National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for monochromator sgm gratings

  1. Holographic optical grating and method for optimizing monochromator configuration

    DOEpatents

    Koike, Masato (Moraga, CA)

    1999-01-01

    This invention comprises a novel apparatus for recording a holographic groove pattern on a diffraction grating blank. The recording apparatus is configured using newly developed groups of analytical equations. The invention further comprises the novel holographic diffraction grating made with the inventive recording apparatus. The invention additionally comprises monochromators and spectrometers equipped with the inventive holographic diffraction grating. Further, the invention comprises a monochromator configured to reduce aberrations using a newly developed group of analytical equations. Additionally, the invention comprises a method to reduce aberrations in monochromators and spectrometers using newly developed groups of analytical equations.

  2. Commissioning of a Soft X-ray Beamline PF-BL-16A with a Variable-Included-Angle Varied-Line-Spacing Grating Monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Amemiya, Kenta; Toyoshima, Akio; Kikuchi, Takashi; Kosuge, Takashi; Nigorikawa, Kazuyuki; Sumii, Ryohei; Ito, Kenji

    2010-06-23

    The design and commissioning of a new soft X-ray beamline, BL-16A, at the Photon Factory is presented. The beamline consists of a pre-focusing mirror, an entrance slit, a variable-included-angle varied-line-spacing plane grating monochromator, and a post-focusing system as usual, and provides circularly and linearly polarized soft X rays in the energy range 200-1500 eV with an APPLE-II type undulator. The commissioning procedure for the beamline optics is described in detail, especially the check of the focal position for the zero-th order and diffracted X rays.

  3. Mirror monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Mankos, Marian; Shadman, Khashayar

    2014-12-02

    In this SBIR project, Electron Optica, Inc. (EOI) is developing a mirror electron monochromator (MirrorChrom) attachment to new and retrofitted electron microscopes (EMs) for improving the energy resolution of the EM from the characteristic range of 0.2-0.5 eV to the range of 10-50 meV. This improvement will enhance the characterization of materials by imaging and spectroscopy. In particular, the monochromator will refine the energy spectra characterizing materials, as obtained from transmission EMs [TEMs] fitted with electron spectrometers, and it will increase the spatial resolution of the images of materials taken with scanning EMs (SEMs) operated at low voltages. EOI’s MirrorChrom technology utilizes a magnetic prism to simultaneously deflect the electron beam off the axis of the microscope column by 90° and disperse the electrons in proportional to their energies into a module with an electron mirror and a knife-edge. The knife-edge cuts off the tails of the energy distribution to reduce the energy spread of the electrons that are reflected, and subsequently deflected, back into the microscope column. The knife-edge is less prone to contamination, and thereby charging, than the conventional slits used in existing monochromators, which improves the reliability and stability of the module. The overall design of the MirrorChrom exploits the symmetry inherent in reversing the electron trajectory in order to maintain the beam brightness – a parameter that impacts how well the electron beam can be focused downstream onto a sample. During phase I, EOI drafted a set of candidate monochromator architectures and evaluated the trade-offs between energy resolution and beam current to achieve the optimum design for three particular applications with market potential: increasing the spatial resolution of low voltage SEMs, increasing the energy resolution of low voltage TEMs (beam energy of 5-20 keV), and increasing the energy resolution of conventional TEMs (beam

  4. High resolution EUV monochromator/spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Koike, Masako

    1996-06-18

    This invention is related to a monochromator which employs a spherical mirror, a traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation, and a varied spacing plane grating. The divergent beam from the entrance slit is converged by the spherical mirror located at the various positions in the monochromator depending of the inventive system. To provide the meaningful diffraction efficiencies and to reduce unwanted higher order lights, the deviation angle subtending the incidence and diffraction beams for the plane grating is varied with the position of the traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation located in the front or back of the plane grating with wavelength scanning. The outgoing beam from the monochromator goes through the fixed exit slit and has same beam direction regardless of the scanning wavelength. The combination of properly designed motions of the plane mirror and novel varied-spacing parameters of the inventive plane grating corrects the aberrations and focuses the monochromatic spectral image on the exit slit, enabling measurements at high spectral resolution. 10 figs.

  5. High resolution EUV monochromator/spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Koike, Masako

    1996-01-01

    This invention is related to a monochromator which employs a spherical mirror, a traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation, and a varied spacing plane grating. The divergent beam from the entrance slit is converged by the spherical mirror located at the various positions in the monochromator depending of the inventive system. To provide the meaningful diffraction efficiencies and to reduce unwanted higher order lights, the deviation angle subtending the incidence and diffraction beams for the plane grating is varied with the position of the traveling plane mirror with simultaneous rotation located in the front or back of the plane grating with wavelength scanning. The outgoing beam from the monochromator goes through the fixed exit slit and has same beam direction regardless of the scanning wavelength. The combination of properly designed motions of the plane mirror and novel varied-spacing parameters of the inventive plane grating corrects the aberrations and focuses the monochromatic spectral image on the exit slit, enabling measurements at high spectral resolution.

  6. Monochromator Crystal Glitch Library

    DOE Data Explorer

    SSRL's Monochromator Crystal Glitch Library allows users to view glitch spectra online, list specific crystal orientations, and download PDF files of the glitch spectra. (Specialized Interface)

  7. Optical system for high resolution spectrometer/monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Hettrick, Michael C.; Underwood, James H.

    1988-01-01

    An optical system for use in a spectrometer or monochromator employing a mirror which reflects electromagnetic radiation from a source to converge with same in a plane. A straight grooved, varied-spaced diffraction grating receives the converging electromagnetic radiation from the mirror and produces a spectral image for capture by a detector, target or like receiver.

  8. Optical system for high resolution spectrometer/monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Hettrick, M.C.; Underwood, J.H.

    1988-10-11

    An optical system for use in a spectrometer or monochromator employing a mirror which reflects electromagnetic radiation from a source to converge with same in a plane is disclosed. A straight grooved, varied-spaced diffraction grating receives the converging electromagnetic radiation from the mirror and produces a spectral image for capture by a detector, target or like receiver. 11 figs.

  9. Pulsed-neutron monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Mook, Jr., Herbert A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention is an improved pulsed-neutron monochromator of the vibrated-crystal type. The monochromator is designed to provide neutron pulses which are characterized both by short duration and high density. A row of neutron-reflecting crystals is disposed in a neutron beam to reflect neutrons onto a common target. The crystals in the row define progressively larger neutron-scattering angles and are vibrated sequentially in descending order with respect to the size of their scattering angles, thus generating neutron pulses which arrive simultaneously at the target. Transducers are coupled to one end of the crystals to vibrate them in an essentially non-resonant mode. The transducers propagate transverse waves in the crystal which progress longitudinally therein. The wave are absorbed at the undriven ends of the crystals by damping material mounted thereon. In another aspect, the invention is a method for generating neutron pulses characterized by high intensity and short duration.

  10. Pulsed-neutron monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Mook, H.A. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention is an improved pulsed-neutron monochromator of the vibrated-crystal type. The monochromator is designed to provide neutron pulses which are characterized both by short duration and high density. A row of neutron-reflecting crystals is disposed in a neutron beam to reflect neutrons onto a common target. The crystals in the row define progressively larger neutron-scattering angles and are vibrated sequentially in descending order with respect to the size of their scattering angles, thus generating neutron pulses which arrive simultaneously at the target. Transducers are coupled to one end of the crystals to vibrate them in an essentially non-resonant mode. The transducers propagate transverse waves in the crystal which progress longitudinally therein. The waves are absorbed at the undriven ends of the crystals by damping material mounted thereon. In another aspect, the invention is a method for generating neutron pulses characterized by high intensity and short duration.

  11. Asymmetrically cut crystals for synchrotron radiation monochromators

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez del Rio, M. ); Cerrina, F. )

    1992-01-01

    Asymmetrically cut crystals are interesting for use in synchrotron radiation monochromators because of their good energy resolution characteristics and their focusing properties. Ray tracing codes, such as SHADOW, are very efficient in the design and development of new optical devices. In order to determine the convenience of using asymmetrically cut crystals for x-ray monochromators, SHADOW has been extended to include these kinds of crystals. The physical approach to ray tracing asymmetrically cut crystals is based on the coexistence of two periodic structures. One of these is the bulk periodic structure of the Bragg planes. Such a structure determines the existence of a rocking curve near the Bragg condition, and is implemented in SHADOW following the Darwin--Prins formalism of the dynamical theory of diffraction. The second periodic structure is a one-dimensional grating on the crystal surface, formed by the truncation of the lattice planes with the surface. This grating is responsible for the focusing properties of these crystals and plays an essential role in determining the trajectory of the rays. The combination of an asymmetric crystal and a nonplanar surface can be easily achieved by bending (Johann case) to provide improved properties. More complex cases such as the ground-bent crystals (i.e., Johansson geometry) can be considered as a particular case of asymmetrical crystals in which the angle between the Bragg planes and the surface change along the crystal surface. All these cases have been implemented in SHADOW.

  12. Synchronized monochromator and insertion device energy scans at SLS

    SciTech Connect

    Krempasky, J.; Flechsig, U.; Korhonen, T.; Zimoch, D.; Quitmann, Ch.; Nolting, F.

    2010-06-23

    Synchronous monochromator and insertion device energy scans were implemented at the Surfaces/Interfaces:Microscopy (SIM) beamline in order to provide the users fast X-ray magnetic dichroism studies (XMCD). A simple software control scheme is proposed based on a fast monochromator run-time energy readback which quickly updates the insertion device requested energy during an on-the-fly X-ray absorption scan (XAS). In this scheme the Plain Grating Monochromator (PGM) motion control, being much slower compared with the insertion device (APPLE-II type undulator), acts as a 'master' controlling the undulator 'slave' energy position. This master-slave software implementation exploits EPICS distributed device control over computer network and allows for a quasi-synchronous motion control combined with data acquisition needed for the XAS or XMCD experiment.

  13. Active diffraction gratings: Development and tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bonora, S.; Frassetto, F.; Poletto, L. [Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, National Council for Research of Italy, via Trasea, 7, Padova 35131 (Italy); Zanchetta, E.; Della Giustina, G.; Brusatin, G. [Industrial Engineering Department, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    We present the realization and characterization of an active spherical diffraction grating with variable radius of curvature to be used in grazing-incidence monochromators. The device consists of a bimorph deformable mirror on the top of which a diffraction grating with laminar profile is realized by UV lithography. The experimental results show that the active grating can optimize the beam focalization of visible wavelengths through its rotation and focus accommodation.

  14. APS high heat load monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

  15. Beamline 8.0.1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    range 80-1250 eV Monochromator SGM (gratings: 150, 380, 925 linesmm) Flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 1011 to 6 x 1015 photonss (resolution and energy dependent) Resolving power (EE)...

  16. Beamline 8.0.1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Operational Yes Source characteristics 5-cm period undulator (U5) (first, third, and fifth harmonics) Energy range 80-1250 eV Monochromator SGM (gratings: 150, 380, 925 linesmm) ...

  17. Temporal characterization of a time-compensated monochromator for high-efficiency selection of extreme-ultraviolet pulses generated by high-order harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Poletto, L.; Villoresi, P.; Benedetti, E.; Ferrari, F.; Stagira, S.; Sansone, G.; Nisoli, M.

    2008-07-15

    Ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet pulses are spectrally selected by a time-delay-compensated grating monochromator. The intrinsic very short duration of the pulses is obtained by exploiting the high-order harmonic generation process. The temporal characterization of the harmonic pulses is obtained using a cross-correlation method: pulses as short as 8 fs are measured at the output of the monochromator in the case of the 23rd harmonic. This value is in agreement with the expected duration of such pulses, indicating that the influence of the monochromator is negligible. The photon flux has been measured with a calibrated photodiode, pointing out the good efficiency of the monochromator, derived by the exploitation for the two gratings of the conical diffraction mounting.

  18. Focusing monochromators for high energy synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Suortti, P. )

    1992-01-01

    Bent crystals are introduced as monochromators for high energy synchrotron radiation. The reflectivity of the crystal can be calculated reliably from a model where the bent crystal is approximated by a stack of lamellas, which have a gradually changing angle of reflection. The reflectivity curves of a 4 mm thick, asymmetrically cut ({chi}=9.5{degree}) Si(220) crystal are measured using 150 keV radiation and varying the bending radius from 25 to 140 m. The width of the reflectivity curve is up to 50 times the Darwin width of the reflection, and the maximum reflectivity exceeds 80%. The crystal is used as a monochromator in Compton scattering measurements. The source is on the focusing circle, so that the resolution is limited essentially by the detector/analyzer. A wide bandpass, sharply focused beam is attained when the source is outside the focusing circle in the transmission geometry. In a test experiment. 10{sup 12} photons on an area of 2 mm{sup 2} was observed. The energy band was about 4 keV centered at 40 keV. A powder diffraction pattern of a few reflections of interest was recorded by an intrinsic Ge detector, and this demonstrated that a structural transition can be followed at intervals of a few milliseconds.

  19. MONO: A program to calculate synchrotron beamline monochromator throughputs

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D.

    1989-01-01

    A set of Fortran programs have been developed to calculate the expected throughput of x-ray monochromators with a filtered synchrotron source and is applicable to bending magnet and wiggler beamlines. These programs calculate the normalized throughput and filtered synchrotron spectrum passed by multiple element, flat un- focussed monochromator crystals of the Bragg or Laue type as a function of incident beam divergence, energy and polarization. The reflected and transmitted beam of each crystal is calculated using the dynamical theory of diffraction. Multiple crystal arrangements in the dispersive and non-dispersive mode are allowed as well as crystal asymmetry and energy or angle offsets. Filters or windows of arbitrary elemental composition may be used to filter the incident synchrotron beam. This program should be useful to predict the intensities available from many beamline configurations as well as assist in the design of new monochromator and analyzer systems. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  20. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Alp, Ercan E.; Mooney, Timothy M.; Toellner, Thomas

    1996-06-04

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut (.alpha.=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5-30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the .mu.eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator.

  1. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Alp, E.E.; Mooney, T.M.; Toellner, T.

    1996-06-04

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut ({alpha}=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5--30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the {micro}eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator. 7 figs.

  2. Monochromator for continuous spectrum x-ray radiation

    DOEpatents

    Staudenmann, J.L.; Liedl, G.L.

    1983-12-02

    A monochromator for use with synchrotron x-ray radiation comprises two diffraction means which can be rotated independently and independent means for translationally moving one diffraction means with respect to the other. The independence of the rotational and translational motions allows Bragg angles from 3.5/sup 0/ to 86.5/sup 0/, and facilitates precise and high-resolution monochromatization over a wide energy range. The diffraction means are removably mounted so as to be readily interchangeable, which allows the monochromator to be used for both non-dispersive and low dispersive.

  3. Monochromator for continuous spectrum x-ray radiation

    DOEpatents

    Staudenmann, Jean-Louis; Liedl, Gerald L.

    1987-07-07

    A monochromator for use with synchrotron x-ray radiation comprises two diffraction means which can be rotated independently and independent means for translationally moving one diffraction means with respect to the other. The independence of the rotational and translational motions allows Bragg angles from 3.5.degree. to 86.5.degree., and facilitates precise and high-resolution monochromatization over a wide energy range. The diffraction means are removably mounted so as to be readily interchangeable, which allows the monochromator to be used for both non-dispersive and low dispersive work.

  4. BEAMLINE 13-2

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    2 CURRENT STATUS Open RESPONSIBLE STAFF: Dan Brehmer Hirohito Ogasawara EXPERIMENTS: Photoemission; NEXAFS (see also: Spectroscopic Techniques) SCHEDULING: BL13 Schedules Proposal Submittal and Scheduling Procedures Current SPEAR and Beam Line Schedules SOURCE: Elliptically polarized undulator OPTICS: M0 vertical deflecting spherical, water-cooled M2 horizontal deflecting spherical M3 vertical deflecting elliptical MONOCHROMATOR: Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) SLITS : 0-1000 µm.

  5. Multilayer diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is for a reflection diffraction grating that functions at X-ray to VUV wavelengths and at normal angles of incidence. The novel grating is comprised of a laminar grating of period D with flat-topped grating bars. A multiplicity of layered synthetic microstructures, of period d and comprised of alternating flat layers of two different materials, are disposed on the tops of the grating bars of the laminar grating. In another embodiment of the grating, a second multiplicity of layered synthetic microstructures are also disposed on the flat faces, of the base of the grating, between the bars. D is in the approximate range from 3,000 to 50,000 Angstroms, but d is in the approximate range from 10 to 400 Angstroms. The laminar grating and the layered microstructures cooperatively interact to provide many novel and beneficial instrumentational advantages.

  6. Multilayer diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1990-04-10

    This invention is for a reflection diffraction grating that functions at X-ray to VUV wavelengths and at normal angles of incidence. The novel grating is comprised of a laminar grating of period D with flat-topped grating bars. A multiplicity of layered synthetic microstructures, of period d and comprised of alternating flat layers of two different materials, are disposed on the tops of the grating bars of the laminar grating. In another embodiment of the grating, a second multiplicity of layered synthetic microstructures are also disposed on the flat faces, of the base of the grating, between the bars. D is in the approximate range from 3,000 to 50,000 Angstroms, but d is in the approximate range from 10 to 400 Angstroms. The laminar grating and the layered microstructures cooperatively interact to provide many novel and beneficial instrumentational advantages. 2 figs.

  7. Catwalk grate lifting tool

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, Larry W.

    1992-01-01

    A device for lifting catwalk grates comprising an elongated bent member with a handle at one end and a pair of notched braces and a hook at the opposite end that act in conjunction with each other to lock onto the grate and give mechanical advantage in lifting the grate.

  8. Renewable liquid reflection grating

    DOEpatents

    Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Toor, Arthur

    2003-10-07

    A renewable liquid reflection grating. Electrodes are operatively connected to a conducting liquid in an arrangement that produces a reflection grating and driven by a current with a resonance frequency. In another embodiment, the electrodes create the grating by a resonant electrostatic force acting on a dielectric liquid.

  9. Catwalk grate lifting tool

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, L.W.

    1992-08-11

    A device is described for lifting catwalk grates comprising an elongated bent member with a handle at one end and a pair of notched braces and a hook at the opposite end that act in conjunction with each other to lock onto the grate and give mechanical advantage in lifting the grate. 10 figs.

  10. Design and performance of the ALS double-crystal monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.; Ryce, S.; Perera, R.C.C.

    1997-04-01

    A new {open_quotes}Cowan type{close_quotes} double-crystal monochromator, based on the boomerang design used at NSLS beamline X-24A, has been developed for beamline 9.3.1 at the ALS, a windowless UHV beamline covering the 1-6 keV photon-energy range. Beamline 9.3.1 is designed to simultaneously achieve the goals of high energy resolution, high flux, and high brightness at the sample. The mechanical design has been simplified, and recent developments in technology have been included. Measured mechanical precision of the monochromator shows significant improvement over existing designs. In tests with x-rays at NSLS beamline X-23 A2, maximum deviations in the intensity of monochromatic light were just 7% during scans of several hundred eV in the vicinity of the Cr K edge (6 keV) with the monochromator operating without intensity feedback. Such precision is essential because of the high brightness of the ALS radiation and the overall length of beamline 9.3.1 (26 m).

  11. Multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings

    DOEpatents

    Perry, M.D.; Britten, J.A.; Nguyen, H.T.; Boyd, R.; Shore, B.W.

    1999-05-25

    The design and fabrication of dielectric grating structures with high diffraction efficiency used in reflection or transmission is described. By forming a multilayer structure of alternating index dielectric materials and placing a grating structure on top of the multilayer, a diffraction grating of adjustable efficiency, and variable optical bandwidth can be obtained. Diffraction efficiency into the first order in reflection varying between 1 and 98 percent has been achieved by controlling the design of the multilayer and the depth, shape, and material comprising the grooves of the grating structure. Methods for fabricating these gratings without the use of ion etching techniques are described. 7 figs.

  12. Multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D.; Britten, Jerald A.; Nguyen, Hoang T.; Boyd, Robert; Shore, Bruce W.

    1999-01-01

    The design and fabrication of dielectric grating structures with high diffraction efficiency used in reflection or transmission is described. By forming a multilayer structure of alternating index dielectric materials and placing a grating structure on top of the multilayer, a diffraction grating of adjustable efficiency, and variable optical bandwidth can be obtained. Diffraction efficiency into the first order in reflection varying between 1 and 98 percent has been achieved by controlling the design of the multilayer and the depth, shape, and material comprising the grooves of the grating structure. Methods for fabricating these gratings without the use of ion etching techniques are described.

  13. Reflective diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Lamartine, Bruce C.

    2003-06-24

    Reflective diffraction grating. A focused ion beam (FIB) micromilling apparatus is used to store color images in a durable medium by milling away portions of the surface of the medium to produce a reflective diffraction grating with blazed pits. The images are retrieved by exposing the surface of the grating to polychromatic light from a particular incident bearing and observing the light reflected by the surface from specified reception bearing.

  14. Diamond monochromator for high heat flux synchrotron x-ray beams

    SciTech Connect

    Khounsary, A.M.; Smither, R.K.; Davey, S.; Purohit, A.

    1993-01-28

    Single crystal silicon has been the material of choice for x-ray monochromators for the past several decades. However, the need for suitable monochromators to handle the high heat load of the next generation synchrotron x-ray beams on the one hand and the rapid and on-going advances in synthetic diamond technology on the other make a compelling case for the consideration of a diamond monochromator system. In this paper, we consider various aspects, advantages and disadvantages, and promises and pitfalls of such a system and evaluate the comparative performance of a diamond monochromator subjected to the high heat load of the most powerful x-ray beam that will become available in the next few years. The results of experiments performed to evaluate the diffraction properties of a currently available synthetic single crystal diamond are also presented. Fabrication of a diamond-based monochromator is within present technical means.

  15. Test results of a diamond double-crystal monochromator at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, P.B.; Graber, T.; Krasnicki, S.; Lee, W.K.

    1997-06-01

    We have tested the first diamond double-crystal monochromator at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The monochromator consisted of two synthetic type lb (111) diamond plates in symmetric Bragg geometry. We tested two pairs of single-crystal plates: the first pair was 6 mm by 5 mm by 0.25 mm and 6 mm by 5 mm by 0.37 mm; the second set was 7 mm by 5.5 mm by 0.44 mm. The monochromator first crystal was indirectly cooled by edge contact with a water-cooled copper holder. We studied the performance of the monochromator under the high-power x-ray beam delivered by the APS undulator A. We found no indication of thermal distortions or strains even at the highest incident power (280 watts) and power density (123 W/mm{sup 2} at normal incidence). The calculated maximum power and power density absorbed by the first crystal were 37 watts and 16 W/mm{sup 2} respectively. We also compared the maximum intensity delivered by the diamond monochromator and by a silicon (111) cryogenically cooled monochromator. For energies in the range of 6 to 10 keV, the flux through the diamond monochromator was about a factor of two less than through the silicon monochromator, in good agreement with calculations. We conclude that water-cooled diamond monochromators can handle the high-power beams from the undulator beams from the undulator beamlines at the APS. As single-crystal diamond plates of larger size and better quality become available, the use of diamond monochromators will become a very attractive option.

  16. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Butler, Michael A.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Senturia, Stephen D.

    1998-01-01

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers).

  17. Diamond monochromator for high heat flux synchrotron x-ray beams

    SciTech Connect

    Khounsary, A.M.; Smither, R.K.; Davey, S.; Purohit, A.

    1992-12-01

    Single crystal silicon has been the material of choice for x-ray monochromators for the past several decades. However, the need for suitable monochromators to handle the high heat load of the next generation synchrotron x-ray beams on the one hand and the rapid and on-going advances in synthetic diamond technology on the other make a compelling case for the consideration of a diamond mollochromator system. In this Paper, we consider various aspects, advantage and disadvantages, and promises and pitfalls of such a system and evaluate the comparative an monochromator subjected to the high heat load of the most powerful x-ray beam that will become available in the next few years. The results of experiments performed to evaluate the diffraction properties of a currently available synthetic single crystal diamond are also presented. Fabrication of diamond-based monochromator is within present technical means.

  18. Beamline 9.0.1 - a high-resolution undulator beamline for gas-phase spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bozek, J.D.; Heimann, P.A.; Mossessian, D.

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.0.1 at the Advanced Light Source is an undulator beamline with a Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) which provides very high resolution and flux over the photon energy range 20-320eV. The beamline has been used primarily by the atomic and molecular science community to conduct spectroscopy experiments using electron, ion and fluorescence photon detection. A description of the beamline and its performance will be provided in this abstract.

  19. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Robert B.

    1986-09-02

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams into the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  20. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Robert B.

    1986-01-01

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams into the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  1. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, A.J.; Butler, M.A.; Sinclair, M.B.; Senturia, S.D.

    1998-05-26

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating is disclosed. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers). 14 figs.

  2. Back-scattering channel-cut high-resolution monochromator for inelastic x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Kushnir, V.I.; Abbamonte, P.M.; Macrander, A.T.; Schwoerer-Boehning, M.

    1997-08-01

    We report on a design and on some experimental results for the performance of a new high energy resolution monochromator. It is a large channel-cut Si crystal with a 197 mm separation between the two faces designed to operate in a near-backscattering regime. The device was tested as a second monochromator on Sector 3 of the Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Collaborative Access Team (SRI-CAT) at the Advanced Photon Source using the Si(777) reflection at a photon energy of 13.84 keV. The same monochromator can be used for other energies with reflections of the type (hhh). Special care has been taken to equalize the temperature of the two faces by employing a Peltier heat pump. A Si(111) double-crystal pre-monochromator designed to withstand the high heat load of the undulator radiation was used upstream on the beamline. The measured throughput efficiency of the Si(777) channel-cut monochromator was less ideal by a factor of 1.9. Dynamical diffraction theory was used to calculate the throughput of an ideally perfect crystal.

  3. Ultra-stable sub-meV monochromator for hard X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Toellner, T. S.; Collins, J.; Goetze, K.; Hu, M. Y.; Preissner, C.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Yan, L.

    2015-07-17

    A high-resolution silicon monochromator suitable for 21.541 keV synchrotron radiation is presented that produces a bandwidth of 0.27 meV. The operating energy corresponds to a nuclear transition in 151Eu. The first-of-its-kind, fully cryogenic design achieves an energy-alignment stability of 0.017 meV r.m.s. per day, or a 100-fold improvement over other meV-monochromators, and can tolerate higher X-ray power loads than room-temperature designs of comparable resolution. This offers the potential for significantly more accurate measurements of lattice excitation energies using nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy if combined with accurate energy calibration using, for example, high-speed Doppler shifting. The design of the monochromator along with its performance and impact on transmitted beam properties are presented.

  4. Inclined monochromator for high heat-load synchrotron x-ray radiation

    DOEpatents

    Khounsary, A.M.

    1994-02-15

    A double crystal monochromator is described including two identical, parallel crystals, each of which is cut such that the normal to the diffraction planes of interest makes an angle less than 90 degrees with the surface normal. Diffraction is symmetric, regardless of whether the crystals are symmetrically or asymmetrically cut, enabling operation of the monochromator with a fixed plane of diffraction. As a result of the inclination of the crystal surface, an incident beam has a footprint area which is elongated both vertically and horizontally when compared to that of the conventional monochromator, reducing the heat flux of the incident beam and enabling more efficient surface cooling. Because after inclination of the crystal only a fraction of thermal distortion lies in the diffraction plane, slope errors and the resultant misorientation of the diffracted beam are reduced. 11 figures.

  5. Ultra-stable sub-meV monochromator for hard X-rays

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Toellner, T. S.; Collins, J.; Goetze, K.; Hu, M. Y.; Preissner, C.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Yan, L.

    2015-07-17

    A high-resolution silicon monochromator suitable for 21.541 keV synchrotron radiation is presented that produces a bandwidth of 0.27 meV. The operating energy corresponds to a nuclear transition in 151Eu. The first-of-its-kind, fully cryogenic design achieves an energy-alignment stability of 0.017 meV r.m.s. per day, or a 100-fold improvement over other meV-monochromators, and can tolerate higher X-ray power loads than room-temperature designs of comparable resolution. This offers the potential for significantly more accurate measurements of lattice excitation energies using nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy if combined with accurate energy calibration using, for example, high-speed Doppler shifting. The design of the monochromator alongmore » with its performance and impact on transmitted beam properties are presented.« less

  6. Inclined monochromator for high heat-load synchrotron x-ray radiation

    DOEpatents

    Khounsary, Ali M.

    1994-01-01

    A double crystal monochromator including two identical, parallel crystals, each of which is cut such that the normal to the diffraction planes of interest makes an angle less than 90 degrees with the surface normal. Diffraction is symmetric, regardless of whether the crystals are symmetrically or asymmetrically cut, enabling operation of the monochromator with a fixed plane of diffraction. As a result of the inclination of the crystal surface, an incident beam has a footprint area which is elongated both vertically and horizontally when compared to that of the conventional monochromator, reducing the heat flux of the incident beam and enabling more efficient surface cooling. Because after inclination of the crystal only a fraction of thermal distortion lies in the diffraction plane, slope errors and the resultant misorientation of the diffracted beam are reduced.

  7. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, R.B.

    1985-09-09

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator is described. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams onto the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  8. Monochromator harmonic content measurements and calculations at energies above 20 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D.; Moulin, H.; Garrett, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the harmonic content from single and double crystal silicon monochromators have been made in the 20 to 100 keV at the X17 Superconducting Wiggler Beamline at the NSLS. These measurements are compared with calculations which estimate the monochromatic beam harmonic content and the detection system efficiency with good agreement. At high photon energies ( > 20keV), the scattering of x-rays from an amorphous scatterer is dominated by the inelastic Compton process. At large scattering angles this will completely overwhelm the more forward directed elastic scattering. The Compton x-ray energy shift is large enough to make the distinction between elastic and Compton scattering unambiguous when a spectrum is acquired with a solid state detector. This shift, which is energy dependent, allows the measurement of the relative harmonic intensity in a way that is not affected by pulse pileup in the detector and electronics. The present measurements were done to assess the level of harmonic contamination from two monochromator systems both used on the X17 beamline: the single crystal type monochromator for the Digital Subtraction Coronary Angiography project; and the double crystal monochromator being developed for the Multiple Energy Computed Tomography (MECT) project and the Materials Science program. 5 refs.

  9. High-order multilayer coated blazed gratings for high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Goray, Leonid I.; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Padmore, Howard A.

    2015-02-17

    A grand challenge in soft x-ray spectroscopy is to drive the resolving power of monochromators and spectrometers from the 104 achieved routinely today to well above 105. This need is driven mainly by the requirements of a new technique that is set to have enormous impact in condensed matter physics, Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). Unlike x-ray absorption spectroscopy, RIXS is not limited by an energy resolution dictated by the core-hole lifetime in the excitation process. Using much higher resolving power than used for normal x-ray absorption spectroscopy enables access to the energy scale of soft excitations in matter. Thesemoreexcitations such as magnons and phonons drive the collective phenomena seen in correlated electronic materials such as high temperature superconductors. RIXS opens a new path to study these excitations at a level of detail not formerly possible. However, as the process involves resonant excitation at an energy of around 1 keV, and the energy scale of the excitations one would like to see are at the meV level, to fully utilize the technique requires the development of monochromators and spectrometers with one to two orders of magnitude higher energy resolution than has been conventionally possible. Here we investigate the detailed diffraction characteristics of multilayer blazed gratings. These elements offer potentially revolutionary performance as the dispersive element in ultra-high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. In doing so, we have established a roadmap for the complete optimization of the grating design. Traditionally 1st order gratings are used in the soft x-ray region, but we show that as in the optical domain, one can work in very high spectral orders and thus dramatically improve resolution without significant loss in efficiency.less

  10. Method for characterization of a spherically bent crystal for K.alpha. X-ray imaging of laser plasmas using a focusing monochromator geometry

    DOEpatents

    Kugland, Nathan; Doeppner, Tilo; Glenzer, Siegfried; Constantin, Carmen; Niemann, Chris; Neumayer, Paul

    2015-04-07

    A method is provided for characterizing spectrometric properties (e.g., peak reflectivity, reflection curve width, and Bragg angle offset) of the K.alpha. emission line reflected narrowly off angle of the direct reflection of a bent crystal and in particular of a spherically bent quartz 200 crystal by analyzing the off-angle x-ray emission from a stronger emission line reflected at angles far from normal incidence. The bent quartz crystal can therefore accurately image argon K.alpha. x-rays at near-normal incidence (Bragg angle of approximately 81 degrees). The method is useful for in-situ calibration of instruments employing the crystal as a grating by first operating the crystal as a high throughput focusing monochromator on the Rowland circle at angles far from normal incidence (Bragg angle approximately 68 degrees) to make a reflection curve with the He-like x-rays such as the He-.alpha. emission line observed from a laser-excited plasma.

  11. Fiber Grating Environmental Sensing System

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Whitten L.; Udd, Eric

    2003-07-29

    Fiber grating environmental measurement systems are comprised of sensors that are configured to respond to changes in moisture or chemical content of the surrounding medium through the action of coatings and plates inducing strain that is measured. These sensors can also be used to monitor the interior of bonds for degradation due to aging, cracking, or chemical attack. Means to multiplex these sensors at high speed and with high sensitivity can be accomplished by using spectral filters placed to correspond to each fiber grating environmental sensor. By forming networks of spectral elements and using wavelength division multiplexing arrays of fiber grating sensors may be processed in a single fiber line allowing distributed high sensitivity, high bandwidth fiber optic grating environmental sensor systems to be realized.

  12. Near-perfect diffraction grating rhomb

    DOEpatents

    Wantuck, Paul J.

    1990-01-01

    A near-perfect grating rhomb enables an output beam to be diffracted to an angle offset from the input beam. The correcting grating is tipped relative to the dispersing grating to provide the offset angle. The correcting grating is further provided with a groove spacing which differs from the dispersing grating groove space by an amount effective to substantially remove angular dispersion in the output beam. A near-perfect grating rhomb has the capability for selective placement in a FEL to suppress sideband instabilities arising from the FEL.

  13. High resolution monochromator for inelastic scattering studies of high energy phonons using undulator radiation at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Macrander, A.T.; Schwoerer-Boehning, M.; Abbamonte, P.M.; Hu, M.

    1997-08-01

    A monochromator for use at 13.84 keV with a calculated bandpass of 5.2 meV was designed built, and tested. Tuning was performed by rotating the inner crystal of a pair of nested silicon channel-cut crystals. The inner crystal employs the (884) reflection, and the outer crystal employs a collimating asymmetric (422) reflection (dynamical asymmetry factor, b, equal to {minus}17.5). Tests were done with a double-crystal Si(111) pre-monochromator situated upstream of the high resolution monochromator and a Si(777) backscattering crystal situated downstream. For this optical arrangement an ideal value of 6.3 meV as calculated by x-ray dynamical diffraction theory applies for the FWHM of the convolution of the net monochromator reflectivity function with that of the Si(777) reflection. This calculated value is to be compared to the value of 7.1 meV measured by tuning the high resolution monochromator. Measured efficiencies were less than ideal by a factor of 3.2 to 4.9, where the larger flux reduction factors were found with higher positron storage ring currents.

  14. Embedded high-contrast distributed grating structures

    DOEpatents

    Zubrzycki, Walter J.; Vawter, Gregory A.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of fabrication methods for embedded distributed grating structures is claimed, together with optical devices which include such structures. These new methods are the only known approach to making defect-free high-dielectric contrast grating structures, which are smaller and more efficient than are conventional grating structures.

  15. Diffraction gratings used as identifying markers

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Ward, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    A finely detailed defraction grating is applied to an object as an identifier or tag which is unambiguous, difficult to duplicate, or remove and transfer to another item, and can be read and compared with prior readings with relative ease. The exact pattern of the defraction grating is mapped by diffraction moire techniques and recorded for comparison with future readings of the same grating.

  16. A dynamic focusing x-ray monochromator for a wiggler beam line at the SRS of the SERC Daresbury Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    De Bruijn, D.; Van Zuylen, P. ); Kruizinga, G. , P.O. Box 93138, 2509 AC Den Haag State University of Utrecht, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3508 TB Utrecht )

    1992-01-01

    A Si(220) double-crystal monochromator for the energy range 10--30 keV is presented. It will be used for EXAFS as well as powder diffraction measurements. To determine the requirements for this monochromator we looked, apart from mean considerations, at the requirements dictated by EXAFS in transmission mode. For good data analyses the proper shape, amplitude, and location at the energy axis of each wiggle is required. Moreover it is essential to separate the wiggles from background and noise. For the latter a high flux through the sample is desirable, which can be achieved by horizontal focusing of the beam. For that we have chosen to bend the second crystal sagitally. The sagittal bending radius is adjustable between 50 and 0.8 m, because for different energies different sagittal radii are necessary to focus the beam on the sample. The mean meridional radius of the second crystal is fixed at 130 m, which is an optimization for 20 keV. The meridional radius of the first crystal can be tuned between 100 and 500 m. When this radius is set to 130 m the energy resolution is calculated to be 6, 3, and 35 eV for 10, 20, and 30 keV (for perfectly bent crystals). By changing the meridional radius of the first crystal, future users of this monochromator can make the trade off between resolution and intensity. Movement of the monochromator exit beam, during a scan, will occur due to the monochromator geometry, but is reduced as much as possible by using an asymmetrically cut second crystal, with an asymmetry angle of 2.5{degree}. The average exit beam movement of the monochromator for a 1-keV scan is 20 {mu}m. For 40% of the energy range (10--30 keV) the exit beam position remains within 10 {mu}m. For the second crystal no translation stage is used.

  17. Compact Imaging Spectrometer Utilizing Immersed Gratings

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.; Lerner, Scott A.; Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Bennett, Charles L.

    2006-03-21

    A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through an optical element to the detector array.

  18. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy: a computer controlled, scanning monochromator system for the rapid determination of the elements

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    A computer controlled, scanning monochromator system specifically designed for the rapid, sequential determination of the elements is described. The monochromator is combined with an inductively coupled plasma excitation source so that elements at major, minor, trace, and ultratrace levels may be determined, in sequence, without changing experimental parameters other than the spectral line observed. A number of distinctive features not found in previously described versions are incorporated into the system here described. Performance characteristics of the entire system and several analytical applications are discussed.

  19. Analysis of higher harmonic contamination with a modified approach using a grating analyser

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Rajkumar Modi, Mohammed H.; Lodha, G. S.; Kumar, M.; Chakera, J. A.

    2014-04-15

    Soft x-ray spectra of the toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) at the reflectivity beamline of Indus-1 synchrotron source are analyzed for higher harmonic contribution. A diffraction grating of central line spacing 1200 l/mm is used to disperse the monochromatic beam received from TGM to quantify the harmonic contents in the 50–360 Å wavelength range. In order to calculate the harmonic contamination, conventionally the intensity of higher order peak is divided by first order peak intensity of the desired wavelength. This approach is found to give wrong estimate as first order peak itself is overlapped by higher order peaks. In the present study, a modified approach has been proposed to calculate harmonic contamination where the intensity contributions of overlapping orders have been removed from the first order diffraction peak of the desired wavelength. It is found that the order contamination in the TGM spectra is less than 15% in the wavelength range of 90–180 Å. The total harmonic contribution increases from 6%–60% in the wavelength range of 150–260 Å. The critical wavelength of Indus-1 is 61 Å hence the harmonic contamination below 90 Å is significantly low. The results obtained with modified approach match well with those obtained by quantitative analysis of multilayer reflectivity data. The obtained higher harmonics data are used to fit the transmission of aluminum edge filter in the 120–360 Å wavelength range.

  20. Single-crystal sapphire microstructure for high-resolution synchrotron X-ray monochromators

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Asadchikov, Victor E.; Butashin, Andrey V.; Buzmakov, Alexey V.; Deryabin, Alexander N.; Kanevsky, Vladimir M.; Prokhorov, Igor A.; Roshchin, Boris S.; Volkov, Yuri O.; Zolotov, Dennis A.; Jafari, Atefeh; et al

    2016-03-22

    We report on the growth and characterization of several sapphire single crystals for the purpose of x-ray optics applications. Structural defects were studied by means of laboratory double-crystal X-ray diffractometry and white beam synchrotron-radiation topography. The investigations confirmed that the main defect types are dislocations. The best quality crystal was grown using the Kyropoulos technique with a dislocation density of 102-103 cm-2 and a small area with approximately 2*2 mm2 did not show dislocation contrast in many reflections and has suitable quality for application as a backscattering monochromator. As a result, a clear correlation between growth rate and dislocation densitymore » is observed, though growth rate is not the only parameter impacting the quality.« less

  1. The sapphire backscattering monochromator at the Dynamics beamline P01 of PETRA III

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Alexeev, P.; Asadchikov, V.; Bessas, D.; Butashin, A.; Deryabin, A.; Dill, F. -U.; Ehnes, A.; Herlitschke, M.; Hermann, R. P.; Jafari, A.; et al

    2016-02-23

    Here, we report on a high resolution sapphire backscattering monochromator installed at the Dynamics beamline P01 of PETRA III. The device enables nuclear resonance scattering experiments on M ossbauer isotopes with transition energies between 20 and 60 keV with sub-meV to meV resolution. In a first performance test with 119Sn nuclear resonance at a X-ray energy of 23.88 keV an energy resolution of 1.34 meV was achieved. Moreover, the device extends the field of nuclear resonance scattering at the PETRA III synchrotron light source to many further isotopes like 151Eu, 149Sm, 161Dy, 125Te and 121Sb.

  2. Diffraction gratings used as identifying markers

    DOEpatents

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1991-03-26

    A finely detailed diffraction grating is applied to an object as an identifier or tag which is unambiguous, difficult to duplicate, or remove and transfer to another item, and can be read and compared with prior readings with relative ease. The exact pattern of the diffraction grating is mapped by diffraction moire techniques and recorded for comparison with future readings of the same grating. 7 figures.

  3. Ultrafast transient grating radiation to optical image converter (Patent) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOEPatents Ultrafast transient grating radiation to optical image converter Title: Ultrafast transient grating radiation to optical image converter A high sensitivity transient grating ultrafast radiation to optical image converter is based on a fixed transmission grating adjacent to a semiconductor substrate. X-rays or optical radiation passing through the fixed transmission grating is thereby modulated and produces a small periodic variation of refractive index or transient grating in the

  4. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOEpatents

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1991-05-21

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker is comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate. 4 figures.

  5. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Ward, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate.

  6. Compact imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOEpatents

    Lerner, Scott A.

    2005-12-20

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, lens means for receiving the light, refracting the light, and focusing the light; an immersed diffraction grating that receives the light from the lens means and defracts the light, the immersed diffraction grating directing the detracted light back to the lens means; and a detector that receives the light from the lens means.

  7. Compact imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.; Lerner, Scott A.; Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-07-03

    A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, means for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the means for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the means for receiving the light and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light to the means for receiving the light, and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the detector array.

  8. Manufacture and Development of Multilayer Diffraction Gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, J.; Oliver, J.B.; Kessler, T.J.; Huang, H.; Barone, J.; Hettrick, J.; Rigatti, A.L.; Hoover, T.; Marshall, K.L.; Schmid, A.W.; Kozlov, A.; Kosc, T.Z.

    2006-03-01

    The OMEGA EP Facility includes two high-energy, short-pulse laser beams that will be focused to high intensity in the OMEGA target chamber, providing backlighting of compressed fusion targets and investigating the fast-ignition concept. To produce 2.6 kJ output energy per beam, developments in grating compressor technology are required. Gold-coated diffraction gratings limit on-target energy because of their low damage fluence. Multilayer dielectric (MLD) gratings have shown promise as high-damage-threshold, high-efficiency diffraction gratings suitable for use in high-energy chirped-pulse amplification. This paper details the manufacture and development of these gratings, including the specifics of the MLD coating, holographic lithography, reactive ion etching, reactive ion-beam cleaning, and wet chemical cleaning.

  9. Aplanatic and quasi-aplanatic diffraction gratings

    DOEpatents

    Hettrick, Michael C.

    1989-01-01

    A reflection diffraction grating having a series of transverse minute grooves of progressively varying spacing along a concave surface enables use of such gratings for X-ray or longer wavelength imaging of objects. The variable groove spacing establishes aplanatism or substantially uniform magnification across the optical aperture. The grating may be used, for example, in X-ray microscopes or telescopes of the imaging type and in X-ray microprobes. Increased spatial resolution and field of view may be realized in X-ray imaging.

  10. Aplanatic and quasi-aplanatic diffraction gratings

    DOEpatents

    Hettrick, M.C.

    1987-09-14

    A reflection diffraction grating having a series of transverse minute grooves of progressively varying spacing along a concave surface enables use of such gratings for x-ray or longer wavelength imaging of objects. The variable groove spacing establishes aplanatism or substantially uniform magnetification across the optical aperture. The grating may be sued, for example, in x-ray microscopes or telescopes of the imaging type and in x-ray microprobed. Increased spatial resolution and field of view may be realized in x-ray imaging. 5 figs.

  11. A double crystal monochromator using tangentially bend crystals in combination with toroidal mirror focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jun, Thompson,A.C.; Padmore,H.A.

    2000-02-24

    In collaboration with the Chemistry Department at the University of California at Berkeley, the ALS is building a beamline for structural determination in materials chemistry. The system will be used for single crystal x-ray diffraction on crystals that are too small or disordered for examination on laboratory systems, and typically will be used for crystals in the 5 - 20 micron regime. As some of the materials being designed are of the size of small proteins, phasing using direct methods is problematic, and so use of multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion techniques will be employed in many cases. The production of new compounds has been revolutionized in recent years with the development of combinatorial synthesis techniques, and a major b2048 to further advances in this field is access to rapid measurement of structural parameters. The specification of the beamline follows from these points. It must have a small focal spot to match closely the size of the crystals, high resolution for MAD techniques, and a high flux in the small focus. The strategy for satisfying these constraints is to us a system which is compact and which uses the minimum number of components. This is done in this case by using a pseudo channel cut crystal monochromator with tangentially bent crystals, in combination with a 1:1 focusing toroidal mirror. The toroidal mirror at 1:1 magnification has only very small aberrations, and from a 220 (h) by 25 (v) [micro] m FWHM source, an image of 220 by 45 [micro]m FWHM should be produced for a 3 mrad horizontal aperture for a full vertical aperture. This has already been achieved on an existing beamline. The crystal monochromator uses tangentially bent crystals in a concave - convex configuration to achieve matching of Bragg angles to the divergent source, while maintaining zero focusing power. A useful feature of this arrangement is that while there is an optimum crystal curvature for each energy that gives the expected Darwin width limited

  12. Hydraulic Capacity of an ADA Compliant Street Drain Grate

    SciTech Connect

    Lottes, Steven A.; Bojanowski, Cezary

    2015-09-01

    Resurfacing of urban roads with concurrent repairs and replacement of sections of curb and sidewalk may require pedestrian ramps that are compliant with the American Disabilities Act (ADA), and when street drains are in close proximity to the walkway, ADA compliant street grates may also be required. The Minnesota Department of Transportation ADA Operations Unit identified a foundry with an available grate that meets ADA requirements. Argonne National Laboratory’s Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center used full scale three dimensional computational fluid dynamics to determine the performance of the ADA compliant grate and compared it to that of a standard vane grate. Analysis of a parametric set of cases was carried out, including variation in longitudinal, gutter, and cross street slopes and the water spread from the curb. The performance of the grates was characterized by the fraction of the total volume flow approaching the grate from the upstream that was captured by the grate and diverted into the catch basin. The fraction of the total flow entering over the grate from the side and the fraction of flow directly over a grate diverted into the catch basin were also quantities of interest that aid in understanding the differences in performance of the grates. The ADA compliant grate performance lagged that of the vane grate, increasingly so as upstream Reynolds number increased. The major factor leading to the performance difference between the two grates was the fraction of flow directly over the grates that is captured by the grates.

  13. Grating enhanced solid-state laser amplifiers

    DOEpatents

    Erlandson, Alvin C.; Britten, Jerald A.

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and apparatus for suppressing ASE and parasitic oscillation modes in a high average power laser is introduced. Such an invention, as disclosed herein, uses diffraction gratings to increase gain, stored energy density, and pumping efficiency of solid-state laser gain media, such as, but not limited to rods, disks and slabs. By coupling predetermined gratings to solid-state gain media, such as crystal or ceramic laser gain media, ASE and parasitic oscillation modes can be effectively suppressed.

  14. Electro-optic Phase Grating Streak Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Goldin, F. J.

    2012-08-02

    The electro-optic phase grating streak spectrometer (EOPGSS) generates a time-resolved spectra equivalent to that obtained with a conventional spectrometer/streak camera combination, but without using a streak camera (by far the more expensive and problematic component of the conventional system). The EOPGSS is based on a phase, rather than an amplitude grating. Further, this grating is fabricated of electro-optic material such as, for example, KD*P, by either etching grooves into an E-O slab, or by depositing lines of the E-O material onto an optical flat. An electric field normal to the grating alters the material’s index of refraction and thus affects a shift (in angle) of the output spectrum. Ramping the voltage streaks the spectrum correspondingly. The streak and dispersion directions are the same, so a second (static, conventional) grating disperses the spectrum in the orthogonal direction to prevent different wavelengths from “overwriting” each other. Because the streaking is done by the grating, the streaked output spectrum is recorded with a time-integrating device, such as a CCD. System model, typical design, and performance expectations will be presented.

  15. Grating tuned unstable resonator laser cavity

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Larry C.

    1982-01-01

    An unstable resonator to be used in high power, narrow line CO.sub.2 pump lasers comprises an array of four reflectors in a ring configuration wherein spherical and planar wavefronts are separated from each other along separate optical paths and only the planar wavefronts are impinged on a plane grating for line tuning. The reflector array comprises a concave mirror for reflecting incident spherical waves as plane waves along an output axis to form an output beam. A plane grating on the output axis is oriented to reflect a portion of the output beam off axis onto a planar relay mirror spaced apart from the output axis in proximity to the concave mirror. The relay mirror reflects plane waves from the grating to impinge on a convex expanding mirror spaced apart from the output axis in proximity to the grating. The expanding mirror reflects the incident planar waves as spherical waves to illuminate the concave mirror. Tuning is provided by rotating the plane grating about an axis normal to the output axis.

  16. Grating array systems having a plurality of gratings operative in a coherently additive mode and methods for making such grating array systems

    DOEpatents

    Kessler, Terrance J.; Bunkenburg, Joachim; Huang, Hu

    2007-02-13

    A plurality of gratings (G1, G2) are arranged together with a wavefront sensor, actuators, and feedback system to align the gratings in such a manner, that they operate like a single, large, monolithic grating. Sub-wavelength-scale movements in the mechanical mounting, due to environmental influences, are monitored by an interferometer (28), and compensated by precision actuators (16, 18, 20) that maintain the coherently additive mode. The actuators define the grating plane, and are positioned in response to the wavefronts from the gratings and a reference flat, thus producing the interferogram that contains the alignment information. Movement of the actuators is also in response to a diffraction-limited spot on the CCD (36) to which light diffracted from the gratings is focused. The actuator geometry is implemented to take advantage of the compensating nature of the degrees of freedom between gratings, reducing the number of necessary control variables.

  17. A comparison of absolute calibrations of a radiation thermometer based on a monochromator and a tunable source

    SciTech Connect

    Keawprasert, T.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, D. R.; Sperling, A.; Schuster, M.; Nevas, S.

    2013-09-11

    An LP3 radiation thermometer was absolutely calibrated at a newly developed monochromator-based set-up and the TUneable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility of PTB in the wavelength range from 400 nm to 1100 nm. At both facilities, the spectral radiation of the respective sources irradiates an integrating sphere, thus generating uniform radiance across its precision aperture. The spectral irradiance of the integrating sphere is determined via an effective area of a precision aperture and a Si trap detector, traceable to the primary cryogenic radiometer of PTB. Due to the limited output power from the monochromator, the absolute calibration was performed with the measurement uncertainty of 0.17 % (k= 1), while the respective uncertainty at the TULIP facility is 0.14 %. Calibration results obtained by the two facilities were compared in terms of spectral radiance responsivity, effective wavelength and integral responsivity. It was found that the measurement results in integral responsivity at the both facilities are in agreement within the expanded uncertainty (k= 2). To verify the calibration accuracy, the absolutely calibrated radiation thermometer was used to measure the thermodynamic freezing temperatures of the PTB gold fixed-point blackbody.

  18. Further tests on liquid-nitrogen-cooled, thin silicon-crystal monochromators using a focused wiggler synchrotron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C. S.; Mills, D. M.; Fernandez, P. B.; Knapp, G. S.; Wulff, M.; Hanfland, M.; Freund, A.; Rossat, M.; Holmberg, J.; Yamaoka, H.

    2000-05-09

    A newly designed cryogenically cooled, thin Si crystal monochromator was tested at the European Synchrotrons Radiation Facility (ESRF) beamline BL3. It exhibited less than 1 arcsec of thermal strain up to a maximum incident power of 186 W and average power density of 521 W/mm{sup 2}. Data were collected for the thin (0.7 mm) portion of the crystal and for the thick (>25 mm) part. Rocking curves were measured as a function of incident power. With a low power beam, the Si(333) rocking curve at 30 keV for the thin and thick sections was < 1 arcsec FWHM at room temperature. The rocking curve of the thin section increased to 2.0 arcsec when cooled to 78 K, while the thick part was unaffected by the reduction in temperature. The rocking curve of the this section broadened to 2.5 arcsec FWHM and that of the thick section broadened to 1.7 arcsec at the highest incident power. The proven range of performance for this monochromator has been extended to the power density, but not the absorbed power, expected for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) undulator A in closed-gap operation (first harmonic at 3.27 kev) at a storage-ring current of 300 mA.

  19. Ultra-high density diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Padmore, Howard A.; Voronov, Dmytro L.; Cambie, Rossana; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2012-12-11

    A diffraction grating structure having ultra-high density of grooves comprises an echellette substrate having periodically repeating recessed features, and a multi-layer stack of materials disposed on the echellette substrate. The surface of the diffraction grating is planarized, such that layers of the multi-layer stack form a plurality of lines disposed on the planarized surface of the structure in a periodical fashion, wherein lines having a first property alternate with lines having a dissimilar property on the surface of the substrate. For example, in one embodiment, lines comprising high-Z and low-Z materials alternate on the planarized surface providing a structure that is suitable as a diffraction grating for EUV and soft X-rays. In some embodiments, line density of between about 10,000 lines/mm to about 100,000 lines/mm is provided.

  20. Strongly Dispersive Transient Bragg Grating for High Harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, J.; Spector, L.S.; Gaarde, M.B.; McFarland, B.K.; Bucksbaum, P.H.; Guhr, Markus; /SLAC, PULSE /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2010-06-04

    We create a transient Bragg grating in a high harmonic generation medium using two counterpropagating pulses. The Bragg grating disperses the harmonics in angle and can diffract a large bandwidth with temporal resolution limited only by the source size.

  1. Superfluid {sup 4}He Quantum Interference Grating

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Yuki; Joshi, Aditya; Packard, Richard

    2008-08-22

    We report the first observation of quantum interference from a grating structure consisting of four weak link junctions in superfluid {sup 4}He. We find that an interference grating can be implemented successfully in a superfluid matter wave interferometer to enhance its sensitivity while trading away some of its dynamic range. We also show that this type of device can be used to measure absolute quantum mechanical phase differences. The results demonstrate the robust nature of superfluid phase coherence arising from quantum mechanics on a macroscopic scale.

  2. Fiber-bragg grating-loop ringdown method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Chuji

    2008-01-29

    A device comprising a fiber grating loop ringdown (FGLRD) system of analysis is disclosed. A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) or Long-Period grating (LPG) written in a section of single mode fused silica fiber is incorporated into a fiber loop. By utilizing the wing areas of the gratings' bandwidth as a wavelength dependent attenuator of the light transmission, a fiber grating loop ringdown concept is formed. One aspect of the present invention is temperature sensing, which has been demonstrated using the disclosed device. Temperature measurements in the areas of accuracy, stability, high temperature, and dynamic range are also described.

  3. Tunable dark modes in one-dimensional diatomic dielectric gratings

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Zeng, Bo; Majumdar, Arka; Wang, Feng

    2015-05-04

    Recently researchers have demonstrated ultra high quality factor (Q) resonances in one-dimensional (1D) dielectric gratings. Here we theoretically investigate a new class of subwavelength 1D gratings, namely diatomic gratings with two nonequivalent subcells in one period, and utilize their intrinsic dark modes to achieve robust ultra high Q resonances. Such diatomic gratings provide extra design flexibility, and enable high Q resonators using thinner geometry with smaller filling factors compared to conventional designs like the high contrast gratings (HCGs). More importantly, we show that these high Q resonances can be efficiently tuned in situ, making the design appealing in various applicationsmoreincluding optical sensing, filtering and displays.less

  4. Beamline 9.3.2 - a high-resolution, bend-magnet beamline with circular polarization capability

    SciTech Connect

    Moler, E.J.; Hussain, Z.; Howells, M.R.

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.2 is a high resolution, SGM beamline on an ALS bending magnet with access to photon energies from 30-1500 eV. Features include circular polarization capability, a rotating chamber platform that allows switching between experiments without breaking vacuum, an active feedback system that keeps the beam centered on the entrance slit of the monochromator, and a bendable refocusing mirror. The beamline optics consist of horizontally and vertically focussing mirrors, a Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) with movable entrance and exit slits, and a bendable refocussing mirror. In addition, a movable aperature has been installed just upstream of the vertically focussing mirror which can select the x-rays above or below the plane of the synchrotron storage ring, allowing the user to select circularly or linearly polarized light. Circularly polarized x-rays are used to study the magnetic properties of materials. Beamline 9.3.2 can supply left and right circularly polarized x-rays by a computer controlled aperture which may be placed above or below the plane of the synchrotron storage ring. The degree of linear and circular polarization has been measured and calibrated.

  5. Fluidized bed boiler having a segmented grate

    DOEpatents

    Waryasz, Richard E.

    1984-01-01

    A fluidized bed furnace (10) is provided having a perforate grate (9) within a housing which supports a bed of particulate material including some combustibles. The grate is divided into a plurality of segments (E2-E6, SH1-SH5, RH1-RH5), with the airflow to each segment being independently controlled. Some of the segments have evaporating surface imbedded in the particulate material above them, while other segments are below superheater surface or reheater surface. Some of the segments (E1, E7) have no surface above them, and there are ignitor combustors (32, 34) directed to fire into the segments, for fast startup of the furnace without causing damage to any heating surface.

  6. Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

    2006-05-09

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

  7. Ultrafast transient grating radiation to optical image converter

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, Richard E; Vernon, Stephen P; Steel, Paul T; Lowry, Mark E

    2014-11-04

    A high sensitivity transient grating ultrafast radiation to optical image converter is based on a fixed transmission grating adjacent to a semiconductor substrate. X-rays or optical radiation passing through the fixed transmission grating is thereby modulated and produces a small periodic variation of refractive index or transient grating in the semiconductor through carrier induced refractive index shifts. An optical or infrared probe beam tuned just below the semiconductor band gap is reflected off a high reflectivity mirror on the semiconductor so that it double passes therethrough and interacts with the radiation induced phase grating therein. A small portion of the optical beam is diffracted out of the probe beam by the radiation induced transient grating to become the converted signal that is imaged onto a detector.

  8. Imaging Spectrometer Designs Utilizing Immersed Gratings With Accessible Entrance Slit

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA); Lerner, Scott A. (Corvallis, OR)

    2006-03-21

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit, a catadioptric lens with a mirrored surface, a grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit directs light to the mirrored surface of the catadioptric lens; the mirrored surface reflects the light back through the lens to the grating. The grating receives the light from the catadioptric lens and diffracts the light to the lens away from the mirrored surface. The lens transmits the light and focuses it onto the detector array.

  9. Wavelength-conserving grating router for intermediate wavelength density

    DOEpatents

    Deri, Robert J.; Patel, Rajesh R.; Bond, Steven W.; Bennett, Cory V.

    2007-03-20

    A wavelength router to be used for fiber optical networking router is based on a diffraction grating which utilizes only N wavelengths to interconnect N inputs to N outputs. The basic approach is to augment the grating with additional couplers or wavelength selective elements so than N-1 of the 2N-1 outputs are combined with other N outputs (leaving only N outputs). One embodiment uses directional couplers as combiners. Another embodiment uses wavelength-selective couplers. Another embodiment uses a pair of diffraction gratings to maintain parallel propagation of all optical beams. Also, beam combining can be implemented either by using retroflection back through the grating pair or by using couplers.

  10. Spherical grating based x-ray Talbot interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Cong, Wenxiang E-mail: xiy2@rpi.edu Xi, Yan E-mail: xiy2@rpi.edu Wang, Ge E-mail: xiy2@rpi.edu

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Grating interferometry is a state-of-the-art x-ray imaging approach, which can acquire information on x-ray attenuation, phase shift, and small-angle scattering simultaneously. Phase-contrast imaging and dark-field imaging are very sensitive to microstructural variation and offers superior contrast resolution for biological soft tissues. However, a common x-ray tube is a point-like source. As a result, the popular planar grating imaging configuration seriously restricts the flux of photons and decreases the visibility of signals, yielding a limited field of view. The purpose of this study is to extend the planar x-ray grating imaging theory and methods to a spherical grating scheme for a wider range of preclinical and clinical applications. Methods: A spherical grating matches the wave front of a point x-ray source very well, allowing the perpendicular incidence of x-rays on the grating to achieve a higher visibility over a larger field of view than the planer grating counterpart. A theoretical analysis of the Talbot effect for spherical grating imaging is proposed to establish a basic foundation for x-ray spherical gratings interferometry. An efficient method of spherical grating imaging is also presented to extract attenuation, differential phase, and dark-field images in the x-ray spherical grating interferometer. Results: Talbot self-imaging with spherical gratings is analyzed based on the Rayleigh–Sommerfeld diffraction formula, featuring a periodic angular distribution in a polar coordinate system. The Talbot distance is derived to reveal the Talbot self-imaging pattern. Numerical simulation results show the self-imaging phenomenon of a spherical grating interferometer, which is in agreement with the theoretical prediction. Conclusions: X-ray Talbot interferometry with spherical gratings has a significant practical promise. Relative to planar grating imaging, spherical grating based x-ray Talbot interferometry has a larger field of view and

  11. Fiber optic security seal including plural Bragg gratings

    DOEpatents

    Forman, P.R.

    1994-09-27

    An optical security system enables the integrity of a container seal to be remotely interrogated. A plurality of Bragg gratings is written holographically into the core of at least one optical fiber placed about the container seal, where each Bragg grating has a predetermined location and a known frequency for reflecting incident light. A time domain reflectometer is provided with a variable frequency light output that corresponds to the reflecting frequencies of the Bragg gratings to output a signal that is functionally related to the location and reflecting frequency of each of the Bragg gratings. 2 figs.

  12. Fiber optic security seal including plural Bragg gratings

    DOEpatents

    Forman, Peter R.

    1994-01-01

    An optical security system enables the integrity of a container seal to be remotely interrogated. A plurality of Bragg gratings is written holographically into the core of at least one optical fiber placed about the container seal, where each Bragg grating has a predetermined location and a known frequency for reflecting incident light. A time domain reflectometer is provided with a variable frequency light output that corresponds to the reflecting frequencies of the Bragg gratings to output a signal that is functionally related to the location and reflecting frequency of each of the Bragg gratings.

  13. Gratings for Increasing Solid-State Laser Gain and Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Erlandson, A C; Britten, J A; Bonlie, J D

    2010-04-16

    We introduce new concepts for increasing the efficiency of solid state lasers by using gratings deposited on laser slabs or disks. The gratings improve efficiency in two ways: (1) by coupling out of the slab deleterious amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and (2) by increasing the absorption efficiency of pump light. The gratings also serve as antireflective coatings for the extracting laser beam. To evaluate the potential for such coatings to improve laser performance, we calculated optical properties of a 2500 groove/mm, tantala-silica grating on a 1cm x 4cm x 8cm titanium-doped sapphire slab and performed ray-trace calculations for ASE and pump light. Our calculations show substantial improvements in efficiency due to grating ASE-coupling properties. For example, the gratings reduce pump energy required to produce a 0.6/cm gain coefficient by 9%, 20% and 35% for pump pulse durations of 0.5 {micro}s, 1{micro}s and 3{micro}s, respectively. Gratings also increase 532-nm pump-light absorption efficiency, particularly when the product slab overall absorption is small. For example, when the single-pass absorption is 1 neper, absorption efficiency increases from 66%, without gratings, to 86%, when gratings are used.

  14. Compact catadioptric imaging spectrometer utilizing reflective grating

    DOEpatents

    Lerner, Scott A.

    2005-12-27

    An imaging spectrometer apparatus comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a light means for receiving the light and directing the light, a grating that receives the light from the light means and defracts the light back onto the light means which focuses the light, and a detector that receives the focused light. In one embodiment the light means is a rotationally symmetric ZNSE aspheric lens. In another embodiment the light means comprises two ZNSE aspheric lenses that are coaxial. In another embodiment the light means comprises an aspheric mirror and a ZNSE aspheric lens.

  15. Energy resolved X-ray grating interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Thuering, T.; Stampanoni, M.; Barber, W. C.; Iwanczyk, J. S.; Seo, Y.; Alhassen, F.

    2013-05-13

    Although compatible with polychromatic radiation, the sensitivity in X-ray phase contrast imaging with a grating interferometer is strongly dependent on the X-ray spectrum. We used an energy resolving detector to quantitatively investigate the dependency of the noise from the spectral bandwidth and to consequently optimize the system-by selecting the best energy band matching the experimental conditions-with respect to sensitivity maximization and, eventually, dose. Further, since theoretical calculations of the spectrum are usually limited due to non-ideal conditions, an energy resolving detector accurately quantifies the spectral changes induced by the interferometer including flux reduction and beam hardening.

  16. Compact Catadioptric Imaging Spectrometer Designs Utilizing Immersed Gratings

    DOEpatents

    Lerner, Scott A. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-02-28

    An imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a lens that receives said light and reflects said light, a grating that defracts said light back onto said lens which focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. In one embodiment the grating has rulings immersed into a germanium surface.

  17. Design aspects of X-ray grating interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Weitkamp, Timm; Zanette, Irene; Pfeiffer, Franz; David, Christian

    2012-07-31

    Considerations are made for the design of X-ray grating interferometers in general and, in particular, for the case of a parallel beam with a high degree of spatial coherence. We specifically discuss the properties of different types of gratings and the interdependence of instrument parameters and performance characteristics.

  18. Magnetomechanically induced long period fiber gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Causado-Buelvas, Jesus D.; Gomez-Cardona, Nelson D.; Torres, Pedro

    2008-04-15

    In this work, we report a simple, flexible method to create long period fiber gratings mechanically by controlling the repulsion/attraction force between two magnets that pressing a plate with a periodic array of small glass cylinders to a short length of optical fiber. Via the photoelastic effect, the pressure points induce the required periodic refractive index modulation to create the LPFG. We found that the induced device exhibits spectral characteristics similar to those of other types of LPFG. As the optical properties of LPFGs are directly related to the nature of the applied perturbations, we show, to our knowledge for the frrst time, how is the evolution of birefringence effects in mechanically induced LPFGs.

  19. Review of High-Speed Fiber Optic Grating Sensors Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Udd, E; Benterou, J; May, C; Mihailov, S J; Lu, P

    2010-03-24

    Fiber grating sensors can be used to support a wide variety of high speed measurement applications. This includes measurements of vibrations on bridges, traffic monitoring on freeways, ultrasonic detection to support non-destructive tests on metal plates and providing details of detonation events. This paper provides a brief overview of some of the techniques that have been used to support high speed measurements using fiber grating sensors over frequency ranges from 10s of kHz, to MHZ and finally toward frequencies approaching the GHz regime. Very early in the development of fiber grating sensor systems it was realized that a high speed fiber grating sensor system could be realized by placing an optical filter that might be a fiber grating in front of a detector so that spectral changes in the reflection from a fiber grating were amplitude modulated. In principal the only limitation on this type of system involved the speed of the output detector which with the development of high speed communication links moved from the regime of 10s of MHz toward 10s of GHz. The earliest deployed systems involved civil structures including measurements of the strain fields on composite utility poles and missile bodies during break tests, bridges and freeways. This was followed by a series of developments that included high speed fiber grating sensors to support nondestructive testing via ultrasonic wave detection, high speed machining and monitoring ship hulls. Each of these applications involved monitoring mechanical motion of structures and thus interest was in speeds up to a few 10s of MHz. Most recently there has been interest in using fiber grating to monitor the very high speed events such as detonations and this has led to utilization of fiber gratings that are consumed during an event that may require detection speeds of hundreds of MHz and in the future multiple GHz.

  20. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer phase grating designs

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick (Oakland, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Diffraction phase gratings are employed in phase-shifting point diffraction interferometers to improve the interferometric fringe contrast. The diffraction phase grating diffracts a zeroth-order diffraction of light at a first power level to the test-beam window of a mask that is positioned at the image plane and a first-order diffraction at a second power to the reference-beam pinhole. The diffraction phase grating is preferably selected to yield a desired ratio of the first power level to second power level.

  1. High Speed Measurements using Fiber-optic Bragg Grating Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Benterou, J J; May, C A; Udd, E; Mihailov, S J; Lu, P

    2011-03-26

    Fiber grating sensors may be used to monitor high-speed events that include catastrophic failure of structures, ultrasonic testing and detonations. This paper provides insights into the utility of fiber grating sensors to measure structural changes under extreme conditions. An emphasis is placed on situations where there is a structural discontinuity. Embedded chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) sensors can track the very high-speed progress of detonation waves (6-9 km/sec) inside energetic materials. This paper discusses diagnostic instrumentation and analysis techniques used to measure these high-speed events.

  2. Increase of the grating coupler bandwidth with a graphene overlay

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Zhenzhou; Li, Zhen; Xu, Ke; Tsang, Hon Ki

    2014-03-17

    We present theoretical and experimental results that demonstrate an increase in the grating bandwidth by placing a graphene on the chip. A focusing subwavelength grating with coupling efficiency of ?4.3?dB and 1?dB bandwidth of ?60?nm was demonstrated. After a graphene sheet was transferred onto the chip, the maximum 1?dB bandwidth was increased to ?72?nm. Experimental results are consistent with the calculated graphene induced waveguide refractive index and dispersion changes, and the bandwidth improvement may be attributed to the reduction of grating dispersion. This study may be of interest for graphene-on-silicon photonic integrated circuit applications.

  3. Grate assembly for fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Notestein, John E.

    1993-01-01

    A grate assembly for a coal gasifier of a moving-bed or fixed-bed type is provided for crushing agglomerates of solid material such as clinkers, tailoring the radial distribution of reactant gases entering the gasification reaction zone, and control of the radial distribution of downwardly moving solid velocities in the gasification and combustion zone. The clinker crushing is provided by pinching clinkers between vertically oriented stationary bars and angled bars supported on the upper surface of a rotating conical grate. The distribution of the reactant gases is provided by the selective positioning of horizontally oriented passageways extending through the grate. The radial distribution of the solids is provided by mounting a vertically and generally radially extending scoop mechanism on the upper surface of the grate near the apex thereof.

  4. Light modulation with a nano-patterned diffraction grating and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with a nano-patterned diffraction grating and MEMS pixel. Abstract not provided. Authors: Skinner, Jack L. ; Talin, Albert Alec ; Horsley, David A. Publication Date: 2008-05-01...

  5. Compact Refractive Imaging Spectrometer Designs Utilizing Immersed Gratings

    DOEpatents

    Lerner, Scott A.; Bennett, Charles L.; Bixler, Jay V.; Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Lewis, Isabella T.

    2005-07-26

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first means for receiving the light and focusing the light, an immersed diffraction grating that receives the light from the first means and defracts the light, a second means for receiving the light from the immersed diffraction grating and focusing the light, and an image plane that receives the light from the second means

  6. Sagittal focusing Laue monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Zhong; Zhong , Hanson; Jonathan , Hastings; Jerome , Kao; Chi-Chang , Lenhard; Anthony , Siddons; David Peter , Zhong; Hui

    2009-03-24

    An x-ray focusing device generally includes a slide pivotable about a pivot point defined at a forward end thereof, a rail unit fixed with respect to the pivotable slide, a forward crystal for focusing x-rays disposed at the forward end of the pivotable slide and a rearward crystal for focusing x-rays movably coupled to the pivotable slide and the fixed rail unit at a distance rearward from the forward crystal. The forward and rearward crystals define reciprocal angles of incidence with respect to the pivot point, wherein pivoting of the slide about the pivot point changes the incidence angles of the forward and rearward crystals while simultaneously changing the distance between the forward and rearward crystals.

  7. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Seidler, G. T. Mortensen, D. R.; Remesnik, A. J.; Pacold, J. I.; Ball, N. A.; Barry, N.; Styczinski, M.; Hoidn, O. R.

    2014-11-15

    We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ∼5 keV to ∼10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species.

  8. Beamline 5.3.2.1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 600-2000eV eV Monochromator Low-dispersion, spherical-grating monochromator, two gratings Calculated flux (1.9 GeV, 500 mA) 1 x...

  9. Beamline 5.3.2.2

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 250-780 eV Monochromator Low-dispersion, spherical-grating monochromator, one grating Calculated flux (1.9 GeV, 500 mA) 1 x...

  10. Continuous wavelength tunable laser source with optimum positioning of pivot axis for grating

    DOEpatents

    Pushkarsky, Michael; Amone, David F.

    2010-06-08

    A laser source (10) for generating a continuously wavelength tunable light (12) includes a gain media (16), an optical output coupler (36F), a cavity collimator (38A), a diffraction grating (30), a grating beam (54), and a beam attacher (56). The diffraction grating (30) is spaced apart from the cavity collimator (38A) and the grating (30) cooperates with the optical output coupler (36F) to define an external cavity (32). The grating (30) includes a grating face surface (42A) that is in a grating plane (42B). The beam attacher (56) retains the grating beam (54) and allows the grating beam (54) and the grating (30) to effectively pivot about a pivot axis (33) that is located approximately at an intersection of a pivot plane (50) and the grating plane (42B). As provided herein, the diffraction grating (30) can be pivoted about the unique pivot axis (33) to move the diffraction grating (30) relative to the gain media (16) to continuously tune the lasing frequency of the external cavity (32) and the wavelength of the output light (12) so that the output light (12) is mode hop free.

  11. Applications of laser-induced gratings to spectroscopy and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Rohlfing, E.A.

    1993-12-01

    This program has traditionally emphasized two principal areas of research. The first is the spectroscopic characterization of large-amplitude motion on the ground-state potential surface of small, transient molecules. The second is the reactivity of carbonaceous clusters and its relevance to soot and fullerene formation in combustion. Motivated initially by the desire to find improved methods of obtaining stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectra of transients, most of our recent work has centered on the use of laser-induced gratings or resonant four-wave mixing in free-jet expansions. These techniques show great promise for several chemical applications, including molecular spectroscopy and photodissociation dynamics. The author describes recent applications of two-color laser-induced grating spectroscopy (LIGS) to obtain background-free SEP spectra of transients and double resonance spectra of nonfluorescing species, and the use of photofragment transient gratings to probe photodissociation dynamics.

  12. Photofabrication of surface relief gratings using post functionalized azo polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathy, S.K.; Kumar, J.; Kim, D.Y.; Jiang, X.; Wang, X.; Li, L.; Sukwattanasinitt, M.; Sandman, D.J.

    1998-07-01

    A series of azobenzene funtionalized polymers has been synthesized by post polymerization azo coupling reaction. Photo-fabrication of surface relief gratings were studied on the polymer films. Epoxy based azo polymers were prepared by post azo coupling reaction to form polymers containing donor-acceptor type azo chromophores. The azo chromophores were designed to contain ionizable groups to impart self-assembling and photoprocessing capabilities to the polymers. The polymers containing 4-(4-(carboxylic acid)phenylazo)aniline chromophores can be directly photofabricated to form surface relief gratings with large surface modulations. Charge interactions had a strong influence on the details of the writing process. A new soluble polydiacetylene, post-functionalized with azobenzene groups was also prepared. Large amplitude surface gratings could be fabricated on this polydiacetylene film as well.

  13. Diamond-machined ZnSe immersion grating for NIR high-resolution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    testing of the sample grating with HeNe laser shows an excellent performance: the relative efficiency more than 87.4 % at 0.633 microm for a classical grating configuration. ...

  14. Recording polarization gratings with a standing spiral wave

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, Jonathan P.; Tondiglia, Vincent P.; White, Timothy J.; Bunning, Timothy J.; Serak, Svetlana V.; Hakobyan, Rafik S.; Aleksanyan, Artur K.; Tabiryan, Nelson V.

    2013-11-11

    A scalable and robust methodology for writing cycloidal modulation patterns of optical axis orientation in photosensitive surface alignment layers is demonstrated. Counterpropagating circularly polarized beams, generated by reflection of the input beam from a cholesteric liquid crystal, direct local surface orientation in a photosensitive surface. Purposely introducing a slight angle between the input beam and the photosensitive surface normal introduces a grating period/orientation that is readily controlled and templated. The resulting cycloidal diffractive waveplates offer utility in technologies requiring diffraction over a broad range of angles/wavelengths. This simple methodology of forming polarization gratings offers advantages over conventional fabrication techniques.

  15. Transient population and polarization gratings induced by (1+1)-dimensional ultrashort dipole soliton

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Keyu; Niu, Yueping; Li, Ruxin; Jin, Shiqi; Gong, Shangqing

    2007-05-15

    An ultrafast transient population grating induced by a (1+1)-dimensional, ultrashort dipole soliton is demonstrated by solving the full-wave Maxwell-Bloch equations. The number of lines and the period of the grating can be controlled by the beam waist and the area of the pulse. Of interest is that a polarization grating is produced. A coherent control scheme based on these phenomena can be contemplated as ultrafast transient grating techniques.

  16. Deformable silicone grating fabricated with a photo-imprinted polymer mold

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Itsunari, E-mail: yamada.i@e.usp.ac.jp [Department of Electronic Systems Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Shiga Prefecture, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan)] [Department of Electronic Systems Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Shiga Prefecture, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan); Nishii, Junji [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan)] [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Saito, Mitsunori [Department of Electronics and Informatics, Ryukoku University, Otsu, Shiga 520-2194 (Japan)] [Department of Electronics and Informatics, Ryukoku University, Otsu, Shiga 520-2194 (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    A tunable transmission grating was fabricated by molding a silicone elastomer (polydimethylsiloxane). Its optical characteristics were then evaluated during compression. For fabrication, a glass plate with a photoimprinted polymer grating film was used as a mold. Both the grating period and diffraction transmittance of the molded elastomer were functions of the compressive stress. The grating period changed from 3.02 to 2.86 ?m during compressing the elastomer in the direction perpendicular to the grooves.

  17. Integrated narrowband optical filter based on embedded subwavelength resonant grating structures

    DOEpatents

    Grann, Eric B.; Sitter, Jr., David N.

    2000-01-01

    A resonant grating structure in a waveguide and methods of tuning the performance of the grating structure are described. An apparatus includes a waveguide; and a subwavelength resonant grating structure embedded in the waveguide. The systems and methods provide advantages including narrowband filtering capabilities, minimal sideband reflections, spatial control, high packing density, and tunability.

  18. Magic ratio of window width to grating period for van der Waals potential measurements using material gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Lonij, Vincent P. A.; Holmgren, William F.; Cronin, Alexander D.

    2009-12-15

    We report improved precision measurements of the van der Waals potential strength (C{sub 3}) for Na atoms and a silicon-nitride (SiN{sub x}) surface. We studied diffraction from nanofabricated gratings with a particular 'magic' open fraction that allows us to determine C{sub 3} without the need for separate measurements of the width of the grating openings. Therefore, finding the magic open fraction improves the precision of C{sub 3} measurements. The same effect is demonstrated for a grating with an arbitrary open fraction by rotating it to a particular 'magic' angle, yielding C{sub 3}=3.42+-0.19 eV A{sup 3} for Na and a SiN{sub x} surface. This precision is sufficient to detect a change in C{sub 3} due to a thin metal coating on the grating surface. We discuss the contribution to C{sub 3} of core electrons and edge effects.

  19. Investigation on the properties of a laminar grating as a soft x-ray beam splitter

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Ying; Fuchs, Hans-Joerg; Liu Zhengkun; Chen Huoyao; He Shengnan; Fu Shaojun; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tuennermann, Andreas

    2010-08-10

    Laminar-type gratings as soft x-ray beam splitters for interferometry are presented. Gold-coated grating beam splitters with 1000 lines/mm are designed for grazing incidence operation at 13.9nm. They are routinely fabricated using electron beam lithography and ion etching techniques. The laminar grating is measured to have almost equal absolute efficiencies of about 20% in the zeroth and -1st orders, which enables a fringe visibility up to 0.99 in the interferometer. The discrepancy of the grating profiles between the optimized theoretical and the experimental results is analyzed according to the comparison of the optimized simulation results and the measurement realization of the grating efficiencies. By a precise control of the grating profile, the grating efficiency in the -1st order and the fringe visibility could be improved to 25% and 1, respectively.

  20. Note: Gratings on low absorbing substrates for x-ray phase contrast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, F. J. Schröter, T. J.; Kunka, D.; Meyer, P.; Meiser, J.; Faisal, A.; Khalil, M. I.; Mohr, J.; Birnbacher, L.; Viermetz, M.; Pfeiffer, F.; Walter, M.; Schulz, J.

    2015-12-15

    Grating based X-ray phase contrast imaging is on the verge of being applied in clinical settings. To achieve this goal, compact setups with high sensitivity and dose efficiency are necessary. Both can be increased by eliminating unwanted absorption in the beam path, which is mainly due to the grating substrates. Fabrication of gratings via deep X-ray lithography can address this issue by replacing the commonly used silicon substrate with materials with lower X-ray absorption that fulfill certain boundary conditions. Gratings were produced on both graphite and polymer substrates without compromising on structure quality. These gratings were tested in a three-grating setup with a source operated at 40 kVp and lead to an increase in the detector photon count rate of almost a factor of 4 compared to a set of gratings on silicon substrates. As the visibility was hardly affected, this corresponds to a significant increase in sensitivity and therefore dose efficiency.

  1. Sensitivity in X-ray grating interferometry on compact systems

    SciTech Connect

    Thuering, Thomas; Modregger, Peter; Haemmerle, Stefan; Weiss, Stephan; Nueesch, Joachim; Stampanoni, Marco

    2012-07-31

    The optimization of compact X-ray grating interferometry systems is crucial for the progress of this technique in industrial devices. Here, an analytical formulation for the sensitivity of the phase contrast image acquisition is derived using previous results from noise analyses. Furthermore, experimental measurements of the sensitivity for different configurations are compared, providing further insight into the dependence on polychromatic radiation. Finally, strategies for the geometrical optimization are given.

  2. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer grating designs

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan; Tejnil, Edita

    2001-01-01

    In a phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer, by sending the zeroth-order diffraction to the reference pinhole of the mask and the first-order diffraction to the test beam window of the mask, the test and reference beam intensities can be balanced and the fringe contrast improved. Additionally, using a duty cycle of the diffraction grating other than 50%, the fringe contrast can also be improved.

  3. Analysis of Nitro-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Conventional Diesel and Fischer--Tropsch Diesel Fuel Emissions Using Electron Monochromator-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Havey, C. D.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Dane, A. J.; Voorhees, K. J.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) in diesel fuel emissions has been studied for a number of years predominantly because of their contribution to the overall health and environmental risks associated with these emissions. Electron monochromator-mass spectrometry (EM-MS) is a highly selective and sensitive method for detection of NPAHs in complex matrixes, such as diesel emissions. Here, EM-MS was used to compare the levels of NPAHs in fuel emissions from conventional (petroleum) diesel, ultra-low sulfur/low-aromatic content diesel, Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel/synthetic diesel blend. The largest quantities of NPAHs were detected in the conventional diesel fuel emissions, while the ultra-low sulfur diesel and synthetic diesel fuel demonstrated a more than 50% reduction of NPAH quantities when compared to the conventional diesel fuel emissions. The emissions from the blend of conventional diesel with 30% synthetic diesel fuel also demonstrated a more than 30% reduction of the NPAH content when compared to the conventional diesel fuel emissions. In addition, a correlation was made between the aromatic content of the different fuel types and NPAH quantities and between the nitrogen oxides emissions from the different fuel types and NPAH quantities. The EM-MS system demonstrated high selectivity and sensitivity for detection of the NPAHs in the emissions with minimal sample cleanup required.

  4. X-ray grating interferometry at photon energies over 180 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz-Yaniz, M.; Koch, F.; Meyer, P.; Kunka, D.; Mohr, J.; Zanette, I.; Rack, A.; Hipp, A.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2015-04-13

    We report on the implementation and characterization of grating interferometry operating at an x-ray energy of 183 keV. With the possibility to use this technique at high x-ray energies, bigger specimens could be studied in a quantitative way. Also, imaging strongly absorbing specimens will benefit from the advantages of the phase and dark-field signals provided by grating interferometry. However, especially at these high photon energies the performance of the absorption grating becomes a key point on the quality of the system, because the grating lines need to keep their small width of a couple of micrometers and exhibit a greater height of hundreds of micrometers. The performance of high aspect ratio absorption gratings fabricated with different techniques is discussed. Further, a dark-field image of an alkaline multicell battery highlights the potential of high energy x-ray grating based imaging.

  5. Echelle grating multi-order imaging spectrometer utilizing a catadioptric lens

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P; Bowers, Joel M

    2014-05-27

    A cryogenically cooled imaging spectrometer that includes a spectrometer housing having a first side and a second side opposite the first side. An entrance slit is on the first side of the spectrometer housing and directs light to a cross-disperser grating. An echelle immersions grating and a catadioptric lens are positioned in the housing to receive the light. A cryogenically cooled detector is located in the housing on the second side of the spectrometer housing. Light from the entrance slit is directed to the cross-disperser grating. The light is directed from the cross-disperser grating to the echelle immersions grating. The light is directed from the echelle immersions grating to the cryogenically cooled detector on the second side of the spectrometer housing.

  6. Apparatus comprising a tunable nanomechanical near-field grating and method for controlling far-field emission

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Dustin Wade; Bogart, Gregory Robert

    2007-02-06

    A tunable nanomechanical near-field grating is disclosed which is capable of varying the intensity of a diffraction mode of an optical output signal. The tunable nanomechanical near-field grating includes two sub-gratings each having line-elements with width and thickness less than the operating wavelength of light with which the grating interacts. Lateral apertures in the two sub-gratings are formed from the space between one line-element of the first sub-grating and at least one line-element of the second sub-grating. One of the sub-gratings is capable of motion such that at least one of aperture width and aperture depth changes, causing a perturbation to the near-field intensity distribution of the tunable nanomechanical near-field grating and a corresponding change to the far-field emission of thereof.

  7. Compact Reflective Imaging Spectrometer Design Utilizing An Immersed Grating And Anamorphic Mirror

    DOEpatents

    Lerner, Scott A.

    2006-01-10

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit, an anamorphic mirror, a grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit directs light to the anamorphic mirror. The anamorphic mirror receives the light and directs the light to the grating. The grating receives the light from the anamorphic mirror and defracts the light back onto the anamorphic mirror. The anamorphic mirror focuses the light onto a detector array.

  8. Self-seeding of a pulsed double-grating Ti:sapphire laser oscillator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Agency (IAEA) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; DIFFRACTION GRATINGS; GEOMETRY;...

  9. A general theory of interference fringes in x-ray phase grating imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Aimin; Wu, Xizeng E-mail: liu@ou.edu; Liu, Hong E-mail: liu@ou.edu

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The authors note that the concept of the Talbot self-image distance in x-ray phase grating interferometry is indeed not well defined for polychromatic x-rays, because both the grating phase shift and the fractional Talbot distances are all x-ray wavelength-dependent. For x-ray interferometry optimization, there is a need for a quantitative theory that is able to predict if a good intensity modulation is attainable at a given grating-to-detector distance. In this work, the authors set out to meet this need. Methods: In order to apply Fourier analysis directly to the intensity fringe patterns of two-dimensional and one-dimensional phase grating interferometers, the authors start their derivation from a general phase space theory of x-ray phase-contrast imaging. Unlike previous Fourier analyses, the authors evolved the Wigner distribution to obtain closed-form expressions of the Fourier coefficients of the intensity fringes for any grating-to-detector distance, even if it is not a fractional Talbot distance. Results: The developed theory determines the visibility of any diffraction order as a function of the grating-to-detector distance, the phase shift of the grating, and the x-ray spectrum. The authors demonstrate that the visibilities of diffraction orders can serve as the indicators of the underlying interference intensity modulation. Applying the theory to the conventional and inverse geometry configurations of single-grating interferometers, the authors demonstrated that the proposed theory provides a quantitative tool for the grating interferometer optimization with or without the Talbot-distance constraints. Conclusions: In this work, the authors developed a novel theory of the interference intensity fringes in phase grating x-ray interferometry. This theory provides a quantitative tool in design optimization of phase grating x-ray interferometers.

  10. Durable silver thin film coating for diffraction gratings

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Jesse D.; Britten, Jerald A.; Komashko, Aleksey M.

    2006-05-30

    A durable silver film thin film coated non-planar optical element has been developed to replace Gold as a material for fabricating such devices. Such a coating and resultant optical element has an increased efficiency and is resistant to tarnishing, can be easily stripped and re-deposited without modifying underlying grating structure, improves the throughput and power loading of short pulse compressor designs for ultra-fast laser systems, and can be utilized in variety of optical and spectrophotometric systems, particularly high-end spectrometers that require maximized efficiency.

  11. Broadband extreme ultraviolet probing of transient gratings in vanadium dioxide

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Sistrunk, Emily; Lawrence Livermore National Lab.; Grilj, Jakob; Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne; Jeong, Jaewoo; Samant, Mahesh G.; Gray, Alexander X.; Temple Univ. Philadelphia, PA; Drr, Hermann A.; Parkin, Stuart S. P.; et al

    2015-02-11

    Nonlinear spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray spectral range offers the opportunity for element selective probing of ultrafast dynamics using core-valence transitions (Mukamel et al., Acc. Chem. Res. 42, 553 (2009)). We demonstrate a step on this path showing core-valence sensitivity in transient grating spectroscopy with EUV probing. We study the optically induced insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) of a VO? film with EUV diffraction from the optically excited sample. The VO? exhibits a change in the 3p-3d resonance of V accompanied by an acoustic response. Due to the broadband probing we are able to separate the two features.

  12. A simple scanning spectrometer based on a stretchable elastomeric reflective grating

    SciTech Connect

    Ghisleri, C.; Milani, P., E-mail: paolo.milani@mi.infn.it [CIMAINA and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); WISE srl, Piazza Duse 2, 20122 Milano (Italy); Potenza, M. A. C.; Bellacicca, A. [CIMAINA and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ravagnan, L. [WISE srl, Piazza Duse 2, 20122 Milano (Italy)

    2014-02-10

    We report a scanning optical spectrometer based on the use of a stretchable elastomeric reflective grating. The grating is obtained by supersonic cluster beam implantation of silver nanoparticles on polydimethylsiloxane previously grooved by molding to create a replica of a commercial digital versatile disk grating. The use of a stretchable grating allows the spectrometer spanning the whole optical wavelength range by solely extending the diffraction element by more than 100% of its original dimensions. The stretchable reflective optical grating shows excellent performances and stability upon thousands of stretching cycles. The use of this elastomeric element makes the optical layout and the mechanics of the spectrometer extremely simple and advantageous for those applications where spectral resolution is not a major requirement. As a proof of principle, we present the absorption spectrum of Rhodamine B in solution obtained by our spectrometer and compared to commercial instruments.

  13. Beamline 10.0.1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Operational Yes Source characteristics 10-cm period undulator (U10) (first and third harmonics) Energy range 17-350 eV Monochromator Spherical grating monochromator (380, 925, 2100 ...

  14. Nanomechanical near-field grating apparatus and acceleration sensor formed therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Dustin Wade; Bogart, Gregory Robert; Keeler, Bianca E. N.

    2008-03-04

    A nanomechanical near-field grating device is disclosed which includes two sub-gratings vertically spaced by a distance less than or equal to an operating wavelength. Each sub-grating includes a plurality of line-elements spaced apart by a distance less than or equal to the operating wavelength. A light source (e.g., a VCSEL or LED) can provide light at the operating wavelength for operation of the device. The device can operate as an active grating, with the intensity of a reflected or transmitted portion of the light varying as the relative positions of the sub-gratings are controlled by an actuator. The device can also operate as a passive grating, with the relative positions of the sub-gratings changing in response to an environmentally-induced force due to acceleration, impact, shock, vibration, gravity, etc. Since the device can be adapted to sense an acceleration that is directed laterally or vertically, a plurality of devices can be located on a common substrate to form a multi-axis acceleration sensor.

  15. Grating light reflection spectroelectrochemistry for detection of trace amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons in water

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY,MICHAEL J.; SWEATT,WILLIAM C.; KEMME,SHANALYN A.; KASUNIC,K.J.; BLAIR,DIANNA S.; ZAIDI,S.H.; MCNEIL,J.R.; BURGESS,L.W.; BRODSKY,A.M.; SMITH,S.A.

    2000-04-01

    Grating light reflection spectroscopy (GLRS) is an emerging technique for spectroscopic analysis and sensing. A transmission diffraction grating is placed in contact with the sample to be analyzed, and an incident light beam is directed onto the grating. At certain angles of incidence, some of the diffracted orders are transformed from traveling waves to evanescent waves. This occurs at a specific wavelength that is a function of the grating period and the complex index of refraction of the sample. The intensities of diffracted orders are also dependent on the sample's complex index of refraction. The authors describe the use of GLRS, in combination with electrochemical modulation of the grating, for the detection of trace amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons. The diffraction grating consisted of chromium lines on a fused silica substrate. The depth of the grating lines was 1 {micro}m, the grating period was 1 {micro}m, and the duty cycle was 50%. Since chromium was not suitable for electrochemical modulation of the analyte concentration, a 200 nm gold layer was deposited over the entire grating. This gold layer slightly degraded the transmission of the grating, but provided satisfactory optical transparency for the spectroelectrochemical experiments. The grating was configured as the working electrode in an electrochemical cell containing water plus trace amounts of the aromatic hydrocarbon analytes. The grating was then electrochemically modulated via cyclic voltammetry waveforms, and the normalized intensity of the zero order reflection was simultaneously measured. The authors discuss the lower limits of detection (LLD) for two analytes, 7-dimethylamino-1,2-benzophenoxazine (Meldola's Blue dye) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), probed with an incident HeNe laser beam ({lambda} = 543.5 nm) at an incident angle of 52.5{degree}. The LLD for 7-dimethylamino-1,2-benzophenoxazine is approximately 50 parts per billion (ppb), while the LLD for TNT is approximately 50 parts

  16. Performance enhancement of thin film silicon solar cells based on distributed Bragg reflector and diffraction grating

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, R. S.; Saravanan, S.; Kalainathan, S.

    2014-12-15

    The influence of various designing parameters were investigated and explored for high performance solar cells. Single layer grating based solar cell of 50 μm thickness gives maximum efficiency up to 24 % whereas same efficiency is achieved with the use of three bilayers grating based solar cell of 30 μm thickness. Remarkably, bilayer grating based solar cell design not only gives broadband absorption but also enhancement in efficiency with reduced cell thickness requirement. This absorption enhancement is attributed to the high reflection and diffraction from DBR and grating respectively. The obtained short-circuit current were 29.6, 32.9, 34.6 and 36.05 mA/cm{sup 2} of 5, 10, 20 and 30 μm cell thicknesses respectively. These presented designing efforts would be helpful to design and realize new generation of solar cells.

  17. Determination of chemical concentration with a 2 dimensional CCD array in the Echelle grating spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.K.; Stevens, C.G.

    1994-11-15

    The Echelle grating spectrometer (EGS) uses a stepped Echelle grating, prisms and a folded light path to miniaturize an infrared spectrometer. Light enters the system through a slit and is spread out along Y by a prism. This light then strikes the grating and is diffracted out along X. This spreading results in a superposition of spectral orders since the grating has a high spectral range. These orders are then separated by again passing through a prism. The end result of a measurement is a 2 dimensional image which contains the folded spectrum of the region under investigation. The data lies in bands from top to bottom, for example, with wavenumber increments as small as 0.1 lying from left to right such that the right end of band N is the same as the left end of band N+1. This is the image which must be analyzed.

  18. A grateful dead analysis: the relationship between concert and listening behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Marko A; Gintautas, Vadas; Pepe, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The Grateful Dead was an American band born out of the 1960s San Francisco, California psychedelic movement, that played music together from 1965 to 1995. Despite relatively little popular radio airtime, while on tour the Grateful Dead enjoyed a cult-like following from a fan base that numbered in the millions. Still today, some ten years after dissolution, the band remains popular according to online music services, such as last.fm. This article presents a comparative analysis between 1,590 of the Grateful Dead's live concert set lists from 1972 to 1995 and 2,616,990 Grateful Dead listening events by last.fm users from August 2005 to October 2007. While there is a strong correlation between how songs were played in concert and how they were listened to by last.fm members, the outlying songs in this trend identify interesting aspects of the band and their present-day fans.

  19. Designing and optimizing highly efficient grating for high-brightness laser based on spectral beam combining

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ying-Ying E-mail: yangyy@semi.ac.cn; Zhao, Ya-Ping; Wang, Li-Rong; Zhang, Ling; Lin, Xue-Chun E-mail: yangyy@semi.ac.cn

    2015-03-14

    A highly efficient nano-periodical grating is theoretically investigated for spectral beam combining (SBC) and is experimentally implemented for attaining high-brightness laser from a diode laser array. The rigorous coupled-wave analysis with the S matrix method is employed to optimize the parameters of the grating. According the optimized parameters, the grating is fabricated and plays a key role in SBC cavity. The diffraction efficiency of this grating is optimized to 95% for the output laser which is emitted from the diode laser array. The beam parameter product of 3.8 mm mrad of the diode laser array after SBC is achieved at the output power of 46.3 W. The optical-to-optical efficiency of SBC cavity is measured to be 93.5% at the maximum operating current in the experiment.

  20. System and technique for characterizing fluids using ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.

    2008-07-08

    A system for determining property of multiphase fluids based on ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy includes a diffraction grating on a solid in contact with the fluid. An interrogation device delivers ultrasound through the solid and a captures a reflection spectrum from the diffraction grating. The reflection spectrum exhibits peaks whose relative size depends on the properties of the various phases of the multiphase fluid. For example, for particles in a liquid, the peaks exhibit dependence on the particle size and the particle volume fraction. Where the exact relationship is know know a priori, data from different peaks of the same reflection spectrum or data from the peaks of different spectra obtained from different diffraction gratings can be used to resolve the size and volume fraction.

  1. Fabrication and testing of diamond-machined gratings in ZnSe...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystal samples were diamond turned on an ultra-precision lathe to identify preferred cutting directions. Using this information we diamond-flycut test gratings over a range of ...

  2. Elimination of higher-order diffraction using zigzag transmission grating in soft x-ray region

    SciTech Connect

    Zang, H. P.; Wang, C. K.; Gao, Y. L.; Zhou, W. M.; Kuang, L. Y.; Wei, L.; Fan, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Cao, L. F.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhang, B. H.; Jiang, G.; Zhu, X. L.; Xie, C. Q.; Zhao, Y. D.; Cui, M. Q.

    2012-03-12

    We present a realization of the sinusoidal transmission function using a series of zigzag-profiled strips where the transmission takes on the binary values 0 and 1 in a two-dimensional distribution. A zigzag transmission grating of 1000 line/mm has been fabricated and demonstrated on the soft x-ray beam of synchrotron radiation. The axial single-order diffraction indicates that the zigzag transmission grating is adequate for spectroscopic application.

  3. An ultrafast nanotip electron gun triggered by grating-coupled surface plasmons

    SciTech Connect

    Schröder, Benjamin; Sivis, Murat; Bormann, Reiner; Schäfer, Sascha; Ropers, Claus

    2015-12-07

    We demonstrate multiphoton photoelectron emission from gold nanotips induced by nanofocusing surface plasmons, resonantly excited on the tip shaft by a grating coupler. The tip is integrated into an electron gun assembly, which facilitates control over the spatial emission sites and allows us to disentangle direct grating emission from plasmon-triggered apex emission. The nanoscale source size of this electron gun concept enables highly coherent electron pulses with applications in ultrafast electron imaging and diffraction.

  4. Short pulse laser stretcher-compressor using a single common reflective grating

    DOEpatents

    Erbert, Gaylen V.; Biswal, Subrat; Bartolick, Joseph M.; Stuart, Brent C.; Telford, Steve

    2004-05-25

    The present invention provides an easily aligned, all-reflective, aberration-free pulse stretcher-compressor in a compact geometry. The stretcher-compressor device is a reflective multi-layer dielectric that can be utilized for high power chirped-pulse amplification material processing applications. A reflective grating element of the device is constructed: 1) to receive a beam for stretching of laser pulses in a beam stretcher beam path and 2) to also receive stretched amplified pulses to be compressed in a compressor beam path through the same (i.e., common) reflective multilayer dielectric diffraction grating. The stretched and compressed pulses are interleaved about the grating element to provide the desired number of passes in each respective beam path in order to achieve the desired results.

  5. Improved algorithm for processing grating-based phase contrast interferometry image sets

    SciTech Connect

    Marathe, Shashidhara Assoufid, Lahsen Xiao, Xianghui; Ham, Kyungmin; Johnson, Warren W.; Butler, Leslie G.

    2014-01-15

    Grating-based X-ray and neutron interferometry tomography using phase-stepping methods generates large data sets. An improved algorithm is presented for solving for the parameters to calculate transmissions, differential phase contrast, and dark-field images. The method takes advantage of the vectorization inherent in high-level languages such as Mathematica and MATLAB and can solve a 16 × 1k × 1k data set in less than a second. In addition, the algorithm can function with partial data sets. This is demonstrated with processing of a 16-step grating data set with partial use of the original data chosen without any restriction. Also, we have calculated the reduced chi-square for the fit and notice the effect of grating support structural elements upon the differential phase contrast image and have explored expanded basis set representations to mitigate the impact.

  6. X-ray grating interferometry with a liquid-metal-jet source

    SciTech Connect

    Thüring, T.; Rutishauser, S.; Stampanoni, M.; Zhou, T.; Lundström, U.; Burvall, A.; Hertz, H. M.; David, C.

    2013-08-26

    A liquid-metal-jet X-ray tube is used in an X-ray phase-contrast microscope based on a Talbot type grating interferometer. With a focal spot size in the range of a few microns and a photon flux of ∼10{sup 12} photons/s×sr, the brightness of such a source is approximately one order of magnitude higher than for a conventional microfocus source. For comparison, a standard microfocus source was used with the same grating interferometer, showing significantly increased visibility for the liquid-metal-jet arrangement. Together with the increased flux, this results in improved signal-to-noise ratio.

  7. Alternate Multilayer Gratings with Enhanced Diffraction Efficiency in the 500-5000 eV Energy Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Polack, Francois; Lagarde, Bruno; Idir, Mourad; Cloup, Audrey Liard; Jourdain, Erick; Roulliay, Marc; Delmotte, Franck; Gautier, Julien; Ravet-Krill, Marie-Francoise

    2007-01-19

    An alternate multilayer (AML) grating is a 2 dimensional diffraction structure formed on an optical surface, having a 0.5 duty cycle in the in-plane and in the in-depth direction. It can be made by covering a shallow depth laminar grating with a multilayer stack. We show here that their 2D structure confer AML gratings a high angular and energetic selectivity and therefore enhanced diffraction properties, when used in grazing incidence. In the tender X-ray range (500eV - 5000 eV) they behave much like blazed gratings. Over 15% efficiency has been measured on a 1200 lines/mm Mo/Si AML grating in the 1.2 - 1.5 keV energy range. Computer simulations show that selected multilayer materials such as Cr/C should allow diffraction efficiency over 50% at photon energies over 3 keV.

  8. In-Situ Continuous Detonation Velocity Measurements Using Fiber-optic Bragg Grating Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Benterou, J; Udd, E; Wilkins, P; Roeske, F; Roos, E; Jackson, D

    2007-07-25

    In order to fully calibrate hydrocodes and dynamic chemistry burn models, initiation and detonation research requires continuous measurement of low order detonation velocities as the detonation runs up to full order detonation for a given density and initiation pressure pulse. A novel detector of detonation velocity is presented using a 125 micron diameter optical fiber with an integral chirped fiber Bragg grating as an intrinsic sensor. This fiber is embedded in the explosive under study and interrogated during detonation as the fiber Bragg grating scatters light back along the fiber to a photodiode, producing a return signal dependant on the convolution integral of the grating reflection bandpass, the ASE intensity profile and the photodetector response curve. Detonation velocity is measured as the decrease in reflected light exiting the fiber as the grating is consumed when the detonation reaction zone proceeds along the fiber sensor axis. This small fiber probe causes minimal perturbation to the detonation wave and can measure detonation velocities along path lengths tens of millimeters long. Experimental details of the associated equipment and preliminary data in the form of continuous detonation velocity records within nitromethane and PBX-9502 are presented.

  9. Thermoresponsive PNIPAM Coatings on Nanostructured Gratings for Cell Alignment and Release

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Zhernenkov, Mikhail; Ashkar, Rana; Feng, Hao; Akintewe, Olukemi O.; Gallant, Nathan D.; Toomey, Ryan; Ankner, John F.; Pynn, Roger

    2015-05-20

    Thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) has been widely used as a surface coating to thermally control the detachment of adsorbed cells without the need for extreme stimuli such as enzyme treatment. Recently, the use of 2D and 3D scaffolds in controlling cell positioning, growth, spreading, and migration has been of a great interest in tissue engineering and cell biology. We use a PNIPAM polymer surface coating atop a nanostructured linear diffraction grating to controllably change the surface topography of 2D linear structures using temperature stimuli. Neutron reflectometry and surface diffraction are utilized to examine the conformity of the polymer coating to themore » grating surface, its hydration profile, and its evolution in response to temperature variations. Our results show that, in the collapsed state, the PNIPAM coating conforms to the grating structures and retains a uniform hydration of 63%. In the swollen state, the polymer expands beyond the grating channels and absorbs up to 87% water. Such properties are particularly desirable for 2D cell growth scaffolds with a built-in nonextreme tissue-release mechanism. Indeed, the current system demonstrates advanced performance in the effective alignment of cultured fibroblast cells and the easy release of the cells upon temperature change.« less

  10. Passive Spectroscopy Bolometers, Grating- And X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, M; Hill, K W; Scott, S; Paul, S; Ince-Cushmann, A; Reinke, M; Rice, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Gu, M F; Lee, S G; Broennimann, C; Eikenberry, E F

    2007-11-07

    This tutorial gives a brief introduction into passive spectroscopy and describes the working principles of bolometers, a high-resolution grating spectrometer, and a novel X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, which is of particular interest for profile measurements of the ion temperature and plasma rotation velocity on ITER and future burning plasma experiments.

  11. Thermoresponsive PNIPAM Coatings on Nanostructured Gratings for Cell Alignment and Release

    SciTech Connect

    Zhernenkov, Mikhail; Ashkar, Rana; Feng, Hao; Akintewe, Olukemi O.; Gallant, Nathan D.; Toomey, Ryan; Ankner, John F.; Pynn, Roger

    2015-05-20

    Thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) has been widely used as a surface coating to thermally control the detachment of adsorbed cells without the need for extreme stimuli such as enzyme treatment. Recently, the use of 2D and 3D scaffolds in controlling cell positioning, growth, spreading, and migration has been of a great interest in tissue engineering and cell biology. We use a PNIPAM polymer surface coating atop a nanostructured linear diffraction grating to controllably change the surface topography of 2D linear structures using temperature stimuli. Neutron reflectometry and surface diffraction are utilized to examine the conformity of the polymer coating to the grating surface, its hydration profile, and its evolution in response to temperature variations. Our results show that, in the collapsed state, the PNIPAM coating conforms to the grating structures and retains a uniform hydration of 63%. In the swollen state, the polymer expands beyond the grating channels and absorbs up to 87% water. Such properties are particularly desirable for 2D cell growth scaffolds with a built-in nonextreme tissue-release mechanism. Indeed, the current system demonstrates advanced performance in the effective alignment of cultured fibroblast cells and the easy release of the cells upon temperature change.

  12. 5000 groove/mm multilayer-coated blazed grating with 33percent efficiency in the 3rd order in the EUV wavelength range

    SciTech Connect

    Advanced Light Source; Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Anderson, Erik; Cambie, Rossana; Salmassi, Farhad; Gullikson, Eric; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Padmore, Howard; Ahn, Minseung; Chang, Chih-Hao; Heilmann, Ralf; Schattenburg, Mark

    2009-07-07

    We report on recent progress in developing diffraction gratings which can potentially provide extremely high spectral resolution of 105-106 in the EUV and soft x-ray photon energy ranges. Such a grating was fabricated by deposition of a multilayer on a substrate which consists ofa 6-degree blazed grating with a high groove density. The fabrication of the substrate gratings was based on scanning interference lithography and anisotropic wet etch of silicon single crystals. The optimized fabrication process provided precise control of the grating periodicity, and the grating groove profile, together with very short anti-blazed facets, and near atomically smooth surface blazed facets. The blazed grating coated with 20 Mo/Si bilayers demonstrated a diffraction efficiency in the third order as high as 33percent at an incidence angle of 11? and wavelength of 14.18 nm.

  13. Cascading metallic gratings for broadband absorption enhancement in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Long; Sun, Fuhe; Chen, Qin

    2014-04-14

    The incorporation of plasmonic nanostructures in the thin-film solar cells (TFSCs) is a promising route to harvest light into the nanoscale active layer. However, the light trapping scheme based on the plasmonic effects intrinsically presents narrow-band resonant enhancement of light absorption. Here we demonstrate that by cascading metal nanogratings with different sizes atop the TFSCs, broadband absorption enhancement can be realized by simultaneously exciting multiple localized surface plasmon resonances and inducing strong coupling between the plasmonic modes and photonic modes. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate of 66.5% in the photocurrent in an ultrathin amorphous silicon TFSC with two-dimensional cascaded gratings over the reference cell without gratings.

  14. Master dye laser oscillator including a specific grating assembly for use therein

    DOEpatents

    Davin, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    A dye laser oscillator for producing a tuned dye beam is disclosed herein and includes, among other components, a beam output coupling assembly, a dye cell assembly, a beam expander assembly, an etalon assembly, and a grating assembly. Each of three assemblies is vertically supported from a horizontal base so as to be readily removable from the base without interference from or interfering with the other assemblies. The particular grating assembly disclosed is specifically designed for proper optical alignment with the intended path of the dye beam to be produced and for accurate pivotal movement relative to the beam path in order to function as a coarse tuning mechanism in the production of the ultimately tuned beam. 5 figs.

  15. Grating formation by a high power radio wave in near-equator ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Rohtash; Sharma, A. K.; Tripathi, V. K.

    2011-11-15

    The formation of a volume grating in the near-equator regions of ionosphere due to a high power radio wave is investigated. The radio wave, launched from a ground based transmitter, forms a standing wave pattern below the critical layer, heating the electrons in a space periodic manner. The thermal conduction along the magnetic lines of force inhibits the rise in electron temperature, limiting the efficacy of heating to within a latitude of few degrees around the equator. The space periodic electron partial pressure leads to ambipolar diffusion creating a space periodic density ripple with wave vector along the vertical. Such a volume grating is effective to cause strong reflection of radio waves at a frequency one order of magnitude higher than the maximum plasma frequency in the ionosphere. Linearly mode converted plasma wave could scatter even higher frequency radio waves.

  16. Narrow band wavelength selective filter using grating assisted single ring resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhathan, P. Murukeshan, V. M.

    2014-09-15

    This paper illustrates a filter configuration which uses a single ring resonator of larger radius connected to a grating resonator at its drop port to achieve single wavelength selectivity and switching property with spectral features suitable for on-chip wavelength selection applications. The proposed configuration is expected to find applications in silicon photonics devices such as, on-chip external cavity lasers and multi analytic label-free biosensors. The grating resonator has been designed for a high Q-factor, high transmittivity, and minimum loss so that the wavelength selectivity of the device is improved. The proof-of-concept device has been demonstrated on a Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) platform through electron beam lithography and Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) process. The transmission spectrum shows narrow band single wavelength selection and switching property with a high Free Spectral Range (FSR) ?60 nm and side band rejection ratio >15 dB.

  17. Photo-induced refractive index and topographical surface gratings in functionalized nanocarbon solid film

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, David J.; Ferrie, John; Plachy, Aljoscha; Joo, Yongho; Choi, Jonathan; Kanimozhi, Catherine; Gopalan, Padma

    2015-11-02

    We demonstrate that a single-walled carbon nanotube network noncovalently coupled with a pyrene-modified azo-benzene chromophore functions as a host matrix for a broad range of photo-orientation and photomechanical effects. The chromophore could be efficiently reoriented through repeated trans-cis-trans isomerization under linearly polarized 480 nm light, with Δn of 0.012 at 650 nm and fast characteristic rise-times of 0.12 s. Erasable phase diffraction gratings could also be written, with permanent surface relief gratings forming at sufficiently long irradiation times. In addition to demonstrating a mechanism for photo-manipulation of single-walled carbon nanotubes, these results show photo-orientation of chromophores in azo-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube networks as a path towards the photosensitive tuning of the electrostatic environment of the nanotube.

  18. Energy exchange between electromagnetic waves on the director diffraction grating in planar waveguide with nematic layer

    SciTech Connect

    Ledney, M. F. Tarnavskyy, A. S.

    2013-09-15

    The energy exchange between two coupled TE modes on the diffraction grating of the director in a planar waveguide containing a nematic liquid crystal layer is calculated. The diffraction grating is induced by an external electric field in the nematic layer with periodic anchoring energy at the waveguide surface. The intensity of the signal mode at the output of the nematic layer is calculated as a function of the amplitude and period of the anchoring-energy modulation, the nematic layer sizes, and the electric-field strength. The cases of modes with the same and opposite directions are considered. Analytical expressions for the maximum intensities of the signal mode are derived. In both cases the maximum intensity of the signal mode increases with an increase in the electric-field strength.

  19. An experimental study of low-frequency amplitude noise in a fibre Bragg grating laser diode

    SciTech Connect

    Zholnerov, V S; Ivanov, A V; Kurnosov, V D; Kurnosov, K V; Romantsevich, V I; Chernov, R V

    2013-09-30

    We have studied the amplitude noise in a fibre Bragg grating laser diode. It has been shown that discontinuities in noise characteristics correlate with those in the power current and spectral characteristics of the laser diode, whereas the noise characteristics of the pump source have no such discontinuities. The highest noise level has been observed at pump currents corresponding to concurrent generation of two longitudinal modes. (lasers)

  20. System and technique for characterizing fluids using ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.

    2005-04-12

    A system for determining a property of a fluid based on ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy includes a diffraction grating on a solid in contact with the fluid. An interrogation device delivers ultrasound through the solid and a captures a reflection spectrum from the diffraction grating. The reflection spectrum including a diffraction order equal to zero exhibits a peak whose location is used to determine speed of sound in the fluid. A separate measurement of the acoustic impedance is combined with the determined speed of sound to yield a measure of fluid density. A system for determining acoustic impedance includes an ultrasonic transducer on a first surface of a solid member, and an opposed second surface of the member is in contact with a fluid to be monitored. A longitudinal ultrasonic pulse is delivered through the solid member, and a multiplicity of pulse echoes caused by reflections of the ultrasonic pulse between the solid-fluid interface and the transducer-solid interface are detected. The decay rate of the detected echo amplitude as a function of echo number is used to determine acoustic impedance.

  1. Sensitivity enhancement of grating interferometer based two-dimensional sensor arrays using two-wavelength readout

    SciTech Connect

    Ferhanoglu, Onur; Urey, Hakan

    2011-07-01

    Diffraction gratings integrated with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors offer displacement measurements with subnanometer sensitivity. However, the sensitivity of the interferometric readout may drop significantly based on the gap between the grating and the reference surface. A two-wavelength (2-{lambda}) readout method was previously tested using a single MEMS sensor for illustrating increased displacement measurement capability. This work demonstrates sensitivity enhancement on a sensor array with large scale parallelization ({approx}20,000 sensors). The statistical representation, which is developed to model sensitivity enhancement within a grating based sensor array, is supported by experimental results using a thermal sensor array. In the experiments, two lasers at different wavelengths (633 and 650 nm) illuminate the thermal sensor array from the backside, time-sequentially. The diffracted first order light from the array is imaged onto a single CCD camera. The target scene is reconstructed by observing the change in the first diffracted order diffraction intensity for both wavelengths. Merging of the data from two measurements with two lasers was performed by taking the larger of the two CCD measurements with respect to the reference image for each sensor. {approx}30% increase in the average sensitivity was demonstrated for a 160x120 pixel IR sensor array. Proposed architecture is also applicable to a variety of sensing applications, such as parallel biosensing and atomic force microscopy, for improved displacement measurements and enhanced sensitivity.

  2. High frequency limit of vacuum microelectronic grating free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, M.; Walsh, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The dependencies that limit high frequency operation of a vacuum microelectronic grating free-electron laser are examined. The important parameters are identified as the electron beam energy, emittance, and generalized perveance. The scaling of power with emittance and frequency is studied in the far-infrared spectral range using a modified scanning electron microscope (SEM) and submillimeter diffraction gratings. The SEM is suited to the task of generating and positioning a low emittance (10{sup -2}{pi}-mm-mrad), low current (100 {mu}A), but high current density (50-500 A cm{sup -2}) electron beam. It has been used to demonstrate the spontaneous emission process known as the Smith-Purcell effect. A vacuum microelectronic grating free-electron laser has the potential of generating radiation throughout the entire far-infrared spectral range which extends from approximately 10 to 10{sup 3}{mu}m. An introduction to the theory, initial results, and details of the experiment are reported.

  3. Low-energy inverse photoemission spectroscopy using a high-resolution grating spectrometer in the near ultraviolet range

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2013-10-15

    An inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES) apparatus using a Czerny-Turner grating spectrometer is demonstrated. Previous IPES instruments based on grating spectrometers used a concave grating and operated in the vacuum ultraviolet range. The reflectance of such gratings is lower than 20% and the aberration cannot be finely corrected leading to an energy resolution of up to 0.1 eV. In the present study, employing the low energy IPES regime [H. Yoshida, Chem. Phys. Lett. 539–540, 180 (2012)], incident electrons with a kinetic energy below 5 eV are used, while photon emission in the range of between 250 and 370 nm is analyzed with a 10-cm Czerny-Turner grating spectrometer. The signal intensity is at least 30 times higher than the previous apparatus. The resolution of photon detection is set at 0.07 eV though the ultimate resolution is one order of magnitude higher. The experiment is performed both by sweeping the electron energy (isochromat mode) and by simultaneously analyzing the photon of whole wavelength range (tunable photon energy mode)

  4. Multiple wavelength X-ray monochromators

    DOEpatents

    Steinmeyer, P.A.

    1992-11-17

    An improved apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined first distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focusing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points. 3 figs.

  5. Multiple wavelength X-ray monochromators

    DOEpatents

    Steinmeyer, Peter A.

    1992-11-17

    An improved apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined first distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focussing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points.

  6. Two-axis sagittal focusing monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Edwin G; Stelmach, Christopher; Zhong, Zhong

    2014-05-13

    An x-ray focusing device and method for adjustably focusing x-rays in two orthogonal directions simultaneously. The device and method can be operated remotely using two pairs of orthogonal benders mounted on a rigid, open frame such that x-rays may pass through the opening in the frame. The added x-ray flux allows significantly higher brightness from the same x-ray source.

  7. Long period grating refractive-index sensor: optimal design for single wavelength interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, Amita; Sharma, Enakshi K.

    2009-11-01

    We report the design criteria for the use of long period gratings (LPGs) as refractive-index sensors with output power at a single interrogating wavelength as the measurement parameter. The design gives maximum sensitivity in a given refractive-index range when the interrogating wavelength is fixed. Use of the design criteria is illustrated by the design of refractive-index sensors for specific application to refractive-index variation of a sugar solution with a concentration and detection of mole fraction of xylene in heptane (paraffin).

  8. Microelectromechanical mirrors and electrically-programmable diffraction gratings based on two-stage actuation

    DOEpatents

    Allen, James J.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Dohner, Jeffrey L.

    2005-11-22

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) device for redirecting incident light is disclosed. The MEM device utilizes a pair of electrostatic actuators formed one above the other from different stacked and interconnected layers of polysilicon to move or tilt an overlying light-reflective plate (i.e. a mirror) to provide a reflected component of the incident light which can be shifted in phase or propagation angle. The MEM device, which utilizes leveraged bending to provide a relatively-large vertical displacement up to several microns for the light-reflective plate, has applications for forming an electrically-programmable diffraction grating (i.e. a polychromator) or a micromirror array.

  9. Enhancement of near-infrared absorption in graphene with metal gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, B.; Zhang, Z. M., E-mail: zhuomin.zhang@me.gatech.edu [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Zhao, J. M. [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2014-07-21

    Graphene has been demonstrated as a good candidate for ultrafast optoelectronic devices. However, graphene is essentially transparent in the visible and near infrared with an absorptivity of 2.3%, which has largely limited its application in photon detection. This Letter demonstrates that the absorptance in a monatomic graphene layer can be greatly enhanced to nearly 70%, thanks to the localized strong electric field resulting from magnetic resonances in deep metal gratings. Furthermore, the resonance frequency is essentially not affected by the additional graphene layer. The method presented here may benefit the design of next-generation graphene-based optical and optoelectronic devices.

  10. Rapid measurement of charged particle beam profiles using a current flux grating

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Samit; Chowdhury, Abhishek; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2015-02-15

    The principle and physics issues of charged particle beam diagnostics using a current flux grating are presented. Unidirectional array of conducting channels with interstitial insulating layers of spacing d is placed in the beam path to capture flux of charge and electronically reproduce an exact beam current profile with density variation. The role of secondary electrons due to the impinging particle beam (both electron and ion) on the probe is addressed and a correction factor is introduced. A 2-dimensional profile of the electron beam is obtained by rotating the probe about the beam axis. Finally, a comparison of measured beam profile with a Gaussian is presented.

  11. Surface relief gratings on polymer dispersed liquid crystals by polarization holography

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzulla, A.; Pagliusi, P.; Provenzano, C.; Russo, G.; Carbone, G.; Cipparrone, G.

    2004-09-27

    We report the observation of surface relief gratings (SRGs) on polymer dispersed liquid crystal films after polarization holographic recording, demonstrating the formation of SRGs in systems without azo compounds, where photoisomerization and chromophore reorientation processes do not occur. Permanent SRGs, several hundred nanometers deep, are recorded on the surface of a polymeric material containing oriented liquid crystal droplets. The results suggest that SRG growth under uniform intensity irradiation is not exclusively related to the photoisomerization, but is a more general phenomenon which can involve different photoinduced chemical and physical mechanisms sensitive to the light polarization state. These effects contribute to the formation of anisotropic structures during the recording process.

  12. Magneto-exciton-polariton condensation in a sub-wavelength high contrast grating based vertical microcavity

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.; Brodbeck, S.; Worschech, L.; Kamp, M.; Schneider, C.; Hfling, S.; Zhang, B.; Wang, Z.; Deng, H.

    2014-03-03

    We comparably investigate the diamagnetic shift of an uncoupled quantum well exciton with a microcavity exciton-polariton condensate on the same device. The sample is composed of multiple GaAs quantum wells in an AlAs microcavity, surrounded by a Bragg reflector and a sub-wavelength high contrast grating reflector. Our study introduces an independent and easily applicable technique, namely, the measurement of the condensate diamagnetic shift, which directly probes matter contributions in polariton condensates and hence discriminates it from a conventional photon laser.

  13. Surface relief grating in azo-polymer obtained for s-s polarization configuration of the writing beams

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolewska, Anna; Bartkiewicz, Stanislaw

    2012-11-05

    The paper reports on the formation of the surface relief gratings in thin films of the azobenzene-functionalized polymer. We evidence that the efficiency of the formation process of the surface relief gratings strongly depends on the length of the main polymer chains in the case of the s-s configuration. The explanation of this relationship is given and is based on the revealing of the differences in the ability of the motion of the main chain which is strictly related to its length.

  14. Surface relief grating in azo-polymer obtained for s-s polarization configuration of the writing beams

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolewska, Anna; Bartkiewicz, Stanislaw

    2012-10-29

    The paper reports on the formation of the surface relief gratings in thin films of the azobenzene-functionalized polymer. We evidence that the efficiency of the formation process of the surface relief gratings strongly depends on the length of the main polymer chains in the case of the s-s configuration. The explanation of this relationship is given and is based on the revealing of the differences in the ability of the motion of the main chain which is strictly related to its length.

  15. Devices useful for vacuum ultraviolet beam characterization including a movable stage with a transmission grating and image detector

    SciTech Connect

    Gessner, Oliver; Kornilov, Oleg A; Wilcox, Russell B

    2013-10-29

    The invention provides for a device comprising an apparatus comprising (a) a transmission grating capable of diffracting a photon beam into a diffracted photon output, and (b) an image detector capable of detecting the diffracted photon output. The device is useful for measuring the spatial profile and diffraction pattern of a photon beam, such as a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) beam.

  16. Grating-based phase contrast tomosynthesis imaging: Proof-of-concept experimental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ke; Ge, Yongshuai; Garrett, John; Bevins, Nicholas; Zambelli, Joseph; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: This paper concerns the feasibility of x-ray differential phase contrast (DPC) tomosynthesis imaging using a grating-based DPC benchtop experimental system, which is equipped with a commercial digital flat-panel detector and a medical-grade rotating-anode x-ray tube. An extensive system characterization was performed to quantify its imaging performance. Methods: The major components of the benchtop system include a diagnostic x-ray tube with a 1.0 mm nominal focal spot size, a flat-panel detector with 96 ?m pixel pitch, a sample stage that rotates within a limited angular span of 30, and a Talbot-Lau interferometer with three x-ray gratings. A total of 21 projection views acquired with 3 increments were used to reconstruct three sets of tomosynthetic image volumes, including the conventional absorption contrast tomosynthesis image volume (AC-tomo) reconstructed using the filtered-backprojection (FBP) algorithm with the ramp kernel, the phase contrast tomosynthesis image volume (PC-tomo) reconstructed using FBP with a Hilbert kernel, and the differential phase contrast tomosynthesis image volume (DPC-tomo) reconstructed using the shift-and-add algorithm. Three inhouse physical phantoms containing tissue-surrogate materials were used to characterize the signal linearity, the signal difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), the three-dimensional noise power spectrum (3D NPS), and the through-plane artifact spread function (ASF). Results: While DPC-tomo highlights edges and interfaces in the image object, PC-tomo removes the differential nature of the DPC projection data and its pixel values are linearly related to the decrement of the real part of the x-ray refractive index. The SDNR values of polyoxymethylene in water and polystyrene in oil are 1.5 and 1.0, respectively, in AC-tomo, and the values were improved to 3.0 and 2.0, respectively, in PC-tomo. PC-tomo and AC-tomo demonstrate equivalent ASF, but their noise characteristics quantified by the 3D NPS were

  17. Extended and quasi-continuous tuning of quantum cascade lasers using superstructure gratings and integrated heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Bidaux, Yves; Bismuto, Alfredo Tardy, Camille; Terazzi, Romain; Gresch, Tobias; Blaser, Stéphane; Muller, Antoine; Faist, Jerome

    2015-11-30

    In this work, we demonstrate broad electrical tuning of quantum cascade lasers at 9.25 μm, 8.5 μm, and 4.4 μm in continuous wave operation using Vernier-effect distributed Bragg reflectors based on superstructure gratings. Integrated micro-heaters allow to switch from one Vernier channel to the other, while predictable and mode-hop free tuning can be obtained in each channel modulating the laser current with a side mode suppression ratio as high as 30 dB. The resulting device behaves effectively as a switchable multicolour tunable source. Tuning up to 6.5% of the central wavelength is observed. To prove the importance of the developed devices for high resolution molecular spectroscopy, a N{sub 2}O absorption spectrum has been measured.

  18. On the smoothness of electric fields near plane gratings of cylindrical conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, D.L.

    1995-02-01

    The electric field near an infinite plane grating of equally spaced round rods at the same potential, forming the boundary of a uniform field, is determined analytically to good accuracy by conformal transformations and evaluated numerically. This contribution, which has a frankly pedagogical flavor, to the Klaus Halbach Festschrift is offered to honor his displayed mastery of conformal techniques. Although the numerical work and the form of its presentation are new, the transformation used is not original. However, to locate its antecedents in an archival journal it was necessary to seek out a paper published in 1923 (close to the year of his birth, and of mine), in a place obscure to modern physicists, so the authors efforts cannot be said to replicate recent published work. A new insight is obtained in the form of a simple estimate of departures from field uniformity at all distances from rods of any size.

  19. Nonlinear focusing of ultrasonic waves by an axisymmetric diffraction grating embedded in water

    SciTech Connect

    Jiménez, N.; Picó, R.; Romero-García, V.; Garcia-Raffi, L. M.

    2015-11-16

    We report the nonlinear focusing of ultrasonic waves by an axisymmetric diffraction grating immersed in water. In the linear regime, the system presents high focal gain (32 dB), with a narrow beam-width and intense side lobes as it is common in focusing by Fresnel-like lenses. Activating the nonlinearity of the host medium by using high amplitude incident waves, the focusing properties of the lens dramatically change. Theoretical predictions show that the focal gain of the system extraordinary increases in the strongly nonlinear regime (Mach number of 6.1 × 10{sup −4}). Particularly, the harmonic generation is locally activated at the focal spot, and the second harmonic beam is characterized by strongly reduced side-lobes and an excellent beam profile as experiments show in agreement with theory. The results can motivate applications in medical therapy or second harmonic imaging.

  20. A soft x-ray transmission grating imaging-spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, A S; Guymer, T M; Kline, J L; Morton, J; Taccetti, M; Lanier, N E; Bentley, C; Workman, J; Peterson, B; Mussack, K; Cowan, J; Prasad, R; Richardson, M; Burns, S; Kalantar, D H; Benedetti, L R; Bell, P; Bradley, D; Hsing, W; Stevenson, M

    2012-05-01

    A soft x-ray transmission grating spectrometer has been designed for use on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF); coupled to one of the NIF gated x-ray detectors (GXD) it records sixteen time-gated spectra between 250 and 1000eV with 100ps temporal resolution. The trade-off between spectral and spatial resolution leads to an optimized design for measurement of emission around the peak of a 100-300eV blackbody spectrum. Performance qualification results from the NIF, the Trident Laser Facility and VUV beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), evidence a <100{micro}m spatial resolution in combination with a source-size limited spectral resolution that is <10eV at photon energies of 300eV.

  1. High Pressure Sensing and Dynamics Using High Speed Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, G.; Sandberg, R. L.; Lalone, B. M.; Marshall, B. R.; Grover, M.; Stevens, G. D.; Udd, E.

    2014-06-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are developing into useful sensing tools for measuring high pressure dynamics in extreme environments under shock loading conditions. Approaches using traditional diode array coupled FBG interrogation systems are often limited to readout speeds in the sub-MHz range. For shock wave physics, required detection speeds approaching 100 MHz are desired. We explore the use of two types of FBG sensing systems that are aimed at applying this technology as embedded high pressure probes for transient shock events. Both approaches measure time resolved spectral shifts in the return light from short (few mm long) uniform FBGs at 1550 nm. In the first approach, we use a fiber coupled spectrometer to demultiplex spectral channels into an array (up to 12) of single element InGaAs photoreceivers. By monitoring the detectors during a shock impact event with high speed recording, we are able to track the pressure induced spectral shifting in FBG down to a time resolution of 20 ns. In the second approach, developed at the Special Technologies Lab, a coherent mode-locked fiber laser is used to illuminate the FBG sensor. After the sensor, wavelength-to-time mapping is accomplished with a chromatic dispersive element, and entire spectra are sampled using a single detector at the modelocked laser repetition rate of 50 MHz. By sampling with a 12 GHz InGaAs detector, direct wavelength mapping in time is recorded, and the pressure induced FBG spectral shift is sampled at 50 MHz. Here, the sensing systems are used to monitor the spectral shifts of FBGs that are immersed into liquid water and shock compressed using explosives. In this configuration, the gratings survive to pressures approaching 50 kbar. We describe both approaches and present the measured spectral shifts from the shock experiments.

  2. Fabrication of large area plasmonic nanoparticle grating structure on silver halide based transmission electron microscope film and its application as a surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Sudheer, Tiwari, P.; Singh, M. N.; Sinha, A. K.; Rai, V. N.; Srivastava, A. K.; Bhartiya, S.; Mukherjee, C.

    2015-08-14

    The plasmonic responses of silver nanoparticle grating structures of different periods made on silver halide based electron microscope film are investigated. Raster scan of the conventional scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to carry out electron beam lithography for fabricating the plasmonic nanoparticle grating (PNG) structures. Morphological characterization of the PNG structures, carried out by the SEM and the atomic force microscope, indicates that the depth of the groove decreases with a decrease in the grating period. Elemental characterization performed by the energy dispersive spectroscopy and the x-ray diffraction shows the presence of nanoparticles of silver in the PNG grating. The optical characterization of the gratings shows that the localized surface plasmon resonance peak shifts from 366 to 378 nm and broadens with a decrease in grating period from 10 to 2.5 μm. The surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of the Rhodamine-6G dye coated PNG structure shows the maximum enhancement by two orders of magnitude in comparison to the randomly distributed silver nanoparticles having similar size and shape as the PNG structure.

  3. Development and calibration of mirrors and gratings for the Soft X-ray materials science beamline at the Linac Coherent Light Source free-electron laser

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Soufli, Regina; Fernandez-Perea, Monica; Baker, Sherry L.; Robinson, Jeff C.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Heimann, Philip; Yashchuk, Valerie V.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Schlotter, William F.; Rowen, Michael

    2012-04-18

    This article discusses the development and calibration of the x-ray reflective and diffractive elements for the Soft X-ray Materials Science (SXR) beamline of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free-electron laser (FEL), designed for operation in the 500 – 2000 eV region. The surface topography of three Si mirror substrates and two Si diffraction grating substrates was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical profilometry. The figure of the mirror substrates was also verified via surface slope measurements with a long trace profiler. A boron carbide (B4C) coating especially optimized for the LCLS FEL conditions was deposited on allmore » SXR mirrors and gratings. Coating thickness uniformity of 0.14 nm root mean square (rms) across clear apertures extending to 205 mm length was demonstrated for all elements, as required to preserve the coherent wavefront of the LCLS source. The reflective performance of the mirrors and the diffraction efficiency of the gratings were calibrated at beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron. To verify the integrity of the nanometer-scale grating structure, the grating topography was examined by AFM before and after coating. This is to our knowledge the first time B4C-coated diffraction gratings are demonstrated for operation in the soft x-ray region.« less

  4. Full quantum mechanical analysis of atomic three-grating Mach–Zehnder interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sanz, A.S.; Davidović, M.; Božić, M.

    2015-02-15

    Atomic three-grating Mach–Zehnder interferometry constitutes an important tool to probe fundamental aspects of the quantum theory. There is, however, a remarkable gap in the literature between the oversimplified models and robust numerical simulations considered to describe the corresponding experiments. Consequently, the former usually lead to paradoxical scenarios, such as the wave–particle dual behavior of atoms, while the latter make difficult the data analysis in simple terms. Here these issues are tackled by means of a simple grating working model consisting of evenly-spaced Gaussian slits. As is shown, this model suffices to explore and explain such experiments both analytically and numerically, giving a good account of the full atomic journey inside the interferometer, and hence contributing to make less mystic the physics involved. More specifically, it provides a clear and unambiguous picture of the wavefront splitting that takes place inside the interferometer, illustrating how the momentum along each emerging diffraction order is well defined even though the wave function itself still displays a rather complex shape. To this end, the local transverse momentum is also introduced in this context as a reliable analytical tool. The splitting, apart from being a key issue to understand atomic Mach–Zehnder interferometry, also demonstrates at a fundamental level how wave and particle aspects are always present in the experiment, without incurring in any contradiction or interpretive paradox. On the other hand, at a practical level, the generality and versatility of the model and methodology presented, makes them suitable to attack analogous problems in a simple manner after a convenient tuning. - Highlights: • A simple model is proposed to analyze experiments based on atomic Mach–Zehnder interferometry. • The model can be easily handled both analytically and computationally. • A theoretical analysis based on the combination of the position and

  5. Replication of a Holographic Ion-etched Spherical Blazed Grating for use at Extreme-Ultraviolet Wavelengths: Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski,M.; Barbee, T.; Hunter, W.

    2006-01-01

    Using synchrotron radiation, we have measured the efficiency at an angle of incidence of 10 deg of a holographic ion-etched spherical blazed grating and three of its fourth-generation replicas. The measured efficiency profile of replicas 1 and 3 prior to multilayer coating oscillated from thin-film interference produced by the replicas' Al/Al2O3?/SiO2 structure. A Mo2C/Si multilayer coating was applied to the master grating and replicas 1 and 2. After coating, the maximum grating efficiency occurred in the -2nd order and the maximum values were 12.4% at 143.8 Angstroms for the master and 11.6% at 145.2 Angstroms for replicas 1 and 2. On the basis of measurements obtained after coating, the derived groove efficiency was 22.2% for the master, 19.4% for replica 1, and 19.3% for replica 2. The groove efficiency of the uncoated replica 3 was 24.3% at 142.5 Angstroms. We find that the replicas are reasonably faithful copies of the ion-etched master, and models based on measured atomic force microscope groove profiles are in general agreement with measured results. However, subtle issues remain regarding the widths of the peak order profile and the location of its maximum wavelength.

  6. Measuring phonon mean free path distributions by probing quasiballistic phonon transport in grating nanostructures

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Zeng, Lingping; Collins, Kimberlee C.; Hu, Yongjie; Luckyanova, Maria N.; Maznev, Alexei A.; Huberman, Samuel; Chiloyan, Vazrik; Zhou, Jiawei; Huang, Xiaopeng; Nelson, Keith A.; et al

    2015-11-27

    Heat conduction in semiconductors and dielectrics depends upon their phonon mean free paths that describe the average travelling distance between two consecutive phonon scattering events. Nondiffusive phonon transport is being exploited to extract phonon mean free path distributions. Here, we describe an implementation of a nanoscale thermal conductivity spectroscopy technique that allows for the study of mean free path distributions in optically absorbing materials with relatively simple fabrication and a straightforward analysis scheme. We pattern 1D metallic grating of various line widths but fixed gap size on sample surfaces. The metal lines serve as both heaters and thermometers in time-domainmore » thermoreflectance measurements and simultaneously act as wiregrid polarizers that protect the underlying substrate from direct optical excitation and heating. We demonstrate the viability of this technique by studying length-dependent thermal conductivities of silicon at various temperatures. The thermal conductivities measured with different metal line widths are analyzed using suppression functions calculated from the Boltzmann transport equation to extract the phonon mean free path distributions with no calibration required. Furthermore, this table-top ultrafast thermal transport spectroscopy technique enables the study of mean free path spectra in a wide range of technologically important materials.« less

  7. Geometrical tuning art for entirely subwavelength grating waveguide based integrated photonics circuits

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Wang, Zheng; Xu, Xiaochuan; Fan, Donglei; Wang, Yaguo; Subbaraman, Harish; Chen, Ray T.

    2016-05-05

    Here, subwavelength grating (SWG) waveguide is an intriguing alternative to conventional optical waveguides due to the extra degree of freedom it offers in tuning a few important waveguide properties, such as dispersion and refractive index. Devices based on SWG waveguides have demonstrated impressive performances compared to conventional waveguides. However, the high loss of SWG waveguide bends jeopardizes their applications in integrated photonic circuits. In this work, we propose a geometrical tuning art, which realizes a pre-distorted refractive index profile in SWG waveguide bends. The pre-distorted refractive index profile can effectively reduce the mode mismatch and radiation loss simultaneously, thus significantlymore » reduce the bend loss. This geometry tuning art has been numerically optimized and experimentally demonstrated in present study. Through such tuning, the average insertion loss of a 5 μm SWG waveguide bend is reduced drastically from 5.43 dB to 1.10 dB per 90° bend for quasi-TE polarization. In the future, the proposed scheme will be utilized to enhance performance of a wide range of SWG waveguide based photonics devices.« less

  8. Nanoimprinted Diffraction Gratings for Light Trapping in Crystal-Silicon Film Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Weiss

    2010-11-29

    Crystal-silicon (c-Si) film photovoltaics hold the promise of combining the advantages of state-of-the-art wafer-silicon technology with the scalability and the inherently much lower cost of thin-film solar technologies. In the thickness range of 2-20 ?¼m very effective light trapping is essential to absorb sufficient red and near-infrared (NIR) light and reach targeted efficiencies of 16%â??18%, as defined by the U.S. National Solar Technology Roadmap. One proposed method is diffractive light trapping, which, at least in certain wavelength ranges, can theoretically outperform light trapping through random scattering at a rough surface or interface. The goals of this project were (1) to develop a nanoimprinting process for a high-refractive-index dielectric material, (2) to fabricate diffraction gratings as back-reflectors using this material, and (3) to demonstrate for a 2 ?¼m c-Si film an improvement in AM1.5 photon absorption of at least 80% relative to single-pass absorption. We achieved goals (1) and (2). We developed a soft-imprint method for sol-based titanium dioxide precursor films (index range 2.3-2.4) and integrated imprinted films in thin-film silicon devices. We did not fully reach goal (3): depending on the model used for interpretation of the optical experimental data, AM1.5 photon absorption was improved by only 53% (coherent electromagnetic model) to 66% (non-coherent ray-tracing model). When compared to a metallized flat reference film (double-pass absorption), the improvement due to the grating is only 6%, if the (more conservative) electromagnetic model is used. Other important achievements from this project were: -We perfected an imprinting method for another ceramic material, aluminum oxide phosphate, which is index-matched with glass. -We tested diffractive light trapping at different incidence angles and found positive evidence for light trapping for angles up to 50?°, although the light-trapping efficiency decreased with increasing

  9. Detector Having A Transmission Grating Beam Splitter For Multi-Wavelength Sample Analysis.

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Changsheng; Li, Qingbo

    2000-09-12

    A detector for DNA sample identification is provided with a transmission grating beam splitter (TGBS). The TGBS split fluoresced light from a tagged DNA sample into 0th order and a 1st order components, both of which are detected on a two-dimensional detector array of a CCD camera. The 0th and 1st order components are detected along a column of pixels in the detector array, and are spaced apart from one another. The DNA samples are tagged with four fluorescent dyes, one dye specific for each nucleotide, and all four dyes responding in slightly different manner to the same monochromatic excitation signal. The TGBS splits fluoresced incoming light into 0th and 1st order components, which are then spread out among a number of pixels in the detector array. The 1st component of this light is received by pixels whose position relative to the 0th order component depends on the frequency of fluorescence. Thus, the position at which signal energy is detected on the array is indicative of the particular dye, and therefore, the corresponding nucleotide tagged by that dye. Monitoring signal energy at the 0th order pixel and selected 1st order pixels, provides a set of data from which one may then identify the particular nucleotide.

  10. Detector Having A Transmission Grating Beam Splitter For Multi-Wavelength.

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Changsheng; Li, Qingbo (State College, PA

    1999-12-07

    A detector for DNA sample identification is provided with a transmission grating beam splitter (TGBS). The TGBS split fluoresced light from a tagged DNA sample into 0th order and a 1st order components, both of which are detected on a two-dimensional detector array of a CCD camera. The 0th and 1st order components are detected along a column of pixels in the detector array, and are spaced apart from one another. The DNA samples are tagged with four fluorescent dyes, one dye specific for each nucleotide, and all four dyes responding in slightly different manner to the same monochromatic excitation signal. The TGBS splits fluoresced incoming light into 0th and 1st order components, which are then spread out among a number of pixels in the detector array. The 1st component of this light is received by pixels whose position relative to the 0th order component depends on the frequency of fluorescence. Thus, the position at which signal energy is detected on the array is indicative of the particular dye, and therefore, the corresponding nucleotide tagged by that dye. Monitoring signal energy at the 0th order pixel and selected 1st order pixels, provides a set of data from which one may then identify the particular nucleotide.

  11. Measuring phonon mean free path distributions by probing quasiballistic phonon transport in grating nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Lingping; Collins, Kimberlee C.; Hu, Yongjie; Luckyanova, Maria N.; Maznev, Alexei A.; Huberman, Samuel; Chiloyan, Vazrik; Zhou, Jiawei; Huang, Xiaopeng; Nelson, Keith A.; Chen, Gang

    2015-11-27

    Heat conduction in semiconductors and dielectrics depends upon their phonon mean free paths that describe the average travelling distance between two consecutive phonon scattering events. Nondiffusive phonon transport is being exploited to extract phonon mean free path distributions. Here, we describe an implementation of a nanoscale thermal conductivity spectroscopy technique that allows for the study of mean free path distributions in optically absorbing materials with relatively simple fabrication and a straightforward analysis scheme. We pattern 1D metallic grating of various line widths but fixed gap size on sample surfaces. The metal lines serve as both heaters and thermometers in time-domain thermoreflectance measurements and simultaneously act as wiregrid polarizers that protect the underlying substrate from direct optical excitation and heating. We demonstrate the viability of this technique by studying length-dependent thermal conductivities of silicon at various temperatures. The thermal conductivities measured with different metal line widths are analyzed using suppression functions calculated from the Boltzmann transport equation to extract the phonon mean free path distributions with no calibration required. Furthermore, this table-top ultrafast thermal transport spectroscopy technique enables the study of mean free path spectra in a wide range of technologically important materials.

  12. A Chandra grating observation of the dusty Wolf-Rayet star WR 48a

    SciTech Connect

    Zhekov, Svetozar A.; Gagné, Marc; Skinner, Stephen L. E-mail: mgagne@wcupa.edu

    2014-04-10

    We present results of a Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) observation of the carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet (WR) star WR 48a. These are the first high-resolution spectra of this object in X-ray. Blueshifted centroids of the spectral lines of ∼ – 360 km s{sup –1} and line widths of 1000-1500 km s{sup –1} (FWHM) were deduced from the analysis of the line profiles of strong emission lines. The forbidden line of Si XIII is strong and not suppressed, indicating that the rarified 10-30 MK plasma forms far from strong sources of far-ultraviolet emission, most likely in a wind collision zone. Global spectral modeling showed that the X-ray spectrum of WR 48a suffered higher absorption in the 2012 October Chandra observation compared with a previous 2008 January XMM-Newton observation. The emission measure of the hot plasma in WR 48a decreased by a factor ∼3 over the same period of time. The most likely physical picture that emerges from the analysis of the available X-ray data is that of colliding stellar winds in a wide binary system with an elliptical orbit. We propose that the unseen secondary star in the system is another WR star or perhaps a luminous blue variable.

  13. Note: Strain sensitivity comparison between fiber Bragg gratings inscribed on 125 and 80 micron cladding diameter fibers, case study on the solidification monitoring of a photo-curable resin

    SciTech Connect

    Maccioni, E.; Morganti, M.; Brandi, F.

    2015-02-15

    The influence of fiber Bragg grating diameter when measuring strain is investigated and quantified. Two fiber Bragg gratings with bare cladding diameter of 125 μm and 80 μm are produced by excimer laser irradiation through a phase mask, and are used to simultaneously monitor the Bragg wavelength shift due to the strain produced by the solidification of a photo-curable resin during light exposure. It is found that the ratio of the measured strains in the two fiber Bragg gratings is close to the inverse ratio of the fiber’s cladding diameter. These results represent a direct simultaneous comparison between 125 μm and 80 μm diameter fiber Bragg grating strain sensors, and demonstrate the feasibility of strain measurements in photo-curable resins using bare 80 μm cladding diameter fiber Bragg gratings with an increased sensitivity and spatial resolution compared with standard 125 μm diameter fiber Bragg gratings.

  14. Conformal growth of Mo/Si multilayers on grating substrates using collimated ion beam sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Gawlitza, Peter; Cambie, Rossana; Dhuey, Scott; Gullikson, Eric; Warwick, Tony; Braun, Stefan; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Padmore, Howard

    2012-01-23

    Deposition of multilayers on saw-tooth substrates is a key step in the fabrication of multilayer blazed gratings (MBG) for extreme ultraviolet and soft x-rays. Growth of the multilayers can be perturbed by shadowing effects caused by the highly corrugated surface of the substrates, which results in distortion of the multilayer stack structure and degradation of performance of MBGs. To minimize the shadowing effects we used an ionbeam sputtering machine with a highly collimated atomic flux to deposit Mo/Si multilayers on saw-tooth substrates. The sputtering conditions were optimized by finding a balance between smoothening and roughening processes in order to minimize degradation of the groove profile in the course of deposition and at the same time to keep the interfaces of a multilayer stack smooth enough for high efficiency. An optimal value of energy of 200 eV for sputtering Kr{sup +} ions was found by deposition of test multilayers on flat substrates at a range of ion energies. Two saw-tooth substrates were deposited at energies of 200 eV and 700 eV for the sputtering ions. It was found that reduction of the ion energy improved the blazing performance of the MBG and resulted in a 40% gain in the diffraction efficiency due to better replication of the groove profile by the multilayer. As a result of the optimization performed, an absolute diffraction efficiency of 28.8% was achieved for the 2nd blaze order of the MBG with a groove density of 7350 lines/mm at a wavelength of 13.5 nm. Details of the growth behavior of the multilayers on flat and saw-tooth substrates are discussed in terms of the Linear Continuous Model of film growth.

  15. A grating-based single-shot x-ray phase contrast and diffraction method for in vivo imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Eric E.; Kopace, Rael; Stein, Ashley F.; Wen Han

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop a single-shot version of the grating-based phase contrast x-ray imaging method and demonstrate its capability of in vivo animal imaging. Here, the authors describe the principle and experimental results. They show the source of artifacts in the phase contrast signal and optimal designs that minimize them. They also discuss its current limitations and ways to overcome them. Methods: A single lead grid was inserted midway between an x-ray tube and an x-ray camera in the planar radiography setting. The grid acted as a transmission grating and cast periodic dark fringes on the camera. The camera had sufficient spatial resolution to resolve the fringes. Refraction and diffraction in the imaged object manifested as position shifts and amplitude attenuation of the fringes, respectively. In order to quantify these changes precisely without imposing a fixed geometric relationship between the camera pixel array and the fringes, a spatial harmonic method in the Fourier domain was developed. The level of the differential phase (refraction) contrast as a function of hardware specifications and device geometry was derived and used to guide the optimal placement of the grid and object. Both ex vivo and in vivo images of rodent extremities were collected to demonstrate the capability of the method. The exposure time using a 50 W tube was 28 s. Results: Differential phase contrast images of glass beads acquired at various grid and object positions confirmed theoretical predictions of how phase contrast and extraneous artifacts vary with the device geometry. In anesthetized rats, a single exposure yielded artifact-free images of absorption, differential phase contrast, and diffraction. Differential phase contrast was strongest at bone-soft tissue interfaces, while diffraction was strongest in bone. Conclusions: The spatial harmonic method allowed us to obtain absorption, differential phase contrast, and diffraction images, all from a

  16. GNOSIS: THE FIRST INSTRUMENT TO USE FIBER BRAGG GRATINGS FOR OH SUPPRESSION

    SciTech Connect

    Trinh, Christopher Q.; Ellis, Simon C.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bryant, Julia; O'Byrne, John; Lawrence, Jon S.; Horton, Anthony J.; Shortridge, Keith; Case, Scott; Colless, Matthew; Gers, Luke; Lee, Steve; Miziarski, Stan; Leon-Saval, Sergio G.; Couch, Warrick; Glazebrook, Karl; Freeman, Kenneth; Loehmannsroeben, Hans-Gerd; and others

    2013-02-01

    The near-infrared is an important part of the spectrum in astronomy, especially in cosmology because the light from objects in the early universe is redshifted to these wavelengths. However, deep near-infrared observations are extremely difficult to make from ground-based telescopes due to the bright background from the atmosphere. Nearly all of this background comes from the bright and narrow emission lines of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) molecules. The atmospheric background cannot be easily removed from data because the brightness fluctuates unpredictably on short timescales. The sensitivity of ground-based optical astronomy far exceeds that of near-infrared astronomy because of this long-standing problem. GNOSIS is a prototype astrophotonic instrument that utilizes 'OH suppression fibers' consisting of fiber Bragg gratings and photonic lanterns to suppress the 103 brightest atmospheric emission doublets between 1.47 and 1.7 {mu}m. GNOSIS was commissioned at the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian Telescope with the IRIS2 spectrograph to demonstrate the potential of OH suppression fibers, but may be potentially used with any telescope and spectrograph combination. Unlike previous atmospheric suppression techniques GNOSIS suppresses the lines before dispersion and in a manner that depends purely on wavelength. We present the instrument design and report the results of laboratory and on-sky tests from commissioning. While these tests demonstrated high throughput ( Almost-Equal-To 60%) and excellent suppression of the skylines by the OH suppression fibers, surprisingly GNOSIS produced no significant reduction in the interline background and the sensitivity of GNOSIS+IRIS2 is about the same as IRIS2. It is unclear whether the lack of reduction in the interline background is due to physical sources or systematic errors as the observations are detector noise dominated. OH suppression fibers could potentially impact ground-based astronomy at the level of adaptive optics or greater

  17. High energy x-ray phase contrast CT using glancing-angle grating interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Sarapata, A.; Stayman, J. W.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Finkenthal, M.; Stutman, D.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The authors present initial progress toward a clinically compatible x-ray phase contrast CT system, using glancing-angle x-ray grating interferometry to provide high contrast soft tissue images at estimated by computer simulation dose levels comparable to conventional absorption based CT. Methods: DPC-CT scans of a joint phantom and of soft tissues were performed in order to answer several important questions from a clinical setup point of view. A comparison between high and low fringe visibility systems is presented. The standard phase stepping method was compared with sliding window interlaced scanning. Using estimated dose values obtained with a Monte-Carlo code the authors studied the dependence of the phase image contrast on exposure time and dose. Results: Using a glancing angle interferometer at high x-ray energy (∼45 keV mean value) in combination with a conventional x-ray tube the authors achieved fringe visibility values of nearly 50%, never reported before. High fringe visibility is shown to be an indispensable parameter for a potential clinical scanner. Sliding window interlaced scanning proved to have higher SNRs and CNRs in a region of interest and to also be a crucial part of a low dose CT system. DPC-CT images of a soft tissue phantom at exposures in the range typical for absorption based CT of musculoskeletal extremities were obtained. Assuming a human knee as the CT target, good soft tissue phase contrast could be obtained at an estimated absorbed dose level around 8 mGy, similar to conventional CT. Conclusions: DPC-CT with glancing-angle interferometers provides improved soft tissue contrast over absorption CT even at clinically compatible dose levels (estimated by a Monte-Carlo computer simulation). Further steps in image processing, data reconstruction, and spectral matching could make the technique fully clinically compatible. Nevertheless, due to its increased scan time and complexity the technique should be thought of not as

  18. In-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer composed of microtaper and long-period grating in all-solid photonic bandgap fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Zhifang; Liu Yange; Wang Zhi; Han Tingting; Li Shuo; Jiang Meng; Ping Shum, Perry

    2012-10-01

    We report a compact in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer combining a microtaper with a long-period grating (LPG) in a section of all-solid photonic bandgap fiber. Theoretical and experimental investigations reveal that the interferometer works from the interference between the fundamental core mode and the LP{sub 01} cladding supermodes. The mechanism underlying the mode coupling caused by the microtaper can be attributed to a bandgap-shifting as the fiber diameter is abruptly scaled down. In addition, the interferometer designed to strengthen the coupling ratio of the long-period grating has a promising practical application in the simultaneous measurement of curvature and temperature.

  19. Optical study of a spectrum splitting solar concentrator based on a combination of a diffraction grating and a Fresnel lens

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, Céline Habraken, Serge; Loicq, Jérôme; Thibert, Tanguy

    2015-09-28

    This paper presents recent improvements of our new solar concentrator design for space application. The concentrator is based on a combination of a diffraction grating (blazed or lamellar) coupled with a Fresnel lens. Thanks to this diffractive/refractive combination, this optical element splits spatially and spectrally the light and focus approximately respectively visible light and IR light onto electrically independent specific cells. It avoid the use of MJs cells and then also their limitations like current matching and lattice matching conditions, leading theoretically to a more tolerant system. The concept is reminded, with recent optimizations, ideal and more realistic results, and the description of an experimental realization highlighting the feasibility of the concept and the closeness of theoretical and experimental results.

  20. Reproducible strain measurement in electronic devices by applying integer multiple to scanning grating in scanning moir fringe imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Suhyun Jung, Younheum; Kim, Joong Jung; Lee, Sunyoung; Lee, Haebum; Kondo, Yukihito

    2014-10-15

    Scanning moir fringe (SMF) imaging by high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to measure the strain field in the channel of a transistor with a CoSi{sub 2} source and drain. Nanometer-scale SMFs were formed with a scanning grating size of d{sub s} at integer multiples of the Si crystal lattice spacing d{sub l} (d{sub s} ? nd{sub l}, n = 2, 3, 4, 5). The moir fringe formula was modified to establish a method for quantifying strain measurement. We showed that strain fields in a transistor measured by SMF images were reproducible with an accuracy of 0.02%.

  1. Translational-symmetry alternating phase shifting mask grating mark used in a linear measurement model of lithographic projection lens aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Zicheng; Wang Xiangzhao; Bi Qunyu; Yuan Qiongyan; Peng Bo; Duan Lifeng

    2009-07-01

    A linear measurement model of lithographic projection lens aberrations is studied numerically based on the Hopkins theory of partially-coherent imaging and positive resist optical lithography (PROLITH) simulation. In this linearity model, the correlation between the mark's structure and its sensitivities to aberrations is analyzed. A method to design a mark with high sensitivity is proved and declared. By use of this method, a translational-symmetry alternating phase shifting mask (Alt-PSM) grating mark is redesigned with all of the even orders, {+-}3rd and {+-}5th order diffraction light missing. In the evaluation simulation, the measurement accuracies of aberrations prove to be enhanced apparently by use of the redesigned mark instead of the old ones.

  2. Fabrication and testing of diamond-machined gratings in ZnSe, GaP, and bismuth germanate for the near infrared and visible

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmenko, P J; Little, S L; Ikeda, Y; Kobayashi, N

    2008-06-22

    High quality immersion gratings for infrared applications have been demonstrated in silicon and germanium. To extend this technology to shorter wavelengths other materials must be investigated. We selected three materials, zinc selenide, gallium phosphide and bismuth germanate (Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}), based on high refractive index, good visible transmission and commercial availability in useful sizes. Crystal samples were diamond turned on an ultra-precision lathe to identify preferred cutting directions. Using this information we diamond-flycut test gratings over a range of feed rates to determine the optimal cutting conditions. For both ZnSe and GaP good surface quality was achieved at feed rates up to 1.0 cm/minute using a special compound angle diamond tool with negative rake angles on both cutting surfaces. The surface roughness of the groove facets was about 4 nm. A Zygo interferometer measured grating wavefront errors in reflection. For the ZnSe the RMS error was < {lambda}/20 at 633nm. More extensive testing was performed with a HeNe laser source and a cooled CCD camera. These measurements demonstrated high relative diffraction efficiency (> 80%), low random groove error (2.0 nm rms), and Rowland ghost intensities at < 0.1%. Preliminary tests on bismuth germanate show high tool wear.

  3. Ultrasonic generator and detector using an optical mask having a grating for launching a plurality of spatially distributed, time varying strain pulses in a sample

    DOEpatents

    Maris, Humphrey J.

    2003-01-01

    A method and a system are disclosed for determining at least one characteristic of a sample that contains a substrate and at least one film disposed on or over a surface of the substrate. The method includes a first step of placing a mask over a free surface of the at least one film, where the mask has a top surface and a bottom surface that is placed adjacent to the free surface of the film. The bottom surface of the mask has formed therein or thereon a plurality of features for forming at least one grating. A next step directs optical pump pulses through the mask to the free surface of the film, where individual ones of the pump pulses are followed by at least one optical probe pulse. The pump pulses are spatially distributed by the grating for launching a plurality of spatially distributed, time varying strain pulses within the film, which cause a detectable change in optical constants of the film. A next step detects a reflected or a transmitted portion of the probe pulses, which are also spatially distributed by the grating. A next step measures a change in at least one characteristic of at least one of reflected or transmitted probe pulses due to the change in optical constants, and a further step determines the at least one characteristic of the sample from the measured change in the at least one characteristic of the probe pulses. An optical mask is also disclosed herein, and forms a part of these teachings.

  4. Ultrasonic generator and detector using an optical mask having a grating for launching a plurality of spatially distributed, time varying strain pulses in a sample

    DOEpatents

    Maris, Humphrey J.

    2002-01-01

    A method and a system are disclosed for determining at least one characteristic of a sample that contains a substrate and at least one film disposed on or over a surface of the substrate. The method includes a first step of placing a mask over a free surface of the at least one film, where the mask has a top surface and a bottom surface that is placed adjacent to the free surface of the film. The bottom surface of the mask has formed therein or thereon a plurality of features for forming at least one grating. A next step directs optical pump pulses through the mask to the free surface of the film, where individual ones of the pump pulses are followed by at least one optical probe pulse. The pump pulses are spatially distributed by the grating for launching a plurality of spatially distributed, time varying strain pulses within the film, which cause a detectable change in optical constants of the film. A next step detects a reflected or a transmitted portion of the probe pulses, which are also spatially distributed by the grating. A next step measures a change in at least one characteristic of at least one of reflected or transmitted probe pulses due to the change in optical constants, and a further step determines the at least one characteristic of the sample from the measured change in the at least one characteristic of the probe pulses. An optical mask is also disclosed herein, and forms a part of these teachings.

  5. Coherent pulse interrogation system for fiber Bragg grating sensing of strain and pressure in dynamic extremes of materials

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, George; Jaime, Marcelo; Balakirev, Fedor; Mielke, Chuck H.; Azad, Abul; Marshall, Bruce; La Lone, Brandon M.; Henson, Bryan; Smilowitz, Laura

    2015-05-21

    A 100 MHz fiber Bragg grating (FBG) interrogation system is described and applied to strain and pressure sensing. The approach relies on coherent pulse illumination of the FBG sensor with a broadband short pulse from a femtosecond modelocked erbium fiber laser. After interrogation of the FBG sensor, a long multi-kilometer run of single mode fiber is used for chromatic dispersion to temporally stretch the spectral components of the reflected pulse from the FBG sensor. Dynamic strain or pressure induced spectral shifts in the FBG sensor are detected as a pulsed time domain waveform shift after encoding by the chromatic dispersivemoreline. Signals are recorded using a single 35 GHz photodetector and a 50 G Samples per second, 25 GHz bandwidth, digitizing oscilloscope. Application of this approach to high-speed strain sensing in magnetic materials in pulsed magnetic fields to ~150 T is demonstrated. The FBG wavelength shifts are used to study magnetic field driven magnetostriction effects in LaCoO?. A sub-microsecond temporal shift in the FBG sensor wavelength attached to the sample under first order phase change appears as a fractional length change (strain: ?L/Lless

  6. Experimental comparison of grating- and propagation-based hard X-ray phase tomography of soft tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, S.; Schulz, G.; Müller, B.; Zanette, I.; Dominietto, M.; Langer, M.; Rack, A.; Le Duc, G.; David, C.; Mohr, J.; Pfeiffer, F.; Weitkamp, T.

    2014-10-21

    When imaging soft tissues with hard X-rays, phase contrast is often preferred over conventional attenuation contrast due its superior sensitivity. However, it is unclear which of the numerous phase tomography methods yields the optimized results at given experimental conditions. Therefore, we quantitatively compared the three phase tomography methods implemented at the beamline ID19 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility: X-ray grating interferometry (XGI), and propagation-based phase tomography, i.e., single-distance phase retrieval (SDPR) and holotomography (HT), using cancerous tissue from a mouse model and an entire heart of a rat. We show that for both specimens, the spatial resolution derived from the characteristic morphological features is about a factor of two better for HT and SDPR compared to XGI, whereas the XGI data generally exhibit much better contrast-to-noise ratios for the anatomical features. Moreover, XGI excels in fidelity of the density measurements, and is also more robust against low-frequency artifacts than HT, but it might suffer from phase-wrapping artifacts. Thus, we can regard the three phase tomography methods discussed as complementary. The application will decide which spatial and density resolutions are desired, for the imaging task and dose requirements, and, in addition, the applicant must choose between the complexity of the experimental setup and the one of data processing.

  7. Damage Detection of CFRP Plates by Full-Spectral Analysis of a Fibre Bragg Grating Sensor Signal

    SciTech Connect

    Mizutani, Yoshihiro; Groves, Roger M.

    2010-05-28

    This paper describes the measurement of average strain, strain distribution and vibration of cantilever beam made of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP), using a single Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor mounted on the beam surface. Average strain is determined from the displacement of the peak wavelength of reflected light from the FBG sensor. Unstrained reference FBG sensors were used to compensate for temperature drift and the photoelastic coefficient (P{sub e}), which was used to calculate the gauge factor. Measured strains agree with those measured by a resistance foil strain gauge attached to the sample. Stress distributions are measured by monitoring the variation in the full width half maximum (FWHM) values of the reflected spectrum, using a proposed optical analytical model, described in the paper. FWHM values were measured for both the cantilever test beam and a for a reference beam, loaded using a four-point bending rig. The trend of the stress distribution for the test beam matches with our analytical model, however with a relatively large noise present in the experimentally determined data. The vibration of cantilever beam was measured by temporal analysis of the peak reflection wavelength. This technique is very stable as measurements are not affected by variations in the signal amplitude. Finally an application of FBG sensors for damage detection of CFRP plates is demonstrated, by measuring the average strain and natural frequency. With small defects of different sizes applied to the CFRP plate, average strains were seen to increase with damage size and the natural frequency decreased with damage size.

  8. Quasi-resonant enhancement of a grazing diffracted wave and deep suppression of specular reflection on shallow metal gratings in terahertz

    SciTech Connect

    Tymchenko, M.; Gavrikov, V. K.; Spevak, I. S.; Kuzmenko, A. A.; Kats, A. V.

    2015-06-29

    We report on a previously unexamined anomaly at diffraction of THz radiation on metal gratings. This anomaly consists in a nearly complete redirection of energy to a non-specular homogeneous diffraction order propagating at a specific grazing angle and deep suppression of the specular reflection. We show that this anomaly is located far enough from the well-known one caused by the resonant excitation of the surface plasmon-polariton. The effect under consideration is of general nature and can exist in all spectrum regions; however, it is especially pronounced in THz region, where it should be taken into account when analyzing relevant experimental results.

  9. All-optical logic gate based on transient grating from disperse red 1 doped organic-inorganic hybrid films with an improved figure of merit

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Tianxi; Que, Wenxiu Shao, Jinyou; Wang, Yushu

    2015-10-21

    Azobenzene dyes have large refractive index near their main resonance, but the poor figure of merit (FOM) limits their potential for all-optical applications. To improve this situation, disperse red 1 (DR1) molecules were dispersed in a sol-gel germanium/Ormosil organic-inorganic hybrid matrix. Z-scan measurement results showed a good compatibility between the dopant and the matrix, and also, an improved FOM was obtained as compared to the DR1/polymer films reported previously. To demonstrate the all-optical signal processing effect, a cw Nd:YAG laser emitting at 532 nm and a He-Ne laser emitting at 632.8 nm were used as pump and probe beams, respectively. DR1 acts as an initiator of the photo-induced transient holographic grating, which is attributed to the trans-cis-trans photoisomerization. Thus, a three inputs AND all-optical logic gate was achieved by using choppers with different frequencies. The detailed mechanism of operation is discussed. These results indicate that the DR1 doped germanium/Ormosil organic-inorganic hybrid film with an improved FOM has a great potential in all-optical devices around its main resonance.

  10. A Census of X-ray gas in NGC 1068: Results from 450 ks of Chandra high energy transmission grating observations

    SciTech Connect

    Kallman, T.; Evans, Daniel A.; Marshall, H.; Canizares, C.; Nowak, M.; Schulz, N.; Longinotti, A.

    2014-01-10

    We present models for the X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. These are fitted to data obtained using the High Energy Transmission Grating on Chandra. The data show line and radiative recombination continuum emission from a broad range of ions and elements. The models explore the importance of excitation processes for these lines including photoionization followed by recombination, radiative excitation by absorption of continuum radiation, and inner shell fluorescence. The models show that the relative importance of these processes depends on the conditions in the emitting gas and that no single emitting component can fit the entire spectrum. In particular, the relative importance of radiative excitation and photoionization/recombination differs according to the element and ion stage emitting the line. This in turn implies a diversity of values for the ionization parameter of the various components of gas responsible for the emission, ranging from log(ξ) = 1 to 3. Using this, we obtain an estimate for the total amount of gas responsible for the observed emission. The mass flux through the region included in the HETG extraction region is approximately 0.3 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, assuming ordered flow at the speed characterizing the line widths. This can be compared with what is known about this object from other techniques.

  11. Performance measurements at the SLS SIM beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Flechsig, U.; Nolting, F.; Fraile Rodriguez, A.; Krempasky, J.; Quitmann, C.; Schmidt, T.; Spielmann, S.; Zimoch, D.

    2010-06-23

    The Surface/Interface: Microscopy beamline of the Swiss Light Source started operation in 2001. In 2007 the beamline has been significantly upgraded with a second refocusing section and a blazed grating optimized for high photon flux. Two Apple II type undulators with a plane grating monochromator using the collimated light scheme deliver photons with an energy from 90eV to about 2keV with variable polarization for the photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) as the primary user station. We measured a focus of (45x60) {mu}m({nu}xh) and a photon flux > 10{sup 12} photon/s for all gratings. Polarization switching within a few seconds is realized with the small bandpass of the monochromator and a slight detuning of the undulator.

  12. Concept of quasi-periodic undulator - control of radiation spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Shigemi

    1995-02-01

    A new type of undulator, the quasi-periodic undulator (QPU) is considered which generates the irrational harmonics in the radiation spectrum. This undulator consists of the arrays of magnet blocks aligned in a quasi-periodic order, and consequentially lead to a quasi-periodic motion of electron. A combination of the QPU and a conventional crystal/grating monochromator provides pure monochromatic photon beam for synchrotron radiation users because the irrational harmonics do not be diffracted in the same direction by a monochromator. The radiation power and width of each radiation peak emitted from this undulator are expected to be comparable with those of the conventional periodic undulator.

  13. Experimental demonstration of a soft x-ray self-seeded free-electron laser

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Ratner, D.; Abela, R.; Amann, J.; Behrens, C.; Bohler, D.; Bouchard, G.; Bostedt, C.; Boyes, M.; Chow, K.; Cocco, D.; et al

    2015-02-06

    The Linac Coherent Light Source has added self-seeding capability to the soft x-ray range using a grating monochromator system. We report demonstration of soft x-ray self-seeding with a measured resolving power of 2000-5000, wavelength stability of 10-4, and an increase in peak brightness by a factor of 2-5 across the photon energy range of 500-1000 eV. By avoiding the need for a monochromator at the experimental station, the self-seeded beam can deliver as much as 50 fold higher brightness to users.

  14. Experimental demonstration of a soft x-ray self-seeded free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, D.; Abela, R.; Amann, J.; Behrens, C.; Bohler, D.; Bouchard, G.; Bostedt, C.; Boyes, M.; Chow, K.; Cocco, D.; Decker, F. J.; Ding, Y.; Eckman, C.; Emma, P.; Fairley, D.; Feng, Y.; Field, C.; Flechsig, U.; Gassner, G.; Hastings, J.; Heimann, P.; Huang, Z.; Kelez, N.; Krzywinski, J.; Loos, H.; Lutman, A.; Marinelli, A.; Marcus, G.; Maxwell, T.; Moeller, S.; Morton, D.; Nuhn, H. D.; Rodes, N.; Schlotter, W.; Serkez, S.; Stevens, T.; Turner, J.; Walz, D.; Welch, J.; Wu, J.

    2015-02-06

    The Linac Coherent Light Source has added self-seeding capability to the soft x-ray range using a grating monochromator system. We report demonstration of soft x-ray self-seeding with a measured resolving power of 2000-5000, wavelength stability of 10-4, and an increase in peak brightness by a factor of 2-5 across the photon energy range of 500-1000 eV. By avoiding the need for a monochromator at the experimental station, the self-seeded beam can deliver as much as 50 fold higher brightness to users.

  15. Gratings Inc | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    microstructural and nanostructural approaches to different challenges facing the microelectronics and power industries. Coordinates: 35.08418, -106.648639 Show Map Loading...

  16. Performance of the VUV high resolution and high flux beamline for chemical dynamics studies at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Heimann, P.A.; Koike, M. Hsu, C.W.

    1996-07-01

    At the Advanced Light Source an undulator beamline, with an energy range from 6 to 30 eV, has been constructed for chemical dynamics experiments. The higher harmonics of the undulator are suppressed by a novel, windowless gas filter. In one branchline high flux, 2 % bandwidth radiation is directed toward an end station for photodissociation and crossed molecular beam experiments. A photon flux of photon/sec has been measured at this end station. In a second branchline a 6.65 m off- plane Eagle monochromator delivers narrow bandwidth radiation to an end station for photoionization studies. At this second end station a peak flux of 3 x 10{sup 11} was observed for 25,000 resolving power. This monochromator has achieved a resolving power of 70,000 using a 4800 grooves/mm grating, one of the highest resolving powers obtained by a VUV monochromator.

  17. Time and spectrum-resolving multiphoton correlator for 300900 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsen, Kelsey D.; Thibault, Marilyne; Jennewein, Thomas; Kolenderski, Piotr; Scarcella, Carmelo; Tosi, Alberto

    2014-10-14

    We demonstrate a single-photon sensitive spectrometer in the visible range, which allows us to perform time-resolved and multi-photon spectral correlation measurements at room temperature. It is based on a monochromator composed of two gratings, collimation optics, and an array of single photon avalanche diodes. The time resolution can reach 110 ps and the spectral resolution is 2 nm/pixel, limited by the design of the monochromator. This technique can easily be combined with commercial monochromators and can be useful for joint spectrum measurements of two photons emitted in the process of parametric down conversion, as well as time-resolved spectrum measurements in optical coherence tomography or medical physics applications.

  18. Study of a scattering shield in a high heat load monochromator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Nucl. Instrum. Methods A; Journal Volume: 716; Journal Issue: 07, 2013 Research Org: Advanced Photon Source (APS), ...

  19. News

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Monochromator Installed The new multilayer monochromator has been installed by Oxford Danfysik. In the coming months the monochromator will undergo commissioning by the...

  20. Spectrophotometer

    SciTech Connect

    Talmadge, P.C.; Vergato, J.A.

    1984-08-07

    Disclosed herein is a spectrophotometer which includes a source of radiation; an optical system for forming a beam of radiation from the source and directing it along a sample path and along a reference path, which paths come together at a location to form a combined path that impinges on a detector; a chopper mounted at said location for successively directing one or the other of the beams along the combined path or providing a blank chopper area for blocking radiation from the combined path; a monochromator having a grating and slits disposed in the combined path, the angular position of the grating being adjustable for passing selected successive wavelengths of radiant energy through the optical system; and controls are provided for controlling the movement of the grating and/or slits so that movement only occurs when the blank chopper area is blocking the combined path.

  1. Material identification employing a grating spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gornushkin, Ignor B.; Winefordner, James D.; Smith, Benjamin W.

    2007-01-09

    Multi-ordered spectral data is obtained from various known substances and is stored in a spectral library. The identification of an unknown material is accomplished by correlating the sample's multi-ordered spectrum against all or a portion of the spectrum in the library, and finding the closest match.

  2. Fiber Grating Moisture And Chemical Sensing System

    DOEpatents

    Schipani, Claudia; Spano, Ennio; Dalle Crode, Domenico

    2004-01-27

    A vane for a stator of a variable-geometry turbine, in particular for aeronautical engines, has an airfoil profile and a pair of hinge portions, which are carried by the airfoil profile and enable the airfoil profile to be coupled to a support structure of the stator so as to be rotatable about an axis of adjustment; the vane also has internal channels that allow a flow of air to pass through in order to cool the hinge portions.

  3. The Nanoscience Beamline at Diamond, Optical Design Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Reininger, Ruben; Dhesi, Sarnjeet

    2007-01-19

    The main requirement of the Nanoscience Beamline at Diamond is to deliver the highest possible flux at the sample position of a PEEM with a resolving power of about 5000 in the energy range 80-2000 eV. The source of the beamline is a couple of APPLE II helical undulators in tandem that can also be used separately to allow for faster switching of the circular polarization. Based on its versatility, a collimated plane grating monochromator using sagittally focusing elements was chosen to cover the required energy range with three gratings. The operation of this monochromator requires a collimated beam incident on the grating along the dispersion direction. This can be achieved either with a toroid, focusing with its major radius along the non-dispersive direction at the exit slit, or with a sagittal cylinder. The former option uses a sagittal cylinder after the grating to focus the collimated beam at the exit slit. In the latter case, a toroid after the grating is used to focus in both directions at the exit slit. The advantage of the toroid downstream the grating is the higher horizontal demagnification. This configuration fulfills the Nanoscience Beamline's required resolving power but cannot be used to achieve very high resolution due to the astigmatic coma aberration of the toroidal mirror. The focusing at the sample position is performed with a KB pair of plane elliptical mirrors. Assuming achievable values for the errors on all the optical surfaces, the expected spots FWHW in the horizontal and vertical directions are 10 {mu}m and 3 {mu}m, respectively. The calculated photon flux at this spot at 5000 resolving power is >1012 photons/sec between 80 and 1600 eV for linearly polarized light and between 106 and 1200 eV for circularly polarized light. The beamline is expected to be operational in January 2007.

  4. An Energy-Stabilized Varied-Line-Space-Monochromator UndulatorBeam Line for PEEM Illumination and Magnetic Circular Dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, Tony; McKinney, Wayne; Domning, Ed; Doran, Andrew; Padmore, Howard

    2006-06-01

    A new undulator beam line has been built and commissioned at the Advanced Light Source for illumination of the PEEM3 microscope. The beam line delivers high flux beams over an energy range from C1s through the transition metals to include the M edges of the magnetic rare earth elements. We present details of the optical design, and data on the performance of the zero-order tracking of the photon energy.

  5. Dynamics of two-electron excitations in helium

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, C.D.; Menzel, A.; Frigo, S.P.

    1997-04-01

    Excitation of both electrons in helium offers a unique window for studying electron correlation at the most basic level in an atom in which these two electrons and the nucleus form a three-body system. The authors utilized the first light available at the U-8 undulator-SGM monochromator beamline to investigate the dynamic parameters, partial cross sections, differential cross sections, and photoelectron angular distribution parameters ({beta}), with a high resolving power for the photon beam and at the highly differential level afforded by the use of their electron spectrometer. In parallel, they carried out detailed calculations of the relevant properties by a theoretical approach that is based on the hyperspherical close-coupling method. Partial photoionization cross sections {sigma}{sub n}, and photoelectron angular distributions {beta}{sub n} were measured for all possible final ionic states He{sup +}(n) in the region of the double excitations N(K,T){sup A} up to the N=5 threshold. At a photon energy bandpass of 12 meV below the thresholds N=3, 4, and 5, this level of differentiation offers the most critical assessment of the dynamics of the two-electron excitations to date. The experimental data were seen to be very well described by the most advanced theoretical calculations.

  6. High-performance soft x-ray spectromicroscopy beamline at SSRF

    SciTech Connect

    Xue Chaofan; Wang Yong; Guo Zhi; Wu Yanqing; Zhen Xiangjun; Chen Min; Chen Jiahua; Xue Song; Tai Renzhong; Peng Zhongqi; Lu Qipeng

    2010-10-15

    The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) is the first third-generation synchrotron facility in China and operated at an electron energy of 3.5 GeV. One of the seven beamlines in the first construction phase is devoted to soft x-ray spectromicroscopy and is equipped with an elliptically polarized undulator light source, a plane grating monochromator, and a scanning transmission x-ray microscope end station. Initial results reveal the high performance of this beamline, with an energy resolving power estimated to be over 10 000 at the argon L-edge and a spatial resolution better than 30 nm.

  7. Study on higher harmonic suppression using edge filter and polished Si wafer

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R. K. Singh, Amol Modi, Mohammed H. Lodha, G. S.

    2014-04-24

    Higher harmonics contamination is a severe problem in synchrotron beamlines where grating monochromators are used. In these beamlines, absorption edge filters and critical angle mirrors are used to suppress the harmonic contaminations. In the present study, carried out using Indus-1 reflectivity beamline, a harmonic suppression characteristic of Al edge filter and polished silicon wafer are determined. It is found that the Al filter suppresses higher harmonics in 2–7% range whereas the polished silicon wafer can suppress the higher harmonics below 1%. The results of comparative study are discussed.

  8. Performance of the BL4 Beamline for Surface and Interface Research at the Siam Photon Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Hideki; Buddhakala, Moragote; Chumpolkulwong, Somchai; Supruangnet, Ratchadapora; Kakizaki, Akito; Songsiriritthigul, Prayoon

    2007-01-19

    The evaluations of the monochromator of the BL4 beamline at the Siam Photon Laboratory were carried out by gas-phase photoionization measurements. The beamline employs a varied-line-spacing plane grating monochromator, which delivers photons with energies between 20-240 eV. The resolving power of the monochromator depends strongly with the alignment of the exit slit. The designed resolving power of 5000 has been achieved. The experimental station of the beamline has been upgraded for surface and interface research. The new experimental station removes the disadvantage and expands the capabilities of the old one in such a way that photoemission experiments using synchrotron light can be performed in parallel with other in situ surface analysis techniques, as well as with preparation of other samples. The new system includes the old photoemission system and a multi-UHV-chamber system. The standard surface-sensitive techniques available in addition to photoemission spectroscopy using synchrotron light are UPS, XPS, AES and LEED. The new experimental station also includes a metal MBE system for preparing samples for the studies of ultra-thin magnetic films and metal-semiconductor interfaces.

  9. SAMRAI: A novel variably polarized angle-resolved photoemission beamline in the VUV region at UVSOR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Shin-Ichi; Ito, Takahiro; Hosaka, Masahito; Katoh, Masahiro; Sakai, Masahiro; Nakamura, Eiken; Kondo, Naonori; Horigome, Toshio; Hayashi, Kenji; Goto, Tomohiro; Ejima, Takeo; Soda, Kazuo

    2010-05-15

    A novel variably polarized angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy beamline in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) region has been installed at the UVSOR-II 750 MeV synchrotron light source. The beamline is equipped with a 3 m long APPLE-II type undulator with horizontally/vertically linear and right/left circular polarizations, a 10 m Wadsworth type monochromator covering a photon energy range of 6-43 eV, and a 200 mm radius hemispherical photoelectron analyzer with an electron lens of a {+-}18 deg. acceptance angle. Due to the low emittance of the UVSOR-II storage ring, the light source is regarded as an entrance slit, and the undulator light is directly led to a grating by two plane mirrors in the monochromator while maintaining a balance between high-energy resolution and high photon flux. The energy resolving power (h{nu}/{Delta}h{nu}) and photon flux of the monochromator are typically 1x10{sup 4} and 10{sup 12} photons/s, respectively, with a 100 {mu}m exit slit. The beamline is used for angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with an energy resolution of a few meV covering the UV-to-VUV energy range.

  10. Performances and first experimental results of BACH, the beamline for dichroism and scattering experiments at ELETTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Zangrando, M.; Zacchigna, M.; Bondino, F.; Finazzi, M.; Pardini, T.; Plate, M.; Rochow, R.; Cocco, D.; Parmigiani, F.

    2004-05-12

    BACH, the new soft x-ray beamline for polarization dependent experiments at the Italian synchrotron radiation facility ELETTRA, has been commissioned, characterized and opened to external users. Based on two APPLE II undulators, it covers an energy range between 35 eV and 1600 eV with the control of the light polarization. The monochromator works either in high resolution or high flux mode. Resolving powers of 16000 at 50 eV, 12000 at 90 eV, more than 12000 at 400 eV, 15000 at 534 eV and 6600 at 867 eV have been achieved with the three high resolution gratings. The resolving powers of the high flux grating, which covers the 290 - 1600 eV range, have been measured reaching 7000 at 400 eV and 2200 at 867 eV. The fluxes, in the high resolution mode, range between 4{center_dot}1011 photons/s at 125 eV and 2{center_dot}1010 photons/s at about 1100 eV. Using the high flux grating with the best resolution achievable 1.7{center_dot}1011 photons/s impinge on the sample at 900 eV. Two branches are installed after the monochromator allowing the set-up of two different experimental stations. One of them, besides several facilities for surface preparation and analysis, hosts a compact inelastic soft x-ray spectrometer (ComIXS) dedicated to x-ray emission experiments exploiting the small spot (10 {mu}m in the vertical direction) on the sample. The other branch hosts a liquid helium cryostat equipped with a superconducting coil to perform absorption and transmission experiments with temperatures down to 2 K and magnetic field up to {+-}7 T.

  11. Town Known for First Thanksgiving Grateful for Energy Savings

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plymouth, Massachusetts, has made a number of energy efficiency improvements to reduce energy waste in the coming years, while also exploring opportunities to expand use of renewable energy sources.

  12. Ultrafast transient grating radiation to optical image converter...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI Identifier: 1163194 Assignee: Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (Livermore, CA) LSO Patent Number(s): 8,879,137 Application Number: 13423,498 Contract Number: ...

  13. Interrogating adhesion using fiber Bragg grating sensing technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  14. ALS Scientists Patent Technique To Dramatically Advance Grating...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    patented by the ALS Experimental Systems Group show the unique structure of saw-tooth grooves with atomically smooth facets. "RIXS is one of the biggest things to happen in...

  15. Interrogating adhesion using fiber Bragg grating sensing technology

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Fiber sensors consisted of the os1100 FBG from Micron Optics and four different ... Struct. 2004, 66, 239. 10 Trego, A.; Keller, R., Fiber optics in bonded repairs. Soc ...

  16. Ultrafast transient grating radiation to optical image converter...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Inventors: Stewart, Richard E ; Vernon, Stephen P ; Steel, Paul T ; Lowry, Mark E Issue Date: 2014-11-04 OSTI Identifier: 1163194 Assignee: Lawrence Livermore National Security, ...

  17. Reflective coating for near infrared immersion gratings (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: Modern Technologies in Space- and Ground -based Telescopes and Instrumentation II, Amsterdam, Netherlands, ...

  18. Fabrications of PVDF gratings :final report for LDRD project 79884.

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J. A. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign); Carr, Dustin Wade; Bogart, Gregory R.

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to do some preliminary studies and process development on electroactive polymers to be used for tunable optical elements and MEMS actuators. Working in collaboration between Sandia National Labs and The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, we have successfully developed a process for applying thin films of poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) onto glass substrates and patterning these using a novel stamping technique. We observed actuation in these structures in static and dynamic measurements. Further work is needed to characterize the impact that this approach could have on the field of tunable optical devices for sensing and communication.

  19. High Efficiency Germanium Immersion Gratings (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scatter should be low based upon the surface roughness. Measurement of the spectral line profile of a COsub 2 laser sets an upper bound on total integrated scatter of 0.5%. ...

  20. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... A diamond double-crystal transmission monochromator for the TROIKA II station at ESRF ... M. ; Freund, A. The performance of a diamond double-crystal monochromator for the ...

  1. New SRC APPLE ll Variable Polarization Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    M Severson; M Bissen; M Fisher; G Rogers; R Reininger; M Green; D Eisert; B Tredinnick

    2011-12-31

    SRC has recently commissioned a new Varied Line-Spacing Plane Grating Monochromator (VLS-PGM) utilizing as its source a 1 m long APPLE II insertion device in short-straight-section 9 of the Aladdin storage ring. The insertion device reliably delivers horizontal, vertical, and right and left circularly polarized light to the beamline. Measurements from an in situ polarimeter can be used for undulator corrections to compensate for depolarizing effects of the beamline. The beamline has only three optical elements and covers the energy range from 11.1 to 270 eV using two varied line-spacing gratings. A plane mirror rotates to illuminate the gratings at the correct angle to cancel the defocus term at all photon energies. An exit slit and elliptical-toroid refocusing mirror complete the beamline. Using a 50 {mu}m exit slit, the beamline provides moderate to high resolution, with measured flux in the mid 10{sup 12} (photons/s/200 mA) range, and a spot size of 400 {mu}m horizontal by 30 {mu}m vertical.

  2. Microfocusing at the PG1 beamline at FLASH

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Dziarzhytski, Siarhei; Gerasimova, Natalia; Goderich, Rene; Mey, Tobias; Reininger, Ruben; Rubhausen, Michael; Siewert, Frank; Weigelt, Holger; Brenner, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    The Kirkpatrick–Baez (KB) refocusing mirror system installed at the PG1 branch of the plane-grating monochromator beamline at the soft X-ray/XUV free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) is designed to provide tight aberration-free focusing down to 4 µm × 6 µm full width at half-maximum (FWHM) on the sample. Such a focal spot size is mandatory to achieve ultimate resolution and to guarantee best performance of the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) off-axis parabolic double-monochromator Raman spectrometer permanently installed at the PG1 beamline as an experimental end-station. The vertical beam size on the sample of the Raman spectrometer, which operates without entrance slit, defines andmore » limits the energy resolution of the instrument which has an unprecedented design value of 2 meV for photon energies below 70 eV and about 15 meV for higher energies up to 200 eV. In order to reach the designed focal spot size of 4 µm FWHM (vertically) and to hold the highest spectrometer resolution, special fully motorized in-vacuum manipulators for the KB mirror holders have been developed and the optics have been aligned employing wavefront-sensing techniques as well as ablative imprints analysis. Lastly, aberrations like astigmatism were minimized. In this article the design and layout of the KB mirror manipulators, the alignment procedure as well as microfocus optimization results are presented.« less

  3. Microfocusing at the PG1 beamline at FLASH

    SciTech Connect

    Dziarzhytski, Siarhei; Gerasimova, Natalia; Goderich, Rene; Mey, Tobias; Reininger, Ruben; Rubhausen, Michael; Siewert, Frank; Weigelt, Holger; Brenner, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    The Kirkpatrick–Baez (KB) refocusing mirror system installed at the PG1 branch of the plane-grating monochromator beamline at the soft X-ray/XUV free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) is designed to provide tight aberration-free focusing down to 4 µm × 6 µm full width at half-maximum (FWHM) on the sample. Such a focal spot size is mandatory to achieve ultimate resolution and to guarantee best performance of the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) off-axis parabolic double-monochromator Raman spectrometer permanently installed at the PG1 beamline as an experimental end-station. The vertical beam size on the sample of the Raman spectrometer, which operates without entrance slit, defines and limits the energy resolution of the instrument which has an unprecedented design value of 2 meV for photon energies below 70 eV and about 15 meV for higher energies up to 200 eV. In order to reach the designed focal spot size of 4 µm FWHM (vertically) and to hold the highest spectrometer resolution, special fully motorized in-vacuum manipulators for the KB mirror holders have been developed and the optics have been aligned employing wavefront-sensing techniques as well as ablative imprints analysis. Lastly, aberrations like astigmatism were minimized. In this article the design and layout of the KB mirror manipulators, the alignment procedure as well as microfocus optimization results are presented.

  4. A simple, high performance Thomson scattering diagnostic for high temperature plasma research

    SciTech Connect

    Hartog, D.J.D.; Cekic, M.

    1994-02-01

    This Thomson scattering diagnostic is used to measure the electron temperature and density of the plasma in the MST reversed-field pinch, a magnetic confinement fusion research device. This diagnostic system is unique for its type in that it combines high performance with simple design and low cost components. In the design of this instrument, careful attention was given to the suppression of stray laser line light with simple and effective beam dumps, viewing dumps, aperatures, and a holographic edge filter. This allows the use of a single grating monochromator for dispersion of the Thomson scattered spectrum onto the microchannel plate detector. Alignment and calibration procedures for the laser beam delivery system, the scattered light collection system, and the spectrometer and detector are described. A sample Thomson scattered spectrum illustrates typical data.

  5. Extreme ultraviolet diagnosis of a neutral-beam-heated mirror machine

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.P.

    1980-07-01

    Extreme ultraviolet emissions from the LLL 2XIIB fusion research experiment have been studied. (2XIIB was a magnetic-mirror-plasma-confinement device; beams of high-energy (20 keV) neutral deuterium created a high-density, high-temperature plasma.) A normal-incidence concave-grating monochromator, equipped with a windowless photomultiplier tube, was used to measure emissions in the spectral region from 400 Angstrom to 1600 A. Emissions of oxygen, titanium, carbon, nitrogen, and deuterium were identified; the oxygen brightnesses at times exceeded 10/sup 18/ ph-s/sup -1/-cm/sup -2/-sr/sup -1/. A survey of the emission characteristics found the oxygen concentration was 3%, the other impurities had concentrations near 0.4%. The radiated power loss was about 5% of the deposited neutral beam power.

  6. A high-order harmonic generation apparatus for time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Frietsch, B.; Gahl, C.; Teichmann, M.; Weinelt, M.; Carley, R.; Döbrich, K.; Schwarzkopf, O.; Wernet, Ph.

    2013-07-15

    We present a table top setup for time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy to investigate band structure dynamics of correlated materials driven far from equilibrium by femtosecond laser pulse excitation. With the electron-phonon equilibration time being in the order of 1–2 ps it is necessary to achieve sub-picosecond time resolution. Few techniques provide both the necessary time and energy resolution to map non-equilibrium states of the band structure. Laser-driven high-order harmonic generation is such a technique. In our experiment, a grating monochromator delivers tunable photon energies up to 40 eV. A photon energy bandwidth of 150 meV and a pulse duration of 100 fs FWHM allow us to cover the k-space necessary to map valence bands at different k{sub z} and detect outer core states.

  7. Analysis of soft x-ray/VUV transmission characteristics of Si and Al filters

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, Aby; Modi, Mohammed H.; Singh, Amol; Gupta, R. K.; Lodha, G. S.

    2013-02-05

    Ultrathin filters of Al (1500A) and Si (1200A) should exhibit more than 65% transmission above their Labsorption edges in the soft x-ray/vacuum ultra violet region(Si L-edge: 124 A and Al L-edge: 170 A). However, the measured transmission characteristics of these filters showed {approx}40% transmission. The transmission measurements of these filters were carried at the reflectivity beamline of Indus-1 synchrotron source out over a large wavelength range of 120-360A. In order to understand the measured transmission performance a detailed model fitting is performed using the Paratt formalism. It is found that the oxidation of the surface region of the filters is responsible for the reduced transmission performance. Effects of higher harmonics of the toroidal grating monochromator are also considered in the data analysis.

  8. Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, J.H.; Gullikson, E.M.; Koike, M.

    1997-04-01

    More sophisticated optics for the x-ray, soft x-ray and far ultraviolet spectral regions being developed for synchrotron radiation research and many other applications, require accurate calibration and standards facilities for measuring reflectivity of mirrors and multilayer coatings, transmission of thin films, bandpass of multilayers, efficiency of gratings or detectors, etc. For this purpose beamline 6.3.2 was built at the ALS. Its energy coverage, versatility, simplicity and convenience also make it useful for a wide range of other experiments. The paper describes the components of this beamline, consisting of: a four jaw aperture; a horizontal focusing mirror; a monochromator; exit slit; vertical focusing mirror; mechanical and vacuum system; reflectometer; filter wheels; and data acquisition system.

  9. New Soft X-ray Beamline (BL10) at the SAGA Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, D.; Setoyama, H.; Okajima, T.

    2010-06-23

    A new soft X-ray beamline (BL10) at the SAGA Light Source (SAGA-LS) was constructed at the end of 2008. Commissioning of this new beamline started at the beginning of 2009. Synchrotron radiation from a variably polarizing undulator (APPLE-II) can be used in this beamline. The obtained light is monochromatized by a varied-line-spacing plane grating monochromator with the variable included angle mechanism. Its designed resolving power and photon flux are 3,000-10,000 and 10{sup 12}-10{sup 9} photons/s at 300 mA, respectively. The performance test results were generally satisfactory. An overview of the optical design of the beamline and the current status of commissioning are reported.

  10. News Item

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Tecnai Specifications Specifications Accel. Voltage: 200 (and 120) kV Spherical Aberration Cs: 0.5 mm Chromatic Aberration Cc: 1.1 mm HRTEM Scherzer resolution 0.19 nm Information limit (monochromator off) 0.12 nm STEM Spatial Resolution Monochromator off 0.14 nm Monochromator on 1.0 nm EELS Energy Resolution Monochromator off 500 meV Monochromator on 150 meV

  11. TEMPO: a New Insertion Device Beamline at SOLEIL for Time Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy Experiments on Solids and Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Polack, F.; Silly, M.; Chauvet, C.; Lagarde, B.; Bergeard, N.; Izquierdo, M.; Chubar, O.; Krizmancic, D.; Ribbens, M.; Duval, J.-P.; Basset, C.; Kubsky, S.; Sirotti, F.

    2010-06-23

    A new insertion device beamline is now operational on straight section 8 at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation source in France. The beamline and the experimental station were developed to optimize the study of the dynamics of electronic and magnetic properties of materials. Here we present the main technical characteristics of the installation and the general principles behind them. The source is composed of two APPLE II type insertion devices. The monochromator with plane gratings and spherical mirrors is working in the energy range 40-1500 eV. It is equipped with VLS, VGD gratings to allow the user optimization of flux or higher harmonics rejection. The observed resonance structures measured in gas phase enable us to determine the available energy resolution: a resolving power higher than 10000 is obtained at the Ar 2p, N 1s and Ne K-edges when using all the optical elements at full aperture. The total flux as a function of the measured photon energy and the characterization of the focal spot size complete the beamline characterization.

  12. Gap solitons in rocking optical lattices and waveguides with undulating gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Mayteevarunyoo, Thawatchai; Malomed, Boris A.

    2009-07-15

    We report results of a systematic analysis of the stability of one-dimensional solitons in a model including the self-repulsive or attractive cubic nonlinearity and a linear potential represented by a periodically shaking lattice, which was recently implemented in experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates. In optics, the same model applies to undulated waveguiding arrays, which are also available to the experiment. In the case of the repulsive nonlinearity, stability regions are presented, in relevant parameter planes, for fundamental gap solitons and their two-peak and three-peak bound complexes, in the first and second finite band gaps. In the model with the attractive nonlinearity, stability regions are produced for fundamental solitons and their bound states populating the semi-infinite gap. In the first finite and semi-infinite gaps, unstable solitons gradually decay into radiation, while, in the second finite band gap, they are transformed into more complex states, which may represent new species of solitons. For a large amplitude of the rocking-lattice drive, the model is tantamount to that with a 'flashing' lattice potential, which is controlled by periodic sequences of instantaneous kicks. Using this correspondence, we explain generic features of the stability diagrams for the solitons. We also derive a limit case of the latter system, in the form of coupled-mode equations with a 'flashing' linear coupling.

  13. Progress in the Fabrication of a Prototype ZnSe Immersion Grating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: SPIE Modern Technologies in Space- and Ground-Based Telescopes and ...

  14. ZnS and ZnSe immersion gratings for astronomical high-resolution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of internal attenuation of bulk materials in the short NIR region Citation Details ... of internal attenuation of bulk materials in the short NIR region We measure the ...

  15. HELIOS—A laboratory based on high-order harmonic generation of extreme ultraviolet photons for time-resolved spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Plogmaker, S. E-mail: Joachim.Terschluesen@physics.uu.se Terschlüsen, J. A. E-mail: Joachim.Terschluesen@physics.uu.se Krebs, N.; Svanqvist, M.; Forsberg, J.; Cappel, U. B.; Rubensson, J.-E.; Siegbahn, H.; Söderström, J. E-mail: Joachim.Terschluesen@physics.uu.se

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we present the HELIOS (High Energy Laser Induced Overtone Source) laboratory, an in-house high-order harmonic generation facility which generates extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photon pulses in the range of 15-70 eV with monochromatized XUV pulse lengths below 35 fs. HELIOS is a source for time-resolved pump-probe/two-color spectroscopy in the sub-50 fs range, which can be operated at 5 kHz or 10 kHz. An optical parametric amplifier is available for pump-probe experiments with wavelengths ranging from 240 nm to 20 000 nm. The produced XUV radiation is monochromatized by a grating in the so-called off-plane mount. Together with overall design parameters, first monochromatized spectra are shown with an intensity of 2 ⋅ 10{sup 10} photons/s (at 5 kHz) in the 29th harmonic, after the monochromator. The XUV pulse duration is measured to be <25 fs after monochromatization.

  16. Photoionization study of doubly-excited helium at ultra-high resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kaindl, G.; Schulz, K.; Domke, M.

    1997-04-01

    Ever since the pioneering work of Madden & Codling and Cooper, Fano & Prats on doubly-excited helium in the early sixties, this system may be considered as prototypical for the study of electron-electron correlations. More detailed insight into these states could be reached only much later, when improved theoretical calculations of the optically-excited {sup 1}P{sup 0} double-excitation states became available and sufficiently high energy resolution ({delta}E=4.0 meV) was achieved. This allowed a systematic investigation of the double-excitation resonances of He up to excitation energies close to the double-ionization threshold, I{sub infinity}=79.003 eV, which stimulated renewed theoretical interest into these correlated electron states. The authors report here on striking progress in energy resolution in this grazing-incidence photon-energy range of grating monochromators and its application to hitherto unobservable states of doubly-excited He. By monitoring an extremely narrow double-excitation resonance of He, with a theoretical lifetime width of less than or equal to 5 {mu}eV, a resolution of {delta}E=1.0 meV (FWHM) at 64.1 eV could be achieved. This ultra-high spectral resolution, combined with high photon flux, allowed the investigation of new Rydberg resonances below the N=3 ionization threshold, I{sub 3}, as well as a detailed comparison with ab-initio calculations.

  17. The Nanoscience Beamline (I06) at Diamond Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Dhesi, S. S.; Cavill, S. A.; Potenza, A.; Marchetto, H.; Mott, R. A.; Steadman, P.; Peach, A.; Shepherd, E. L.; Ren, X.; Wagner, U. H.; Reininger, R.

    2010-06-23

    The Nanoscience beamline (I06) is one of seven Diamond Phase-I beamlines which has been operational since January 2007 delivering polarised soft x-rays, for a PhotoEmission Electron Microscope (PEEM) and branchline, in the energy range 80-2100 eV. The beamline is based on a collimated plane grating monochromator with sagittal focusing elements, utilising two APPLE II helical undulator sources, and has been designed for high flux density at the PEEM sample position. A {approx}5 {mu}m ({sigma}) diameter beam is focussed onto the sample in the PEEM allowing a range of experiments using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) as contrast mechanisms. The beamline is also equipped with a branchline housing a 6T superconducting magnet for XMCD and XMLD experiments. The magnet is designed to move on and off the branchline which allows a diverse range of experiments.

  18. Method for characterization of a spherically bent crystal for K.alpha.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray imaging of laser plasmas using a focusing monochromator geometry (Patent) | DOEPatents Method for characterization of a spherically bent crystal for K.alpha. X-ray imaging of laser plasmas using a focusing monochromator geometry Title: Method for characterization of a spherically bent crystal for K.alpha. X-ray imaging of laser plasmas using a focusing monochromator geometry A method is provided for characterizing spectrometric properties (e.g., peak reflectivity, reflection curve

  19. Influence of transient absorber gratings on the pulse parameters of passively mode-locked cw dye ring lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehlke, D.; Rudolph, W.; Wilhelmi, B.

    1983-02-15

    A theoretical explanation of the experimental results obtained by the method of colliding pulse mode locking (CPM) is given. It is shown that, compared to other passive methods, the coherent interaction of the counter-running pulses in the thin absorber yields considerably shorter pulses with a more favorable stability region. Deviations from an amplifier position being symmetric with respect to the amplification of the counter-running pulses lead to different energies of the pulses and to a strong decrease of the stability range of the CPM.

  20. Beamline 10.3.2

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Bend magnet (beamline optics collect 0.166 horizontal mrad) Energy range 2.5-17 keV Monochromator Monochromatic,...

  1. Beamline 7.0.2

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Operational No Source characteristics 5-cm period undulator (U5) (first, third, and fifth harmonics) Energy range See endstation tables Monochromator See endstation tables ...

  2. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Quinn R. We describe a new FEL line-narrowing technique called distributed seeding (DS), using Si(111) Bragg crystal monochromators to enhance the spectral brightness of the...

  3. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    neutrons (2) data (2) dose rates (2) hydrogen (2) mirrors (2) monochromators (2) ... the HB-3 beam line, (6) a supercritical hydrogen cold source system to be retrofitted ...

  4. TecnaiDLFinal.doc

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Instrument Preparation Show how to check basic vacuum functionality and target pressure values Demonstrate the proper settings of FEG, gun lens, and monochromator Show which ...

  5. Molecular environmental science using synchrotron radiation:Chemistry and physics of waste form materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lindle, Dennis W.; Shuh, David K.

    2005-02-28

    Production of defense-related nuclear materials has generated large volumes of complex chemical wastes containing a mixture of radionuclides. The disposition of these wastes requires conversion of the liquid and solid-phase components into durable, solid forms suitable for long-term immobilization [1]. Specially formulated glass compositions, many of which have been derived from glass developed for commercial purposes, and ceramics such as pyrochlores and apatites, will be the main recipients for these wastes. The performance characteristics of waste-form glasses and ceramics are largely determined by the loading capacity for the waste constituents (radioactive and non-radioactive) and the resultant chemical and radiation resistance of the waste-form package to leaching (durability). There are unique opportunities for the use of near-edge soft-x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy to investigate speciation of low-Z elements forming the backbone of waste-form glasses and ceramics. Although nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is the primary technique employed to obtain speciation information from low-Z elements in waste forms, NMR is incompatible with the metallic impurities contained in real waste and is thus limited to studies of idealized model systems. In contrast, NEXAFS can yield element-specific speciation information from glass constituents without sensitivity to paramagnetic species. Development and use of NEXAFS for eventual studies of real waste glasses has significant implications, especially for the low-Z elements comprising glass matrices [5-7]. The NEXAFS measurements were performed at Beamline 6.3.1, an entrance-slitless bend-magnet beamline operating from 200 eV to 2000 eV with a Hettrick-Underwood varied-line-space (VLS) grating monochromator, of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBNL. Complete characterization and optimization of this beamline was conducted to enable high-performance measurements.

  6. Scanning transmission x-ray microscope for materials science spectromicroscopy at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, T.; Seal, S.; Shin, H.

    1997-04-01

    The brightness of the Advanced Light Source will be exploited by several new instruments for materials science spectromicroscopy over the next year or so. The first of these to become operational is a scanning transmission x-ray microscope with which near edge x-ray absorption spectra (NEXAFS) can be measured on spatial features of sub-micron size. Here the authors describe the instrument as it is presently implemented, its capabilities, some studies made to date and the developments to come. The Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope makes use of a zone plate lens to produce a small x-ray spot with which to perform absorption spectroscopy through thin samples. The x-ray beam from ALS undulator beamline 7.0 emerges into the microscope vessel through a silicon nitride vacuum window 160nm thick and 300{mu}m square. The vessel is filled with helium at atmospheric pressure. The zone plate lens is illuminated 1mm downstream from the vacuum window and forms an image in first order of a pinhole which is 3m upstream in the beamline. An order sorting aperture passes the first order converging light and blocks the unfocused zero order. The sample is at the focus a few mm downstream of the zone plate and mounted from a scanning piezo stage which rasters in x and y so that an image is formed, pixel by pixel, by an intensity detector behind the sample. Absorption spectra are measured point-by-point as the photon energy is scanned by rotating the diffraction grating in the monochromator and changing the undulator gap.

  7. X-ray Optics for BES Light Source Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Dennis; Padmore, Howard; Lessner, Eliane

    2013-03-27

    potentially revolutionary science involves soft excitations such as magnons and phonons; in general, these are well below the resolution that can be probed by today’s optical systems. The study of these low-energy excitations will only move forward if advances are made in high-resolution gratings for the soft X-ray energy region, and higher-resolution crystal analyzers for the hard X-ray region. In almost all the forefront areas of X-ray science today, the main limitation is our ability to focus, monochromate, and manipulate X-rays at the level required for these advanced measurements. To address these issues, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) sponsored a workshop, X-ray Optics for BES Light Source Facilities, which was held March 27–29, 2013, near Washington, D.C. The workshop addressed a wide range of technical and organizational issues. Eleven working groups were formed in advance of the meeting and sought over several months to define the most pressing problems and emerging opportunities and to propose the best routes forward for a focused R&D program to solve these problems. The workshop participants identified eight principal research directions (PRDs), as follows: Development of advanced grating lithography and manufacturing for high-energy resolution techniques such as soft X-ray inelastic scattering. Development of higher-precision mirrors for brightness preservation through the use of advanced metrology in manufacturing, improvements in manufacturing techniques, and in mechanical mounting and cooling. Development of higher-accuracy optical metrology that can be used in manufacturing, verification, and testing of optomechanical systems, as well as at wavelength metrology that can be used for quantification of individual optics and alignment and testing of beamlines. Development of an integrated optical modeling and design framework that is designed and maintained specifically for X-ray optics. Development of

  8. GSA Federal Advisory Committee Management; Final Rule -- 41CFR Parts 101-6 and 102-3

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    7:39 Jul 18, 2001 Jkt 194001 PO 00000 Frm 00001 Fmt 4717 Sfmt 4717 E:\FR\FM\19JYR2.SGM pfrm01 PsN: 19JYR2 Thursday, July 19, 2001 Part II General Services Administration 41 CFR Parts 101-6 and 102-3 Federal Advisory Committee Management; Final Rule VerDate 11<MAY>2000 17:39 Jul 18, 2001 Jkt 194001 PO 00000 Frm 00002 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4700 E:\FR\FM\19JYR2.SGM pfrm01 PsN: 19JYR2 37728 Federal Register / Vol. 66, No. 139 / Thursday, July 19, 2001 / Rules and Regulations GENERAL SERVICES

  9. Direct Detector for Terahertz Radiation - Energy Innovation Portal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    the channel region. The grating gate can be a split-grating gate having at least one finger that can be individually biased. Biasing an individual finger of the split-grating...

  10. Excitation of surface waves on one-dimensional solid-fluid phononic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    crystal gratings defined in a silicon wafer are very efficient diffraction gratings. ... LEAKS; ONE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS; SILICON; SOLIDS; WATER; WAVE PROPAGATION Word ...

  11. High-resolution grazing-incidence grating spectrometer for temperature measurements of low-Z ions emitting in the 100–300 Å spectral band

    SciTech Connect

    Widmann, K. Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W.; Boyle, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.

    2014-11-15

    We have constructed a high-resolution grazing-incidence spectrometer designed for measuring the ion temperature of low-Z elements, such as Li{sup +} or Li{sup 2+}, which radiate near 199 Å and 135 Å, respectively. Based on measurements at the Livermore Electron Beam Ion Trap we have shown that the instrumental resolution is better than 48 mÅ at the 200 Å setting and better than 40 mÅ for the 135-Å range. Such a high spectral resolution corresponds to an instrumental limit for line-width based temperature measurements of about 45 eV for the 199 Å Li{sup +} and 65 eV for the 135 Å Li{sup 2+} lines. Recently obtained survey spectra from the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory show the presence of these lithium emission lines and the expected core ion temperature of approximately 70 eV is sufficiently high to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing our high-resolution spectrometer as an ion-temperature diagnostic.

  12. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Monochromatic X-rays are selected by a Si (111) double-crystal monochromator operated in an artificial channel-cut mode and focused to 5 m 5 m (FWHM) by table-top ...

  13. Beamline 8.3.1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend magnet (5.0 tesla, single pole) Energy range 5-17 keV (1% max flux) Monochromator Double flat crystal,...

  14. Beamline 8.3.2

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend magnet (1.9 GeV, 4.37 tesla) Energy range 6-46 keV ML mode Monochromator None or two ML or two Si(111) Flux (1.9...

  15. Beamline 8.3.1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend magnet (5.0 tesla, single pole) Energy range 5-17 keV (1% max flux) Monochromator Double flat crystal, ...

  16. Beamline 8.3.2

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Superbend magnet (1.9 GeV, 4.37 tesla) Energy range 6-46 keV ML mode Monochromator None or two ML or two Si(111) ...

  17. News Item

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Specifications Specifications 300 kV Monochromator ON Monochromator OFF Information limit 0.05 nm (at 0.15 eV) 0.05 nm STEM resolution 0.078 nm 0.05 nm Energy resolution (EELS) 0.15 eV 0.8 eV TEM 3rd order spherical aberration <1 µm, adjustable (± 50 µm) TEM 5th order spherical aberration ~4 mm STEM 3rd order spherical aberration <0.5 µm STEM 5th order spherical aberration <0.5 mm Specifications 80 kV Monochromator ON Monochromator OFF Information limit 0.07 nm (at 0.2 eV) 0.15 nm

  18. News Item

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    0.5 Specifications Specifications 300 kV Monochromator ON Monochromator OFF Information limit 0.05 nm (at 0.15 eV) 0.08 nm STEM resolution 0.1 nm 0.05 nm Energy resolution (EELS) 0.10 eV 0.8 eV TEM 3rd order spherical aberration <1 µm, adjustable (± 50 µm) TEM 5th order spherical aberration ~5 mm STEM 3rd order spherical aberration <0.5 µm STEM 5th order spherical aberration <0.5 mm Specifications 80 kV Monochromator ON Monochromator OFF Information limit 0.07 nm (at 0.2 eV) 0.15 nm

  19. Beamline 6.3.1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectroscopy 6.3.1.2: ISAAC In Situ XAS GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Now Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 250-2000 eV Monochromator VLS-PGM...

  20. Microsoft Word - DCM beamline 2008.doc

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    from liquid nitrogen temperature up to 750 C in a controlled atmosphere up to 1 atm pressure. In addition, the monochromator has the potential for performing time-resolved...

  1. Beamline 12.0.2

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    scattering GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes Source characteristics Third harmonic of 8-cm-period undulator (U8) Energy range 300-1500 eV Monochromator VLS-PGM, with...

  2. Beamline 5.3.1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Print Femtosecond Phenomena GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes, but not open to users Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 1,000 - 13,000 eV Monochromator...

  3. Beamline 3.3.2

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    3.3.2 Print General x-ray testing station GENERAL BEAMLINE INFORMATION Operational Yes, but not open to users Source characteristics Bend magnet Energy range 4-20 keV Monochromator...

  4. Part IV Council on Environmental Quality

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    79 Wednesday, No. 247 December 24, 2014 Part IV Council on Environmental Quality Revised Draft Guidance for Federal Departments and Agencies on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the Effects of Climate Change in NEPA Reviews; Notice VerDate Sep<11>2014 18:20 Dec 23, 2014 Jkt 235001 PO 00000 Frm 00001 Fmt 4717 Sfmt 4717 E:\FR\FM\24DEN2.SGM 24DEN2 mstockstill on DSK4VPTVN1PROD with NOTICES2 77802 Federal Register / Vol. 79, No. 247 / Wednesday, December 24, 2014 / Notices 1 A

  5. Federal Register Volume 66 Number 191; Tuesday, October 2, 2001

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    8:53 Oct 01, 2001 Jkt 197001 PO 00000 Frm 00014 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 E:\FR\FM\02OCN1.SGM pfrm01 PsN: 02OCN1 50177 Federal Register / Vol. 66, No. 191 / Tuesday, October 2, 2001 / Notices Walk-in testimony will be accepted as the schedule permits, with priority given to those who have reserved time in advance. Individuals who visit the Las Vegas Science Center to provide testimony will do so in the FOIA (Freedom of Information Act) Reading Room. In addition, citizens can visit DOE Science Centers

  6. Federal Register Volume 66 Number 250; Monday, December 31, 2001

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    20:14 Dec 28, 2001 Jkt 197001 PO 00000 Frm 00018 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 E:\FR\FM\31DEN1.SGM pfrm07 PsN: 31DEN1 Federal Register / Vol. 66, No. 250 / Monday, December 31, 2001 / Notices 67517 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Federal Energy Management Program; Federal Purchasing of Energy-Efficient Standby Power Devices AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of availability of a preliminary list of standby power

  7. Federal Register Volume 71 Number 160; Friday, August 18, 2006

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    35 Aug 17, 2006 Jkt 208001 PO 00000 Frm 00020 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 E:\FR\FM\18AUN1.SGM 18AUN1 jlentini on PROD1PC65 with NOTICES 47791 Federal Register / Vol. 71, No. 160 / Friday, August 18, 2006 / Notices The goal of the Centers for Independent Living program is to promote and practice the independent living philosophy of consumer control of the center regarding decisionmaking, service delivery, management, and establishment of the policy and direction of the center; self-help and self-advocacy;

  8. Federal Register Volume 71 Number 232; Monday, December 4, 2006

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    2:11 Dec 01, 2006 Jkt 211001 PO 00000 Frm 00001 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 E:\FR\FM\04DER1.SGM 04DER1 mstockstill on PROD1PC61 with RULES 70275 Federal Register Rules and Regulations Vol. 71, No. 232 Monday, December 4, 2006 This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER contains regulatory documents having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed to and codified in the Code of Federal Regulations, which is published under 50 titles pursuant to 44 U.S.C. 1510. The Code of Federal

  9. Federal Register Volume 71 Number 30; Tuesday, February 14, 2006

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    46 Feb 13, 2006 Jkt 208001 PO 00000 Frm 00029 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 E:\FR\FM\14FEN1.SGM 14FEN1 rmajette on PROD1PC67 with NOTICES 7749 Federal Register / Vol. 71, No. 30 / Tuesday, February 14, 2006 / Notices Abstract: IPEDS is a system of surveys designed to collect basic data from approximately 6,600 Title IV postsecondary institutions in the United States. The IPEDS provides information on numbers of students enrolled, degrees completed, other awards earned, dollars expended, staff employed at

  10. Federal Register Volume 71 Number 39; Tuesday, February 28, 2006

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    7:09 Feb 27, 2006 Jkt 208001 PO 00000 Frm 00001 Fmt 4734 Sfmt 4734 E:\FR\FM\28FECX.SGM 28FECX wwhite on PROD1PC65 with NOTICES 10097 Federal Register Corrections Vol. 71, No. 39 Tuesday, February 28, 2006 This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER contains editorial corrections of previously published Presidential, Rule, Proposed Rule, and Notice documents. These corrections are prepared by the Office of the Federal Register. Agency prepared corrections are issued as signed documents and appear in the

  11. Federal Register Volume 72 Number 117; Tuesday, June 19, 2007

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    5:19 Jun 18, 2007 Jkt 211001 PO 00000 Frm 00001 Fmt 4702 Sfmt 4702 E:\FR\FM\19JNP1.SGM 19JNP1 ebenthall on PRODPC61 with PROPOSALS 33696 Federal Register Proposed Rules Vol. 72, No. 117 Tuesday, June 19, 2007 This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER contains notices to the public of the proposed issuance of rules and regulations. The purpose of these notices is to give interested persons an opportunity to participate in the rule making prior to the adoption of the final rules. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

  12. Federal Register Volume 72 Number 245; Friday, December 21, 2007

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    20 Dec 20, 2007 Jkt 214001 PO 00000 Frm 00003 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 E:\FR\FM\21DER1.SGM 21DER1 sroberts on PROD1PC70 with RULES Federal Register / Vol. 72, No. 245 / Friday, December 21, 2007 / Rules and Regulations 72565 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 10 CFR Parts 433, 434, and 435 [Docket No. EE-RM/STD-02-112] RIN 1904-AB13 Energy Conservation Standards for New Federal Commercial and Multi- Family High-Rise Residential Buildings and New Federal Low-Rise

  13. Federal Register Volume 73 Number 8; Friday, January 11, 2008

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    33 Jan 10, 2008 Jkt 214001 PO 00000 Frm 00018 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 E:\FR\FM\11JAN1.SGM 11JAN1 ebenthall on PRODPC61 with NOTICES 2017 Federal Register / Vol. 73, No. 8 / Friday, January 11, 2008 / Notices Energy; and provide comments and recommendations and priorities for the Department of Energy Annual Plan requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Subtitle J, Section 999. Tentative Agenda: 7:30 a.m.-8 a.m. Registration 8 a.m.-12 p.m. Welcome & Introductions, Opening Remarks by the

  14. Federal Register Volume 75 Number 103; Friday, May 28, 2010

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    5:17 May 27, 2010 Jkt 220001 PO 00000 Frm 00014 Fmt 4702 Sfmt 4702 E:\FR\FM\28MYP1.SGM 28MYP1 WReier-Aviles on DSKGBLS3C1PROD with PROPOSALS Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 103 / Friday, May 28, 2010 / Proposed Rules 29933 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 433 and 435 [Docket No. EE-RM/STD-02-112] RIN 1904-AC13 Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of proposed

  15. Federal Register Volume 75 Number 199; Friday, October 15, 2010

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    00 Oct 14, 2010 Jkt 223001 PO 00000 Frm 00001 Fmt 4702 Sfmt 4702 E:\FR\FM\15OCP1.SGM 15OCP1 mstockstill on DSKH9S0YB1PROD with PROPOSALS 63404 Federal Register Proposed Rules Vol. 75, No. 199 Friday, October 15, 2010 This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER contains notices to the public of the proposed issuance of rules and regulations. The purpose of these notices is to give interested persons an opportunity to participate in the rule making prior to the adoption of the final rules. DEPARTMENT OF

  16. Federal Register Volume 75 Number 240; Wednesday, December 15, 2010

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    9:10 Dec 14, 2010 Jkt 223001 PO 00000 Frm 00029 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 E:\FR\FM\15DEN1.SGM 15DEN1 hsrobinson on DSK69SOYB1PROD with NOTICES Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 240 / Wednesday, December 15, 2010 / Notices 78231 Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877- 8339. [FR Doc. 2010-31503 Filed 12-14-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4000-01-P DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Management of Energy and Water Efficiency in Federal Buildings: Availability of Guidance AGENCY:

  17. Document

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Wednesday, July 22, 2009 Part III Department of Energy 48 CFR Chapter 9 Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation: Technical Amendment; Final Rule VerDate Nov<24>2008 18:22 Jul 21, 2009 Jkt 217001 PO 00000 Frm 00001 Fmt 4717 Sfmt 4717 E:\FR\FM\22JYR3.SGM 22JYR3 jlentini on DSKJ8SOYB1PROD with RULES3 36358 Federal Register / Vol. 74, No. 139 / Wednesday, July 22, 2009 / Rules and Regulations DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 48 CFR Chapter 9 RIN 1991-AB62 Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation:

  18. Correction: Federal Register Volume 75 Number 199; Friday, October 15, 2010

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    25 Oct 26, 2010 Jkt 223001 PO 00000 Frm 00014 Fmt 4702 Sfmt 4702 E:\FR\FM\27OCP1.SGM 27OCP1 jlentini on DSKJ8SOYB1PROD with PROPOSALS 66008 Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 207 / Wednesday, October 27, 2010 / Proposed Rules Publicly available documents created or received at the NRC, including petitions for rulemaking PRM-50-93 (ADAMS Accession No. ML093290250) and PRM-50-95 (ADAMS Accession No. ML101610121), are available electronically at the NRC's Electronic Reading Room at http://www.nrc.gov/

  19. OMB Interim Final Regulations … 2 CFR Part 176

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    6:03 Apr 22, 2009 Jkt 217001 PO 00000 Frm 00001 Fmt 4700 Sfmt 4700 E:\FR\FM\23APR1.SGM 23APR1 rwilkins on PROD1PC63 with RULES 18449 Federal Register Rules and Regulations Vol. 74, No. 77 Thursday, April 23, 2009 This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER contains regulatory documents having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed to and codified in the Code of Federal Regulations, which is published under 50 titles pursuant to 44 U.S.C. 1510. The Code of Federal Regulations is

  20. Improving combustion in residential size wood chip fireboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, E.R.

    1982-12-01

    In a small experimental wood chip firebox with separate control of grate and overfire air, combustion intensity was increased with reduction in flyash and carbon monoxide by reducing air through the grate to a small fraction of stoichiometric air.

  1. Microsoft Word - 5m-TGM SRI paper-Kizilkaya-corrected.docx

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... arm operated with a motor outside of the grating chamber, allowing easy grating exchange. ... to the floor and produces a beam-spot size of 5 mm x 2 mm at the sample position with ...

  2. 1.1-J, 120-fs laser system based on Nd:glass-pumped Ti:sapphire

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... For a fixed grating size, a smaller laser beam will experience less spectral clipping but will have a higher f luence and may damage the compressor gratings. Because current ...

  3. OMEGA EP Beamlines - Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Tiled Grating Assemblies in the grating compressor chamber. The EP laser looking north ... Two GIS systems will be used to perform detection scans of damage sites on both upper and ...

  4. Hyper dispersion pulse compressor for chirped pulse amplification systems

    DOEpatents

    Barty, Christopher P. J.

    2011-11-29

    A grating pulse compressor configuration is introduced for increasing the optical dispersion for a given footprint and to make practical the application for chirped pulse amplification (CPA) to quasi-narrow bandwidth materials, such as Nd:YAG. The grating configurations often use cascaded pairs of gratings to increase angular dispersion an order of magnitude or more. Increased angular dispersion allows for decreased grating separation and a smaller compressor footprint.

  5. Nanocrystal structures

    DOEpatents

    Eisler, Hans J.; Sundar, Vikram C.; Walsh, Michael E.; Klimov, Victor I.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Smith, Henry I.

    2008-12-30

    A structure including a grating and a semiconductor nanocrystal layer on the grating, can be a laser. The semiconductor nanocrystal layer can include a plurality of semiconductor nanocrystals including a Group II-VI compound, the nanocrystals being distributed in a metal oxide matrix. The grating can have a periodicity from 200 nm to 500 nm.

  6. Nanocrystal structures

    DOEpatents

    Eisler, Hans J.; Sundar, Vikram C.; Walsh, Michael E.; Klimov, Victor I.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Smith, Henry I.

    2006-12-19

    A structure including a grating and a semiconductor nanocrystal layer on the grating, can be a laser. The semiconductor nanocrystal layer can include a plurality of semiconductor nanocrystals including a Group II–VI compound, the nanocrystals being distributed in a metal oxide matrix. The grating can have a periodicity from 200 nm to 500 nm.

  7. Nanocrystal structures

    DOEpatents

    Eisler, Hans J.; Sundar, Vikram C.; Walsh, Michael E.; Klimov, Victor I.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Smith, Henry I.

    2006-12-19

    A structure including a grating and a semiconductor nanocrystal layer on the grating, can be a laser. The semiconductor nanocrystal layer can include a plurality of semiconductor nanocrystals including a Group IIVI compound, the nanocrystals being distributed in a metal oxide matrix. The grating can have a periodicity from 200 nm to 500 nm.

  8. Diffraction encoded position measuring apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Tansey, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    When a lightwave passes through a transmission grating, diffracted beams appear at the output or opposite side of the grating that are effectively Doppler shifted in frequency (phase) whereby a detector system can compare the phase of the zero order and higher order beams to obtain an indication of position. Multiple passes through the grating increase resolution for a given wavelength of a laser signal. The resolution can be improved further by using a smaller wavelength laser to generate the grating itself. Since the grating must only have a pitch sufficient to produce diffracted orders, inexpensive, ultraviolet wavelength lasers can be utilized and still obtain high resolution detection.

  9. Diffraction encoded position measuring apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Tansey, R.J.

    1991-09-24

    When a lightwave passes through a transmission grating, diffracted beams appear at the output or opposite side of the grating that are effectively Doppler shifted in frequency (phase) whereby a detector system can compare the phase of the zero order and higher order beams to obtain an indication of position. Multiple passes through the grating increase resolution for a given wavelength of a laser signal. The resolution can be improved further by using a smaller wavelength laser to generate the grating itself. Since the grating must only have a pitch sufficient to produce diffracted orders, inexpensive, ultraviolet wavelength lasers can be utilized and still obtain high resolution detection. 3 figures.

  10. Beamline 4.0.2

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    polarization undulator (EPU5) Energy range 100-2000 eV Monochromator Variable-included-angle PGM Calculated flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 1 x 1013 photonss0.1%BW at 800 eV Value...

  11. Beamline 12.2.2

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Yes Source characteristics Superbend magnet, 1.9GeV, 5.29Tesla, 500mA Monochromator Si(111) or Multilayer Energy range 6-40 keV for Si(111), 14-28 keV for Multilayer Resolving...

  12. Beamline 10.3.1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy range 3-20 keV Monochromator White light, multilayer mirrors in Kirkpatrick-Baez configuration Calculated flux (1.9 GeV, 400 mA) 3 x 1010 photonss at 12.5 keV...

  13. UHV piezoelectric translator

    SciTech Connect

    Oversluizen, T.; Watson, G.

    1985-01-01

    A UHV compatible piezoelectric translator has been developed to correct for angular misalignments in the crysals of a UHV x-ray monochromator. The unit is small, bakeable to 150/sup 0/C, and uses only ceramic materials for insulation. We report on the construction details, vacuum compatibility, mechanical properties, and uses of the device.

  14. Phase plate technology for laser marking of magnetic discs

    DOEpatents

    Neuman, B.; Honig, J.; Hackel, L.; Dane, C.B.; Dixit, S.

    1998-10-27

    An advanced design for a phase plate enables the distribution of spots in arbitrarily shaped patterns with very high uniformity and with a continuously or near-continuously varying phase pattern. A continuous phase pattern eliminates large phase jumps typically expected in a grating that provides arbitrary shapes. Large phase jumps increase scattered light outside of the desired pattern, reduce efficiency and can make the grating difficult to manufacture. When manufacturing capabilities preclude producing a fully continuous grating, the present design can be easily adapted to minimize manufacturing errors and maintain high efficiencies. This continuous grating is significantly more efficient than previously described Dammann gratings, offers much more flexibility in generating spot patterns and is easier to manufacture and replicate than a multi-level phase grating. 3 figs.

  15. Optically transduced MEMS magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Langlois, Eric

    2014-03-18

    MEMS magnetometers with optically transduced resonator displacement are described herein. Improved sensitivity, crosstalk reduction, and extended dynamic range may be achieved with devices including a deflectable resonator suspended from the support, a first grating extending from the support and disposed over the resonator, a pair of drive electrodes to drive an alternating current through the resonator, and a second grating in the resonator overlapping the first grating to form a multi-layer grating having apertures that vary dimensionally in response to deflection occurring as the resonator mechanically resonates in a plane parallel to the first grating in the presence of a magnetic field as a function of the Lorentz force resulting from the alternating current. A plurality of such multi-layer gratings may be disposed across a length of the resonator to provide greater dynamic range and/or accommodate fabrication tolerances.

  16. Phase plate technology for laser marking of magnetic discs

    DOEpatents

    Neuman, Bill; Honig, John; Hackel, Lloyd; Dane, C. Brent; Dixit, Shamasundar

    1998-01-01

    An advanced design for a phase plate enables the distribution of spots in arbitrarily shaped patterns with very high uniformity and with a continuously or near-continuously varying phase pattern. A continuous phase pattern eliminates large phase jumps typically expected in a grating that provides arbitrary shapes. Large phase jumps increase scattered light outside of the desired pattern, reduce efficiency and can make the grating difficult to manufacture. When manufacturing capabilities preclude producing a fully continuous grating, the present design can be easily adapted to minimize manufacturing errors and maintain high efficiencies. This continuous grating is significantly more efficient than previously described Dammann gratings, offers much more flexibility in generating spot patterns and is easier to manufacture and replicate than a multi-level phase grating.

  17. Textured micrometer scale templates as light managing fabrication platform for organic solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Chaudhary, Sumit; Ho, Kai-Ming; Park, Joong-Mok; Nalwa, Kanwar Singh; Leung, Wai Y.

    2016-07-26

    A three-dimensional, microscale-textured, grating-shaped organic solar cell geometry. The solar cells are fabricated on gratings to give them a three-dimensional texture that provides enhanced light absorption. Introduction of microscale texturing has a positive effect on the overall power conversion efficiency of the devices. This grating-based solar cell having a grating of pre-determined pitch and height has shown improved power-conversion efficiency over a conventional flat solar cell. The improvement in efficiency is accomplished by homogeneous coverage of the grating with uniform thickness of the active layer, which is attributed to a sufficiently high pitch and low height of the underlying gratings. Also the microscale texturing leads to suppressed reflection of incident light due to the efficient coupling of the incident light into modes that are guided in the active layer.

  18. Solar power system

    SciTech Connect

    Mcgrew, S.P.

    1980-05-27

    A system for generating electrical power from sunlight, comprises a focussing diffraction grating or other focussing, spectrally dispersive means and a photocell array. The diffraction grating focuses sunlight into a spectrally dispersed band. The photocell array is composed of cells with different spectral sensitivities, located in positions in the dispersed band corresponding to the cell spectral sensitivities so that the net conversion efficiency of sunlight to electricity exceeds the conversion efficiency attainable with nondispersive collectors and single material photocells. Alternate embodiments of the invention provide sun tracking means, reflective or transmissive diffraction gratings, flat or curved diffraction grating surfaces , on- or off-axis focus, and optical coatings on the photocell surfaces.

  19. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The maximum counting rate achieves more than 2 x 106 X-raysspixel. January 2007 Passive Spectroscopy Bolometers, Grating- And X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometers Bitter, M....

  20. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Doppler widths and shifts. The data analysis techniqu Full Text Available March 2009 Passive Spectroscopy Bolometers, Grating- And X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometers Bitter, M ;...

  1. Albany, OR * Anchorage, AK * Morgantown, WV * Pittsburgh, PA...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    combustion, carbon dioxide capture for pulverized coal and for inte- grated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems, and sensorcontrol methods for all these energy systems. ...

  2. Thin-film spectroscopic sensor

    DOEpatents

    Burgess, Jr., Lloyd W.; Goldman, Don S.

    1992-01-01

    There is disclosed an integrated spectrometer for chemical analysis by evanescent electromagnetic radiation absorption in a reaction volume. The spectrometer comprises a noninteractive waveguide, a substrate, an entrance grating and an exit grating, an electromagnetic radiation source, and an electromagnetic radiation sensing device. There is further disclosed a chemical sensor to determine the pressure and concentration of a chemical species in a mixture comprising an interactive waveguide, a substrate, an entrance grating and an exit grating, an electromagnetic radiation source, and an electromagnetic radiation sensing device.

  3. Nat Fisch Wins Europe's Alfvén Prize | Princeton Plasma Physics...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    "I am very grateful that the European Physical Society reached across the ocean to ... phenomena, including new ways of creating electrical currents using radio-frequency waves. ...

  4. OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    has been paired with the federated searching technology of Deep Web Technologies. ... I am grateful for the participation of Microsoft Research and Deep Web Technologies, along ...

  5. Fabrication and current optical performance of a large diamond...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fabrication and current optical performance of a large diamond-machined ZnSe immersion grating Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fabrication and current optical ...

  6. Optical devices combining an organic semiconductor crystal with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    oxide (AZO) under a 2D cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) diffraction grating used as a mask. ... Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto ...

  7. Neutrons find "missing" magnetism of plutonium

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    and the complex helped solve these problems, but I'm especially grateful to Eric Bauer, Capability Leader for Materials Synthesis and Characterization in the Condensed...

  8. Residual Internal Stress Optimization for Thermoset Resin using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bragg Grating Sensors Garth D. Rohr, Amy K. Kaczmarowski, Mark Stavig, Cory Gibson, R. Allen Roach, Rex Jaramillo, Roger D. Rasberry Sandia National Laboratories Eric Udd Columbia ...

  9. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Careful selection of the grating blank and possibly additional annealing to relieve stress will be required. The Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine (LODTM) at LLNL is a good ...

  10. Minimizing the formation of coke and methane on Co nanoparticles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    that leads to high hydrogen selectivity and low methane formation on Co-based catalysts. ... We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), ...

  11. Tunable, superconducting, surface-emitting teraherz source (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the grating period using a superimposed magnetic control field. Inventors: Welp, Ulrich 1 ; Koshelev, Alexei E. 2 ; Gray, Kenneth E. 3 ; Kwok, Wai-Kwong 3 ; ...

  12. Tunable, superconducting, surface-emitting teraherz source (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the grating period using a superimposed magnetic control field. Inventors: Welp, Ulrich ; Koshelev, Alexei E. ; Gray, Kenneth E. ; Kwok, Wai-Kwong ; Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii ...

  13. Advanced polychromator systems for remote chemical sensing (LDRD...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The new configuration also relaxes some constraint on the programmable diffraction grating. Authors: Sinclair, Michael B. ; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant ; Allen, James Joe Publication ...

  14. Adoption of Light-Emitting Diodes in Common Lighting Applications

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The authors are also grateful to ENERGY STAR, ICF International, and the following list of ... Susan Callahan OSRAM SYLVANIA Dan Chwastyk Solar Electric Power Association Kevin Coleman ...

  15. High channel density wavelength division multiplexer with defined diffracting means positioning

    DOEpatents

    Jannson, Tomasz P.; Jannson, Joanna L.; Yeung, Peter C.

    1990-01-01

    A wavelength division multiplexer/demultiplexer having optical path lengths between a fiber array and a Fourier transform lens, and between a dispersion grating and the lens equal to the focal length of the lens. The optical path lengths reduce losses due to angular acceptance mismatch in the multiplexer. Close orientation of the fiber array about the optical axis and the use of a holographic dispersion grating reduces other losses in the system. Multi-exposure holographic dispersion gratings enable the multiplexer/demultiplexer for extremely broad-band simultaneous transmission and reflection operation. Individual Bragg plane sets recorded in the grating are dedicated to and operate efficiently on discrete wavelength ranges.

  16. OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Informatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    has been paired with the federated searching technology of Deep Web Technologies. ... I am grateful for the participation of Microsoft Research and Deep Web Technologies, along ...

  17. Report2

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Alvin W. Trivelpiece Formerly, Director of ORNL Acknowledgement The Department of Energy sponsors of the Workshop gratefully acknowledge the enthusiastic participation and ...

  18. Procuring Solar Energy: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision...

    Energy Saver

    ... For comprehensive editing, publication, and Web support, we are grateful to Kathryn ... Detailed information and sample documents for specifc tasks are referenced with Web links ...

  19. Quasilinear Carbon Transport In An Impurity Hole Plasma In LHD...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Resource Type: Technical Report Resource Relation: Related Information: Use of parallel computer clusters at PPPL is also gratefully acknowledged. Publisher: AIP PHYSICS OF ...

  20. Quasilinear Carbon Transport In An Impurity Hole Plasma In LHD...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Technical Report Resource Relation: Related Information: Use of parallel computer clusters at PPPL is also gratefully acknowledged. Publisher: AIP PHYSICS OF ...

  1. A tunable low-energy photon source for high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Harter, John W.; Monkman, Eric J.; Shai, Daniel E.; Nie Yuefeng; Uchida, Masaki; Burganov, Bulat; Chatterjee, Shouvik; King, Philip D. C.; Shen, Kyle M.

    2012-11-15

    We describe a tunable low-energy photon source consisting of a laser-driven xenon plasma lamp coupled to a Czerny-Turner monochromator. The combined tunability, brightness, and narrow spectral bandwidth make this light source useful in laboratory-based high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy experiments. The source supplies photons with energies up to {approx}7 eV, delivering under typical conditions >10{sup 12} ph/s within a 10 meV spectral bandwidth, which is comparable to helium plasma lamps and many synchrotron beamlines. We first describe the lamp and monochromator system and then characterize its output, with attention to those parameters which are of interest for photoemission experiments. Finally, we present angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data using the light source and compare its performance to a conventional helium plasma lamp.

  2. Spectral-luminescence and lasing properties of quinoline analogs of 2, 5-diaryloxazoles

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasiadi, L.S.; Dyumaev, K.M.; Egorova, N.P.; Krasovitskii, B.M.; Lebedev, S.A.; Savvina, L.P.; Tur, I.N.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize and study the quinoline analogs of 2,5-diaryloxazoles. The spectral luminescence properties of quinoline analogs of 2,5-diaryloxazoles were studied with the help of an SF-4A spectrophotometer and a fluorescent setup, consisting of a ZMR-3 monochromator, an FEU-18 optical radiation detector, and an M-95 microammeter. The photoluminescence was excited by a SVDSh-500 lamp, from whose spectrum the exciting light with a wavelength of 313 nm was separated with a DMR-14 quartz monochromator. The spectra obtained were corrected for the spectral sensitivity of the setup. The absolute quantum yields of fluorescence were determined by the equal-absorption method.

  3. Performance of beamline 9.3.1 at the ALS: Flux and resolution measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, Y.; Fischer, G.; Kring, J.; Perera, R.C.C.

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.1 at the ALS is a windowless beamline, covering the 1-6 keV photon-energy range. This beamline is the first monochromatic hard x-ray beamline in the ALS, and designed to achieve the goals of high energy resolution, and preservation of the high brightness from the ALS. It consists of a new {open_quotes}Cowan type{close_quotes} double-crystal monochromator and two toroidal mirrors which are positioned before and after the monochromator. The construction of the beamline was completed in December of 1995, with imperfect mirrors. In this report, the authors describe the experimental results of absolute flux measurements and x-ray absorption measurements of gases and solid samples using the present set of mirrors.

  4. Progress towards sub-micron hard x-ray imaging using elliptically bent mirrors and its applications

    SciTech Connect

    MacDowell, A.A.; Lamble, G.M.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.; Chang, C.H.; Patel, J.R. |

    1998-06-01

    The authors have developed an x-ray micro-probe facility utilizing mirror bending techniques that allow white light x-rays (4--12keV) from the Advanced light Source Synchrotron to be focused down to spot sizes of micron spatial dimensions. They have installed a 4 crystal monochromator prior to the micro-focusing mirrors. The monochromator is designed such that it can move out of the way of the input beam, and allows the same micron sized sample to be illuminated with either white or monochromatic radiation. Illumination of the sample with white light allows for elemental mapping and Laue x-ray diffraction, while illumination of the sample with monochromatic light allows for elemental mapping (with reduced background), micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro-diffraction. The performance of the system will be described as will some of the initial experiments that cover the various disciplines of Earth, Material and Life Sciences.

  5. Thermal strains in focusing channels of the stations for X-ray diffraction analysis in the Sibir-2 storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Kheiker, D. M.; Konoplev, E. E.; Molodenskii, D. S.; Shishkov, V. A.; Dorovatovskii, P. V.

    2010-09-15

    The thermal load caused by the absorption of synchrotron radiation in X-ray optical elements of the Belok and RSA stations leads to optics elements heating and induces strains upon simultaneous cooling. The heating of the cooled first crystal in the double-crystal monochromator causes its bending and increases the reflected beam divergence, which, in turn, results in the monochromatic beam intensity loss [1]. Numerical simulation makes it possible to more accurately determine the strains, choose the optimal monochromator design, estimate the vertical sizes of the focal spot and wavelength resolution in the focusing channel, correctly design the system for cooling the mirror at the channel input, and choose a design providing the minimum temperature of the beam-limiting slit knives.

  6. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ``catalog`` of various monochromator designs.

  7. Design of a High Resolution and High Flux Beam line for VUV Angle-Resolved Photoemission at UVSOR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Shin-ichi; Ito, Takahiro; Nakamura, Eiken; Hosaka, Masahito; Katoh, Masahiro

    2007-01-19

    A high-energy-resolution angle-resolved photoemission beamline in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) region has been designed for a 750 MeV synchrotron light source UVSOR-II. The beamline equips an APPLE-II-type undulator with the horizontally/vertically linear and right/left circular polarizations, a modified Wadsworth-type monochromator and a high-resolution photoelectron analyzer. The monochromator covers the photon energy range of 6 - 40 eV. The energy resolution (hv/{delta}hv) and the photon flux on samples are expected to be 2 x 104 and 1012 photons/sec at 10 eV, 4 x 104 and 5 x 1011 photons/sec at 20 eV, and 6 x 104 and 1011 photons/sec at 40 eV, respectively. The beamline provides the high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy less than 1 meV in the whole VUV energy range.

  8. REFLECT: A computer program for the x-ray reflectivity of bent perfect crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Etelaeniemi, V.; Suortti, P.; Thomlinson, W. . Dept. of Physics; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY )

    1989-09-01

    The design of monochromators for x-ray applications, using either standard laboratory sources on synchrotron radiation sources, requires a knowledge of the reflectivity of the crystals. The reflectivity depends on the crystals used, the geometry of the reflection, the energy range of the radiation, and, in the present case, the cylindrical bending radius of the optical device. This report is intended to allow the reader to become familiar with, and therefore use, a computer program called REFLECT which we have used in the design of a dual beam Laue monochromator for synchrotron angiography. The results of REFLECT have been compared to measured reflectivities for both bent Bragg and Laue geometries. The results are excellent and should give full confidence in the use of the program. 6 refs.

  9. Test surfaces useful for calibration of surface profilometers

    DOEpatents

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; McKinney, Wayne R; Takacs, Peter Z

    2013-12-31

    The present invention provides for test surfaces and methods for calibration of surface profilometers, including interferometric and atomic force microscopes. Calibration is performed using a specially designed test surface, or the Binary Pseudo-random (BPR) grating (array). Utilizing the BPR grating (array) to measure the power spectral density (PSD) spectrum, the profilometer is calibrated by determining the instrumental modulation transfer.

  10. Diffractive element in extreme-UV lithography condenser

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Ray-Chaudhurl, Avijit K.

    2000-01-01

    Condensers having a mirror with a diffraction grating in projection lithography using extreme ultra-violet significantly enhances critical dimension control. The diffraction grating has the effect of smoothing the illumination at the camera's entrance pupil with minimum light loss. Modeling suggests that critical dimension control for 100 nm features can be improved from 3 nm to less than about 0.5 nm.

  11. Diffractive element in extreme-UV lithography condenser

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit

    2001-01-01

    Condensers having a mirror with a diffraction grating in projection lithography using extreme ultra-violet significantly enhances critical dimension control. The diffraction grating has the effect of smoothing the illumination at the camera's entrance pupil with minimum light loss. Modeling suggests that critical dimension control for 100 nm features can be improved from 3 nm to less than about 0.5 nm.

  12. High-brightness beamline for x-ray spectroscopy at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Perera, R.C.C.; Jones, G.; Lindle, D.W.

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a windowless beamline, covering the 1-6 keV photon-energy range, designed to achieve the goals of high energy resolution, high flux, and high brightness at the sample. When completed later this year, it will be the first ALS monochromatic hard x-ray beamline, and its brightness will be an order of magnitude higher than presently available in this energy range. In addition, it will provide flux and resolution comparable to any other beamline now in operation. To achieve these goals, two technical improvements, relative to existing x-ray beamlines, were incorporated. First, a somewhat novel optical design for x-rays, in which matched toroidal mirrors are positioned before and after the double-crystal monochromator, was adopted. This configuration allows for high resolution by passing a collimated beam through the monochromator, and for high brightness by focusing the ALS source on the sample with unit magnification. Second, a new {open_quotes}Cowan type{close_quotes} double-crystal monochromator based on the design used at NSLS beamline X-24A was developed. The measured mechanical precision of this new monochromator shows significant improvement over existing designs, without using positional feedback available with piezoelectric devices. Such precision is essential because of the high brightness of the radiation and the long distance (12 m) from the source (sample) to the collimating (focusing) mirror. This combination of features will provide a bright, high resolution, and stable x-ray beam for use in the x-ray spectroscopy program at the ALS.

  13. Commissioning of a microprobe-XRF beamline (BL-16) on Indus-2 synchrotron source

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, M. K.; Gupta, P.; Sinha, A. K.; Garg, C. K.; Singh, A. K.; Kane, S. R.; Garg, S. R.; Lodha, G. S.

    2012-06-05

    We report commissioning of the microprobe-XRF beamline on Indus-2 synchrotron source. The beamline has been recently made operational and is now open for the user's experiments. The beamline comprises of Si(111) double crystal monochromator and Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing optics. The beamline covers wide photon energy range of 4 - 20 keV using both collimated and micro-focused beam modes. The design details and the first commissioning results obtained using this beamline are presented.

  14. SAXS/CAMD/LSU

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Baton Rouge, Louisiana | SAXS Home | User Information | Beamline | Schedule | Drawings/Photos | Links The small angle x-ray scattering beamline at the J. Bennett Johnston, Sr. Center for Advanced Microstructures & Devices is located on bending magnet port 6A of the CAMD storage ring. The LNLS double crystal monochromator allows photon energies to be selected from roughly 3 to 14 keV. Beam size on the sample and parasitic scattering are controlled by three interchangeable pinholes with

  15. BEAMLINE 14-3

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    4-3 CURRENT STATUS: This beam line is in design. SUPPORTED TECHNIQUES: Low Energy XAS MAIN SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINES: % TIME GENERAL USE: SCHEDULING: SOURCE: BEAM LINE SPECIFICATIONS: energy range resolution DE/E spot size flux angular acceptance focused unfocused OPTICS: MONOCHROMATOR: ABSORPTION: INSTRUMENTATION: DATA ACQUISITION AND ANALYSIS: RESPONSIBLE STAFF: BEAM LINE PHONE NUMBER: GENERAL DESCRIPTION: SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS / SELECTED RESULTS: April 17, 2009: SSRL Beamline 14 Sees First

  16. A possibility for using an APPLE undulator to generate a photon beam with transverse optical modes.

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, S.; McNulty, I.; Shimada, T.; JAEA

    2008-01-01

    We investigate use of an APPLE-type undulator for generating Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) and Hermite-Gaussian (HG) mode beams. We find that the second harmonic radiation in the circular mode corresponds to an LG beam with l=1, and the second harmonic in the linear mode corresponds to an HG beam with l=1. The combination of an APPLE undulator and conventional monochromator optics may provide an opportunity for a new type of experimental research in the synchrotron radiation community.

  17. Molecular Foundry

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Chengyu Song Senior Scientific Engineering Associate, NCEM csong@lbl.gov 510.486.6751 Biography Education B.S. in Materials Science, Zhejiang University, China M.S. in high Tc superconductor structure and property, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences Expertise Technical support for TEAM microscopes, Tecnai, CM300, and CM200. Secondary support for Titan-X, 3010, FIB, and specimen preparation. High resolution TEM and STEM, mono-chromated EELS, image and probe aberration

  18. Final Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Final Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Report We propose to extend the technique of polarized neutron scattering into new domains by continued development and application of polarized 3He spin-filters. These devices are particularly relevant to the Spallation Neutron Source, as the polarizing monochromators historically used at reactor sources will usually not be suitable polarizers, and wide-angle polarization analysis will be essential. With prior support from the Office

  19. High-efficiency spectral purity filter for EUV lithography

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Henry N.

    2006-05-23

    An asymmetric-cut multilayer diffracts EUV light. A multilayer cut at an angle has the same properties as a blazed grating, and has been demonstrated to have near-perfect performance. Instead of having to nano-fabricate a grating structure with imperfections no greater than several tens of nanometers, a thick multilayer is grown on a substrate and then cut at an inclined angle using coarse and inexpensive methods. Effective grating periods can be produced this way that are 10 to 100 times smaller than those produced today, and the diffraction efficiency of these asymmetric multilayers is higher than conventional gratings. Besides their ease of manufacture, the use of an asymmetric multilayer as a spectral purity filter does not require that the design of an EUV optical system be modified in any way, unlike the proposed use of blazed gratings for such systems.

  20. Imaging spectrometer wide field catadioptric design

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp; Michael P.

    2008-08-19

    A wide field catadioptric imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The catadioptric design has zero Petzval field curvature. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system with a catadioptric lens and a dioptric lens for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through the system for receiving the light to the detector array.

  1. New developments in micro-X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy for high-pressure research at 16-BM-D at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Changyong Popov, Dmitry; Ikuta, Daijo; Lin, Chuanlong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Rod, Eric; Bommannavar, Arunkumar; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-07-15

    The monochromator and focusing mirrors of the 16-BM-D beamline, which is dedicated to high-pressure research with micro-X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) (6-45 keV) spectroscopy, have been recently upgraded. Monochromatic X-rays are selected by a Si (111) double-crystal monochromator operated in an artificial channel-cut mode and focused to 5 μm × 5 μm (FWHM) by table-top Kirkpatrick-Baez type mirrors located near the sample stage. The typical X-ray flux is ∼5 × 10{sup 8} photons/s at 30 keV. The instrumental resolution, Δq/q{sub max}, reaches to 2 × 10{sup −3} and is tunable through adjustments of the detector distance and X-ray energy. The setup is stable and reproducible, which allows versatile application to various types of experiments including resistive heating and cryogenic cooling as well as ambient temperature compression. Transmission XANES is readily combined with micro-XRD utilizing the fixed-exit feature of the monochromator, which allows combined XRD-XANES measurements at a given sample condition.

  2. Theoretical analysis of the background intensity distribution in X-ray Birefringence Imaging using synchrotron bending-magnet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, John P. Dolbnya, Igor P.; Collins, Stephen P.; Harris, Kenneth D. M.; Edwards-Gau, Gregory R.; Palmer, Benjamin A.

    2015-04-28

    In the recently developed technique of X-ray Birefringence Imaging, molecular orientational order in anisotropic materials is studied by exploiting the birefringence of linearly polarized X-rays with energy close to an absorption edge of an element in the material. In the experimental setup, a vertically deflecting high-resolution double-crystal monochromator is used upstream from the sample to select the appropriate photon energy, and a horizontally deflecting X-ray polarization analyzer, consisting of a perfect single crystal with a Bragg reflection at Bragg angle of approximately 45°, is placed downstream from the sample to measure the resulting rotation of the X-ray polarization. However, if the experiment is performed on a synchrotron bending-magnet beamline, then the elliptical polarization of the X-rays out of the electron orbit plane affects the shape of the output beam. Also, because the monochromator introduces a correlation between vertical position and photon energy to the X-ray beam, the polarization analyzer does not select the entire beam, but instead selects a diagonal stripe, the slope of which depends on the Bragg angles of the monochromator and the polarization analyzer. In the present work, the final background intensity distribution is calculated analytically because the phase space sampling methods normally used in ray traces are too inefficient for this setup. X-ray Birefringence Imaging data measured at the Diamond Light Source beamline B16 agree well with the theory developed here.

  3. A high resolution and large solid angle x-ray Raman spectroscopy end-station at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    SciTech Connect

    Sokaras, D.; Nordlund, D.; Weng, T.-C.; Velikov, P.; Wenger, D.; Garachtchenko, A.; George, M.; Borzenets, V.; Johnson, B.; Rabedeau, T.; Mori, R. Alonso; Bergmann, U.; Qian, Q.

    2012-04-15

    We present a new x-ray Raman spectroscopy end-station recently developed, installed, and operated at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. The end-station is located at wiggler beamline 6-2 equipped with two monochromators-Si(111) and Si(311) as well as collimating and focusing optics. It consists of two multi-crystal Johann type spectrometers arranged on intersecting Rowland circles of 1 m diameter. The first one, positioned at the forward scattering angles (low-q), consists of 40 spherically bent and diced Si(110) crystals with 100 mm diameters providing about 1.9% of 4{pi} sr solid angle of detection. When operated in the (440) order in combination with the Si (311) monochromator, an overall energy resolution of 270 meV is obtained at 6462.20 eV. The second spectrometer, consisting of 14 spherically bent Si(110) crystal analyzers (not diced), is positioned at the backward scattering angles (high-q) enabling the study of non-dipole transitions. The solid angle of this spectrometer is about 0.9% of 4{pi} sr, with a combined energy resolution of 600 meV using the Si (311) monochromator. These features exceed the specifications of currently existing relevant instrumentation, opening new opportunities for the routine application of this photon-in/photon-out hard x-ray technique to emerging research in multidisciplinary scientific fields, such as energy-related sciences, material sciences, physical chemistry, etc.

  4. Infrared (IR) photon-sensitive spectromicroscopy in a cryogenic environment

    DOEpatents

    Pereverzev, Sergey

    2016-06-14

    A system designed to suppress thermal radiation background and to allow IR single-photon sensitive spectromicroscopy of small samples by using both absorption, reflection, and emission/luminescence measurements. The system in one embodiment includes: a light source; a plurality of cold mirrors configured to direct light along a beam path; a cold or warm sample holder in the beam path; windows of sample holder (or whole sample holder) are transparent in a spectral region of interest, so they do not emit thermal radiation in the same spectral region of interest; a cold monochromator or other cold spectral device configured to direct a selected fraction of light onto a cold detector; a system of cold apertures and shields positioned along the beam path to prevent unwanted thermal radiation from arriving at the cold monochromator and/or the detector; a plurality of optical, IR and microwave filters positioned along the beam path and configured to adjust a spectral composition of light incident upon the sample under investigation and/or on the detector; a refrigerator configured to maintain the detector at a temperature below 1.0K; and an enclosure configured to: thermally insulate the light source, the plurality of mirrors, the sample holder, the cold monochromator and the refrigerator.

  5. Direct detector for terahertz radiation

    DOEpatents

    Wanke, Michael C.; Lee, Mark; Shaner, Eric A.; Allen, S. James

    2008-09-02

    A direct detector for terahertz radiation comprises a grating-gated field-effect transistor with one or more quantum wells that provide a two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region. The grating gate can be a split-grating gate having at least one finger that can be individually biased. Biasing an individual finger of the split-grating gate to near pinch-off greatly increases the detector's resonant response magnitude over prior QW FET detectors while maintaining frequency selectivity. The split-grating-gated QW FET shows a tunable resonant plasmon response to FIR radiation that makes possible an electrically sweepable spectrometer-on-a-chip with no moving mechanical optical parts. Further, the narrow spectral response and signal-to-noise are adequate for use of the split-grating-gated QW FET in a passive, multispectral terahertz imaging system. The detector can be operated in a photoconductive or a photovoltaic mode. Other embodiments include uniform front and back gates to independently vary the carrier densities in the channel region, a thinned substrate to increase bolometric responsivity, and a resistive shunt to connect the fingers of the grating gate in parallel and provide a uniform gate-channel voltage along the length of the channel to increase the responsivity and improve the spectral resolution.

  6. Instrument and method for focusing x rays, gamma rays, and neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Smither, R.K.

    1982-03-25

    A crystal-diffraction instrument or diffraction-grating instrument is described with an improved crystalline structure or grating spacing structure having a face for receiving a beam of photons or neutrons and diffraction planar spacing or grating spacing along that face with the spacing increasing progressively along the face to provide a decreasing Bragg diffraction angle for a monochromatic radiation and thereby increasing the usable area and acceptance angle. The increased planar spacing for the diffraction crystal is provided by the use of a temperature differential across the line structures with different compositions, by an individual crystalline structure with a varying composition and thereby a changing planar spacing along its face, and by combinations of these techniques. The increased diffraction grating element spacing is generated during the fabrication of the diffraction grating by controlling the cutting tool that is cutting the grooves or controlling the laser beam, electron beam, or ion beam that is exposing the resist layer, etc. It is also possible to vary this variation in grating spacing by applying a thermal gradient to the diffraction grating in much the same manner as is done in the crystal-diffraction case.

  7. Instrument and method for focusing X-rays, gamma rays and neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Smither, Robert K.

    1984-01-01

    A crystal diffraction instrument or diffraction grating instrument with an improved crystalline structure or grating spacing structure having a face for receiving a beam of photons or neutrons and diffraction planar spacing or grating spacing along that face with the spacing increasing progressively along the face to provide a decreasing Bragg diffraction angle for a monochromatic radiation and thereby increasing the usable area and acceptance angle. The increased planar spacing for the diffraction crystal is provided by the use of a temperature differential across the crystalline structure, by assembling a plurality of crystalline structures with different compositions, by an individual crystalline structure with a varying composition and thereby a changing planar spacing along its face, and by combinations of these techniques. The increased diffraction grating element spacing is generated during the fabrication of the diffraction grating by controlling the cutting tool that is cutting the grooves or controlling the laser beam, electron beam or ion beam that is exposing the resist layer, etc. It is also possible to vary this variation in grating spacing by applying a thermal gradient to the diffraction grating in much the same manner as is done in the crystal diffraction case.

  8. Note: On the wavelength dependence of the intensity calibration factor of extreme ultraviolet spectrometer determined with profile measurement of bremsstrahlung continuum

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, N.; Morita, S.; Dong, C. F.; Goto, M.; Maezawa, H.; Miyauchi, H.

    2015-06-15

    The absolute calibration factor of extreme ultraviolet spectroscopic instrument which has recently been determined from absolute radiation profile measurement of bremsstrahlung continuum has been investigated by comparing the calculated diffraction efficiency of grating. An overall tendency of the wavelength dependence of the calibration factor from 40 Å to 500 Å can be reproduced by that of the grating efficiency, especially the agreement between the measured calibration factor and the calculated grating efficiency has been found to be fairly good for the wavelength range 200 Å-500 Å.

  9. Dispersion-compensated Fresnel lens

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, K.C.

    1992-11-03

    A transmission grating is used to reduce chromatic aberration in a Fresnel lens, wherein the lens chromatic dispersion is offset and substantially canceled by the grating's diffraction-induced dispersion. The grating comprises a Fresnel-type pattern of microscopic facets molded directly into the lens surface. The facets would typically have a profile height of around 4[times]10[sup [minus]5] inch and a profile width of at least 10[sup [minus]3] inch. In its primary intended application, the invention would function to improve the optical performance of a Fresnel lens used to concentrate direct sunlight. 10 figs.

  10. Study of optical Laue diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarthy, Giridhar E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Allam, Srinivasa Rao E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Satyanarayana, S. V. M. E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Sharan, Alok E-mail: aloksharan@email.com

    2014-10-15

    We present the study of the optical diffraction pattern of one and two-dimensional gratings with defects, designed using desktop pc and printed on OHP sheet using laser printer. Gratings so prepared, using novel low cost technique provides good visual aid in teaching. Diffraction pattern of the monochromatic light (632.8nm) from the grating so designed is similar to that of x-ray diffraction pattern of crystal lattice with point defects in one and two-dimensions. Here both optical and x-ray diffractions are Fraunhofer. The information about the crystalline lattice structure and the defect size can be known.

  11. Dispersion-compensated fresnel lens

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    1992-01-01

    A transmission grating is used to reduce chromatic aberration in a Fresnel lens, wherein the lens chromatic dispersion is offset and substantially canceled by the grating's diffraction-induced dispersion. The grating comprises a Fresnel-type pattern of microscopic facets molded directly into the lens surface. The facets would typically have a profile height of around 4.multidot.10.sup.-5 inch and a profile width of at least 10.sup.-3 inch. In its primary intended application, the invention would function to improve the optical performance of a Fresnel lens used to concentrate direct sunlight.

  12. Non-plugging pressure tap

    DOEpatents

    Echtler, Joseph P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1978-01-01

    A pressure tap having utility in an environment of a solid-gas phase process flow includes a tubular coupling part having attached over a passage therethrough at an end opening thereof exposed to the flow a grating of spaced bars, and affixed internally across a passage therethrough so as to cover over an opening therein a screen which maintains contained within the passage between it and the grating a matrix of smooth spheres. The grating bars are so oriented by the disposition of the aforesaid end opening with respect to the flow such that accumulations of solids therebetween tending to bridge the opening are removed therefrom by the flow.

  13. Multi-channel polarized thermal emitter

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Constant, Kristen P

    2013-07-16

    A multi-channel polarized thermal emitter (PTE) is presented. The multi-channel PTE can emit polarized thermal radiation without using a polarizer at normal emergence. The multi-channel PTE consists of two layers of metallic gratings on a monolithic and homogeneous metallic plate. It can be fabricated by a low-cost soft lithography technique called two-polymer microtransfer molding. The spectral positions of the mid-infrared (MIR) radiation peaks can be tuned by changing the periodicity of the gratings and the spectral separation between peaks are tuned by changing the mutual angle between the orientations of the two gratings.

  14. ALSNews Vol. 297

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Washington, and see the high and flat beam current," said ALS Director Roger Falcone. "And then the emails started coming in from the users, highly laudatory and very grateful... ...

  15. DOE and Advisory Board Recognizes Retiring Member for Service...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Committee. "I'm grateful to DOE for giving me the opportunity to represent my community on a board with such an important mission," said McKinney. "It was a privilege to...

  16. DOE/ER-0442

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... cm-1 Solar Interferometer 2-20 mm 0.002 cm-1 Grating Spectrometer 8-25 mm 0.5 cm-1 In the visible region, a spectrophotometer will be used for the spectrally resolved observations. ...

  17. ..&rrbt, Chief, Industrial Hy&na Branch, HerlthbrSas8byLaboratoly

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    1.' Ito dust writrol was wep, I.e. 10Qal mchawt 0vI)r rell8, oantrti vsmnmelaPnup sy6txm, floor gratings 84% 2. pine; of SSL plate flour with brotmta 3. Tracklrqof dust ...

  18. Optically transduced MEMS gyro device

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Bogart, Gregory R; Langlois, Eric; Okandan, Murat

    2014-05-20

    A bulk micromachined vibratory gyro in which a proof mass has a bulk substrate thickness for a large mass and high inertial sensitivity. In embodiments, optical displacement transduction is with multi-layer sub-wavelength gratings for high sensitivity and low cross-talk with non-optical drive elements. In embodiments, the vibratory gyro includes a plurality of multi-layer sub-wavelength gratings and a plurality of drive electrodes to measure motion of the proof mass induced by drive forces and/or moments and induced by the Coriolis Effect when the gyro experiences a rotation. In embodiments, phase is varied across the plurality gratings and a multi-layer grating having the best performance is selected from the plurality.

  19. Martin GmbH | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Martin designs and constructs the core component of waste-to-energy facilities, the combustion grate. References: Martin GmbH1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  20. CX-013407: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    B-39 Generator Pit Grating Cover CX(s) Applied: B1.3, B2.5Date: 02/03/2015 Location(s): West VirginiaOffices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  1. Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Minitti L695 Gaffney L751 Petrovic L764 Schlichting List for web v5 1102013 Instr. Prop Title Spokes Person XCS L637 A grating-based delay line for x-ray pump x-ray probe...

  2. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer mask designs

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2001-01-01

    In a phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer, different image-plane mask designs can improve the operation of the interferometer. By keeping the test beam window of the mask small compared to the separation distance between the beams, the problem of energy from the reference beam leaking through the test beam window is reduced. By rotating the grating and mask 45.degree., only a single one-dimensional translation stage is required for phase-shifting. By keeping two reference pinholes in the same orientation about the test beam window, only a single grating orientation, and thus a single one-dimensional translation stage, is required. The use of a two-dimensional grating allows for a multiplicity of pinholes to be used about the pattern of diffracted orders of the grating at the mask. Orientation marks on the mask can be used to orient the device and indicate the position of the reference pinholes.

  3. ALSNews Vol. 353

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    with a wide variety of extremely precise metrology equipment for characterizing the x-ray optics (mirrors and gratings) essential to modern light-source science. Suit up in your...

  4. Surface plasmon polaritons in a composite system of porous silicon and gold

    SciTech Connect

    Vainshtein, J. S.; Goryachev, D. N.; Ken, O. S. Sreseli, O. M.

    2015-04-15

    A composite system of silicon quantum dots and gold particles with properties periodically changing along the surface (i.e., a system exhibiting the properties of a diffraction grating) is obtained by a one-step metal-assisted chemical etching. The spectral and angular dependences of the photoresponse for the composite system on single-crystal silicon are studied. The photoresponse peaks were observed, which behavior (the dependence on the parameters of the diffraction grating, wavelength and incidence angles of light) is attributed to the excitation of plasmon-polariton modes at the surface of the composite system with the diffraction grating. At the same time, the obtained values of the wave vectors for these modes are smaller than those calculated for plasmon polaritons excited at the interface between air and metal (gold) diffraction grating.

  5. New Mexico's 3rd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Gratings Inc Green Money Journal Green2V MesoFuel Inc Mirasol Solar Energy Systems Nature s Accent Inc Noribachi Group PNM Resources Perma Works Positive Energy Quantum Solar...

  6. Dispersion compensation in chirped pulse amplification systems

    DOEpatents

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Molander, William A.

    2014-07-15

    A chirped pulse amplification system includes a laser source providing an input laser pulse along an optical path. The input laser pulse is characterized by a first temporal duration. The system also includes a multi-pass pulse stretcher disposed along the optical path. The multi-pass pulse stretcher includes a first set of mirrors operable to receive input light in a first plane and output light in a second plane parallel to the first plane and a first diffraction grating. The pulse stretcher also includes a second set of mirrors operable to receive light diffracted from the first diffraction grating and a second diffraction grating. The pulse stretcher further includes a reflective element operable to reflect light diffracted from the second diffraction grating. The system further includes an amplifier, a pulse compressor, and a passive dispersion compensator disposed along the optical path.

  7. February 22, 2013

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    February 22, 2013 Print Wednesday, 30 January 2013 11:33 Friday, February 22 @ 12 noon, USB 15-253 Towards perfect diffraction gratings with x-rays Dmitriy Voronov, Experimental...

  8. Tuned optical cavity magnetometer (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which utilizes an optical cavity formed from a grating and a mirror, with a vapor cell containing an alkali metal vapor located inside the ...

  9. High channel density wavelength division multiplexer with defined diffracting means positioning

    DOEpatents

    Jannson, T.P.; Jannson, J.L.; Yeung, P.C.

    1990-05-15

    A wavelength division multiplexer/demultiplexer is disclosed having optical path lengths between a fiber array and a Fourier transform lens, and between a dispersion grating and the lens equal to the focal length of the lens. The optical path lengths reduce losses due to angular acceptance mismatch in the multiplexer. Close orientation of the fiber array about the optical axis and the use of a holographic dispersion grating reduces other losses in the system. Multi-exposure holographic dispersion gratings enable the multiplexer/demultiplexer for extremely broad-band simultaneous transmission and reflection operation. Individual Bragg plane sets recorded in the grating are dedicated to and operate efficiently on discrete wavelength ranges. 11 figs.

  10. Development and operation of a high-throughput accurate-wavelength...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    imaging. A precision optical encoder measures the grating angle with an accuracy 0.075 arc sec. A high quantum efficiency low-etaloning CCD detector allows operation at longer...

  11. Multi-channel polarized thermal emitter (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    by changing the mutual angle between the orientations of the two gratings. Authors: Lee, Jae-Hwang ; Ho, Kai-Ming ; Constant, Kristen P Publication Date: 2013-07-16 OSTI...

  12. Optically transduced MEMS gyro device (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In embodiments, the vibratory gyro includes a plurality of multi-layer sub-wavelength gratings and a plurality of drive electrodes to measure motion of the proof mass induced by ...

  13. Multi-channel polarized thermal emitter (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    technique called two-polymer microtransfer molding. The spectral positions of the mid-infrared (MIR) radiation peaks can be tuned by changing the periodicity of the gratings and...

  14. PARC 2 Renewal | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Read Washington University's coverage We are very grateful for all the hard work and dedication put forth by PARC members over the previous 5 years and we look forward to...

  15. 20% Wind Energy by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    GRATEFUL APPRECIATION TO PARTNERS The U.S. Department of Energy would like to acknowledge the in-depth analysis and extensive research conducted by the National Renewable Energy ...

  16. Measurements of Spin Dynamics Reveal that Shape of Excitons in Quantum Rod Heterostructures Changes with Size (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    Using femtosecond cross-polarized transient grating (CPTG) and polarization anisotropy, NREL was able to probe the extent of electronic delocalization in CdSe/CdS quantum rod heterostructures (QRH) with a 'dot-in-rod' geometry.

  17. Measuring short electron bunch lengths using coherent smith-purcell radiation

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Dinh C.

    1999-01-01

    A method is provided for directly determining the length of sub-picosecond electron bunches. A metallic grating is formed with a groove spacing greater than a length expected for the electron bunches. The electron bunches are passed over the metallic grating to generate coherent and incoherent Smith-Purcell radiation. The angular distribution of the coherent Smith-Purcell radiation is then mapped to directly deduce the length of the electron bunches.

  18. Measuring short electron bunch lengths using coherent Smith-Purcell radiation

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, D.C.

    1999-03-30

    A method is provided for directly determining the length of sub-picosecond electron bunches. A metallic grating is formed with a groove spacing greater than a length expected for the electron bunches. The electron bunches are passed over the metallic grating to generate coherent and incoherent Smith-Purcell radiation. The angular distribution of the coherent Smith-Purcell radiation is then mapped to directly deduce the length of the electron bunches. 8 figs.

  19. Embedded ultrasound sensor in a silicon-on-insulator photonic platform

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, Amir; Omar, Murad; Estrada, Héctor; Kellnberger, Stephan; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2014-01-13

    A miniaturized ultrasound sensor is demonstrated in a silicon-on-insulator platform. The sensor is based on a π-phase-shifted Bragg grating formed by waveguide corrugation. Ultrasound detection is performed by monitoring shifts in the resonance frequency of the grating using pulse interferometry. The device is characterized by measuring its response to a wideband acoustic point source generated using the optoacoustic effect. Experimental results show that the sensor's response is dominated by the formation of surface acoustic waves.

  20. Fire victim helped by area programs

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Fire victim helped by area programs Fire victim helped by local nonprofit organizations A perennial helper, didn't realize that she might someday need help herself. April 3, 2012 Beatrice Dubois is grateful for the help she received from Lab-supported Beatrice Dubois is grateful for the help she received from Lab-supported, local nonprofits during her time of need. Contact Kathy Keith Community Relations & Partnerships (505) 665-4400 Email Beatrice Dubois, dedicated fundraiser, assisted

  1. Apparatus for injecting high power laser light into a fiber optic cable

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    High intensity laser light is evenly injected into an optical fiber by the combination of a converging lens and a multisegment kinoform (binary optical element). The segments preferably have multi-order gratings on each which are aligned parallel to a radial line emanating from the center of the kinoform and pass through the center of the element. The grating in each segment causes circumferential (lateral) dispersion of the light, thereby avoiding detrimental concentration of light energy within the optical fiber.

  2. Vertical emitting, ring geometry, ultra-low threshold and ultra-high speed quantum well lasers for optical interconnect. Final report Jul 88-Dec 90

    SciTech Connect

    Mittelstein, M.; Bar-Chaim, N.

    1991-01-01

    The main emphasis for this contract was placed on the efforts as highlighted in the chapter captions: (1) Introduction to optical interconnects, (2) Conventional laser, (3) Design of laser structures, (4) Achieving buried ring structures, (5) Buried ring quantum well structure, (6) Buried lasers: Champion results and reproducibility, (7) Ridge wave guide laser fabrication, (8) Grating fabrication, (9) Grating fabrication facility, (10) Test station, and (11) Material investigation.

  3. Mathematical and computational modeling of the diffraction problems by discrete singularities method

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvit, K. V.

    2014-11-12

    The main objective of this study is reduced the boundary-value problems of scattering and diffraction waves on plane-parallel structures to the singular or hypersingular integral equations. For these cases we use a method of the parametric representations of the integral and pseudo-differential operators. Numerical results of the model scattering problems on periodic and boundary gratings and also on the gratings above a flat screen reflector are presented in this paper.

  4. Return to 1990: The cost of mitigating United States carbon emissions in the post-2000 period

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H.; MacCracken, C.N.; Sands, R.D.; Wise, M.A.

    1997-10-01

    The Second Generation Model (SGM) is employed to examine four hypothetical agreements to reduce emissions in Annex 1 nations (OECD nations plus most of the nations of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union) to levels in the neighborhood of those which existed in 1990, with obligations taking effect in the year 2010. The authors estimate the cost to the US of complying with such agreements under three distinct conditions: no trading of emissions rights, trading of emissions rights only among Annex 1 nations, and a fully global trading regime. The authors find that the marginal cost of returning to 1990 emissions levels in the US in the absence of trading opportunities is approximately $108 per metric ton carbon in 2010. The total cost in that year is approximately 0.2% of GDP. International trade in emissions permits lowers the cost of achieving any mitigation objective by equalizing the marginal cost of carbon mitigation among countries. For the four mitigation scenarios in this study, economic costs to the US remain below 1% of GDP through at least the year 2020.

  5. Modeling and experimental studies of oxide covered metal surfaces: TiO{sub 2}/Ti a model system. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Smyrl, W.H.

    1991-12-31

    Prior work in our laboratories at the Corrosion Research Center has shown that thin, anodic TiO{sub 2} films formed by the Slow Growth Mode (SGM) on polycrystalline titanium and microcrystalline with a texture that varies from one metal grain to another. Furthermore, the underlying metal grains are mapped by the photoelectrochemical response of the oxide. The same characteristics have also been demonstrated in our laboratory for ZnO grown on Zn. The TiO{sub 2}/Ti system has been chosen for study both because of its importance in energy systems, and because it can serve as a model system for other metal-metal oxide couples. The investigations of anodic TiO{sub 2} films on Ti have shown that the properties of thin films are consistent with the rutile form of the oxide. Both experimental data and theoretical calculations show the close resemblance to results on single crystal TiO{sub 2}. Furthermore, the modeling studies reveal that the optical transitions near the bandedge arise from the bulk band structure. The photoelectrochemical properties of anodic TiO{sub 2} films have now been shown to obey the simple Gaertner-Butler model for the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, with a few modifications. The most important deviation has now been shown to be a result of multiple internal reflections in the oxide film.

  6. Modeling and experimental studies of oxide covered metal surfaces: TiO sub 2 /Ti a model system

    SciTech Connect

    Smyrl, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    Prior work in our laboratories at the Corrosion Research Center has shown that thin, anodic TiO{sub 2} films formed by the Slow Growth Mode (SGM) on polycrystalline titanium and microcrystalline with a texture that varies from one metal grain to another. Furthermore, the underlying metal grains are mapped by the photoelectrochemical response of the oxide. The same characteristics have also been demonstrated in our laboratory for ZnO grown on Zn. The TiO{sub 2}/Ti system has been chosen for study both because of its importance in energy systems, and because it can serve as a model system for other metal-metal oxide couples. The investigations of anodic TiO{sub 2} films on Ti have shown that the properties of thin films are consistent with the rutile form of the oxide. Both experimental data and theoretical calculations show the close resemblance to results on single crystal TiO{sub 2}. Furthermore, the modeling studies reveal that the optical transitions near the bandedge arise from the bulk band structure. The photoelectrochemical properties of anodic TiO{sub 2} films have now been shown to obey the simple Gaertner-Butler model for the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, with a few modifications. The most important deviation has now been shown to be a result of multiple internal reflections in the oxide film.

  7. Characterization and calibration of compact array spectrometers in the ultraviolet spectral region

    SciTech Connect

    Shindo, Francois; Woolliams, Emma; Scott, Barry; Harris, Subrena

    2013-05-10

    Array-based spectrometers, with their compact size, low weight, low cost, and fast measurement time, are now frequently used in place of both conventional single-channel scanning monochromators, and broadband meters. Their rapid measurement capability makes them an attractive option for routine solar UV spectral measurements, where shortterm variability in signal is a challenge. However, compactness, portability, low cost and high speed are achieved at the expense of the spectrometer's optical and electronic performance. Thus such spectrometers are more prone to measurement error from environmental changes, and more prone to other intrinsic sources of error such as stray light and detector non-linearity, which significantly affect solar UV measurements, than a scanning monochromator. The effects of stray light and non-linearity can be reduced either by improved optical and detector design or by a detailed spectrometer characterization. We present in this paper our investigation of the performance of three different commercial array spectrometers: two mini-spectrometers, and a more elaborate array spectrometer with an on-board image amplifier device. These were tested for a subset of performance parameters: their wavelength accuracy and stability, electronic linearity, responsivity linearity, stray light sensitivity, and mechanical stability and repeatability. With all three spectrometers we found that these parameters, particularly but not limited to stray light, had a significant impact on the measurement of the incoming optical radiation. This meant that, without characterization, the instruments would be unable to accurately measure the UV component of any source with significant visible radiation. We discuss various simple and low-cost solutions for improving the performance of these instruments, and providing a rigorous calibration using a straightforward set-up including optical filters and the quasi-monochromatic light from a double monochromator.

  8. Wavelengths and lifetimes of transitions in highly-ionized krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, H.G.; Dunford, R.W.; Gemmel, D.S.

    1995-08-01

    We began a program to test relativistic Hartree-Fock calculations in 3-, 4-, and 5- electron systems by making precision wavelength and lifetime measurements. This is an extension of previous work at ATLAS in which we obtained precision lifetime and wavelength measurements in one- and two-electron systems. We are starting by making accurate wavelength and lifetime measurements of the spectra of multielectron krypton in the far ultraviolet region, at wavelengths of 50 to 400 {Angstrom}. Although there was considerable theoretical progress in this area recently, little accurate data exists for ions above Z=18, except for the wavelengths of the lithium-like transitions. Our spectra are taken using a beam-foil chamber coupled to a 2.2-m McPherson grazing incidence monochromator. This system was upgraded recently to provide efficient light collection and to take advantage of the time structure of ATLAS. The exit slits of the monochromator were replaced by a position-sensitive channel plate with high spatial and time resolution. The channel plate is mounted on a movable chariot on the Rowland circle of the monochromator. The chariot can be translated along the circle, and it can be rotated about a tangent point of the circle. This latter movement allows us to optimize resolution and efficiency depending on the needs of the experiment. Backgrounds due to electrons, neutrons, gamma rays, and dark count from the detector are greatly reduced using a time window (1-2 ns) triggered from the ATLAS beam pulse structure (82 ns pulse separation).

  9. SPEAR3 | A Brighter Source at SSRL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    500 mA news : last update July 19, 2005 SPEAR3 2004 Closeout Report SPEAR3 Commissioning Update First SPEAR3 Beam into SSRL Beam Line Hutch A major milestone for the SPEAR3 commissioning occurred at 17:56 on Monday, March 8, 2004, when the first SPEAR3 synchrotron light was observed on a monitor located inside BL9-3's monochromator housing (Fig. 1). This was followed by threading the beam through the focusing optics to deliver beam inside the experimental hutch enclosure some 20 mins later. The

  10. Electrically actuatable temporal tristimulus-color device

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, Dale R.

    1992-01-01

    The electrically actuated light filter operates in a cyclical temporal mode to effect a tristimulus-color light analyzer. Construction is based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer comprised of a high-speed movable mirror pair and cyclically powered electrical actuators. When combined with a single vidicon tube or a monochrome solid state image sensor, a temporally operated tristimulus-color video camera is effected. A color-generated is accomplished when constructed with a companion light source and is a flicker-free colored-light source for transmission type display systems. Advantages of low cost and small physical size result from photolithographic batch-processing manufacturability.

  11. Neutron diffractometer for bio-crystallography (BIX) with an imaging plate neutron detector

    SciTech Connect

    Niimura, Nobuo

    1994-12-31

    We have constructed a dedicated diffractometer for neutron crystallography in biology (BIX) on the JRR-3M reactor at JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute). The diffraction intensity from a protein crystal is weaker than that from most inorganic materials. In order to overcome the intensity problem, an elastically bent silicon monochromator and a large area detector system were specially designed. A preliminary result of diffraction experiment using BIX has been reported. An imaging plate neutron detector has been developed and a feasibility experiment was carried out on BIX. Results are reported. An imaging plate neutron detector has been developed and a feasibility test was carried out using BIX.

  12. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometer with 25meV resolution at the Cu K -edge

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Ketenoglu, Didem; Harder, Manuel; Klementiev, Konstantin; Upton, Mary; Taherkhani, Mehran; Spiwek, Manfred; Dill, Frank-Uwe; Wille, Hans-Christian; Yavaş, Hasan

    2015-06-27

    An unparalleled resolution is reported with an inelastic X-ray scattering instrument at the CuK-edge. Based on a segmented concave analyzer, featuring single-crystal quartz (SiO2) pixels, the spectrometer delivers a resolution near 25meV (FWHM) at 8981eV. Besides the quartz analyzer, the performance of the spectrometer relies on a four-bounce Si(553) high-resolution monochromator and focusing Kirkpatrick–Baez optics. The measured resolution agrees with the ray-tracing simulation of an ideal spectrometer. The performance of the spectrometer is demonstrated by reproducing the phonon dispersion curve of a beryllium single-crystal.

  13. The New Structural Materials Science Beamlines BL8A and 8B at Photon Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Nakao, A.; Sugiyama, H.; Koyama, A.; Watanabe, K.

    2010-06-23

    BL8A and 8B are new beamlines for structural materials science at Photon Factory. The primary characteristics of both beamlines are similar. The incident beam is monochromatized by the Si(111) double-flat crystal monochromator and focused at the sample position by a Rh-coated bent cylindrical quartz mirror. The Weissenberg-camera-type imaging-plate (IP) diffractometers were installed. The X-ray diffraction experiments for structural studies of strongly correlated materials, such as transition metals, molecular conductors, endohedral fullerenes, nano-materials, etc, are conducted at these stations.

  14. Bent crystal analyzer without grooves for inelastic scattering -- first experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Kushnir, V.I.; Macrander, A.T.

    1996-11-01

    A new design of a bent crystal analyzer for high energy resolution inelastic X-ray scattering has been recently proposed. It has been theoretically predicted that an analyzer with reflecting planes at a certain angle with respect to a crystal surface, bent with two different radii of curvature, will have the same energy resolution as a perfect crystal. The first experimental measurement obtained at the Advanced Photon Source of a bandwidth of such an analyzer is presented. The overall energy resolution of the analyzer and monochromator observed with a narrow beam is equal to 16.4 meV (FWHM) at 13.84 KeV.

  15. Peter (Jun Young) Ko > Project Scientist - CHESS > Researchers, Postdocs &

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Graduates > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell (Jun Young) Ko Project Scientist - CHESS jpk96@cornell.edu While he has never taken any formal courses in "synchrotron beamline science", Jun Young Peter Ko has worked on projects over the past 10 years that were clearly moving him towards expertise in the field. His current position at CHESS is "project scientist." Peter has played a key role in designing a new type of x-ray monochromator that provides uniquely

  16. Design of a high-resolution high-stability positioning mechanism for crystal optics

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.; Toellner, T. S.; Alp, E. E.

    1999-10-11

    The authors present a novel miniature multi-axis driving structure that will allow positioning of two crystals with better than 50-nrad angular resolution and nanometer linear driving sensitivity.The precision and stability of this structure allow the user to align or adjust an assembly of crystals to achieve the same performance as does a single channel-cut crystal, so they call it an artificial channel-cut crystal. In this paper, the particular designs and specifications, as well as the test results,for a two-axis driving structure for a high-energy-resolution artificial channel-cut crystal monochromator are presented

  17. Enhancement of the resolution of full-field optical coherence tomography by using a colour image sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyanov, A L; Lychagov, V V; Smirnov, I V; Ryabukho, V P [N.G. Chernyshevsky Saratov State University, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-31

    The influence of white balance in a colour image detector on the resolution of a full-field optical coherence tomograph (FFOCT) is studied. The change in the interference pulse width depending on the white balance tuning is estimated in the cases of a thermal radiation source (incandescent lamp) and a white light emitting diode. It is shown that by tuning white balance of the detector in a certain range, the FFOCT resolution can be increased by 20 % as compared to the resolution, attained with the use of a monochrome detector. (optical coherence tomography)

  18. Microsoft Word - EN_M278 - NIM Optical Layout.doc

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    SSRL ENGINEERING NOTE M278 Page 1 of 6 March 20, 1997 M. Rowen Beam Line 5-4 NIM, Optical Layout and Alignment Data Purpose: This document specifies the optical layout for the beam line 5-4 Normal Incidence Monochromator (NIM) and the position of all otical elements and brass plugs for use in alignment. The 5-4 NIM is optimized for high flux with resolution to match that of a 200 mm SCIENTA electron spectrometer. The energy range is 10 to 40 eV with a resolution of better than 0.3 meV at a slit

  19. BEAMLINE 4-2

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    RESPONSIBLE STAFF: Hal Tompkins (technical support) EXPERIMENTS: Materials, MES and SMB XAS; SMB SAXS/Diffraction % TIME GENERAL USE 100% SCHEDULING: see Proposal Submittal and Scheduling Procedures SOURCE: 8-pole, 1.8-Tesla Wiggler ID End Station OPTICS: Bent cyclinder, silicon, Pt-coated Radii: 1500 m (adjustable) x 10 cm Mean angle of incidence: 7.7 mrad Cut off energy: 11.0 keV Magnification: 1.0 MONOCHROMATOR: Parallel crystal geometry Si(111), Si(220), Si(400) Upward reflecting White light

  20. BL 11

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    BL 11-2 Status and Scheduling Information Third Run 2001 BL 11-2 user commissioning is in full swing. March and April activities have centered around debugging and characterizing major electromechanical and optical systems of the beam line (motors, mirrors, and the 11-2 LN-cooled monochromator). We are now preparing for the upcoming run, of which 5 1/2 weeks are scheduled for user beam. Further commissioning work and new system testing will be interspersed between user beam periods. Notably,

  1. Beamline

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Beamline Scientific Applications SAXS/WAXS Solution Scattering Fiber diffraction Anomalous SAXS Source characteristics Bending Magnet Port 6A Electron Beam energy 1.3 GeV Dipole field 1.48 T Characteristic energy 1.66 keV Optics LNLS double crystal monochromator Si 111 and Ge 220 crystals Practical energy range from 3 to 14 keV Distance from source Acceptance 2 mrad Energy resolution dE/E Flux before pinholes = 7 x 109 @ 8keV Flux at sample = Experimental setup 2D control for sample alignment

  2. Crystal face temperature determination means

    DOEpatents

    Nason, D.O.; Burger, A.

    1994-11-22

    An optically transparent furnace having a detection apparatus with a pedestal enclosed in an evacuated ampule for growing a crystal thereon is disclosed. Temperature differential is provided by a source heater, a base heater and a cold finger such that material migrates from a polycrystalline source material to grow the crystal. A quartz halogen lamp projects a collimated beam onto the crystal and a reflected beam is analyzed by a double monochromator and photomultiplier detection spectrometer and the detected peak position in the reflected energy spectrum of the reflected beam is interpreted to determine surface temperature of the crystal. 3 figs.

  3. Determination of the resolution of the x-ray microscope XM-1 at beamline 6.1

    SciTech Connect

    Heck, J.M.; Meyer-Ilse, W.; Attwood, D.T.

    1997-04-01

    Resolution determination in x-ray microscopy is a complex issue which depends on many factors. Many different criteria and experimental setups are used to characterize resolution. Some of the important factors affecting resolution include the partial coherence and spectrum of the illumination. The purpose of this research has been to measure the resolution of XM-1 at beamline 6.1 taking into account these factors, and to compare the measurements to theoretical calculations. The x-ray microscope XM-1, built by the Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO), has been operational since 1994 at the Advanced Light Source at E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is of the conventional (i.e. full-field) type, utilizing zone plate optics. ALS bending magnet radiation is focused by a condenser zone plate onto a monochromator pinhole immediately in front of the sample. X-rays transmitted through the sample are focused by a micro-zone plate onto a CCD camera. The pinhole and the condenser with a central stop constitute a linear monochromator. The spectral distribution of the light illuminating the sample has been calculated assuming geometrical optics.

  4. Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong; Anisimov, Petr Mikhaylovich; Buechler, Cynthia Eileen; Lewellen, IV, John W.; Marksteiner, Quinn R.

    2015-09-09

    We describe a new FEL line-narrowing technique called distributed seeding (DS), using Si(111) Bragg crystal monochromators to enhance the spectral brightness of the MaRIE hard X-ray freeelectron laser. DS differs from self-seeding in three important aspects. First, DS relies on spectral filtering of the radiation at multiple locations along the undulator, with a monochromator located every few power gain lengths. Second, DS performs filtering early in the exponential gain region before SASE spikes start to appear in the radiation longitudinal profile. Third, DS provides the option to select a wavelength longer than the peak of the SASE gain curve, which leads to improved spectral contrast of the seeded FEL over the SASE background. Timedependent Genesis simulations show the power-vs-z growth curves for DS exhibit behaviors of a seeded FEL amplifier, such as exponential growth region immediately after the filters. Of the seeding approaches considered, the two-stage DS spectra produce the highest contrast of seeded FEL over the SASE background and that the three-stage DS provides the narrowest linewidth with a relative spectral FWHM of 8 X 10-5 .

  5. Note: Deep ultraviolet Raman spectrograph with the laser excitation line down to 177.3 nm and its application

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Shaoqing; Fan, Fengtao; Guo, Meiling; Zhang, Ying; Feng, Zhaochi E-mail: canli@dicp.ac.cn; Li, Can E-mail: canli@dicp.ac.cn

    2014-04-15

    Deep UV Raman spectrograph with the laser excitation line down to 177.3 nm was developed in this laboratory. An ellipsoidal mirror and a dispersed-subtractive triple monochromator were used to collect and disperse Raman light, respectively. The triple monochromator was arranged in a triangular configuration with only six mirrors used. 177.3 nm laser excited Raman spectrum with cut-off wavenumber down to 200 cm{sup −1} and spectral resolution of 8.0 cm{sup −1} can be obtained under the condition of high purity N{sub 2} purging. With the C–C σ bond in Teflon selectively excited by the 177.3 nm laser, resonance Raman spectrum of Teflon with good quality was recorded on the home-built instrument and the σ-σ{sup *} transition of C–C bond was studied. The result demonstrates that deep UV Raman spectrograph is powerful for studying the systems with electronic transition located in the deep UV region.

  6. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with two-dimensional energy and momentum mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Jia, Xun; Guo, Qinlin; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Linfan; Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E. W.; Guo, Jiandong

    2015-08-15

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful technique to probe vibrational and electronic excitations at surfaces. The dispersion relation of surface excitations, i.e., energy as a function of momentum, has in the past, been obtained by measuring the energy loss at a fixed angle (momentum) and then rotating sample, monochromator, or analyzer. Here, we introduce a new strategy for HREELS, utilizing a specially designed lens system with a double-cylindrical Ibach-type monochromator combined with a commercial VG Scienta hemispherical electron energy analyzer, which can simultaneously measure the energy and momentum of the scattered electrons. The new system possesses high angular resolution (<0.1°), detecting efficiency and sampling density. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated using Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}. The time required to obtain a complete dispersion spectrum is at least one order of magnitude shorter than conventional spectrometers, with improved momentum resolution and no loss in energy resolution.

  7. Two-Bunch Self-Seeding for Narrow-Bandwidth Hard X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Yuantao; Huang, Zhirong; Ruth, Ronald D.; /SLAC

    2010-06-04

    It is well-known that seeding can be used to produce narrow-bandwidth and fully-coherent x- ray free-electron lasers. Self-seeding, which uses an extra undulator to generate the seed pulse, is perhaps one of the most promising methods to accomplish this. In the hard x-ray regime with high- energy electrons, this method requires a large magnetic chicane to match the path length delay of the x-ray monochromator that selects a narrow bandwidth of radiation. Such a chicane not only takes large footprint to build, but also may degrade the electron beam qualities through incoherent and coherent synchrotron radiation. In this paper, we present an alternative two-bunch self-seeding scheme. The two bunches are precisely separated to match the x-ray delay of the monochromator and eliminate the need for a long, complex magnetic chicane. The spectrally filtered SASE x-ray pulse produced by the first bunch is combined with the second electron bunch at the entrance of the second undulator and then amplified to the saturation level. We present start-to-end simulation results based on the LCLS hard x-ray FEL and show that this method can produce a nearly fully coherent x-ray pulse at a few GW power level.

  8. Precision Spectrophotometric Calibration System for Dark Energy Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Schubnell, Michael S.

    2015-06-30

    For this research we build a precision calibration system and carried out measurements to demonstrate the precision that can be achieved with a high precision spectrometric calibration system. It was shown that the system is capable of providing a complete spectrophotometric calibration at the sub-pixel level. The calibration system uses a fast, high precision monochromator that can quickly and efficiently scan over an instrument’s entire spectral range with a spectral line width of less than 0.01 nm corresponding to a fraction of a pixel on the CCD. The system was extensively evaluated in the laboratory. Our research showed that a complete spectrophotometric calibration standard for spectroscopic survey instruments such as DESI is possible. The monochromator precision and repeatability to a small fraction of the DESI spectrograph LSF was demonstrated with re-initialization on every scan and thermal drift compensation by locking to multiple external line sources. A projector system that mimics telescope aperture for point source at infinity was demonstrated.

  9. Surface Curvatures and Diffraction Profiles of Sagittaly Bent Laue Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, X.; Takacs, P.; Ghose, S.; Zhong, Z.; Rehak, M.L.; Kaznatcheev, K.; Dooryhee, E.

    2011-05-17

    The performance of a bent Laue crystal monochromator crucially depends on the sagittal and meridional bending curvatures of the crystal. To optimize the design of monochromator crystals, the surface curvatures and diffraction profiles of a set of sagittally bent Laue crystals with different aspect ratios have been studied experimentally by optical metrology and X-ray measurements. The results were confirmed with finite-element analysis using large-deformation theory. The nonlinear relationship between the curvatures necessitates an experimentally determined parameter in the theoretical modeling of the diffraction profiles. By taking into account the local stress and the aspect ratio of the sagittally bent Laue crystal, the modified analytical approach successfully predicts the rocking-curve width and the integrated reflecting power. The effect of extreme sagittal bending on the rocking curve is also discussed. To retain high reflectivity, the bending curvature should not exceed its critical value for the specified crystal geometry. Furthermore, the uniformity of the bending curvatures across the crystal surface has been examined, which suggests that the minimum crystal dimension should be approximately twice the size of the beam footprint.

  10. Bent Diamond Crystals and Multilayer Based Optics at the new 5-Station Protein Crystallography Beamline 'Cassiopeia' at MAX-lab

    SciTech Connect

    Mammen, Christian B.; Als-Nielsen, Jens; Ursby, Thomas; Thunnissen, Marjolein

    2004-05-12

    A new 5-station beamline for protein crystallography is being commissioned at the Swedish synchrotron light source MAX-II at Lund University. Of the 2K/{gamma} = 14 mrad horizontal wiggler fan, the central 2 mrad are used and split in three parts. The central 1 mrad will be used for a station optimized for MAD experiments and on each side of the central fan, from 0.5 mrad to 1 mrad, there are two fixed energy stations using different energies of the same part of the beam. These, in total five stations, can be used simultaneously and independently for diffraction data collection. The two upstream monochromators for the side stations are meridionally bent asymmetric diamond(111) crystals in Laue transmission geometry. The monochromators for the downstream side stations are bent Ge(111) crystals in asymmetric Bragg reflection geometry. Curved multilayer mirrors inserted in the monochromatic beams provide focusing in the vertical plane. The first side station is under commissioning, and a preliminary test protein data set has been collected.

  11. Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, Ulf; Hauss, Julian; Riedel, Boris; Gleiss, Sebastian; Lemmer, Uli; Gerken, Martina

    2008-11-01

    We describe a cost-efficient and large area scalable production process of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with photonic crystals (PCs) as extraction elements for guided modes. Using laser interference lithography and physical plasma etching, we texture the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode layer of an OLED with one- and two-dimensional PC gratings. By optical transmission measurements, the resonant mode of the grating is shown to have a drift of only 0.4% over the 5 mm length of the ITO grating. By changing the lattice constant between 300 and 600 nm, the OLED emission angle of enhanced light outcoupling is tailored from -24.25 deg. to 37 deg. At these angles, the TE emission is enhanced up to a factor of 2.14.

  12. Clean burning solid fuel stove and method

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.D.; Grouw, S.J.V.

    1985-10-08

    A stove for burning solid fuels having an insulated primary combustion chamber, uniform distribution of preheated primary air through upward facing holes in a grate, downward flow of combustion gas through the grate, retention of hot coals in the grate structure, preheated secondary air, individually controlled primary and secondary air flows, insulated vortex combustion chambers for secondary combustion, longitudinally finned tubes as a first stage heat exchanger, plate-fin assembly as a second stage heat exchanger, an induced draft fan to draw the air and combustion gases through the combustion chambers as well as the heat exchangers, and a forced air fan to blow cool room air through the two stage heat exchanger.

  13. Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation as a diagnostic for sub-picosecond electron bunch length

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.C.

    1996-10-01

    We suggest a novel technique of measuring sub-picosecond electron bunch length base on coherent Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR) emitted when electrons pass close to the surface of a metal grating. With electron bunch lengths comparable to the grating period, we predict that coherent SPR will be emitted at large angles with respect to direction of beam propagation. As the bunch length shortens, the coherent SPR will be enhanced over the incoherent component that is normally observed at small angles. Furthermore, the angular distribution of the coherent SPR will be shifted toward smaller angles as the bunch length becomes much smaller than the grating period. By measuring the angular distribution of the coherent SPR, one can determine the bunch length of sub-picosecond electron pulses. This new technique is easy to implement and appears capable of measuring femtosecond electron bunch lengths.

  14. High efficiency laser spectrum conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Norman R.

    1980-01-01

    A high efficiency laser spectrum conditioner for generating a collinear parallel output beam containing a predetermined set of frequencies from a multifrequency laser. A diffraction grating and spherical mirror are used in combination, to disperse the various frequencies of the input laser beam and direct these frequencies along various parallel lines spatially separated from one another to an apertured mask. Selection of the desired frequencies is accomplished by placement of apertures at locations on the mask where the desired frequencies intersect the mask. A recollimated parallel output beam with the desired set of frequencies is subsequently generated utilizing a mirror and grating matched and geometrically aligned in the same manner as the input grating and mirror.

  15. Transverse-longitudinal integrated resonator

    DOEpatents

    Hutchinson, Donald P.; Simpson, Marcus L.; Simpson, John T.

    2003-03-11

    A transverse-longitudinal integrated optical resonator (TLIR) is disclosed which includes a waveguide, a first and a second subwavelength resonant grating in the waveguide, and at least one photonic band gap resonant structure (PBG) in the waveguide. The PBG is positioned between the first and second subwavelength resonant gratings. An electro-optic waveguide material may be used to permit tuning the TLIR and to permit the TLIR to perform signal modulation and switching. The TLIR may be positioned on a bulk substrate die with one or more electronic and optical devices and may be communicably connected to the same. A method for fabricating a TLIR including fabricating a broadband reflective grating is disclosed. A method for tuning the TLIR's transmission resonance wavelength is also disclosed.

  16. Narrowband resonant transmitter

    DOEpatents

    Hutchinson, Donald P.; Simpson, Marcus L.; Simpson, John T.

    2004-06-29

    A transverse-longitudinal integrated optical resonator (TLIR) is disclosed which includes a waveguide, a first and a second subwavelength resonant grating in the waveguide, and at least one photonic band gap resonant structure (PBG) in the waveguide. The PBG is positioned between the first and second subwavelength resonant gratings. An electro-optic waveguide material may be used to permit tuning the TLIR and to permit the TLIR to perform signal modulation and switching. The TLIR may be positioned on a bulk substrate die with one or more electronic and optical devices and may be communicably connected to the same. A method for fabricating a TLIR including fabricating a broadband reflective grating is disclosed. A method for tuning the TLIR's transmission resonance wavelength is also disclosed.

  17. Internal Detonation Velocity Measurements Inside High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Benterou, J; Bennett, C V; Cole, G; Hare, D E; May, C; Udd, E

    2009-01-16

    In order to fully calibrate hydrocodes and dynamic chemistry burn models, initiation models and detonation models of high explosives, the ability to continuously measure the detonation velocity within an explosive is required. Progress on an embedded velocity diagnostic using a 125 micron diameter optical fiber containing a chirped fiber Bragg grating is reported. As the chirped fiber Bragg grating is consumed by the moving detonation wave, the physical length of the unconsumed Bragg grating is monitored with a fast InGaAs photodiode. Experimental details of the associated equipment and data in the form of continuous detonation velocity records within PBX-9502 are presented. This small diameter fiber sensor has the potential to measure internal detonation velocities on the order of 10 mm/{micro}sec along path lengths tens of millimeters long.

  18. Laser bandwidth interlock capable of single pulse detection and rejection

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, James P; Telford, Steven James; Lanning, Rodney Kay; Bayramian, Andrew James

    2012-10-09

    A pulse of laser light is switched out of a pulse train and spatially dispersed into its constituent wavelengths. The pulse is collimated to a suitable size and then diffracted by high groove density multilayer dielectric gratings. This imparts a different angle to each individual wavelength so that, when brought to the far field with a lens, the colors have spread out in a linear arrangement. The distance between wavelengths (resolution) can be tailored for the specific laser and application by altering the number of times the beam strikes the diffraction gratings, the groove density of the gratings and the focal length of the lens. End portions of the linear arrangement are each directed to a respective detector, which converts the signal to a 1 if the level meets a set-point, and a 0 if the level does not. If both detectors produces a 1, then the pulse train is allowed to propagate into an optical system.

  19. Aberration-free, all-reflective laser pulse stretcher

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.; Fochs, Scott N.

    1999-09-28

    An all-reflective pulse stretcher for laser systems employing chirped-pulse amplification enables on-axis use of the focusing mirror which results in ease of use, significantly decreased sensitivity to alignment and near aberration-free performance. By using a new type of diffraction grating which contains a mirror incorporated into the grating, the stretcher contains only three elements: 1) the grating, 2) a spherical or parabolic focusing mirror, and 3) a flat mirror. Addition of a fourth component, a retro-reflector, enables multiple passes of the same stretcher resulting in stretching ratios beyond the current state of the art in a simple and compact design. The pulse stretcher has been used to stretch pulses from 20 fsec to over 600 psec (a stretching ratio in excess of 30,000).

  20. Natural Recharge to the Unconfined Aquifer System on the Hanford Site from the Greater Cold Creek Watershed: Progress Report 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Waichler, Scott R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2004-09-14

    Movement of contaminants in groundwater at the Hanford Site is heavily dependent on recharge to the unconfined aquifer. As the effects of past artificial discharges dissipate, the water table is expected to return to more natural conditions, and natural recharge will become the driving force when evaluating future groundwater flow conditions and related contaminant transport. Previous work on the relationship of natural recharge to groundwater movement at the Hanford Site has focused on direct recharge from infiltrating rainfall and snowmelt within the area represented by the Sitewide Groundwater Model (SGM) domain. However, part of the groundwater recharge at Hanford is provided by flow from Greater Cold Creek watershed (GCC), a large drainage area on the western boundary of the Hanford Site that includes Cold Creek Valley, Dry Creek Valley, and the Hanford side of Rattlesnake Mountain. This study was undertaken to estimate the recharge from GCC, which is believed to enter the unconfined aquifer as both infiltrating streamflow and shallow subsurface flow. To estimate recharge, the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was used to simulate a detailed water balance of GCC from 1956 to 2001 at a spatial resolution of 200~m and a temporal resolution of one hour. For estimating natural recharge to Hanford from watersheds along its western and southwestern boundaries, the most important aspects that need to be considered are 1)~distribution and relative magnitude of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the watershed, 2)~streamflow generation at upper elevations and infiltration at lower elevations during rare runoff events, and 3)~permeability of the basalt bedrock surface underlying the soil mantle.

  1. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Jay R. Gunderson; Darren D. Schmidt; Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2002-09-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has completed a project to examine fundamental issues that could limit the use of biomass in small industrial steam/power systems in order to increase the future use of this valuable domestic resource. Specifically, the EERC attempted to elucidate the ash-related problems--grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling--associated with cofiring coal and biomass in grate-fired systems. Utilization of biomass in stoker boilers designed for coal can be a cause of concern for boiler operators. Boilers that were designed for low-volatile fuels with lower reactivities can experience problematic fouling when switched to higher-volatile and more reactive coal-biomass blends. Higher heat release rates at the grate can cause increased clinkering or slagging at the grate due to higher temperatures. Combustion and loss of volatile matter can start much earlier for biomass fuels compared to design fuel, vaporizing alkali and chlorides which then condense on rear walls and heat exchange tube banks in the convective pass of the stoker, causing noticeable increases in fouling. In addition, stoker-fired boilers that switch to biomass blends may encounter new chemical species such as potassium sulfates, various chlorides, and phosphates. These species in combination with different flue gas temperatures, because of changes in fuel heating value, can adversely affect ash deposition behavior. The goal of this project was to identify the primary ash mechanisms related to grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling associated with cofiring coal and biomass--specifically wood and agricultural residuals--in grate-fired systems, leading to future mitigation of these problems. The specific technical objectives of the project were: (1) Modification of an existing pilot-scale combustion system to simulate a grate-fired system. (2) Verification testing of the simulator. (3) Laboratory-scale testing and fuel characterization to

  2. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Darren D. Schmidt; Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2001-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a project to examine the fundamental issues limiting the use of biomass in small industrial steam/power systems in order to increase the future use of this valuable domestic resource. Specifically, the EERC is attempting to elucidate the ash-related problems--grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling--associated with cofiring coal and biomass in grate-fired systems. Utilization of biomass in stoker boilers designed for coal can be a cause of concern for boiler operators. Boilers that were designed for low volatile fuels with lower reactivities can experience damaging fouling when switched to higher volatile and more reactive lower-rank fuels, such as when cofiring biomass. Higher heat release rates at the grate can cause more clinkering or slagging at the grate because of higher temperatures. Combustion and loss of volatile matter can start too early for biomass fuels compared to the design fuel, vaporizing alkali and chlorides which then condense on rear walls and heat exchange tube banks in the convective pass of the stoker, causing noticeable increases in fouling. In addition, stoker-fired boilers that switch to biomass blends may encounter new chemical species such as potassium sulfates and various chlorides, in combination with different flue gas temperatures because of changes in fuel heating value which can adversely affect ash deposition behavior. The goal of this project is to identify the primary ash mechanisms related to grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling associated with cofiring coal and biomass--specifically wood and agricultural residuals--in grate-fired systems, leading to future mitigation of these problems. The specific technical objectives of the project are: Modification of an existing EERC pilot-scale combustion system to simulate a grate-fired system; Verification testing of the simulator; Laboratory-scale testing and fuel characterization to determine ash

  3. Dual waveband compact catadioptric imaging spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2012-12-25

    A catadioptric dual waveband imaging spectrometer that covers the visible through short-wave infrared, and the midwave infrared spectral regions, dispersing the visible through shortwave infrared with a zinc selenide grating and midwave infrared with a sapphire prism. The grating and prism are at the cold stop position, enabling the pupil to be split between them. The spectra for both wavebands are focused onto the relevant sections of a single dual waveband detector. Spatial keystone distortion is controlled to less than one tenth of a pixel over the full wavelength range, facilitating the matching of the spectra in the midwave infrared with the shorter wavelength region.

  4. A new compact soft x-ray spectrometer for resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies at PETRA III

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Z. E-mail: simone.techert@desy.de; Peters, H. B.; Hahn, U.; Viefhaus, J.; Agåker, M.; Nordgren, J.; Hage, A.; Reininger, R.; Siewert, F.; Techert, S. E-mail: simone.techert@desy.de

    2015-09-15

    We present a newly designed compact grating spectrometer for the energy range from 210 eV to 1250 eV, which would include the Kα{sub 1,2} emission lines of vital elements like C, N, and O. The spectrometer is based on a grazing incidence spherical varied line spacing grating with 2400 l/mm at its center and a radius of curvature of 58 542 mm. First, results show a resolving power of around 1000 at an energy of 550 eV and a working spectrometer for high vacuum (10{sup −4} mbar) environment without losing photon intensity.

  5. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in multiple frequency bands

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Hong-xiang; Yuan, Shou-qi; Zhang, Shu-yi

    2015-11-23

    We report both experimentally and numerically that the multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission is realized by placing two periodic gratings with different periods on both sides of two brass plates immersed in water. The asymmetric acoustic transmission can exist in four frequency bands below 1500 kHz, which arises from the interaction between various diffractions from the two gratings and Lamb modes in the brass plates immersed in water. The results indicate that the device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and simpler structure. Our finding should have great potential applications in ultrasonic devices.

  6. Combined pumping of a compact HCN laser with a duplex resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Kamenev, Yu E

    2003-02-28

    A waveguide HCN laser with an active medium of length 0.5 m is described. The laser resonator contains a half-wave phase mirror and two plane-parallel one-dimensional wire gratings crossed at a right angle. The active medium was excited by an alternating current (50 Hz) and high-frequency radiation (40.7 MHz). The dependence of the output laser power on the resonator length is studied for different azimuthal positions of the phase mirror with respect to the grating. Lasing was observed at any azimuth, from zero to 360{sup 0}. (resonators)

  7. Geometrically induced surface polaritons in planar nanostructured metallic cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Davids, P. S.; Intravia, F; Dalvit, Diego A.

    2014-01-14

    We examine the modal structure and dispersion of periodically nanostructured planar metallic cavities within the scattering matrix formulation. By nanostructuring a metallic grating in a planar cavity, artificial surface excitations or spoof plasmon modes are induced with dispersion determined by the periodicity and geometric characteristics of the grating. These spoof surface plasmon modes are shown to give rise to new cavity polaritonic modes at short mirror separations that modify the density of modes in nanostructured cavities. The increased modal density of states form cavity polarirons have a large impact on the fluctuation induced electromagnetic forces and enhanced hear transfer at short separations.

  8. Photo Gallery

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Target Area <h3>Replacing a Grating Debris Shield</h3>Target Area Coordinator Kevin Hood replaces a grating debris shield (GDS) in a NIF final optics assembly. The GDSs protect the other final optics from target debris and diffract about 0.1 percent of NIF's ultraviolet light into an energy diagnostic system. More than 90 percent of damaged GDSs are repaired in the Optics Mitigation Facility and returned to service. Credit: Juan Soto<br/><br/><a

  9. Tunable, superconducting, surface-emitting teraherz source

    DOEpatents

    Welp, Ulrich; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Gray, Kenneth E.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii

    2009-10-27

    A compact, solid-state THz source based on the driven Josephson vortex lattice in a highly anisotropic superconductor such as Bi.sub.2Sr.sub.2CaCu.sub.2O.sub.8 that allows cw emission at tunable frequency. A second order metallic Bragg grating is used to achieve impedance matching and to induce surface emission of THz-radiation from a Bi.sub.2Sr.sub.2CaCu.sub.2O.sub.8 sample. Steering of the emitted THz beam is accomplished by tuning the Josephson vortex spacing around the grating period using a superimposed magnetic control field.

  10. Tunable, superconducting, surface-emitting teraherz source

    DOEpatents

    Welp, Ulrich; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Gray, Kenneth E.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii

    2010-05-11

    A compact, solid-state THz source based on the driven Josephson vortex lattice in a highly anisotropic superconductor such as Bi.sub.2Sr.sub.2CaCu.sub.2O.sub.8 that allows cw emission at tunable frequency. A second order metallic Bragg grating is used to achieve impedance matching and to induce surface emission of THz-radiation from a Bi.sub.2Sr.sub.2CaCu.sub.2O.sub.8 sample. Steering of the emitted THz beam is accomplished by tuning the Josephson vortex spacing around the grating period using a superimposed magnetic control field.

  11. Apparatus and method for optical pulse measurement

    DOEpatents

    Trebino, Rick P.; Tsang, Thomas; Fittinghoff, David N.; Sweetser, John N.; Krumbuegel, Marco A.

    1999-12-28

    Practical third-order frequency-resolved optical grating (FROG) techniques for characterization of ultrashort optical pulses are disclosed. The techniques are particularly suited to the measurement of single and/or weak optical pulses having pulse durations in the picosecond and subpicosecond regime. The relative quantum inefficiency of third-order nonlinear optical effects is compensated for through i) use of phase-matched transient grating beam geometry to maximize interaction length, and ii) use of interface-enhanced third-harmonic generation.

  12. Optical-diffraction method for determining crystal orientation

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, B.L.

    1982-05-07

    Disclosed is an optical diffraction technique for characterizing the three-dimensional orientation of a crystal sample. An arbitrary surface of the crystal sample is texture etched so as to generate a pseudo-periodic diffraction grating on the surface. A laser light beam is then directed onto the etched surface, and the reflected light forms a farfield diffraction pattern in reflection. Parameters of the diffraction pattern, such as the geometry and angular dispersion of the diffracted beam are then related to grating shape of the etched surface which is in turn related to crystal orientation. This technique may be used for examining polycrystalline silicon for use in solar cells.

  13. Efficient out-coupling and beaming of Tamm optical states via surface plasmon polariton excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Garcia, M.; Ho, Y.-L. D.; Taverne, M. P. C.; Chen, L.-F.; Rarity, J. G.; Oulton, R.; Murshidy, M. M.; Edwards, A. P.; Adawi, A. M.; Serry, M. Y.

    2014-06-09

    We present evidence of optical Tamm states to surface plasmon polariton (SPP) coupling. We experimentally demonstrate that for a Bragg stack with a thin metal layer on the surface, hybrid Tamm-SPP modes may be excited when a grating on the air-metal interface is introduced. Out-coupling via the grating to free space propagation is shown to enhance the transmission as well as the directionality and polarization selection for the transmitted beam. We suggest that this system will be useful on those devices, where a metallic electrical contact as well as beaming and polarization control is needed.

  14. Tuned optical cavity magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

    2010-11-02

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which utilizes an optical cavity formed from a grating and a mirror, with a vapor cell containing an alkali metal vapor located inside the optical cavity. Lasers are used to magnetically polarize the alkali metal vapor and to probe the vapor and generate a diffracted laser beam which can be used to sense a magnetic field. Electrostatic actuators can be used in the magnetometer for positioning of the mirror, or for modulation thereof. Another optical cavity can also be formed from the mirror and a second grating for sensing, adjusting, or stabilizing the position of the mirror.

  15. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Beamline at the Siam Photon Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Klysubun, Wantana; Tarawarakarn, Pongjakr; Sombunchoo, Panidtha; Klinkhieo, Supat; Chaiprapa, Jitrin; Songsiriritthigul, Prayoon

    2007-01-19

    A bending magnet beamline has been constructed and commissioned for x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Siam Photon Laboratory. The photon energy is tunable from 1830 eV to 8000 eV using a Lemmonier-type, fixed-exit double crystal monochromator equipped with InSb(111), Si(111), Ge(220) crystals. Elemental K-edges are then accessible from silicon to iron. A series of low conductance vacuum tubes has been designed and installed between the pumping chambers in the front end to obtain the proper pressure difference between the upstream and the downstream of the front end. Thus lower-energy photons, around K-edges of silicon, phosphorous, and sulfur, can be delivered to the experimental XAS station without being absorbed by a window. In this report, the design of the beamline is described. The commissioning results including the measured photon flux at sample and experimental XAS spectra are presented.

  16. The Present Status of Siam Photon Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Pairsuwan, Weerapong; Ishii, Takehiko; Isoyama, Goro

    2004-05-12

    We report the technical problems encountered in commissioning and improving the performance of the accelerator complex which consists of a 1 GeV light source storage ring, a 1 GeV booster synchrotron, and a 40 MeV injector linac. Regulation work for an attached beam line with an experimental station for photoemission studies is also described. Beam instability and low injection efficiency are the major issues for the accelerator complex. In the beam line, the accurate optical alignment of the monochromator system and the modification of the measurement control software supplied by a marker are the work having been performed. The results of the work on the accelerator complex will be helpful to the commissioning of the machine obtained secondhand and reformed to some extent.

  17. Multiplex coherent raman spectroscopy detector and method

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Peter; Joyner, Candace C.; Patrick, Sheena T.; Guyer, Dean R.

    2004-06-08

    A multiplex coherent Raman spectrometer (10) and spectroscopy method rapidly detects and identifies individual components of a chemical mixture separated by a separation technique, such as gas chromatography. The spectrometer (10) and method accurately identify a variety of compounds because they produce the entire gas phase vibrational Raman spectrum of the unknown gas. This is accomplished by tilting a Raman cell (20) to produce a high-intensity, backward-stimulated, coherent Raman beam of 683 nm, which drives a degenerate optical parametric oscillator (28) to produce a broadband beam of 1100-1700 nm covering a range of more than 3000 wavenumber. This broadband beam is combined with a narrowband beam of 532 nm having a bandwidth of 0.003 wavenumbers and focused into a heated windowless cell (38) that receives gases separated by a gas chromatograph (40). The Raman radiation scattered from these gases is filtered and sent to a monochromator (50) with multichannel detection.

  18. Applications of Laminar Weak-Link Mechanisms for Ultraprecision Synchrotron Radiation Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.; Toellner, T. S.; Alp, E. E.; Maser, J.; Ilavsky, J.; Shastri, S. D.; Lee, P. L.; Narayanan, S.; Long, G. G. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2007-01-19

    Unlike traditional kinematic flexure mechanisms, laminar overconstrained weak-link mechanisms provide much higher structure stiffness and stability. Using a laminar structure configured and manufactured by chemical etching and lithography techniques, we are able to design and build linear and rotary weak-link mechanisms with ultrahigh positioning sensitivity and stability for synchrotron radiation applications. Applications of laminar rotary weak-link mechanism include: high-energy-resolution monochromators for inelastic x-ray scattering and x-ray analyzers for ultra-small-angle scattering and powder-diffraction experiments. Applications of laminar linear weak-link mechanism include high-stiffness piezo-driven stages with subnanometer resolution for an x-ray microscope. In this paper, we summarize the recent designs and applications of the laminar weak-link mechanisms at the Advanced Photon Source.

  19. Spectral-luminescent and lasing properties of pyridylaryloxazoles

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseeva, V.I.

    1986-09-01

    This paper studies the spectral-luminescent and lasing properties of several new 2-(4-pyridyl)-5-aryloxazoles with a varying substituent in the 5-phenyl radical, and their quarternary salts (II). The spectral-luminescent properties of the compounds synthesized were investigated by using a SF-4A spectrophotometer and a fluorescent apparatus based on a ZMR-3 monochromator with photoelectric recording. The absolute fluorescence quantum yields were determined by the equal absorption method. The absorption spectra of compounds I in 96% ethanol are not different in their character from an absorption spectrum of unsubstituted 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO). It is shown that the compounds studied are prospective for lasing emission in the 16,130-20,410 cm/sup -1/ region.

  20. South pole bang-time diagnostic on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    MacPhee, A; Edgell, D; Bradley, D K; Bond, E J; Burns, S; Callahan, D A; Celeste, J; Kimbrough, J; Mackinnon, A J; Magoon, J; Eckart, M J; Glebov, V; Hey, D; Lacielle, G; Kilkenny, J; Parker, J; Sangster, T C; Shoup, M J; Stoeckl, C; Thomas, T

    2012-05-01

    The south pole bang-time (SPBT) diagnostic views National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosions through the lower hohlraum laser entrance hole to measure the time of peak x-ray emission (peak compression) in indirect drive implosions. Five chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) diamond photoconductive detectors (PCD's) with different filtrations and sensitivities record the time-varying x rays emitted by the target. Wavelength-selecting highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) crystal mirror monochromators increase the x-ray signal-to-background ratio by filtering for 11-keV emission. Diagnostic timing and the in-situ temporal instrument response function are determined from laser impulse shots on the NIF. After signal deconvolution and background removal, the bang time is determined to 45-ps accuracy. The x-ray 'yield' (mJ/sr/keV at 11 keV) is determined from the total area under the peak.

  1. Processing high level waste: Spectroscopic characterization of redox reactions in supercritical water. Annual progress report, January 1, 1997--October 15, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Arrington, C.A. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    'All of the work done so far was carried out at Los Alamos National Lab. During the summer program at LANL all equipment and supplies were provided through Dr. Buelow''s program at LANL. The author is now setting up a Raman spectroscopy lab at Furman. Using departmental funds he has purchased an optical bench, a laser, and a CCD detector and are ready to order a monochromator. Over the next few months he expects to use the equipment and supplies budget of the DOE grant to get the supplies needed to carry out experiments at Furman. The plan is to continue the summer collaboration at LANL and carry out experiments at Furman during the academic year.'

  2. Investigation of Nitro-Organic Compounds in Diesel Engine Exhaust: Final Report, February 2007 - April 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Dane, J.; Voorhees, K. J.

    2010-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory upgraded its ReFUEL engine and vehicle testing facility to speciate unregulated gas-phase emissions. To complement this capability, the laboratory contracted with the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) to study the effects of soy biodiesel fuel and a diesel particle filter (DPF) on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH). CSM developed procedures to sample diesel particulate matter (PM) emissions from raw and diluted exhaust, with and without a DPF. They also developed improved procedures for extracting PAH and NPAH from the PM and quantifying them with a gas chromatograph-electron monochromator mass spectrometer. The study found the DPF generally reduced PAH emissions by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude. PAH conversion was lowest for B100, suggesting that PAHs were forming in the DPF. Orders of magnitude reductions were also found for NPAH emissions exiting the DPF.

  3. An X-ray Absorption Edge Detector for High-Resolution Measurement of Undulator Effective K-Parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B.; Galayda, J.N.; /SLAC

    2007-03-07

    The spectrum of angle-integrated undulator radiation displays a sharp edge at every harmonic photon energy. A technique utilizing this feature to measure minute changes in K-parameters of an undulator in a free-electron laser has been proposed. To date, this technique requires the use of crystal monochromators as bandpass filters whose energy centroid depends on the incident angle of the x-ray beam. In this work we propose to use the absorption edge of an appropriate element as an energy-selective detector whose response is truly independent of the angle of the x-ray beam, and hence independent of electron beam direction and emittance. We will discuss the basic design concept of the detection system and illustrate its projected performance with computer simulations.

  4. THE METHODS OF PRODUCING AND ANALYZING POLARIZED NEUTRON BEAMS FOR HYSPEC AT THE SNS.

    SciTech Connect

    SHAPIRO, S.M.; PASSELL, L.; ZALIZNYAK, A.; GHOSH, V.J.; LEONHARDT, W.L.; HAGEN, M.E.

    2005-04-25

    The Hybrid Spectrometer (HYSPEC), under construction at the SNS on beam line 14B, is the only inelastic scattering instrument designed to enable polarization of the incident and the scattered neutron beams. A Heusler monochromator will replace the graphite crystal for producing polarized neutrons. In the scattered beam it is planned to use a collimator--multi-channel supermirror bender array to analyze the polarization of the scattered beam over the final energy range from 5-20 meV. Other methods of polarization analysis under consideration such as transmission filters using He{sup 3}, Sm, and polarized protons are considered. Their performance is estimated and a comparison of the various methods of polarization is made.

  5. Commissioning and first results of scanning type EXAFS beamline (BL-09) at INDUS-2 synchrotron source

    SciTech Connect

    Poswal, A. K. Agrawal, A. Yadav, A. K. Nayak, C. Basu, S. Bhattachryya, D.; Jha, S. N.; Sahoo, N. K.; Kane, S. R.; Garg, C. K.

    2014-04-24

    An Energy Scanning X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy beamline has recently been installed and commissioned at BL-09 bending magnet port of INDUS-2 synchrotron source, Indore. The beamline uses an UHV compatible fixed exit double crystal monochromator (DCM) with two Si (111) crystals. Two grazing incidence cylindrical mirrors are also used in this beamline; the pre-mirror is used as a collimating mirror while the post mirror is used for vertical focusing and higher harmonic rejection. In this beamline it is possible to carry out EXAFS measurements both in transmission and fluorescence mode on various types of samples, using Ionization chamber detectors and solid state drift detector respectively. In this paper, results from first experiments of the Energy Scanning EXAFS beamline are presented.

  6. Polyplanar optic display for cockpit application

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L.; Freibott, W.

    1998-04-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a high contrast display screen being developed for cockpit applications. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a long lifetime, (10,000 hour), 200 mW green solid-state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design and speckle reduction, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  7. TOF Electron Energy Analyzer for Spin and Angular Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Gennadi; Jozwiak, Chris; Andresen, Nord; Lanzara, Alessandra; Hussain, Zahid

    2008-07-09

    Current pulsed laser and synchrotron x-ray sources provide new opportunities for Time-Of- Flight (TOF) based photoemission spectroscopy to increase photoelectron energy resolution and efficiency compared to current standard techniques. The principals of photoelectron timing front formation, temporal aberration minimization, and optimization of electron beam transmission are presented. We have developed these concepts into a high resolution Electron Optical Scheme (EOS) of a TOF Electron Energy Analyzer (TOF-EEA) for photoemission spectroscopy. The EOS of the analyzer includes an electrostatic objective lens, three columns of transport lenses and a 90 degree energy band pass filter (BPF). The analyzer has two modes of operation: Spectrometer Mode (SM) with straight passage of electrons through the EOS undeflected by the BPF, allowing the entire spectrum to be measured, and Monochromator Mode (MM) in which the BPF defines a certain energy window inside the scope of the electron energy spectrum.

  8. Development of BATAN’s texture diffractometer (current status)

    SciTech Connect

    Priyanto, T. H. Bharoto,; Mugirahardjo, H.; Muslih, R.; Ramadhani, A.; Sairun

    2015-04-16

    Texture Diffractometer, called DN2, is one of neutron diffractometers in BATAN which is dedicated for texture measurement using neutron diffraction method. To obtain better performance of the DN2, a flight tube goniometer have been installed between the monochromator and sample position. By adjusting the flight tube goniometer, defocusing effect at direct beam and background effect could be reduced significantly. Some experiments have been carried out to characterize DN2 performance. The flight tube goniometer alignment and neutron wavelength calibration were characterized using silicon standard sample Si640d. Data refinement of diffraction pattern was analyzed using MAUD software and it is obtained reliability factor with background, R{sub wpb}, reduced significantly, from 42.53 % to 19.36 % after setting of flight tube goniometer. Reliability factor without background (R{sub wp}) was reduced from 27.41% to 21.36%. Calibrated of neutron wavelengh, λ = 1,2799 Angstrom is obtained.

  9. Synchrotron studies of narrow band materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Since last year, we have had three 3-week blocks of beamtime, in April and November 1991 and February 1992, on the Ames/Montana beamline at the Wisconsin Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC). These runs continued our program on high temperature superconductors, heavy Fermion and related uranium and rare earth materials, and started some work on transition metal oxides. We have also had beamtime at the Brookhaven NSLS, 5 days of beamtime on the Dragon monochromator, beamline U4B, studying resonant photoemission of transition metal oxides using photon energies around the transition metal 2p edges. Data from past runs has been analyzed, and in some cases combined with photoemission and bremsstrahlung isochromat spectroscopy (BIS) data taken in the home U-M lab. 1 fig.

  10. Synchrotron studies of narrow band materials. Progress report, July 1, 1991--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    Since last year, we have had three 3-week blocks of beamtime, in April and November 1991 and February 1992, on the Ames/Montana beamline at the Wisconsin Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC). These runs continued our program on high temperature superconductors, heavy Fermion and related uranium and rare earth materials, and started some work on transition metal oxides. We have also had beamtime at the Brookhaven NSLS, 5 days of beamtime on the Dragon monochromator, beamline U4B, studying resonant photoemission of transition metal oxides using photon energies around the transition metal 2p edges. Data from past runs has been analyzed, and in some cases combined with photoemission and bremsstrahlung isochromat spectroscopy (BIS) data taken in the home U-M lab. 1 fig.

  11. Precision optical slit for high heat load or ultra high vacuum

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, N.C.; DiGennaro, R.S.; Swain, T.L.

    1995-01-24

    This invention relates generally to slits used in optics that must be precisely aligned and adjusted. The optical slits of the present invention are useful in x-ray optics, x-ray beam lines, optical systems in which the entrance slit is critical for high wavelength resolution. The invention is particularly useful in ultra high vacuum systems where lubricants are difficult to use and designs which avoid the movement of metal parts against one another are important, such as monochromators for high wavelength resolution with ultra high vacuum systems. The invention further relates to optical systems in which temperature characteristics of the slit materials is important. The present invention yet additionally relates to precision slits wherein the opposing edges of the slit must be precisely moved relative to a center line between the edges with each edge retaining its parallel orientation with respect to the other edge and/or the center line. 21 figures.

  12. Vibratory response modeling and verification of a high precision optical positioning system.

    SciTech Connect

    Barraza, J.; Kuzay, T.; Royston, T. J.; Shu, D.

    1999-06-18

    A generic vibratory-response modeling program has been developed as a tool for designing high-precision optical positioning systems. Based on multibody dynamics theory, the system is modeled as rigid-body structures connected by linear elastic elements, such as complex actuators and bearings. The full dynamic properties of each element are determined experimentally or theoretically, then integrated into the program as inertial and stiffness matrices. Utilizing this program, the theoretical and experimental verification of the vibratory behavior of a double-multilayer monochromator support and positioning system is presented. Results of parametric design studies that investigate the influence of support floor dynamics and highlight important design issues are also presented. Overall, good matches between theory and experiment demonstrate the effectiveness of the program as a dynamic modeling tool.

  13. Pulse energy measurement at the SXR instrument

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Moeller, Stefan; Brown, Garth; Dakovski, Georgi; Hill, Bruce; Holmes, Michael; Loos, Jennifer; Maida, Ricardo; Paiser, Ernesto; Schlotter, William; Turner, Joshua J.; et al

    2015-04-14

    A gas monitor detector was implemented and characterized at the Soft X-ray Research (SXR) instrument to measure the average, absolute and pulse-resolved photon flux of the LCLS beam in the energy range between 280 and 2000 eV. The detector is placed after the monochromator and addresses the need to provide reliable absolute pulse energy as well as pulse-resolved measurements for the various experiments at this instrument. This detector provides a reliable non-invasive measurement for determining flux levels on the samples in the downstream experimental chamber and for optimizing signal levels of secondary detectors and for the essential need of datamore » normalization. The design, integration into the instrument and operation are described, and examples of its performance are given.« less

  14. (International Collaboration on Advanced Neutron Sources)

    SciTech Connect

    Hayter, J.B.

    1990-11-08

    The International Collaboration on Advanced Neutron Sources was started about a decade ago with the purpose of sharing information throughout the global neutron community. The collaboration has been extremely successful in optimizing the use of resources, and the discussions are open and detailed, with reasons for failure shared as well as reasons for success. Although the meetings have become increasingly oriented toward pulsed neutron sources, many of the neutron instrumentation techniques, such as the development of better monochromators, fast response detectors and various data analysis methods, are highly relevant to the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS). I presented one paper on the ANS, and another on the neutron optical polarizer design work which won a 1989 R D-100 Award. I also gained some valuable design ideas, in particular for the ANS hot source, in discussions with individual researchers from Canada, Western Europe, and Japan.

  15. Optimization of Cylindrical Bent Crystals with Small Radius

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhongliang; Kang Le; Feng Liangjie; Zhao Feiyun; Xu Chaoyin

    2010-06-23

    To minimize the anticlastic curvature and lower the breaking risk of a sagittal bent crystal with a smaller bending radius, three types of crystal models including the stiffening ribs, the golden value and the assembly with metal were discussed in this paper. Overall structures of the models were predicted and the parameters were optimized by the finite element analysis method. Compared with the results of measurement by long-trace-profiler, theoretical calculations were in good agreed with practical tests. The single-crystal silicon strips glued on the titanium is preferred for the second crystal of the sagittal focusing monochromator at the NSRL-XAFS beamline. Because it not only minimizes the anticlastic distortion but also it achieves small radius less than one meter.

  16. Station for X-ray structural analysis of materials and single crystals (including nanocrystals) on a synchrotron radiation beam from the wiggler at the Siberia-2 storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Kheiker, D. M. Kovalchuk, M. V.; Korchuganov, V. N.; Shilin, Yu. N.; Shishkov, V. A.; Sulyanov, S. N.; Dorovatovskii, P. V.; Rubinsky, S. V.; Rusakov, A. A.

    2007-11-15

    The design of the station for structural analysis of polycrystalline materials and single crystals (including nanoobjects and macromolecular crystals) on a synchrotron radiation beam from the superconducting wiggler of the Siberia-2 storage ring is described. The wiggler is constructed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The X-ray optical scheme of the station involves a (1, -1) double-crystal monochromator with a fixed position of the monochromatic beam and a sagittal bending of the second crystal, segmented mirrors bent by piezoelectric motors, and a (2{theta}, {omega}, {phi}) three-circle goniometer with a fixed tilt angle. Almost all devices of the station are designed and fabricated at the Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The Bruker APEX11 two-dimensional CCD detector will serve as a detector in the station.

  17. The Design of Superconducting Wiggler Beamline BL7 at SAGA-LS

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamoto, M.; Sumitani, K.; Okajima, T.

    2010-06-23

    A new hard X-ray beamline has been designed at Saga Light Source. The beamline, named BL7, uses a newly developed 4-Tesla superconducting wiggler as a light source in order to cover a wide energy range to 30 keV. This beamline has a simple optics: a double-crystal monochromator and a Rh-coated bent-cylindrical mirror and can supply a focused beam with a photon flux about 1x10{sup 10} photons/s and a sub-millimeter size. Several experiments will be performed in the experimental station: e.g. protein crystallography; X-ray micro computed tomography; X-ray absorption fine structure measurement.

  18. Sagittal focusing of synchrotron x radiation with curved crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, C.J. Jr.; Ice, G.E.; Wong, J.; Batterman, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    We describe the sagittal focusing of x rays with singly bent crystals that accept the meridian plane divergence from a similar but flat crystal to form a pair in a nondispersive two-crystal Bragg monochromator. Curved crystals can intercept from 5 to 20 times the sagittal divergence of curved mirrors at x-ray energies above 10 keV. Anticlastic (transverse) bending of the crystal is made negligible in the meridian plane with reinforcing ribs cut parallel to the plane of scattering. Results show that at energies of 10, 20, and 30 keV the bent crystal performs efficiently and images the source size at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source.

  19. A new facility for the synchrotron radiation-based calibration of transfer radiation sources in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet spectral range

    SciTech Connect

    Thornagel, Reiner; Fliegauf, Rolf; Klein, Roman Kroth, Simone; Paustian, Wolfgang; Richter, Mathias

    2015-01-15

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has a long tradition in the calibration of radiation sources in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet spectral range, with traceability to calculable synchrotron radiation. Within this context, new instrumentation in the PTB laboratory at the Metrology Light Source (MLS) has been put into operation that opens up extended and improved calibration possibilities. A new facility for radiation source calibrations has been set up in the spectral range from 7 nm to 400 nm based on a combined normal incidence-grazing incidence monochromator. The facility can be used for the calibration of transfer sources in terms of spectral radiant intensity or mean spectral radiance, with traceability to the MLS primary source standard. We describe the design and performance of the experimental station and give examples of some commissioning results.

  20. Organic light-emitting diodes from homoleptic square planar complexes

    DOEpatents

    Omary, Mohammad A

    2013-11-12

    Homoleptic square planar complexes [M(N.LAMBDA.N).sub.2], wherein two identical N.LAMBDA.N bidentate anionic ligands are coordinated to the M(II) metal center, including bidentate square planar complexes of triazolates, possess optical and electrical properties that make them useful for a wide variety of optical and electrical devices and applications. In particular, the complexes are useful for obtaining white or monochromatic organic light-emitting diodes ("OLEDs"). Improved white organic light emitting diode ("WOLED") designs have improved efficacy and/or color stability at high brightness in single- or two-emitter white or monochrome OLEDs that utilize homoleptic square planar complexes, including bis[3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazolato]platinum(II) ("Pt(ptp).sub.2").

  1. Demonstration of simultaneous experiments using thin crystal multiplexing at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Feng, Y.; Alonso-Mori, R.; Barends, T. R. M.; Blank, V. D.; Botha, S.; Chollet, M.; Damiani, D. S.; Doak, R. B.; Glownia, J. M.; Koglin, J. M.; et al

    2015-04-10

    Multiplexing of the Linac Coherent Light Source beam was demonstrated for hard X-rays by spectral division using a near-perfect diamond thin-crystal monochromator operating in the Bragg geometry. The wavefront and coherence properties of both the reflected and transmitted beams were well preserved, thus allowing simultaneous measurements at two separate instruments. In this report, the structure determination of a prototypical protein was performed using serial femtosecond crystallography simultaneously with a femtosecond time-resolved XANES studies of photoexcited spin transition dynamics in an iron spin-crossover system. The results of both experiments using the multiplexed beams are similar to those obtained separately, using amore » dedicated beam, with no significant differences in quality.« less

  2. Demonstration of simultaneous experiments using thin crystal multiplexing at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y.; Alonso-Mori, R.; Barends, T. R. M.; Blank, V. D.; Botha, S.; Chollet, M.; Damiani, D. S.; Doak, R. B.; Glownia, J. M.; Koglin, J. M.; Lemke, H. T.; Messerschmidt, M.; Nass, K.; Nelson, S.; Schlichting, I.; Shoeman, R. L.; Shvyd'ko, Yu. V.; Sikorski, M.; Song, S.; Stoupin, S.; Terentyev, S.; Williams, G. J.; Zhu, D.; Robert, A.; Boutet, S.

    2015-04-10

    Multiplexing of the Linac Coherent Light Source beam was demonstrated for hard X-rays by spectral division using a near-perfect diamond thin-crystal monochromator operating in the Bragg geometry. The wavefront and coherence properties of both the reflected and transmitted beams were well preserved, thus allowing simultaneous measurements at two separate instruments. In this report, the structure determination of a prototypical protein was performed using serial femtosecond crystallography simultaneously with a femtosecond time-resolved XANES studies of photoexcited spin transition dynamics in an iron spin-crossover system. The results of both experiments using the multiplexed beams are similar to those obtained separately, using a dedicated beam, with no significant differences in quality.

  3. Large-angle illumination STEM: Toward three-dimensional atom-by-atom imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Lupini, Andrew R.; Hinuma, Yoyo; Pennycook, Stephen

    2014-11-26

    To completely understand and control materials and their properties, it is of critical importance to determine their atomic structures in all three dimensions. Recent revolutionary advances in electron optics – the inventions of geometric and chromatic aberration correctors as well as electron source monochromators – have provided fertile ground for performing optical depth sectioning at atomic-scale dimensions. In this study we theoretically demonstrate the imaging of top/sub-surface atomic structures and identify the depth of single dopants, single vacancies and the other point defects within materials by large-angle illumination scanning transmission electron microscopy (LAI-STEM). The proposed method also allows us to measure specimen properties such as thickness or three-dimensional surface morphology using observations from a single crystallographic orientation.

  4. Large-angle illumination STEM: Toward three-dimensional atom-by-atom imaging

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Lupini, Andrew R.; Hinuma, Yoyo; Pennycook, Stephen

    2014-11-26

    To completely understand and control materials and their properties, it is of critical importance to determine their atomic structures in all three dimensions. Recent revolutionary advances in electron optics – the inventions of geometric and chromatic aberration correctors as well as electron source monochromators – have provided fertile ground for performing optical depth sectioning at atomic-scale dimensions. In this study we theoretically demonstrate the imaging of top/sub-surface atomic structures and identify the depth of single dopants, single vacancies and the other point defects within materials by large-angle illumination scanning transmission electron microscopy (LAI-STEM). The proposed method also allows us tomore » measure specimen properties such as thickness or three-dimensional surface morphology using observations from a single crystallographic orientation.« less

  5. Crystal face temperature determination means

    DOEpatents

    Nason, Donald O.; Burger, Arnold

    1994-01-01

    An optically transparent furnace (10) having a detection apparatus (29) with a pedestal (12) enclosed in an evacuated ampule (16) for growing a crystal (14) thereon. Temperature differential is provided by a source heater (20), a base heater (24) and a cold finger (26) such that material migrates from a polycrystalline source material (18) to grow the crystal (14). A quartz halogen lamp (32) projects a collimated beam (30) onto the crystal (14) and a reflected beam (34) is analyzed by a double monochromator and photomultiplier detection spectrometer (40) and the detected peak position (48) in the reflected energy spectrum (44) of the reflected beam (34) is interpreted to determine surface temperature of the crystal (14).

  6. Pulse energy measurement at the SXR instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Stefan; Brown, Garth; Dakovski, Georgi; Hill, Bruce; Holmes, Michael; Loos, Jennifer; Maida, Ricardo; Paiser, Ernesto; Schlotter, William; Turner, Joshua J.; Wallace, Alex; Jastrow, Ulf; Kreis, Svea; Sorokin, Andrey A.; Tiedtke, Kai

    2015-04-14

    A gas monitor detector was implemented and characterized at the Soft X-ray Research (SXR) instrument to measure the average, absolute and pulse-resolved photon flux of the LCLS beam in the energy range between 280 and 2000 eV. The detector is placed after the monochromator and addresses the need to provide reliable absolute pulse energy as well as pulse-resolved measurements for the various experiments at this instrument. This detector provides a reliable non-invasive measurement for determining flux levels on the samples in the downstream experimental chamber and for optimizing signal levels of secondary detectors and for the essential need of data normalization. The design, integration into the instrument and operation are described, and examples of its performance are given.

  7. Angle sensitive single photon avalanche diode

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Changhyuk Johnson, Ben Molnar, Alyosha

    2015-06-08

    An ideal light sensor would provide exact information on intensity, timing, location, and angle of incoming photons. Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) provide such desired high (single photon) sensitivity with precise time information and can be implemented at a pixel-scale to form an array to extract spatial information. Furthermore, recent work has demonstrated photodiode-based structures (combined with micro-lenses or diffraction gratings) that are capable of encoding both spatial and angular information of incident light. In this letter, we describe the implementation of such a grating structure on SPADs to realize a pixel-scale angle-sensitive single photon avalanche diode (A-SPAD) built in a standard CMOS process. While the underlying SPAD structure provides high sensitivity, the time information of the two layers of diffraction gratings above offers angle-sensitivity. Such a unique combination of SPAD and diffraction gratings expands the sensing dimensions to pave a path towards lens-less 3-D imaging and light-field time-of-flight imaging.

  8. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    SciTech Connect

    Jay R. Gunderson; Bruce C. Folkedahl; Darren D. Schmidt; Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2002-05-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a project to examine the fundamental issues limiting the use of biomass in small industrial steam/power systems in order to increase the future use of this valuable domestic resource. Specifically, the EERC is attempting to elucidate the ash-related problems--grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling--associated with cofiring coal and biomass in grate-fired systems. Utilization of biomass in stoker boilers designed for coal can be a cause of concern for boiler operators. Boilers that were designed for low-volatile fuels with lower reactivities can experience damaging fouling when switched to higher-volatile and more reactive lower-rank fuels, such as when cofiring biomass. Higher heat release rates at the grate can cause more clinkering or slagging at the grate because of higher temperatures. Combustion and loss of volatile matter can start too early with biomass fuels compared to design fuel, vaporizing alkali and chlorides which then condense on rear walls and heat exchange tube banks in the convective pass of the boiler, causing noticeable increases in fouling. In addition, stoker-fired boilers that switch to biomass blends may encounter new chemical species such as potassium sulfates and various chlorides in combination with different flue gas temperatures because of changes in fuel heating value, which can adversely affect ash deposition behavior.

  9. Combined Federal Campaign | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Combined Federal Campaign Happy Thanksgiving to NNSA colleagues Colleagues: Thanksgiving is a time of celebration and reflection on the many reasons each of us has to be thankful. We are grateful for the blessings of family, friends, and the opportunity to live in this great country. We particularly appreciate all of you and commend your hard work

  10. Performance Measurements of the Injection Laser System Configured for Picosecond Scale Advanced Radiographic Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Haefner, L C; Heebner, J E; Dawson, J W; Fochs, S N; Shverdin, M Y; Crane, J K; Kanz, K V; Halpin, J M; Phan, H H; Sigurdsson, R J; Brewer, S W; Britten, J A; Brunton, G K; Clark, W J; Messerly, M J; Nissen, J D; Shaw, B H; Hackel, R P; Hermann, M R; Tietbohl, G L; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2009-10-23

    We have characterized the Advanced Radiographic Capability injection laser system and demonstrated that it meets performance requirements for upcoming National Ignition Facility fusion experiments. Pulse compression was achieved with a scaled down replica of the meter-scale grating ARC compressor and sub-ps pulse duration was demonstrated at the Joule-level.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ADVANCED RADIOGRAPHIC CAPABILITY FRONT END ON NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Haefner, C; Heebner, J; Dawson, J; Fochs, S; Shverdin, M; Crane, J K; Kanz, V K; Halpin, J; Phan, H; Sigurdsson, R; Brewer, W; Britten, J; Brunton, G; Clark, W; Messerly, M J; Nissen, J D; Nguyen, H; Shaw, B; Hackel, R; Hermann, M; Tietbohl, G; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2009-07-15

    We have characterized the Advanced Radiographic Capability injection laser system and demonstrated that it meets performance requirements for upcoming National Ignition Facility fusion experiments. Pulse compression was achieved with a scaled down replica of the meter-scale grating ARC compressor and sub-ps pulse duration was demonstrated at the Joule-level.

  12. Device and method for creating Gaussian aberration-corrected electron beams

    DOEpatents

    McMorran, Benjamin; Linck, Martin

    2016-01-19

    Electron beam phase gratings have phase profiles that produce a diffracted beam having a Gaussian or other selected intensity profile. Phase profiles can also be selected to correct or compensate electron lens aberrations. Typically, a low diffraction order produces a suitable phase profile, and other orders are discarded.

  13. Energy generation and cogeneration from wood

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The papers presented at the conference are included in this volume. Discussions from the four workshops are also provided. The subjects covered in the workshops are: materials handling; combustion technologies - pile, grate, and suspension systems; gasification and pyrolysis systems; and cogeneration. Separate abstracts for each paper have been prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  14. Phased Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    ScienceCinema

    Erin Miller

    2012-12-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing a range of technologies to broaden the field of explosives detection. Phased contrast X-ray imaging, which uses silicon gratings to detect distortions in the X-ray wave front, may be applicable to mail or luggage scanning for explosives; it can also be used in detecting other contraband, small-parts inspection, or materials characterization.

  15. Chromatic-aberration diagnostic based on a spectrally resolved lateral-shearing interferometer

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Bahk, Seung -Whan; Dorrer, Christopher; Roides, Rick G.; Bromage, Jake

    2016-03-18

    Here, a simple diagnostic characterizing one-dimensional chromatic aberrations in a broadband beam is introduced. A Ronchi grating placed in front of a spectrometer entrance slit provides spectrally coupled spatial phase information. The radial-group delay of a refractive system and the pulse-front delay of a wedged glass plate have been characterized accurately in a demonstration experiment.

  16. Women @ Energy: Lila Chase

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    "Parents have a primary role in opening up possibilities for their children and in equally encouraging them. I am grateful that my mom did not discriminate which of her children could pursue a higher education. We also need stronger role models in education. Laboratory scientists have long participated in educational efforts to re-energize high school teachers in the sciences."

  17. An improved phase shift reconstruction algorithm of fringe scanning technique for X-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lian, S.; Yang, H.; Kudo, H.; Momose, A.; Yashiro, W.

    2015-02-15

    The X-ray phase imaging method has been applied to observe soft biological tissues, and it is possible to image the soft tissues by using the benefit of the so-called “Talbot effect” by an X-ray grating. One type of the X-ray phase imaging method was reported by combining an X-ray imaging microscope equipped by a Fresnel zone plate with a phase grating. Using the fringe scanning technique, a high-precision phase shift image could be obtained by displacing the grating step by step and measuring dozens of sample images. The number of the images was selected to reduce the error caused by the non-sinusoidal component of the Talbot self-image at the imaging plane. A larger number suppressed the error more but increased radiation exposure and required higher mechanical stability of equipment. In this paper, we analyze the approximation error of fringe scanning technique for the X-ray microscopy which uses just one grating and proposes an improved algorithm. We compute the approximation error by iteration and substitute that into the process of reconstruction of phase shift. This procedure will suppress the error even with few sample images. The results of simulation experiments show that the precision of phase shift image reconstructed by the proposed algorithm with 4 sample images is almost the same as that reconstructed by the conventional algorithm with 40 sample images. We also have succeeded in the experiment with real data.

  18. Thanksgiving | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Thanksgiving Happy Thanksgiving to NNSA colleagues Colleagues: Thanksgiving is a time of celebration and reflection on the many reasons each of us has to be thankful. We are grateful for the blessings of family, friends, and the opportunity to live in this great country. We particularly appreciate all of you and commend your hard work

  19. Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu

    2015-07-15

    In this review, we present our recent work on making structured metals transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves via excitation of surface waves. First, we theoretically show that one-dimensional metallic gratings can become transparent and completely antireflective for extremely broadband electromagnetic waves by relying on surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. Second, we experimentally demonstrate that metallic gratings with narrow slits are highly transparent for broadband terahertz waves at oblique incidence and high transmission efficiency is insensitive to the metal thickness. Further, we significantly develop oblique metal gratings transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves (including optical waves and terahertz ones) under normal incidence. In the third, we find the principles of broadband transparency for structured metals can be extended from one-dimensional metallic gratings to two-dimensional cases. Moreover, similar phenomena are found in sonic artificially metallic structures, which present the transparency for broadband acoustic waves. These investigations provide guidelines to develop many novel materials and devices, such as transparent conducting panels, antireflective solar cells, and other broadband metamaterials and stealth technologies. - Highlights: • Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves. • Non-resonant excitation of surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. • Sonic artificially metallic structures transparent for broadband acoustic waves.

  20. Single beam write and/or replay of spatial heterodyne holograms

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Clarence E.; Hanson, Gregory R.

    2007-11-20

    A method of writing a spatially heterodyne hologram having spatially heterodyne fringes includes: passing a single write beam through a spatial light modulator that digitally modulates said single write beam; and focusing the single write beam at a focal plane of a lens to impose a holographic diffraction grating pattern on the photorefractive crystal, the holographic diffraction grating pattern including the spatially heterodyne hologram having spatially heterodyne fringes, wherein only said single write beam is incident on said photorefractive crystal without a reference beam. A method of replaying a spatially heterodyne hologram having spatially heterodyne fringes at a replay angle includes: illuminating a photorefractive crystal having a holographic diffraction grating with a beam from a laser at an illumination angle, the holographic diffraction grating pattern including the spatially heterodyne hologram having spatially heterodyne fringes, wherein a difference between said illumination angle and said replay angle defines a diffraction angle .alpha. that is a function of a plane wave mathematically added to original object wave phase and amplitude data of said spatially heterodyne hologram having spatially heterodyne fringes.