National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for municipal power vanadium

  1. Utah Municipal Power Agency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Municipal Power Agency Place: Utah Phone Number: (801) 798-7489 Website: www.umpa.cc Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesUtah-Municipal-Power-Agency152219714819535 Outage...

  2. American Municipal Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Municipal Power Jump to: navigation, search Name: American Municipal Power Place: Columbus, Ohio Zip: 43219 Product: AMP is a non-profit corporation that owns and operates electric...

  3. Texas Municipal Power Agency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Texas Municipal Power Agency Jump to: navigation, search Name: Texas Municipal Power Agency Place: Texas Sector: Wind energy Phone Number: (936) 873-1100 Website: www.texasmpa.org...

  4. Silicon Valley Power and Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority Win...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    today recognized the Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority (OMPA) and Silicon Valley Power (SVP) of Santa Clara, California, as the winners of the 2014 Public Power Wind Awards. ...

  5. Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency (SMMPA) Wind Farm I...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    I Jump to: navigation, search Name Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency (SMMPA) Wind Farm I Facility Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency (SMMPA) Sector Wind energy...

  6. Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency (SMMPA) Wind Farm Ii...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Ii Jump to: navigation, search Name Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency (SMMPA) Wind Farm Ii Facility Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency (SMMPA) Sector Wind energy...

  7. Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority- Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority (OMPA) offers the Demand and Energy Efficiency Program (DEEP) to eligible commercial, industrial, and municipal government customers served by OMPA. This...

  8. Georgia Power Company (GPC), Oglethorpe Power Corporation (OPC), Municipal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Electric Authority of Georgia (MEAG) | Department of Energy Georgia Power Company (GPC), Oglethorpe Power Corporation (OPC), Municipal Electric Authority of Georgia (MEAG) Georgia Power Company (GPC), Oglethorpe Power Corporation (OPC), Municipal Electric Authority of Georgia (MEAG) Location: Waynesboro, GA Eligibility: 1703 Snapshot In February 2014, the Department of Energy issued $6.5 billion in loan guarantees to support the construction of the nation's next generation of advanced

  9. Silicon Valley Power and Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority Win 2014 Public Power Wind Awards

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department and the American Public Power Association named Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority and Silicon Valley Power as the winners of the 2014 Public Power Wind Awards.

  10. Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company SMEPC | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company is a large enterprise engaging in Shanghai electric power transmission, distribution and sales. Coordinates: 31.247709,...

  11. Central Minnesota Municipal Power Agency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Power Agency Place: Minnesota Phone Number: 507-526-2193 Website: www.cmmpa.org Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesCentral-Minnesota-Municipal-Power-Agency-CMMPA...

  12. Municipal Bond - Power Purchase Agreement Model Continues to...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    power purchase agreement model to provide low-cost solar energy. Author: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Municipal Bond - Power Purchase Agreement Model Continues to Provide...

  13. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales - February 2008 Jump to: navigation, search EIA Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Data for Anchorage...

  14. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales - June 2008 Jump to: navigation, search EIA Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Data for Anchorage...

  15. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales - March 2009 Jump to: navigation, search EIA Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Data for Anchorage...

  16. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales - April 2008 Jump to: navigation, search EIA Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Data for Anchorage...

  17. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales - January 2008 Jump to: navigation, search EIA Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Data for Anchorage...

  18. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales - August 2008 Jump to: navigation, search EIA Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Data for Anchorage...

  19. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales - July 2008 Jump to: navigation, search EIA Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Data for Anchorage...

  20. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales - May 2008 Jump to: navigation, search EIA Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Data for Anchorage...

  1. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    October 2008 Jump to: navigation, search EIA Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Data for Anchorage Municipal Light and Power for October 2008. Monthly Electric Utility...

  2. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales - March 2008 Jump to: navigation, search EIA Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Data for Anchorage...

  3. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales - December 2008 Jump to: navigation, search EIA Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Data for Anchorage...

  4. Alameda Municipal Power- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alameda Municipal Power (AMP) is currently offering a refrigerator recycling program through which customers can purchase a refrigerator that has the "Energy Star" label (refrigerators smaller than...

  5. Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority- WISE Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority (OMPA) offers residential customers rebates on a variety of HVAC equipment through its WISE Rebate program. This program encourages residential customers and...

  6. Alameda Municipal Power- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alameda Municipal Power offers financial incentives for its commercial customers to install a range of energy efficient equipment and measures. HVAC rebates include efficient variable frequency...

  7. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    search EIA Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Data for Anchorage Municipal Light and Power for February 2009. Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Data Short...

  8. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    search EIA Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Data for Anchorage Municipal Light and Power for November 2008. Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Data Short...

  9. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales - January 2009 Jump to: navigation, search EIA Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Data for Anchorage...

  10. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    search EIA Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Data for Anchorage Municipal Light and Power for September 2008. Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Data Short...

  11. Alameda Municipal Power- Residential Energy Efficiency Grant Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alameda Municipal Power (AMP) offers a grant to help residential customerswith electricheat weatherize their homes. To participate in the weatherization program, customers must complete and send...

  12. Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority- WISE Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority (OMPA) offers rebates on a variety of HVAC equipment through its WISE Rebate program. This program encourages residential customers and builders to upgrade to...

  13. Alameda Municipal Power- Commercial New Construction Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alameda Municipal Power (AMP) offers the following grant and rebate programs to AMP customers. Projects will only be funded if AMP receives and approves the application and performs a pre...

  14. Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority- WISE Energy Efficiency Loan Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority (OMPA) offers loans for a variety of measures and equipment through its "Ways I Save Electricity" (WISE) Loan Program. This program encourages residential and...

  15. South Carolina Municipalities- Green Power Purchasing

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Participating residential customers are able to purchase this green power for $3 per 100 kWh block. Commercial participants are able to purchase the power for $6 per 200 kWh block.

  16. Oklahoma Municipal Power Auth | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    -Power-Authority-OMPA125994407444079 Outage Hotline: 405-340-5047 or 580-763-8047 Outage Map: ompa.comoutages References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a1...

  17. Photovoltaics for municipal planners. Cost-effective municipal applications of photovoltaics for electric power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This booklet is intended for city and county government personnel, as well as community organizations, who deal with supplying, regulating, or recommending electric power resources. Specifically, this document deals with photovoltaic (PV) power, or power from solar cells, which is currently the most cost-effective energy source for electricity requirements that are relatively small, located in isolated areas, or difficult to serve with conventional technology. Recently, PV has been documented to be more cost-effective than conventional alternatives (such as line extensions or engine generators) in dozens of applications within the service territories of electric, gas, and communications utilities. Here, we document numerous cost-effective urban applications, chosen by planners and utilities because they were the most cost-effective option or because they were appropriate for environmental or logistical reasons. These applications occur within various municipal departments, including utility, parks and recreation, traffic engineering, transportation, and planning, and they include lighting applications, communications equipment, corrosion protection, irrigation control equipment, remote monitoring, and even portable power supplies for emergency situations.

  18. EPA RE-Powering America's Lands: Kansas City Municipal Farm Site ₋ Biomass Power Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunsberger, R.; Mosey, G.

    2015-01-01

    Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing biomass at the Kansas City, Missouri, Municipal Farm site, a group of City-owned properties, is explored. The study that none of the technologies we reviewed--biomass heat, power and CHP--are economically viable options for the Municipal Farms site. However, if the site were to be developed around a future central biomass heating or CHP facility, biomass could be a good option for the site.

  19. Economic analysis of municipal wastewater utilization for thermoelectric power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safari, I.; Walker, M.; Abbasian, J.; Arastoopour, H.; Hsieh, M-K.; Theregowda, R.; Dzombak, D.; Miller, D.

    2011-01-01

    The thermoelectric power industry in the U.S. uses a large amount of freshwater. The large water demand is increasingly a problem, especially for new power plant development, as availability of freshwater for new uses diminishes in the United States. Reusing non-traditional water sources, such as treated municipal wastewater, provides one option to mitigate freshwater usage in the thermoelectric power industry. The amount of freshwater withdrawal that can be displaced with non-traditional water sources at a particular location requires evaluation of the water management and treatment requirements, considering the quality and abundance of the non-traditional water sources. This paper presents the development of an integrated costing model to assess the impact of degraded water treatment, as well as the implications of increased tube scaling in the main condenser. The model developed herein is used to perform case studies of various treatment, condenser cleaning and condenser configurations to provide insight into the ramifications of degraded water use in the cooling loops of thermoelectric power plants. Further, this paper lays the groundwork for the integration of relationships between degraded water quality, scaling characteristics and volatile emission within a recirculating cooling loop model.

  20. Fact Sheet: Vanadium Redox Battery Demonstration Program (August...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    The City of Painesville, OH, and its partners will demonstrate vanadium redox battery storage capacity at the 32 megawatt (MW), coal-fired Painesville Municipal Electric Plant ...

  1. City of Painesville, Ohio Vanadium Redox Battery Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    City of Painesville, Ohio and its partners will demonstrate vanadium redox battery storage capacity at the 32 megawatt (MW), coal-fired Painesville Municipal Electric Plant (PMEP). ...

  2. Nanorod Niobium Oxide as Powerful Catalysts for an All Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bin; Gu, Meng; Nie, Zimin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Wang, Chong M.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Graphite felts (GFs), as typical electrode materials for all vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs), limit the cell operation to low current density because of their poor kinetic reversibility and electrochemical activity. Here, in order to address this issue we report an electrocatalyst, Nb2O5, decorating the surface of GFs to reduce the activation barrier for redox conversion. Nb2O5 nanofibers with monoclinic phases are synthesized by hydrothermal method and deposited on GFs, which is confirmed to have catalytic effects towards redox couples of V(II)/V(III) at the negative side and V(IV)/V(V) at the positive side, and thus applied in both electrodes of VRB cells. Due to the low conductivity of Nb2O5, the performance of electrodes heavily depends on the nano size and uniform distribution of catalysts on GFs surfaces. The addition of the water-soluble compounds containing W element into the precursor solutions facilitates the precipitation of nanofibers on the GFs. Accordingly, an optimal amount of W-doped Nb2O5 nanofibers with weaker agglomeration and better distribution on GFs surfaces are obtained, leading to significant improvement of the electrochemical performances of VRB cells particularly under the high power operation. The corresponding energy efficiency is enhanced by 10.7 % under the operation of high charge/discharge current density (150 mA•cm-2) owing to faster charge transfer as compared with that without catalysts. These results suggest that Nb2O5 based nanofibers-decorating GFs hold great promise as high-performance electrodes for VRB applications.

  3. Project Profile: The Sacramento Municipal Utility District Consumnes Power Plant Solar Augmentation Project

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    -- This project is inactive -- The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), under the Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Heat Integration for Baseload Renewable Energy Development (HIBRED) program, is demonstrating a hybrid CSP solar energy system that takes advantage of an existing electrical generator for its power block and transmission interconnection.

  4. Simultaneous recovery of vanadium and nickel from power plant fly-ash: Optimization of parameters using response surface methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazari, E.; Rashchi, F. Saba, M.; Mirazimi, S.M.J.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Leaching of vanadium and nickel from fly ash (14.43% V and 5.19% Ni) in sulfuric acid was performed. • Optimization of leaching parameters was carried out using a response surface methodology. • Using optimum conditions, 94.28% V and 81.01% Ni “actual recovery” was obtained. - Abstract: Simultaneous recovery of vanadium (V) and nickel (Ni), which are classified as two of the most hazardous metal species from power plant heavy fuel fly-ash, was studied using a hydrometallurgical process consisting of acid leaching using sulfuric acid. Leaching parameters were investigated and optimized in order to maximize the recovery of both vanadium and nickel. The independent leaching parameters investigated were liquid to solid ratio (S/L) (5–12.5 wt.%), temperature (45–80 °C), sulfuric acid concentration (5–25 v/v%) and leaching time (1–5 h). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the process parameters. The most effective parameter on the recovery of both elements was found to be temperature and the least effective was time for V and acid concentration for Ni. Based on the results, optimum condition for metals recovery (actual recovery of ca.94% for V and 81% for Ni) was determined to be solid to liquid ratio of 9.15 wt.%, temperature of 80 °C, sulfuric acid concentration of 19.47 v/v% and leaching time of 2 h. The maximum V and Ni predicted recovery of 91.34% and 80.26% was achieved.

  5. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safari, Iman; Walker, Michael E.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Dzombak, David A.; Liu, Wenshi; Vidic, Radisav D.; Miller, David C.; Abbasian, Javad

    2013-09-01

    A process simulation model has been developed using Aspen Plus® with the OLI (OLI System, Inc.) water chemistry model to predict water quality in the recirculating cooling loop utilizing secondary- and tertiary-treated municipal wastewater as the source of makeup water. Simulation results were compared with pilot-scale experimental data on makeup water alkalinity, loop pH, and ammonia evaporation. The effects of various parameters including makeup water quality, salt formation, NH3 and CO2 evaporation mass transfer coefficients, heat load, and operating temperatures were investigated. The results indicate that, although the simulation model can capture the general trends in the loop pH, experimental data on the rates of salt precipitation in the system are needed for more accurate prediction of the loop pH. It was also found that stripping of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the cooling tower can influence the cooling loop pH significantly. The effects of the NH3 mass transfer coefficient on cooling loop pH appear to be more significant at lower values (e.g., kNH3 < 4×10-3 m/s) when the makeup water alkalinity is low (e.g., <90 mg/L as CaCO3). The effect of the CO2 mass transfer coefficient was found to be significant only at lower alkalinity values (e.g., kCO2<4×10-6 m/s).

  6. VANADIUM ALLOYS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1959-05-12

    This patent deals with vanadium based ternary alloys useful as fuel element jackets. According to the invention the ternary vanadium alloys, prepared in an arc furnace, contain from 2.5 to 15% by weight titanium and from 0.5 to 10% by weight niobium. Characteristics of these alloys are good thermal conductivity, low neutron capture cross section, good corrosion resistance, good welding and fabricating properties, low expansion coefficient, and high strength.

  7. American Vanadium | Energy Systems Integration | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    American Vanadium NREL researchers are collaborating with American Vanadium, an integrated energy storage company, to evaluate and demonstrate the first North American CellCube battery management system. Photo of the American Vanadium CellCube device in a laboratory in the Energy Systems Integration Facility Photo by Dennis Schroeder CellCubes can store megawatts of energy, providing an uninterrupted supply of power from solar and wind power stations, no matter the outdoor conditions. Work at

  8. Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, Leslie D.

    1982-01-01

    A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

  9. Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, L.D.

    1980-03-13

    A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator was designed to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

  10. SUPERCONDUCTING VANADIUM BASE ALLOY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleary, H.J.

    1958-10-21

    A new vanadium-base alloy which possesses remarkable superconducting properties is presented. The alloy consists of approximately one atomic percent of palladium, the balance being vanadium. The alloy is stated to be useful in a cryotron in digital computer circuits.

  11. Municipal Bond- Power Purchase Agreement Model Continues to Provide Low-Cost Solar Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides an overview for power purchase agreement model to provide low-cost solar energy. Author: National Renewable Energy Laboratory

  12. EPA RE-Powering Americas Lands: Kansas City Municipal Farm...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... to determine an annual energy load of 927 MWh per year and a peak monthly average power ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Radio Tower (usage in 2013) 1,795 954 976 1,248 1,337 1,284 ...

  13. Sacramento Municipal Utility District Geothermal Power Plant, SMUDGEO No. 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The proposed construction of 72-MW geothermal power plant is discussed. The following aspects are covered: the project as proposed by the utility; the environmental setting; the adverse consequences of the project, any significant environmental effects which cannot be avoided, and any mitigation measures to minimize significant effects; the potential feasible alternatives to the proposed project; the significant unavoidable, irreversible, and long-term environmental impacts; and the Growth Inducing Impacts. (MHR)

  14. Municipal solid waste fueled power generation in China: a case study of waste-to-energy in Changchun city

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hefa Cheng; Yanguo Zhang; Aihong Meng; Qinghai Li

    2007-11-01

    With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization in China, many cities face the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal. With the lack of space for new landfills, waste-to-energy incineration is playing an increasingly important role in waste management. Incineration of MSW from Chinese cities presents some unique challenges because of its low calorific value (3000-6700 kJ/kg) and high water content (about 50%). This study reports a novel waste-to-energy incineration technology based on co-firing of MSW with coal in a grate-circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator, which was implemented in the Changchun MSW power plant. In 2006, two 260 ton/day incinerators incinerated 137,325 tons, or approximately one/sixth of the MSW generated in Changchun, saving more than 0.2 million m{sup 3} landfill space. A total of 46.2 million kWh electricity was generated (38,473 tons lignite was also burned as supplementary fuel), with an overall fuel-to-electricity efficiency of 14.6%. Emission of air pollutants including particulate matters, acidic gases, heavy metals, and dioxins was low and met the emission standards for incinerators. As compared to imported incineration systems, this new technology has much lower capital and operating costs and is expected to play a role in meeting China's demands for MSW disposal and alternative energy. 34 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. Saint Peter Municipal Utilities- Commercial & Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    With help from the Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency (SMMPA), Saint Peter Municipal Utilities provides incentives for its commercial and industrial customers to improve the energy...

  16. Saint Peter Municipal Utilities- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    With help from Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency (SMMPA), Saint Peter Municipal Utilities provides incentives for its residential and commercial customers to improve the energy efficiency...

  17. Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorman, P.K.

    1995-04-05

    An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium.

  18. Application for presidential permit OE Docket No. PP-230-4 International Transmission Company: Petition to Intervene and Request for Opportunity to Comment, American Municipal Power and Old Dominion Electric

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Petition to Intervene and Request for Opportunity to Comment  on the application for presidential permit OE Docket No. PP-230-4 International Transmission Company made by American Municipal Power...

  19. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30

    Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by

  20. Vanadium recycling for fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolan, T.J.; Butterworth, G.J.

    1994-04-01

    Very stringent purity specifications must be applied to low activation vanadium alloys, in order to meet recycling goals requiring low residual dose rates after 50--100 years. Methods of vanadium production and purification which might meet these limits are described. Following a suitable cooling period after their use, the vanadium alloy components can be melted in a controlled atmosphere to remove volatile radioisotopes. The aim of the melting and decontamination process will be the achievement of dose rates low enough for ``hands-on`` refabrication of new reactor components from the reclaimed metal. The processes required to permit hands-on recycling appear to be technically feasible, and demonstration experiments are recommended. Background information relevant to the use of vanadium alloys in fusion reactors, including health hazards, resources, and economics, is provided.

  1. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants: Evaluation of the combined cost of makeup water treatment and increased condenser fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Michael E.; Theregowda, Ranjani B.; Safari, Iman; Abbasian, Javad; Arastoopour, Hamid; Dzombak, David A.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Miller, David C.

    2013-10-01

    A methodology is presented to calculate the total combined cost (TCC) of water sourcing, water treatment and condenser fouling in the recirculating cooling systems of thermoelectric power plants. The methodology is employed to evaluate the economic viability of using treated municipal wastewater (MWW) to replace the use of freshwater as makeup water to power plant cooling systems. Cost analyses are presented for a reference power plant and five different tertiary treatment scenarios to reduce the scaling tendencies of MWW. Results indicate that a 550 MW sub-critical coal fired power plant with a makeup water requirement of 29.3 ML/day has a TCC of $3.0 - 3.2 million/yr associated with the use of treated MWW for cooling. (All costs USD 2009). This translates to a freshwater conservation cost of $0.29/kL, which is considerably lower than that of dry air cooling technology, $1.5/kL, as well as the 2020 conservation cost target set by the U.S. Department of Energy, $0.74/kL. Results also show that if the available price of freshwater exceeds that of secondary-treated MWW by more than $0.13-0.14/kL, it can be economically advantageous to purchase secondary MWW and treat it for utilization in the recirculating cooling system of a thermoelectric power plant.

  2. Vanadium alloys for the radiative divertor program of DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.P.; Johnson, W.R.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Trester, P.W.; Smith, D.; Bloom, E.

    1995-10-01

    Vanadium alloys provide an attractive solution for fusion power plants as they exhibit a potential for low environmental impact due to low level of activation from neutron fluence and a relatively short half-life. They also have attractive material properties for use in a reactor. General Atomics along with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has developed a plan to utilize vanadium alloys as part of the Radiative Divertor Project (RDP) modification for the DIII-D tokamak. The goal for using vanadium alloys is to provide a meaningful step towards developing advanced materials for fusion power applications by demonstrating the in-service behavior of a vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) in a tokamak in conjunction with developing essential fabrication technology for the manufacture of full-scale vanadium alloy components. A phased approach towards utilizing vanadium in DIII-D is being used starting with small coupons and samples, advancing to a small component, and finally a portion of the new double-null, slotted divertor will be fabricated from vanadium alloy product forms. A major portion of the program is research and development to support fabrication and resolve key issues related to environmental effects.

  3. How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide Calculations Confirm Material's Potential for Next-Generation Electronics, Energy November 10, 2014 Contact: Dawn Levy, levyd@ornl.gov, 865.576.6448 Budaivibe Vanadium atoms (blue) have unusually large thermal vibrations that stabilize the metallic state of a vanadium dioxide crystal. Red depicts oxygen atoms. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory For more than 50 years, scientists have

  4. Vanadium removal from petroleum refinery wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nurdogan, Y.; Meyer, C.L.

    1996-11-01

    Although a numerical effluent limit has not been proposed for vanadium, San Francisco Bay Area refineries have been investigating reasonable source control and treatment measures to limit the discharge of vanadium as part of their National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit requirements because vanadium may contribute to aquatic toxicity. The NPDES permit issued for the Shell Martinez Manufacturing Complex (MMC) by the Regional Water Quality Control Board (CRWQCB) required that in the investigation of control strategies for vanadium, consideration must be given to source control measures that would reduce the discharge to the extent practicable. This paper summarizes the results of bench- and pilot-scale studies to remove vanadium from process effluent of the Shell MMC. This study has resulted in the following conclusions: vanadium in the Shell MMC refinery wastewater is generated by two major sources--the Flexicoker and Stretford processes; ferric and ferrous salts are both effective in removing vanadium from wastewaters; there are tradeoffs between the initial vanadium concentration, the final pH, and the final dissolved vanadium concentration, for both ferrous and ferric reagents; recycle of iron hydroxide sludge can reduce the amount of reagent needed to attain a given vanadium concentration; other things being equal, less ferric than ferrous reagent is required to produce the same removal of vanadium; the dewatered sludge from the pilot plant was tested for its hazardous waste characteristics; a high pH sludge regeneration and reuse process appears to be a promising method of cleaning up the hazardous iron sludge.

  5. Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin films Prev Next Title: Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin films Authors: Lee, Shinbuhm ...

  6. Vanadium Carbide Coating Process | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Vanadium Carbide Coating Process Vanadium Carbide Coating Process Innovative Process Enhances Wear Resistance of Metals, Saving Energy, Waste, and Costs Traditional methods of coating steel surfaces with a layer of hard metal carbide require large capital investment, produce toxic and hazardous gases, are costly to operate, and require multiple heat-treatment steps during processing. Vanadium carbide (VC) coating technology provides a superior protective coating for steel surfaces and eliminates

  7. Practical Thermodynamic Quantities for Aqueous Vanadium- and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Practical Thermodynamic Quantities for Aqueous Vanadium- and Iron-Based Flow Batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Practical Thermodynamic Quantities for Aqueous...

  8. Vanadium irradiation at ATR - neutronics aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1995-04-01

    Calculations were performed to estimate damage and transmutation rates in vanadium irradiated in the ATR (Advanced Test Reactor) located in Idaho. The main focuses of the study are to evaluate the transmutation of vanadium to chromium and to explore ways to design the irradiation experiment to avoid excessive transmutation. It was found that the A-hole of ATR produces damage rate of {approximately} 0.2%/dpa of vanadium to chromium. A thermal neutron filter can be incorporated into the design to reduce the vanadium-to-chromium transmutation rate to low levels. A filter 1-2 mm thick of gadolinium or hafnium can be used.

  9. Energy Storage for the Power Grid

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Imhoff, Carl; Vaishnav, Dave

    2016-07-12

    The iron vanadium redox flow battery was developed by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a solution to large-scale energy storage for the power grid.

  10. Energy Storage for the Power Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Imhoff, Carl; Vaishnav, Dave

    2014-04-23

    The iron vanadium redox flow battery was developed by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a solution to large-scale energy storage for the power grid.

  11. Minerals yearbook, 1992: Vanadium. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilliard, H.E.

    1993-09-01

    In 1992, steelmaking continued to account for more than 80% of domestic vanadium demand. Consumption showed a modest increase, from 3,300 tons in 1991 to 4,032 tons in 1992. Although overall imports of vanadium raw materials decreased when compared with 1991, imports of ash, residues, and spent catalysts increased. Total U.S. exports of vanadium materials increased from 1,560 tons in 1991 to about 1,700 tons in 1992. The oversupply of vanadium that began in late 1989 persisted throughout 1992 despite reduced production by the world's largest producer, Highveld Steel Vanadium Corp. of the Republic of South Africa. A result of the oversupply was continuously lower prices in 1992.

  12. Municipal Energy Agency of NE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    https:www.facebook.compagesNebraska-Municipal-Power-Pool198598933540030?skwall Outage Hotline: (800) 234-2595 References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 -...

  13. Methods for making lithium vanadium oxide electrode materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schutts, Scott M.; Kinney, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    A method of making vanadium oxide formulations is presented. In one method of preparing lithium vanadium oxide for use as an electrode material, the method involves: admixing a particulate form of a lithium compound and a particulate form of a vanadium compound; jet milling the particulate admixture of the lithium and vanadium compounds; and heating the jet milled particulate admixture at a temperature below the melting temperature of the admixture to form lithium vanadium oxide.

  14. Method for preparing high purity vanadium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick; Carlson, O. Norman

    1986-09-09

    A method for preparing high purity vanadium having a low silicon content has been developed. Vanadium pentoxide is reduced with a stoichiometric, or slightly deficient amount of aluminum to produce a vanadium-aluminum alloy containing an excess of oxygen. Silicon is removed by electron-beam melting the alloy under oxidizing conditions to promote the formation of SiO which is volatile at elevated temperatures. Excess oxygen is removed by heating the alloy in the presence of calcium metal to form calcium oxide.

  15. Method for preparing high purity vanadium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, F.; Carlson, O.N.

    1984-05-16

    A method for preparing high purity vanadium having a low silicon content has been developed. Vanadium pentoxide is reduced with a stoichiometric, or slightly deficient amount of aluminum to produce a vanadium-aluminum alloy containing an excess of oxygen. Silicon is removed by electron-beam melting the alloy under oxidizing conditions to promote the formation of SiO which is volatile at elevated temperatures. Excess oxygen is removed by heating the alloy in the presence of calcium metal to form calcium oxide.

  16. Photovoltaics for municipal planners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This booklet is intended for city and county government personnel, as well as community organizations, who deal with supplying, regulating, or recommending electric power resources. Specifically, this document deals with photovoltaic (PV) power, or power from solar cells, which is currently the most cost-effective energy source for electricity requirements that are relatively small, located in isolated areas, or difficult to serve with conventional technology. Recently, PV has been documented to be more cost-effective than conventional alternatives (such as line extensions or engine generators) in dozens of applications within the service territories of electric, gas, and communications utilities. Here, we document numerous cost-effective urban applications, chosen by planners and utilities because they were the most cost-effective option or because they were appropriate for environmental or logistical reasons. These applications occur within various municipal departments, including utility, parks and recreation, traffic engineering, transportation, and planning, and they include lighting applications, communications equipment, corrosion protection, irrigation control equipment, remote monitoring, and even portable power supplies for emergency situations.

  17. Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin films ...

  18. Analysis and Geochemical Modeling of Vanadium Contamination in Groundwater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    New Rifle Processing Site, Colorado | Department of Energy and Geochemical Modeling of Vanadium Contamination in Groundwater New Rifle Processing Site, Colorado Analysis and Geochemical Modeling of Vanadium Contamination in Groundwater New Rifle Processing Site, Colorado Analysis and Geochemical Modeling of Vanadium Contamination in Groundwater New Rifle Processing Site, Colorado Analysis and Geochemical Modeling of Vanadium Contamination in Groundwater New Rifle Processing Site, Colorado

  19. Working With Municipal Utilities

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Network Program Sustainability / Working with Utilities Peer Exchange Call: Working with Smaller Municipal Utilities, Call Slides and Summary, June 27, 2013.

  20. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayberry, J.L.

    1988-04-13

    This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

  1. Slag remelt purification of irradiated vanadium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmack, W.J.; Smolik, G.R.; McCarthy, K.A.; Gorman, P.K.

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes theoretical and scoping experimental efforts to investigate the decontamination potential of a slag remelting process for decontaminating irradiated vanadium alloys. Theoretical calculations, using a commercial thermochemical computer code HSC Chemistry, determined the potential slag compositions and slag-vanadium alloy ratios. The experiment determined the removal characteristics of four surrogate transmutation isotopes (Ca, Y - to simulate Sc, Mn, and Ar) from a V-5Ti-5Cr alloy with calcium fluoride slag. An electroslag remelt furnace was used in the experiment to melt and react the constituents. The process achieved about a 90 percent removal of calcium and over 99 percent removal of yttrium. Analyses indicate that about 40 percent of the manganese may have been removed. Argon analyses indicates that 99.3% of the argon was released from the vanadium alloy in the first melt increasing to 99.7% during the second melt. Powder metallurgy techniques were used to incorporate surrogate transmutation products in the vanadium. A powder mixture was prepared with the following composition: 90 wt % vanadium, 4.7 wt % titanium, 4.7 wt % chromium, 0.35 wt % manganese, 0.35 wt % CaO, and 0.35 wt % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This mixture was packed into 2.54 cm diameter stainless steel tubes. Argon was introduced into the powder mixture by evacuating and backfilling the stainless steel containers to a pressure of 20 kPa (0.2 atm). The tubes were hot isostatically pressed at 207 MPa (2000 atm) and 1473 K to consolidate the metal. An electroslag remelt furnace (crucible dimensions: 5.1 cm diameter by 15.2 cm length) was used to process the vanadium electrodes. Chemical analyses were performed on samples extracted from the slags and ingots. Ingot analyses results are shown below. Values are shown in percent removal of the four targeted elements of the initial compositions.

  2. Lithiated vanadium oxide (LVO), gamma-lithium vanadium bronze (gamma-LiV2O5) and vanadium dioxide (Vo2) as thermal-battery cathode materials. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richie, A.G.; Warner, K.

    1991-05-01

    Thermal batteries are high temperature reserve batteries, predominantly used in missiles. Modern designs use a lithium (or lithium alloy) anode, an immobilized molten salt electrolyte and an iron-disulphide cathode. These batteries have many advantages: high reliability, long storage life without maintenance, wide temperature range of operation and, sometimes, high power. However, the energy density is rather low and this could be improved if the individual cell voltage could be raised above the present 2.2 V/cell open circuit-voltage for the lithium iron-disulphide couple. A new cathode material, lithiated vanadium oxide (LVO), been invented at RAE with the advantage of the much higher open-circuit voltage of 2.6 V/cell versus lithium. The properties of LVO have been investigated and it has been shown that LVO consists of vanadium dioxide as the major component. Some lithium bromide is also present.

  3. Eversource- Municipal Smart Start Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Eversource (previously Public Service of New Hampshire), an electric utility, offers the Smart Start Program to municipal customers. This program assists municipalities in reducing energy...

  4. PSNH- Municipal Smart Start Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Public Service of New Hampshire (PSNH), an electric utility, offers the Smart Start Program to Municipal customers. This program assists municipalities in reducing energy consumption and electric...

  5. Municipal Energy Reduction Fund

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In March 2010, the New Hampshire Community Development Finance Authority (CDFA) launched a revolving loan program to encourage the state’s municipal governments to invest in energy efficiency and...

  6. Modified lithium vanadium oxide electrode materials products and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kahaian, Arthur J.; Visser, Donald R.; Dees, Dennis W.; Benedek, Roy

    1999-12-21

    A method of improving certain vanadium oxide formulations is presented. The method concerns fluorine doping formulations having a nominal formula of LiV.sub.3 O.sub.8. Preferred average formulations are provided wherein the average oxidation state of the vanadium is at least 4.6. Herein preferred fluorine doped vanadium oxide materials, electrodes using such materials, and batteries including at least one electrode therein comprising such materials are provided.

  7. Creep properties of vanadium-base alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, H.M.; Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1993-12-01

    Vanadium-base alloys are promising candidate materials for application in fusion reactor structural components because of several important advantages. V-4Cr-4Ti has been identified as one of the most promising candidate alloys and was selected for comprehensive tests and examination. In the present investigation, thermal creep rates and stress-rupture life of V-4Cr-4Ti and V-10Cr-5Ti alloys were determined at 600C. The impurity composition and microstructural characteristics of creep-tested specimens were analyzed and correlated with measured creep. Results show that V-4Cr-4Ti, which contains impurity compositions typical of a commercially fabricated vanadium-based alloy, exhibits creep strength substantially superior to that of V-20Ti, HT-9, or Type 316 stainless steel. The V-10Cr-5Ti alloy exhibits creep strength somewhat higher than that of V-4Cr-4Ti.

  8. Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Municipal Workplace Charging...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Municipal Workplace Charging Agreement Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Municipal Workplace Charging Agreement Review the agreement proposed by one municipality to register PEV ...

  9. Municipal Solid Waste | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Municipal Solid Waste Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Municipal Solid Waste Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMunicipalSo...

  10. Hull Municipal Light Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hull Municipal Light Plant Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Hull Municipal Light Plant Name: Hull Municipal Light Plant Place: Massachusetts Phone Number: 781-925-0051 Website:...

  11. Controlling vanadium from high metals crude oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golden, S.W.; Martin, G.R.

    1995-09-01

    Processing heavier high metals crude oils continues to be an objective of many refiners. Refiners manage the vanadium and other contaminants with hydroprocessing and FCC catalysts that are more tolerant to metals. Although hydroprocessing and FCC catalyst formulations are critical and will be required for the bulk of the metals removal, many times primary distillation impacts on vanadium are ignored. Distillation system designs can significantly impact the metals content of the gas oil pool or the total gas yields for a targeted metals level. Commercial experience shows that total gas oil metals to the hydroprocessing unit can be reduced by 20 to 40% for a given gas yield or the total gas oil yield can be increased for a given metals target by optimizing primary distillation system performance. Total gas oil vanadium content has varied from 5 to 2 weight ppm depending on crude oil metals level, unit process design, distillation unit operation, and equipment design. An actual example using a 22.0 API Bochequero Field blend will be used to illustrate the points covered. The source of the vanadium in the various gas oil pool components will be evaluated and show potential gas oil quality improvements based on primary distillation system design and operation modifications. In the example, the refiner processes 145,000 bpd of crude oil through a conventional integrated atmospheric/vacuum unit and processes the vacuum residue in a delayed coker. The gas oil blend streams consists of atmospheric gas oil, light vacuum gas oil, and heavy vacuum gas oil from the crude unit and heavy coker gas oil from the delayed coker. All the modifications which will be discussed have been operating successfully for several years.

  12. Understanding Aqueous Electrolyte Stability through Combined Computational and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Case Study on Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijayakumar, M.; Nie, Zimin; Walter, Eric D.; Hu, Jian Z.; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Redox flow battery (RFB) is a promising candidate for energy storage component in designing resilient grid scale power supply due to the advantage of the separation of power and energy. However, poorly understood chemical and thermal stability issues of electrolytes currently limit the performance of RFB. Designing of high performance stable electrolytes requires comprehensive knowledge about the molecular level solvation structure and dynamics of their redox active species. The molecular level understanding of detrimental V2O5 precipitation process led to successful designing of mixed acid based electrolytes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB). The higher stability of mixed acid based electrolytes is attributed to the choice of hydrochloric acid as optimal co-solvent, which provides chloride anions for ligand exchange process in vanadium solvation structure. The role of chloride counter anion on solvation structure and dynamics of vanadium species were studied using combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy and DFT based theoretical methods. Finally, the solvation phenomenon of multiple vanadium species and their impact on VRFB electrolyte chemical stability were discussed.

  13. Vanadium-pumped titanium x-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    A resonantly photo-pumped x-ray laser (10) is formed of a vanadium (12) and titanium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state neon-like titanium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from fluorine-like vanadium ions (32).

  14. Vanadium-pumped titanium x-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, J.

    1992-05-26

    A resonantly photo-pumped x-ray laser is formed of a vanadium and titanium foil combination that is driven by two beams of intense line focused optical laser radiation. Ground state neon-like titanium ions are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from fluorine-like vanadium ions. 4 figs.

  15. Municipal Solid Waste:

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenic Energy May 2007 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be

  16. Corn Belt Power Cooperative Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Corn Belt Power Cooperative is a generation and transmission electric cooperative that provides power to nine distribution rural electric cooperatives and one municipal electric cooperative. These...

  17. China Power Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    China Power Inc Place: Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100020 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: China Power Inc., a subsidiary of China Holdings Inc., is a project developer for...

  18. Nuclear reactor fuel element with vanadium getter on cladding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Carl E.; Carroll, Kenneth G.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element is described which has an outer cladding, a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material and a layer of vanadium as an oxygen getter on the inner surface of the cladding. The vanadium reacts with oxygen released by the fissionable material during irradiation of the core to prevent the oxygen from reacting with and corroding the cladding. Also described is a method for coating the inner surface of small diameter tubes of cladding with a layer of vanadium.

  19. Tianjin Jinneng Wind Power Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Wind Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tianjin Jinneng Wind Power Co Ltd Place: Tianjin Municipality, China Sector: Wind energy Product: Tianjin-based wind power...

  20. Polyvinyl Chloride/Silica Nanoporous Composite Separator for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Luo, Qingtao; Li, Bin; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2013-04-22

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are capable of reversible conversion between electricity and chemical energy. Potential RFB applications resolve around mitigating the discrepancy between electricity production and consumption to improve the stability and utilization of the power infrastructure and tackling the intermittency of renewables such as photovoltaics or wind turbines to enable their reliable integration [1, 2]. Because the energy is stored in externally contained liquid electrolytes and the energy conversion reactions take place at the electrodes, RFBs hold a unique capability to separate energy and power and thus possess considerable design flexibility to meet either energy management driven or power rating oriented grid applications, which is considered to be a unparalleled advantage over conventional solid-state secondary batteries [3]. Other advantages of RFBs include fast response to load changes, high round-trip efficiency, long calender and cycle lives, safe operations, tolerance to deep discharge, etc. [4]. Among various flow battery chemistries, all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) was invented by Maria Skyllas-Kazacos at the University of New South Wales in the 1980s [5, 6] and have attracted substantial attention in both research and industrial communities today [7, 8]. A well-recognized advantage that makes VRB stands out among other redox chemistries is the reduced crossover contamination ascribed to employing four different oxidation states of the same vanadium element as the two redox couples. Recently, great progress has led to remarkably improved energy density of VRB by using sulfuric-chloric mixed acid supporting electrolytes that were stable at 2.5M vanadium and had wider operational temperature window of -5~50oC [9], compared with the traditional sulfuric acid VRB system [10].

  1. Method to remove uranium/vanadium contamination from groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzler, Donald R.; Morrison, Stanley

    2004-07-27

    A process for removing uranium/vanadium-based contaminants from groundwater using a primary in-ground treatment media and a pretreatment media that chemically adjusts the groundwater contaminant to provide for optimum treatment by the primary treatment media.

  2. Method to Remove Uranium/Vanadium Contamination from Groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzler, Donald R.; Morrison Stanley

    2004-07-27

    A process for removing uranium/vanadium-based contaminants from groundwater using a primary in-ground treatment media and a pretreatment media that chemically adjusts the groundwater contaminant to provide for optimum treatment by the primary treatment media.

  3. Hudson Light & Power- Photovoltaic Incentive Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Hudson Light & Power Department, the municipal utility for the Town of Hudson, offers a limited number of solar photovoltaic (PV) rebates for residential, commercial, industrial, and municipal...

  4. Energy utilization: municipal waste incineration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaBeck, M.F.

    1981-03-27

    An assessment is made of the technical and economical feasibility of converting municipal waste into useful and useable energy. The concept presented involves retrofitting an existing municipal incinerator with the systems and equipment necessary to produce process steam and electric power. The concept is economically attractive since the cost of necessary waste heat recovery equipment is usually a comparatively small percentage of the cost of the original incinerator installation. Technical data obtained from presently operating incinerators designed specifically for generating energy, documents the technical feasibility and stipulates certain design constraints. The investigation includes a cost summary; description of process and facilities; conceptual design; economic analysis; derivation of costs; itemized estimated costs; design and construction schedule; and some drawings.

  5. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayberry, John L.

    1988-01-01

    Municipal waste materials are processed by crushing the materials so that pieces of noncombustible material are smaller than a selected size and pieces of combustible material are larger than the selected size. The crushed materials are placed on a vibrating mesh screen conveyor belt having openings which pass the smaller, noncombustible pieces of material, but do not pass the larger, combustible pieces of material. Pieces of material which become lodged in the openings of the conveyor belt may be removed by cylindrical deraggers or pressurized air. The crushed materials may be fed onto the conveyor belt by a vibrating feed plate which shakes the materials so that they tend to lie flat.

  6. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayberry, John L.

    1989-01-01

    Municipal waste materials are processed by crushing the materials so that pieces of noncombustible material are smaller than a selected size and pieces of combustible material are larger than the selected size. The crushed materials are placed on a vibrating mesh screen conveyor belt having openings which pass the smaller, noncombustible pieces of material, but do not pass the larger, combustible pieces of material. Consecutive conveyors may be connected by an intermediate vibratory plate. An air knife can be used to further separate materials based on weight.

  7. Evidence for impact ionization in vanadium dioxide (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Evidence for impact ionization in vanadium dioxide Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on October 17, 2017 Title: Evidence for impact ionization in vanadium dioxide Authors: Holleman, Joshua ; Bishop, Michael M. ; Garcia, Carlos ; Vellore Winfred, J. S. R. ; Lee, Shinbuhm ; Lee, Ho Nyung ; Beekman, Christianne ; Manousakis, Efstratios ; McGill, Stephen A. Publication Date: 2016-10-17 OSTI Identifier: 1329101 Type: Publisher's

  8. DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium The DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium shares technical information and experiences related to LED street and area lighting demonstrations and serves as an objective resource for evaluating new products on the market intended for those applications. Cities, power providers, and others who invest in street and area lighting are invited to join the Consortium and share their

  9. Wyoming Municipal Power Agency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility...

  10. Piedmont Municipal Power Agny | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    P NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes ISO Other Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility...

  11. Minnesota Municipal Power Agency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility...

  12. Florida Municipal Power Agency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility...

  13. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method of forming vanadium oxide films and vanadium oxide thin-films prepared thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Tracy, C. Edwin; Benson, David K.; Turner, John A.; Liu, Ping

    2000-01-01

    A method is disclosed of forming a vanadium oxide film on a substrate utilizing plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The method includes positioning a substrate within a plasma reaction chamber and then forming a precursor gas comprised of a vanadium-containing chloride gas in an inert carrier gas. This precursor gas is then mixed with selected amounts of hydrogen and oxygen and directed into the reaction chamber. The amounts of precursor gas, oxygen and hydrogen are selected to optimize the final properties of the vanadium oxide film An rf plasma is generated within the reaction chamber to chemically react the precursor gas with the hydrogen and the oxygen to cause deposition of a vanadium oxide film on the substrate while the chamber deposition pressure is maintained at about one torr or less. Finally, the byproduct gases are removed from the plasma reaction chamber.

  14. Osage Municipal Utilities Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Name Osage Municipal Utilities Wind Facility Osage Municipal Utilities Wind Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Osage...

  15. Woodstock Municipal Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    search Name Woodstock Municipal Wind Facility Woodstock Municipal Wind Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Developer Juhl Wind...

  16. Price Municipal Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Price Municipal Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Price Municipal Corporation Place: Utah Phone Number: 435-636-3197 Website: www.priceutah.netCityDirUti Outage...

  17. Community Renewable Energy Deployment: Sacramento Municipal Utility...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Sacramento Municipal Utility District Projects Jump to: navigation, search Name Community Renewable Energy Deployment: Sacramento Municipal Utility District Projects AgencyCompany...

  18. Massachusetts Municipal Commercial Industrial Incentive Program...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Rebate Varies depending on utility Program Info Sector Name Utility Administrator Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Company in collaboration with municipal utilities...

  19. Wakefield Municipal Gas & Light Department - Residential Conservation...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Programmable Thermostats: 25 Water Heater: 100 Summary The Wakefield Municipal Gas & Light Department (WMGLD), in cooperation with the Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric...

  20. Keosauqua Municipal Light & Pwr | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Keosauqua Municipal Light & Pwr Jump to: navigation, search Name: Keosauqua Municipal Light & Pwr Place: Iowa Phone Number: 319-293-3406 Website: villagesofvanburen.comdirecto...

  1. Thurmont Municipal Light Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Thurmont Municipal Light Co Jump to: navigation, search Name: Thurmont Municipal Light Co Place: Maryland Phone Number: 301-271-7313 Website: www.thurmont.com Facebook: https:...

  2. Philippi Municipal Electric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Philippi Municipal Electric Jump to: navigation, search Name: Philippi Municipal Electric Place: West Virginia Phone Number: 304-457-3700 Outage Hotline: 304-457-3700 References:...

  3. Willmar Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Page Edit with form History Willmar Municipal Utilities Jump to: navigation, search Name: Willmar Municipal Utilities Place: Minnesota Phone Number: 320.235.4422 Website:...

  4. Delano Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Delano Municipal Utilities Jump to: navigation, search Name: Delano Municipal Utilities Place: Minnesota Website: www.dmumn.com Outage Hotline: (763)972-0557 References: EIA Form...

  5. Indianola Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Indianola Municipal Utilities Jump to: navigation, search Name: Indianola Municipal Utilities Place: Iowa Phone Number: 515.961.9444 Website: www.i-m-u.com Outage Hotline:...

  6. CATALYTIC PROMOTION OF THE ADSORPTION OF VANADIUM ON AN ANIONIC EXCHANGE RESIN

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailes, R.H.; Ellis, D.A.

    1958-08-26

    An improvement in the process for the recovery of vanadium from acidic phosphatic solutions is presented. In this process the vanadium is first oxidized to the pentavaleat state, and is then separated by contacting such solutions with an anion exchange resin whereby adsorption of the complexed pentavalent vanadium is effected. The improvement lies in the fact that adsorp tion of the vanadium complex by the anion exchange resin is promoted and improved by providing fiuoride ions in solution to be contacted.

  7. Membrane Development for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwenzer, Birgit; Zhang, Jianlu; Kim, Soowhan; Li, Liyu; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-10-17

    Large-scale energy storage has become a main bottleneck for increasing the percentage of renewable energy in our electricity grids. Redox flow batteries are considered to be among the best options for electricity storage in the megawatt range, and large demonstration systems have already been installed. Although the full technological potential of these systems has not been reached yet, currently the main problem hindering more widespread commercialization is the high cost of redox flow batteries. Nafion{reg_sign} as the preferred membrane material is responsible for {approx}11% of the overall cost of a 1 MW/8 MWh system. Therefore in recent years two main membrane-related research threads have emerged: (a) chemical and physical modification of Nafion membranes to optimize their properties with regard to vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) application; and (b) replacement of the Nafion membranes with different, less expensive materials. This review summarizes the underlying basic science issues associated with membrane use in VRFBs and presents an overview of membrane-related research approaches aimed at improving the efficiency of VRFBs and making the technology cost-competitive. Promising research strategies and materials are identified and suggestions are provided on how materials issues could be overcome.

  8. Dependence of electrophysical properties on structure of vanadium dioxide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aleksandrov, Yu.A.; Baryshnikov, Yu.Yu.; Zakharov, I.L.; Makin, G.I.; Terman, M.Yu.

    1988-02-01

    Among the inorganic materials with a metal-semiconductor phase transition (MSPT), vanadium dioxide attracts much theoretical and practical interest for two reasons. First, the maximum change in the electrical conductivity at the MSPT point is of order of magnitudes, and secondly, since the temperature T/sub P/ at the MSPT point is about 68/sup 0/C, neither high nor low temperature techniques are required for the utilization of VO/sub 2/. We study the mixture and structural-morphological condition of thin films (0.01-2 ..mu..m) of vanadium dioxide as well as the relation between the films and the change in the resistivity in the MSPT temperature range. The resistivity of the vanadium dioxide films was measured by a standard four probe method.

  9. Southwestern Power Administration

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Schedules Skip Navigation Links Excess Energy Hydro Peaking Power Hydro Power and Energy Sold to Sam Rayburn Dam Electric Cooperative (Rayburn) Hydro Power and Energy Sold to Sam Rayburn Municipal Power Agency (Willis) Non-Federal Transmission/Interconnection Facilities Service Contact swparates@swpa.gov Last Updated: January 05, 2016

  10. Sino Power Star Co Ltd SPSCAP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Power Star Co Ltd SPSCAP Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sino Power Star Co Ltd (SPSCAP) Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 102628 Sector: Vehicles Product:...

  11. Zhangbei Guotou Wind Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Zhangbei Guotou Wind Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zhangbei Guotou Wind Power Plant Place: Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100037 Sector: Wind energy Product: A...

  12. The CECIC Wind Power Xinjiang Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    CECIC Wind Power Xinjiang Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: The CECIC Wind Power (Xinjiang) Co Ltd Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100037 Sector: Wind...

  13. Tianjin DH Power Investment Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Tianjin DH Power Investment Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tianjin DH Power Investment Limited Place: Tianjin, Tianjin Municipality, China Sector: Wind energy Product:...

  14. Century Concord Wind Power Investment Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Concord Wind Power Investment Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Century Concord Wind Power Investment Ltd Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Sector: Wind energy...

  15. Beijing Four Seasons Solar Power Technology Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Beijing Four Seasons Solar Power Technology Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing Four Seasons Solar Power Technology Co Ltd Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China...

  16. Guodian Longyuan Power Technology Engineering Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Longyuan Power Technology Engineering Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Guodian Longyuan Power Technology Engineering Co Ltd Place: Beijing Municipality, China Sector:...

  17. Chongqing Dianfeng Bioenergy Power Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Dianfeng Bioenergy Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Chongqing Dianfeng Bioenergy Power Co Ltd Place: Chongqing Municipality, China Sector: Biomass Product:...

  18. China Longyuan Power Group Corporation Limited | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Power Group Corporation Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Longyuan Power Group Corporation Limited Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100034 Sector:...

  19. North China Electric Power University Beijing | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Electric Power University Beijing Jump to: navigation, search Name: North China Electric Power University (Beijing) Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 102206 Product:...

  20. China Datang Corporation Renewable Power Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Corporation Renewable Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Datang Corporation Renewable Power Co Ltd Place: Beijing Municipality, China Sector: Renewable Energy...

  1. Wuxi Longshui Hydroelectric Power Development Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Longshui Hydroelectric Power Development Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wuxi Longshui Hydroelectric Power Development Co. Ltd Place: Chongqing, Chongqing Municipality,...

  2. Shanghai Pearl Hydrogen Power Source Technology | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hydrogen Power Source Technology Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shanghai Pearl Hydrogen Power Source Technology Place: Shanghai, Shanghai Municipality, China Product: Chinese...

  3. Beijing LN Green Power Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Beijing LN Green Power Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing LN Green Power Company Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100000 Sector: Vehicles Product:...

  4. Energy Department Works with Sacramento Municipal Utility District on Renewable Electricity Generation and Delivery

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) in Sacramento, California, is looking to local renewable resources to help meet its aggressive goal of supplying 37% of its power from renewables in 2020.

  5. Research and development on vanadium alloys for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Matsui, H.; Abe, K.; Smith, D.L.; Osch, E. van; Kazakov, V.A.

    1998-03-01

    The current status of research and development on unirradiated and irradiated V-Cr-Ti alloys intended for fusion reactor structural applications is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the flow and fracture behavior of neutron-irradiated vanadium alloys. Recent progress on fabrication, joining, oxidation behavior, and the development of insulator coatings is also summarized. Fabrication of large (>500 kg) heats of V-4Cr-4Ti with properties similar to previous small laboratory heats has now been demonstrated. Impressive advances in the joining of thick sections of vanadium alloys using GTA and electron beam welds have been achieved in the past two years, although further improvements are still needed.

  6. Compact Power Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Ltd Place: Bristol, England, United Kingdom Zip: BS11 9HZ Product: Builds gasification plants for municipal, industrial and clinical waste. References: Compact Power Ltd1 This...

  7. Vanadium Dioxide Microactuators - Energy Innovation Portal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    a powerful new microscale actuator that simultaneously achieves high amplitude, high work output, and high speed in both air and water. In fact, this technology is the first...

  8. Kenyon Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Kenyon Municipal Utilities Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kenyon Municipal Utilities Place: Minnesota References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a1 EIA Form...

  9. Best Practices for Siting Solar Photovoltaics on Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Mosey, G.; Jones-Johnson, S.; Dufficy, C.; Bourg, J.; Conroy, A.; Keenan, M.; Michaud, W.; Brown, K.

    2013-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed this best practices document to address common technical challenges for siting solar photovoltaics (PV) on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The purpose of this document is to promote the use of MSW landfills for solar energy systems. Closed landfills and portions of active landfills with closed cells represent thousands of acres of property that may be suitable for siting solar photovoltaics (PV). These closed landfills may be suitable for near-term construction, making these sites strong candidate to take advantage of the 30% Federal Business Energy Investment Tax Credit. It was prepared in response to the increasing interest in siting renewable energy on landfills from solar developers; landfill owners; and federal, state, and local governments. It contains examples of solar PV projects on landfills and technical considerations and best practices that were gathered from examining the implementation of several of these projects.

  10. Municipal solid waste (garbage): problems and benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stillman, G.I.

    1983-05-01

    The average person in the USA generates from 3 1/2 to 7 lb of garbage/day. The combustible portion of garbage consists primarily of paper products, plastics, textiles, and wood. Problems connected with energy production from municipal solid waste (garbage), and the social, economic, and environmental factors associated with this technology are discussed. The methods for using garbage as a fuel for a combustion process are discussed. One method processes the garbage to produce a fuel that is superior to raw garbage, the other method of using garbage as a fuel is to burn it directly - the mass burning approach. The involvement of the Power Authority of the State of New York in garbage-to-energy technology is discussed.

  11. Insulator-to-Metal Transition of Vanadium Dioxide | U.S. DOE...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    such as smart windows and ultrafast field effect transistors, exhibits an insulator to ... vanadium dioxide driven by large phonon entropy," Nature 515, 535-539, 2014. DOI: ...

  12. Synthesis, characterization, and thermodynamic parameters of vanadium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi Ji [Department of Chemical Engineering of Material, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, 158 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116012 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Dalian Life Science College, Dalian Nationalities University, 18 Laohe West Road, Dalian 116600 (China); Ning Guiling [Department of Chemical Engineering of Material, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, 158 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116012 (China)], E-mail: ninggl@dlut.edu.cn; Lin Yuan [Department of Chemical Engineering of Material, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, 158 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2008-08-04

    A novel process was developed for synthesizing pure thermochromic vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) by thermal reduction of vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) in ammonia gas. The process of thermal reduction of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} was optimized by both experiments and modeling of thermodynamic parameters. The product VO{sub 2} was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The experimental results indicated that pure thermochromic VO{sub 2} crystal particles were successfully synthesized. The phase transition temperature of the VO{sub 2} is approximately 342.6 K and the enthalpy of phase transition is 44.90 J/g.

  13. Present Status of Vanadium Alloys for Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muroga, Takeo; Chen, J. M.; Chernov, V. M.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Le Flem, M.

    2014-12-01

    Vanadium alloys are advanced options for low activation structural materials. After more than two decades of research, V-4Cr-4Ti has been emerged as the leading candidate, and technological progress has been made in reducing the number of critical issues for application of vanadium alloys to fusion reactors. Notable progress has been made in fabricating alloy products and weld joints without degradation of properties. Various efforts are also being made to improve high temperature strength and creep-rupture resistance, low temperature ductility after irradiation, and corrosion resistance in blanket conditions. Future research should focus on clarifying remaining uncertainty in the operating temperature window of V-4Cr-4Ti for application to near to middle term fusion blanket systems, and on further exploration of advanced materials for improved performance for longer-term fusion reactor systems.

  14. Utilization of ash from municipal solid waste combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C.; Hahn, J.; Magee, B.; Yuen, N.; Sandefur, K.; Tom, J.; Yap, C.

    1999-09-01

    This ash study investigated the beneficial use of municipal waste combustion combined ash from the H-POWER facility in Oahu. These uses were grouped into intermediate cover for final closure of the Waipahu landfill, daily cover at the Waimanalo Gulch Landfill, and partial replacement for aggregate in asphalt for road paving. All proposed uses examine combined fly and bottom ash from a modern waste-to-energy facility that meets requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments for Maximum Achievable Control Technology.

  15. Fact Sheet: Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries (October 2012)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Breakthrough Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a new sulfate (SO 4 2- ) and chloride (Cl - ) mixed solution that is used as the electrolyte. Compared to pure sulfuric acid, the new solution can hold more than 70% more vanadium ions, increasing energy storage capacity by more than 70%. The use of Cl - in the new solution also increases the operating temperature window by 83%, so the battery can operate between -5° and 50°C. Other properties, such as

  16. Integrated facility for municipal solid waste disposal, electrical generation, and desalination. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanby, G.F.

    1995-12-31

    A preliminary design was completed for a facility that uses municipal solid waste as fuel for generating electricity and cogeneration steam for a seawater desalination unit. An average city of 100,000 population is the basis of the design. The design showed that heat from the combustion of municipal solid waste will provide nearly 2% of per capita electrical power needs and 7% of fresh water requirements. This thesis proposes a new arrangement of known technologies for use in Public Works.

  17. A municipal guide to least cost utility planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The recent track record of ``traditional`` electricity planning, which entails selection of supply side resources to meet forecasted demand, has not been good. There are numerous examples of utilities incorrectly forecasting demand and over-building generating capacity while others underestimated growth and have had to cut demand and find alternate power sources to avoid outages. A potential solution to this problem is the continuing development of Least Cost Utility Plannning (LCUP). Regulatory commissions, consumer advocates and utilities are increasingly relying an LCUP as the most responsible way to avoid construction of new capacity and alleviate anticipated shortages caused by cancellation of construction projects, load growth, or natural replacement of aging capacity. The purpose of this report is to provide municipalities a starting point for evaluating their servicing utilities or states` least cost plan. This was accomplished by: Identifying key issues in LCUP; reviewing examples of the collaborative and classic approaches to LCUP in Illinois, California, New York State and Michigan; cataloging municipal authorities and strategies which can influence or support LCUP activities. Results of the project indicate that through a basic understanding of LCUP processes and issues, municipalities will be in a better position to influence plans or, if necessary, intervene in regulatory proceedings where plans are adopted. Constraints to municipal involvement in LCUP include statutory limitations, resource constraints, and a lack of knowledge of indirect authorities that support the LCUP process.

  18. A municipal guide to least cost utility planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The recent track record of traditional'' electricity planning, which entails selection of supply side resources to meet forecasted demand, has not been good. There are numerous examples of utilities incorrectly forecasting demand and over-building generating capacity while others underestimated growth and have had to cut demand and find alternate power sources to avoid outages. A potential solution to this problem is the continuing development of Least Cost Utility Plannning (LCUP). Regulatory commissions, consumer advocates and utilities are increasingly relying an LCUP as the most responsible way to avoid construction of new capacity and alleviate anticipated shortages caused by cancellation of construction projects, load growth, or natural replacement of aging capacity. The purpose of this report is to provide municipalities a starting point for evaluating their servicing utilities or states' least cost plan. This was accomplished by: Identifying key issues in LCUP; reviewing examples of the collaborative and classic approaches to LCUP in Illinois, California, New York State and Michigan; cataloging municipal authorities and strategies which can influence or support LCUP activities. Results of the project indicate that through a basic understanding of LCUP processes and issues, municipalities will be in a better position to influence plans or, if necessary, intervene in regulatory proceedings where plans are adopted. Constraints to municipal involvement in LCUP include statutory limitations, resource constraints, and a lack of knowledge of indirect authorities that support the LCUP process.

  19. Energy Storage for the Power Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imhoff, Carl; Vaishnav, Dave

    2014-07-01

    The iron vanadium redox flow battery was developed by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a solution to large-scale energy storage for the power grid. This technology provides the energy industry and the nation with a reliable, stable, safe, and low-cost storage alternative for a cleaner, efficient energy future.

  20. Beijing Fuyuan Century Fuel Cell Power Co Ltd FCFCP | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Fuyuan Century Fuel Cell Power Co Ltd FCFCP Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing Fuyuan Century Fuel Cell Power Co Ltd (FCFCP) Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip:...

  1. Shanghai Shenhua Wind Power New Energy Co Ltd | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Shenhua Wind Power New Energy Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shanghai Shenhua Wind Power New Energy Co Ltd Place: Shanghai, Shanghai Municipality, China Sector: Wind...

  2. Beijing F Y Hyenergy Power System Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Y Hyenergy Power System Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing F.Y. Hyenergy Power System Co Ltd Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100176 Product:...

  3. Theoretical Study of High-Valent Vanadium Oxo-Porphyrins as a Dopant of Crude Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salcedo, Roberto; Martinez, LMR; Martinez-Magadan, Jose M.

    2001-06-15

    The role played by the vanadyl porphyrinate as a dopant for zeolites in the refinement process of crude oil is analyzed using DFT calculations. The pair formed by the vanadium atom and its bonded oxygen atoms seems to be the responsible items in the dopant reaction. However, the present paper shows the participation of the vanadium atom as being the most important.

  4. Minnkota Power Cooperative (17 Utilities) - PowerSavers Commercial...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Electric Cooperative Roseau Municipal Utilities Fosston Municipal Utilities City of Stephen Municipal Utilities Halstad Municipal Utilities Thief River Falls Municipal Utilities...

  5. Shanghai Wind Power Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Shanghai Wind Power Co Ltd Place: Shanghai Municipality, China Zip: 200437 Sector: Wind energy Product: Engaged in the design and manufacturing of wind turbine generators and...

  6. Shanghai Wind Power Company SWPC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    SWPC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shanghai Wind Power Company (SWPC) Place: Shanghai, Shanghai Municipality, China Sector: Wind energy Product: It is set up for running the...

  7. Beijing Full Three Dimension Power Engineering Co Ltd FTD | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Power Engineering Co Ltd (FTD) Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100080 Product: A steam turbine design and refurbishment service provider. Focus on technical...

  8. CECIC Wind Power Investment Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Investment Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: CECIC Wind Power Investment Co Ltd Place: Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100037 Sector: Wind energy Product: A subsidiary of...

  9. Sacramento Utility to Launch Concentrating Solar Power-Natural...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    available source of American energy, the Energy Department today announced a new concentrating solar power (CSP) project led by the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). ...

  10. State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation SNPTC | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Technology Corporation SNPTC Jump to: navigation, search Name: State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation (SNPTC) Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100032 Product:...

  11. Chongqing Lanxi Power Industry Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    City, Chongqing Municipality, China Sector: Hydro Product: Chongqing-based small hydro project developer. References: Chongqing Lanxi Power Industry Co Ltd1 This article...

  12. Los Angeles Department of Water Power LADWP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    LADWP Jump to: navigation, search Name: Los Angeles Department of Water & Power (LADWP) Place: Los Angeles, CA, California Zip: 90012 Product: Municipal utility serving the water...

  13. Guodian United Power Technology Co Ltd formerly Guodian Union...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100044 Sector: Wind energy Product: China-based wind turbine maker and daughter company of state-owned power generator China Guodian. References:...

  14. National Bio Energy Co Ltd formerly Guoneng Biomass Power Ltd...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Ltd.) Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100005 Sector: Biomass Product: Invest in, build and run biomass power plants. Coordinates: 39.90601, 116.387909 Show Map...

  15. China Power International Shanghai Green CLP JV | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Shanghai Green CLP JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Power International, Shanghai Green & CLP JV Place: Shanghai, Shanghai Municipality, China Sector: Wind energy...

  16. China Power International New Energy Holding Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    New Energy Holding Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Power International New Energy Holding Ltd Place: Shanghai Municipality, China Zip: 200052 Sector: Biomass, Hydro,...

  17. Beijing Feichi Green Power Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100094 Product: A company engages in producing PEM fuel cells, especially for buses. References: Beijing Feichi Green Power Corporation1...

  18. Shawano Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Utilities Place: Wisconsin Phone Number: 715-526-3131 Website: www.shawano.tv Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesShawano-Municipal-Utilities156410777732483 Outage...

  19. Municipalities and Renewable Energy Opportunities | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Municipalities and Renewable Energy Opportunities Jump to: navigation, search BUILDING COMMUNITIES WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY --Rsiegent 20:06, 20 January 2010 (UTC) BC communities and...

  20. Canton Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesCanton-Municipal-Utilities332942860232523?refhl Outage Hotline: 601.859.2474 References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 -...

  1. Draft Powerpoint: Toward Energy Efficient Municipalities, LLC...

    Energy Savers

    Toward Energy Efficient Municipalities: General Comments on Policy and Logistical Challenges to Smart Grid Implementation Smart Grid R&D Multi-Year Program Plan (2010-2014) - ...

  2. Indianola Municipal Utilities- Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Indianola Municipal Utilities offers a number of energy efficiency rebates to residential, commercial and industrial customers. The program provides rebates for commercial lighting, central air...

  3. Marblehead Municipal Light Department - Residential Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    and additional program requirements can be found in the rebate guide located on the program web site. Contact Marblehead Municipal Light Department for more details on this...

  4. Reading Municipal Light Department - Business Lighting Rebate...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with Electronic Ballasts: 100fixture De-lamping: 4 - 9lamp Lighting Sensors: 20sensor LED Exit Signs: 20fixture Summary Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers...

  5. Mora Municipal Utilities - Commercial & Industrial Energy Efficiency...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Program Info Sector Name Utility Administrator Mora Municipal Utilities Website http:www.SaveEnergyInMora.com State Minnesota Program...

  6. Watertown Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Utilities Place: South Dakota Phone Number: (605)882-6233 Website: watertownmu.com Twitter: @watertownmu Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesWatertown-Municipal-Utiliti...

  7. Wyandotte Municipal Serv Comm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Municipal Serv Comm Place: Michigan Phone Number: 734.324.7190 Website: www.wyan.org Twitter: @wyandottemunsvs Facebook: https:www.facebook.comwyandottemunicipalservices...

  8. Denton Municipal Electric- Standard Offer Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Within the GreenSense program, Denton Municipal Electric's Standard Offer Program provides rebates to large commercial and industrial customers for lighting retrofits, HVAC upgrades and motor...

  9. Tipton Municipal Electric Util | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Electric Util Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tipton Municipal Electric Util Address: P.O. Box 288 Place: Tipton, Indiana Zip: 46072 Service Territory: Indiana Phone Number:...

  10. Isotope Effects and Helium Retention Behavior in Vanadium Tritide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, Jr., R. C.; Attalla, A.; Craft, B. D.

    1985-04-01

    The relaxation times of the H, T, and 3He nuclei have been measured in vanadium hydride and tritide samples. Substantial isotope effects in both the phase transition temperatures and diffusion parameters have been found. When compared to hydrides, the tritide samples have lower transition temperatures and faster mobilities. The differences in the occupancies of the interstitial sites are largely responsible for these isotope effects. Most of the helium atoms generated by tritium decay remain trapped in microscopic bubbles formed with the VTx lattice. Evidence is presented for the gradual growth of the helium bubbles over periods of hundreds of days.

  11. Draft Transcript on Municipal PV Systems

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Webinar on navigating the legal, tax, and finance issues associated with the installation of Municipal PV Systems. The following agenda was developed based on Pat Boylston's experience assisting municipalities with their PV projects and the requests for information that the Solar America City technical team leads have received from many of the 25 Solar America Cities since the April 2008 meeting in Tucson.

  12. Nitridation under ammonia of high surface area vanadium aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merdrignac-Conanec, Odile [Laboratoire Verres et Ceramiques, UMR CNRS 6512, Institut de Chimie de Rennes, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France)]. E-mail: odile.merdrignac@univ-rennes1.fr; El Badraoui, Khadija [Laboratoire Verres et Ceramiques, UMR CNRS 6512, Institut de Chimie de Rennes, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France); L'Haridon, Paul [Laboratoire Verres et Ceramiques, UMR CNRS 6512, Institut de Chimie de Rennes, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2005-01-15

    Vanadium pentoxide gels have been obtained from decavanadic acid prepared by ion exchange on a resin from ammonium metavanadate solution. The progressive removal of water by solvent exchange in supercritical conditions led to the formation of high surface area V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, 1.6H{sub 2}O aerogels. Heat treatment under ammonia has been performed on these aerogels in the 450-900 deg. C temperature range. The oxide precursors and oxynitrides have been characterized by XRD, SEM, TGA, BET. Nitridation leads to divided oxynitride powders in which the fibrous structure of the aerogel is maintained. The use of both very low heating rates and high surface area aerogel precursors allows a higher rate and a lower threshold of nitridation than those reported in previous works. By adjusting the nitridation temperature, it has been possible to prepare oxynitrides with various nitrogen enrichment and vanadium valency states. Whatever the V(O,N) composition, the oxidation of the oxynitrides in air starts between 250 and 300 deg. C. This determines their potential use as chemical gas sensors at a maximum working temperature of 250 deg. C.

  13. Structural investigation of phosphate - bismuth glasses with vanadium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stănescu, R.; Vedeanu, N.; Cozar, I. B.; Măgdaş, A.

    2013-11-13

    The xV{sub 2}O{sub 5}(1−dx)[0.5P{sub 2}O{sub 5}⋅0.5Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}] glass system with 0 ≤ x ≤ 50 mol% is investigated by IR and Raman spectroscopy. Both P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides are known as network formers, but Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} is an unconventional one. At low content of vanadium oxide (x ≤ 5 mol%), both IR and Raman spectra are dominated by vibration bands characteristics to structural groups of phosphate and bismuthate lattices. Due to the network modifier role, vanadium oxide acts mainly on the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} network allowing the phosphate groups to impose their characteristics absorption bands in spectra. These bands are strongly reduced for x ≥ 20 mol% due to the phosphate network depolymerization and the appearance of new vibrations characteristic to P-O-V, Bi-O-V and V-O-V groups showing the network former role of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}.

  14. Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets...

    Energy Savers

    Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets This report describes how NREL used the CNG Vehicle and ...

  15. Valley Center Municipal Water District | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Valley Center Municipal Water District Jump to: navigation, search Name: Valley Center Municipal Water District Place: Valley Center, California Zip: 92082 Product: VCMWD is the...

  16. Ouray Municipal Pool Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Municipal Pool Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Ouray Municipal Pool Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  17. Municipal Energy Agency of MS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Name: Municipal Energy Agency of MS Place: Mississippi Phone Number: (601) 362-2252 Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesMunicipal-Energy-Agency-of-Mississippi Outage...

  18. Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets...

  19. Sacramento Municipal Utility District Solar Array | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Municipal Utility District Solar Array Sector Solar Facility Type Ground-mounted fixed tilt Owner EnXco Developer EnXco Energy Purchaser Sacramento Municipal Utility District...

  20. Stuart Municipal Utilities Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Stuart Municipal Utilities Energy Purchaser Stuart Municipal Utilities Location Stuart IA Coordinates 41.493988, -94.327403 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappings...

  1. Lenox Municipal Utilities Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Lenox Municipal Utilities Energy Purchaser Lenox Municipal Utilities Location Lenox IA Coordinates 40.880592, -94.559029 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappings...

  2. Wall Lake Municipal Utilities Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Municipal Utilities Energy Purchaser Wall Lake Municipal Utilities Location Wall Lake IA Coordinates 42.281965, -95.094098 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappings...

  3. Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cap May County Municipal Utilities Authority Place: Cape May Court House, New Jersey Zip: 8210...

  4. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal solid waste (MSW) is ...

  5. New Castle Municipal Serv Comm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Municipal Serv Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name: New Castle Municipal Serv Comm Place: Delaware Phone Number: 302-323-2333 Website: www.newcastlemsc.comindex.php Outage...

  6. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Alabama. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Alabama legislature has created the Public Service Commission which has general supervisory powers over utilities. The PSC consists of a president and two associates, who are elected to four-year terms. The PSC has no jurisdiction over municipal utilities and, as a result, local governments retain the power to regulate the operation of their municipally-owned utilities. Municipalities also retain their police power over streets and highways within their territory. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  7. Structure and Electrochemistry of Vanadium-Modified LiFePO4 ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structure and Electrochemistry of Vanadium-Modified LiFePO4 Authors: Hong, Jian ; Wang, Xiao-Liang ; Wang, Qi ; Omenya, Fredrick O. ; ...

  8. Can Vanadium Be Substituted into LiFePO[subscript 4]? (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the solid solution LiFesub 1-3y2Vsub yPOsub 4, the a and b lattice parameters and cell volume decrease with increasing vanadium content, while the c lattice parameter...

  9. Molecular based magnets comprising vanadium tetracyanoethylene complexes for shielding electromagnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, A.J.; Morin, B.G.

    1998-10-13

    The invention presents a vanadium tetracyanoethylene solvent complex for electromagnetic field shielding, and a method for blocking low frequency and magnetic fields using these vanadium tetracyanoethylene compositions. The compositions of the invention can be produced at ambient temperature and are light weight, low density and flexible. The materials of the present invention are useful as magnetic shields to block low frequency fields and static fields, and for use in cores in transformers and motors. 21 figs.

  10. Molecular based magnets comprising vanadium tetracyanoethylene complexes for shielding electromagnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, Arthur J.; Morin, Brian G.

    1998-01-01

    The invention presents a vanadium tetracyanoethylene solvent complex for electromagnetic field shielding, and a method for blocking low frequency and magnetic fields using these vanadium tetracyanoethylene compositions. The compositions of the invention can be produced at ambient temperature and are light weight, low density and flexible. The materials of the present invention are useful as magnetic shields to block low frequency fields and static fields, and for use in cores in transformers and motors.

  11. Palladium-coated Vanadium-alloy membranes for Hydrogen Separation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paglieri, S. N. (Stephen N.); Pesiri, D. R. (David R.); Dye, R. C. (Robert C.); Birdsell, S. A. (Stephen A.); Snow, R. C. (Ronny C.)

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen-separating membranes have the potential to generate pure hydrogen from abundant fossil fuel supplies such as coal, for use in fuel cells. Foils of V{sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05} and V{sub 0.88}Cu{sub 0.12} (at. %) coated with thin films of Pd or Pd alloy (Pd-Ag) were fabricated and tested for hydrogen permeability and stability during operation at temperatures from 320-450 C. Vanadium-alloy foils were ion-milled and coatings between 50 and 200 nm thick were applied to both sides insitu, via electron beam evaporation PVD. The membranes were completely permselective for hydrogen. Hydrogen flux stability was dependent on palladium coating thickness, with constant flux observed during tests at 350 C, and slow decline observed at 400 C that accelerated at higher temperatures.

  12. Demonstration of Alternative Fuel, Light and Heavy Duty Vehicles in State and Municipal Vehicle Fleets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, John H.; Polubiatko, Peter; Tucchio, Michael A.

    2002-02-06

    This project involved the purchase of two Compressed Natural Gas School Buses and two electric Ford Rangers to demonstrate their viability in a municipal setting. Operational and maintenance data were collected for analysis. In addition, an educational component was undertaken with middle school children. The children observed and calculated how electric vehicles could minimize pollutants through comparison to conventionally powered vehicles.

  13. Vanadium oxides nanostructures: Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mjejri, I.; Etteyeb, N.; Sediri, F.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Vanadium oxides nanostructures were synthesized hydrothermally. • Reversible redox behavior with doping/dedoping process. • Doping/dedoping is easier for Li{sup +} to Na{sup +}. • Energy-related applications such as cathodes in lithium batteries. - Abstract: A facile and template-free one-pot strategy is applied to synthesize nanostructured vanadium oxide particles via a hydrothermal methodology. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to characterize the structure and morphology of the samples. The products are gradually changed from sheet-shaped VO{sub 2}(B) to rod-like V{sub 3}O{sub 7}·H{sub 2}O with decreasing cyclohexanediol as both protective and reducing agent. The specific surface area of the VO{sub 2}(B) nanosheets and V{sub 3}O{sub 7}·H{sub 2}O nanorods was found to be 22 and 16 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, respectively. Thin films of VO{sub 2}(B) and V{sub 3}O{sub 7}·H{sub 2}O deposited on ITO substrates were electrochemically characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The voltammograms show reversible redox behavior with doping/dedoping process corresponding to reversible cation intercalation/de-intercalation into the crystal lattice of the nanorods/nanosheets. This process is easier for the small Li{sup +} cation than larger ones Na{sup +}.

  14. Atlantic Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Place: Iowa Phone Number: 712-243-1395 Website: www.a-m-u.net Twitter: @AMUAtlantic Facebook: https:www.facebook.comAtlanticMunicipalUtilities Outage Hotline: 712-243-1395...

  15. Municipal Electric Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Electric Authority Jump to: navigation, search Name: Municipal Electric Authority Place: Georgia Phone Number: 1-800-333-MEAG; 770-563-0300 Website: www.meagpower.org Twitter:...

  16. New London Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Utilities Jump to: navigation, search Name: New London Municipal Utilities Place: Iowa References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a1 EIA Form 861 Data Utility...

  17. Renewable Electricity Generation and Delivery at the Sacramento Municipal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Utility District | Department of Energy Electricity Generation and Delivery at the Sacramento Municipal Utility District Renewable Electricity Generation and Delivery at the Sacramento Municipal Utility District Dairy digester and engine genset at New Hope dairy farm. | <em>Photo courtesy of Sacramento Municipal Utility District</em> Dairy digester and engine genset at New Hope dairy farm. | Photo courtesy of Sacramento Municipal Utility District The Sacramento Municipal Utility

  18. City of Santa Monica- Green Power Purchasing

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Santa Monica made history June 1, 1999, as green electricity began powering all municipal facilities -- including the Santa Monica Airport, City Hall and the Santa Monica Pier -- making...

  19. Summary of Interim Policy on CERCLA Settlements Involving Municipalities and Municipal Wastes. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The Fact Sheet addresses a consistent agency-wide approach for addressing municipalities and municipal wastes in the Superfund settlement process. The policy also addresses settlements with private generators and transporters of hazardous waste trash derived from a commercial, institutional, or industrial process or activity.

  20. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    30,233 2008-01 1,651.456 16,935.599 23,989 6,541.271 93,233.067 6,236 8,192.727 110,168.666 30,225 References "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a" "Form...

  1. Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority - Geothermal Heat Pump Rebate...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Agricultural Savings Category Geothermal Heat Pumps Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Maximum Rebate 1,000ton Program Info...

  2. Elucidating the Higher Stability of Vanadium (V) Cations in Mixed Acid Based Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijayakumar, M.; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Hu, Jian Z.

    2013-11-01

    The Vanadium (V) cation structures in mixed acid based electrolyte solution were analysed by density functional theory (DFT) based computational modelling and 51V and 35Cl Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The Vanadium (V) cation exists as di-nuclear [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound at higher vanadium concentrations (≥1.75M). In particular, at high temperatures (>295K) this di-nuclear compound undergoes ligand exchange process with nearby solvent chlorine molecule and forms chlorine bonded [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound. This chlorine bonded [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound might be resistant to the de-protonation reaction which is the initial step in the precipitation reaction in Vanadium based electrolyte solutions. The combined theoretical and experimental approach reveals that formation of chlorine bonded [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound might be central to the observed higher thermal stability of mixed acid based Vanadium (V) electrolyte solutions.

  3. Can Vanadium Be Substituted into LiFePO[subscript 4]?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omenya, Fredrick; Chernova, Natasha A.; Upreti, Shailesh; Zavalij, Peter Y.; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Whittingham, M. Stanley

    2015-10-15

    Vanadium is shown to substitute for iron in the olivine LiFePO{sub 4} up to at least 10 mol %, when the synthesis is carried out at 550 C. In the solid solution LiFe{sub 1-3y/2}V{sub y}PO{sub 4}, the a and b lattice parameters and cell volume decrease with increasing vanadium content, while the c lattice parameter increases slightly. However, when the synthesis is performed at 650 C, a NASICON phase, Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, is also formed, showing that solid solution is a function of the synthesis temperature. X-ray absorption near-edge structure indicates vanadium is in the 3+ oxidation state and in an octahedral environment. Magnetic studies reveal a shift of the antiferromagnetic ordering transition toward lower temperatures with increasing vanadium substitution, confirming solid solution formation. The addition of vanadium enhances the electrochemical performance of the materials especially at high current densities.

  4. Numerical modeling of an all vanadium redox flow battery.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clausen, Jonathan R.; Brunini, Victor E.; Moffat, Harry K.; Martinez, Mario J.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a capability to simulate reduction-oxidation (redox) flow batteries in the Sierra Multi-Mechanics code base. Specifically, we focus on all-vanadium redox flow batteries; however, the capability is general in implementation and could be adopted to other chemistries. The electrochemical and porous flow models follow those developed in the recent publication by [28]. We review the model implemented in this work and its assumptions, and we show several verification cases including a binary electrolyte, and a battery half-cell. Then, we compare our model implementation with the experimental results shown in [28], with good agreement seen. Next, a sensitivity study is conducted for the major model parameters, which is beneficial in targeting specific features of the redox flow cell for improvement. Lastly, we simulate a three-dimensional version of the flow cell to determine the impact of plenum channels on the performance of the cell. Such channels are frequently seen in experimental designs where the current collector plates are borrowed from fuel cell designs. These designs use a serpentine channel etched into a solid collector plate.

  5. Chemical leaching of coal to remove ash, alkali and vanadium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smit, F.J.; Huggins, D.K.; Berggren, M.; Anast, K.R.

    1986-04-15

    A process is described for upgrading powdered coal to improve the usefulness thereof as a fuel for internal combustion engines which consists of: (a) pressure-leaching powdered coal having a particle size ranging from about 28 mesh to about 200 mesh in an aqueous caustic solution at a temperature ranging from about 175/sup 0/C, to about 350/sup 0/C., the amount of caustic in the solution ranging from about 5% to about 30% by weight, the amount of coal being sufficient to form a slurry comprising about 10% to 30% by weight of solids, (b) hydrochloric acid leaching the caustic leached coal to dissolve acid-soluble constituents resulting from the caustic leach, (c) pressure leaching the acid-leached coal with a liquid from the group consisting of water and dilute aqueous ammonia to remove sodium and chlorine, and thereafter (d) filtering and washing the pressure leached coal, whereby the coal is characterized by up to about 0.85% by weight of ash, up to about 150 ppm of alkali metals and up to about 4 ppm vanadium.

  6. Stress relaxation in vanadium under shock and shockless dynamic compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanel, G. I.; Razorenov, S. V.; Garkushin, G. V.; Savinykh, A. S.; Zaretsky, E. B.

    2015-07-28

    Evolutions of elastic-plastic waves have been recorded in three series of plate impact experiments with annealed vanadium samples under conditions of shockless and combined ramp and shock dynamic compression. The shaping of incident wave profiles was realized using intermediate base plates made of different silicate glasses through which the compression waves were entered into the samples. Measurements of the free surface velocity histories revealed an apparent growth of the Hugoniot elastic limit with decreasing average rate of compression. The growth was explained by “freezing” of the elastic precursor decay in the area of interaction of the incident and reflected waves. A set of obtained data show that the current value of the Hugoniot elastic limit and plastic strain rate is rather associated with the rate of the elastic precursor decay than with the local rate of compression. The study has revealed the contributions of dislocation multiplications in elastic waves. It has been shown that independently of the compression history the material arrives at the minimum point between the elastic and plastic waves with the same density of mobile dislocations.

  7. CX-006145: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Painesville Municipal Power Vanadium Redox Battery Demonstration ProgramCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 07/14/2011Location(s): Painesville, OhioOffice(s): Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  8. Co-firing coal and municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how different the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) or municipal solid waste (MSW) utilizing strategies affects the gas emission in simple fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of biomass. In this study, ground OFMSW and pulverized coal (PC) were used for co-firing tests. The tests were carried out in a bench-scale bubbling FBC. Coal and bio-waste fuels are quite different in composition. Ash composition of the bio-waste fuels is fundamentally different from ash composition of the coal. Chlorine (Cl) in the MSW may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and also may result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Nitrogen (N) and carbon ) assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions while raising revenue. Regulations such as subsidies for oil, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for natural gas powered vehicles, and renewables, especially biomass lines, to reduce emissions may be more cost-effective than assessments. Research and development (RD) resources are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of renewables, especially solid waste. The future supply of co-firing depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities.

  9. Sam Rayburn Municipal Pwr Agny | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Municipal Pwr Agny Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sam Rayburn Municipal Pwr Agny Place: Texas Phone Number: 936-336-3684 or 936-336-5666 Website: www.cityofliberty.orgGOVERNME...

  10. Solvothermal synthesis of vanadium phosphates in the form of xerogels, aerogels and mesostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sydorchuk, V.; Zazhigalov, V.; Khalameida, S.; Diyuk, E.; Skubiszewska-Zieba, J.; Leboda, R.; Kuznetsova, L.

    2010-09-15

    Regularities and peculiarities of physicochemical changes, first of all phase transformations, during solvothermal treatment (with conventional and microwave heating) of the vanadium pentoxide and orthophosphoric acid mixture in organic solvents in the presence of reducing agents have been studied. Hemihydrate of vanadium hydrophosphate - the precursor of vanadium pyrophosphate, the active phase for n-butane to maleic anhydride oxidation, and ion exchanger with variable physicochemical characteristics, i.e. crystal structure, specific surface area, crystallite size and acidic properties - has been synthesized in the temperature range 170-200 {sup o}C. The obtained phases were examined using XRD, DTA-TG, SEM, FTIR spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption as well as gas chromatographic determination of acidity through organic bases adsorption. The catalytic activity of prepared samples for n-butane oxidation has been investigated.

  11. Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Municipal Workplace Charging Agreement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    | Department of Energy Municipal Workplace Charging Agreement Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Municipal Workplace Charging Agreement Review the agreement proposed by one municipality to register PEV drivers and inform staff of charging policy. Sample Municipal Workplace Charging Agreement (271.58 KB) More Documents & Publications Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Workplace Charging Policy Level 1 Electric Vehicle Charging at the Workplace AFGE Local 928

  12. Connected Outdoor Lighting Systems for Municipalities - Text-Alt Version |

    Energy Savers

    Department of Energy Outdoor Lighting Systems for Municipalities - Text-Alt Version Connected Outdoor Lighting Systems for Municipalities - Text-Alt Version Welcome, everyone. This is Bruce Kinzey with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and director of the U.S. Department of Energy's Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium. Welcome to today's webinar, Connected Outdoor Lighting Systems for Municipalities, brought you by the DOE Better Buildings Challenge. This webinar was

  13. Agricultural, industrial and municipal waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    It is right that consideration of the environment is of prime importance when agricultural and industrial processes are being developed. This book compiles the papers presented at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers conference. The contents include: The use of wastes for land reclamation and restoration; landfill, an environmentally acceptable method of waste disposal and an economic source of energy; control of leachate from waste disposal landfill sites using bentonite; landfill gas migration from operational landfill sites, monitoring and prevention; monitoring of emissions from hazardous waste incineration; hazardous wastes management in Hong Kong, a summary of a report and recommendations; the techniques and problems of chemical analysis of waste waters and leachate from waste tips; a small scale waste burning combustor; energy recovery from municipal waste by incineration; anaerobic treatment of industrial waste; a review of developments in the acid hydrolysis of cellulosic wastes; reduction of slag deposits by magnesium hydroxide injection; integrated rural energy centres (for agriculture-based economies); resource recovery; straw as a fuel in the UK; the computer as a tool for predicting the financial implications of future municipal waste disposal and recycling projects; solid wastes as a cement kiln fuel; monitoring and control of landfill gas; the utilization of waste derived fuels; the economics of energy recovery from municipal and industrial wastes; the development and construction of a municipal waste reclamation plant by a local authority.

  14. Interior Lighting Efficiency for Municipalities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Interior Lighting Efficiency for Municipalities Interior Lighting Efficiency for Municipalities This webinar covered a basic understanding of lighting, different types of lamps and luminaries, importance of energy efficiency in lighting, and knowledge of where to find financial resources. Presentation (3.14 MB) Transcript (95 KB) More Documents & Publications interiorlightingefficiencyformunicipalities.doc Exterior Solid-State Lighting Solutions for Municipalities States & Emerging

  15. Comparative ion insertion study into a nanostructured vanadium oxide in aqueous salt solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Q.; Ren, S. L.; Zukowski, J.; Pomeroy, M.; Soghomonian, V.

    2014-07-07

    We present a comparative study for the electrochemical insertion of different cations into a nanostructured vanadium oxide material. The oxide is hydrothemally synthesized and electrically characterized by variable temperature measurements. The electrochemical reactions are performed in aqueous chloride solutions of lithium, sodium, potassium, and ammonium, and the electrochemical behavior of various cycles are correlated with visual changes in the vanadium oxide nanosheets as observed by scanning electron microscopy. We note an increase in the specific charge per cycle in the cases of sodium and ammonium ions only, correlated with minimal physical changes to the nanosheets. The differing behavior of the various ions has implications for their use in electrical energy storage applications.

  16. Temperature Dependence of Aliovalent-vanadium Doping in LiFePO4 Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Katharine L; Bridges, Craig A; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C; Manthiram, Arumugam; Goodenough, J. B.; Segre, C; Katsoudas, John; Maroni, V. A.

    2013-01-01

    Vanadium-doped olivine LiFePO4 cathode materials have been synthesized by a novel low-temperature microwave-assisted solvothermal (MW-ST) method at 300 oC. Based on chemical and powder neutron/X-ray diffraction analysis, the compositions of the synthesized materials were found to be LiFe1-3x/2Vx x/2PO4 (0 x 0.2) with the presence of a small number of lithium vacancies charge-compensated by V4+, not Fe3+, leading to an average oxidation state of ~ 3.2+ for vanadium. Heating the pristine 15 % V-doped sample in inert or reducing atmospheres led to a loss of vanadium from the olivine lattice with the concomitant formation of a Li3V2(PO4)3 impurity phase; after phase segregation, a partially V-doped olivine phase remained. For comparison, V-doped samples were also synthesized by conventional ball milling and heating, but only ~ 10 % V could be accommodated in the olivine lattice in agreement with previous studies. The higher degree of doping realized with the MW-ST samples demonstrates the temperature dependence of the aliovalent-vanadium doping in LiFePO4.

  17. Leaching nickel cobalt molybdenum tungsten and vanadium from spent hydroprocessing catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubred, G. L.

    1985-04-30

    A process for removing nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, and vanadium from spent hydroprocessing catalyst particles by roasting the catalyst at between 400/sup 0/ C. and 600/sup 0/ C. and leaching the catalyst particles with an aqueous solution of ammonia and an ammonium salt.

  18. Removal of arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel compounds from petroliferous liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, Richard H.

    1986-01-01

    Described is a process for removing arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. For vanadium and nickel removal an amine, preferably a diamine is included. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: treating the spent polymer containing any vanadium and/or nickel with an aqueous acid to achieve an acid pH; and, separating the solids from the liquid; and then treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10; and, separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment of arsenic containing catecholated polymer is in two steps wherein the first step is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, the steps are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  19. Removal of arsenic, vanadium and/or nickel compounds from spent catecholated polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, R.H.

    1987-04-21

    Described is a process for removing arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. For vanadium and nickel removal an amine, preferably a diamine is included. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: treating the spent polymer containing any vanadium and/or nickel with an aqueous acid to achieve an acid pH; and, separating the solids from the liquid; and then treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20 to 100 C with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10; and, separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment of arsenic containing catecholated polymer is in two steps wherein the first step is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, the steps are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  20. Removal of arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel compounds from petroliferous liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, R.H.

    1985-05-17

    Described is a process for removing arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel from petroliferous derived liquids (shale oil, SRC, etc.) by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. For vanadium and nickel removal an amine, preferably a diamine is included. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: treating the spent polymer containing any vanadium and/or nickel with an aqueous acid to achieve an acid pH; and, separating the solids from the liquid; and then treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20/sup 0/ to 100/sup 0/C with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10; and, separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment of arsenic containing catecholated polymer is in two steps wherein the first step is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, the steps are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  1. Removal of arsenic, vanadium and/or nickel compounds from spent catecholated polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, Richard H.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a process for removing arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. For vanadium and nickel removal an amine, preferably a diamine is included. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: treating the spent polymer containing any vanadium and/or nickel with an aqueous acid to achieve an acid pH; and, separating the solids from the liquid; and then treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10; and, separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment of arsenic containing catecholated polymer is in two steps wherein the first step is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, the steps are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  2. Producing usable fuel from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohlsson, O.O.

    1995-03-01

    Refuse disposal is a matter of increasing concern for municipalities and state governments. As existing land-fills become filled to capacity, and new landfills become more costly to site, it has become critical to develop alternative disposal methods. Some of the refuse that is presently being landfilled has the potential to provide considerable quantities of energy and thereby replace conventional fossil fuels. Another environmental concern is the problem of the emissions associated with combustion of traditional fossil fuels. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 significantly restrict the level of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions permissible as effluent from combustion facilities. To address both of these concerns, Argonne National Laboratory, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has developed a means of producing fuel from municipal solid waste that can be co-fired with coal to supplement coal supplies and reduce problematic emissions.

  3. Partial oxidation of vanadium-containing heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous and solid carbonaceous fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najjar, M.S.; Becker, M.W.; Stevenson, J.S.

    1988-03-22

    In a partial oxidation process for the production of gaseous mixtures comprising H/sub 2/+CO in the reaction zone of a down flowing gas generator, the improvements are described comprising: (1) mixing together the following materials to produce a feed mixture (i) a vanadium-containing fuel whose ash includes a minimum of 2.0 weight % of vanadium selected from the group consisting of liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel, a slurry of solid carbonaceous fuel, and mixtures thereof; (ii) supplemental copper-containing additive; and (iii) at least a portion of the remainder of the copper-containing slag after separation of the coarse slag fraction in (5); (2) reacting by partial oxidation in a refractory-lined free-flow unpacked reaction zone of the gas generator the vanadium-containing feed mixture from (1) with a free-oxygen containing gas in the presence of a temperature moderator and in a reducing atmosphere to produce a hot raw effluent gas stream comprising H/sub 2/+CO along with vanadium-containing molten slag comprising a liquid phase washing agent that collects and transports vanadium-containing laths and spinels and other ash components and refractory out of the reaction zone; (3) passing the hot raw effluent gas stream down through a coaxial discharge passage in the bottom of the reaction zone of the gas generator; (4) passing through the quench tank at least a portion of the hot effluent gas stream leaving the slag separation chamber to produce the gaseous mixture comprising H/sub 2/+CO, and solidifying molten slag; and (5) passing the water and solids from the bottom of the quench tank into a water-solids separation zone.

  4. City of Grand Rapids- Green Power Purchasing Policy

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2005, the City of Grand Rapids established a goal of purchasing 20% of its municipal power demand from renewable energy by 2008. In November 2007, the city signed a three-year agreement with a...

  5. Pyrolysis of Municipal Solid Waste for Syngas Production by Microwave Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gedam, Vidyadhar V.; Regupathi, Iyyaswami

    2012-03-15

    In the present study, we discuss the application of microwave-irradiated pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW) for total recovery of useful gases and energy. The MSW pyrolysis under microwave irradiation highly depends on the process parameters, like microwave power, microwave absorbers, and time of irradiation. The thoroughness of pyrolysis and product recovery were studied by changing the abovesaid variables. Pyrolysis of MSW occurs in the power rating range of 450-850 W-outside this power rating range, pyrolysis is not possible. Experiments were carried out using various microwave absorbers (i.e., graphite, charcoal, and iron) to enhance the pyrolysis even at lower power rating. The results show that the pyrolysis of MSW was possible even at low power ratings. The major composition of the pyrolysis gaseous product were analyzed with GC-MS which includes CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, etc.

  6. Bismuth Nanoparticle Decorating Graphite Felt as a High-Performance Electrode for an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bin; Gu, Meng; Nie, Zimin; Shao, Yuyan; Luo, Qingtao; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Xiaolin; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong M.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2013-02-04

    The selection of electrode materials plays a great role in improving performances of all vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs). Low-cost graphite felt (GF) as traditional electrode material has to be modified to address its issue of low electrocatalytic activity. In our paper, low-cost and highly conductive bismuth nanoparticles, as a powerful alternative electrocatalyst to noble metal, are proposed and synchronously electro-deposited onto the surface of GF while running flow cells employing the electrolytes containing suitable Bi3+. Although bismuth is proved to only take effect on the redox reaction of V(II)/V(III) and present at negative half-cell side, the whole cell electrochemical performances are significantly improved. In particular, the energy efficiency is increased by 11% owing to faster charge transfer as compared with one without Bi at high charge/discharge rate of 150 mA/cm2, which is prone to reduce stack size, thus dramatically reducing the cost. The excellent results show great promise of Bi nano-catalysts in the commercialization of VRBs in terms of product cost as well as electrochemical properties.

  7. Catalytic hydroprocessing of aromatic compounds: Effects of nickel and vanadium sulfide deposits on reactivities and reaction networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yumoto, Mitsugu |; Kukes, S.G.; Klein, M.T.; Gates, B.C. |

    1996-09-01

    Ni-Mo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hydroprocessing catalysts enriched in nickel and vanadium by contacting with solutions of the respective metal naphthenates were sulfided and tested for hydroprocessing of naphthalene, dibenzothiophene, and quinoline in a batch reactor at 350 C and 165 atm. Approximately reaction networks were determined for each reactant, and the data showed the dependence of the pseudo-first-order rate constants on the catalyst nickel and vanadium contents. The nickel sulfide deposits only slightly affected the rate constants for hydrogenation, but the vanadium sulfide deposits led to decreases in the rate constants for hydrogenation reactions in the naphthalene network and to increases in those for hydrogenation reactions in the dibenzothiophene network. Nickel sulfide deposits led to almost no change in the rate constants for hydrogenolysis of dibenzothiophene, but vanadium sulfide deposits led to decreased rate constant for this reaction. The nickel sulfide deposits have little activity for reactions giving lower-molecular-weight (cracking) products, but the vanadium sulfide deposits have a relatively high activity for cracking, which suggests that they are acidic; the effects are reversed by the presence of the basic quinoline in the reactants. The results indicate a need for representing the nickel and vanadium sulfide deposits separately in process models for heavy oil hydroprocessing.

  8. Connected Outdoor Lighting Systems For Municipalities | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Outdoor Lighting Systems For Municipalities Connected Outdoor Lighting Systems For Municipalities This webinar is intended for municipal staff who have had some introduction to connected outdoor lighting systems, and want to further explore whether today's commercially available offerings suit their needs. Presented by Michael Poplawski of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the webinar covers basic capabilities, key differentiators between systems, and common adoption issues - as

  9. Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Materials-Boston, MA | Department of Energy Boston, MA Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and Materials-Boston, MA This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Workshop held in Boston August 2-3, 2012. Workshop Agenda DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium James Brodrick, U.S. Department of Energy Boston's LED Street Lighting Initiative Joanne Massaro, Glenn Cooper, Matthew Mayrl,

  10. Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Webcasts » Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast This May 6, 2010 webcast served as the first official meeting of the new DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium. Ed Smalley of Seattle City Light and Bruce Kinzey of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory discussed the Consortium's mission and goals, and provided an overview of its first steps, and opportunities to

  11. NOVEL MEMBRANES AND SYSTEMS FOR INDUSTRIAL AND MUNICIPAL WATER PURIFICATION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    AND REUSE | Department of Energy NOVEL MEMBRANES AND SYSTEMS FOR INDUSTRIAL AND MUNICIPAL WATER PURIFICATION AND REUSE NOVEL MEMBRANES AND SYSTEMS FOR INDUSTRIAL AND MUNICIPAL WATER PURIFICATION AND REUSE GE Global Research - Niskayuna, NY A smooth resin deposition technology will be developed for reverse osmosis membranes used in water treatment and industrial and municipal wastewater reuse. Thin films of the resin will be deposited on standard support membranes to improve performance and

  12. Best Practices for Establishing Municipal Funds for Energy Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Projects | Department of Energy Best Practices for Establishing Municipal Funds for Energy Efficiency Projects Best Practices for Establishing Municipal Funds for Energy Efficiency Projects This webinar gives an overview of best practices when establishing a municipal fund for energy efficiency projects and discusses efficiency upgrades on public buildings, renewable installations on public buildings, procurement policies and internal revolving loan funds. Case studies include Ann Arbor,

  13. Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Financial Analysis Tool | Department of Energy Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool This April 3, 2012 webcast presented information about the Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool developed by DOE"s Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium. Doug Elliott of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory provided a guided walk-through of what the tool can do

  14. Investigation of fluid-bed combustion of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eustis, R.H.; Wilson, K.B.; Preuit, L.C.; Marasigan, M.M.

    1985-08-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to burn processed municipal solid waste in a fluid-bed combustor containing water-cooled tubes in the bed. The 300-hour test was performed without incident and terminated on schedule. The combustor and ducting were clean on inspection after the test, and bed agglomeration did not occur. A corrosion tube placed in the free-board showed considerable metal wastage for carbon and low-alloy steels and some wastage for stainless steels. Low-temperature carbon steel water tubes in the bed showed negligible wastage. It was concluded that heat-exchanger tubes in the freeboard require protection from the high-velocity elutriated solids. Combustion efficiency was greater than 99%, and pollutants were measured as follows: SO/sub 2/ = 58 ppm, NOx = 178 ppm, CO = 242 ppm, hydrocarbons = 5.4 ppm. A system study was conducted for a cogeneration, 800-tons/day power plant to be located on the Stanford U. campus to supply all of the process steam requirement and as much of the electrical power as possible.

  15. ANIONIC EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM AND VANADIUM FROM CARBONATE SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailes, R.H.; Ellis, D.A.; Long, R.S.

    1958-12-16

    Uranium and vanadium can be economically purified and recovered from non- salt roast carbonate leach liquors by adsorption on a strongly basic anionic exchange resin and subsequent selective elution by one of three alternative methods. Method 1 comprises selectively eluting uranium from the resin with an ammonium sulfate solution followed by eluting vanadium from the resin with either 5 M NaCl, saturated (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, saturated NaHCO/sub 3/, 1 M NaOH, or saturated S0/sub 2/ solutions. Method II comprises selectively eluting vanadium from the resin with either concentrated NaCl or S0/sub 2/ solutions subsequent to pretreatment of the column with either S0/sub 2/ gas, 1 N HCl, or 0.1 N H/sub 2/8O/sub 4/ followed by eluting uranium from the resin with solutions containing 0.9 M NH/sub 4/Cl or NaCl and 0.1 Cl. Method III comprises flowing the carbonate leac solutlon through a first column of a strongly basic anlonlc exchange resin untll vanadium breakthrough occurs, so that the effluent solution is enriched ln uranium content and the vanadium is chiefly retalned by the resln, absorbing the uranlum from the enriched effluent solution on a second column of a strongly basic anionic exchange resin, pretreating the first column with either 0.1 N HCl, 0.1 H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, C0/sub 2/ gas, or ammonium sulfate, selectively eluting the vanadlum from the column with saturated S0/sub 2/ solution, pretreatlng the second column with either 0.1 N HCl or S0/sub 2/ gas, selectively eluting residual vanadium from the column with saturated S0/sub 2/ solution, and then eluting the uranium from the column with either 0.1 N HCl and 1 N NaCl orO.l N HCl and 1 N NH/sub 4/Cl.

  16. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis: State, Utility, and Municipal...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Utility, and Municipal Loan Programs AgencyCompany Organization National Renewable Energy Laboratory Partner Eric Lantz Focus Area People and Policy, Renewable Energy Phase...

  17. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification March 2010 Adapted from reports ... Department of Energy, Offce of Energy Effciency and Renewable Energy, Offce of the Biomass ...

  18. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...

    Energy Savers

    However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with ... Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification

  19. Lassen Municipal Utility District- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lassen Municipal Utility District (LMUD) offers an incentive for residential customers who purchase and install energy efficient equipment. Contact LMUD for information regarding which local...

  20. Wakefield Municipal Gas & Light Department- Residential Conservation Services Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Wakefield Municipal Gas & Light Department (WMGLD), offers the "Incentive Rebate Program" to encourage residential customers to improve the energy efficiency of their homes. After a home...

  1. Guide to Clean Development Mechanism Projects Related to Municipal...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Guide to Clean Development Mechanism Projects Related to Municipal Solid Waste Management Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: A Guide to Clean Development...

  2. Municipal Utilities' Investment in Smart Grid Technologies Improves...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Three municipal utilities that received funding through the Recovery Act Smart Grid Investment Grant program are featured in this report. Burbank, California; Glendale, California; ...

  3. Business Case for CNG in Municipal Fleets (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2010-07-27

    Presentation about compressed natural gas in municipal fleets, assessing investment profitability, the VICE model, base-case scenarios, and pressing questions for fleet owners.

  4. Mansfield Municipal Electric Department- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mansfield Municipal Electric Department encourages energy efficiency through the ENERGY STAR Appliance Rebate Incentive Program. Cash rebates are offered for ENERGY STAR central air conditioners,...

  5. Concord Municipal Light Plant- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Concord Municipal Light Plant (CMLP) offers rebates to commercial customers for installing energy efficient lighting. General lighting upgrades to facilities are eligible for a 50% rebate worth up...

  6. Concord Municipal Light Plant- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Concord Municipal Light Plant (CMLP) offers residential customers rebates on home weatherization, air conditioning system upgrades, and the purchase of LED bulbs.

  7. Standards for Municipal Small Wind Regulations and Model Ordinance

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In July 2008, New Hampshire enacted legislation designed to prevent municipalities from adopting ordinances or regulations that place unreasonable limits on or hinder the performance of wind energy...

  8. Taunton Municipal Lighting Plant- Residential Energy Star Appliance Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Residential customers of Taunton Municipal Lighting Plant (TMLP) are eligible for rebates on energy efficient appliances. Clothes washers, dishwashers, refrigerators, and room A/C units are...

  9. Marblehead Municipal Light Department- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Marblehead Municipal Light Department encourages conservation within the residential sector through the Energy Efficiency Rebate Program. Rebates are available for energy efficient appliances,...

  10. Hercules Municipal Utility- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hercules Municipal Utility provides financial incentives for its residential members to increase the energy efficiency of participating homes. Rebates are offered for a variety of home appliances...

  11. NOVEL MEMBRANES AND SYSTEMS FOR INDUSTRIAL AND MUNICIPAL WATER...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    A smooth resin deposition technology will be developed for reverse osmosis membranes used in water treatment and industrial and municipal wastewater reuse. Thin films of the resin ...

  12. Survey of carbonization facilities for municipal solid waste treatment in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2010-07-15

    The operations of carbonization facilities for municipal solid waste treatment in Japan were examined. Input waste, system processes, material flows, quality of char and its utilization, fuel and chemical consumption, control of facility emissions, and trouble areas in facility operation were investigated and analyzed. Although carbonization is a technically available thermochemical conversion method for municipal solid waste treatment, problems of energy efficiency and char utilization must be solved for carbonization to be competitive. Possible solutions include (1) optimizing the composition of input waste, treatment scale, organization of unit processes, operational methods, and quality and yield of char on the basis of analysis and feedback of long-term operating data of present operating facilities and (2) securing stable char demands by linking with local industries such as thermal electric power companies, iron manufacturing plants, and cement production plants.

  13. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-09-15

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  14. Carbon nanotube-induced preparation of vanadium oxide nanorods: Application as a catalyst for the partial oxidation of n-butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Xiaowei; Zhu Zhenping; Haevecker, Michael; Su Dangsheng . E-mail: dangsheng@fhi-berlin.mpg.de; Schloegl, Robert

    2007-02-15

    A vanadium oxide-carbon nanotube composite was prepared by solution-based hydrolysis of NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3} in the presence of carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes induce the nucleation of the 1D vanadium oxide nanostructures, with the nuclei growing into long freestanding nanorods. The vanadium oxide nanorods with the lengths up to 20 {mu}m and the widths of 5-15 nm exhibit a well-ordered crystalline structure. Catalytic tests show that the composite with nanostructured vanadium oxide is active for the partial oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride at 300 deg. C.

  15. Phase-selective vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) nanostructured thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masina, B. N. E-mail: slafane@cdta.dz; Lafane, S. E-mail: slafane@cdta.dz; Abdelli-Messaci, S.; Kerdja, T.; Wu, L.; Akande, A. A.; Mwakikunga, B.

    2015-10-28

    Thin films of monoclinic nanostructured vanadium dioxide are notoriously difficult to produce in a selective manner. To date, post-annealing, after pulsed laser deposition (PLD), has been used to revert the crystal phase or to remove impurities, and non-glass substrates have been employed, thus reducing the efficacy of the transparency switching. Here, we overcome these limitations in PLD by optimizing a laser-ablation and deposition process through optical imaging of the laser-induced plasma. We report high quality monoclinic rutile-type vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) (M1) nanoparticles without post-annealing, and on a glass substrate. Our samples demonstrate a reversible metal-to-insulator transition at ∼43 °C, without any doping, paving the way to switchable transparency in optical materials at room temperature.

  16. Phase transition and strength of vanadium under shock compression up to 88 GPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Yuying Tan, Ye; Dai, Chengda; Li, Xuemei; Li, Yinghua; Wu, Qiang; Tan, Hua

    2014-11-17

    A series of reverse-impact experiments were performed on vanadium at shock pressure ranging from 32 GPa to 88 GPa. Particle velocity profiles measured at sample/LiF window interface were used to estimate the sound velocities, shear modulus, and yield stress in shocked vanadium. A phase transition at ∼60.5 GPa that may be the body-centered cubic (BCC) to rhombohedral structure was identified by the discontinuity of the sound velocity against shock pressure. This transition pressure is consistent with the results from diamond anvil cell (DAC) experiments and first-principle calculations. However, present results show that the rhombohedral phase has higher strength and shear modulus than the BCC phase, which is contrast to the findings from DAC experiments and theoretical work.

  17. PROCESS FOR RECOVERY OF URANIUM AND VANADIUM FROM CARBONATE SOLUTIONS BY REDUCTION-PRECIPITATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, D.A.; Lindblom, R.O.

    1957-09-24

    A process employing carbonate leaching of ores and an advantageous methcd of recovering the uranium and vanadium from the leach solution is described. The uranium and vanadium can be precipitated from carbonate leach solutions by reaction with sodium amalgam leaving the leach solution in such a condition that it is economical to replenish for recycling. Such a carbonate leach solution is treated with a dilute sodium amalgam having a sodium concentration within a range of about 0.01 to 0.5% of sodium. Efficiency of the treatment is dependent on at least three additional factors, intimacy of contact of the amalgam with the leach solution, rate of addition of the amalgam and exclusion of oxygen (air).

  18. Dislocation development in V-5CR-5TI and pure vanadium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelles, D.S.; Grossbeck, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this work is to explain notch sensitivity noted in the candidate alloy V-5Cr-5Ti. Microstructural examinations have been performed on deformed tensile specimens of V-5Cr-5Ti and pure vanadium in order to explain notch sensitivity noted in the candidate alloy V-5Cr-5Ti. SS-3 tensile specimens have been prepared, stress relieved and deformed to 5% strain. The resulting deformation structures have been examined by transmission electron microscopy. It is found that 5% deformation in V-5Cr-5Ti produces a higher dislocation density consisting of long straight dislocations, typical of Stage II, and many small loops, whereas in pure vanadium, the dislocation arrangements are more complex, typical of Stage III, and the small loops are at a lower density.

  19. Vanadium oxide (VO) based low cost counter electrode in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijayakumar, P.; Pandian, Muthu Senthil; Ramasamy, P.

    2015-06-24

    Vanadium oxide nanostars were synthesized by chemical method. The prepared Vanadium oxide nanostars are introduced into dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) as counter electrode (CE) catalyst to replace the expensive platinum (Pt). The products were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method. The photovoltaic performance of the VO as counter electrode based DSSC was evaluated under simulated standard global AM 1.5G sunlight (100 mW/cm{sup 2}). The solar to electrical energy conversion efficiency (η) of the DSSC was found to be 0.38%.This work expands the Counter electrode catalyst, which can help to reduce the cost of DSSC and thereby encourage their fundamental research and commercial application.

  20. Municipal solid-waste management in Istanbul

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanat, Gurdal

    2010-08-15

    Istanbul, with a population of around 13 million people, is located between Europe and Asia and is the biggest city in Turkey. Metropolitan Istanbul produces about 14,000 tons of solid waste per day. The aim of this study was to assess the situation of municipal solid-waste (MSW) management in Istanbul. This was achieved by reviewing the quantity and composition of waste produced in Istanbul. Current requirements and challenges in relation to the optimization of Istanbul's MSW collection and management system are also discussed, and several suggestions for solving the problems identified are presented. The recovery of solid waste from the landfills, as well as the amounts of landfill-generated biogas and electricity, were evaluated. In recent years, MSW management in Istanbul has improved because of strong governance and institutional involvement. However, efforts directed toward applied research are still required to enable better waste management. These efforts will greatly support decision making on the part of municipal authorities. There remains a great need to reduce the volume of MSW in Istanbul.

  1. Joint perpendicular anisotropy and strong interlayer exchange coupling in systems with thin vanadium spacers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devolder, T. Le Goff, A.; Eimer, S.; Adam, J.-P.

    2015-04-28

    We study the influence of the insertion of a vanadium spacer layer between an FeCoB layer and a [Co/Ni] multilayer in an MgO substrate-based system mimicking the reference system of a perpendicular anisotropy magnetic tunnel junction. The anisotropy of the [Co/Ni] multilayer gradually improves with the vanadium thicknesses t, up to an optimized state for t = 8 Å, with little influence of the thermal annealing. The interlayer exchange coupling is ferromagnetic and very strong for t≤6 Å. It can be adjusted by thermal treatment at t = 8 Å from no coupling in the as-grown state to more than 2 mJ/m{sup 2} after 250 °C annealing. For this spacer thickness, the magnetic properties are consistent with the occurrence of a bcc (001) to an fcc (111) crystalline structure transition at the vanadium spacer. The remaining interlayer exchange coupling at t = 8 Å is still substantially higher than the one formerly obtained with a Tantalum spacer, which holds promise for further optimization of the reference layers of tunnel junctions meant for magnetic random access memories.

  2. Vanadium redox flow battery efficiency and durability studies of sulfonated Diels Alder poly(phenylene)s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Kim, Soowhan; Stains, Ronald; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-07-01

    Sulfonated Diels Alder poly(phenylene) (SDAPP) was examined for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) use. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) was varied from 1.4, 1.6 and 2.0 meq/g in order to tune the proton conductivity and vanadium permeability. Coulombic efficiencies between 92 to 99% were observed, depending on IEC (lower IEC, higher coulombic efficiencies). In all cases the SDAPP displayed comparable energy efficiencies (88 - 90%) to Nafion 117 (88%) at 50mA/cm2. Membrane durability also was dependent on IEC; SDAPP with the highest IEC lasted slightly over 50 cycles while SDAPP with the lowest IEC lasted over 400 cycles and testing was discontinued only due to time constraints. Accelerated vanadium lifetime studies were initialed with SDAPP, by soaking films in a 0.1 M V5+ and 5.0 M total SO4-2 solution. The rate of degradation was also proportional with IEC; the 2 meq/g sample dissolved within 376 hours, the 1.6 meq/g sample dissolved after 860 hours, while the 1.4 meq/g sample broke apart after 1527 hours.

  3. X-Ray Absorption Studies of Vanadium-Containing Metal Oxide Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohn, Keith, L.

    2006-01-09

    Metal oxide nanocrystals offer significant potential for use as catalysts or catalyst supports due to their high surface areas and unique chemical properties that result from the high number of exposed corners and edges. However, little is known about the catalytic activity of these materials, especially as oxidation catalysts. This research focused on the preparation, characterization and use of vanadium-containing nanocrystals as selective oxidation catalysts. Three vanadium-containing nanocrystals were prepared using a modified sol-gel procedure: V/MgO, V/SiO2, and vanadium phosphate (VPO). These represent active oxidation catalysts for a number of industrially relevant reactions. The catalysts were characterized by x-ray diffraction and Raman, UV-VIS, infrared and x-ray absorption spectroscopies with the goal of determining the primary structural and chemical differences between nanocrystals and microcrystals. The catalytic activity of these catalysts was also studied in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and methanol oxidation to formaldehyde. V/MgO nanocrystals were investigated for activity in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and compared to conventional V/MgO catalysts. Characterization of V/MgO catalysts using Raman spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that both types of catalysts contained magnesium orthovanadate at vanadium loadings below 15 weight%, but above that loading, magnesium pyrovanadate may have been present. In general, MgO nanocrystals had roughly half the crystal size and double the surface area of the conventional MgO. In oxidative dehydrogenation of butane, nanocrystalline V/MgO gave higher selectivity to butene than conventional V/MgO at the same conversion. This difference was attributed to differences in vanadium domain size resulting from the higher surface areas of the nanocrystalline support, since characterization suggested that similar vanadium phases were present on both types of catalysts. Experiments in

  4. Practical thermodynamic quantities for aqueous vanadium- and iron-based flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2013-12-31

    A simple method for experimentally determining thermodynamic quantities for flow battery cell reactions is presented. Equilibrium cell potentials, temperature derivatives of cell potential (dE/dT), Gibbs free energies, and entropies are reported here for all-vanadium, iron–vanadium, and iron–chromium flow cells with state-of-the-art solution compositions. Proof is given that formal potentials and formal temperature coefficients can be used with modified forms of the Nernst Equation to quantify the thermodynamics of flow cell reactions as a function of state-of-charge. Such empirical quantities can be used in thermo-electrochemical models of flow batteries at the cell or system level. In most cases, the thermodynamic quantities measured here are significantly different from standard values reported and used previously in the literature. The data reported here are also useful in the selection of operating temperatures for flow battery systems. Because higher temperatures correspond to lower equilibrium cell potentials for the battery chemistries studied here, it can be beneficial to charge a cell at higher temperature and discharge at lower temperature. As a result, proof-of-concept of improved voltage efficiency with the use of such non-isothermal cycling is given for the all-vanadium redox flow battery, and the effect is shown to be more pronounced at lower current densities.

  5. Practical thermodynamic quantities for aqueous vanadium- and iron-based flow batteries

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2013-12-31

    A simple method for experimentally determining thermodynamic quantities for flow battery cell reactions is presented. Equilibrium cell potentials, temperature derivatives of cell potential (dE/dT), Gibbs free energies, and entropies are reported here for all-vanadium, iron–vanadium, and iron–chromium flow cells with state-of-the-art solution compositions. Proof is given that formal potentials and formal temperature coefficients can be used with modified forms of the Nernst Equation to quantify the thermodynamics of flow cell reactions as a function of state-of-charge. Such empirical quantities can be used in thermo-electrochemical models of flow batteries at the cell or system level. In most cases, the thermodynamic quantitiesmore » measured here are significantly different from standard values reported and used previously in the literature. The data reported here are also useful in the selection of operating temperatures for flow battery systems. Because higher temperatures correspond to lower equilibrium cell potentials for the battery chemistries studied here, it can be beneficial to charge a cell at higher temperature and discharge at lower temperature. As a result, proof-of-concept of improved voltage efficiency with the use of such non-isothermal cycling is given for the all-vanadium redox flow battery, and the effect is shown to be more pronounced at lower current densities.« less

  6. Connected Outdoor Lighting Systems For Municipalities - Presentation Slides

    Energy Savers

    | Department of Energy Outdoor Lighting Systems For Municipalities - Presentation Slides Connected Outdoor Lighting Systems For Municipalities - Presentation Slides Presentation Slides (2.08 MB) More Documents & Publications SALC 2014 Presentations Downloads CONNECTED LIGHTING SYSTEMS RESOURCES Technical Meeting: Data/Communication Standards and Interoperability of Building Appliances, Equipment, and Systems

  7. Case Study - Glendale Water and Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Glendale Water and Power March 19, 2012 1 A digital photo frame is part of Glendale Water and Power's (GWP's) in-home display pilot that is enabling customers to track their usage without having to go online to access the data. Glendale, California Municipal Invests in Smart Grid to Enhance Customer Services and Improve Operational Efficiencies City-owned Glendale Water and Power (GWP) has completed its smart meter installation and is implementing a suite of new offerings to improve operational

  8. Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, Umberto

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical assessment of the main commercially available MSW gasifiers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed discussion of the basic features of gasification process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of configurations of gasification-based waste-to-energy units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental performance analysis, on the basis of independent sources data. - Abstract: The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option.

  9. A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Vijayakumar, M.; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang; Hu, Jian Z.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-05-01

    Low cost, high performance redox flow batteries are highly demanded for up to multi-megawatt levels of renewable and grid energy storage. Here, we report a new vanadium redox flow battery with a significant improvement over the current technologies. This new battery utilizes a sulfate-chloride mixed solution, which is capable of dissolving more than 2.5 M vanadium or about a 70% increase in the energy storage capacity over the current vanadium sulfate system. More importantly, the new electrolyte remains stable over a wide temperature range of -5 to 60oC, potentially eliminating the need of active heat management. Its high energy density, broad operational temperature window, and excellent electrochemical performance would lead to a significant reduction in the cost of energy storage, thus accelerating its market penetration.

  10. Evaluating the efficiency of municipalities in collecting and processing municipal solid waste: A shared input DEA-model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogge, Nicky; De Jaeger, Simon

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complexity in local waste management calls for more in depth efficiency analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shared-input Data Envelopment Analysis can provide solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Considerable room for the Flemish municipalities to improve their cost efficiency. - Abstract: This paper proposed an adjusted 'shared-input' version of the popular efficiency measurement technique Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) that enables evaluating municipality waste collection and processing performances in settings in which one input (waste costs) is shared among treatment efforts of multiple municipal solid waste fractions. The main advantage of this version of DEA is that it not only provides an estimate of the municipalities overall cost efficiency but also estimates of the municipalities' cost efficiency in the treatment of the different fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). To illustrate the practical usefulness of the shared input DEA-model, we apply the model to data on 293 municipalities in Flanders, Belgium, for the year 2008.

  11. Membranes for Efficient Water Purification Novel Membranes and Systems for Industrial and Municipal Water Purification and Reuse

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Membranes and Systems for Industrial and Municipal Water Purification and Reuse Decreasing energy consumption of reverse osmosis membrane separation processes Water is essential for life and critical to economic activity. It impacts a wide range of U.S. industries, including power generation, oil and gas production, mining, food processing, and chemical production. In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated the United States used 355 billion gallons of water daily, more than 51% of which was

  12. Frequently Asked Questions About the Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page addresses many of the questions about the Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium.

  13. General Permit for Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Storm Sewer Systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: General Permit for Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems Abstract Permit...

  14. Iowa Association of Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Iowa Association of Municipal Utilities Place: Ankeny, IA Website: www.iamu.org References: SGIC1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  15. Denton Municipal Electric- GreenSense Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Denton Municipal Electric pays residential and small commercial customers to reduce energy demand and consumption in order to reduce the utility bills of DME customers, reduce peak load, reduce...

  16. Concord Municipal Light Plant- Solar Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Concord Municipal Light Plant (CMLP) offers rebates to customers who install solar photovoltaic (PV) systems that are designed to offset the customer's electrical needs. Systems must be owned by...

  17. Reading Municipal Light Department- Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers energy efficiency incentives to eligible commercial and industrial customers. Rebates of up to $50,000 are available to customers who wish to reduce...

  18. Reading Municipal Light Department- Commercial Lighting Retrofit Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers incentives for non-residential customers to install energy-efficient lighting and sensors in existing facilities. Rebates are limited to $20,000 per...

  19. Reading Municipal Light Department- Residential Renewable Energy Rebates

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers rebates of $1.00/watt for solar photovoltaic and small wind installations for residential customers. A $0.25/watt adder is available for using local...

  20. Marshall Municipal Utilities- Solar Thermal Water Heater Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    To invest in a renewable resource, consider an ENERGY STAR Solar Thermal Water Heater and use free energy from the sun to heat your water. Marshall Municipal Utilities (MMU) offers rebates of $20...

  1. FirstEnergy (Potomac Edison)- Municipal and Street Lighting Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    FirstEnergy (Potomac Edision) offers several incentives for non-residential and municipal customers to upgrade traffic signals, pedestrian signals, street lights to more efficient  fixtures. The...

  2. Reading Municipal Light Department- Residential Energy Star Appliance Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers rebates to residential customers who install Energy Star appliances in eligible homes. The offer is limited to one rebate per appliance, or a...

  3. Taunton Municipal Lighting Plant- Residential PV Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Customers of Taunton Municipal Lighting Plant (TMLP) may be eligible for a $1.50/watt rebate on solar photovoltaic (PV) installations, up to a maximum rebate of $4,500. The system must be installed...

  4. Municipal Consortium Releases Updated Model Specification for LED Roadway Luminaires

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium (MSSLC) has released the first updated version of its Model Specification for LED Roadway Luminaires. A “living...

  5. Elk River Municipal Utilities- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    For energy savings measures not listed above, Elk River Municipal Utilities offers a custom grant program. In order to qualify for the grant, the benefit cost ratio (BCR) of the project must be...

  6. Title 24 Chapter 117 Municipal and Regional Planning and Development...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Title 24 Chapter 117 Municipal and Regional Planning and Development Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: Title 24...

  7. Title 24 Chapter 117 Municipal Planning and Development | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Title 24 Chapter 117 Municipal Planning and Development Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: Title 24 Chapter 117...

  8. Effects of irradiation to 4 dpa at 390 C on the fracture toughness of vanadium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruber, E.E.; Galvin, T.M.; Chopra, O.K.

    1998-09-01

    Fracture toughness J-R curve tests were conducted at room temperature on disk-shaped compact-tension DC(T) specimens of three vanadium alloys having a nominal composition of V-4Cr-4Ti. The alloys in the nonirradiated condition showed high fracture toughness; J{sub IC} could not be determined but is expected to be above 600 kJ/m{sup 2}. The alloys showed very poor fracture toughness after irradiation to 4 dpa at 390 C, e.g., J{sub IC} values of {approx}10 kJ/m{sup 2} or lower.

  9. Heterogeneous nucleation and growth dynamics in the light-induced phase transition in vanadium dioxide

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Brady, Nathaniel F.; Appavoo, Kannatassen; Seo, Minah; Nag, Joyeeta; Prasankumar, Rohit P.; Haglund, Richard F.; Hilton, David J.

    2016-03-02

    Here we report on ultrafast optical investigations of the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide with controlled disorder generated by substrate mismatch. These results reveal common dynamics of this optically-induced phase transition that are independent of this disorder. Lastly, above the fluence threshold for completing the transition to the rutile crystalline phase, we find a common time scale, independent of sample morphology, of 40.5 ± 2 ps that is consistent with nucleation and growth dynamics of the R phase from the parent M1 ground state.

  10. Chemical structure of vanadium-based contact formation on n-AlN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pookpanratana, S.; France, R.; Blum, M.; Bell, A.; Bar, M.; Weinhardt, L.; Zhang, Y.; Hofmann, T.; Fuchs, O.; Yang, W.; Denlinger, J. D.; Mulcahy, S.; Moustakas, T. D.; Heske, Clemens

    2010-05-17

    We have investigated the chemical interaction between a Au/V/Al/V layer structure and n-type AlN epilayers using soft x-ray photoemission, x-ray emission spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. To understand the complex processes involved in this multicomponent system, we have studied the interface before and after a rapid thermal annealing step. We find the formation of a number of chemical phases at the interface, including VN, metallic vanadium, aluminum oxide, and metallic gold. An interaction mechanism for metal contact formation on the entire n-(Al,Ga)N system is proposed.

  11. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from −290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to −19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

  12. 2011 Municipal Consortium Northeast Region Workshop Materials | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy Northeast Region Workshop Materials 2011 Municipal Consortium Northeast Region Workshop Materials This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Northeast Region Workshop, held in Philadelphia, May 19-20, 2011. Presentations Calculating Light Loss Factors for LED Street Lighting Systems Rick Kauffman, Kauffman Consulting LLC LM-79, LM-80, and Other Challenges of the "Revolution" Eric Haugaard, BetaLED by

  13. 2011 Municipal Consortium Northwest Region Workshop Materials | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy Northwest Region Workshop Materials 2011 Municipal Consortium Northwest Region Workshop Materials This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Northwest Region Workshop, held in Seattle July 15, 2011. Presentations and Materials Workshop Agenda Seattle City Light: LED Streetlight Program Case Study Edward Smalley, Seattle City Light; Lok Chan, DKS Associates SSL Not As Simple As It Seems: Things to Know and Things

  14. 2011 Municipal Consortium Southwest Region Workshop Materials | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy Southwest Region Workshop Materials 2011 Municipal Consortium Southwest Region Workshop Materials This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Southwest Region Workshop, held in San Jose, California, August 25--26, 2011. Presentations and Materials Workshop Agenda San Jose's "Smart" LED Streetlight Program Laura Stuchinsky, City of San Jose Department of Transportation San Jose Story Nancy Clanton, Clanton

  15. Municipal Consortium Annual Meeting Presentations and Materials-Phoenix,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    AZ | Department of Energy Annual Meeting Presentations and Materials-Phoenix, AZ Municipal Consortium Annual Meeting Presentations and Materials-Phoenix, AZ This page provides links to presentations and materials from the DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Annual Meeting held in Phoenix on September 11, 2013. Workshop Agenda Transportation Challenges and Opportunities for Large Cities Wylie Bearup, City of Phoenix HPS to LED Conversion - A City of Phoenix Experience Shane

  16. Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Materials-Dallas, TX | Department of Energy Dallas, TX Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and Materials-Dallas, TX This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Workshop held in Dallas March 15-16, 2012. Presentations and Materials Workshop Agenda ONCOR LED Streetlight Pilot & Technical Evaluation Update Michael Navarro, ONCOR Reading, Understanding, and Applying the LM-80 Standard Chad

  17. Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Materials-Los Angeles, CA | Department of Energy Los Angeles, CA Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and Materials-Los Angeles, CA This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Workshop held in Los Angeles April 19-20, 2012. Presentations and Materials Workshop Agenda City of Los Angeles: Changing Our Glow for Efficiency Ed Ebrahimian, City of Los Angeles Bureau of Street Lighting L.M. Seventynine:

  18. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Waste via Gasification | Department of Energy Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification The Bioenergy Technologies Office develops design cases to understand the current state of conversion technologies and to determine where improvements need to take place in the future. This design case establishes cost targets for converting MSW to ethanol and

  19. Toward Energy Efficient Municipalities: General Comments on Policy and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Logistical Challenges to Smart Grid Implementation | Department of Energy Toward Energy Efficient Municipalities: General Comments on Policy and Logistical Challenges to Smart Grid Implementation Toward Energy Efficient Municipalities: General Comments on Policy and Logistical Challenges to Smart Grid Implementation I am seeking to develop America's first Smart Grid R&D Testing business campus on 200 near-enterprise zone acres owned by Clatsop County Oregon zoned and master-planned as

  20. Municipal solid waste effective stress analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shariatmadari, Nader; Machado, Sandro Lemos; Noorzad, Ali; Karimpour-Fard, Mehran

    2009-12-15

    The mechanical behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW) has attracted the attention of many researchers in the field of geo-environmental engineering in recent years and several aspects of waste mechanical response under loading have been elucidated. However, the mechanical response of MSW materials under undrained conditions has not been described in detail to date. The knowledge of this aspect of the MSW mechanical response is very important in cases involving MSW with high water contents, seismic ground motion and in regions where landfills are built with poor operation conditions. This paper presents the results obtained from 26 large triaxial tests performed both in drained and undrained conditions. The results were analyzed taking into account the waste particles compressibility and the deformation anisotropy of the waste samples. The waste particles compressibility was used to modify the Terzaghi effective stress equation, using the Skempton (1961) proposition. It is shown that the use of the modified effective stress equation led to much more compatible shear strength values when comparing Consolidated-Drained (CD) and Consolidated-Undrained (CU), results, explaining the high shear strength values obtained in CU triaxial tests, even when the pore pressure is almost equal to the confining stress.

  1. QER- Comment of Sacramento Municipal Utility District

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    As SMUD is the largest preference power customer of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) we purchase a substantial amount of electric energy from Western and we are very concerned about the rising costs. Specifically, we have concerns and question regarding the restoration programs on the Central Valley Project that are administered by the United States Bureau of Reclamation. SMUD would like to respectfully request that a review be conducted to address the current sharing of Restoration Fund Charges between Power and Water Customers of the Central Valley Project.

  2. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Idaho. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The Idaho state legislature has created the Idaho Public Utilities Commission and has given the Commission the power and jurisdiction to supervise and regulate every public utility in the state. The Commission is comprised of three members appointed by the governor with the approval of the senate. Commissioners serve full time and are appointed for six year terms. No more than two of the members may be from the same political party. Title 61 of the Idaho Code, which establishes the Commission and delineates its powers, vests all regulatory responsibility in the Commission to the exclusion of local government. However, as an incident to their franchising power, municipalities may impose reasonable regulations on the use of their streets. The Idaho Supreme Court holds that the transfer of regulatory power over public utilities to the Commission did not diminish the powers and duties of municipalities to control and maintain their streets and alleys. Limited statutory authority also exists giving municipalities the power to regulate the fares, rates, rentals, or charges made for the service rendered under any franchise granted in such city, except such as are subject to regulation by the Public Utilities Commission. With the exception of this limited power, the Commission is the sole agency having regulatory power over Idaho public utilities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  3. 2015 Retail Power Marketers Sales- Commercial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Commercial (Data from form EIA-861 schedule 4B) Entity State Ownership Customers (Count) Sales (Megawatthours) Revenues (Thousands Dollars) Average Price (cents/kWh) 3 Phases Renewables CA Power Marketer 308 334,721 20,073.0 6.00 Calpine Power America LLC CA Power Marketer 1 1,069,832 57,737.7 5.40 City of Cerritos - (CA) CA Municipal 295 68,400 5,009.8 7.32 City of Corona - (CA) CA Municipal 968 25,568 2,175.9 8.51 Commerce Energy, Inc. CA Power Marketer 2,200 260,750 17,070.2 6.55

  4. 2015 Retail Power Marketers Sales- Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Total (Data from form EIA-861 schedule 4B) Entity State Ownership Customers (Count) Sales (Megawatthours) Revenues (Thousands Dollars) Average Price (cents/kWh) 3 Phases Renewables CA Power Marketer 447 410,148 24,961.2 6.09 Calpine Power America LLC CA Power Marketer 1 1,069,832 57,737.7 5.40 City of Cerritos - (CA) CA Municipal 303 80,466 5,882.9 7.31 City of Corona - (CA) CA Municipal 975 68,598 5,759.7 8.40 Commerce Energy, Inc. CA Power Marketer 10,977 337,263 23,998.8 7.12 Constellation

  5. Spontaneous and reversible interaction of vanadium(V) oxyanions with amine derivatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crans, D.C.; Shin, P.K.

    1988-05-18

    The interaction between vanadate and tri- or tetradentate ethanolamine derivatives has been studied by using /sup 51/V NMR spectroscopy. The reactions occur spontaneously in aqueous solutions, at ambient temperatures and in the physiological pH range. In addition to one amine group and one hydroxyl group, the ethanolamine derivative should contain a third and/or fourth functionality that is an alcohol, a carboxylic acid, a phosphonium acid, or an amine. The reactions are highly dependent on pH, concentrations of monomeric vanadate, amine. The stability constants for the complexes are minimum orders of magnitude greater than those found for vanadate derivatives of corresponding ether derivatives, and the high stability is associated with the central nitrogen. Only one vanadium complex is formed in substantial amounts in the reaction of ethanolamine derivatives with vanadate, and that complex is mononuclear in vanadium. Several of the ethanolamine derivatives that form complexes are commonly used buffers in biological and biomedical studies in vitro. 22 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. HYPERFINE STRUCTURE CONSTANTS OF ENERGETICALLY HIGH-LYING LEVELS OF ODD PARITY OF ATOMIC VANADIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Güzelçimen, F.; Yapıcı, B.; Demir, G.; Er, A.; Öztürk, I. K.; Başar, Gö.; Kröger, S.; Tamanis, M.; Ferber, R.; Docenko, D.; Başar, Gü. E-mail: sophie.kroeger@htw-berlin.de

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution Fourier transform spectra of a vanadium-argon plasma have been recorded in the wavelength range of 365-670 nm (15,000-27,400 cm{sup –1}). Optical bandpass filters were used in the experimental setup to enhance the sensitivity of the Fourier transform spectrometer. In total, 138 atomic vanadium spectral lines showing resolved or partially resolved hyperfine structure have been analyzed to determine the magnetic dipole hyperfine structure constants A of the involved energy levels. One of the investigated lines has not been previously classified. As a result, the magnetic dipole hyperfine structure constants A for 90 energy levels are presented: 35 of them belong to the configuration 3d {sup 3}4s4p and 55 to the configuration 3d {sup 4}4p. Of these 90 constants, 67 have been determined for the first time, with 23 corresponding to the configuration 3d {sup 3}4s4p and 44 to 3d {sup 4}4p.

  7. Metals removal and recovery from municipal sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, R.L.; Scheybeler, B.J.; Smith, M.L.; Baird, R.; Lo, M.P.; Haug, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of metals removal from municipal sludges that may be disposed of on agricultural land was studied. Heavy metal accumulation in such vegetables as lettuce and heavy metal toxicity to such crops as oats, beans, corn, and radishes is of concern. The purpose of the study was to assess metal removal systems for sludges obtained from the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant, Carson, Calif. Primary sludge, waste activated sludge, and their anaerobically digested counterparts were dosed with sulfuric acid and the chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), to effect metal solubilization. Seven metals were examined for removal from sludge: Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. Recovery of metals from the sludges was also examined. Using an acid dosage to effect pH decrease to pH 2 and a-stirring time of 24 hours, the removal efficiencies for Fe, Zn, Ni, and Cr were found to be upwards of 75%. Removal efficiencies for Pb and Cd were less, at about 30 to 70%. At less than 10%, Cu was hardly removed. Metal extraction using EDTA gave slightly higher removal efficiencies for Cd, Pb, and Cu. The recovery of solubilized metals from solution with lime was very successful at greater than 90% efficiencies. Examination of the dewaterability of the acid-treated sludge found no significant difference between treated and untreated. Preliminary estimates indicated that about 0.5 metric ton of acid would be required for each dry metric ton of sludge solids to effect significant metal removal of better than 50% of the cadmium and 33% of the lead. To precipitate the metals from the acid filtrate, 1 metric ton of lime per dry metric ton of sludge would be needed. Considering the chemical costs and metal removal efficiency by sludge acidification, it would seem that industrial source control would be a more practical approach, although its full economic impact on the industries has not been estimated.

  8. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  9. Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, J.H.; Rogers, R.S.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1995-09-01

    LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL`s focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. The project has evolved along 3 parallel paths: laboratory scale experiments, pilot scale processing, and process modeling. Initial laboratory-scale MSW treatment results (e.g., viscosity, slurry solids content) over a range of temperatures and times with newspaper and plastics will be presented. Viscosity measurements have been correlated with results obtained at MRL. A hydrothermal treatment pilot facility has been rented from Texaco and is being reconfigured at LLNL; the status of that facility and plans for initial runs will be described. Several different operational scenarios have been modeled. Steady state processes have been modeled with ASPEN PLUS; consideration of steam injection in a batch mode was handled using continuous process modules. A transient model derived from a general purpose packed bed model is being developed which can examine the aspects of steam heating inside the hydrothermal reactor vessel. These models have been applied to pilot and commercial scale scenarios as a function of MSW input parameters and have been used to outline initial overall economic trends. Part of the modeling, an overview of the MSW gasification process and the modeling of the MSW as a process material, was completed by a DOE SERS (Science and Engineering Research Semester) student. The ultimate programmatic goal is the technical demonstration of the gasification of MSW to hydrogen at the laboratory and pilot scale and the economic analysis of the commercial feasibility of such a process.

  10. Hydrogen production from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallman, P.H.; Richardson, J.H.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1996-06-28

    We have modified a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) hydrothermal pretreatment pilot plant for batch operation and blowdown of the treated batch to low pressure. We have also assembled a slurry shearing pilot plant for particle size reduction. Waste paper and a mixture of waste paper/polyethylene plastic have been run in the pilot plant with a treatment temperature of 275{degrees}C. The pilot-plant products have been used for laboratory studies at LLNL. The hydrothermal/shearing pilot plants have produced acceptable slurries for gasification tests from a waste paper feedstock. Work is currently underway with combined paper/plastic feedstocks. When the assembly of the Research Gasification Unit at Texaco (feed capacity approximately 3/4-ton/day) is complete (4th quarter of FY96), gasification test runs will commence. Laboratory work on slurry samples during FY96 has provided correlations between slurry viscosity and hydrothermal treatment temperature, degree of shearing, and the presence of surfactants and admixed plastics. To date, pumpable slurries obtained from an MSW surrogate mixture of treated paper and plastic have shown heating values in the range 13-15 MJ/kg. Our process modeling has quantified the relationship between slurry heating value and hydrogen yield. LLNL has also performed a preliminary cost analysis of the process with the slurry heating value and the MSW tipping fee as parameters. This analysis has shown that the overall process with a 15 MJ/kg slurry gasifier feed can compete with coal-derived hydrogen with the assumption that the tipping fee is of the order $50/ton.

  11. SOUTHEASTERN FEDERAL POWER ALLIANCE - April 12, 2016 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    April 12, 2016 SOUTHEASTERN FEDERAL POWER ALLIANCE - April 12, 2016 SOUTHEASTERN FEDERAL POWER ALLIANCE - April 12, 2016 Southeastern Federal Power Alliance meeting was held on April 12, 2016 in the Sam Nunn Federal Building, 61 Forsyth Street SW, Atlanta, Georgia. Documents Available for Download Alliance Meeting Agenda - April 12, 2016 (115.17 KB) Piedmont Municipal Power Agency Overview (562.58 KB) Water Control Manual Modeling & Incremental Decay Concern (1.15 MB) Hydropower Design

  12. SOUTHEASTERN FEDERAL POWER ALLIANCE - October 9, 2013 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy October 9, 2013 SOUTHEASTERN FEDERAL POWER ALLIANCE - October 9, 2013 Southeastern Federal Power Alliance meeting was held on October 9, 2013 at the Municipal Electric Authority of Georgia (MEAG) located at 1470 Riveredge Parkway NW, Atlanta, Georgia. Documents Available for Download Southeastern Federal Power Alliance Meeting Agenda (18.16 KB) Bonham - Introduction to MEAG Power (39.01 KB) Coffman - APPA and Federal Hydro (36.18 KB) Coffman Handout - WRDA Letter to Boxer and Vitter -

  13. The synthesis of a tris(1,4-butanediyldithioethylene-1,2-dithiolate) complex of vanadium. Structure and electronic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, G.; Bereman, R.; Singh, P.

    1994-12-01

    A monoanionic vanadium complex has been isolated from the reaction of vanadium(III) chloride and the dipotassium salt of the dithiolene, 1,4-butanediyldithioethylene-1,2-dithiolate (BDDT). The complex, isolated as the tetraethylammonium salt and recrystallized from acetone, produced dark blue crystals suitable for an X-ray structural study. The material crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P2{sub 1}/c, with a = 10.798(11) {Angstrom}, b = 19.244(30) {Angstrom}, c = 36.370(42){Angstrom}, {beta} = 9223(7){degrees}, V = 7552(12) {Angstrom}{sup 3}, z = 8, and R = 0.116. Extended Hueckel molecular orbital calculations suggest that this is best described as a V(V) complex. In contrast, however, a comparison of the MO calculation with the tris-vanadium complex of 1,2-ethanediyldithioethylene-1,2-dithiolate (DDDT) suggests this latter system is more appropriately described as a lower oxidation state of vanadium with a partially oxidized ligand. The structural data also suggest this interpretation.

  14. (Surveying isolated diesel power stations in Guatemala)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waddle, D.B.

    1990-02-26

    I travelled to Guatemala City, Guatemala, to lead a team of specialists to study the operating, administrative, and management efficiency of isolated diesel power plants, operated by Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion (INDE). The study is part of a global initiative managed jointly by the Agency for International Development and the World Bank. The power plants were audited, including INDE's largest isolated diesel station, and two, much smaller municipal and privately owned stations. I returned to Oak Ridge on February 22, 1990.

  15. Hydropower Research | Water Power | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Basics Hydropower Basics Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player Most people associate water power with the Hoover Dam-a huge facility harnessing the power of an entire river behind its walls-but hydropower facilities come in all sizes. Some may be very large, but they can be tiny too, taking advantage of water flows in municipal water facilities or irrigation ditches. They can even be "dam-less," with diversions or run-of-river

  16. Hallam Nuclear Power Facility, NE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Hallam Nuclear Power Facility, NE 1969 1998 2. Piqua Nuclear Power Facility, OH 1969 1998 3. Bayo Canyon, NM 1982 1998 4. Kellex/Pierpont, NJ 1982 1998 5. University of California, CA 1982 1998 6. Acid/Pueblo Canyons, NM 1984 1999 7. Chupadera Mesa, NM 1984 1999 8. Canonsburg, PA 1986 1999 9.Shiprock, NM 1987 2000 10. Middlesex Municipal Landfill, NJ 1987 2000 11. Niagara Falls Storage Site Vicinity Properties, NY 1987 2001 12. Salt Lake City, UT 1989 2001 13. Spook, WY 1989 2001 14. National

  17. Wind Energy Applications for Municipal Water Services: Opportunities, Situation Analyses, and Case Studies; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flowers, L.; Miner-Nordstrom, L.

    2006-01-01

    As communities grow, greater demands are placed on water supplies, wastewater services, and the electricity needed to power the growing water services infrastructure. Water is also a critical resource for thermoelectric power plants. Future population growth in the United States is therefore expected to heighten competition for water resources. Many parts of the United States with increasing water stresses also have significant wind energy resources. Wind power is the fastest-growing electric generation source in the United States and is decreasing in cost to be competitive with thermoelectric generation. Wind energy can offer communities in water-stressed areas the option of economically meeting increasing energy needs without increasing demands on valuable water resources. Wind energy can also provide targeted energy production to serve critical local water-system needs. The research presented in this report describes a systematic assessment of the potential for wind power to support water utility operation, with the objective to identify promising technical applications and water utility case study opportunities. The first section describes the current situation that municipal providers face with respect to energy and water. The second section describes the progress that wind technologies have made in recent years to become a cost-effective electricity source. The third section describes the analysis employed to assess potential for wind power in support of water service providers, as well as two case studies. The report concludes with results and recommendations.

  18. 2015 Retail Power Marketers Sales- Industrial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Industrial (Data from form EIA-861 schedule 4B) Entity State Ownership Customers (Count) Sales (Megawatthours) Revenues (Thousands Dollars) Average Price (cents/kWh) 3 Phases Renewables CA Power Marketer 35 74,586 4,809.0 6.45 City of Cerritos - (CA) CA Municipal 8 12,066 873.1 7.24 City of Corona - (CA) CA Municipal 7 43,030 3,583.8 8.33 Constellation NewEnergy, Inc CA Power Marketer 46 1,839,431 93,070.0 5.06 Direct Energy Business CA Power Marketer 30 265,519 15,365.0 5.79 EDF Industrial

  19. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste: Technical developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivard, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    The anaerobic biogasification of organic wastes generates two useful products: a medium-Btu fuel gas and a compost-quality organic residue. Although commercial-scale digestion systems are used to treat municipal sewage wastes, the disposal of solid organic wastes, including municipal solid wastes (MSW), requires a more cost-efficient process. Modern biogasification systems employ high-rate, high-solids fermentation methods to improve process efficiency and reduce capital costs. The design criteria and development stages are discussed. These systems are also compared with conventional low-solids fermentation technology.

  20. Thermally driven analog of the Barkhausen effect at the metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huber-Rodriguez, Benjamin; Ji, Heng; Chen, Chih-Wei; Kwang, Siu Yi; Hardy, Will J.; Morosan, Emilia; Natelson, Douglas

    2014-09-29

    The physics of the metal-insulator transition (MIT) in vanadium dioxide remains a subject of intense interest. Because of the complicating effects of elastic strain on the phase transition, there is interest in comparatively strain-free means of examining VO{sub 2} material properties. We report contact-free, low-strain studies of the MIT through an inductive bridge approach sensitive to the magnetic response of VO{sub 2} powder. Rather than observing the expected step-like change in susceptibility at the transition, we argue that the measured response is dominated by an analog of the Barkhausen effect, due to the extremely sharp jump in the magnetic response of each grain as a function of time as the material is cycled across the phase boundary. This effect suggests that future measurements could access the dynamics of this and similar phase transitions.

  1. Characterization of vanadium ion uptake in sulfonated diels alder poly(phenylene) membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawton, Jamie; Jones, Amanda; Tang, Zhijiang; Lindsey, Melanie; Zawodzinski, Thomas A

    2015-11-28

    Sulfonated diels alder poly(phenylene) (SDAPP), alternative aromatic hydrocarbon membranes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) are characterized using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Membranes soaked in sulfuric acid and vanadyl sulfate are analyzed to determine the membrane environment in which the vanadyl ion (VO2+) diffuses in the membranes. These results are compared to Nafion 117 membranes. In contrast to Nafion, the VO2+ in SDAPP membranes exists in two different environments. The results of analysis of rotational diffusion determined from fits the EPR spectral lineshapes in comparison with previously reported permeation studies and measurements of partitioning functions reported here suggest that the diffusion pathways in SDAPP are very different than in Nafion.

  2. Weldability of cast and heat treated uranium-0.25% vanadium alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunwoo, A.

    1997-09-01

    Weldability of a grain refined cast uranium-0.2% vanadium (U-0.2% V) alloy is a concern since the alloy is reported to be sensitive to delay weld cracking. Welding of unalloyed wrought U is not free of weld defects. Deep, single-pass electron beam welds in U have been plagued by cold-shuts in the fusion zone. Cold-shuts have not been observed in the cast U-0.2% V alloy. The purpose of this work was to address the weldability concern for a cast and helium isothermally transformed U-0.25% V alloy and to determine the effects of welding on the weldment properties.

  3. Characterization of vanadium ion uptake in sulfonated diels alder poly(phenylene) membranes

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Lawton, Jamie; Jones, Amanda; Tang, Zhijiang; Lindsey, Melanie; Zawodzinski, Thomas A

    2015-11-28

    Sulfonated diels alder poly(phenylene) (SDAPP), alternative aromatic hydrocarbon membranes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) are characterized using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Membranes soaked in sulfuric acid and vanadyl sulfate are analyzed to determine the membrane environment in which the vanadyl ion (VO2+) diffuses in the membranes. These results are compared to Nafion 117 membranes. In contrast to Nafion, the VO2+ in SDAPP membranes exists in two different environments. The results of analysis of rotational diffusion determined from fits the EPR spectral lineshapes in comparison with previously reported permeation studies and measurements of partitioning functions reported here suggest that themore » diffusion pathways in SDAPP are very different than in Nafion.« less

  4. Transport properties of lithium- lead-vanadium-telluride glass and glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathish, M.; Eraiah, B.

    2014-04-24

    Glasses with the chemical composition 35Li{sub 2}O-(45-x)V{sub 2}O{sub 5?}20PbO-xTeO{sub 2} (where x = 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 mol %) have prepared by conventional melt quenching method. The electrical conductivity of Li{sup +} ion conducting lead vanadium telluride glass samples has been carried out both as a function of temperature and frequency in the temperature range 503K-563K and over frequencies 40 Hz to 10 MHz. The electronic conduction has been observed in the present systems. When these samples annealed around 400C for 2hour become the glass ceramic, which also shows increase tendency of conductivity. SEM confines glass and glass ceramic nature of the prepared samples.

  5. Multiple Redox Modes in the Reversible Lithiation of High-Capacity, Peierls-Distorted Vanadium Sulfide

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Britto, Sylvia; Leskes, Michal; Hua, Xiao; Hébert, Claire-Alice; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Clarke, Simon; Borkiewicz, Olaf; Chapman, Karena W.; Seshadri, Ram; Cho, Jaephil; et al

    2015-06-08

    Vanadium sulfide VS4 in the patronite mineral structure, is a linear chain compound comprising vanadium atoms coordinated by disulfide anions [S2]2–. 51V NMR shows that the material, despite having V formally in the d1 configuration, is diamagnetic, suggesting potential dimerization through metal-metal bonding associated with a Peierls distortion of the linear chains. This is supported by density functional calculations, and is also consistent with the observed alternation in V-V distances of 2.8 Å and 3.2 Å along the chains. Partial lithiation results in reduction of the disulfide ions to sulfide S2–, including via an internal redox process whereby an electronmore » from V4+ is transferred to [S2]2– resulting in oxidation of V4+ to V5+ and reduction of the [S2]2– to S2- to form Li3VS4 containing tetrahedral [VS4]3– anions. On further lithiation this is followed by reduction of the V5+ in Li3VS4 to form Li3+xVS4 (x=0.5-1), a mixed valent V4+/V5+ compound. Eventually reduction to Li2S plus elemental V occurs. Despite the complex redox processes involving both the cation and the anion occurring in this material, the system is found to be partially reversible between 0 and 3 V. In conclusion, the unusual redox processes in this system are elucidated using a suite of short range characterization tools including 51V Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR), S Kedge X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) and Pair Distribution Function (PDF) Analysis of X-ray data.« less

  6. Solar EnerTech PAIS Jin Yu Silicon Wuhai Municipal Gvrnt JV ...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar EnerTech PAIS Jin Yu Silicon Wuhai Municipal Gvrnt JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar EnerTech, PAIS, Jin Yu Silicon, & Wuhai Municipal Gvrnt JV Place: Inner Mongolia...

  7. NMS 3-19 Municipalities Planning and Platting | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    3-19 Municipalities Planning and Platting Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: NMS 3-19 Municipalities Planning and...

  8. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Manako, Kazutaka; Osada, Morihiro

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of MSW with MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant difference between MSW treatment with and without MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCDD/DFs yields are significantly low because of the high carbon conversion ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slag quality is significantly stable and slag contains few hazardous heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The final landfill amount is reduced and materials are recovered by DMS process. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such

  9. CM-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    CM-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CM-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule October 1, 2011 - 3:22pm Addthis Availability: This rate schedule shall be available to the South Mississippi Electric Power Association, Municipal Energy Agency of Mississippi, and Mississippi Delta Energy Agency (hereinafter called the Customers). Applicability: This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy available from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley,

  10. Best Practices for Establishing Municipal Funds for Energy Efficiency Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This webinar gives an overview of best practices when establishing a municipal fund for energy efficiency projects and discusses efficiency upgrades on public buildings, renewable installations on public buildings, procurement policies and internal revolving loan funds. Case studies include Ann Arbor, Michigan, Union County, North Carolina, as well as Chapel Hill and Orlando.

  11. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  12. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  13. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  14. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    voluntary programs * Installing energy upgrades to municipal buildings, water wastewater treatment facilities, streetlights Recent resources provide guidance, including: * DOE ...

  15. Full cell study of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) anion and cation exchange membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pezeshki, Alan M.; Fujimoto, Cy; Sun, Che -Nan; Mench, Matthew M.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Tang, Z. J.

    2015-11-14

    In this paper, we report on the performance of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries. The membranes were functionalized with quaternary ammonium groups to form an anion exchange membrane (QDAPP) and with sulfonic acid groups to form a cation exchange membrane (SDAPP). Both membrane classes showed similar conductivities in the battery environment, suggesting that the ion conduction mechanism in the material is not strongly affected by the moieties along the polymer backbone. The resistance to vanadium permeation in QDAPP was not improved relative to SDAPP, further suggesting that the polarity of the functional groups do not play a significant role in the membrane materials tested. Both QDAPP and SDAPP outperformed Nafion membranes in cycling tests, with both achieving voltage efficiencies above 85% while maintaining 95% coulombic efficiency while at a current density of 200 mA/cm2.

  16. Full cell study of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) anion and cation exchange membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Pezeshki, Alan M.; Fujimoto, Cy; Sun, Che -Nan; Mench, Matthew M.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Tang, Z. J.

    2015-11-14

    In this paper, we report on the performance of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries. The membranes were functionalized with quaternary ammonium groups to form an anion exchange membrane (QDAPP) and with sulfonic acid groups to form a cation exchange membrane (SDAPP). Both membrane classes showed similar conductivities in the battery environment, suggesting that the ion conduction mechanism in the material is not strongly affected by the moieties along the polymer backbone. The resistance to vanadium permeation in QDAPP was not improved relative to SDAPP, further suggesting that the polarity of the functional groups do not playmore » a significant role in the membrane materials tested. Both QDAPP and SDAPP outperformed Nafion membranes in cycling tests, with both achieving voltage efficiencies above 85% while maintaining 95% coulombic efficiency while at a current density of 200 mA/cm2.« less

  17. Municipal-building conservation project: financing conservation in municipal buildings. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gatton, David; Mounts, Richard; Scrimger, Kay; Wood, Elizabeth; Musselwhite, Ron; Wanning, Helen; Frazier, Andrew; Pyles, Odessa

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to assess one dimension of the energy problem that confronts cities - energy costs for public buildings - and to see how a sample of local governments had confronted that problem. While cities of all sizes tend to have a considerable variety of buildings, most are related to the basic municipal service of administration, police and fire protection, public works, and recreation. Most of these buildings consume natural gas and electricity as their primary source of energy, sources whose price is likely to rise more rapidly than the rate of inflation in the next few years. While it is difficult to assess the reports of energy costs without comparing them to the total city budget, these costs were found to be sizable among small and medium cities, and quite large among larger cities. While several of the conservation programs in the sample dated back to 1976, almost half (14) were relatively new, having been undertaken only in the last three years. Administratively, most have been placed under the direction of budget or public works officials, and, substantively, have emphasized no-cost/low-cost measures, such as employee awareness programs and improvements in building maintenance. In keeping with this, most of the programs have been supported by reprogramming funds, supplemented with local capital improvement funds, and state and federal grants. Case studies for five localities are appended.

  18. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Texas. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities in Texas is generally vested in the Public Utilities Commission. The Commission is comprised of three members appointed by the governor, with the advice of at least two-thirds of the senate, for a six-year term. Prior to the passage of the Texas Public Utility Regulatory Act (PURA) in 1975, the power to regulate public utilities was vested almost exclusively in municipalities. Under PURA, municipalities retain exclusive original jurisdiction over all electric, water, and sewer utilities within the municipality. PURA provides that all regulations pertaining to public utilities promulgated by local regulatory agencies remain in effect unless they are superceded by Commission rules. The municipality's governing body is required to exercise its regulatory authority under rules and standards consistent with those promulgated by the Commission. The Commission has exclusive appellate jurisdiction to review orders and ordinances of regulatory municipalities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  19. Neutron and Charged-Particle Induced Cross Sections for Radiochemistry for Isotopes of Scandium, Titanium, Vanadium, Chromium, Manganese, and Iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, K; Hoffman, R D; Dietrich, F S; Bauer, R; Mustafa, M

    2004-11-30

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Local systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron and proton induced nuclear reaction cross sections in the mass region of scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, and iron (21 {le} Z {le} 26, 20 {le} N {le} 32).

  20. Proceedings: 1989 conference on municipal solid waste as a utility fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the 1989 Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Conference on Municipal Solid Waste as a Utility Fuel. The subject areas included are: Utility cofiring experience, refuse-derived fuel production, firing 100% refuse-derived fuel, mass burn technology, fluidized bed combustion, research reports, environmental control technology, and papers on permitting, environmental risk assessment, and the impact of recycling. The conference was held on October 10--12, 1989, and was proceeded by similar conferences held 11/85 (EPRI publication CS-4900-SR, 1986); 1/82 (EPRI publication CS-2723, 1982) and 1/80 (EPRI Publication WS-79-225, 1980). Individual projects are processed separately for on the databases. (MHB)

  1. SMUD Kokhala Power Tower Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Henry W.; Whitney, Daniel D.; Beebe, H.I.

    1997-06-01

    Kokhala is the name of a new hybridized power tower design which integrates a nitrate-salt solar power tower with a gas turbine combined-cycle power plant. This integration achieves high value energy, low costs, and lower investor risk than a conventional solar only power tower plant. One of the primary advantages of this system is that it makes small power tower plants much more economically competitive with conventional power generation technologies. This paper is an overview of a study that performed a conceptual evaluation of a small (30 MWe) commercial plant suitable for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District`s (SMUD) Rancho Seco power plant site near Sacramento, California. This paper discusses the motivation for using a small hybrid solar plant and provides an overview of the analysis methodology used in the study. The results indicate that a power tower integrated with an advanced gas turbine, combined with Sacramento`s summer solar resource, could produce a low- risk, economically viable power generation project in the near future.

  2. Multiple stakeholders in multi-criteria decision-making in the context of Municipal Solid Waste Management: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soltani, Atousa; Hewage, Kasun; Reza, Bahareh; Sadiq, Rehan

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We review Municipal Solid Waste Management studies with focus on multiple stakeholders. • We focus on studies with multi-criteria decision analysis methods and discover their trends. • Most studies do not offer solutions for situations where stakeholders compete for more benefits or have unequal voting powers. • Governments and experts are the most participated stakeholders and AHP is the most dominant method. - Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is a complicated process that involves multiple environmental and socio-economic criteria. Decision-makers look for decision support frameworks that can guide in defining alternatives, relevant criteria and their weights, and finding a suitable solution. In addition, decision-making in MSWM problems such as finding proper waste treatment locations or strategies often requires multiple stakeholders such as government, municipalities, industries, experts, and/or general public to get involved. Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is the most popular framework employed in previous studies on MSWM; MCDA methods help multiple stakeholders evaluate the often conflicting criteria, communicate their different preferences, and rank or prioritize MSWM strategies to finally agree on some elements of these strategies and make an applicable decision. This paper reviews and brings together research on the application of MCDA for solving MSWM problems with more focus on the studies that have considered multiple stakeholders and offers solutions for such problems. Results of this study show that AHP is the most common approach in consideration of multiple stakeholders and experts and governments/municipalities are the most common participants in these studies.

  3. Lithium-vanadium advanced blanket development. ITER final report on U.S. contribution: Task T219/T220

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.L.; Mattas, R.F.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this task is to develop the required data base and demonstrate the performance of a liquid lithium-vanadium advanced blanket design. The task has two main activities related to vanadium structural material and liquid lithium system developments. The vanadium alloy development activity included four subtasks: (1.1) baseline mechanical properties of non irradiated base metal and weld metal joints; (1.2) compatibility with liquid lithium; (1.3) material irradiation tests; and (1.4) development of material manufacturing and joining methods. The lithium blanket technology activity included four subtasks: (2.1) electrical insulation development and testing for liquid metal systems; (2.2) MHD pressure drop and heat transfer study for self-cooled liquid metal systems; (2.3) chemistry of liquid lithium; and (2.4) design, fabrication and testing of ITER relevant size blanket mockups. A summary of the progress and results obtained during the period 1995 and 1996 in each of the subtask areas is presented in this report.

  4. Nanoporous Polytetrafluoroethylene/Silica Composite Separator as a High-Performance All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Luo, Qingtao; Li, Bin; Chen, Baowei; Simmons, Kevin L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2013-09-02

    Driven by the motivation of searching for low-cost membrane alternatives, a novel nanoporous polytetrafluoroethylene/silica composite separator has been prepared and evaluated for its use in all-vanadium mixed-acid redox flow battery. This separator consisting of silica particles enmeshed in a polytetrafluoroethylene fibril matrix has no ion exchange capacity and is featured with unique nanoporous structures, which function as the ion transport channels in redox flow battery operation, with an average pore size of 38nm and a porosity of 48%. This separator has produced excellent electrochemical performance in the all-vanadium mixed-acid system with energy efficiency delivery comparable to Nafion membrane and superior rate capability and temperature tolerance. The separator also demonstrates an exceptional capacity retention capability over extended cycling, offering additional operational latitude towards conveniently mitigating the capacity decay that is inevitable for Nafion. Because of the inexpensive raw materials and simple preparation protocol, the separator is particularly low-cost, estimated to be at least an order of magnitude more inexpensive than Nafion. Plus the proven chemical stability due to the same backbone material as Nafion, this separator possesses a good combination of critical membrane requirements and shows great potential to promote market penetration of the all-vanadium redox flow battery by enabling significant reduction of capital and cycle costs.

  5. Multiple Redox Modes in the Reversible Lithiation of High-Capacity, Peierls-Distorted Vanadium Sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britto, Sylvia; Leskes, Michal; Hua, Xiao; Hébert, Claire-Alice; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Clarke, Simon; Borkiewicz, Olaf; Chapman, Karena W.; Seshadri, Ram; Cho, Jaephil; Grey, Clare P.

    2015-06-08

    Vanadium sulfide VS4 in the patronite mineral structure, is a linear chain compound comprising vanadium atoms coordinated by disulfide anions [S2]2–. 51V NMR shows that the material, despite having V formally in the d1 configuration, is diamagnetic, suggesting potential dimerization through metal-metal bonding associated with a Peierls distortion of the linear chains. This is supported by density functional calculations, and is also consistent with the observed alternation in V-V distances of 2.8 Å and 3.2 Å along the chains. Partial lithiation results in reduction of the disulfide ions to sulfide S2–, including via an internal redox process whereby an electron from V4+ is transferred to [S2]2– resulting in oxidation of V4+ to V5+ and reduction of the [S2]2– to S2- to form Li3VS4 containing tetrahedral [VS4]3– anions. On further lithiation this is followed by reduction of the V5+ in Li3VS4 to form Li3+xVS4 (x=0.5-1), a mixed valent V4+/V5+ compound. Eventually reduction to Li2S plus elemental V occurs. Despite the complex redox processes involving both the cation and the anion occurring in this material, the system is found to be partially reversible between 0 and 3 V. In conclusion, the unusual redox processes in this system are elucidated using a suite of short range characterization tools including 51V Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR), S Kedge X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) and Pair Distribution Function (PDF) Analysis of X-ray data.

  6. WATER POWER SOLAR POWER WIND POWER

    Energy Savers

    coloring book get curren WATER POWER SOLAR POWER WIND POWER Be part of the Clean Energy Generation YOUR HOUSE BIOMASS ENERGY GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Clean energy can come from the sun. ...

  7. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage of 1,2-hydroxy ethers b7 vanadium(V) dipicolinate complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, Susan K; Gordon, John C; Thorn, David L; Scott, Brian L; Baker, R Tom

    2009-01-01

    The development of alternatives to current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals is becoming increasingly important due to concerns over climate change, growing world energy demand, and energy security issues. Using non-food derived biomass to produce renewable feedstocks for chemicals and fuels is a particularly attractive possibility. However, the majority of biomass is in the form of lignocellulose, which is often not fully utilized due to difficulties associated with breaking down both lignin and cellulose. Recently, a number of methods have been reported to transform cellulose directly into more valuable materials such as glucose, sorbitol, 5-(chloromethyl)furfural, and ethylene glycol. Less progress has been made with selective transformations of lignin, which is typically treated in paper and forest industries by kraft pulping (sodium hydroxide/sodium sulfide) or incineration. Our group has begun investigating aerobic oxidative C-C bond cleavage catalyzed by dipicolinate vanadium complexes, with the idea that a selective C-C cleavage reaction of this type could be used to produce valuable chemicals or intermediates from cellulose or lignin. Lignin is a randomized polymer containing methoxylated phenoxy propanol units. A number of different linkages occur naturally; one of the most prevalent is the {beta}-O-4 linkage shown in Figure 1, containing a C-C bond with 1,2-hydroxy ether substituents. While the oxidative C-C bond cleavage of 1,2-diols has been reported for a number of metals, including vanadium, iron, manganese, ruthenium, and polyoxometalate complexes, C-C bond cleavage of 1,2-hydroxy ethers is much less common. We report herein vanadium-mediated cleavage of C-C bonds between alcohol and ether functionalities in several lignin model complexes. In order to explore the scope and potential of vanadium complexes to effect oxidative C-C bond cleavage in 1,2-hydroxy ethers, we examined the reactivity of the lignin model complexes pinacol monomethyl ether (A

  8. Water Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary PowerEnergy Conversion EfficiencyWater Power Water Power Tara Camacho-Lopez 2016-06-01T22:32:54+00:00 Enabling a successful water power industry. Hydropower ...

  9. Blazing the energy trail: The Municipal Energy Management Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force pioneers energy and environmental solutions for US cities and counties. When local officials participate in the task force, they open the door to many resources for their communities. The US is entering a period of renewed interest in energy management. Improvements in municipal energy management allow communities to free up energy operating funds to meet other needs. These improvements can even keep energy dollars in the community through the purchase of services and products used to save energy. With this idea in mind, the US Department of Energy Municipal Energy Management Program has funded more than 250 projects that demonstrate innovative energy technologies and management tools in cities and counties through the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF). UCETF helps the US Department of Energy foster municipal energy management through networks with cities and urbanized counties and through links with three national associations of local governments. UCETF provides funding for projects that demonstrate innovative and realistic technologies, strategies, and methods that help urban America become more energy efficient and environmentally responsible. The task force provides technical support to local jurisdictions selected for projects. UCETF also shares information about successful energy management projects with cities and counties throughout the country via technical reports and project papers. The descriptions included here capsulize a sample of UCETF`s demonstration projects around the country.

  10. Batteries called primary source of lead, cadmium in municipal waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency reports that lead-acid batteries, such as those used in automobiles, and rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries used in consumer electronics equipment, are the primary sources of lead and cadmium in municipal trash and garbage. A report prepared for EPA analyzed existing data from 1970 to 1986 and made projections to the year 2000. Lead-acid batteries continue to constitute a major source of lead in garbage even though 80 percent of them are now recycled. As a result, EPA is calling for additional recycling of batteries. This study is an important step in implementing EPA's strategy for helping states and cities achieve the national goal of recycling and reducing 25 percent of all municipal garbage by 1992. The findings on batteries are the result of a study conducted for EPA because of concern over the levels of lead and cadmium found n ash (residue) from municipal waste incinerators. Lead and cadmium are two metals of particular concern in the solid waste stream. The metals can contaminate soil and groundwater when landfilled. They also may be found in some incinerator emissions.

  11. Taiwan`s experience with municipal waste recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.H.

    1998-12-31

    Currently, each person on the average produces 1.15 kg of the municipal waste per day and a total of 9 million metric tons were generated annually in Taiwan. The disposal of such a huge amount of waste presents tremendous challenge for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities available locally. EPA of Taiwan, R.O.C. thus takes an active role in promoting waste recycling to reduce the garbage produced in municipalities. In order to efficiently utilize the government`s human and financial resources used in recycling, started from January 31, 1989, EPA has mandated the producer responsibility recycling program for several designated post-consumer products such as PET, PVC bottles, scrap tires, scrap motor vehicles, etc. Producer responsibility recycling program specifies that the manufacturers, importers and sellers of these designated products have the responsibility to retrieve their products and recycle them properly. Several negative effects have been encountered while the implementation of this producer responsibility recycling program in Taiwan which resulted in a modification of this recycling program recently. This paper presents the encountered experiences on the implementation of municipal waste recycling program in Taiwan.

  12. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troschinetz, Alexis M. Mihelcic, James R.

    2009-02-15

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors.

  13. Trans-Americas leads the way into municipal textile recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridgley, H.

    1998-08-01

    Most textile waste in the US still goes to the landfill--an estimated 6.6 million tons each year. But thanks to the efforts of textile recycles--such as Trans-Americas Textile Recycling CO. (Brooklyn, NY)--another 1.25 million tons gets salvaged for reuse overseas or as a feedstock for the wiping and fiber industries, according to the Council for Textile Recycling. In an era where global population levels are increasing the demand for textile waste from the Western world and municipalities are struggling to reach their waste diversion goals, boosting textile recovery rates makes sense. And it`s a waste that can be easily incorporated into existing municipal curbside or drop-off recycling programs. Since 1942, when the company first opened its doors in Brooklyn, NY, it purchased textile discards from charities. While those discards still make up the majority of Trans-Americas` supply, in the last two years, the company also began purchasing post-consumer material from municipalities. Textiles are definitely going to be an increasingly important part of recycling, as states look to meet their mandates.

  14. Thin-film encapsulation of the air-sensitive organic-based ferrimagnet vanadium tetracyanoethylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Froning, I. H.; Harberts, M.; Yu, H.; Johnston-Halperin, E.; Lu, Y.; Epstein, A. J.

    2015-03-23

    The organic-based ferrimagnet vanadium tetracyanoethylene (V[TCNE]{sub x∼2}) has demonstrated potential for use in both microwave electronics and spintronics due to the combination of high temperature magnetic ordering (T{sub C} > 600 K), extremely sharp ferromagnetic resonance (peak to peak linewidth of 1 G), and low-temperature conformal deposition via chemical vapor deposition (deposition temperature of 50 °C). However, air-sensitivity leads to the complete degradation of the films within 2 h under ambient conditions, with noticeable degradation occurring within 30 min. Here, we demonstrate encapsulation of V[TCNE]{sub x∼2} thin films using a UV-cured epoxy that increases film lifetime to over 710 h (30 days) as measured by the remanent magnetization. The saturation magnetization and Curie temperature decay more slowly than the remanence, and the coercivity is unchanged after 340 h (14 days) of air exposure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates that the epoxy does not react with the film, and magnetometry measurements show that the presence of the epoxy does not degrade the magnetic properties. This encapsulation strategy directly enables a host of experimental protocols and investigations not previously feasible for air-sensitive samples and lays the foundation for the development of practical applications for this promising organic-based magnetic material.

  15. Selective oxidation of n-butane and butenes over vanadium-containing catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieto, J.M.L.; Concepcion, P.; Dejoz, A.; Knoezinger, H.; Melo, F.; Vazquez, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The oxidative dehydrogenation (OXDH) of n-butane, 1-butene, and trans-2-butene on different vanadia catalysts has been compared. MgO, alumina, and Mg-Al mixed oxides with Mg/(Al + Mg) ratios of 0.25 and 0.75 were used as supports. The catalytic data indicate that the higher the acid character of catalysts the lower is both the selectivity to C{sub 4}-olefins from n-butane and the selectivity to butadiene from both 1-butene or trans-2-butene. Thus, OXDH reactions are mainly observed from n-butane and butenes on basic catalysts. The different catalytic performance of both types of catalysts is a consequence of the isomerization of olefins on acid sites, which appears to be a competitive reaction with the selective way, i.e., the oxydehydrogenation process by a redox mechanism. Infrared spectroscopy data of 1-butene adsorbed on supported vanadium oxide catalysts suggest the presence of different adsorbed species. O-containing species (carbonyl and alkoxide species) are observed on catalysts with acid sites while adsorbed butadiene species are observed on catalysts with basic sites. According to these results a reaction network for the oxydehydrogenation of n-butane is proposed with parallel and consecutive reactions.

  16. Growth of oriented vanadium pentaoxide nanostructures on transparent conducting substrates and their applications in photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hongjiang; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhou, Jiadong; Liu, Xinling; Chen, Zhang; Cao, Chuanxiang; Luo, Hongjie; Kanehira, Minoru

    2014-06-01

    A novel, hydrothermal and hard-template-free method was developed for the first time to grow oriented, single-crystalline monoclinic VO{sub 2} (B) flower-like nanorod films on transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. The length and morphology of the nanorods can be tuned by changing the growth parameters, such as growth time and initial precursor concentration. The flower-like V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films were obtained after post-calcination treatment of VO{sub 2} (B) films. The photocatalytic activity of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films was investigated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV and visible light. The prepared V{sub 2}O{sub 5} film exhibited good photocatalytic performance (74.6% and 63% under UV and visible light for 210 min, respectively) and more practical application in industry. - Graphical abstract: Flower nanostructured vanadium oxide film was prepared by hydrothermal reaction for photocatalysis application. - Highlights: Monoclinic VO{sub 2} nanorod array and flower-like nanostructure were directly grown on FTO substrate by hydrothermal reaction. The growth mechanism was analyzed by FESEM at different time. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} flower-like nanostructure film was obtained after calcining VO{sub 2} film. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} film exhibited good light activity and potential application in photocatalysis.

  17. Power Sales to Electric Utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1989-02-01

    The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of 77 MW, 3 solid waste-to-energy facilities

  18. Target fabrication of current pulsed-power driven x-ray laser targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiemann, D.K.; Bieg, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the NARYA program at Sandia National Laboratories is to make a pulsed-power driven x-ray laser. Ongoing experiments on the 10 TW, 5 MA accelerator, PROTO II, have required a wide range of thin-walled, hollow cylindrical targets called soda straws. A typical soda straw consists of an inner lasant layer, a Parylene strong back layer, and an outer converter layer. Variations to this have been targets of plain Parylene straws, straws with only lasant layers, and straws with only converter layers. These straws are nominally 1.6, 3, or 6 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length. Additional components to the straws have been solid cones coated with a lasant laser of vanadium mounted within the straws. Cone specifications are shown. The solid cones have a base diameter of either 3 or 6 mm and extend 2/3 the way up the straw with a tip radius of 127 ..mu..m. Target parameters for the straws have been the following: the inner coatings ranging from 100-1000 A of vanadium, nickel, or copper; the Parylene thicknesses ranging from 1.8 - 5.0 ..mu..m; and the outer coatings ranging from 100-500 A of silver or barium, 500-4000 A of aluminum, or 2000-10,000 A of sodium fluoride. The requirements for the cones have been 4000 A and 400 A of vanadium.

  19. (Survey of three isolated diesel power stations in Guatemala)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chronowski, R.A.

    1990-03-15

    I traveled to Guatemala City, Guatemala to participate with a team of specialists to study the operating, administrative, and management efficiency of isolated diesel power plants, operated by Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion (INDE). The study is part of a global initiative managed jointly by the Agency for International Development and the World Bank. The power plants were audited, including INDE's largest isolated diesel station, and two much smaller municipal and privately owned stations. I returned to the USA on February 20, 1990.

  20. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in North Carolina. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    Under the Public Utilities Act of 1965, utilities in North Carolina are regulated by the State's Utility Commission. The Commission consists of seven members who are appointed by the governor, subject to confirmation by the General Assembly sitting in joint session. The Commissioners serve eight year terms and the governor designates one of the commissioners as chairman. The Commission has an office of the executive director, who is appointed to a six year term by the governor subject to confirmaion by the General Assembly. The executive director heads the Commission's public staff. The public staff's duties include reviewing, investigating, and making recommendations on utility rates and services and intervention on behalf of the public in proceedings affecting consumer rates and generating plant certification. The Commission has the same power to regulate the operation of privately-owned public utilities within municipalities as it has to control those ouside. The only power over privately-owned utilities reserved to the municipalities is the power to grant franchises. A municipality may maintain its own utility systems, and such systems are not subject to the control and jurisdiction of the Commission. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  1. Role of vanadium(V) in the aging of the organic phase in the extraction of uranium(VI) by Alamine 336 from acidic sulfate leach liquors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chagnes, A.; Cote, G.; Courtaud, B.; Thiry, J.

    2008-07-01

    The present work is focussed on the chemical degradation of Alamine 336-tridecanol-n-dodecane solvent which used in the recovery of uranium by solvent extraction. Degradation occurs due to the presence of vanadium(V), an oxidant, in the feed solution. After a brief overview of the chemistry of vanadium, the kinetics of degradation of the solvent when contacted with acidic sulfate leach liquor was investigated and interpreted by the Michelis-Menten mechanism. GCMS analyses evidenced the presence of tridecanoic acid and dioctylamine as degradation products. A mechanism of degradation is discussed. (authors)

  2. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in California. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Constitution of the State of California grants to the Legislature control over persons and private corporations that own or operate a line, plant, or system for the production, generation, or transmission of heat, light, water, or power to be furnished either directly or indirectly to or for the public. The Constitution establishes the Public Utilities Commission and grants certain specific powers to the PUC, including the power to fix rates, establish rules and prescribe a uniform system of accounts. The Constitution also recognizes that the Legislature has plenary power to confer additional authority and jurisdiction upon the PUC. The Constitution prohibits regulation by a city, county, or other municipal body of matters over which the Legislature has granted regulatory power to the PUC. This provision does not, however, impair the right of any city to grant franchises for public utilities. The California legislature has enacted the California Public Utilities Code and has designated the PUC as the agency to implement the regulatory provisions of the Code. The Public Utilities Commission consists of five members appointed by the governor and approved by the senate, a majority of the membership concurring, for staggered 6-year terms. Certain limited powers over the conduct of public utilities may still be exercised by municipalities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  3. Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium

    Energy Savers

    Kickoff | Department of Energy Kickoff Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Below is the text-alternative version of the Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff webcast, held May 6, 2010. Terry Shoemaker: Welcome, ladies and gentlemen. I'm Terry Shoemaker with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and I'd like to welcome you to today's webcast, Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Meeting. This is brought

  4. Void structure and density change of vanadium-base alloys irradiated in the dynamic helium charging experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, H.M.; Nowicki, L.; Gazda, J.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this work is to determine void structure, distribution, and density changes of several promising vanadium-base alloys irradiated in the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE). Combined effects of dynamically charged helium and neutron damage on density change, void distribution, and microstructural evolution of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy have been determined after irradiation to 18-31 dpa at 425-600{degree}C in the DHCE, and the results compared with those from a non-DHCE in which helium generation was negligible.

  5. Project Profile: The Sacramento Municipal Utility District Consumnes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of an existing electrical generator for its power block and transmission interconnection. ... field, power tower, and the associated electrical connections for a solar steam generator. ...

  6. Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenic Energy

    Reports and Publications

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the methodology used to split the heat content of municipal solid waste (MSW) into its biogenic and non-biogenic shares.

  7. Taunton Municipal Lighting Plant- Residential and Non-Profit Weatherization Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Taunton Municipal Lighting Plant (TMLP) offers the 'House N Home' Thermal Rebate Program, which provides financial incentives to residential and non-profit customers for making buildings more...

  8. North Branch Municipal Water & Light- Commercial & Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    North Branch Municipal Water & Light provides incentives for its commercial and industrial customers to improve the energy efficiency of facilities. Rebates are available for a variety of...

  9. Community Renewable Energy Success Stories Webinar: Exploring How Municipal Utilities Fund Solar Energy Projects (text version)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text version of the webinar titled "Exploring How Municipal Utilities Fund Solar Energy Projects," originally presented on February 19, 2013.

  10. Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool Webcast

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Below is the text-alternative version of the "Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool" webcast, held April 3, 2012.

  11. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  12. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) is experiencing a dramatic resurgence in the US. Several factors are driving this interest in composting including landfill closures, resistance to siting of new landfills and combustion facilities, public support for recycling, and, in general, the overall costs of waste disposal. Starting with only one demonstration project operating in 1980, the total number of projects in the US has increased to sixteen by July 1991. There are approximately 100 projects in some form of planning or development. One reason some communities are sekniing composting as a waste management option is that sewage sludge and MSW can be co-composted thereby recycling a major portion of the overall municipal waste stream. In 1991, five of the operating facilities have incorporated sludge, with a number of new plants also developing systems with this capability. Generic composting technologies are described followed by a comprehensive discussion of operating facilities. Information is presented on the type of processing system, capital and operating costs, and the status of compost markets. A discussion is also included on the operational problems and challenges faced by composting facility developers and operators. Also presented are facility energy usage and a discussion of the energy implications from the use of compost as a soil and fertilizer replacement. A discussion of cost sensitivity shows how facility costs are impacted by waste handling procedures, regulations, reject disposal, and finance charges. The status of, and potential for, integrating composting into the overall waste management strategy is also discussed, including composting's contribution to municipal recycling goals, and the status of public acceptance of the technology. Finally information and research needs are summarized.

  13. Municipal garbage disposal: A problem we cannot ignore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    In 1980 the US generated 150 million metric tons of municipal solid waste, and this figure is expected to increase to over 200 million metric tons by 1990. This comment discusses the traditional approaches to waste management, as well as current options available for waste disposal and the federal environmental laws that impinge on these options. Next, the national dimensions of the garbage disposal problem, as epitomized by the garbage barge and the international export of waste generated by this country, are discussed. This Comment concludes with recommendations for a change in public policy to foster recycling, taxing non-biodegradable products, as well as more stringent regulatory controls on solid waste disposal.

  14. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-08-01

    This study was initiated to compile publicly available data on the five major options commonly used for municipal solid waste MSW management today: Landfilling, mass burning for energy recovery, production and combustion of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and composting. The report also provides some data on energy, environmental releases, and economics for the following less commonly used options: Anaerobic digestion, coining of RDF with coal, gasification/pyrolysis. Because no commercial anaerobic digestion and gasification/pyrolysis facilities have operated in the United States, the data for these options are based on pilot plant results.

  15. Thermo-gasification of steam classified municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eley, M.H.; Sebghati, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) has been processed using a procedure called steam classification. This material has been examined for use as a combustion fuel, feedstock for composting, and cellulytic enzyme hydrolysis. An initial study has been conducted using a prototype plasma arc pyrolysis system to transform the steam classified MSW into a pyrolysis gas and vitrified material. With 136 kg (300 lbs) of the steam classified MSW pyrolysized at a feed rate of 22.7 kg/hour (50 lbs/hour), samples of the gas and grasslike material were captured for analysis. A presentation of the emission data and details on the system used will be presented.

  16. Comparison of slope stability in two Brazilian municipal landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gharabaghi, B. Singh, M.K.; Inkratas, C. Fleming, I.R. McBean, E.

    2008-07-01

    The implementation of landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects has greatly assisted in reducing the greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to an improved local air quality and reduced health risks. The majority of cities in developing countries still dispose of their municipal waste in uncontrolled 'open dumps.' Municipal solid waste landfill construction practices and operating procedures in these countries pose a challenge to implementation of LFGTE projects because of concern about damage to the gas collection infrastructure (horizontal headers and vertical wells) caused by minor, relatively shallow slumps and slides within the waste mass. While major slope failures can and have occurred, such failures in most cases have been shown to involve contributory factors or triggers such as high pore pressures, weak foundation soil or failure along weak geosynthetic interfaces. Many researchers who have studied waste mechanics propose that the shear strength of municipal waste is sufficient such that major deep-seated catastrophic failures under most circumstances require such contributory factors. Obviously, evaluation of such potential major failures requires expert analysis by geotechnical specialists with detailed site-specific information regarding foundation soils, interface shearing resistances and pore pressures both within the waste and in clayey barrier layers or foundation soils. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential use of very simple stability analyses which can be used to study the potential for slumps and slides within the waste mass and which may represent a significant constraint on construction and development of the landfill, on reclamation and closure and on the feasibility of a LFGTE project. The stability analyses rely on site-specific but simple estimates of the unit weight of waste and the pore pressure conditions and use 'generic' published shear strength envelopes for municipal waste. Application of the slope stability

  17. USEPA's hierarchy for municipal solid waste management: Theory vs. practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matar, G. )

    1993-01-01

    This paper will address USEPA's hierarchy for municipal solid waste management (MSWM), which places source reduction and recycling above combustion and landfilling. Many have read this to mean that combustion and landfilling should only be considered after all recycling and reduction efforts have been explored. This mentality has not only left many communities in a MSWM capacity crisis, but also created planning problems for many others. Contrary to commonly held beliefs, it will be shown that the last two methods on the hierarchy should be considered from the beginning when planning for MSWM. It will also be shown that these methods are not antithetical to the first two methods, but are actually complimentary.

  18. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starkey, D.; Hill, K.

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  19. Southwestern Power Administration

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Strategic Plan SWPA - Overview Video System Map About the Agency ... and delivered primarily to public bodies such as rural electric cooperatives and municipal utilities. ...

  20. Perovskite Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Perovskite Power 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:October 2015 past issues All Issues submit Perovskite Power A breakthrough in the production of...

  1. first power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    first power - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy ... Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water ...

  2. clean power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    clean power - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy ... Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water ...

  3. Water Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Power bernadette Permalink Gallery Bernie Hernandez-Sanchez wins HENAAC Award for outstanding technical achievement News, Water Power Bernie Hernandez-Sanchez wins HENAAC ...

  4. The ARIES-RS power core -- Recent development in Li/V designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sze, D.K.; Billone, M.C.; Hua, T.Q.

    1997-04-01

    The ARIES-RS fusion power plant design study is based on reversed-shear (RS) physics with a Li/V (lithium breeder and vanadium structure) blanket. The reversed-shear discharge has been documented in many large tokamak experiments. The plasma in the RS mode has a high beta, low current, and low current drive requirements. Therefore, it is an attractive physics regime for a fusion power plant. The blanket system based on a Li/V has high temperature operating capability, good tritium breeding, excellent high heat flux removal capability, long structural life time, low activation, low after heat and good safety characteristics. For these reasons, the ARIES-RS reactor study selected Li/V as the reference blanket. The combination of attractive physics and attractive blanket engineering is expected to result in a superior power plant design. This paper summarizes the power core design of the ARIES-RS power plant study.

  5. GHG emission factors developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► An average GHG emission factor for the collection and transport of municipal solid waste in South Africa is calculated. ► A range of GHG emission factors for different types of landfills (including dumps) in South Africa are calculated. ► These factors are compared internationally and their implications for South Africa and developing countries are discussed . ► Areas for new research are highlighted. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors are used with increased frequency for the accounting and reporting of GHG from waste management. However, these factors have been calculated for developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and are lacking for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South Africa. As such it presents a model on how international results and methodology can be adapted and used to calculate country-specific GHG emission factors from waste. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in South Africa, the average diesel consumption is around 5 dm{sup 3} (litres) per tonne of wet waste and the associated GHG emissions are about 15 kg CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2} e). Depending on the type of landfill, the GHG emissions from the landfilling of waste have been calculated to range from −145 to 1016 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when taking into account carbon storage, and from 441 to 2532 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when carbon storage is left out. The highest emission factor per unit of wet waste is for landfill sites without landfill gas collection and these are the dominant waste disposal facilities in South Africa. However, cash strapped municipalities in Africa and the developing world will not be able to significantly upgrade these sites and reduce their GHG burdens if there is no equivalent replacement of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) resulting from the Kyoto agreement

  6. Kinetic study of the oxidation of n-butane on vanadium oxide supported on Al/Mg mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dejoz, A.; Vazquez, I.; Nieto, J.M.L.; Melo, F.

    1997-07-01

    The reaction kinetics of the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of n-butane over vanadia supported on a heat-treated Mg/Al hydrotalcite (37.3 wt % of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) was investigated by both linear and nonlinear regression techniques. A reaction network including the formation of butenes (1-, 2-cis-, and 2-trans-butene), butadiene, and carbon oxides by parallel and consecutive reactions, at low and high n-butane conversions, has been proposed. Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) models can be used as suitable models which allows reproduction of the global kinetic behavior, although differences between oxydehydrogenation and deep oxidation reactions have been observed. Thus, the formation of oxydehydrogenation products can be described by a LH equation considering a dissociative adsorption of oxygen while the formation of carbon oxides is described by a LH equation with a nondissociative adsorption of oxygen. Two different mechanisms operate on the catalyst: (i) a redox mechanism responsible of the formation of olefins and diolefins and associated to vanadium species, which is initiated by a hydrogen abstraction; (ii) a radical mechanism responsible of the formation of carbon oxides from n-butane and butenes and associated to vanadium-free sites of the support. On the other hand, the selectivity to oxydehydrogenation products increases with the reaction temperature. This catalytic performance can be explained taking into account the low reducibility of V{sup 5+}-sites and the higher apparent activation energies of the oxydehydrogenation reactions with respect to deep oxidation reactions.

  7. Municipal waste management in Sicily: Practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messineo, Antonio Panno, Domenico

    2008-07-01

    There are numerous problems yet to be solved in waste management and although efforts towards waste recovery and recycling have been made, landfills are still the most common method used in the EU and many other industrialised countries. Thermal disposal, particularly incineration, is a tested and viable alternative. In 2004, only 11% of the annual waste production of Italy was incinerated. Sicily, with over five million inhabitants, is the second largest region in Italy where waste management is now a critical problem. The use of landfills can no longer be considered a satisfactory environmental solution; therefore, new methods have to be chosen and waste-to-energy plants could provide an answer. This paper gives details of municipal solid waste management in Sicily following a new Waste Management Plan. Four waste-to-energy plants will generate electricity through a steam cycle; the feedstock will become the residue after material recovery, which is calculated as 20-40% weight of the collected municipal solid waste.

  8. Municipal solid waste management in Rasht City, Iran

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alavi Moghadam, M.R. Mokhtarani, N. Mokhtarani, B.

    2009-01-15

    Pollution and health risks generated by improper solid waste management are important issues concerning environmental management in developing countries. In most cities, the use of open dumps is common for the disposal of wastes, resulting in soil and water resource contamination by leachate in addition to odors and fires. Solid waste management infrastructure and services in developing countries are far from achieving basic standards in terms of hygiene and efficient collection and disposal. This paper presents an overview of current municipal solid waste management in Rasht city, Gilan Province, Iran, and provides recommendations for system improvement. The collected data of different MSW functional elements were based on data from questionnaires, visual observations of the authors, available reports and several interviews and meetings with responsible persons. Due to an increase in population and changes in lifestyle, the quantity and quality of MSW in Rasht city has changed. Lack of resources, infrastructure, suitable planning, leadership, and public awareness are the main challenges of MSW management of Rasht city. However, the present situation of solid waste management in this city, which generates more than 400 tons/d, has been improved since the establishment of an organization responsible only for solid waste management. Source separation of wastes and construction of a composting plant are the two main activities of the Rasht Municipality in recent years.

  9. Optimization of municipal solid waste collection and transportation routes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Swapan Bhattacharyya, Bidyut Kr.

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Profitable integrated solid waste management system. • Optimal municipal waste collection scheme between the sources and waste collection centres. • Optimal path calculation between waste collection centres and transfer stations. • Optimal waste routing between the transfer stations and processing plants. - Abstract: Optimization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and transportation through source separation becomes one of the major concerns in the MSW management system design, due to the fact that the existing MSW management systems suffer by the high collection and transportation cost. Generally, in a city different waste sources scatter throughout the city in heterogeneous way that increase waste collection and transportation cost in the waste management system. Therefore, a shortest waste collection and transportation strategy can effectively reduce waste collection and transportation cost. In this paper, we propose an optimal MSW collection and transportation scheme that focus on the problem of minimizing the length of each waste collection and transportation route. We first formulize the MSW collection and transportation problem into a mixed integer program. Moreover, we propose a heuristic solution for the waste collection and transportation problem that can provide an optimal way for waste collection and transportation. Extensive simulations and real testbed results show that the proposed solution can significantly improve the MSW performance. Results show that the proposed scheme is able to reduce more than 30% of the total waste collection path length.

  10. Concentrating Solar Power: Power Towers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This video provides an overview of the principles, applications, and benefits of generating electricity using power towers, a concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. A brief animation explains...

  11. CX-004648: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Painesville Municipal Power Vanadium Redox Battery Demonstration ProgramCX(s) Applied: A11, B3.6, B5.1Date: 12/09/2010Location(s): Johnstown, PennsylvaniaOffice(s): Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  12. Municipal Utilities' Investment in Smart Grid Technologies Improves Services and Lowers Costs

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    OE has released a new Smart Grid report describing the activities of three municipal utilities that received funding through the Recovery Act Smart Grid Investment Grant program. "Municipal Utilities' Investment in Smart Grid Technologies Improves Services and Lowers Costs" reports on the benefits of the cities' investments, including improved operating efficiencies, lower costs, shorter outages, and reduced peak demands and electricity consumption.

  13. Municipal Utilities' Investment in Smart Grid Technologies Improves Services and Lowers Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    October 2014 Municipal Utilities' Investment in Smart Grid Technologies Improves Services and Lowers Costs Page 1 U.S. Department of Energy |October 2014 Municipal Utilities' Investment in Smart Grid Technologies Improves Services and Lowers Costs Page ii Table of Contents Executive Summary ...................................................................................................................................... iii 1. Introduction

  14. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Louisiana. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the Louisiana Public Service Commission, composed of five members elected by the general electorate and elected for six-year terms. The Commission is charged with regulating all public utilities and has such other regulatory authority as provided by law. The Commission, however, has no power to regulate a public utility owned, operated, or regulated on the effective data of this constitution (1921) by the governing authority of one or more political subdivisions unless the Commission is authorized to regulate these utilities by the electorate of the political subdivision involved. An additional statutory provision excludes all municipally-owned public utilities from Commission regulation. New Orleans has retained the regulatory authority which it held as of the effective date of the Louisiana Constitution. Therefore, the Commission exercises no regulatory powers over investor or municipally-owned utilities in New Orleans. A municipality is empowered to own and operate a revenue-producing public utility within or without its boundaries and it may sell and distribute the commodity or service of the public utility within or without its corporate limits and may establish rates, rules, and regulations with respect to the sale and distribution. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  15. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Ohio. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The Public Utilities Commission (PUCO) is a body created by the Ohio State legislature to administer the provisions of the Ohio Public Utilities Act. It is composed of three commissioners appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate. Once appointed, a commissioner serves for a six-year period. The PUCO is vested with the power and jurisdiction to supervise and regulate public utilities and railroads... . The term public utility includes every corporation, company, co-partnership, person or association, their lessees, trustees, or receivers, as defined in the Ohio Code. Among the various services enumerated in the Code under the definition of public utility are an electric light company; a gas company; a pipeline company transporting gas, oil or coal; a waterworks company; a heating or cooling company. The power to regulate public utilities is shared by the PUCO and municipal governments. The municipal regulatory authority is derived from the Ohio Constitution, statutory provisions, and municipal franchising authority. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  16. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gug, JeongIn Cacciola, David Sobkowicz, Margaret J.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Briquetting was used to produce solid fuels from municipal solid waste and recycled plastics. • Optimal drying, processing temperature and pressure were found to produce stable briquettes. • Addition of waste plastics yielded heating values comparable with typical coal feedstocks. • This processing method improves utilization of paper and plastic diverted from landfills. - Abstract: Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in

  17. CU-CM-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    CM-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CU-CM-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: MEAM, MDEA, and SMEPA System: CU This rate schedule shall be available to the South Mississippi Electric Power Association, Municipal Energy Agency of Mississippi, and Mississippi Delta Energy Agency. This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy available from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such

  18. Sacramento Utility to Launch Concentrating Solar Power-Natural Gas Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    | Department of Energy Sacramento Utility to Launch Concentrating Solar Power-Natural Gas Project Sacramento Utility to Launch Concentrating Solar Power-Natural Gas Project October 31, 2013 - 11:30am Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON -- As part of the Obama Administration's all-of-the-above strategy to deploy every available source of American energy, the Energy Department today announced a new concentrating solar power (CSP) project led by the Sacramento Municipal Utility

  19. Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: Practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manaf, Latifah Abd Samah, Mohd Armi Abu; Zukki, Nur Ilyana Mohd

    2009-11-15

    Rapid economic development and population growth, inadequate infrastructure and expertise, and land scarcity make the management of municipal solid waste become one of Malaysia's most critical environmental issues. The study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics, and management of solid waste in Malaysia based on published information. In general, the per capita generation rate is about 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day in which domestic waste is the primary source. Currently, solid waste is managed by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, with the participation of the private sector. A new institutional and legislation framework has been structured with the objectives to establish a holistic, integrated, and cost-effective solid waste management system, with an emphasis on environmental protection and public health. Therefore, the hierarchy of solid waste management has given the highest priority to source reduction through 3R, intermediate treatment and final disposal.

  20. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  1. An overview of municipal solid waste management in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Xudong; Geng Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2010-04-15

    Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in China warrants particular attention as China has become the largest MSW generator in the world and the total amount of MSW it produces continues to increase. In recent years, central and local governments have made great efforts to improve MSWM in China. New regulations and policies have been issued, urban infrastructure has been improved, and commercialization and international cooperation have been encouraged. Considering these developments, an overview is necessary to analyze the current state as well as new opportunities and challenges regarding MSWM in China. This paper shows that since the late 1990s, the amount of MSW collected has been largely decoupled from economic growth and incineration has become an increasingly widespread treatment method for MSW. We identify and discuss four major challenges and barriers related to China's MSWM, and propose an integrated management framework to improve the overall eco-efficiency of MSWM.

  2. Geologic report, Middlesex Municipal Landfill site, Middlesex, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    This is a report on geologic and hydrologic investigations of the former Municipal Landfill, Middlesex, New Jersey, conducted during 1982 and 1983 by Bechtel National, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office. The investigations were designed to assess the feasibility of stabilizing the radioactive contamination present on site. The investigations were conducted in two phases: Phase 1 consisted of permeability tests; Phase 2 consisted of tests to ascertain the extent of hydraulic interconnection between various stratigraphic units. The investigations revealed that a complete separation of bedrock and overburden did not exist and that the clay present could not be relied upon to confine vertical migration of contaminants over the long term. 6 references, 27 figures, 6 tables.

  3. Optimal planning for the sustainable utilization of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santibañez-Aguilar, José Ezequiel; Ponce-Ortega, José María; Betzabe González-Campos, J.; Serna-González, Medardo; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • An optimization approach for the sustainable management of municipal solid waste is proposed. • The proposed model optimizes the entire supply chain network of a distributed system. • A case study for the sustainable waste management in the central-west part of Mexico is presented. • Results shows different interesting solutions for the case study presented. - Abstract: The increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major problem particularly for large urban areas with insufficient landfill capacities and inefficient waste management systems. Several options associated to the supply chain for implementing a MSW management system are available, however to determine the optimal solution several technical, economic, environmental and social aspects must be considered. Therefore, this paper proposes a mathematical programming model for the optimal planning of the supply chain associated to the MSW management system to maximize the economic benefit while accounting for technical and environmental issues. The optimization model simultaneously selects the processing technologies and their location, the distribution of wastes from cities as well as the distribution of products to markets. The problem was formulated as a multi-objective mixed-integer linear programing problem to maximize the profit of the supply chain and the amount of recycled wastes, where the results are showed through Pareto curves that tradeoff economic and environmental aspects. The proposed approach is applied to a case study for the west-central part of Mexico to consider the integration of MSW from several cities to yield useful products. The results show that an integrated utilization of MSW can provide economic, environmental and social benefits.

  4. Fusion Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Power www.pppl.gov FACT SHEET FUSION POWER Check us out on YouTube. http:www.youtube.comppplab Find us on Facebook. http:www.facebook.comPPPLab Follow us on Twitter. @PPPLab ...

  5. Wind Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Power As the accompanying map of New Mexico shows, the best wind power generation potential near WIPP is along the Delaware Mountain ridge line of the southern Guadalupe ...

  6. Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report, quarter ending 31 December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The test plan is designed to demonstrate that oil shale co-combusted with municipal solid waste (MSW) can reduce gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2}, CO) to acceptable levels (90%+ reduction) and produce a cementitious ash which will, at a minimum, be acceptable in normal land fills. The small-scale combustion testing will be accomplished in a 6-in. circulating fluid bed combustor (CFBC) at Hazen Research Laboratories. This work will be patterned after the study the authors conducted in 1988 when coal and oil shale were co-combusted in a program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute. The specific purpose of the test program will be to: determine the required ratio of oil shale to MSW by determining the ratio of absorbent to pollutant (A/P); determine the effect of temperature and resident time in the reactor; and determine if kinetic model developed for coal/oil shale mixture is applicable.

  7. Power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Hamilton, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of vanadium oxide aerogels. Technical report No. 2, 1 June 1994-31 May 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaput, F.; Dunn, B.; Fuqua, P.; Salloux, K.

    1995-07-14

    Vanadium pentoxide aerogels were synthesized by supercritical drying with CO2. The aerogels were prepared using a variety of sol compositions from the system VO(OC3H7)3/H2O/acetone. The materials were found to be of fairly low density (0.04g/cu cm to 0.lg/cu cm) with surface areas in the range of 300 to 400 meters squared/g. Chemical and structural studies indicate that the aerogels are hydrated oxides of composition V2O5 nH2O with n = 2.0 to 2.2 and possess a fibrous morphology. When partially dehydrated, the vanadate aerogels exhibit electron transport with conductivity and activation energy values comparable to those of aerogels. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that lithium can be intercalated reversibly into the structure.

  9. Visible light photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol using vanadium and nitrogen co-doped TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaiswal, R.; Kothari, D. C.; Patel, N.; Miotello, A.

    2013-02-05

    Vanadium and Nitrogen were codoped in TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst by Sol-gel method to utilize visible light more efficiently for photocatalytic reactions. A noticeable shift of absorption edge to visible light region was obtained for the singly-doped namely V-TiO{sub 2}, N-TiO{sub 2} and codoped V-N-TiO{sub 2} samples in comparison with undoped TiO{sub 2}, with smallest band gap obtained with codoped-TiO{sub 2}. The photocatalytic activities for all TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were tested by 4-chlorophenol (organic pollutant) degradation under visible light irradiation. It was found that codoped TiO{sub 2} exhibits the best photocatalytic activity, which could be attributed to the synergistic effect produced by V and N dopants.

  10. Solar Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Power Solar Power Project Opportunities Abound in the Region The WIPP site is receives abundant solar energy with 6-7 kWh/sq meter power production potential As the accompanying map of New Mexico shows, the WIPP site enjoys abundant year-round sunshine. With an average solar power production potential of 6-7 kWh/sq meter per day, one exciting project being studied for location at WIPP is a 30-50 MW Solar Power Tower: The American Solar Energy Society (ASES) is is a national trade

  11. Energy Department Works with Sacramento Municipal Utility District...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    (CEC), helped build a solar power system, biogas generation from waste systems, and ... waste (FPW), such as off-specification soda pop, with sewage to generate biogas. ...

  12. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in South Dakota. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The South Dakota Public Utilities Commission is authorized by statute to regulate gas and electric utilities. The Commission consists of three elected commissioners each of whom serves for a six year term. The Commissioners are elected by district and each must, at the time of election, be a resident of the district from which he has been elected. Each Commissioner must reside in the state capital and devote his entire time to the duties of his office. The Commission is part of the Department of Commerce and Consumer Protection. Municipal power to regulate privately owned electric and gas public utilities was terminated in 1975. A municipally-owned electric utility has the authority to regulate the sale, use, and rates of electric power and energy which it provides. The Commission has no authority to regulate steam, heat, and refrigeration systems; that power resides in cities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  13. Municipal Consortium Releases Updated Model Specification for Networked Outdoor Lighting Control Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium (MSSLC) has released an update to its Model Specification for Adaptive Control and Remote Monitoring of LED Roadway...

  14. New Hampshire Electric Co-Op- Commercial and Municipal Retrofit Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Hampshire Electric Co-op offers incentives to commercial and municipal members for both new construction and retrofit projects. Incentives vary by demand and size of the customer:

  15. New Hampshire Electric Co-Op- Commercial and Municipal New Equipment and Construction Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Hampshire Electric Co-op offers incentives to commercial and municipal members for both new construction and retrofit projects. Incentives vary by demand and size of the customer:-Large...

  16. 24 V.S.A. Chapter 117 Municipal and Regional Planning and Development...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    4 V.S.A. Chapter 117 Municipal and Regional Planning and Development Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: 24 V.S.A....

  17. Power LCAT

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Drennen, Thomas

    2016-07-12

    POWER LCAT is a software tool used to compare elements of efficiency, cost, and environmental effects between different sources of energy.

  18. Power LCAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drennen, Thomas

    2012-08-15

    POWER LCAT is a software tool used to compare elements of efficiency, cost, and environmental effects between different sources of energy.

  19. Water Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management ... D.C. Vince Neary gave an overview of Sandia's facilities, ...

  20. Water Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  1. Stationary Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management ...

  2. Use of Municipal Assistance Programs to Advance the Adoption of Solar Technologies (Note: Real One)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report serves as a tool for municipalities and organizations that are exploring programs to facilitate the installation of solar energy technologies at the local level. The report discusses programs being implemented in Berkeley, San Francisco, and Madison. Program design considerations, lessons learned from program administrators, and recommendations to consider when designing a municipal assistance program are included, but no program design is prescribed. Recommendations should be customized to serve the needs of a specific market.

  3. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    While municipal solid waste (MSW) thermoconversion and recycling technologies have been described in Appendices A through E, this appendix addresses the role of bioconversion technologies in handling the organic fraction in MSW and sewage sludge. Much of the organic matter in MSW, consisting mainly of paper, food waste, and yard waste, has potential for conversion, along with sewage sludge, through biochemical processes to methane and carbon dioxide providing a measurable, renewable energy resource potential. The gas produced may be treated for removal of carbon dioxide and water, leaving pipeline quality gas. The process also has the potential for producing a stabilized solid product that may be suitable as a fuel for combustion or used as a compost fertilizer. Anaerobic digestion can occur naturally in an uncontrolled environment such as a landfill, or it can occur in a controlled environment such as a confined vessel. Landfill gas production is discussed in Appendix F. This appendix provides information on the anaerobic digestion process as it has been applied to produce methane from the organic fraction of MSW in enclosed, controlled reactors.

  4. Mechanical properties of Municipal Solid Waste by SDMT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castelli, Francesco; Maugeri, Michele

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The adoption of the SDMT for the measurements of MSW properties is proposed. • A comparison between SDMT results and laboratory tests was carried out. • A good reliability has been found in deriving waste properties by SDMT. • Results seems to be promising for the friction angle and Young’s modulus evaluation. - Abstract: In the paper the results of a geotechnical investigation carried on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) materials retrieved from the “Cozzo Vuturo” landfill in the Enna area (Sicily, Italy) are reported and analyzed. Mechanical properties were determined both by in situ and laboratory large-scale one dimensional compression tests. While among in situ tests, Dilatomer Marchetti Tests (DMT) is used widely in measuring soil properties, the adoption of the DMT for the measurements of MSW properties has not often been documented in literature. To validate its applicability for the estimation of MSW properties, a comparison between the seismic dilatometer (SDMT) results and the waste properties evaluated by laboratory tests was carried out. Parameters for “fresh” and “degraded waste” have been evaluated. These preliminary results seems to be promising as concerns the assessment of the friction angle of waste and the evaluation of the S-wave in terms of shear wave velocity. Further studies are certainly required to obtain more representative values of the elastic parameters according to the SDMT measurements.

  5. Power Project Loan Fund

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The loan term is related to the life of the project, but may not exceed 50 years. Interest rates are the lesser of the average weekly yield of municipal bonds for the 12 months preceding the date...

  6. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M.; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We have modelled household waste generation in Biscay municipalities. • We have identified relevant characteristics regarding household waste generation. • Factor models are used in order to identify the best subset of explicative variables. • Biscay’s municipalities are grouped by means of hierarchical clustering. - Abstract: The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation.

  7. Power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  8. Nevaro Capital Corporation Formerly VRB Power Systems | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Zip: V6E2Y3 Product: Vancouver-based electrochemical energy storage company that has commercialised the patented Vanadium Redox Battery Energy...

  9. Utility-Scale Power Router: Dynamic Control of Grid Assets Using Direct AC Converter Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    ADEPT Project: Georgia Tech is developing a cost-effective, utility-scale power router that uses an enhanced transformer to more efficiently direct power on the grid. Existing power routing technologies are too expensive for widespread use, but the ability to route grid power to match real-time demand and power outages would significantly reduce energy costs for utilities, municipalities, and consumers. Georgia Tech is adding a power converter to an existing grid transformer to better control power flows at about 1/10th the cost of existing power routing solutions. Transformers convert the high-voltage electricity that is transmitted through the grid into the low-voltage electricity that is used by homes and businesses. The added converter uses fewer steps to convert some types of power and eliminates unnecessary power storage, among other improvements. The enhanced transformer is more efficient, and it would still work even if the converter fails, ensuring grid reliability.

  10. Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting...

    Energy Savers

    ... There are many reasons to believe that shorter wave lengths can be beneficial. They can ... There's a discussion on power line communication as part of the smart grid, but a ...

  11. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  12. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  13. Reclamation of acidic copper mine tailings using municipal biosolids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, M.T.; Thompson, T.L.; Bengson, S.A.

    1998-12-31

    Reclamation of copper mine tailings in a cost effective, successful, and sustainable manner is an ongoing area of evaluation in the arid southwest. A study was initiated in September, 1996 near Hayden, Arizona to evaluate the use of municipal biosolids for reclaiming acidic copper mine tailings (pH of 2.5 to 4.0). The main objectives of the study were to (1) define an appropriate level of biosolids application for optimum plant growth, and (2) evaluate the effects of green waste and lime amendments. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with four biosolid rates of 20, 70, 100 and 135 dry tons/acre, three amendment treatments (none, green waste, and green waste plus lime); with three replications. Non-replicated controls (no treatment, green waste only and lime only) were included for comparison. Shortly after biosolids incorporation to a depth of 10--12 inches, composite soil samples (0--12 inches) of each plot were taken. Biosolids incorporation increased the pH of the tailings (>5.75) and additional increases in pH were noted with lime application. In January 1997, the plots were seeded and sprinkler irrigation was commenced. A total of 4.47 inches of rainfall and 3.8 inches of irrigation were applied until harvest in May 1997. Data from the first growing season indicates optimum growth (>66 lbs/acre) at biosolids rates of 70--100 dry tons/acre. There was a significant positive effect on growth of green waste and lime amendments. Surface NO{sub 3}-N concentrations in biosolids amended plots were greatly reduced (from 23 to 6 mg/kg) by addition of green waste. There was no evidence for NO{sub 3}N leaching below 12 inches.

  14. The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2014: Powering the Bottom Line for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Businesses and Communities | Department of Energy 4: Powering the Bottom Line for Businesses and Communities The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2014: Powering the Bottom Line for Businesses and Communities This report, written and compiled by Breakthrough Technologies Institute (BTI) with support from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office, provides an overview of fuel cell installations at businesses and municipal buildings or facilities run by non-profit organizations or institutions. These

  15. solar power

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    9%2A en Solar power purchase for DOE laboratories http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasessolarpower

  16. Federal Power Act section 202(c) - Hurricane Ike, September 2008 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Ike, September 2008 Federal Power Act section 202(c) - Hurricane Ike, September 2008 On September 14, 2008, in response to Hurricane Ike, a 202(c) emergency order was issued authorizing CenterPoint Energy to temporarily connect electricity lines to restore power to Entergy Gulf States, Inc., as well as electric cooperatives and municipal customers within the State of Texas. That order expired on November 1, 2008. 202(c) order 202-08-1 September 14, 2008 - CenterPoint

  17. Fuel Cell Power Plants Biofuel Case Study - Tulare, CA

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    clean Fuel Cell Power Plants Biofuel Case Study - Tulare, CA DOE-NREL Workshop Golden, CO June 11-13, 2012 FuelCell Energy, the FuelCell Energy logo, Direct FuelCell and "DFC" are all registered trademarks (®) of FuelCell Energy, Inc. Integrated Fuel Cell Company 2 Manufacture Sell (direct & via partners) Install Services 1.4 MW plant at a municipal building 2.4 MW plant owned by an Independent power producer 600 kW plant at a food processor 11.2 MW plant - largest fuel cell park

  18. Power combiner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Mobius; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2006-09-05

    A power combiner for the combining of symmetric and asymmetric traveling wave energy comprises a feed waveguide having an input port and a launching port, a reflector for reflecting launched wave energy, and a final waveguide for the collection and transport of launched wave energy. The power combiner has a launching port for symmetrical waves which comprises a cylindrical section coaxial to the feed waveguide, and a launching port for asymmetric waves which comprises a sawtooth rotated about a central axis.

  19. Waste utilization as an energy source: Municipal wastes. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of municipal wastes as an energy source. Articles discuss energy derived from incineration/combustion, refuse-derived fuels, co-firing municipal waste and standard fuels, landfill gas production, sewage combustion, and other waste-to-energy technologies. Citations address economics and efficiencies of various schemes to utilize municipal waste products as energy sources. (Contains a minimum of 130 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Mississippi. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities in Mississippi is vested generally in the Public Service Commission, composed of three members elected for four year terms from separate districts of the state. Within the purview of its powers, the authority of the Commission supersedes that of local governments. It is empowered to amend municipal franchises that contain provisions conflicting with its exclusive jurisdiction over the rates and standards of service of public utilities. Local governments play a role in regulating public utilities only through the exercise of their zoning and franchising powers. They may also operate their own utilities which are totally exempt from Commission control, unless they provide services more than one mile beyond their corporate boundaries. Other than a procedure in which certain provisions in municipal franchises may be subject to modification by the Commission, there is no process by which the decisions of local government respecting utilities are reviewed by the Commission. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  1. Galena Electric Power A Situational Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert E. Chaney; Stephen G. Colt; Ronald A. Johnson; Richard W. Wiles; Gregory J. White

    2008-12-31

    The purpose of the investigation is to compare the economics of various electrical power generation options for the City of Galena. Options were assessed over a 30-year project period, beginning in 2010, and the final results were compared on the basis of residential customer electric rates ($/kWh). Galena's electric utility currently generates power using internal combustion diesel engines and generator sets. Nearby, there is an exposed coal seam, which might provide fuel for a power plant. Contributions to the energy mix might come from solar, municipal solid waste, or wood. The City has also been approached by Toshiba, Inc., as a demonstration site for a small (Model 4S) nuclear reactor power plant. The Yukon River is possibly a site for in-river turbines for hydroelectric power. This report summarizes the comparative economics of various energy supply options. This report covers: (1) thermal and electric load profiles for Galena; (2) technologies and resources available to meet or exceed those loads; (3) uses for any extra power produced by these options; (4) environmental and permitting issues and then; and (5) the overall economics of each of the primary energy options.

  2. Maximization of revenues for power sales from a solid waste resources recovery facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The report discusses the actual implementation of the best alternative in selling electrical power generated by an existing waste-to-energy facility, the Metro-Dade County Resources Recovery Plant. After the plant processes and extracts various products out of the municipal solid waste, it burns it to produce electrical power. The price for buying power to satisfy the internal needs of our Resources Recovery Facility (RRF) is substantially higher than the power price for selling electricity to any other entity. Therefore, without any further analysis, it was decided to first satisfy those internal needs and then export the excess power. Various alternatives were thoroughly explored as to what to do with the excess power. Selling power to the power utilities or utilizing the power in other facilities were the primary options.

  3. Resolving Losses at the Negative Electrode in All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Che Nan; Delnick, Frank M; Aaron, D; Mench, Matthew M; Zawodzinski, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    We present an in situ electrochemical technique for the quantitative measurement and resolution of the ohmic, charge transfer and diffusion overvoltages at the negative electrode of an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The mathematics describing the complex impedance of the V+2/V+3 redox reaction is derived and matches the experimental data. The voltage losses contributed by each process have been resolved and quantified at various flow rates and electrode thicknesses as a function of current density during anodic and cathodic polarization. The diffusion overvoltage was affected strongly by flow rate while the charge transfer and ohmic losses were invariant. On the other hand, adopting a thicker electrode significantly changed both the charge transfer and diffusion losses due to increased surface area. Furthermore, the Tafel plot obtained from the impedance resolved charge transfer overvoltage yielded the geometric exchange current density, anodic and cathodic Tafel slopes (135 5 and 121 5 mV/decade respectively) and corresponding transfer coefficients = 0.45 0.02 and = 0.50 0.02 in an operating cell.

  4. The kinetic significance of V{sup 5+} in n-butane oxidation catalyzed by vanadium phosphates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coulston, G.W.; Harlow, R.; Herron, N.

    1997-01-10

    Maleic anhydride, a precursor to polyester resins, is made by oxidation of n-butane over vanadium phosphate catalysts. This system is of general interest because it is the only heterogeneously catalyzed, alkane-selective oxidation reaction in commercial use. Time-resolved in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy shows that when either {alpha}{sub 1}-VOPO{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} or (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}/SiO{sub 2} catalysts are exposed to n-butane, the rate of maleic anhydride formation is proportional to the rate of decay of V{sup 5+} species in the catalyst. Thus V{sup 5+} species are kinetically significant for the production of maleic anhydride and not just for the production of by-products. The results also suggest that V{sup 5+} species in the catalyst. Thus V{sup 5+} species are kinetically significant for the production of maleic anhydride and not just for the production of by-products. The results also suggest that V{sup 5+} species may play a role in the initial hydrogen abstraction from n-butane, the rate-determining step in the reaction sequence. V{sup 4+} sites appear to be responsible for by-product formation.

  5. Wetting and Mechanical Performance of Zirconia Brazed with Silver/Copper Oxide and Silver/Vanadium Oxide Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinnamon, Kathleen E.; Meier, Alan; Joshi, Vineet V.

    2014-12-01

    The wetting behavior and mechanical strength of silver/copper oxide and silver/vanadium oxide braze alloys were investigated for both magnesia-stabilized and yttria-stabilized (Mg-PSZ and Y-TZP) transformation toughened zirconia substrates. The temperatures investigated were 1000 to 1100°C, with oxide additions of 1 to 10 weight percent V2O5 or CuO, and hold times of 0.9 to 3.6 ks. Increasing either the isothermal hold temperature or time had a distinctly negative effect on the joint strength. The maximum strengths for both braze alloys were obtained for 5 wt. % oxide additions at 1050°C with a hold time of 0.9 ks. The Mg-PSZ/Ag-CuO system exhibited a average fracture strength of 255 MPa (45% of the reported monolithic strength), and the Y-TZP/Ag-CuO system had an average fracture strength of 540 MPa (30% of the reported monolithic strength). The fracture strengths were lower for the Ag-V2O5 braze alloys, with fracture strengths of approximately 180 MPa (30% of the monolithic strength) for Mg-PSZ versus approximately 160 MPa (10% of the monolithic strength) for Y-TZP. No interfacial products were observed in low magnification SEM analysis for the brazing alloys containing V2O5 additions, while there were interfacial products present for brazes prepared with CuO additions in the braze alloy.

  6. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Virginia. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilties is vested generally in the State Corporation Commission. The Commission is comprised of three members elected by a joint vote of the two houses of the general assembly. Commissioners serve six-year terms. They must be free from any employment or pecuniary interests in any company subject to the supervision and regulation of the Commission. The Commission is charged with the primary responsibility of supervising and regulating public utilities. However, local governments retain the power to grant franchises and otherwise regulate the use of streets and other public property. In addition, municipally-owned utilities are not within the jurisdiction of the Commission to the extent that they operate within corporate limits. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  7. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Tennessee. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The Tennessee Public Service Commission has been designated by the legislature as the agency primarily responsible for the regulation of public utilities and carriers. The Commission is comprised of three members elected by the voters of the state. Each member of the Commission serves a six-year term. The Commission is given broad supervisory control over public utilities in the public utilities statute. Included under its authority is the power to determine whether a privilege or franchise granted to a public utility by a municipality is necessary and proper for the public convenience. No privilege or franchise is valid until it has been approved by the Commission. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  8. Municipal waste to energy: an annotated bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-06-01

    The United States generates more than 450,000 tons per day of municipal solid waste (MSW). Disposal of municipal waste is a rapidly growing problem for many areas of the country, where traditional methods (e.g., landfilling and uncontrolled incineration) are becoming too expensive or environmentally unacceptable. At the same time, price increases and supply disruptions, such as the 1973 oil embargo, have caused uncertainty about the future availability and cost of petroleum-derived energy. This uncertainty has in turn led to increased efforts to find alternative energy sources. If new technologies being developed for utilization of municipal solid waste can recover useful energy and/or materials, they can potentially stabilize or reduce the cost of community services and promote local development, as well as serve the interests of health, environmental protection, economic well being, and waste disposal. This annotated bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US Department of Energy (DOE). Reports listed are limited to those that focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment.

  9. Scenarios of Global Municipal Water-Use Demand Projections over the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Davies, Evan; Eom, Jiyong

    2013-03-06

    This paper establishes three future projections of global municipal water use to the end of the 21st century: A reference business-as usual (BAU) scenario, a High Technological Improvement (High Tech) scenario and a Low Technological Improvement (Low Tech) scenario. A global municipal water demand model is constructed using global water use statistics at the country-scale, calibrated to the base year of 2005, and simulated to the end of the 21st century. Since the constructed water demand model hinges on socioeconomic variables (population, income), water price, and end-use technology and efficiency improvement rates, projections of those input variables are adopted to characterize the uncertainty in future water demand estimates. The water demand model is linked to the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a global change integrated assessment model. Under the reference scenario, the global total water withdrawal increases from 466 km3/year in 2005 to 941 km3/year in 2100,while withdrawals in the high and low tech scenarios are 321 km3/ year and 2000 km3/ year, respectively. This wide range (321-2000 km3/ year) indicates the level of uncertainty associated with such projections. The simulated global municipal demand projections are most sensitive to population and income projections, then to end-use technology and efficiency projections, and finally to water price. Thus, using water price alone as a policy measure to reduce municipal water use may substantiate the share of municipal water price of peoples annual incomes.

  10. Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calabro, Paolo S.

    2009-07-15

    The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management.

  11. Stable isotope signatures for characterising the biological stability of landfilled municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wimmer, Bernhard; Hrad, Marlies; Huber-Humer, Marion; Watzinger, Andrea; Wyhlidal, Stefan; Reichenauer, Thomas G.

    2013-10-15

    . During aeration of a landfill the aerobic degradation of the remaining organic matter caused a decrease to a δ{sup 13}C-DIC of about −20‰. Therefore carbon isotope analysis in leachates and groundwater can be used for tracing the oxidation–reduction status of MSW landfills. Our results indicate that monitoring of stable isotopic signatures of landfill leachates over a longer time period (e.g. during in situ aeration) is a powerful and cost-effective tool for characterising the biodegradability and stability of the organic matter in landfilled municipal solid waste and can be used for monitoring the progress of in situ aeration.

  12. Power inverters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David H.; Korich, Mark D.; Smith, Gregory S.

    2011-11-15

    Power inverters include a frame and a power module. The frame has a sidewall including an opening and defining a fluid passageway. The power module is coupled to the frame over the opening and includes a substrate, die, and an encasement. The substrate includes a first side, a second side, a center, an outer periphery, and an outer edge, and the first side of the substrate comprises a first outer layer including a metal material. The die are positioned in the substrate center and are coupled to the substrate first side. The encasement is molded over the outer periphery on the substrate first side, the substrate second side, and the substrate outer edge and around the die. The encasement, coupled to the substrate, forms a seal with the metal material. The second side of the substrate is positioned to directly contact a fluid flowing through the fluid passageway.

  13. Cleco Power- Power Miser New Home Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Louisiana's Cleco Power offers energy efficiency incentives to eligible customers. Cleco Power offers a rate discount for residential customers building homes that meet the Power Miser Program...

  14. Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor report through 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    U.S. Department of Energy contractors continue to conduct research targeting the productive and responsible use of the more than 516,000 metric tons (567,000 tons) of municipal solid waste (MSW) that is generated each day in the United States. It is becoming more and more prudent to improve current methods of MSW management and to continue to search for additional cost-effective, energy-efficient means to manage our MSW resource. This bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US DOE. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment.

  15. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-12

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  16. Star Power

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  17. Star Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  18. Comparison of emissions from landfills, municipal waste combustors, and fossil fuel-fired utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    Landfilling is the most popular disposal method for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). However, air emissions from MSW landfills have generally been unregulated until recently. Instead, EPA has focused on emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs), even though they only manage 15% of MSW generated in the United States. In the past, little data have been available comparing landfill and MWC air emissions. Such information is provided by this paper. It also compares emissions from waste-to-energy MWCs and fossil fuel-fired utilities with equivalent electrical generation capacity. 1 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. Biogas From Municipal WWTPs: Fuel Cells Viewed as a Value Proposition |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy From Municipal WWTPs: Fuel Cells Viewed as a Value Proposition Biogas From Municipal WWTPs: Fuel Cells Viewed as a Value Proposition Presentation about the value proposition for biogas from waste water treatment plants. Presented by Steve Hamilton, SCS Energy, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado. june2012_biogas_workshop_hamilton.pdf (450.16 KB) More Documents & Publications Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Summary

  20. Highly Preorganized Ligand 1,10-Phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic Acid for the Selective Recovery of Uranium from Seawater in the Presence of Competing Vanadium Species

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Lashley, Mark A.; Ivanov, Alexander S.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.; Dai, Sheng; Hancock, Robert D.

    2016-09-30

    Studies of the complexation of new promising ligands with uranyl (UO22+) and other seawater cations can aid the development of more efficient, selective, and robust sorbents for the recovery of uranium from seawater. Here, we propose that the ligand design principles based on structural preorganization can be successfully applied to obtain a dramatic enhancement in UO22+ ion binding affinity and selectivity. This concept is exemplified through the investigation of the com-plexes of UO22+, VO2+, and VO2+ with the highly preorganized ligand PDA (1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid) using a combination of fluores-cence and absorbance techniques, along with den-sity functional theory (DFT) calculations. Moreover,more » the measured stability constant value, log K1, of 16.5 for the UO22+/PDA complex is very high compared to uranyl complexes with other dicarboxylic ligands. Moreover, PDA exhibits strong selectivity for uranyl over vanadium ions, since the determined sta-bility constant values of the PDA complexes of the vanadium ions are quite low (V(IV) log K1 = 7.4, V(V) = 7.3). Finally, the structures of the corresponding UO22+, VO2+, and VO2+ complexes with PDA were identified by systematic DFT calculations, and helped to interpret the stronger binding affinity for uranium over the vanadium ions. Due to its high chemical stability, selectivity, and structural preor-ganization for UO22+ complexation, PDA is a very promising candidate that can be potentially used in the development of novel adsorbent materials for the selective extraction of uranium from sea-water.« less

  1. Electrical current suppression in Pd-doped vanadium pentoxide nanowires caused by reduction in PdO due to hydrogen exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Byung Hoon; Oh, Soon-Young; Yu, Han Young; Yun, Yong Ju; Kim, Yark Yeon; Hong, Won G.; Jeong, Hu Young; Lee, Jeong Yong; Kim, Hae Jin

    2010-04-19

    Pd nanoparticle-doped vanadium pentoxide nanowires (Pd-VONs) were synthesized. Electrical current suppression was observed when the Pd-VON was exposed to hydrogen gas, which cannot be explained by the work function changes mentioned in previous report such as Pd-doped carbon nanotubes and SnO{sub 2} nanowires. Using the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we found that the reduction in PdO due to hydrogen exposure plays an important role in the current suppression of the Pd-VON.

  2. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  3. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-06-10

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  4. Power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, Edward J.; Leeman, James E.; MacDougall, Hugh R.; Marron, John J.; Smith, Calvin C.

    1976-01-01

    An electric power supply employs a striking means to initiate ferroelectric elements which provide electrical energy output which subsequently initiates an explosive charge which initiates a second ferroelectric current generator to deliver current to the coil of a magnetic field current generator, creating a magnetic field around the coil. Continued detonation effects compression of the magnetic field and subsequent generation and delivery of a large output current to appropriate output loads.

  5. Environmental performance evaluation of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators using data envelopment analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H.-W.; Chang, N.-B.; Chen, J.-C.; Tsai, S.-J.

    2010-07-15

    Limited to insufficient land resources, incinerators are considered in many countries such as Japan and Germany as the major technology for a waste management scheme capable of dealing with the increasing demand for municipal and industrial solid waste treatment in urban regions. The evaluation of these municipal incinerators in terms of secondary pollution potential, cost-effectiveness, and operational efficiency has become a new focus in the highly interdisciplinary area of production economics, systems analysis, and waste management. This paper aims to demonstrate the application of data envelopment analysis (DEA) - a production economics tool - to evaluate performance-based efficiencies of 19 large-scale municipal incinerators in Taiwan with different operational conditions. A 4-year operational data set from 2002 to 2005 was collected in support of DEA modeling using Monte Carlo simulation to outline the possibility distributions of operational efficiency of these incinerators. Uncertainty analysis using the Monte Carlo simulation provides a balance between simplifications of our analysis and the soundness of capturing the essential random features that complicate solid waste management systems. To cope with future challenges, efforts in the DEA modeling, systems analysis, and prediction of the performance of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators under normal operation and special conditions were directed toward generating a compromised assessment procedure. Our research findings will eventually lead to the identification of the optimal management strategies for promoting the quality of solid waste incineration, not only in Taiwan, but also elsewhere in the world.

  6. Municipal Utilities' Investment in Smart Grid Technologies Improves Services and Lowers Costs (October 2014)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Three municipal utilities that received funding through the Recovery Act Smart Grid Investment Grant program are featured in this report. Burbank, California; Glendale, California; and Danvers, Massachusetts are mid-sized cities that implemented grid modernization activities in multiple areas including advanced metering infrastructure, distribution automation, and customer systems.

  7. An overview of the technology for energy recovery from municipal wastes in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiraoka, M.

    1985-01-01

    Since the Japanese government adopted incineration and landfill systems for treatment of municipal refuse in 1963, a large number of incinerators have been built. After the Oil Embargo in 1973, heat recovery from incinerators in large cities was emphasized, and resource and heat recovery have been developed.

  8. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 4, Appendix B: RDF technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  9. Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor reports through 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepherd, P

    1994-07-01

    US Department of Energy contractors continue to conduct research targeting the productive and responsible use of the more than 536,000 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) that is generated each day in the United States. It is becoming more and more prudent to improve current methods of MSW management and to continue to search for additional cost-effective, energy-efficient means to manage our MSW resource. This bibliography is an updated version of Municipal Waste to Energy: An Annotated Bibliography of US Department of Energy Contractor Reports, by Caroline Brooks, published in 1987. Like its predecessor, this bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US Department of Energy. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment. The bibliography contains three indexes -- an author index, a subject index, and a title index. The reports are listed alphabetically in the subject areas and may appear under more than one subject. All of the reports cited in the original MSW bibliography are also included in this update. The number of copies of each report originally published varied according to anticipated public demand. However, all reports are available in either microfiche or hard copy form and may be ordered from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), US Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161. Explicit information on ordering reports is included in Appendix A.

  10. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 11, Alphabetically indexed bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  11. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 12, Numerically indexed bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  12. Design and performance requirements for a fluidized bed boiler firing municipal refuse derived fuel in Ravenna, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, M.L.

    1999-07-01

    In early 1998, the City of Ravenna, Italy, commissioned a fluid bed boiler/waste-to-energy system to combust approximately 50,000 tonnes per year of processed municipal waste and generate electrical power. Much of the fuel preparation and processing equipment was already in place and the primary focus of this project was to implement an environmentally acceptable energy conversion process compatible with the 6.0 tonnes/hr of fuel being processed. The fluid bed boiler system being provided will incorporate state of the art environmental controls for abatement of all pollutants, including products of incomplete combustion (PICs), NO{sub x}, acid gases, and particulates. The project will deliver an average of 70,000 pounds per hour of steam to generate approximately 7 MW of electricity. The following is a description of the process and equipment being utilized for the energy conversion and boiler island, including the environmental abatement equipment. Design specifications for the plant including fuel and emission limits are presented herein. The facility is scheduled for startup in mid-1999.

  13. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in New Jersey. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate the operations of public utilities in New Jersey is generally vested in the Board of Public Utilities. The Board is subsumed within the Department of Energy for administrative purposes, but functions largely independently of supervision or control by that agency. The Board is composed of three members who serve for six-year terms. They are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate. Within the purview of its powers, the authority of the Board supersedes that of local governments. The Board, for example, may grant exemptions from local zoning provisions, and has approving authority over privileges or franchises granted by municipalities to public utilities. The Board, however, cannot override the refusal of a municipality to grant consent to the initiation of operations by a public utility. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  14. Nuclear decontamination technology evaluation to address contamination of a municipal water system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFee, J.; Langsted, J.; Young, M.; Porcon, J.; Day, E.

    2007-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) are considering the impact and recovery from contamination of municipal water systems, including intentional contamination of those systems. Industrial chemicals, biological agents, drugs, pesticides, chemical warfare agents, and radionuclides all could be introduced into a municipal water system to create detrimental health effects and disrupt a community. Although unintentional, the 1993 cryptosporidium contamination of the Milwaukee WS water system resulted in 100 fatalities and disrupted the city for weeks. Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure Inc, (Shaw), as a subcontractor on a DHS contract with Michael Baker Jr., Inc., was responsible for evaluation of the impact and recovery from radionuclide contamination in a municipal water system distribution system. Shaw was tasked to develop a matrix of nuclear industry decontamination technologies and evaluate applicability to municipal water systems. Shaw expanded the evaluation to include decontamination methods commonly used in the drinking water supply. The matrix compared all technologies for implementability, effectiveness, and cost. To address the very broad range of contaminants and contamination scenarios, Shaw bounded the problem by identification of specific contaminant release scenario(s) for specific water system architecture(s). A decontamination technology matrix was developed containing fifty-nine decontamination technologies potentially applicable to the water distribution system piping, pumps, tanks, associated equipment, and/or contaminated water. Qualitatively, the majority of the nuclear industry decontamination technologies were eliminated from consideration due to implementability concerns. However, inclusion of the municipal water system technologies supported recommendations that combined the most effective approaches in both industries. (authors)

  15. Active Power Controls from Wind Power: Bridging the Gaps | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Active Power Controls from Wind Power: Bridging the Gaps Active Power Controls from Wind Power: Bridging the Gaps This report evaluates how wind power can support power system ...

  16. 100000241,1,1,1,1,20050516,"AL",10610,"Albertville Municipal Utils Bd",99

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0050516,"AL",10610,"Albertville Municipal Utils Bd",99 100000241,1,2,1,1,124925,"AL",10620,"Albertville Municipal Utils Bd",99 100000241,1,3,1,1,7296252,"AL",10897,"Albertville Municipal Utils Bd",99 100000241,1,4,1,1,12879189,"AL",11990,"Albertville Municipal Utils Bd",99 100000241,1,7,1,1,12879189,"AL",10670,"Albertville Municipal Utils Bd",99

  17. 100000241,1,1,1,1,21734296,"AL",10610,"Albertville Municipal Utils Bd",2000

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1734296,"AL",10610,"Albertville Municipal Utils Bd",2000 100000241,1,2,1,1,169731,"AL",10620,"Albertville Municipal Utils Bd",2000 100000241,1,3,1,1,7975445,"AL",10897,"Albertville Municipal Utils Bd",2000 100000241,1,4,1,1,13928582,"AL",11990,"Albertville Municipal Utils Bd",2000 100000241,1,7,1,1,13928582,"AL",10670,"Albertville Municipal Utils Bd",2000

  18. Power optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apollonov, V V

    2014-02-28

    By using the theory we developed in the early 1970s, a broad range of phenomena is considered for an optical surface of a solid body that is exposed to radiation arbitrarily varying in time and producing temperature fields, thermoelastic stresses and thermal deformations on the surface layer. The examination is based on the relations (which are similar to Duhamel's integral formula from the theory of heat conduction) between the quantities characterising the thermal stress state in any nonstationary regimes of energy input into a solid. A peculiar feature of the analysis of the thermal stress state in this case consists in the fact that this relation comprises time as a parameter, which in turn is a consequence of incoherence of the quasi-stationary problem of thermoelasticity. This phenomenon is particularly important for the optics of high-power, high-pulse repetition rate lasers, which are being actively developed. In the review, we have recently published in Laser Physics, the thermal stress state of a solid is analysed. In this state, time is treated as an independent variable used in differentiation. Such an approach greatly reduces the applicability of the method. The review published contains data on the use of capillary porous structures made of various materials with different degrees of the surface development. Moreover, such structures can be efficiently employed to increase the heat exchange at a temperature below the boiling point of the coolant. In the present review we discuss the dependences of the limiting laser intensities on the duration of a pulse or a pulse train, corresponding to the three stages of the state of the reflecting surface and leading to unacceptable elastic deformations of the surface, to the plastic yield of the material accompanied by the formation of residual stresses and to the melting of the surface layer. We also analyse the problem of heat exchange in the surface layer with a liquid metal coolant pumped through it. The

  19. Power oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gitsevich, Aleksandr

    2001-01-01

    An oscillator includes an amplifier having an input and an output, and an impedance transformation network connected between the input of the amplifier and the output of the amplifier, wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to provide suitable positive feedback from the output of the amplifier to the input of the amplifier to initiate and sustain an oscillating condition, and wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to protect the input of the amplifier from a destructive feedback signal. One example of the oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.

  20. POWER REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zinn, W.H.

    1958-07-01

    A fast nuclear reactor system ls described for producing power and radioactive isotopes. The reactor core is of the heterogeneous, fluid sealed type comprised of vertically arranged elongated tubular fuel elements having vertical coolant passages. The active portion is surrounded by a neutron reflector and a shield. The system includes pumps and heat exchangers for the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The core, primary coolant pump and primary heat exchanger are disposed within an irapenforate tank which is filled with the primary coolant, in this case a liquid metal such as Na or NaK, to completely submerge these elements. The tank is completely surrounded by a thick walled concrete shield. This reactor system utilizes enriched uranium or plutonium as the fissionable material, uranium or thorium as a diluent and thorium or uranium containing less than 0 7% of the U/sup 235/ isotope as a fertile material.