest that this density-shear instability may be of importance in magnetic reconnection regions on scales smaller than the ion skin depth, and in neutron star crusts. We demonstrate that the so-called Hall drift instability, previously argued to be relevant in neutron star crusts, is a resistive tearing instability rather than an instability of the Hall term itself. We argue that the density-shear instability is of greater significance in neutron stars than the tearing instability, because it generally has a faster growth-rate and is less sensitive to geometry and boundary conditions. We prove that, for uniform electron density, EMHD is at least as stable as regular, incompressible MHD, in the sense that any field configuration that is stable in MHD is also stable in EMHD. We present a connection between the density-shear instability in EMHD and the magneto-buoyancy instability in anelastic MHD.

  20. The comparison of physical properties derived from gas and dust in a massive star-forming region

    SciTech Connect

    Battersby, Cara; Bally, John; Ginsburg, Adam; Darling, Jeremy; Dunham, Miranda; Longmore, Steve

    2014-05-10

    We explore the relationship between gas and dust in a massive star-forming region by comparing the physical properties derived from each. We compare the temperatures and column densities in a massive star-forming Infrared Dark Cloud (G32.02+0.05), which shows a range of evolutionary states, from quiescent to active. The gas properties were derived using radiative transfer modeling of the (1,1), (2,2), and (4,4) transitions of NH{sub 3} on the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, while the dust temperatures and column densities were calculated using cirrus-subtracted, modified blackbody fits to Herschel data. We compare the derived column densities to calculate an NH{sub 3} abundance, χ{sub NH{sub 3}} = 4.6 × 10{sup –8}. In the coldest star-forming region, we find that the measured dust temperatures are lower than the measured gas temperatures (mean and standard deviations T {sub dust,} {sub avg} ∼ 11.6 ± 0.2 K versus T {sub gas,} {sub avg} ∼ 15.2 ± 1.5 K), which may indicate that the gas and dust are not well-coupled in the youngest regions (∼0.5 Myr) or that these observations probe a regime where the dust and/or gas temperature measurements are unreliable. Finally, we calculate millimeter fluxes based on the temperatures and column densities derived from NH{sub 3}, which suggest that millimeter dust continuum observations of massive star-forming regions, such as the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey or ATLASGAL, can probe hot cores, cold cores, and the dense gas lanes from which they form, and are generally not dominated by the hottest core.

  1. Persistent Fe moments in the normal state of the pressure-induced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Persistent Fe moments in the normal state of the pressure-induced superconductor ... Resource Relation: Journal Name: Physical Review B, vol. 90, no. 14, October 13, 2014, pp. ...

  2. Ar-40/Ar-39 Age Constraints for the Jaramillo Normal Subchron...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    oxygen isotope, climate record calibration of the astronomical timescale proposed by Johnson (1982) and Shackleton et al. (1990). Ar-40Ar-39 ages of a normally magnetized...

  3. Pentose fermentation of normally toxic lignocellulose prehydrolysate with strain of Pichia stipitis yeast using air

    DOEpatents

    Keller, Jr., Fred A.; Nguyen, Quang A.

    2002-01-01

    Strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis NPw9 (ATCC PTA-3717) useful for the production of ethanol using oxygen for growth while fermenting normally toxic lignocellulosic prehydrolysates.

  4. Derivation of an Applied Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation.

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, Todd Alan; Laine, Mark Richard; Schwarz, Jens; Rambo, Patrick K.; Karelitz, David B.

    2015-01-01

    We derive from first principles a mathematical physics model useful for understanding nonlinear optical propagation (including filamentation). All assumptions necessary for the development are clearly explained. We include the Kerr effect, Raman scattering, and ionization (as well as linear and nonlinear shock, diffraction and dispersion). We explain the phenomenological sub-models and each assumption required to arrive at a complete and consistent theoretical description. The development includes the relationship between shock and ionization and demonstrates why inclusion of Drude model impedance effects alters the nature of the shock operator. Unclassified Unlimited Release

  5. ENERGY DERIVATIVES FOR CONFIGURATION INTERACTION WAVEFUNCTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuis, M.

    1980-09-01

    Equations providing the first and second derivatives of a configuration interaction (CI) energy with respect to an external parameter are provided. We assume no restriction on the form of the CI expansion built from molecular orbitals obtained in a multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) calculation. Also the coupled perturbed multi-configuration Hartree-Fock formalism is presented for a general MCHF wavefunction and provides the first order and second order changes of the molecular orbital expansion coefficients with respect to an external parameter.

  6. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-11-16

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, it has been found that lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein, we discuss the lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure–property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon.

  7. Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometer electron density diagnostic for laser and pulsed power high energy density plasma experiments

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Stoeckl, C.; Mileham, C.; Begishev, I.; Theobald, W.; Bromage, J.; Regan, S. P.; Klein, S. R.; Munoz-Cordoves, G.; et al

    2016-04-21

    Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometry has been developed as an electron density diagnostic for High Energy Density plasmas. The technique can deliver x-ray refraction, attenuation, elemental composition, and scatter information from a single Moiré image. An 8 keV Talbot-Lau interferometer was deployed using laser and x-pinch backlighters. Grating survival and electron density mapping was demonstrated for 25-29 J, 8-30 ps laser pulses using copper foil targets. Moire pattern formation and grating survival was also observed using a copper x-pinch driven at 400 kA, ~1 kA/ns. Lastly, these results demonstrate the potential of TXD as an electron density diagnostic for HED plasmas.

  8. Direct Measurements of Pore Fluid Density by Vibrating Tube Densimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Gruszkiewicz, Miroslaw {Mirek} S; Rother, Gernot; Wesolowski, David J; Cole, David R; Wallacher, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The densities of pore-confined fluids were measured for the first time by means of a vibrating tube method. Isotherms of total adsorption capacity were measured directly making the method complementary to the conventional gravimetric or volumetric/piezometric adsorption techniques, which yield the excess adsorption (the Gibbsian surface excess). A custom-made high-pressure, high-temperature vibrating tube densimeter (VTD) was used to measure the densities of subcritical and supercritical propane (between 35 C and 97 C) and supercritical carbon dioxide (between 32 C and 50 C) saturating hydrophobic silica aerogel (0.2 g/cm3, 90% porosity) synthesized inside Hastelloy U-tubes. Additionally, excess adsorption isotherms for supercritical CO2 and the same porous solid were measured gravimetrically using a precise magnetically-coupled microbalance. Pore fluid densities and total adsorption isotherms increased monotonically with increasing density of the bulk fluid, in contrast to excess adsorption isotherms, which reached a maximum at a subcritical density of the bulk fluid, and then decreased towards zero or negative values at supercritical densities. Compression of the confined fluid significantly beyond the density of the bulk liquid at the same temperature was observed at subcritical temperatures. The features of the isotherms of confined fluid density are interpreted to elucidate the observed behavior of excess adsorption. The maxima of excess adsorption were found to occur below the critical density of the bulk fluid at the conditions corresponding to the beginning of the plateau of total adsorption, marking the end of the transition of pore fluid to a denser, liquid-like pore phase. The results for propane and carbon dioxide showed similarity in the sense of the principle of corresponding states. No measurable effect of pore confinement on the liquid-vapor critical point was found. Quantitative agreement was obtained between excess adsorption isotherms determined

  9. Development of high-density helicon plasma sources and their applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shinohara, Shunjiro; Hada, Tohru; Motomura, Taisei; Tanaka, Kenji; Tanikawa, Takao; Toki, Kyoichiro; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Shamrai, Konstantin P.

    2009-05-15

    We report on the development of unique, high-density helicon plasma sources and describe their applications. Characterization of one of the largest helicon plasma sources yet constructed is made. Scalings of the particle production efficiency are derived from various plasma production devices in open literature and our own data from long and short cylinder devices, i.e., high and low values of the aspect ratio A (the ratio of the axial length to the diameter), considering the power balance in the framework of a simple diffusion model. A high plasma production efficiency is demonstrated, and we clarify the structures of the excited waves in the low A region down to 0.075 (the large device diameter of 73.8 cm with the axial length as short as 5.5 cm). We describe the application to plasma propulsion using a new concept that employs no electrodes. A very small diameter (2.5 cm) helicon plasma with 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} density is produced, and the preliminary results of electromagnetic plasma acceleration are briefly described.

  10. Halo-independent tests of dark matter direct detection signals: local DM density, LHC, and thermal freeze-out

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias; Herrero-Garcia, Juan; Schwetz, Thomas; Vogl, Stefan

    2015-08-19

    From an assumed signal in a Dark Matter (DM) direct detection experiment a lower bound on the product of the DM-nucleon scattering cross section and the local DM density is derived, which is independent of the local DM velocity distribution. This can be combined with astrophysical determinations of the local DM density. Within a given particle physics model the bound also allows a robust comparison of a direct detection signal with limits from the LHC. Furthermore, the bound can be used to formulate a condition which has to be fulfilled if the particle responsible for the direct detection signal is a thermal relic, regardless of whether it constitutes all DM or only part of it. We illustrate the arguments by adopting a simplified DM model with a Z{sup ′} mediator and assuming a signal in a future xenon direct detection experiment.

  11. Stepover or Relay Ramp in Normal Fault Zones | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    intersections between the overlapping fault strands results in increased fracture density that enhances hydrothermal fluid flow. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Controlling...

  12. Primer on electricity futures and other derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Stoft, S.; Belden, T.; Goldman, C.; Pickle, S.

    1998-01-01

    Increased competition in bulk power and retail electricity markets is likely to lower electricity prices, but will also result in greater price volatility as the industry moves away from administratively determined, cost-based rates and encourages market-driven prices. Price volatility introduces new risks for generators, consumers, and marketers. Electricity futures and other derivatives can help each of these market participants manage, or hedge, price risks in a competitive electricity market. Futures contracts are legally binding and negotiable contracts that call for the future delivery of a commodity. In most cases, physical delivery does not take place, and the futures contract is closed by buying or selling a futures contract on or near the delivery date. Other electric rate derivatives include options, price swaps, basis swaps, and forward contracts. This report is intended as a primer for public utility commissioners and their staff on futures and other financial instruments used to manage price risks. The report also explores some of the difficult choices facing regulators as they attempt to develop policies in this area.

  13. Waste Segregation Based on Derived Clearance Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Garisto, N.C.; Parhizgari, Z.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the methodology and results of a radiological modeling in support of an application to release very low level radiologically contaminated waste from regulatory control and allow its haulage and disposal in a hazardous waste landfill. The Canadian regulatory body responsible for licensing operations involving nuclear materials (the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission), has not yet formally defined clearance levels for free release of low level radiologically contaminated waste. The IAEA clearance levels have been derived for certain situations and receptor characteristics, which might be too conservative for an actual case. A site-specific pathways analysis was therefore completed to define conditional clearance levels using the concept of de minimis dose limit. Derived Conditional Clearance Levels were calculated for each radionuclide based on the maximally exposed hypothetical individuals to determine whether each waste stream can be 'cleared' from regulatory controls. The results showed that haulage of the waste from the station to the haulage/processing facility and transportation of waste or sludge from the haulage/processing facility to the disposal facility, handling of the waste or sludge at the haulage/processing facility, and incineration and/or disposal of waste or sludge at the disposal facility would not expose the workers to doses above 0.1 {mu}Sv/yr., which is less than the de minimis dose limit of 10 {mu}Sv/yr. (authors)

  14. Individualized 3D Reconstruction of Normal Tissue Dose for Patients With Long-term Follow-up: A Step Toward Understanding Dose Risk for Late Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Angela; Brock, Kristy K.; Sharpe, Michael B.; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario ; Moseley, Joanne L.; Craig, Tim; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario ; Hodgson, David C.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Understanding the relationship between normal tissue dose and delayed radiation toxicity is an important component of developing more effective radiation therapy. Late outcome data are generally available only for patients who have undergone 2-dimensional (2D) treatment plans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of 3D normal tissue dosimetry derived from reconstructed 2D treatment plans in Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) patients. Methods and Materials: Three-dimensional lung, heart, and breast volumes were reconstructed from 2D planning radiographs for HL patients who received mediastinal radiation therapy. For each organ, a reference 3D organ was modified with patient-specific structural information, using deformable image processing software. Radiation therapy plans were reconstructed by applying treatment parameters obtained from patient records to the reconstructed 3D volumes. For each reconstructed organ mean dose (D{sub mean}) and volumes covered by at least 5 Gy (V{sub 5}) and 20Gy (V{sub 20}) were calculated. This process was performed for 15 patients who had both 2D and 3D planning data available to compare the reconstructed normal tissue doses with those derived from the primary CT planning data and also for 10 historically treated patients with only 2D imaging available. Results: For patients with 3D planning data, the normal tissue doses could be reconstructed accurately using 2D planning data. Median differences in D{sub mean} between reconstructed and actual plans were 0.18 Gy (lungs), -0.15 Gy (heart), and 0.30 Gy (breasts). Median difference in V{sub 5} and V{sub 20} were less than 2% for each organ. Reconstructed 3D dosimetry was substantially higher in historical mantle-field treatments than contemporary involved-field mediastinal treatments: average D{sub mean} values were 15.2 Gy vs 10.6 Gy (lungs), 27.0 Gy vs 14.3 Gy (heart), and 8.0 Gy vs 3.2 Gy (breasts). Conclusions: Three-dimensional reconstruction of absorbed dose to

  15. Criticality Calculations Using the Isopiestic Density Law of Actinide Nitrates

    SciTech Connect

    Leclaire, Nicolas P.; Anno, Jacques A.; Courtois, Gerard; Dannus, Pascal; Poullot, Gilles; Rouyer, Veronique

    2003-12-15

    Up to now, criticality safety experts used density laws fitted on experimental data and applied them outside the measurement range. Depending on the case, such an approach could be wrong for nitrate solutions. Seven components are concerned: UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, U(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}, Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}, Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}, Am(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, and HNO{sub 3}. To obviate this problem, a new methodology based on the thermodynamic concept of mixtures of binary electrolytes solutions (one electrolyte + water) at constant water activity, a so-called 'isopiestic' solution, has been developed by the Institute de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) to calculate the nitrate solutions density. This paper presents its qualification by using criticality experiments. The theory and the implementation are also given.Qualification results of the uranyl and plutonium nitrate solutions show that the new density law (also called the isopiestic law) is in good agreement with the benchmarks. Thus, no bias is put into evidence for the uranium solutions, and a small negative bias equal to 0.2% is found for the plutonium solutions.Moreover, the isopiestic law corrects the observed 1% overestimation of k{sub eff} due to the empirical IRSN Leroy and Jouan density law for uranium solutions and the observed 3.4% underestimation of k{sub eff} due to the ARH-600 density law for plutonium solutions.The isopiestic density law has been implemented in CIGALES V2.0, the graphical user interface of the French criticality safety package CRISTAL that calculates the atom densities of nuclides (and writes the input file for CRISTAL computations)

  16. Near surface stoichiometry in UO2: A density functional theory study

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Jianguo; Valderrama, Billy; Henderson, Hunter B.; Manuel, Michele V.; Allen, Todd

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms of oxygen stoichiometry variation in UO2 at different temperature and oxygen partial pressure are important for understanding the dynamics of microstructure in these crystals. However, very limited experimental studies have been performed to understand the atomic structure of UO2 near surface and defect effects of near surface on stoichiometry in which the system can exchange atoms with the external reservoir. In this study, the near (110) surface relaxation and stoichiometry in UO2 have been studied with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. On the basis of the point-defect model (PDM), a general expression for the near surface stoichiometric variation is derived by using DFT total-energy calculations and atomistic thermodynamics, in an attempt to pin down the mechanisms of oxygen exchange between the gas environment and defected UO2. By using the derived expression, it is observed that, under poor oxygen conditions, the stoichiometry of near surface is switched from hyperstoichiometric at 300 K with a depth around 3 nm to near-stoichiometric at 1000 K and hypostoichiometric at 2000 K. Furthermore, at very poor oxygen concentrations and high temperatures, our results also suggest that the bulk of the UO2 prefers to be hypostoichiometric, although the surface is near-stoichiometric.

  17. Convergence of statistical moments of particle density time series in scrape-off layer plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kube, R. Garcia, O. E.

    2015-01-15

    Particle density fluctuations in the scrape-off layer of magnetically confined plasmas, as measured by gas-puff imaging or Langmuir probes, are modeled as the realization of a stochastic process in which a superposition of pulses with a fixed shape, an exponential distribution of waiting times, and amplitudes represents the radial motion of blob-like structures. With an analytic formulation of the process at hand, we derive expressions for the mean squared error on estimators of sample mean and sample variance as a function of sample length, sampling frequency, and the parameters of the stochastic process. Employing that the probability distribution function of a particularly relevant stochastic process is given by the gamma distribution, we derive estimators for sample skewness and kurtosis and expressions for the mean squared error on these estimators. Numerically, generated synthetic time series are used to verify the proposed estimators, the sample length dependency of their mean squared errors, and their performance. We find that estimators for sample skewness and kurtosis based on the gamma distribution are more precise and more accurate than common estimators based on the method of moments.

  18. Near surface stoichiometry in UO2: A density functional theory study

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Yu, Jianguo; Valderrama, Billy; Henderson, Hunter B.; Manuel, Michele V.; Allen, Todd

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms of oxygen stoichiometry variation in UO2 at different temperature and oxygen partial pressure are important for understanding the dynamics of microstructure in these crystals. However, very limited experimental studies have been performed to understand the atomic structure of UO2 near surface and defect effects of near surface on stoichiometry in which the system can exchange atoms with the external reservoir. In this study, the near (110) surface relaxation and stoichiometry in UO2 have been studied with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. On the basis of the point-defect model (PDM), a general expression for the near surface stoichiometric variationmore » is derived by using DFT total-energy calculations and atomistic thermodynamics, in an attempt to pin down the mechanisms of oxygen exchange between the gas environment and defected UO2. By using the derived expression, it is observed that, under poor oxygen conditions, the stoichiometry of near surface is switched from hyperstoichiometric at 300 K with a depth around 3 nm to near-stoichiometric at 1000 K and hypostoichiometric at 2000 K. Furthermore, at very poor oxygen concentrations and high temperatures, our results also suggest that the bulk of the UO2 prefers to be hypostoichiometric, although the surface is near-stoichiometric.« less

  19. Promise and Challenges of Microalgal-Derived Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Pienkos, P. T.; Darzins, A.

    2009-01-01

    Microalgae offer great promise to contribute a significant portion of the renewable fuels that will be required by the Renewable Fuels Standard described in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act of the United States. Algal biofuels would be based mainly on the high lipid content of the algal cell and thus would be an ideal feedstock for high energy density transportation fuels, such as biodiesel as well as green diesel, green jet fuel and green gasoline. A comprehensive research and development program for the development of algal biofuels was initiated by the US Department of Energy (DoE) more than 30 years ago, and although great progress was made, the program was discontinued in 1996, because of decreasing federal budgets and low petroleum costs. Interest in algal biofuels has been growing recently due to increased concern over peak oil, energy security, greenhouse gas emissions, and the potential for other biofuel feedstocks to compete for limited agricultural resources. The high productivity of algae suggests that much of the US transportation fuel needs can be met by algal biofuels at a production cost competitive with the cost of petroleum seen during the early part of 2008. Development of algal biomass production technology, however, remains in its infancy. This perspective provides a brief overview of past algal research sponsored by the DoE, the potential of microalgal biofuels and a discussion of the technical and economic barriers that need to be overcome before production of microalgal-derived diesel-fuel substitutes can become a large-scale commercial reality.

  20. Invariant relationships deriving from classical scaling transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Bludman, Sidney; Kennedy, Dallas C.

    2011-04-15

    Because scaling symmetries of the Euler-Lagrange equations are generally not variational symmetries of the action, they do not lead to conservation laws. Instead, an extension of Noether's theorem reduces the equations of motion to evolutionary laws that prove useful, even if the transformations are not symmetries of the equations of motion. In the case of scaling, symmetry leads to a scaling evolutionary law, a first-order equation in terms of scale invariants, linearly relating kinematic and dynamic degrees of freedom. This scaling evolutionary law appears in dynamical and in static systems. Applied to dynamical central-force systems, the scaling evolutionary equation leads to generalized virial laws, which linearly connect the kinetic and potential energies. Applied to barotropic hydrostatic spheres, the scaling evolutionary equation linearly connects the gravitational and internal energy densities. This implies well-known properties of polytropes, describing degenerate stars and chemically homogeneous nondegenerate stellar cores.

  1. Calculation of grain boundary normals directly from 3D microstructure images

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, E. J.; Rollett, A. D.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Kober, E. M.

    2015-03-11

    The determination of grain boundary normals is an integral part of the characterization of grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials. These normal vectors are difficult to quantify due to the discretized nature of available microstructure characterization techniques. The most common method to determine grain boundary normals is by generating a surface mesh from an image of the microstructure, but this process can be slow, and is subject to smoothing issues. A new technique is proposed, utilizing first order Cartesian moments of binary indicator functions, to determine grain boundary normals directly from a voxelized microstructure image. In order to validate the accuracy of this technique, the surface normals obtained by the proposed method are compared to those generated by a surface meshing algorithm. Specifically, the local divergence between the surface normals obtained by different variants of the proposed technique and those generated from a surface mesh of a synthetic microstructure constructed using a marching cubes algorithm followed by Laplacian smoothing is quantified. Next, surface normals obtained with the proposed method from a measured 3D microstructure image of a Ni polycrystal are used to generate grain boundary character distributions (GBCD) for Σ3 and Σ9 boundaries, and compared to the GBCD generated using a surface mesh obtained from the same image. Finally, the results show that the proposed technique is an efficient and accurate method to determine voxelized fields of grain boundary normals.

  2. Calculation of grain boundary normals directly from 3D microstructure images

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Lieberman, E. J.; Rollett, A. D.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Kober, E. M.

    2015-03-11

    The determination of grain boundary normals is an integral part of the characterization of grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials. These normal vectors are difficult to quantify due to the discretized nature of available microstructure characterization techniques. The most common method to determine grain boundary normals is by generating a surface mesh from an image of the microstructure, but this process can be slow, and is subject to smoothing issues. A new technique is proposed, utilizing first order Cartesian moments of binary indicator functions, to determine grain boundary normals directly from a voxelized microstructure image. In order to validate the accuracymore » of this technique, the surface normals obtained by the proposed method are compared to those generated by a surface meshing algorithm. Specifically, the local divergence between the surface normals obtained by different variants of the proposed technique and those generated from a surface mesh of a synthetic microstructure constructed using a marching cubes algorithm followed by Laplacian smoothing is quantified. Next, surface normals obtained with the proposed method from a measured 3D microstructure image of a Ni polycrystal are used to generate grain boundary character distributions (GBCD) for Σ3 and Σ9 boundaries, and compared to the GBCD generated using a surface mesh obtained from the same image. Finally, the results show that the proposed technique is an efficient and accurate method to determine voxelized fields of grain boundary normals.« less

  3. Near-surface density profiling of Fe ion irradiated Si (100) using extremely asymmetric x-ray diffraction by variation of the wavelength

    SciTech Connect

    Khanbabaee, B. Pietsch, U.; Facsko, S.; Doyle, S.

    2014-10-20

    In this work, we report on correlations between surface density variations and ion parameters during ion beam-induced surface patterning process. The near-surface density variations of irradiated Si(100) surfaces were investigated after off-normal irradiation with 5 keV Fe ions at different fluences. In order to reduce the x-ray probing depth to a thickness below 5?nm, the extremely asymmetrical x-ray diffraction by variation of wavelength was applied, exploiting x-ray refraction at the air-sample interface. Depth profiling was achieved by measuring x-ray rocking curves as function of varying wavelengths providing incidence angles down to 0. The density variation was extracted from the deviations from kinematical Bragg angle at grazing incidence angles due to refraction of the x-ray beam at the air-sample interface. The simulations based on the dynamical theory of x-ray diffraction revealed that while a net near-surface density decreases with increasing ion fluence which is accompanied by surface patterning, there is a certain threshold of ion fluence to surface density modulation. Our finding suggests that the surface density variation can be relevant with the mechanism of pattern formation.

  4. Pion transverse charge density and the edge of hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Carmignotto, Marco; Horn, Tanja; Miller, Gerald A.

    2014-08-01

    We use the world data on the pion form factor for space-like kinematics and a technique used to extract the proton transverse densities, to extract the transverse pion charge density and its uncertainty due to experimental uncertainties and incomplete knowledge of the pion form factor at large values of Q2. The pion charge density at small values of b<0.1 fm is dominated by this incompleteness error while the range between 0.1-0.3 fm is relatively well constrained. A comparison of pion and proton charge densities shows that the pion is denser than the proton for values of b<0.2 fm. The pion and proton distributions seem to be the same for values of b=0.2-0.6 fm. Future data from Jlab 12 GeV and the EIC will increase the dynamic extent of the data to higher values of Q2 and thus reduce the uncertainties in the extracted pion charge density.

  5. J-R Curve Determination for Disk-shaped Compact Specimens Based on the Normalization Method and Direct Current Potential Drop Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiang; Nanstad, Randy K; Sokolov, Mikhail A

    2014-01-01

    Material ductile fracture toughness can be described by J-integral versus crack extension relationship (J-R curve). As a conventional J-R curve measurement method, unloading compliance (UC) becomes impractical in elevated temperature testing due to relaxation of the material and a friction induced back-up shape of the J-R curve. In addition, the UC method may underpredict the crack extension for standard disk-shaped compact (DC(T)) specimens. In order to address these issues, the normalization method and direct current potential drop (DCPD) technique were applied for determining J-R curves at 24 C and 500 C for 0.18T DC(T) specimens made from type 316L stainless steel. For comparison purchase, the UC method was also applied in 24 C tests. The normalization method was able to yield valid J-R curves in all tests. The J-R curves from the DCPD technique need adjustment to account for the potential drop induced by plastic deformation, crack blunting, etc. and after applying a newly-developed DCPD adjustment procedure, the post-adjusted DCPD J-R curves essentially matched J-R curves from the normalization method. In contrast, the UC method underpredicted the crack extension in all tests resulting in substantial deviation in the derived J-R curves manifested by high Jq values than the normalization or DCPD method. Only for tests where the UC method underpredicted the crack extension by a very small value, J-R curves determined by the UC method were similar to those determined by the normalization or DCPD method.

  6. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote cell proliferation and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Yijing; Tang, Huijuan; Guo, Yan; Guo, Jing; Huang, Bangxing; Fang, Fang; Cai, Jing Wang, Zehua

    2015-09-10

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) is an important component of tumor microenvironment. However, whether ADSCs have a hand in ovarian cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of human ADSCs derived from the omentum of normal donors on human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Direct and indirect co-culture models including ADSCs and human EOC cell lines were established and the effects of ADSCs on EOC cell proliferation were evaluated by EdU incorporation and flow cytometry. Transwell migration assays and detection of MMPs were performed to assess the invasion activity of EOC cells in vitro. Mouse models were established by intraperitoneal injection of EOC cells with or without concomitant ADSCs to investigate the role of ADSCs in tumor progression in vivo. We found that ADSCs significantly promoted proliferation and invasion of EOC cells in both direct and indirect co-culture assays. In addition, after co-culture with ADSCs, EOC cells secreted higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inhibition of MMP2 and MMP9 partially relieved the tumor-promoting effects of ADSCs in vitro. In mouse xenograft models, we confirmed that ADSCs promoted EOC growth and metastasis and elevated the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Our findings indicate that omental ADSCs play a promotive role during ovarian cancer progression. - Highlights: • Omental adipose derived stem cells enhanced growth and invasion properties of ovarian cancer cells. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in mice models. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted MMPs expression and secretion of ovarian cancer cells. • Elevated MMPs mediated the tumor promoting effects of ADSCs.

  7. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-11-16

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, it has been found that lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein, we discuss the lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure–property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templatedmore » carbon.« less

  8. Low-density microcellular foam and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Rinde, James A.

    1977-01-01

    Low-density microcellular foam having a cell size of not greater than 2 .mu.m and method of making by dissolving cellulose acetate in an acetone-based solvent, gelling the solution in a water bath maintained at 0.degree.-10.degree. C for a selected period of time to allow impurities to diffuse out, freezing the gel, and then freeze-drying wherein water and solvents sublime and the gel structure solidifies into low-density microcellular foam. The foam has a density of 0.065 to 0.6.times.10.sup.3 kg/m.sup.3 and cell size of about 0.3 to 2 .mu.m. The small cell size foam is particularly applicable for encapsulation of laser targets.

  9. Method of making a cellulose acetate low density microcellular foam

    DOEpatents

    Rinde, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Low-density microcellular foam having a cell size of not greater than 2 .mu.m and method of making by dissolving cellulose acetate in an acetone-based solvent, gelling the solution in a water bath maintained at 0-10.degree. C for a selected period of time to allow impurities to diffuse out, freezing the gel, and then freeze-drying wherein water and solvents sublime and the gel structure solidifies into low-density microcellular foam. The foam has a density of 0.065 to 0.6.times.10.sup.3 kg/m.sup.3 and cell size of about 0.3 to 2 .mu.m. The small cell size foam is particularly adaptable for encapsulation of laser targets.

  10. Propagation of radio frequency waves through density filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Ram, Abhay K.; Hizanidis, Kyriakos

    2015-12-10

    In tokamak fusion plasmas, coherent fluctuations in the form of blobs or filaments are routinely observed in the scrape-off layer. In this paper we develop an analytical formalism for the scattering of radio frequency waves by filaments which are cylindrical with their major axis aligned along the toroidal magnetic field lines. Since the magnitude of the ratio of the density inside the filaments to the background density is generally of order 1, the geometric optics approximation cannot be used to describe the scattering. A full-wave model is formulated which assumes that the plasma is cold and that the plasma in the cylindrical filament has uniform density. The background plasma, in which the filament is present, is also assumed to be cold and uniform. The theoretical framework applies to the scattering of any plasma wave.

  11. PREPARATION OF HIGH-DENSITY THORIUM OXIDE SPHERES

    DOEpatents

    McNees, R.A. Jr.; Taylor, A.J.

    1963-12-31

    A method of preparing high-density thorium oxide spheres for use in pellet beds in nuclear reactors is presented. Sinterable thorium oxide is first converted to free-flowing granules by means such as compression into a compact and comminution of the compact. The granules are then compressed into cubes having a density of 5.0 to 5.3 grams per cubic centimeter. The cubes are tumbled to form spheres by attrition, and the spheres are then fired at 1250 to 1350 deg C. The fired spheres are then polished and fired at a temperature above 1650 deg C to obtain high density. Spherical pellets produced by this method are highly resistant to mechanical attrition hy water. (AEC)

  12. Transverse charge and magnetization densities in the nucleon's chiral periphery

    SciTech Connect

    Granados, Carlos G.; Weiss, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In the light-front description of nucleon structure the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent transverse densities of charge and magnetization. Recent work has studied the transverse densities at peripheral distances b = O(M{pi}{sup -1}), where they are governed by universal chiral dynamics and can be computed in a model-independent manner. Of particular interest is the comparison of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities. We summarize (a) their interpretation as spin-independent and -dependent current matrix elements; (b) the leading-order chiral effective field theory results; (c) their mechanical interpretation in the light-front formulation; (d) the large-N_c limit of QCD and the role of {Delta} intermediate states; (e) the connection with generalized parton distributions and peripheral high-energy scattering processes.

  13. Rf Gun with High-Current Density Field Emission Cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-12-19

    High current-density field emission from an array of carbon nanotubes, with field-emission-transistor control, and with secondary electron channel multiplication in a ceramic facing structure, have been combined in a cold cathode for rf guns and diode guns. Electrodynamic and space-charge flow simulations were conducted to specify the cathode configuration and range of emission current density from the field emission cold cathode. Design of this cathode has been made for installation and testing in an existing S-band 2-1/2 cell rf gun. With emission control and modulation, and with current density in the range of 0.1-1 kA/cm2, this cathode could provide performance and long-life not enjoyed by other currently-available cathodes

  14. The density gradient effect on quantum Weibel instability

    SciTech Connect

    Mahdavi, M. Khodadadi Azadboni, F.

    2015-03-15

    The Weibel instability plays an important role in stopping the hot electrons and energy deposition mechanism in the fast ignition of inertial fusion process. In this paper, the effects of the density gradient and degeneracy on Weibel instability growth rate are investigated. Calculations show that decreasing the density degenerate in the plasma corona, near the relativistic electron beam emitting region by 8.5% leads to a 92% reduction in the degeneracy parameter and about 90% reduction in Weibel instability growth rate. Also, decreasing the degenerate density near the fuel core by 8.5% leads to 1% reduction in the degeneracy parameter and about 8.5% reduction in Weibel instability growth rate. The Weibel instability growth rate shrinks to zero and the deposition condition of relativistic electron beam energy can be shifted to the fuel core for a suitable ignition by increasing the degeneracy parameter in the first layer of plasma corona.

  15. Modelling charge transfer reactions with the frozen density embedding formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Pavanello, Michele; Neugebauer, Johannes

    2011-12-21

    The frozen density embedding (FDE) subsystem formulation of density-functional theory is a useful tool for studying charge transfer reactions. In this work charge-localized, diabatic states are generated directly with FDE and used to calculate electronic couplings of hole transfer reactions in two {pi}-stacked nucleobase dimers of B-DNA: 5{sup '}-GG-3{sup '} and 5{sup '}-GT-3{sup '}. The calculations rely on two assumptions: the two-state model, and a small differential overlap between donor and acceptor subsystem densities. The resulting electronic couplings agree well with benchmark values for those exchange-correlation functionals that contain a high percentage of exact exchange. Instead, when semilocal GGA functionals are used the electronic couplings are grossly overestimated.

  16. SU-F-BRD-07: Empirical Derivation of Site-Specific Margin Formulas

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, L; Smith, W; Quirk, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To empirically derive margin formulas from existing clinical radiotherapy plans accounting for respiratory motion and setup uncertainties. Methods: We simulated realistic treatment scenarios, including respiratory motion and setup errors. Individual probability density functions (PDF) from respiratory data were used to simulate respiratory motion. Random (σ) and systematic (Σ) setup errors were modeled as Gaussian distributions. One-dimensional dose profiles were extracted from existing radiotherapy plans and convolved with respiratory PDFs and random error distributions to produce blurred dose profiles. Each blurred dose profile was then shifted 1000 times by randomly sampling the simulated systematic error distribution. Margins were determined from the distance between the simulated treatment and the original 95% isodose level. An equation was fit for each (σ, Σ) combination to derive margin formulas for 90% of the population receiving 95% dose. This methodology can be applied to different tumor sites. Here, dose profiles were extracted from partial breast 3DCRT plans in the anterior-posterior (AP) and superior-inferior (SI) directions. Respiratory motion data was from healthy volunteers, and a clinically relevant range of random and systematic setup errors (standard deviations 1 – 4 mm) was determined from the literature. Results: The PBI margin formulas in the AP and SI directions for 95% dose coverage for 90% of the population were very similar: M= 0.68σ + 1.54Σ and M= 0.72σ + 1.50Σ, respectively. Systematic setup errors had the largest influence on required margin size, whereas realistic respiratory amplitude had minimal impact. The derived formulas resulted in a smaller systematic component than commonly-used theoretical margin recipes. Conclusion: We have demonstrated a method to derive empirical margin formulas from existing patient radiotherapy plans, incorporating realistic respiratory motion and appropriate ranges of random and

  17. Bio-Derived Liquid Distributed Reforming Outcomes Map | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Liquid Distributed Reforming Outcomes Map Bio-Derived Liquid Distributed Reforming Outcomes Map This is a "pre-decisional draft of the Bio-Derived Liquid Distributed Reforming Outcomes Map. biliwg06_schlasner.pdf (36.88 KB) More Documents & Publications Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils (Presentation) Bio-Derived Liquids to

  18. High density electronic circuit and process for making

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, William P.

    1999-01-01

    High density circuits with posts that protrude beyond one surface of a substrate to provide easy mounting of devices such as integrated circuits. The posts also provide stress relief to accommodate differential thermal expansion. The process allows high interconnect density with fewer alignment restrictions and less wasted circuit area than previous processes. The resulting substrates can be test platforms for die testing and for multi-chip module substrate testing. The test platform can contain active components and emulate realistic operational conditions, replacing shorts/opens net testing.

  19. Extended length microchannels for high density high throughput electrophoresis systems

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    2000-01-01

    High throughput electrophoresis systems which provide extended well-to-read distances on smaller substrates, thus compacting the overall systems. The electrophoresis systems utilize a high density array of microchannels for electrophoresis analysis with extended read lengths. The microchannel geometry can be used individually or in conjunction to increase the effective length of a separation channel while minimally impacting the packing density of channels. One embodiment uses sinusoidal microchannels, while another embodiment uses plural microchannels interconnected by a via. The extended channel systems can be applied to virtually any type of channel confined chromatography.

  20. High density electronic circuit and process for making

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, W.P.

    1999-06-29

    High density circuits with posts that protrude beyond one surface of a substrate to provide easy mounting of devices such as integrated circuits are disclosed. The posts also provide stress relief to accommodate differential thermal expansion. The process allows high interconnect density with fewer alignment restrictions and less wasted circuit area than previous processes. The resulting substrates can be test platforms for die testing and for multi-chip module substrate testing. The test platform can contain active components and emulate realistic operational conditions, replacing shorts/opens net testing. 8 figs.

  1. Nonlinear eigenvalue problems in Density Functional Theory calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Fattebert, J

    2009-08-28

    Developed in the 1960's by W. Kohn and coauthors, Density Functional Theory (DFT) is a very popular quantum model for First-Principles simulations in chemistry and material sciences. It allows calculations of systems made of hundreds of atoms. Indeed DFT reduces the 3N-dimensional Schroedinger electronic structure problem to the search for a ground state electronic density in 3D. In practice it leads to the search for N electronic wave functions solutions of an energy minimization problem in 3D, or equivalently the solution of an eigenvalue problem with a non-linear operator.

  2. Fourth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, Farhat

    2014-06-30

    The Fourth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics (ICHED 2013) was held in Saint Malo, France, at the Palais du Grand Large on 25-28 June 2013 (http://web.luli.polytechnique.fr/ICHED2013/). This meeting was the fourth in a series which was first held in 2008. This conference covered all the important aspects of High Energy Density Physics including fundamental topics from strong-field physics to creating new states of matter (including radiation-dominated, high-pressure quantum and relativistic plasmas) and ultra-fast lattice dynamics on the timescale of atomic transitions.

  3. Low density microcellular carbon foams and method of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Charles; Aubert, James H.; Clough, Roger L.; Rand, Peter B.; Sylwester, Alan P.

    1989-01-01

    A low density, open-celled microcellular carbon foam is disclosed which is prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer or copolymer in a solvent, pouring the solution into a mold, cooling the solution, removing the solvent, and then carbonizing the polymer or copolymer in a high temperature oven to produce the foam. If desired, an additive can be introduced in order to produce a doped carbon foam, and the foams can be made isotropic by selection of a suitable solvent. The low density, microcellular foams produced by this process are particularly useful in the fabrication of inertial confinement fusion targets, but can also be used as catalysts, absorbents, and electrodes.

  4. Low density microcellular carbon foams and method of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Aubert, J.H.; Clough, R.L.; Rand, P.B.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20

    A low density, open-celled microcellular carbon foam is disclosed which is prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer or copolymer in a solvent, pouring the solution into a mold, cooling the solution, removing the solvent, and then carbonizing the polymer or copolymer in a high temperature oven to produce the foam. If desired, an additive can be introduced in order to produce a doped carbon foam, and the foams can be made isotropic by selection of a suitable solvent. The low density, microcellular foams produced by this process are particularly useful in the fabrication of inertial confinement fusion targets, but can also be used as catalysts, absorbents, and electrodes.

  5. Semi-exact concentric atomic density fitting: Reduced cost and increased accuracy compared to standard density fitting

    SciTech Connect

    Hollman, David S.; Schaefer, Henry F.; Valeev, Edward F.

    2014-02-14

    A local density fitting scheme is considered in which atomic orbital (AO) products are approximated using only auxiliary AOs located on one of the nuclei in that product. The possibility of variational collapse to an unphysical “attractive electron” state that can affect such density fitting [P. Merlot, T. Kjærgaard, T. Helgaker, R. Lindh, F. Aquilante, S. Reine, and T. B. Pedersen, J. Comput. Chem. 34, 1486 (2013)] is alleviated by including atom-wise semidiagonal integrals exactly. Our approach leads to a significant decrease in the computational cost of density fitting for Hartree–Fock theory while still producing results with errors 2–5 times smaller than standard, nonlocal density fitting. Our method allows for large Hartree–Fock and density functional theory computations with exact exchange to be carried out efficiently on large molecules, which we demonstrate by benchmarking our method on 200 of the most widely used prescription drug molecules. Our new fitting scheme leads to smooth and artifact-free potential energy surfaces and the possibility of relatively simple analytic gradients.

  6. Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs. | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs. Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs. Presentation at the May 9, 2012, Pyrolysis Oil Workship on biomass derivatives competitive with heating oil costs. pyrolysis_levine.pdf (733.32 KB) More Documents & Publications Challenge # 1. Feedstock & Production Thermochemical Conversion Proceeses to Aviation Fuels A Review of DOE Biofuels Program

  7. Enhanced relativistic self-focusing of Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam in plasma under density transition

    SciTech Connect

    Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti

    2014-04-15

    Enhanced and early relativistic self-focusing of Hermite-cosh-Gaussian (HChG) beam in the plasmas under density transition has been investigated theoretically using Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin and paraxial ray approximation for mode indices m=0, 1, and 2. The variation of beam width parameter with normalized propagation distance for m=0, 1, and 2 is reported, and it is observed that strong self-focusing occurs as the HChG beam propagates deeper inside the nonlinear medium as spot size shrinks due to highly dense plasmas and the results are presented graphically. A comparative study between self-focusing of HChG beam in the presence and absence of plasmas density transition is reported. The dependency of beam width parameter on the normalized propagation distance for different values of decentered parameter “b” has also been presented graphically. For m=0 and 1, strong self-focusing is reported for b=1.8, and for m=2 and b=1.8, beam gets diffracted. The results obtained indicate the dependency of the self-focusing of the HChG beam on the selected values of decentered parameter. Moreover, proper selection of decentered parameter results strong self-focusing of HChG beam. Stronger self-focusing of laser beam is observed due to the presence of plasma density transition which might be very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, etc.

  8. SU-E-T-168: Evaluation of Normal Tissue Damage in Head and Neck Cancer Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Ai, H; Zhang, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate normal tissue toxicity in patients with head and neck cancer by calculating average survival fraction (SF) and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for normal tissue cells. Methods: 20 patients with head and neck cancer were included in this study. IMRT plans were generated using EclipseTM treatment planning system by dosimetrist following clinical radiotherapy treatment guidelines. The average SF for three different normal tissue cells of each concerned structure can be calculated from dose spectrum acquired from differential dose volume histogram (DVH) using linear quadratic model. The three types of normal tissues include radiosensitive, moderately radiosensitive and radio-resistant that represents 70%, 50% and 30% survival fractions, respectively, for a 2-Gy open field. Finally, EUDs for three types of normal tissue of each structure were calculated from average SF. Results: The EUDs of the brainstem, spinal cord, parotid glands, brachial plexus and etc were calculated. Our analysis indicated that the brainstem can absorb as much as 14.3% of prescription dose to the tumor if the cell line is radiosensitive. In addition, as much as 16.1% and 18.3% of prescription dose were absorbed by the brainstem for moderately radiosensitive and radio-resistant cells, respectively. For the spinal cord, the EUDs reached up to 27.6%, 35.0% and 42.9% of prescribed dose for the three types of radiosensitivities respectively. Three types of normal cells for parotid glands can get up to 65.6%, 71.2% and 78.4% of prescription dose, respectively. The maximum EUDs of brachial plexsus were calculated as 75.4%, 76.4% and 76.7% of prescription for three types of normal cell lines. Conclusion: The results indicated that EUD can be used to quantify and evaluate the radiation damage to surrounding normal tissues. Large variation of normal tissue EUDs may come from variation of target volumes and radiation beam orientations among the patients.

  9. Fuel cell system logic for differentiating between rapid and normal shutdown commands

    DOEpatents

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2000-01-01

    A method of controlling the operation of a fuel cell system wherein each shutdown command for the system is subjected to decision logic which determines whether the command should be a normal shutdown command or rapid shutdown command. If the logic determines that the shutdown command should be a normal shutdown command, then the system is shutdown in a normal step-by-step process in which the hydrogen stream is consumed within the system. If the logic determines that the shutdown command should be a rapid shutdown command, the hydrogen stream is removed from the system either by dumping to atmosphere or routing to storage.

  10. Quantum Chromodynamics and Nuclear Physics at Extreme Energy Density

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, B.; Bass, S.A.; Chandrasekharan, S.; Mehen, T.; Springer, R.P.

    2005-11-07

    The report describes research in theoretical quantum chromodynamics, including effective field theories of hadronic interactions, properties of strongly interacting matter at extreme energy density, phenomenology of relativistic heavy ion collisions, and algorithms and numerical simulations of lattice gauge theory and other many-body systems.

  11. Single particle density of trapped interacting quantum gases

    SciTech Connect

    Bala, Renu; Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.

    2015-05-15

    An expression for single particle density for trapped interacting gases has been obtained in first order of interaction using Greens function method. Results are easily simplified for homogeneous quantum gases and are found to agree with famous results obtained by Huang-Yang-Luttinger and Lee-Yang.

  12. Method to reduce dislocation density in silicon using stress

    DOEpatents

    Buonassisi, Anthony; Bertoni, Mariana; Argon, Ali; Castellanos, Sergio; Fecych, Alexandria; Powell, Douglas; Vogl, Michelle

    2013-03-05

    A crystalline material structure with reduced dislocation density and method of producing same is provided. The crystalline material structure is annealed at temperatures above the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature of the crystalline material structure. One or more stress elements are formed on the crystalline material structure so as to annihilate dislocations or to move them into less harmful locations.

  13. High Density Polymer-Based Integrated Electgrode Array

    DOEpatents

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Davidson, James Courtney; Hamilton, Julie K.

    2006-04-25

    A high density polymer-based integrated electrode apparatus that comprises a central electrode body and a multiplicity of arms extending from the electrode body. The central electrode body and the multiplicity of arms are comprised of a silicone material with metal features in said silicone material that comprise electronic circuits.

  14. Method for detecting a mass density image of an object (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Method for detecting a mass density image of an object Title: Method for detecting a mass density image of an object A method for detecting a mass density image of an object. An ...

  15. ON THE DENSITY PROFILE OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M92

    SciTech Connect

    Di Cecco, A.; Buonanno, R.; Monelli, M.; Bono, G.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Nonino, M.; Kunder, A.; Walker, A. R.

    2013-04-15

    We present new number density and surface brightness profiles for the globular cluster M92 (NGC 6341). These profiles are calculated from optical images collected with the CCD mosaic camera MegaCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ground-based data were supplemented with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric catalog. Special care was taken to discriminate candidate cluster stars from field stars and to subtract the background contamination from both profiles. By examining the contour levels of the number density, we found that the stellar distribution becomes clumpy at radial distances larger than {approx}13', and there is no preferred orientation of contours in space. We performed detailed fits of King and Wilson models to the observed profiles. The best-fit models underestimate the number density inside the core radius. Wilson models better represent the observations, in particular in the outermost cluster regions: the good global agreement of these models with the observations suggests that there is no need to introduce an extra-tidal halo to explain the radial distribution of stars at large radial distances. The best-fit models for the number density and the surface brightness profiles are different, even though they are based on the same observations. Additional tests support the evidence that this fact reflects the difference in the radial distribution of the stellar tracers that determine the observed profiles (main-sequence stars for the number density, bright evolved stars for the surface brightness).

  16. Laboratory testing of high energy density capacitors for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, A.F.

    1991-10-01

    Laboratory tests of advanced, high energy density capacitors in the Battery Test Laboratory of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory have been performed to investigate their suitability for load-leveling the battery in an electric vehicle. Two types of devices were tested -- 3 V, 70 Farad, spiral wound, carbon-based, single cell devices and 20 V, 3. 5 Farad, mixed-oxide, multi-cell bipolar devices. The energy density of the devices, based on energy stored during charge to the rated voltage, was found to be 1--2 Wh/kg, which agreed well with that claimed by the manufacturers. Constant power discharge tests were performed at power densities up to 1500 W/kg. Discharges at higher power densities could have been performed had equipment been available to maintain constant power during discharges of less than one second. It was found that the capacitance of the devices were rate dependent with the rate dependency of the carbon-based devices being higher than that of the mixed-oxide devices. The resistance of both types of devices were relatively low being 20--30 milliohms. Testing done in the study showed that the advanced high energy density capacitors can be charged and discharged over cycles (PSFUDS) which approximate the duty cycle that would be encountered if the devices are used to load-level the battery in an electric vehicle. Thermal tests of the advanced capacitors in an insulated environment using the PSFUDS cycle showed the devices do not overheat with their temperatures increasing only 4--5{degrees}C for tests that lasted 5--7 hours. 7 refs., 33 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. The effects of low environmental cadmium exposure on bone density

    SciTech Connect

    Trzcinka-Ochocka, M.; Jakubowski, M.; Szymczak, W.; Janasik, B.; Brodzka, R.

    2010-04-15

    Recent epidemiological data indicate that low environmental exposure to cadmium, as shown by cadmium body burden (Cd-U), is associated with renal dysfunction as well as an increased risk of cadmium-induced bone disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effects of low environmental cadmium exposure, at the level sufficient to induce kidney damage, on bone metabolism and mineral density (BMD). The project was conducted in the area contaminated with cadmium, nearby a zinc smelter located in the region of Poland where heavy industry prevails. The study population comprised 170 women (mean age=39.7; 18-70 years) and 100 men (mean age=31.9; 18-76 years). Urinary and blood cadmium and the markers of renal tubular dysfunction ({beta}{sub 2}M-U RBP, NAG), glomerular dysfunction (Alb-U and {beta}{sub 2}M-S) and bone metabolism markers (BAP-S, CTX-S) as well as forearm BMD, were measured. The results of this study based on simple dose-effect analysis showed the relationship between increasing cadmium concentrations and an increased excretion of renal dysfunction markers and decreasing bone density. However, the results of the multivariate analysis did not indicate the association between exposure to cadmium and decrease in bone density. They showed that the most important factors that have impact on bone density are body weight and age in the female subjects and body weight and calcium excretion in males. Our investigation revealed that the excretion of low molecular weight proteins occurred at a lower level of cadmium exposure than the possible loss of bone mass. It seems that renal tubular markers are the most sensitive and significant indicators of early health effects of cadmium intoxication in the general population. The correlation of urinary cadmium concentration with markers of kidney dysfunction was observed in the absence of significant correlations with bone effects. Our findings did not indicate any effects of environmental cadmium exposure on bone

  18. Jet flames of a refuse derived fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Roman; Kupka, Tomasz; Zajac, Krzysztof

    2009-04-15

    This paper is concerned with combustion of a refuse derived fuel in a small-scale flame. The objective is to provide a direct comparison of the RDF flame properties with properties of pulverized coal flames fired under similar boundary conditions. Measurements of temperature, gas composition (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO) and burnout have demonstrated fundamental differences between the coal flames and the RDF flames. The pulverized coals ignite in the close vicinity of the burner and most of the combustion is completed within the first 300 ms. Despite the high volatile content of the RDF, its combustion extends far into the furnace and after 1.8 s residence time only a 94% burnout has been achieved. This effect has been attributed not only to the larger particle size of fluffy RDF particles but also to differences in RDF volatiles if compared to coal volatiles. Substantial amounts of oily tars have been observed in the RDF flames even though the flame temperatures exceeded 1300 C. The presence of these tars has enhanced the slagging propensity of RDF flames and rapidly growing deposits of high carbon content have been observed. (author)

  19. Derivation of dose conversion factors for tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Killough, G. G.

    1982-03-01

    For a given intake mode (ingestion, inhalation, absorption through the skin), a dose conversion factor (DCF) is the committed dose equivalent to a specified organ of an individual per unit intake of a radionuclide. One also may consider the effective dose commitment per unit intake, which is a weighted average of organ-specific DCFs, with weights proportional to risks associated with stochastic radiation-induced fatal health effects, as defined by Publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report derives and tabulates organ-specific dose conversion factors and the effective dose commitment per unit intake of tritium. These factors are based on a steady-state model of hydrogen in the tissues of ICRP's Reference Man (ICRP Publication 23) and equilibrium of specific activities between body water and other tissues. The results differ by 27 to 33% from the estimate on which ICRP Publication 30 recommendations are based. The report also examines a dynamic model of tritium retention in body water, mineral bone, and two compartments representing organically-bound hydrogen. This model is compared with data from human subjects who were observed for extended periods. The manner of combining the dose conversion factors with measured or model-predicted levels of contamination in man's exposure media (air, drinking water, soil moisture) to estimate dose rate to an individual is briefly discussed.

  20. Communication: Satisfying fermionic statistics in the modeling of open time-dependent quantum systems with one-electron reduced density matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Head-Marsden, Kade; Mazziotti, David A.

    2015-02-07

    For an open, time-dependent quantum system, Lindblad derived the most general modification of the quantum Liouville equation in the Markovian approximation that models environmental effects while preserving the non-negativity of the system’s density matrix. While Lindblad’s modification is correct for N-electron density matrices, solution of the Liouville equation with a Lindblad operator causes the one-electron reduced density matrix (1-RDM) to violate the Pauli exclusion principle. Consequently, after a short time, the 1-RDM is not representable by an ensemble N-electron density matrix (not ensemble N-representable). In this communication, we derive the necessary and sufficient constraints on the Lindbladian matrix within the Lindblad operator to ensure that the 1-RDM remains N-representable for all time. The theory is illustrated by considering the relaxation of an excitation in several molecules F{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO, and BeH{sub 2} subject to environmental noise.