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Sample records for monaco mongolia montenegro

  1. Monaco: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Datasets Monaco is a country in Europe. External Links Monaco Renewable Energy Data from IEA Monaco Contacts from Climate-Eval LowCarbonWorld Profile for Monaco Retrieved from...

  2. Montenegro: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    (bbl) 156 2010 CIA World Factbook Energy Maps featuring Montenegro Montenegro global irradiation and solar electricity potential (horizontally-mounted photovoltaic modules)...

  3. Inner Mongolia STP Development | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Development Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Product: Inner Mongolia-based research company. References: Inner Mongolia STP Development1 This article is a stub....

  4. Montenegro-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  5. Inner Mongolia Shanlu Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Shanlu Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Shanlu Group Place: Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Zip: 10020 Product: Hohhot-based miner and...

  6. Inner Mongolia Riyue Solar Technology Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Ltd Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Sector: Solar Product: China-based solar cell and module manufacturer in Inner Mongolia. References: Inner Mongolia Riyue...

  7. Shanxi Zhangze Power Inner Mongolia Subsidiary | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Zhangze Power Inner Mongolia Subsidiary Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shanxi Zhangze Power Inner Mongolia Subsidiary Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Sector: Wind...

  8. Inner Mongolia Dunan PV power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Dunan PV power Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Dunan PV power Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Sector: Solar Product: Inner Mongolia-based solar...

  9. Huadian Inner Mongolia Kailu Wind Power Company Limited | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Inner Mongolia Kailu Wind Power Company Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Huadian Inner Mongolia Kailu Wind Power Company Limited Place: Jinan, Inner Mongolia Autonomous...

  10. My Trip to Mongolia | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers

    peaceful use of nuclear energy for electric power generation. I also toured some of Mongolia's energy facilities, including a thermal power plant, to see first-hand how Mongolia ...

  11. Inner Mongolia Damo Wind Power Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Damo Wind Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Damo Wind Power Co Ltd Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Sector: Wind energy Product:...

  12. Inner Mongolia Wind Power Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Wind Power Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Wind Power Corporation Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Sector: Wind energy Product: A company...

  13. Inner Mongolia Sansheng Wind Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Sansheng Wind Power Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Sansheng Wind Power Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Sector: Wind energy Product: China-based...

  14. Inner Mongolia Lianhe Wind Power Investment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Lianhe Wind Power Investment Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Lianhe Wind Power Investment Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Sector: Wind energy...

  15. Inner Mongolia Huitong Energy Investment Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Investment Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Huitong Energy Investment Co Ltd Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Sector: Wind energy...

  16. Inner Mongolia Shenhua Xiehe Wind Power Investment Co Ltd | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Shenhua Xiehe Wind Power Investment Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Shenhua Xiehe Wind Power Investment Co Ltd Place: Xilinguole, Inner Mongolia Autonomous...

  17. Inner Mongolia Sunnergy Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Sunnergy Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Sunnergy Co Ltd Place: Huhhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Zip: 10080 Product: A Chinese...

  18. Inner Mongolia Fengwei New Energy Mining Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Fengwei New Energy Mining Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Fengwei New Energy Mining Co Ltd Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Product:...

  19. Inner Mongolia Jiuhe Energy Technology Co Ltd Geoho Energy |...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jiuhe Energy Technology Co Ltd Geoho Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Jiuhe Energy Technology Co Ltd (Geoho Energy) Place: Ordos, Inner Mongolia Autonomous...

  20. Inner Mongolia Shenzhou Silicon Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Shenzhou Silicon Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Shenzhou Silicon Co Ltd Place: Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Product: Huhhot-based...

  1. Inner Mongolia Yitai Group Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Yitai Group Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Yitai Group Co Ltd Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Zip: 17000 Product: Stated owned coal company....

  2. Inner Mongolia Tianlan Hengfeng Power Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Tianlan Hengfeng Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Tianlan Hengfeng Power Co Ltd Place: Huhehaote, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Zip: 10020...

  3. Inner Mongolia Jinyu Silicon Industry Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jinyu Silicon Industry Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Jinyu Silicon Industry Co Ltd Place: Wuhai City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Zip: 16030...

  4. Inner Mongolia Huiquan Environment Protection Power Ltd | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Huiquan Environment Protection Power Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Huiquan Environment Protection Power Ltd Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China...

  5. Inner Mongolia Sanwei Resources Group Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Sanwei Resources Group Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Sanwei Resources Group Co Ltd Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Product: An energy and...

  6. Inner Mongolia Yellow River Sanshenggong Hydropower Co Ltd |...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Sanshenggong Hydropower Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Yellow River Sanshenggong Hydropower Co. Ltd Place: Dengkou County, Inner Mongolia Autonomous...

  7. Inner Mongolia North Longyuan Wind Power Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    North Longyuan Wind Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia North Longyuan Wind Power Co Ltd Place: Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Zip: 10020...

  8. Inner Mongolia Test Power Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Test Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Test Power Co Ltd Place: Huhehot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Zip: 10010 Sector: Wind energy Product:...

  9. Mongolia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Country Profile Name Mongolia Population 3,000,000 GDP 11,516,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.09 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code MN 3-letter ISO code MNG Numeric ISO...

  10. Inner Mongolia Zhonghuan PV Materials Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    PV Materials Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Zhonghuan PV Materials Co Ltd Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Product: China-based PV ingot and...

  11. Inner Mongolia DunAn Guangfu Technologies Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Guangfu Technologies Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia DunAn Guangfu Technologies Co Ltd Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Product: China-based...

  12. Mongolia-GTZ Development of RE Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    GTZ is working with Mongolia on policy advice as well as technical and commercial management skills of RE enterprises. The objective is to promote the economically...

  13. Deputy Secretary Poneman to Visit Mongolia and Discuss Energy...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Foreign Minister to discuss energy issues. My Trip to Mongolia MEDIA ADVISORY: Secretary Chu to Lead Delegation to IAEA General Conference in Vienna, CSLF Ministerial in Beijing

  14. Mongolia-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  15. Industrial waste and pollution in Mongolia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolgormaa, L.

    1996-12-31

    This paper very briefly outlines hazardous waste management issues, including regulations, in Mongolia. Air, water, and soil pollutants are identified and placed in context with climatic, social, and economic circumstances. The primary need identified is technology for the collection and disposal of solid wastes. Municipal waste problems include rapid urbanization and lack of sanitary landfills. Industrial wastes of concern are identified from the mining and leather industries. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Assessing Development Impacts Associated with Low Emission Development Strategies: Lessons Learned from Pilot Efforts in Kenya and Montenegro

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Assessing Development Impacts Associated with Low Emission Development Strategies: Lessons Learned from Pilot Efforts in Kenya and Montenegro S. Cox and J. Katz National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Laura Würtenberger Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-58391 January 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report

  17. Inner Mongolia Guodian Energy Investment Co Ltd formerly Inner...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Investment Co Ltd formerly Inner Mongolia Energy Power Investment Co Jump to: navigation, search Logo: eco-trend ltd Name: eco-trend ltd Address: Hvizi t 6. Place:...

  18. Assessing Development Impacts Associated with Low Emission Development Strategies: Lessons Learned from Pilot Efforts in Kenya and Montenegro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, S.; Katz, J.; Wurtenberger, L.

    2014-01-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate economy-wide policies and implementation plans designed to enable a country to meet its long-term development objectives while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A development impact assessment tool was developed to inform an analytically robust and transparent prioritization of LEDS actions based on their economic, social, and environmental impacts. The graphical tool helps policymakers communicate the development impacts of LEDS options and identify actions that help meet both emissions reduction and development goals. This paper summarizes the adaptation and piloting of the tool in Kenya and Montenegro. The paper highlights strengths of the tool and discusses key needs for improving it.

  19. Mongolia-GTZ Energy Efficiency within the Grid-Connected Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Efficiency within the Grid-Connected Energy Supply Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Mongolia-GTZ Energy Efficiency within the Grid-Connected Energy Supply Name Mongolia-GTZ...

  20. Inner Mongolia Bayannao er Fuhui Wind Power Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Bayannao er Fuhui Wind Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Bayannao'er Fuhui Wind Power Co Ltd Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Sector: Wind...

  1. U.S. and Mongolia Sign MOU to Increase Cooperation in Preventing Nuclear

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Smuggling | Department of Energy Mongolia Sign MOU to Increase Cooperation in Preventing Nuclear Smuggling U.S. and Mongolia Sign MOU to Increase Cooperation in Preventing Nuclear Smuggling October 23, 2007 - 3:21pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - Today the governments of the United States and Mongolia strengthened their efforts in the fight against nuclear terrorism. U.S. Deputy Secretary of Energy Clay Sell and Mongolia's Minister of Finance Nadmid Bayartsaikhan signed a Memorandum of

  2. The Nuclear Alternative: Energy Production within Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liodakis, Emmanouel Georgiou

    2011-06-28

    Over ninety percent of Mongolia's energy load is run through the Central Energy System. This primary grid provides Mongolia's capital, Ulaanbaatar, with the power it uses to function. In the first half of 2010 the Central Energy System managed 1739.45 million kWhs, a 4.6 percent increase from 2009. If this growth rate continues, by 2015 Ulaanbaatar's three power plants will be unable to generate enough heat and electricity to meet the city's needs. Currently, plans have been proposed to rehabilitate the aging coal power plants. However, rising maintenance costs and growing emission levels make the long-term sustainability of this solution uncertain. The following paper analyzes the capital, maintenance, and decommissioning costs associated with the current rehabilitation plans and compares them with a nuclear alternative.

  3. An equity tool for health impact assessments: Reflections from Mongolia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Wagler, Meghan; Lkhagvasuren, Oyun; Laing, Lory; Davison, Colleen; Janes, Craig

    2012-04-15

    A health impact assessment (HIA) is a tool for assessing the potential effects of a project or policy on a population's health. In this paper, we discuss a tool for successfully integrating equity concerns into HIAs. This discussion is the product of collaboration by Mongolian and Canadian experts, and it incorporates comments and suggestions of participants of a workshop on equity focused HIAs that took place in Mongolia in October, 2010. Our motivation for discussing this tool is based on the observation that existing HIAs tend either to fail to define equity or use problematic accounts of this concept. In this paper we give an overview of socio-demographic and health indicators in Mongolia and briefly discuss its mining industry. We then review three accounts of equity and argue for the importance of developing a consensus understanding of this concept when integrating considerations of equity into an HIA. Finally, we present findings from the workshop in Mongolia and outline a tool, derived from lessons from this workshop, for critically considering and integrating the concept of equity into an HIA.

  4. Sizing wind/photovoltaic hybrids for households in inner Mongolia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barley, C.D.; Lew, D.J.; Flowers, L.T.

    1997-12-31

    Approximately 140,000 wind turbines currently provide electricity to about one-third of the non-grid-connected households in Inner Mongolia. However, these households often suffer from a lack of power during the low-wind summer months. This report describes an analysis of hybrid wind/photovoltaic (PV) systems for such households. The sizing of the major components is based on a subjective trade-off between the cost of the system and the percent unmet load, as determined by the Hybrid2 software in conjunction with a simplified time-series model. Actual resource data (wind speed and solar radiation) from the region are processed so as to best represent the scenarios of interest. Small wind turbines of both Chinese and U.S. manufacture are considered in the designs. The results indicate that combinations of wind and PV are more cost-effective than either one alone, and that the relative amount of PV in the design increases as the acceptable unmet load decreases and as the average wind speed decreases.

  5. Satellite observations of recent power plant construction in Inner Mongolia, China - article no. L15809

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Q.; Streets, D.G.; He, K.B.

    2009-08-15

    About 50% of the increase in China's NOx emissions since 2000 can be attributed to the construction of new power plants. We show that the newly added NOx emissions from new power plants in Inner Mongolia, China, were detected by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite. Increase rates of NO{sub 2} columns from OMI and NOx emissions from inventories are even in quantitative agreement in cases where new facilities are added to already-developed regions. This study confirms that the OMI products are quite capable of identifying the construction of large new emitting facilities through detection of their NOx emissions.

  6. Satellite observations of the recent power plant construction in Inner Mongolia, China.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.; He, K.

    2009-08-05

    About 50% of the increase in China's NO{sub x} emissions since 2000 can be attributed to the construction of new power plants. We show that the newly added NO{sub x} emissions from new power plants in Inner Mongolia, China, were detected by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite. Increase rates of NO{sub 2} columns from OMI and NO{sub x} emissions from inventories are even in quantitative agreement in cases where new facilities are added to already-developed regions. This study confirms that the OMI products are quite capable of identifying the construction of large new emitting facilities through detection of their NO{sub x} emissions.

  7. New mineral occurrences and mineralization processes: Wuda coal-fire gas vents of Inner Mongolia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stracher, G.B.; Prakash, A.; Schroeder, P.; McCormack, J.; Zhang, X.M.; Van Dijk, P.; Blake, D.

    2005-12-01

    Five unique mineral assemblages that include the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, anhydrite, tschermigite, coquimbite, voltaite, and godovikovite, as well as the halide salammoniac and an unidentified phase, according to X-ray diffraction and EDS data, were found as encrustations on quartzofeldspathic sand and sandstone adjacent to coal-fire gas vents associated with underground coal fires in the Wuda coalfield of Inner Mongolia. The mineral assemblage of alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, and the unidentified phase collected front the same gas vent, is documented for the first time. Observations suggest that the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, godovikovite, and the unidentified phase, crystallized in response to a complex sequence of processes that include condensation, hydrothermal alteration, crystallization from solution, fluctuating vent temperatures, boiling, and dehydration reactions, whereas the halide salammoniac crystallized during the sublimation of coal-fire gas. Tschermigite and anhydrite formed by the reaction of coal-fire gas with quartzofelds pathic rock or by hydrothermal alteration of this rock and crystallization from an acid-rich aqueous solution. These minerals have potentially important environmental significance and may be vectors for the transmission of toxins. Coal fires also provide insight for the recognition in the geologic record of preserved mineral assemblages that are diagnostic of ancient fires.

  8. File:DIAPilot Montenegro.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Thumbnail for version as of 05:25, 7 September 2012 1,500 1,125, 13 pages (889 KB) Chapman (Talk | contribs) You cannot overwrite this file. Edit this file using an external...

  9. Effects of two Asian sand dusts transported from the dust source regions of Inner Mongolia and northeast China on murine lung eosinophilia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Miao; Ichinose, Takamichi; Song, Yuan; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Arashidani, Keiichi; Yoshida, Seiichi; Liu, Boying; Nishikawa, Masataka; Takano, Hirohisa; and others

    2013-11-01

    The quality and quantity of toxic materials adsorbed onto Asian sand dust (ASD) are different based on dust source regions and passage routes. The aggravating effects of two ASDs (ASD1 and ASD2) transported from the source regions of Inner Mongolia and northeast China on lung eosinophilia were compared to clarify the role of toxic materials in ASD. The ASDs contained different amounts of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and β-glucan (ASD1 < ASD2) and SiO{sub 2} (ASD1 > ASD2). CD-1 mice were instilled intratracheally with ASD1, ASD2 and/or ovalbumin (OVA) four times at 2-week intervals. ASD1 and ASD2 enhanced eosinophil recruitment induced by OVA in the submucosa of the airway, with goblet cell proliferation in the bronchial epithelium. ASD1 and ASD2 synergistically increased OVA-induced eosinophil-relevant cytokines interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-13 (ASD1 < ASD2) and chemokine eotaxin (ASD1 > ASD2) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. ASD2 aggravating effects on lung eosinophilia were greater than ASD1. The role of LPS and β-glucan in ASD2 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators was assessed using in vitro bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from wild type, Toll-like receptor 2-deficient (TLR2 −/−), TLR4 −/−, and MyD88 −/− mice (on Balb/c background). ASD2-stimulated TLR2 −/− BMDMs enhanced IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, MCP-1 and MIP-1α secretion compared with ASD2-stimulated TLR4 −/− BMDMs. Protein expression from ASD2-stimulated MyD88 −/− BMDM were very low or undetectable. The in vitro results indicate that lung eosinophilia caused by ASD is TLR4 dependent. Therefore, the aggravation of OVA-related lung eosinophilia by ASD may be dependent on toxic substances derived from microbes, such as LPS, rather than SiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Asian sand dust (ASD) from the deserts of China causes serious respiratory problems. • The aggravating effects of two ASDs on lung eosinophilia were compared. • The ASDs contained different LPS and β-glucan (ASD1

  10. Mongolia Renewable Energy and Rural Electricity Access Project...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    legislation for grid-connected renewable energy systems; and (a) support for project management, monitoring and evaluation, and assistance in the institutional development of...

  11. U.S., Mongolia Participate in Radiological Security Response...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    with our counterparts around the globe allows us to join forces in the international fight against illicit trafficking and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction." ...

  12. Carbonate-tephrogenic sediments of the Daribi Ridge (southwestern Mongolia)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheraskova, T.N.; Il'inskaya, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    The article examines the lithology, genetic types, and facies of the formation of carbonate-tephoregenic beds accumulated during the subsidence and compaction of a volcanic rise. The sediments of autokinetic flows of pyroclastic matter and submarine landslide accumulations are described in detail.

  13. Inner Mongolia Tianyuan New Energy Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    New Energy Co Ltd Place: China Sector: Wind energy Product: Tuquan-based wind turbine blade and tower manufacturer, it is also active in wind project development in Inner...

  14. Mongolia-Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE) | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    years of the partnership, PAGE will focus on seven pilot countries, yet to be named, and scale up this support to a total of 30 countries by 2020. The first global conference on...

  15. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Biotechnolog...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Orr) - Marine Environment Laboratories, Monaco Oswald, Wyatt (Wyatt Oswald) - Harvard Forest, Harvard University Ouillon, Sylvain (Sylvain Ouillon) - Laboratoire d'Etudes en ...

  16. Media Corner - News Archive: 2010

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    News Archive: 2010 Catching up with Ned Sauthoff, ITER, and the Prince of Monaco Knoxville News Sentinel, November 30, 2010 Foundation Stone for ITER Knoxville News Sentinel, ...

  17. U.S. and Mongolia Sign MOU to Increase Cooperation in Preventing...

    Energy Savers

    For more information, visit the National Nuclear Security Administration homepage. Media contact(s): Megan Barnett, DOE, (202) 586-4940 Julianne Smith, NNSA, (202) 586-7371 Addthis ...

  18. Keshiketengqi Huifeng New Energy Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    to: navigation, search Name: Keshiketengqi Huifeng New Energy Co Ltd Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Sector: Wind energy Product: Inner Mongolia-based wind...

  19. Mengdong Xiehe New Energy Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mengdong Xiehe New Energy Co Ltd Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Sector: Wind energy Product: Inner Mongolia-based JV formed...

  20. Erdos TCH Energy Saving Development Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    search Name: Erdos TCH Energy Saving Development Co Ltd Place: Ordos City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Sector: Efficiency Product: Inner Mongolia-based JV to...

  1. PowerPoint Presentation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 44373,44341(M ongolia) Northwest MongoliaInner Mongolia, Ningxia, Shan'xi, Hebei, Tianjin, Liaoning, Shandong, Henan Korea Peninsula, Japan Heavy Dust Storm Cold High Summary ...

  2. The Investigation of the Rare Metal Content in the Geological Samples from Mongolia on the Iren Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borzakov, S. B.; Nyamsuren, B.; Pavlov, S. S.; Ostrovnaya, T. M.; Shvetsov, V. N.

    2011-06-28

    Definition of the content of rare metals in the samples of ore was carried out by the method of the neutron activation analysis. IREN installation which represents the linear electron accelerator and no multiplying tungsten target served as the neutron source. The tungsten target has been located in the centre of the water moderator in diameter 15 cm.The irradiation has been spent on installation IREN within 8 hours 40 minutes. Electron energy was an order of 30 MeV, a current of an order 5 -10 microamperes. Samples settled down on the moderator surface. 2 samples of ore have been irradiated: Os-1 (m = 1.172 g), and Os-2 (m = 1.291 g) and a number of indicators for definition of neutron flux. Weights of indicators did not exceed a several milligrams.

  3. Asian Development Outlook 2010 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, China, South Korea, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Laos, Vietnam,...

  4. Fenglilai Technology Development Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Fenglilai Technology Development Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Fenglilai Technology Development Co Ltd Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Sector: Wind energy...

  5. Huade County Daditaihong Wind Power Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Huade County Daditaihong Wind Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Huade County Daditaihong Wind Power Co Ltd Place: Huade, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China...

  6. Tongliao Changxing Wind Power Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Tongliao Changxing Wind Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tongliao Changxing Wind Power Co Ltd Place: Tongliao City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Sector:...

  7. Guohua Hulunbeier Wind Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hulunbeier Wind Power Jump to: navigation, search Name: Guohua (Hulunbeier) Wind Power Place: Hulunbeier, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Zip: 21300 Sector: Wind energy...

  8. Datang Chifeng Saihanba Wind Power Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Saihanba Wind Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Datang Chifeng Saihanba Wind Power Co Ltd Place: Chifeng, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Zip: 24000 Sector:...

  9. Yongsheng National Energy Wind Power Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Yongsheng National Energy Wind Power Co Jump to: navigation, search Name: Yongsheng National Energy Wind Power Co Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Sector: Wind energy...

  10. Erlianhot Changfeng Xiehe Wind Power Development Co Ltd | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Erlianhot Changfeng Xiehe Wind Power Development Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Erlianhot Changfeng Xiehe Wind Power Development Co Ltd Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous...

  11. Baotou Wind Power Gearbox Works | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Gearbox Works Jump to: navigation, search Name: Baotou Wind Power Gearbox Works Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Product: Baotou-based gearbox producer. References:...

  12. Tongliao Taihe Wind Power Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Taihe Wind Power Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tongliao Taihe Wind Power Limited Place: Tongliao City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Sector: Wind energy...

  13. Datang Sino Japan Chifeng Renewable Power Corp | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Japan Chifeng Renewable Power Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Datang Sino-Japan (Chifeng) Renewable Power Corp Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Product:...

  14. ABSTRACT Bayarbadrakh, Baramsai. Neutron Capture Reactions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Bayarbadrakh Baramsai Personal information Born 21 January 1978, Zavkhan, Mongolia Married ... Doing research with this effective working group was a great help in finishing my Ph.D. ...

  15. Zhongsheng Technology New Materials Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Technology New Materials Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zhongsheng Technology New Materials Ltd Place: Bayannaoer, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Product: Maker of...

  16. Golden State Baotou Renewable Energy Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Baotou Renewable Energy Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Golden State (Baotou) Renewable Energy Ltd Place: Baotou, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Sector: Wind energy...

  17. Mali-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  18. Namibia-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  19. UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  20. Indonesia-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  1. Ghana-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  2. Senegal-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  3. South Korea-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  4. Rwanda-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  5. Egypt-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  6. Morocco-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  7. Barbados-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  8. Peru-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  9. Armenia-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  10. Serbia-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  11. Philippines-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  12. Kenya-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  13. Moldova-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  14. Burkina Faso-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  15. Mexico-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  16. Russian-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  17. Jordan-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  18. Nepal-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  19. Ukraine-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  20. Baotou Shansheng New Energy Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    New Energy Co., Ltd Place: China Sector: Solar Product: The company supplies silicon PV cell, and devleops solar PV power project, in Baotou, Inner Mongolia. References: Baotou...

  1. January2005 NNSANews

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... DETECT, LOCATE, IDENTIFY: PNNL's Matt Smith explains different handheld radiation detection tools to officials from Mongolia during training at the HAMMER facility. The SLD program ...

  2. File:NREL-asia-tilt.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  3. File:NREL-asia-dir.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  4. File:NREL-asia-glo.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  5. Honiton Energy Beijing Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    energy Product: BritishChinese company developing large scale wind farms in Inner Mongolia. References: Honiton Energy (Beijing) Ltd1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  6. North Associated Power Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    navigation, search Name: North Associated Power Corporation Place: Huhehaote, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Zip: 10020 Product: A company generating power for Inner...

  7. Datang Chifeng New Energy Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Datang (Chifeng) New Energy Co Ltd Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Sector: Wind energy Product: A China-based wind developer....

  8. Langcheng Ruifeng Windpower | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    search Name: Langcheng Ruifeng Windpower Place: Hexigten Qi (Keshiketengqi), Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Sector: Wind energy Product: Keshiketengqi-based wind...

  9. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... accumulation of Luxi Depression Li Hongliang ; Qian Hua Xiao ; Angui Lei Located in the eastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, Luxi Depression covers an area of 760 ...

  10. REpower North China Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    China Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: REpower North (China) Ltd Place: Baotou, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Zip: 14033 Product: Joint venture to manufacture 2MW...

  11. China Tong Liao Baolong New Energy Ltd CTB | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Tong Liao Baolong New Energy Ltd CTB Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Tong Liao Baolong New Energy Ltd (CTB) Place: Tongliao, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Sector:...

  12. Property:EnergyAccessYearInitiated | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    + Burkina Faso Energy Access Project + 2007 + E Ethiopia Energy Access Project + 2005 + G Ghana Energy Development and Access Project (GEDAP) + 2007 + M Mongolia Renewable Energy...

  13. Urat Rear Banner Jihe Orient Wind Energy Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Urat Rear Banner Jihe Orient Wind Energy Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Urat Rear Banner Jihe Orient Wind Energy Co Ltd Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China...

  14. Secretary Chu Visits ENN Headquarters and Tianjin University...

    Energy Savers

    Coal Gasification and Algae-to-Biodiesel ENN owns a coal mine in Ordos, Inner Mongolia, ... a 10,000-liter greenhouse where algae are bred for biodiesel, fertilizer and animal feed. ...

  15. Chahar Wind Power Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Chahar Wind Power Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Chahar Wind Power Co Ltd Place: China Sector: Wind energy Product: Inner Mongolia, Shangyi-based wind project developer...

  16. Solar EnerTech PAIS Jin Yu Silicon Wuhai Municipal Gvrnt JV ...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar EnerTech PAIS Jin Yu Silicon Wuhai Municipal Gvrnt JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar EnerTech, PAIS, Jin Yu Silicon, & Wuhai Municipal Gvrnt JV Place: Inner Mongolia...

  17. Baotou Iron and Steel Group Baotou Steel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    search Name: Baotou Iron and Steel Group (Baotou Steel) Place: Baotou, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Product: Baotou-based iron and steel maker as well as a rare...

  18. SU-E-T-580: Comparison of Cervical Carcinoma IMRT Plans From Four Commercial Treatment Planning Systems (TPS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Y; Li, R; Chi, Z; Zhu, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Different treatment planning systems (TPS) use different treatment optimization and leaf sequencing algorithms. This work compares cervical carcinoma IMRT plans optimized with four commercial TPSs to investigate the plan quality in terms of target conformity and delivery efficiency. Methods: Five cervical carcinoma cases were planned with the Corvus, Monaco, Pinnacle and Xio TPSs by experienced planners using appropriate optimization parameters and dose constraints to meet the clinical acceptance criteria. Plans were normalized for at least 95% of PTV to receive the prescription dose (Dp). Dose-volume histograms and isodose distributions were compared. Other quantities such as Dmin(the minimum dose received by 99% of GTV/PTV), Dmax(the maximum dose received by 1% of GTV/PTV), D100, D95, D90, V110%, V105%, V100% (the volume of GTV/PTV receiving 110%, 105%, 100% of Dp), conformity index(CI), homogeneity index (HI), the volume of receiving 40Gy and 50 Gy to rectum (V40,V50) ; the volume of receiving 30Gy and 50 Gy to bladder (V30,V50) were evaluated. Total segments and MUs were also compared. Results: While all plans meet target dose specifications and normal tissue constraints, the maximum GTVCI of Pinnacle plans was up to 0.74 and the minimum of Corvus plans was only 0.21, these four TPSs PTVCI had significant difference. The GTVHI and PTVHI of Pinnacle plans are all very low and show a very good dose distribution. Corvus plans received the higer dose of normal tissue. The Monaco plans require significantly less segments and MUs to deliver than the other plans. Conclusion: To deliver on a Varian linear-accelerator, the Pinnacle plans show a very good dose distribution. Corvus plans received the higer dose of normal tissue. The Monaco plans have faster beam delivery.

  19. SU-E-J-127: Implementation of An Online Replanning Tool for VMAT Using Flattening Filter-Free Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ates, O; Ahunbay, E; Li, X

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This is to report the implementation of an online replanning tool based on segment aperture morphing (SAM) for VMAT with flattening filter free (FFF) beams. Methods: Previously reported SAM algorithm modified to accommodate VMAT with FFF beams was implemented in a tool that was interfaced with a treatment planning system (Monaco, Elekta). The tool allows (1) to output the beam parameters of the original VMAT plan from Monaco, and (2) to input the apertures generated from the SAM algorithm into Monaco for the dose calculation on daily CT/CBCT/MRI in the following steps:(1) Quickly generating target contour based on the image of the day, using an auto-segmentation tool (ADMIRE, Elekta) with manual editing if necessary; (2) Morphing apertures based on the SAM in the original VMAT plan to account for the interfractional change of the target from the planning to the daily images; (3) Calculating dose distribution for new apertures with the same numbers of MU as in the original plan; (4) Transferring the new plan into a record & verify system (MOSAIQ, Elekta); (5) Performing a pre-delivery QA based on software; (6) Delivering the adaptive plan for the fraction.This workflow was implemented on a 16-CPU (2.6 GHz dual-core) hardware with GPU and was tested for sample cases of prostate, pancreas and lung tumors. Results: The online replanning process can be completed within 10 minutes. The adaptive plans generally have improved the plan quality when compared to the IGRT repositioning plans. The adaptive plans with FFF beams have better normal tissue sparing as compared with those of FF beams. Conclusion: The online replanning tool based on SAM can quickly generate adaptive VMAT plans using FFF beams with improved plan quality than those from the IGRT repositioning plans based on daily CT/CBCT/MRI and can be used clinically. This research was supported by Elekta Inc. (Crawley, UK)

  20. COP 21 Shelby Cobra | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    COP 21 Shelby Cobra COP 21 Shelby Cobra Addthis 1 of 12 U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack visits the Shelby Cobra at the COP 21 conference in Paris. Image: Photo courtesy U.S. Department of Energy 2 of 12 U.S. Ambassador to France and Monaco Jane Hartley discusses 3D printing technology and advanced manufacturing with Rob Ivester from EERE's Advanced Manufacturing Office Image: Photo courtesy U.S. Department of Energy 3 of 12 French Minister of Foreign Affairs and International

  1. SU-E-T-54: Benefits of Biological Cost Functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirag, N

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To verify the benefits of the biological cost functions. Methods: TG166 patients were used for the test case scenarios. Patients were planned using Monaco V5.0 (CMS/Elekta, St.Louis, MO) Monaco has 3 biological and 8 physical CFs. In this study the plans were optimized using 3 different scenarios. 1- Biological CFs only 2-Physical CFs only 3- Combination of Physical and Biological CFsMonaco has 3 biological CFs. Target EUD used for the targets, derived from the poisson cell kill model, has an α value that controls the cold spots inside the target. α values used in the optimization were 0.5 and 0.8. if cold spots needs to be penalized α value increased. Serial CF: it's called serial to mimic the behaviour of the serial organs, if a high k value like 12 or 14 is used it controls the maximum dose. Serial CF has a k parameter that is used to shape the whole dvh curve. K value ranges between 1–20. k:1 is used to control the mean dose, lower k value controls the mean dose, higher k value controls the higher dose, using 2 serial CFs with different k values controls the whole DVH. Paralel CF controls the percentage of the volume that tolerates higher doses than the reference dose to mimic the behaviour of the paralel organs. Results: It was possible to achive clinically accepted plans in all 3 scenarios. The benefit of the biological cost functions were to control the mean dose for target and OAR, to shape the DVH curve using one EUD value and one k value simplifies the optimization process. Using the biological CFs alone, it was hard to control the dose at a point. Conclusion: Biological CFs in Monaco doesn't require the ntcp/tcp values from the labs and useful to shape the whole dvh curve. I work as an applications support specialist for Elekta and I am a Ph.D. Student in Istanbul University for radiation therapy physics.

  2. INSIDE: ITER Site Progress

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Industry Monaco/ITER Postdoctoral Fellowship Program Upcoming Events US Researchers Parse Complex Plasma Issues From "Snowballs in Hell" to "Burping the Baby" - by Agatha Bardoel The design, testing, and manufacture of a pellet injection system is one of the key contributions of the United States to ITER. Physicist David Rasmussen serves as the lead for US ITER's fueling team and as a group leader in the Fusion Energy Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. He points out

  3. SU-E-T-608: Performance Comparison of Four Commercial Treatment Planning Systems Applied to Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Y; Li, R; Chi, Z

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare the performances of four commercial treatment planning systems (TPS) used for the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: Ten patients of nasopharyngeal (4 cases), esophageal (3 cases) and cervical (3 cases) cancer were randomly selected from a 3-month IMRT plan pool at one radiotherapy center. For each patient, four IMRT plans were newly generated by using four commercial TPS (Corvus, Monaco, Pinnacle and Xio), and then verified with Matrixx (two-dimensional array/IBA Company) on Varian23EX accelerator. A pass rate (PR) calculated from the Gamma index by OminiPro IMRT 1.5 software was evaluated at four plan verification standards (1%/1mm, 2%/2mm, 3%/3mm, 4%/4mm and 5%/5mm) for each treatment plan. Overall and multiple pairwise comparisons of PRs were statistically conducted by analysis of covariance (ANOVA) F and LSD tests among four TPSs. Results: Overall significant (p>0.05) differences of PRs were found among four TPSs with F test values of 3.8 (p=0.02), 21.1(>0.01), 14.0 (>0.01), 8.3(>0.01) at standards of 1%/1mm to 4%/4mm respectively, except at 5%/5mm standard with 2.6 (p=0.06). All means (standard deviation) of PRs at 3%/3mm of 94.3 3.3 (Corvus), 98.8 0.8 (Monaco), 97.5 1.7 (Pinnacle), 98.4 1.0 (Xio) were above 90% and met clinical requirement. Multiple pairwise comparisons had not demonstrated a consistent low or high pattern on either TPS. Conclusion: Matrixx dose verification results show that the validation pass rates of Monaco and Xio plans are relatively higher than those of the other two; Pinnacle plan shows slight higher pass rate than Corvus plan; lowest pass rate was achieved by the Corvus plan among these four kinds of TPS.

  4. Europe

    Annual Energy Outlook

    7,900 Mongolia 3 - 3,400 Thailand 152 453 0 South Asia 396 5,802 12,900 8,211 26,913 India 361 5,476 3,800 Pakistan 23 248 9,100 Middle East and North Africa 10,986 867,463...

  5. Europe

    Annual Energy Outlook

    124 1,115 Indonesia 3 108 46 Mongolia - - 4 Thailand 1 10 5 South Asia 4 86 201 183 470 India 2 44 96 Pakistan 1 24 105 Middle East and North Africa 26 3,117 1,003 1,651 5,772...

  6. Minerals yearbook: Mineral industries of Europe and central Eurasia. Volume 3. 1992 international review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Volume III, Minerals Yearbook -- International Review contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. Since the 1989 International Review, the volume has been presented as six reports. The report presents the Mineral Industries of Europe and Central Eurasia. The report incorporates location maps, industry structure tables, and an outlook section previously incorporated in the authors' Minerals Perspectives Series quinquennial regional books, which are being discontinued. This section of the Minerals Yearbook reviews the minerals industries of 45 countries: the 12 nations of the European Community (EC); 6 of the 7 nations of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA); Malta; the 11 Eastern European economies in transition (Albania, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovenia); and the countries of Central Eurasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan).

  7. Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources:

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mongolia Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 September 2015 September 2015 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of

  8. SU-E-T-539: Fixed Versus Variable Optimization Points in Combined-Mode Modulated Arc Therapy Planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kainz, K; Prah, D; Ahunbay, E; Li, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A novel modulated arc therapy technique, mARC, enables superposition of step-and-shoot IMRT segments upon a subset of the optimization points (OPs) of a continuous-arc delivery. We compare two approaches to mARC planning: one with the number of OPs fixed throughout optimization, and another where the planning system determines the number of OPs in the final plan, subject to an upper limit defined at the outset. Methods: Fixed-OP mARC planning was performed for representative cases using Panther v. 5.01 (Prowess, Inc.), while variable-OP mARC planning used Monaco v. 5.00 (Elekta, Inc.). All Monaco planning used an upper limit of 91 OPs; those OPs with minimal MU were removed during optimization. Plans were delivered, and delivery times recorded, on a Siemens Artiste accelerator using a flat 6MV beam with 300 MU/min rate. Dose distributions measured using ArcCheck (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Inc.) were compared with the plan calculation; the two were deemed consistent if they agreed to within 3.5% in absolute dose and 3.5 mm in distance-to-agreement among > 95% of the diodes within the direct beam. Results: Example cases included a prostate and a head-and-neck planned with a single arc and fraction doses of 1.8 and 2.0 Gy, respectively. Aside from slightly more uniform target dose for the variable-OP plans, the DVHs for the two techniques were similar. For the fixed-OP technique, the number of OPs was 38 and 39, and the delivery time was 228 and 259 seconds, respectively, for the prostate and head-and-neck cases. For the final variable-OP plans, there were 91 and 85 OPs, and the delivery time was 296 and 440 seconds, correspondingly longer than for fixed-OP. Conclusion: For mARC, both the fixed-OP and variable-OP approaches produced comparable-quality plans whose delivery was successfully verified. To keep delivery time per fraction short, a fixed-OP planning approach is preferred.

  9. Methods for Detector Placement and Analysis of Criticality Accident Alarm Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peplow, Douglas E.; Wetzel, Larry

    2012-01-01

    -to-detect accident sites, which may not have included every possible accident location. Analog calculations (no biasing) simply follow particles naturally. For sparse buildings and line-of-sight calculations, analog Monte Carlo (MC) may be adequate. For buildings with internal walls or large amounts of heavy equipment (dense geometry), variance reduction may be required. Calculations employing the CADIS method use a deterministic calculation to create an importance map and a matching biased source distribution that optimize the final MC to quickly calculate one specific tally. Calculations employing the FW-CADIS method use two deterministic calculations (one forward and one adjoint) to create an importance map and a matching biased source distribution that are designed to make the MC calculate a mesh tally with more uniform uncertainties in both high-dose and low-dose areas. Depending on the geometry of the problem, the number of detectors, and the number of accident sites, different approaches to CAAS placement studies can be taken. These are summarized in Table I. SCALE 6.1 contains the MAVRIC sequence, which can be used to perform any of the forward-based approaches outlined in Table I. For analog calculations, MAVRIC simply calls the Monaco MC code. For CADIS and FW-CADIS, MAVRIC uses the Denovo discrete ordinates (SN) deterministic code to generate the importance map and biased source used by Monaco. An adjoint capability is currently being added to Monaco and should be available in the next release of SCALE. An adjoint-based approach could be performed with Denovo alone - although fine meshes, large amounts of memory, and long computation times may be required to obtain accurate solutions. Coarse-mesh SN simulations could be employed for adjoint-based scoping studies until the adjoint capability in Monaco is complete. CAAS placement studies, especially those dealing with mesh tallies, require some extra utilities to aid in the analysis. Detectors must receive a minimum dose

  10. Parallel Monte Carlo transport modeling in the context of a time-dependent, three-dimensional multi-physics code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Procassini, R.J.

    1997-12-31

    The fine-scale, multi-space resolution that is envisioned for accurate simulations of complex weapons systems in three spatial dimensions implies flop-rate and memory-storage requirements that will only be obtained in the near future through the use of parallel computational techniques. Since the Monte Carlo transport models in these simulations usually stress both of these computational resources, they are prime candidates for parallelization. The MONACO Monte Carlo transport package, which is currently under development at LLNL, will utilize two types of parallelism within the context of a multi-physics design code: decomposition of the spatial domain across processors (spatial parallelism) and distribution of particles in a given spatial subdomain across additional processors (particle parallelism). This implementation of the package will utilize explicit data communication between domains (message passing). Such a parallel implementation of a Monte Carlo transport model will result in non-deterministic communication patterns. The communication of particles between subdomains during a Monte Carlo time step may require a significant level of effort to achieve a high parallel efficiency.

  11. Nuclear Physics Activities in Asia and ANPhA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakai, H.

    2011-05-06

    On 18 July 2009 the Asian Nuclear Physics Association (ANPhA) has been officially launched in Beijing by the representatives from China, Korea, Japan and Vietnam. Since then Australia, India, Mongolia and Taiwan have joined to ANPhA and now the member country/region has increased to eight. Some activities and features on ANPhA are introduced. In addition, pleasant collaboration with Professor Arima by the author in regard to the Gamow-Teller quenching problem is also briefly mentioned.

  12. World frontiers beckon oil finders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This paper discusses the international aspects of the petroleum industry. Most who work in the industry agree that the possibilities for huge are found largely in international regions. Something that is helping fuel that possibility is the way countries are increasingly opening their doors to US oil industry involvement. Listed in this paper is a partial list of the reported projects now underway around the world involving US companies. It is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather an indication of how work continues despite a general lull atmosphere for the oil industry. These include Albania, Bulgaria, Congo, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ireland, Malta, Madagascar, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Panama, Paraquay, and Senegal.

  13. Broadening the Appeal of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: Capturing Both Carbon Mitigation and Development Benefits of Clean Energy Technologies; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowlin, S.; Cochran, J.; Cox, S.; Davison, C.; van der Gaast, Y.

    2012-08-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate policies and implementation plans that enable countries to advance sustainable, climate-resilient development and private sector growth while significantly reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions traditionally associated with economic growth. In creating a LEDS, policy makers often have access to information on abatement potential and costs for clean energy technologies, but there is a scarcity of economy-wide approaches for evaluating and presenting information on other dimensions of importance to development, such as human welfare, poverty alleviation, and energy security. To address this shortcoming, this paper proposes a new tool for communicating development benefits to policy makers as part of a LEDS process. The purpose of this tool is two-fold: 1. Communicate development benefits associated with each clean energy-related intervention; 2. Facilitate decision-making on which combination of interventions best contributes to development goals. To pilot this tool, the authors created a visual using data on developmental impacts identified through the Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project in Montenegro. The visual will then be revised to reflect new data established through the TNA that provides information on cost, GHG mitigation, as well as the range and magnitude of developmental impacts.

  14. Validation of a virtual source model for Monte Carlo dose calculations of a flattening filter free linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cashmore, Jason; Golubev, Sergey; Dumont, Jose Luis; Sikora, Marcin; Alber, Markus; Ramtohul, Mark

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: A linac delivering intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can benefit from a flattening filter free (FFF) design which offers higher dose rates and reduced accelerator head scatter than for conventional (flattened) delivery. This reduction in scatter simplifies beam modeling, and combining a Monte Carlo dose engine with a FFF accelerator could potentially increase dose calculation accuracy. The objective of this work was to model a FFF machine using an adapted version of a previously published virtual source model (VSM) for Monte Carlo calculations and to verify its accuracy. Methods: An Elekta Synergy linear accelerator operating at 6 MV has been modified to enable irradiation both with and without the flattening filter (FF). The VSM has been incorporated into a commercially available treatment planning system (Monaco Trade-Mark-Sign v 3.1) as VSM 1.6. Dosimetric data were measured to commission the treatment planning system (TPS) and the VSM adapted to account for the lack of angular differential absorption and general beam hardening. The model was then tested using standard water phantom measurements and also by creating IMRT plans for a range of clinical cases. Results: The results show that the VSM implementation handles the FFF beams very well, with an uncertainty between measurement and calculation of <1% which is comparable to conventional flattened beams. All IMRT beams passed standard quality assurance tests with >95% of all points passing gamma analysis ({gamma} < 1) using a 3%/3 mm tolerance. Conclusions: The virtual source model for flattened beams was successfully adapted to a flattening filter free beam production. Water phantom and patient specific QA measurements show excellent results, and comparisons of IMRT plans generated in conventional and FFF mode are underway to assess dosimetric uncertainties and possible improvements in dose calculation and delivery.

  15. Benchmarking of a treatment planning system for spot scanning proton therapy: Comparison and analysis of robustness to setup errors of photon IMRT and proton SFUD treatment plans of base of skull meningioma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harding, R.; Trnková, P.; Lomax, A. J.; Weston, S. J.; Lilley, J.; Thompson, C. M.; Cosgrove, V. P.; Short, S. C.; Loughrey, C.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Base of skull meningioma can be treated with both intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and spot scanned proton therapy (PT). One of the main benefits of PT is better sparing of organs at risk, but due to the physical and dosimetric characteristics of protons, spot scanned PT can be more sensitive to the uncertainties encountered in the treatment process compared with photon treatment. Therefore, robustness analysis should be part of a comprehensive comparison between these two treatment methods in order to quantify and understand the sensitivity of the treatment techniques to uncertainties. The aim of this work was to benchmark a spot scanning treatment planning system for planning of base of skull meningioma and to compare the created plans and analyze their robustness to setup errors against the IMRT technique. Methods: Plans were produced for three base of skull meningioma cases: IMRT planned with a commercial TPS [Monaco (Elekta AB, Sweden)]; single field uniform dose (SFUD) spot scanning PT produced with an in-house TPS (PSI-plan); and SFUD spot scanning PT plan created with a commercial TPS [XiO (Elekta AB, Sweden)]. A tool for evaluating robustness to random setup errors was created and, for each plan, both a dosimetric evaluation and a robustness analysis to setup errors were performed. Results: It was possible to create clinically acceptable treatment plans for spot scanning proton therapy of meningioma with a commercially available TPS. However, since each treatment planning system uses different methods, this comparison showed different dosimetric results as well as different sensitivities to setup uncertainties. The results confirmed the necessity of an analysis tool for assessing plan robustness to provide a fair comparison of photon and proton plans. Conclusions: Robustness analysis is a critical part of plan evaluation when comparing IMRT plans with spot scanned proton therapy plans.

  16. SU-E-J-193: Feasibility of MRI-Only Based IMRT Planning for Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prior, P; Botros, M; Chen, X; Paulson, E; Erickson, B; Li, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: With the increasing use of MRI simulation and the advent of MRI-guided delivery, it is desirable to use MRI only for treatment planning. In this study, we assess the dosimetric difference between MRI- and CTbased IMRT planning for pancreatic cancer. Methods: Planning CTs and MRIs acquired for a representative pancreatic cancer patient were used. MRI-based planning utilized forced relative electron density (rED) assignment of organ specific values from IRCU report 46, where rED = 1.029 for PTV and a rED = 1.036 for non-specified tissue (NST). Six IMRT plans were generated with clinical dose-volume (DV) constraints using a research Monaco planning system employing Monte Carlo dose calculation with optional perpendicular magnetic field (MF) of 1.5T. The following five plans were generated and compared with the planning CT: 1.) CT plan with MF and dose recalculation without optimization; 2.) MRI (T2) plan with target and OARs redrawn based on MRI, forced rED, no MF, and recalculation without optimization; 3.) Similar as in 2 but with MF; 4.) MRI plan with MF but without optimization; and 5.) Similar as in 4 but with optimization. Results: Generally, noticeable differences in PTV point doses and DV parameters (DVPs) between the CT-and MRI-based plans with and without the MF were observed. These differences between the optimized plans were generally small, mostly within 2%. Larger differences were observed in point doses and mean doses for certain OARs between the CT and MRI plan, mostly due to differences between image acquisition times. Conclusion: MRI only based IMRT planning for pancreatic cancer is feasible. The differences observed between the optimized CT and MRI plans with or without the MF were practically negligible if excluding the differences between MRI and CT defined structures.

  17. SU-E-T-226: Junction Free Craniospinal Irradiation in Linear Accelerator Using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy : A Novel Technique Using Dose Tapering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, B; Roy, S; Paul, S; Munshi, A; Roy, Shilpi; Jassal, K; Ganesh, T; Mohanti, BK

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Spatially separated fields are required for craniospinal irradiation due to field size limitation in linear accelerator. Field junction shits are conventionally done to avoid hot or cold spots. Our study was aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of junction free irradiation plan of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) for Meduloblastoma cases treated in linear accelerator using Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique. Methods: VMAT was planned using multiple isocenters in Monaco V 3.3.0 and delivered in Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. A full arc brain and 40 posterior arc spine fields were planned using two isocentre for short (<1.3 meter height ) and 3 isocentres for taller patients. Unrestricted jaw movement was used in superior-inferior direction. Prescribed dose to PTV was achieved by partial contribution from adjacent beams. A very low dose gradient was generated to taper the isodoses over a long length (>10 cm) at the conventional field junction. Results: In this primary study five patients were planned and three patients were delivered using this novel technique. As the dose contribution from the adjacent beams were varied (gradient) to create a complete dose distribution, therefore there is no specific junction exists in the plan. The junction were extended from 1014 cm depending on treatment plan. Dose gradient were 9.62.3% per cm for brain and 7.91.7 % per cm for spine field respectively. Dose delivery error due to positional inaccuracy was calculated for brain and spine field for 1mm, 2mm, 3mm and 5 mm were 1%0.8%, 2%1.6%, 2.8%2.4% and 4.3%4% respectively. Conclusion: Dose tapering in junction free CSI do not require a junction shift. Therefore daily imaging for all the field is also not essential. Due to inverse planning dose to organ at risk like thyroid kidney, heart and testis can be reduced significantly. VMAT gives a quicker delivery than Step and shoot or dynamic IMRT.

  18. Poster Thur Eve 57: Evaluation of laryngeal mucosal dose with conventional linac and TomoTherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nusrat, H; Lekx, K; Eapen, L

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not underdosing occurs in the mucosal layer during treatment of glottis cancer. A larynx phantom was produced and regions at risk of recurrence due to suspected underdosing were identified and wells drilled into the phantom for flush placement of TLDs. Seven interest points were chosen. CT simulation was completed prior to the wells being drilled, and again afterwards with the TLD locations indicated using BBs. Treatment plans created for this investigation included: 3DCRT using Elekta-XiO (n=9) and VMAT created using Elekta-Monaco (n=9), both delivered on an Elekta linac; standard TomoTherapy plan (n=11) and a directionally blocked TomoTherapy plan to approximate a 3D-conformal approach (n=5). Imaging dose during TomoTherapy deliveries was accounted for. The average TLD result at each interest point was compared to the planned value using a paired t-test. There was no significant difference between the planned and measured 3DCRT dose (268.9 vs. 267.0 cGy, respectively; p>0.05). Similarly, the planned and measured TomoTherapy treatment did not show any significant differences (271.7 vs 269.7 cGy; p>0.05). In the blocked TomoTherapy plan, significant overdosing was seen (274.5 vs 294.9 cGy; p<0.05) and underdosing was not seen in the VMAT treatment (303.5 vs 321.8 cGy; p>0.05). Further investigation is ongoing to ensure appropriate normalization of results and to investigate the overdosing noted with the blocked TomoTherapy plan. Results from this study suggest that significant underdosing does not occur in the conventional treatment of early glottic cancer using 6MV photons.

  19. SU-E-J-239: IMRT Planning of Prostate Cancer for a MRI-Linac Based On MRI Only

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, X; Prior, P; Paulson, E; Lawton, C; Li, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: : To investigate dosimetric differences between MRI- and CT-based IMRT planning for prostate cancer, the impact of a magnetic field in a MRI-Linac, and to explore the feasibility of IMRT planning based on MRI alone. Methods: IMRT plans were generated based on CT and MRI images acquired on two representative prostate-cancer patients using clinical dose volume constraints. A research planning system (Monaco, Elekta), which employs a Monte Carlo dose engine and includes a perpendicular magnetic field of 1.5T from an MRI-Linac, was used. Bulk electron density assignments based on organ-specific values from ICRU 46 were used to convert MRI (T2) to pseudo CT. With the same beam configuration as in the original CT plan, 5 additional plans were generated based on CT or MRI, with or without optimization (i.e., just recalculation) and with or without the magnetic field. The plan quality in terms of commonly used dose volume (DV) parameters for all plans was compared. The statistical uncertainty on dose was < 1%. Results: For plans with the same contour set but without re-optimization, the DV parameters were different from those for the original CT plan, mostly less than 5% with a few exceptions. These differences were reduced to mostly less than 3% when the plans were re-optimized. For plans with contours from MRI, the differences in the DV parameters varied depending on the difference in the contours as compared to CT. For the optimized plans with contours from MR, the differences for PTV were less than 3%. Conclusion: The prostate IMRT plans based on MRI-only for a MR-Linac were practically similar as compared to the CT plan under the same beam and optimization configuration if the difference on the structure delineation is excluded, indicating the feasibility of using MRI-only for prostate IMRT.

  20. Rural electric energy services in China: Implementing the renewable energy challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weingart, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses issues related to rural electrification in China, with emphasis on a pilot project in Mongolia to implement small scale renewable energy sources. These projects consist of photovoltaic systems, wind electric systems, photovoltaic/wind hybrid systems, and wind/gasoline generator sets. These systems are small enough to implement in rural environments, more cost effective than grid type systems, and have lower cost than standard generator sets alone because of the improved reliability. The author also discusses the use of such systems for village power sources. A number of factors are contributing to the increase in such systems. Individuals are able and willing to pay for such systems, lending institutions are willing to fund such small-scale projects, they provide reliable, high quality services which support social and economic development.

  1. SPECIAL SEMINAR - The NOTTE experiment, or how to become a Total Solar Eclipse chaser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-08

    The NOTTE experiment (Neutrino Oscillations with Telescope during Total Eclipse) aims at searching for visible photons emitted through a possible radiative decay of solar neutrinos. The experiment and the expeditions organized by a group of physicists and astrophysicists from INFN and INAF Bologna hunting for Total Solar Eclipses from 1998 to 2006 wil be described. The results of observations performed during total solar eclipse expeditions in 2001 (Zambia) and 2006 (Sahara desert, Libya) are presented and a beautiful photo gallery will be shown. Other peculiar observations that can be made during a solar eclipse are also illustrated. The seminar will be followed by a brief presentation of future camps for solar eclipse chasers and scientists organized in 2008 in Russia, Kazakhstan, China and Mongolia, in 2009 in Shanghai and on the Easter Island in 2010.

  2. SPECIAL SEMINAR - The NOTTE experiment, or how to become a Total Solar Eclipse chaser

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    The NOTTE experiment (Neutrino Oscillations with Telescope during Total Eclipse) aims at searching for visible photons emitted through a possible radiative decay of solar neutrinos. The experiment and the expeditions organized by a group of physicists and astrophysicists from INFN and INAF Bologna hunting for Total Solar Eclipses from 1998 to 2006 wil be described. The results of observations performed during total solar eclipse expeditions in 2001 (Zambia) and 2006 (Sahara desert, Libya) are presented and a beautiful photo gallery will be shown. Other peculiar observations that can be made during a solar eclipse are also illustrated. The seminar will be followed by a brief presentation of future camps for solar eclipse chasers and scientists organized in 2008 in Russia, Kazakhstan, China and Mongolia, in 2009 in Shanghai and on the Easter Island in 2010.

  3. Sino-American cooperation for rural electrification in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, W.L.; Tsuo, Y.S.; Taylor, R.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses primarily two different renewable energy programs which are in progress in China. One is in Gansu province, based on a solar home system project. This project is stressing a sustainable market development, provision of small lighting systems for residential and small schools, and water pumping and telecommunications support. It seeks involvement of 600 households as a minimum over 18 months. The second project is a very aggressive renewable energy project in Inner Mongolia, where there are excellent wind and solar resources, and where there are already 110,000 small wind turbines installed, in addition to more than 9 hybrid power systems for villages. These programs have major involvement from the Chinese government and industry, with some guidance and support from the USA.

  4. Sino/American cooperation for PV development in the People`s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, W.L.; Tsuo, Y.S.

    1996-05-01

    Rapid growth in economic development, coupled with the absence of an electric grid in large areas of the rural countryside, have created a need for new energy sources both in urban centers and rural areas in China. Environmental pollution from the increased use of coal-fired steam turbines to meet this capacity expansion is a concern. There is a growing interest in China to develop renewable-energy resources and technologies to meet energy demands and help mitigate pollution problems. In February 1995, Secretary Hazel O`Leary of the U.S. Department of Energy signed an Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Protocol Agreement with the Chinese State Science and Technology Commission in Beijing, China. Under this agreement, projects using photovoltaics for rural electrification are being conducted in Gansu Province in western China and Inner Mongolia in northern China, providing the basis for much wider deployment and use of photovoltaics for meeting the growing rural energy demands of China.

  5. Energy-saving options for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from the Mongolian energy sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorjpurev, J.; Purevjal, O.; Erdenechimeg, Ch.

    1996-12-31

    The Energy sector is the largest contributor to GHG emission in Mongolia. The Energy sector emits 54 percent of CO2 and 4 percent of methane. All emissions of other greenhouse gases are accounted from energy related activities. The activities in this sector include coal production, fuel combustion, and biomass combustion at the thermal power stations and in private houses (stoves) for heating purposes. This paper presents some important Demand-side options considered for mitigation of CO2 emissions from energy sector such as Energy Conservation in Industrial Sector and in Buildings. Changes in energy policies and programmes in the Mongolian situation that promote more efficient and sustainable practices are presented in the paper. These energy saving measures will not only help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but will also promote economic development and alleviate other environmental problems.

  6. Baseload, industrial-scale wind power: An alternative to coal in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.J.; Williams, R.H.; Xie Shaoxiong; Zhang Shihui

    1996-12-31

    This report presents a novel strategy for developing wind power on an industrial-scale in China. Oversized wind farms, large-scale electrical storage and long-distance transmission lines are integrated to deliver {open_quotes}baseload wind power{close_quotes} to distant electricity demand centers. The prospective costs for this approach to developing wind power are illustrated by modeling an oversized wind farm at Huitengxile, Inner Mongolia. Although storage adds to the total capital investment, it does not necessarily increase the cost of the delivered electricity. Storage makes it possible to increase the capacity factor of the electric transmission system, so that the unit cost for long-distance transmission is reduced. Moreover, baseload wind power is typically more valuable to the electric utility than intermittent wind power, so that storage can be economically attractive even in instances where the cost per kWh is somewhat higher than without storage. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. SU-E-J-199: A Software Tool for Quality Assurance of Online Replanning with MR-Linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G; Ahunbay, E; Li, X

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a quality assurance software tool, ArtQA, capable of automatically checking radiation treatment plan parameters, verifying plan data transfer from treatment planning system (TPS) to record and verify (R&V) system, performing a secondary MU calculation considering the effect of magnetic field from MR-Linac, and verifying the delivery and plan consistency, for online replanning. Methods: ArtQA was developed by creating interfaces to TPS (e.g., Monaco, Elekta), R&V system (Mosaiq, Elekta), and secondary MU calculation system. The tool obtains plan parameters from the TPS via direct file reading, and retrieves plan data both transferred from TPS and recorded during the actual delivery in the R&V system database via open database connectivity and structured query language. By comparing beam/plan datasets in different systems, ArtQA detects and outputs discrepancies between TPS, R&V system and secondary MU calculation system, and delivery. To consider the effect of 1.5T transverse magnetic field from MR-Linac in the secondary MU calculation, a method based on modified Clarkson integration algorithm was developed and tested for a series of clinical situations. Results: ArtQA is capable of automatically checking plan integrity and logic consistency, detecting plan data transfer errors, performing secondary MU calculations with or without a transverse magnetic field, and verifying treatment delivery. The tool is efficient and effective for pre- and post-treatment QA checks of all available treatment parameters that may be impractical with the commonly-used visual inspection. Conclusion: The software tool ArtQA can be used for quick and automatic pre- and post-treatment QA check, eliminating human error associated with visual inspection. While this tool is developed for online replanning to be used on MR-Linac, where the QA needs to be performed rapidly as the patient is lying on the table waiting for the treatment, ArtQA can be used as a general QA tool

  8. Reference Material for Radionuclides in Sediment, IAEA-384 (Fangataufa Lagoon Sediment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Povinec, P; Pham, M; Barci-Funel, G; Bojanawski, R; Boshkova, T; Burnett, W; Carvalho, F; Chapeyron, B; Cunha, I; Dahlgaard, H; Galabov, N; Gastaud, J; Geering, J; Gomez, I; Green, N; Hamilton, T; Ibanez, F; Majah, M I; John, M; Kanisch, G; Kenna, T; Kloster, M; Korun, M; Wee Kwong, L L; La Rosa, J; Lee, S; Levy-Palomo, I; Malatova, M; Maruo, Y; Mitchell, P; Murciano, I; Nelson, R; Oh, J; Oregioni, B; Petit, G L; Pettersson, H; Reineking, A; Smedley, P; Suckow, A; der Struijs, T v; Voors, P; Yoshimizu, K; Wyse, E

    2005-09-23

    The IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) in Monaco has conducted intercomparison exercises on radionuclides in marine samples for many years as part of its contribution to the IAEA's program of Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS). An important part of the AQCS program has been a production of Reference Materials (RMs) and their provision to radioanalytical laboratories. The RMs have been developed for different marine matrices (sediment, water, biota), with accuracy and precision required for the present state of the art of radiometrics and mass spectrometry methods. The RMs have been produced as the final products of world-wide intercomparison exercises organized during last 30 years. A total of 44 intercomparison exercises were undertaken and 39 RMs were produced for radionuclides in the marine environment. All required matrices (seawater, biota, sediment) have been covered with radionuclide concentrations ranging from typical environmental levels to elevated levels affected by discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants. The long-term availability of RMs (over 10 years) requires the use of very specific techniques to collect and pretreat large quantities of material (e.g., in excess of 100 kg) in order to ensure sample stability and homogenization of any analytes of interest. The production of a RM is therefore a long process, covering the identification of needs, sample collection, pre-treatment, homogenization, bottling, distribution to laboratories, evaluation of data, preliminary reporting, additional analyses in expert laboratories, certification of the material, and finally issuing the RM. In this paper we describe a reference material IAEA-384, Fangataufa lagoon sediment, designed for determination of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in the marine environment. This RM has been prepared with the aim of testing the performance of analytical laboratories to measure the activity of these radionuclides in a sediment sample contaminated

  9. WE-G-17A-07: Investigation of the Influence of the Electron Return Effect (ERE) On the Dose Distribution in Rectal Cancer Patients On a 1.5T MR-Linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uilkema, S; Heide, U; Nijkamp, J; Sonke, J; Moreau, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this planning study is to investigate the influence of the ERE on the day-to-day dose distribution in rectal cancer patients, where changes in gas-pockets frequently occur. Methods: Daily CT scans of 5 patients treated neo-adjuvant with 5x5Gy for rectal cancer were used. We optimized two plans on the planning CT (Monaco, 1 mm3 dosegrid), a conventional 7-field 6MV IMRT plan (Dconv) and a plan in the presence of a 1.5T field (Dmrl). We recalculated the plans on all repeat-CT scans and evaluated under/over-dosage of the daily CTVs. Changes of more than 1% were considered significant. In the bowel area, we investigated the relative dose changes due to the ERE, where the contribution of the ERE was separated from other effects such as attenuation. Results: Both plans were comparable and compliant with ICRU 62 for all patients. For 2 fractions in one patient under-dosage in the CTV was significant, due to a disappearing gas-pocket. Here the V95 was 96.82 and 97.36% in in Dmrl compared to 98.85 and 98.66% in Dconv, respectively. For 3 fractions in another patient appearing gas-pockets resulted in significant over-dosage of the CTV. In these fractions the V107 was 1.882.68% in Dmrl compared to 0.331.27% in Dconv. In the bowel area the dose changes attributable to the ERE were approximately 5% in 1cc, at low dose levels. Conclusion: We were able to calculate acceptable treatment plans with and without a magnetic field. The ERE was present in the Dmrl, but the volumetric effect within the CTV was limited. Outside the CTV relative dose differences were similar, but on small volumes at lower, less relevant dose levels. This suggests that there is no clinical relevant ERE on dose distributions in rectal cancer patients on a 1.5T MR-Linac.

  10. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammad S. Roni; Kara G. Cafferty; Christopher T Wright; Lantian Ren

    2015-06-01

    China has abundant biomass resources, which can be used as a potential source of bioenergy. However, China faces challenges implementing biomass as an energy source, because China has not developed the highly networked, high-volume biomass logistics systems and infrastructure. This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to the U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum under different scenarios in China. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study shows that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk will be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/ dry metric ton, respectively, for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk will be down to $36.01/ dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also performed a sensitivity analysis to find the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. A sensitivity analysis shows that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, causing a variation of $6 to $12/metric ton.

  11. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Lantian; Cafferty, Kara; Roni, Mohammad; Jacobson, Jacob; Xie, Guanghui; Ovard, Leslie; Wright, Christopher

    2015-06-11

    This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum in China under different scenarios. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study estimates that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk to be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/dry metric ton, respectively, for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk decreases to $36.01/dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also includes a sensitivity analysis to identify the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, with a variation of $6 to $12/dry metric ton.

  12. Atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang Lang; Shu Tao; Wenxin Liu; Yanxu Zhang; Staci Simonich

    2008-07-15

    A potential receptor influence function (PRIF) model, based on air mass forward trajectory calculations, was applied to simulate the atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from China. With a 10 day atmospheric transport time, most neighboring countries and regions, as well as remote regions, were influenced by PAH emissions from China. Of the total annual PAH emission of 114 Gg, 92.7% remained within the boundary of mainland China. The geographic distribution of PRIFs within China was similar to the geographic distribution of the source regions, with high values in the North China Plain, Sichuan Basin, Shanxi, and Guizhou province. The Tarim basin and Sichuan basin had unfavorable meteorological conditions for PAH outflow. Of the PAH outflow from China (8092 tons or 7.1% of the total annual PAH emission), approximately 69.9% (5655 tons) reached no further than the offshore environment of mainland China and the South China Sea. Approximate 227, 71, 746, and 131 tons PAHs reached North Korea, South Korea, Russia-Mongolia region, and Japan, respectively, 2-4 days after the emission. Only 1.4 tons PAHs reached North America after more than 9 days. Interannual variation in the eastward PAH outflow was positively correlated to cold episodes of El Nino/Southern Oscillation. However, trans-Pacific atmospheric transport of PAHs from China was correlated to Pacific North America index (PNA) which is associated with the strength and position of westerly winds. 38 refs., 4 figs.

  13. A Novel MagPipe Pipeline transportation system using linear motor drives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, J.R.; Montgomery, D.B.; Roderick, L.

    2009-11-15

    A novel capsule pipeline transportation system using linear motor drives, called Magplane MagPipe, is under development with the intention to replace trucks and railways for hauling materials from the mine to the rail head, power plant, or processing plant with reduced operating cost and energy consumption. The initial demonstration of a MagPipe line in Inner Mongolia will be a 500-m-long double-pipe coal transport system with the design transportation capacity of 3 Mega-Mg per year. The pipeline consists of 6-m-long plastic pipe modules with an I-beam suspension system inside the pipe to carry sets of five coupled capsules. The pipe will also contain noncontinuous motor winding modules spaced at 50-m intervals. A set of Halbach-arrayed permanent magnets on the bottom of the capsules interact with the linear motor windings to provide propulsion. The motor is driven by variable frequency drives outside the pipe to control the speed. This paper briefly describes the overall MagPipe pipeline transportation system, including the preliminary conclusions of the linear synchronous motor analysis.

  14. Defeat the dragon: coal fires between self ignition and fire fighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manfred W. Wuttke; Stefan Wessling; Winfried Kessels

    2007-01-15

    Spontaneous coal fires in near surface coal seams are a worldwide recognized problem. They are destroying coal resources and emit climate relevant gases both in considerable amounts. While the extinction of such fires is a most desirable goal, the estimation of the actual input of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere is of great interest especially in the context of the Kyoto protocol as such values are needed as baseline for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) policies. Under the framework of the Sino-German coal-fire research project we are developing numerical models of such coal fires for the operational use in fire fighting campaigns. Based on our understanding of the governing physical and chemical processes that are relevant for the whole combustion process we simulate the coal fire spreading along the seams for typical situations. From these scenario calculations we deduce information needed to support the CDM baseline estimation and to assess the progress of fire extinguishing efforts like water injection and surface covering to dissipate the heat and suffocate the fire. We present case studies using the finite-element-code ROCKFLOW applied to realistic geometries based on field observations in the Shenhua Group Coal Mining Area Wuda (Inner Mongolia, PR China).

  15. (Terminology standardization)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strehlow, R.A.

    1990-10-19

    Terminological requirements in information management was but one of the principal themes of the 2nd Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering. The traveler represented the American Society for Testing and Materials' Committee on Terminology, of which he is the Chair. The traveler's invited workshop emphasized terminology standardization requirements in databases of material properties as well as practical terminology standardizing methods. The congress included six workshops in addition to approximately 82 lectures and papers from terminologists, artificial intelligence practitioners, and subject specialists from 18 countries. There were approximately 292 registrants from 33 countries who participated in the congress. The congress topics were broad. Examples were the increasing use of International Standards Organization (ISO) Standards in legislated systems such as the USSR Automated Data Bank of Standardized Terminology, the enhanced Physics Training Program based on terminology standardization in Physics in the Chinese province of Inner Mongolia, and the technical concept dictionary being developed at the Japan Electronic Dictionary Research Institute, which is considered to be the key to advanced artificial intelligence applications. The more usual roles of terminology work in the areas of machine translation. indexing protocols, knowledge theory, and data transfer in several subject specialties were also addressed, along with numerous special language terminology areas.

  16. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Ren, Lantian; Cafferty, Kara; Roni, Mohammad; Jacobson, Jacob; Xie, Guanghui; Ovard, Leslie; Wright, Christopher

    2015-06-11

    This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum in China under different scenarios. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study estimates that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk to be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/dry metric ton, respectively,more » for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk decreases to $36.01/dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also includes a sensitivity analysis to identify the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, with a variation of $6 to $12/dry metric ton.« less

  17. North Pacific Mesoscale Coupled Air-Ocean Simulations Compared with Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koracin, Darko; Cerovecki, Ivana; Vellore, Ramesh; Mejia, John; Hatchett, Benjamin; McCord, Travis; McLean, Julie; Dorman, Clive

    2013-04-11

    Executive summary The main objective of the study was to investigate atmospheric and ocean interaction processes in the western Pacific and, in particular, effects of significant ocean heat loss in the Kuroshio and Kuroshio Extension regions on the lower and upper atmosphere. It is yet to be determined how significant are these processes are on climate scales. The understanding of these processes led us also to development of the methodology of coupling the Weather and Research Forecasting model with the Parallel Ocean Program model for western Pacific regional weather and climate simulations. We tested NCAR-developed research software Coupler 7 for coupling of the WRF and POP models and assessed its usability for regional-scale applications. We completed test simulations using the Coupler 7 framework, but implemented a standard WRF model code with options for both one- and two-way mode coupling. This type of coupling will allow us to seamlessly incorporate new WRF updates and versions in the future. We also performed a long-term WRF simulation (15 years) covering the entire North Pacific as well as high-resolution simulations of a case study which included extreme ocean heat losses in the Kuroshio and Kuroshio Extension regions. Since the extreme ocean heat loss occurs during winter cold air outbreaks (CAO), we simulated and analyzed a case study of a severe CAO event in January 2000 in detail. We found that the ocean heat loss induced by CAOs is amplified by additional advection from mesocyclones forming on the southern part of the Japan Sea. Large scale synoptic patterns with anomalously strong anticyclone over Siberia and Mongolia, deep Aleutian Low, and the Pacific subtropical ridge are a crucial setup for the CAO. It was found that the onset of the CAO is related to the breaking of atmospheric Rossby waves and vertical transport of vorticity that facilitates meridional advection. The study also indicates that intrinsic parameterization of the surface fluxes

  18. Rare earth element components in atmospheric particulates in the Bayan Obo mine region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lingqing Liang, Tao Zhang, Qian; Li, Kexin

    2014-05-01

    The Bayan Obo mine, located in Inner Mongolia, China, is the largest light rare earth body ever found in the world. The research for rare earth elements (REEs) enrichment in atmospheric particulates caused by mining and ore processing is fairly limited so far. In this paper, atmospheric particulates including total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM{sub 10}) were collected around the Bayan Obo mine region, in August 2012 and March 2013, to analyze the levels and distributions of REEs in particles. The total concentrations of REEs for TSP were 149.8 and 239.6 ng/m{sup 3}, and those for PM{sub 10} were 42.8 and 68.9 ng/m{sup 3}, in August 2012 and March 2013, respectively. Enrichment factor was calculated for all 14 REEs in the TSP and PM{sub 10} and the results indicated that REEs enrichment in atmosphere particulates was caused by anthropogenic sources and influenced by the strong wind in springtime. The spatial distribution of REEs in TSP showed a strong gradient concentration in the prevailing wind direction. REE chondrite normalized patterns of TSP and PM{sub 10} were similar and the normalized curves inclined to the right side, showing the conspicuous fractionation between the light REEs and heavy REE, which supported by the chondrite normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (La{sub N}/Yb{sub N}, La{sub N}/Sm{sub N}, Gd{sub N}/Yb{sub N}). - Highlights: • TSP and PM{sub 10} samples were collected to analyze the levels and distributions of REE. • Enrichment factors indicated that REE enrichment was caused by anthropogenic sources. • The distribution of REEs showed a strong gradient in the prevailing wind direction. • Obvious fractionation between LREEs and HREEs is observed in atmospheric particulates.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of a gecko and the phylogeneticposition of the Middle Eastern teratoscincus keyserlingii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macey, J. Robert; Fong, Jonathan J.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Shafiei,Soheila; Ananjeva, Natalia B.; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-04-22

    Sqamate reptiles are traditionally divided into six groups: Iguania, Anguimorpha, Scincomorpha, Gekkota (these four are lizards), Serpentes (snakes), and Amphisbaenia (the so-called worm lizards). Currently there are complete mitochondrial genomes from two representatives of the Iguania (Janke et al., 2001; Kumazawa, 2004), three from the Anguimorpha (Kumazawa, 2004; Kumazawa and Endo, 2004), two from the Scincomorpha (Kumazawa and Nishida, 1999; Kumazawa, 2004), two from Serpentes (Kumazawa et al., 1998; Kumazawa, 2004) and 12 from Amphisbaenia (Macey et al., 2004). The only traditional group of Squamata from which a complete mitochondrial genome has not been sequenced is the Gekkota. Here we report the complete mitochondrial genome of Teratoscincus keyserlingii, a Middle Eastern representative of the Gekkota. The gekkonid lizard genus Teratoscincus is distributed throughout the deserts of central and southwest Asia as shown in figure 1, with five species currently recognized (Macey et al. 1997a, 1999b). Included in this figure are the positions of mountain ranges discussed in the text; see also figure 1 in Macey et al. (1999b). Two species, T. bedriagai and T. microlepis, are restricted to Southwest Asia south of the Kopet Dagh and Hindu Kush in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan (Anderson, 1999). Two species are found in the deserts of western China and Mongolia, with T. przewalskii occurring in the Taklimakan and lowland Gobi deserts, and T. roborowskii restricted to the Turpan Depression. The fifth species, T. scincus, is sometimes considered to be restricted to the Caspian Basin in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzistan, Tadjikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Alternatively, Teratoscincus populations in Southwest Asia, primarily on the Iranian Plateau, situated directly north of the Arabian Plate, are sometimes considered to be a subspecies of T. scincus or, otherwise, to constitute a sixth species, T. keyserlingii. Macey et al. (1999b) assessed the phylogenetic

  20. Asian Energy Security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Hayes, PhD

    2003-12-01

    OAK-B135 In the Asian Energy Security (AES) Project, Nautilus Institute works together with a network of collaborating groups from the countries of Northeast Asia to evaluate the energy security implications of different national and regional energy ''paths''. The goal of the Asia Energy Security project is to illuminate energy paths--and the energy policy choices that might help to bring them about--that result in a higher degree of energy security for the region and for the world as a whole, that is, to identify energy paths that are ''robust'' in meeting many different energy security and development objectives, while also offering flexibility in the face of uncertainty. In work to date, Nautilus has carefully assembled a network of colleagues from the countries of the region, trained them together as a group in the use of a common, flexible, and transparent energy and environmental analysis planning software tool (LEAP, the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning system), and worked with them to prepare base-year energy sector models for each country. To date, complete data sets and models for ''Business as Usual'' (BAU) energy paths have been compiled for China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea. A partial data set and BAU path has been compiled for the Russian Far East, and a data set is being started in Mongolia, where a team of researchers has just joined the AES project. In several countries, ''Alternative'' energy paths have been developed as well, or partially elaborated. National energy sector developments, progress on national LEAP modeling, additional LEAP training, and planning for the next phase of the AES project were the topics of a recent (early November) workshop held in Vancouver, British Columbia. With funding from the Department of Energy, Nautilus is poised to build upon the successes of the project to date with a coordinated international effort to research the energy security ramifications of

  1. "An Economic Process for Coal Liquefaction to Liquid Fuels" SBIR Phase II -- Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguli, Partha Sarathi

    2009-02-19

    carried out by comparing the design and costs of the current commercial plant of the Shenhua Corporation in Erdos, Inner Mongolia. The cost of producing synthetic crude oil from coal in the current commercial process was estimated to be $50.5 per barrel compared to the estimated cost of $41.7 per barrel in the new process. As mentioned earlier, the light distillate product in the new process is of higher quality and value than the C{sub 4}-975{degrees}F product in the current commercial process adopted by the Shenhua Corporation. In sum, the new coal liquefaction process is superior and less capital intensive to current commercial process, and has a high potential for commercialization.