National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for midgrade conventional reformulated

  1. Reformulated Gasoline Complex Model

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Table 2. Statutory Baseline Fuel Compositions * Simple Model ... Related EIA Short-Term Forecast Analysis Products * RFG ... * Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Reformulated ...

  2. Reformulated diesel fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McAdams, Hiramie T [Carrollton, IL; Crawford, Robert W [Tucson, AZ; Hadder, Gerald R [Oak Ridge, TN; McNutt, Barry D [Arlington, VA

    2006-03-28

    Reformulated diesel fuels for automotive diesel engines which meet the requirements of ASTM 975-02 and provide significantly reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) and particulate matter (PM) relative to commercially available diesel fuels.

  3. Reformulated gasoline quality issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, R.G.; Felch, D.E.; Edgar, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    One year ago, a panel of industry experts were interviewed in the November/December 1994 issue of Fuel Reformulation (Vol. 4, No. 6). With the focus then and now on refinery investments, the panelists were asked to forecast which refining processes would grow in importance. It is apparent from their response, and from other articles and discussions throughout the year, that hydroprocessing and catalytic conversion processes are synergistic in the overall refinery design, with flexibility and process objectives varying on a unit-by-unit case. To an extent, future refinery investments in downstream petrochemicals, such as for paraxylene production, are based on available catalytic reforming feedstock. Just a importantly, hydroprocessing units (hydrotreating, hydrocracking) needed for clean fuel production (gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel), are heavily dependent on hydrogen production from the catalytic reformer. Catalytic reforming`s significant influence in the refinery hydrogen balance, as well as its status as a significant naphtha conversion route to higher-quality fuels, make this unit a high-priority issue for engineers and planners striving for flexibility.

  4. Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S., LLNL

    1997-01-01

    Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CARB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4%, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6%. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CARB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

  5. Areas Participating in the Reformulated Gasoline Program

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Reformulated Gasoline Program Contents * Introduction * Mandated RFG Program Areas o Table 1. Mandated RFG Program Areas * RFG Program Opt-In Areas o Table 2. RFG Program Opt-In Areas * RFG Program Opt-Out Procedures and Areas o Table 3. History of EPA Rulemaking on Opt-Out Procedures o Table 4. RFG Program Opt-Out Areas * State Programs o Table 5. State Reformulated Gasoline Programs * Endnotes Spreadsheets Referenced in this Article * Reformulated Gasoline Control Area Populations Related EIA

  6. U.S. Motor Gasoline Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Formulation Grade: Gasoline, Average Regular Gasoline Midgrade Gasoline Premium Gasoline Conventional, Average Conventional Regular Conventional Midgrade Conventional Premium ...

  7. Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently, 1995

    Reports and Publications

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the costs of producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate.

  8. Reformulated gasoline deal with Venezuela draws heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begley, R.

    1994-04-06

    A fight is brewing in Congress over a deal to let Venezuela off the hook in complying with the Clean Air Act reformulated gasoline rule. When Venezuela threatened to call for a GATT panel to challenge the rule as a trade barrier, the Clinton Administration negotiated to alter the rule, a deal that members of Congress are characterizing as {open_quotes}secret{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}back door.{close_quotes}

  9. DOE Awarded Patent for Reformulated Diesel Fuel | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Awarded Patent for Reformulated Diesel Fuel DOE Awarded Patent for Reformulated Diesel Fuel May 19, 2006 - 10:46am Addthis Available free of Licensing Fees, Cleaner for the Environment WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy today announced that it has developed, patented, and made commercially available reformulated diesel fuels which when used can reduce nitrogen oxides up to 10% and particulate matter up to 22% compared to those currently available. The diesel fuel formulations covered

  10. ,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...www.eia.govdnavpetpetprirefmg2cnusepm0rdpgalm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ... Reformulated Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per ...

  11. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per...

  12. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per...

  13. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  14. Efficient Conservative Reformulation Schemes for Lithium Intercalation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urisanga, PC; Rife, D; De, S; Subramanian, VR

    2015-02-18

    Porous electrode theory coupled with transport and reaction mechanisms is a widely used technique to model Li-ion batteries employing an appropriate discretization or approximation for solid phase diffusion with electrode particles. One of the major difficulties in simulating Li-ion battery models is the need to account for solid phase diffusion in a second radial dimension r, which increases the computation time/cost to a great extent. Various methods that reduce the computational cost have been introduced to treat this phenomenon, but most of them do not guarantee mass conservation. The aim of this paper is to introduce an inherently mass conserving yet computationally efficient method for solid phase diffusion based on Lobatto III A quadrature. This paper also presents coupling of the new solid phase reformulation scheme with a macro-homogeneous porous electrode theory based pseudo 20 model for Li-ion battery. (C) The Author(s) 2015. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  15. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shabtai, Joseph S.; Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W.; Chornet, Esteban

    1999-09-28

    A process for converting lignin into high-quality reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline compositions in high yields is disclosed. The process is a two-stage, catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage, a lignin material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction in the presence of a supercritical alcohol as a reaction medium, to thereby produce a depolymerized lignin product. In the second stage, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to a sequential two-step hydroprocessing reaction to produce a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product. In the first hydroprocessing step, the depolymerized lignin is contacted with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst to produce a hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product. In the second hydroprocessing step, the hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product is contacted with a hydrocracking/ring hydrogenation catalyst to produce the reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product which includes various desirable naphthenic and paraffinic compounds.

  16. DOE Awarded Patent for Reformulated Diesel Fuel | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Awarded Patent for Reformulated Diesel Fuel May 19, 2006 - 10:46am Addthis Available free of Licensing Fees, Cleaner for the Environment WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of...

  17. U.S. Sales for Resale, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    NA NA NA NA NA NA 1983-2016 by Grade Regular NA NA NA NA NA NA 1983-2016 Midgrade NA NA NA NA NA NA 1988-2016 Premium NA NA NA NA NA NA 1983-2016 by Formulation Conventional NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994-2016 Oxygenated - - - - - - 1994-2016 Reformulated NA NA NA NA NA NA

  18. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    61.5 70.8 92.7 90.7 81.5 72.8 - 78.0 See footnotes at end of table. 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 146 Energy Information...

  19. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    62.6 71.7 92.3 89.9 82.6 72.7 - 78.2 See footnotes at end of table. 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 146 Energy Information...

  20. Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Reformulated Motor Gasoline 1995

    Reports and Publications

    1994-01-01

    Provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 designed to reduce ground-level ozone will increase the demand for reformulated motor gasoline in a number of U.S. metropolitan areas. This article discusses the effects of the new regulations on the motor gasoline market and the refining industry.

  1. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-09

    A high-yield process for converting lignin into reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline compositions of high quality is provided. The process is a two-stage catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage of the process, a lignin feed material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction, followed by a selective hydrocracking reaction which utilizes a superacid catalyst to produce a high oxygen-content depolymerized lignin product mainly composed of alkylated phenols, alkylated alkoxyphenols, and alkylbenzenes. In the second stage of the process, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to an exhaustive etherification reaction, optionally followed by a partial ring hydrogenation reaction, to produce a reformulated, partially oxygenated/etherified gasoline product, which includes a mixture of substituted phenyl/methyl ethers, cycloalkyl methyl ethers, C.sub.7 -C.sub.10 alkylbenzenes, C.sub.6 -C.sub.10 branched and multibranched paraffins, and alkylated and polyalkylated cycloalkanes.

  2. Energy and crude oil input requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; McNutt, B.

    1993-10-01

    The energy and crude oil requirements for the production of reformulated gasoline (RFG) are estimated. The scope of the study includes both the energy and crude oil embodied in the final product and the process energy required to manufacture the RFG and its components. The effects on energy and crude oil use of employing various oxygenates to meet the minimum oxygen-content level required by the Clean Air Act Amendments are evaluated. The analysis shows that production of RFG requires more total energy, but uses less crude oil, than that of conventional gasoline. The energy and crude oil use requirements of the different RFGs vary considerably. For the same emissions performance level, RFG with ethanol requires substantially more total energy and crude oil than does RFG with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) or ethyl tertiary butyl ether. A specific proposal by the US Environmental Protection Agency, designed to allow the use of ethanol in RFG, would increase the total energy required to produce RFG by 2% and the total crude oil required by 2.0 to 2.5% over the corresponding values for the base RFG with MTBE.

  3. Energy and crude oil input requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; McNutt, B.

    1993-11-01

    The energy and crude oil requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines (RFG) are estimated. Both the energy and crude oil embodied in the final product and the process energy required to manufacture the RFG and its components are included. The effects on energy and crude oil use of using various oxygenates to meet the minimum oxygen content level required by the Clean Air Act Amendments are evaluated. The analysis illustrates that production of RFG requires more total energy than that of conventional gasoline but uses less crude oil. The energy and crude oil use requirements of the different RFGs vary considerably. For the same emissions performance level, RFG with ethanol requires substantially more total energy and crude oil than RFG with MTBE or ETBE. A specific proposal by the EPA designed to allow the use of ethanol in RFG would increase the total energy required to produce RFG by 2% and the total crude oil required by 2.0 to 2.5% over that for the base RFG with MTBE.

  4. AFN Convention

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Alaska Federation of Natives (AFN) Convention is the largest representative annual gathering in the United States of any Native peoples.

  5. Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3.3 3.4 7.9 3.3 W 11.3 See footnotes at end of table. 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 26 Energy Information Administration ...

  6. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    92.8 92.5 84.0 72.5 W 80.7 See footnotes at end of table. 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 24 Energy Information Administration ...

  7. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    92.4 92.1 83.7 74.1 W 80.9 See footnotes at end of table. 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 24 Energy Information Administration ...

  8. Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3.6 3.7 7.9 3.1 W 11.0 See footnotes at end of table. 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 26 Energy Information Administration ...

  9. A Simply Constrained Optimization Reformulation of KKT Systems Arising from Variational Inequalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Facchinei, F. Fischer, A. Kanzow, C. Peng, J.-M.

    1999-01-15

    The Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions can be regarded as optimality conditions for both variational inequalities and constrained optimization problems. In order to overcome some drawbacks of recently proposed reformulations of KKT systems, we propose casting KKT systems as a minimization problem with nonnegativity constraints on some of the variables. We prove that, under fairly mild assumptions, every stationary point of this constrained minimization problem is a solution of the KKT conditions. Based on this reformulation, a new algorithm for the solution of the KKT conditions is suggested and shown to have some strong global and local convergence properties.

  10. Estimating Impacts of Diesel Fuel Reformulation with Vector-based Blending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2003-01-23

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the refining cost, investment, and operating impacts of specifications for reformulated diesel fuel (RFD) produced in refineries of the U.S. Midwest in summer of year 2010. The study evaluates different diesel fuel reformulation investment pathways. The study also determines whether there are refinery economic benefits for producing an emissions reduction RFD (with flexibility for individual property values) compared to a vehicle performance RFD (with inflexible recipe values for individual properties). Results show that refining costs are lower with early notice of requirements for RFD. While advanced desulfurization technologies (with low hydrogen consumption and little effect on cetane quality and aromatics content) reduce the cost of ultra low sulfur diesel fuel, these technologies contribute to the increased costs of a delayed notice investment pathway compared to an early notice investment pathway for diesel fuel reformulation. With challenging RFD specifications, there is little refining benefit from producing emissions reduction RFD compared to vehicle performance RFD. As specifications become tighter, processing becomes more difficult, blendstock choices become more limited, and refinery benefits vanish for emissions reduction relative to vehicle performance specifications. Conversely, the emissions reduction specifications show increasing refinery benefits over vehicle performance specifications as specifications are relaxed, and alternative processing routes and blendstocks become available. In sensitivity cases, the refinery model is also used to examine the impact of RFD specifications on the economics of using Canadian synthetic crude oil. There is a sizeable increase in synthetic crude demand as ultra low sulfur diesel fuel displaces low sulfur diesel fuel, but this demand increase would be reversed by requirements for diesel fuel reformulation.

  11. The Energy Information Administration`s assessment of reformulated gasoline. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-09-29

    This report is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains EIA`s findings and analyses on reformulated gasoline as it affects the petroleum industry. The data contained herein should assist members of the Congress, Federal, State and local governments, analysts, researchers, the media and academia to understand the RFG program and the current status of implementation. The second volume contains 10 appendices that include letter from Congressman Dingell, survey results, survey forms, and historical summary data. A glossary and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are printed in Volumes 1 and 2.

  12. The Energy Information Administration`s assessment of reformulated gasoline. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-09-28

    This report is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains EIA`s findings and analyses on reformulated gasoline as it affects the petroleum industry. The data contained herein should assist members of the Congress, Federal, State and local governments, analysts, researchers, the media and academia to understand the RFG program and the current status of implementation. This second volume contains 10 appendices that include letter from Congressman Dingell, survey results, survey forms, and historical summary data. A glossary and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are printed in Volumes 1 and 2.

  13. Texas Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    39,977.9 38,993.1 39,188.5 41,338.7 39,942.4 40,099.1 1983-2016 Regular 35,439.2 34,409.8 34,586.6 36,668.8 35,259.4 35,451.4 1983-2016 Conventional Regular 21,009.3 19,922.2 19,754.9 21,395.2 20,386.7 20,690.7 1993-2016 Oxygenated Regular - - - - - - 1993-2016 Reformulated Regular 14,429.9 14,487.6 14,831.7 15,273.6 14,872.7 14,760.7 1993-2016 Midgrade 557.6 562.3 569.5 569.0 585.6 573.9 1988-2016 Conventional Midgrade 247.1 253.6 257.4 258.7 269.4 260.4 1993-2016 Oxygenated Midgrade - - - - -

  14. 2014 Annual AFN Convention

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The AFN Convention is the largest representative annual gathering in the United States of any Native peoples. In addition to the memorable keynote speeches, the expert panels and special reports, the Convention features several evenings of cultural performances known as Quyana Alaska.

  15. Fuel cycle evaluations of biomass-ethanol and reformulated gasoline. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyson, K.S.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is using the total fuel cycle analysis (TFCA) methodology to evaluate energy choices. The National Energy Strategy (NES) identifies TFCA as a tool to describe and quantify the environmental, social, and economic costs and benefits associated with energy alternatives. A TFCA should quantify inputs and outputs, their impacts on society, and the value of those impacts that occur from each activity involved in producing and using fuels, cradle-to-grave. New fuels and energy technologies can be consistently evaluated and compared using TFCA, providing a sound basis for ranking policy options that expand the fuel choices available to consumers. This study is limited to creating an inventory of inputs and outputs for three transportation fuels: (1) reformulated gasoline (RFG) that meets the standards of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) using methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE); (2) gasohol (E10), a mixture of 10% ethanol made from municipal solid waste (MSW) and 90% gasoline; and (3) E95, a mixture of 5% gasoline and 95% ethanol made from energy crops such as grasses and trees. The ethanol referred to in this study is produced from lignocellulosic material-trees, grass, and organic wastes -- called biomass. The biomass is converted to ethanol using an experimental technology described in more detail later. Corn-ethanol is not discussed in this report. This study is limited to estimating an inventory of inputs and outputs for each fuel cycle, similar to a mass balance study, for several reasons: (1) to manage the size of the project; (2) to provide the data required for others to conduct site-specific impact analysis on a case-by-case basis; (3) to reduce data requirements associated with projecting future environmental baselines and other variables that require an internally consistent scenario.

  16. Defining the politics changing markets of fuel reformulation: A perspective from Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, F.L. )

    1994-01-01

    On the specific issue of RFG and US motor fuel policy, 1993 NPRA Annual meeting keynote speaker Daniel Yergin said it best, once the refining industry proved it could compete on an environmental basis with alternative fuels through the introduction of ARCO's EC-1, the challenge of economic competitiveness once again became the burden of proof for the alternative fuels industry. This economic need for turning the wheels of public policy change, along with the new tax revenue requirements to fulfill the president's campaign promises, created the policy foundation for President Clinton's original Btu tax proposal. Through the leadership of the NPRA and the chief executive officers of the major oil companies, the petroleum industry turned back the Btu tax. This was accomplished by emphasizing the importance of jobs and cost-effective public policy. The increase in the Btu tax proposal was eventually replaced by a modest increase in the gasoline excise tax. The see-saw battle of economic versus environmental-benefit claims continues in Washington today. No case study is as insightful as the battle over RFG and EPA's newly proposed renewable oxygenate standard (ROS). EPA's proposed ROS offers US petroleum refiners certain benefits not now well understood. The paper discusses the US public policy and economics of the petroleum industry; possible benefits to US refiners from EPA's ROS; public policy formation and campaign contributions; American agriculture and the politics of productivity; how US petroleum refiners can seize public policy initiative; and the choice of foreign methanol and MTBE or ROS and US hydrocarbons. Appendices contain three articles from recent journals, two related to reformulated gasoline and the third about ethanol processing and the federal budget impact.

  17. Impact of California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline on atmospheric reactivity of exhaust and evaporative emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirchstetter, T.W.; Singer, B.C.; Harley, R.A.; Kendall, G.R.; Traverse, M.

    1997-12-31

    Phase 2 of California`s reformulated gasoline (RFG) program took effect statewide in the first half of 1996. Changes to gasoline composition required by Phase 2 specifications included: lower vapor pressure; lower olefin, aromatic, benzene, and sulfur content; lower T50 and T90; and a minimum oxygen content. In this paper, impacts of Phase 2 RFG on the atmospheric reactivity of motor vehicle exhaust and evaporative emissions are described. Volatile organic compounds in motor vehicle exhaust were measured at the Caldecott tunnel in summer 1995 and 1996. Aggregate emissions of greater than 8000 vehicles were measured each day. Regular and premium grade gasoline samples were collected from service stations in Berkeley concurrently with tunnel measurements both summers. Liquid gasoline samples and their headspace vapors were analyzed to determine detailed chemical composition. Normalized reactivity was calculated for exhaust and evaporative emissions by applying maximum incremental reactivity values to the detailed speciation profiles. Results indicate that the composition of gasoline in 1996 differed markedly from that of 1995. Changes in liquid gasoline composition led to corresponding changes in the speciation of vehicle exhaust and of gasoline headspace vapors. Benzene concentration in liquid gasoline decreased from 2.0 to 0.6 wt%, which contributed to a 70 and 37% reduction in benzene weight fraction in headspace vapors and vehicle exhaust, respectively. Addition of MTBE and reduction of olefins and aromatics in gasoline led to significant reductions in the atmospheric reactivity of unburned gasoline and gasoline headspace vapors. The normalized reactivity of liquid gasoline and headspace vapors decreased by 23 and 19%, respectively, between 1995 and 1996. The normalized reactivity of non-methane organic compounds in vehicle exhaust decreased by about 8%, but the uncertainty in this change was large.

  18. NCAI Annual Convention

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) is hosting their annual convention featuring networking events, breakout sessions on resiliency and workforce development, and guest speakers. Pre-registration ends September 18.

  19. Efficient simulation and model reformulation of two-dimensional electrochemical thermal behavior of lithium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Northrop, Paul W. C.; Pathak, Manan; Rife, Derek; De, Sumitava; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2015-03-09

    Lithium-ion batteries are an important technology to facilitate efficient energy storage and enable a shift from petroleum based energy to more environmentally benign sources. Such systems can be utilized most efficiently if good understanding of performance can be achieved for a range of operating conditions. Mathematical models can be useful to predict battery behavior to allow for optimization of design and control. An analytical solution is ideally preferred to solve the equations of a mathematical model, as it eliminates the error that arises when using numerical techniques and is usually computationally cheap. An analytical solution provides insight into the behaviormore » of the system and also explicitly shows the effects of different parameters on the behavior. However, most engineering models, including the majority of battery models, cannot be solved analytically due to non-linearities in the equations and state dependent transport and kinetic parameters. The numerical method used to solve the system of equations describing a battery operation can have a significant impact on the computational cost of the simulation. In this paper, a model reformulation of the porous electrode pseudo three dimensional (P3D) which significantly reduces the computational cost of lithium ion battery simulation, while maintaining high accuracy, is discussed. This reformulation enables the use of the P3D model into applications that would otherwise be too computationally expensive to justify its use, such as online control, optimization, and parameter estimation. Furthermore, the P3D model has proven to be robust enough to allow for the inclusion of additional physical phenomena as understanding improves. In this study, the reformulated model is used to allow for more complicated physical phenomena to be considered for study, including thermal effects.« less

  20. Efficient simulation and model reformulation of two-dimensional electrochemical thermal behavior of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Northrop, Paul W. C.; Pathak, Manan; Rife, Derek; De, Sumitava; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2015-03-09

    Lithium-ion batteries are an important technology to facilitate efficient energy storage and enable a shift from petroleum based energy to more environmentally benign sources. Such systems can be utilized most efficiently if good understanding of performance can be achieved for a range of operating conditions. Mathematical models can be useful to predict battery behavior to allow for optimization of design and control. An analytical solution is ideally preferred to solve the equations of a mathematical model, as it eliminates the error that arises when using numerical techniques and is usually computationally cheap. An analytical solution provides insight into the behavior of the system and also explicitly shows the effects of different parameters on the behavior. However, most engineering models, including the majority of battery models, cannot be solved analytically due to non-linearities in the equations and state dependent transport and kinetic parameters. The numerical method used to solve the system of equations describing a battery operation can have a significant impact on the computational cost of the simulation. In this paper, a model reformulation of the porous electrode pseudo three dimensional (P3D) which significantly reduces the computational cost of lithium ion battery simulation, while maintaining high accuracy, is discussed. This reformulation enables the use of the P3D model into applications that would otherwise be too computationally expensive to justify its use, such as online control, optimization, and parameter estimation. Furthermore, the P3D model has proven to be robust enough to allow for the inclusion of additional physical phenomena as understanding improves. In this study, the reformulated model is used to allow for more complicated physical phenomena to be considered for study, including thermal effects.

  1. Conventional Hydropower Technologies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the DOE Water Power Program's conventional hydropower research and development efforts.

  2. Reformulation of Density Functional Theory for N-Representable Densities and the Resolution of the v-Representability Problem

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Gonis, A.; Zhang, X. G.; Stocks, G. M.; Nicholson, D. M.

    2015-10-23

    Density functional theory for the case of general, N-representable densities is reformulated in terms of density functional derivatives of expectation values of operators evaluated with wave functions leading to a density, making no reference to the concept of potential. The developments provide a complete solution of the v-representability problem by establishing a mathematical procedure that determines whether a density is v-representable and in the case of an affirmative answer determines the potential (within an additive constant) as a derivative with respect to the density of a constrained search functional. It also establishes the existence of an energy functional of themore » density that, for v-representable densities, assumes its minimum value at the density describing the ground state of an interacting many-particle system. The theorems of Hohenberg and Kohn emerge as special cases of the formalism.« less

  3. Reformulation of Density Functional Theory for N-Representable Densities and the Resolution of the v-Representability Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonis, A.; Zhang, X. G.; Stocks, G. M.; Nicholson, D. M.

    2015-10-23

    Density functional theory for the case of general, N-representable densities is reformulated in terms of density functional derivatives of expectation values of operators evaluated with wave functions leading to a density, making no reference to the concept of potential. The developments provide a complete solution of the v-representability problem by establishing a mathematical procedure that determines whether a density is v-representable and in the case of an affirmative answer determines the potential (within an additive constant) as a derivative with respect to the density of a constrained search functional. It also establishes the existence of an energy functional of the density that, for v-representable densities, assumes its minimum value at the density describing the ground state of an interacting many-particle system. The theorems of Hohenberg and Kohn emerge as special cases of the formalism.

  4. Conventional magnetic superconductors

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Wolowiec, C. T.; White, B. D.; Maple, M. B.

    2015-07-01

    We discuss several classes of conventional magnetic superconductors including the ternary rhodium borides and molybdenum chalcogenides (or Chevrel phases), and the quaternary nickel-borocarbides. These materials exhibit some exotic phenomena related to the interplay between superconductivity and long-range magnetic order including: the coexistence of superconductivity and antiferromagnetic order; reentrant and double reentrant superconductivity, magnetic field induced superconductivity, and the formation of a sinusoidally-modulated magnetic state that coexists with superconductivity. We introduce the article with a discussion of the binary and pseudobinary superconducting materials containing magnetic impurities which at best exhibit short-range “glassy” magnetic order. Early experiments on these materials led tomore » the idea of a magnetic exchange interaction between the localized spins of magnetic impurity ions and the spins of the conduction electrons which plays an important role in understanding conventional magnetic superconductors. Furthermore, these advances provide a natural foundation for investigating unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds, cuprates, and other classes of materials in which superconductivity coexists with, or is in proximity to, a magnetically-ordered phase.« less

  5. Conventional magnetic superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolowiec, C. T.; White, B. D.; Maple, M. B.

    2015-07-01

    We discuss several classes of conventional magnetic superconductors including the ternary rhodium borides and molybdenum chalcogenides (or Chevrel phases), and the quaternary nickel-borocarbides. These materials exhibit some exotic phenomena related to the interplay between superconductivity and long-range magnetic order including: the coexistence of superconductivity and antiferromagnetic order; reentrant and double reentrant superconductivity, magnetic field induced superconductivity, and the formation of a sinusoidally-modulated magnetic state that coexists with superconductivity. We introduce the article with a discussion of the binary and pseudobinary superconducting materials containing magnetic impurities which at best exhibit short-range “glassy” magnetic order. Early experiments on these materials led to the idea of a magnetic exchange interaction between the localized spins of magnetic impurity ions and the spins of the conduction electrons which plays an important role in understanding conventional magnetic superconductors. Furthermore, these advances provide a natural foundation for investigating unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds, cuprates, and other classes of materials in which superconductivity coexists with, or is in proximity to, a magnetically-ordered phase.

  6. U.S. Proved Nonproducing Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    366,846.1 370,840.6 373,972.4 389,669.5 385,165.4 387,495.0 1983-2016 Regular 318,353.6 321,434.3 323,243.7 336,744.5 332,122.8 333,780.5 1983-2016 Conventional Regular 213,491.5 215,411.2 217,131.1 226,384.8 223,560.8 224,204.1 1993-2016 Oxygenated Regular - - - - - - 1993-2016 Reformulated Regular 104,862.2 106,023.1 106,112.6 110,359.6 108,562.0 109,576.4 1993-2016 Midgrade 6,842.0 7,005.2 7,157.2 7,501.2 7,572.1 7,477.3 1988-2016 Conventional Midgrade 4,220.5 4,325.3 4,405.4 4,640.1 4,692.3

  7. NCAI Annual Convention and Marketplace

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) is hosting their annual convention featuring networking events, breakout sessions on resiliency and workforce development, and guest speakers. Pre...

  8. Conventional Hydropower Technologies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    The US Department of Energy conducts research on conventional hydropower technologies to increase generation and improve existing means of generating hydroelectricity.

  9. Tanana Chiefs Conference Annual Convention

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Tanana Chiefs Conference is hosting its annual convention's theme is "Our Communities, Our Future" and will feature keynote speaker Chief Floyd Green of Rampart.

  10. Tanana Chiefs Conference Annual Convention

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Tanana Chiefs Conference is holding its annual convention to discuss issues in the region, hold elections, and adopt resolutions presented by Tribes.

  11. untitled

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Commodity Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene Reformulated Conventional Total Reformulated Conventional Total PAD District 1 ......

  12. Stocks of Reformulated Gasoline

    Annual Energy Outlook

    40 33 35 42 37 35 1993-2015 PADD 1 25 19 19 23 23 18 1993-2015 PADD 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993-2015 PADD 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993-2015 PADD 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993-2015 PADD 5 15 14 16 19 14 17 1993...

  13. ITCN 49th Annual Convention

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Inc. will be hosting its 49th Annual Convention, themed "Making a Difference for Nevada Tribes," December 8-11, 2014 at John Ascuaga’s Nugget in Sparks, Nevada.

  14. Sandia Energy - Conventional Water Power: Technology Development

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Development Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Water Power Conventional Water Power: Technology Development Conventional Water Power: Technology...

  15. Conventional Energy Forum & Associated Vertical Business Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Conventional Energy Forum & Associated Vertical Business Development: Best Practices in Indian Country Conventional Energy Forum & Associated Vertical Business Development: Best ...

  16. Conventional Vehicles | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Heating » Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:39pm Addthis Illustration showing the components of a storage water heater. On top of the tank are two thin pipes; one pipe is the hot water outlet, and the other is the cold water inlet. A large pipe in the middle is called a vent pipe. A pressure/temperature relief valve is also on top of the tank and is connected to an open pipe that runs down the side of the tank. Another

  17. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Geographic area month Regular Midgrade Conven onal Reformulated Total Conven onal ... 1,123.8 2,746.7 July 2015 66,070.0 42,451.8 108,521.7 1,626.4 1,181.7 2,808.2 ...

  18. Sandia Energy - Conventional Water Power: Market Acceleration

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Market Acceleration Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Water Power Conventional Water Power: Market Acceleration Conventional Water Power: Market AccelerationTara...

  19. Further improvement of conventional diesel NOx aftertreatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Further improvement of conventional diesel NOx aftertreatment concepts as pathway for SULEV Further improvement of conventional diesel NOx aftertreatment concepts as pathway for ...

  20. GyroSolé’ Harmonic Engine

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    152 2.153 2.165 2.153 2.127 2.087 1993-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.170 2.173 2.166 2.148 2.127 2.087 1994-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.090 2.088 2.161 2.170 2.125 2.088 1994-2016 Regular 2.038 2.043 2.056 2.042 2.015 1.975 1992-2016 Conventional Areas 2.057 2.063 2.057 2.038 2.015 1.975 1992-2016 Reformulated Areas 1.974 1.977 2.052 2.059 2.015 1.976 1994-2016 Midgrade 2.297 2.293 2.302 2.297 2.271 2.230 1994-2016 Conventional Areas 2.313 2.308 2.300 2.285 2.268 2.226

  1. Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    95 2.402 2.413 2.410 2.473 2.458 1993-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.453 2.457 2.482 2.489 2.506 2.488 1994-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.359 2.368 2.371 2.361 2.453 2.439 1994-2016 Regular 2.256 2.263 2.274 2.271 2.335 2.321 1993-2016 Conventional Areas 2.332 2.335 2.361 2.368 2.387 2.365 1993-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.208 2.217 2.219 2.209 2.302 2.293 1994-2016 Midgrade 2.540 2.547 2.556 2.553 2.609 2.596 1994-2016 Conventional Areas 2.559 2.563 2.590 2.597 2.606 2.598

  2. East Coast (PADD 1) Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    72 2.380 2.374 2.361 2.384 2.362 1993-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.385 2.395 2.385 2.370 2.373 2.349 1994-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.349 2.354 2.356 2.347 2.403 2.385 1994-2016 Regular 2.229 2.237 2.232 2.219 2.240 2.217 1992-2016 Conventional Areas 2.241 2.251 2.243 2.227 2.228 2.201 1992-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.211 2.215 2.215 2.207 2.261 2.243 1994-2016 Midgrade 2.509 2.516 2.506 2.495 2.517 2.497 1994-2016 Conventional Areas 2.510 2.518 2.500 2.488 2.494 2.473

  3. Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    152 2.153 2.165 2.153 2.127 2.087 1993-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.170 2.173 2.166 2.148 2.127 2.087 1994-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.090 2.088 2.161 2.170 2.125 2.088 1994-2016 Regular 2.038 2.043 2.056 2.042 2.015 1.975 1992-2016 Conventional Areas 2.057 2.063 2.057 2.038 2.015 1.975 1992-2016 Reformulated Areas 1.974 1.977 2.052 2.059 2.015 1.976 1994-2016 Midgrade 2.297 2.293 2.302 2.297 2.271 2.230 1994-2016 Conventional Areas 2.313 2.308 2.300 2.285 2.268 2.226

  4. Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    60 2.371 2.350 2.327 2.324 2.298 1993-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.365 2.377 2.355 2.331 2.330 2.304 1994-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.310 2.310 2.296 2.277 2.260 2.238 1994-2016 Regular 2.204 2.216 2.196 2.172 2.165 2.138 1993-2016 Conventional Areas 2.210 2.223 2.203 2.178 2.172 2.144 1993-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.141 2.140 2.124 2.106 2.088 2.063 1994-2016 Midgrade 2.497 2.505 2.478 2.460 2.464 2.439 1994-2016 Conventional Areas 2.498 2.506 2.478 2.460 2.465 2.440

  5. Midwest (PADD 2) Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    13 2.247 2.198 2.166 2.174 2.087 1993-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.295 2.232 2.176 2.154 2.163 2.078 1994-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.432 2.342 2.335 2.239 2.248 2.143 1994-2016 Regular 2.221 2.155 2.107 2.075 2.082 1.994 1992-2016 Conventional Areas 2.205 2.143 2.089 2.067 2.074 1.988 1992-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.325 2.235 2.227 2.130 2.137 2.030 1994-2016 Midgrade 2.479 2.409 2.360 2.327 2.339 2.252 1994-2016 Conventional Areas 2.456 2.390 2.333 2.310 2.321 2.236

  6. New England (PADD 1A) Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    49 2.349 2.353 2.353 2.361 2.336 1993-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.372 2.377 2.374 2.384 2.400 2.379 1994-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.343 2.342 2.347 2.345 2.352 2.325 1994-2016 Regular 2.249 2.247 2.248 2.248 2.255 2.225 1993-2016 Conventional Areas 2.276 2.280 2.277 2.290 2.303 2.279 1993-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.242 2.238 2.241 2.237 2.243 2.211 1994-2016 Midgrade 2.479 2.485 2.495 2.495 2.503 2.490 1994-2016 Conventional Areas 2.510 2.527 2.517 2.521 2.531 2.523

  7. New York Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    430 2.435 2.464 2.466 2.496 2.473 2000-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.386 2.391 2.415 2.422 2.455 2.420 2000-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.467 2.474 2.506 2.503 2.531 2.518 2000-2016 Regular 2.297 2.302 2.332 2.334 2.365 2.338 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.276 2.279 2.303 2.310 2.347 2.304 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.317 2.324 2.359 2.356 2.382 2.369 2000-2016 Midgrade 2.572 2.581 2.607 2.606 2.633 2.621 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.499 2.507 2.536 2.543 2.559 2.546

  8. PADD 5 Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    740 2.744 2.745 2.763 2.753 2.712 1993-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.594 2.599 2.618 2.623 2.619 2.598 1995-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.799 2.804 2.797 2.820 2.808 2.758 1995-2016 Regular 2.675 2.679 2.680 2.697 2.686 2.645 1992-2016 Conventional Areas 2.529 2.534 2.552 2.557 2.553 2.531 1992-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.738 2.742 2.735 2.758 2.745 2.695 1994-2016 Midgrade 2.853 2.857 2.857 2.878 2.867 2.827 1994-2016 Conventional Areas 2.737 2.740 2.762 2.765 2.761 2.742

  9. Texas Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    117 2.119 2.153 2.146 2.110 2.072 2000-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.136 2.140 2.148 2.131 2.099 2.062 2000-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.090 2.088 2.161 2.170 2.125 2.088 2000-2016 Regular 2.010 2.015 2.050 2.043 2.006 1.969 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.034 2.040 2.050 2.032 2.000 1.964 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 1.974 1.977 2.052 2.059 2.015 1.976 2000-2016 Midgrade 2.277 2.277 2.307 2.311 2.269 2.227 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.300 2.299 2.304 2.292 2.262 2.216

  10. U.S. Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    81 2.367 2.353 2.341 2.345 2.298 1993-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.327 2.309 2.286 2.270 2.270 2.220 1994-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.491 2.484 2.490 2.484 2.499 2.458 1994-2016 Regular 2.272 2.257 2.243 2.230 2.233 2.184 1990-2016 Conventional Areas 2.216 2.198 2.175 2.159 2.157 2.105 1990-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.389 2.381 2.386 2.379 2.392 2.349 1994-2016 Midgrade 2.529 2.516 2.502 2.493 2.498 2.455 1994-2016 Conventional Areas 2.469 2.452 2.429 2.415 2.416 2.370

  11. West Coast less California Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    528 2.529 2.545 2.546 2.544 2.525 1998-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.594 2.599 2.618 2.623 2.619 2.598 2000-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.210 2.199 2.198 2.182 2.187 2.179 1998-2016 Regular 2.459 2.461 2.476 2.478 2.475 2.456 1998-2016 Conventional Areas 2.529 2.534 2.552 2.557 2.553 2.531 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.121 2.109 2.109 2.093 2.098 2.090 1998-2016 Midgrade 2.668 2.668 2.686 2.686 2.683 2.666 1998-2016 Conventional Areas 2.737 2.740 2.762 2.765 2.761 2.742

  12. Migratory Birds

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    13 2.247 2.198 2.166 2.174 2.087 1993-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.295 2.232 2.176 2.154 2.163 2.078 1994-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.432 2.342 2.335 2.239 2.248 2.143 1994-2016 Regular 2.221 2.155 2.107 2.075 2.082 1.994 1992-2016 Conventional Areas 2.205 2.143 2.089 2.067 2.074 1.988 1992-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.325 2.235 2.227 2.130 2.137 2.030 1994-2016 Midgrade 2.479 2.409 2.360 2.327 2.339 2.252 1994-2016 Conventional Areas 2.456 2.390 2.333 2.310 2.321 2.236

  13. West Point cadet, one of a kind summer intern | Y-12 National Security

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    528 2.529 2.545 2.546 2.544 2.525 1998-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.594 2.599 2.618 2.623 2.619 2.598 2000-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.210 2.199 2.198 2.182 2.187 2.179 1998-2016 Regular 2.459 2.461 2.476 2.478 2.475 2.456 1998-2016 Conventional Areas 2.529 2.534 2.552 2.557 2.553 2.531 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.121 2.109 2.109 2.093 2.098 2.090 1998-2016 Midgrade 2.668 2.668 2.686 2.686 2.683 2.666 1998-2016 Conventional Areas 2.737 2.740 2.762 2.765 2.761 2.742

  14. Central Plateau - Hanford Site

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    95 2.402 2.413 2.410 2.473 2.458 1993-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.453 2.457 2.482 2.489 2.506 2.488 1994-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.359 2.368 2.371 2.361 2.453 2.439 1994-2016 Regular 2.256 2.263 2.274 2.271 2.335 2.321 1993-2016 Conventional Areas 2.332 2.335 2.361 2.368 2.387 2.365 1993-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.208 2.217 2.219 2.209 2.302 2.293 1994-2016 Midgrade 2.540 2.547 2.556 2.553 2.609 2.596 1994-2016 Conventional Areas 2.559 2.563 2.590 2.597 2.606 2.598

  15. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    72 2.380 2.374 2.361 2.384 2.362 1993-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.385 2.395 2.385 2.370 2.373 2.349 1994-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.349 2.354 2.356 2.347 2.403 2.385 1994-2016 Regular 2.229 2.237 2.232 2.219 2.240 2.217 1992-2016 Conventional Areas 2.241 2.251 2.243 2.227 2.228 2.201 1992-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.211 2.215 2.215 2.207 2.261 2.243 1994-2016 Midgrade 2.509 2.516 2.506 2.495 2.517 2.497 1994-2016 Conventional Areas 2.510 2.518 2.500 2.488 2.494 2.473

  16. U.S. States - Maps - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    81 2.367 2.353 2.341 2.345 2.298 1993-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.327 2.309 2.286 2.270 2.270 2.220 1994-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.491 2.484 2.490 2.484 2.499 2.458 1994-2016 Regular 2.272 2.257 2.243 2.230 2.233 2.184 1990-2016 Conventional Areas 2.216 2.198 2.175 2.159 2.157 2.105 1990-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.389 2.381 2.386 2.379 2.392 2.349 1994-2016 Midgrade 2.529 2.516 2.502 2.493 2.498 2.455 1994-2016 Conventional Areas 2.469 2.452 2.429 2.415 2.416 2.370

  17. EcoTalks | Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Environmental Outreach Program

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    72 2.380 2.374 2.361 2.384 2.362 1993-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.385 2.395 2.385 2.370 2.373 2.349 1994-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.349 2.354 2.356 2.347 2.403 2.385 1994-2016 Regular 2.229 2.237 2.232 2.219 2.240 2.217 1992-2016 Conventional Areas 2.241 2.251 2.243 2.227 2.228 2.201 1992-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.211 2.215 2.215 2.207 2.261 2.243 1994-2016 Midgrade 2.509 2.516 2.506 2.495 2.517 2.497 1994-2016 Conventional Areas 2.510 2.518 2.500 2.488 2.494 2.473

  18. Conventional power sources for colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, M.A.

    1987-07-01

    At SLAC we are developing high peak-power klystrons to explore the limits of use of conventional power sources in future linear colliders. In an experimental tube we have achieved 150 MW at 1 ..mu..sec pulse width at 2856 MHz. In production tubes for SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) we routinely achieve 67 MW at 3.5 ..mu..sec pulse width and 180 pps. Over 200 of the klystrons are in routine operation in SLC. An experimental klystron at 8.568 GHz is presently under construction with a design objective of 30 MW at 1 ..mu..sec. A program is starting on the relativistic klystron whose performance will be analyzed in the exploration of the limits of klystrons at very short pulse widths.

  19. U.S. Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Gasoline - All Grades 2.835 3.576 3.680 3.575 3.437 2.520 1993-2015 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.793 3.528 3.610 3.511 3.376 2.423 1994-2015 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.921 3.675 3.822 3.707 3.559 2.718 1994-2015 Regular 2.782 3.521 3.618 3.505 3.358 2.429 1990-2015 Conventional Areas 2.742 3.476 3.552 3.443 3.299 2.334 1990-2015 Reformulated Areas 2.864 3.616 3.757 3.635 3.481 2.629 1994-2015 Midgrade 2.902 3.644 3.756 3.663 3.539 2.645

  20. U.S. Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 Sep-16 Oct-16 View History Gasoline - All Grades 2.371 2.467 2.345 2.284 2.327 2.359 1993-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.303 2.405 2.263 2.226 2.270 2.297 1994-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.509 2.593 2.512 2.402 2.442 2.485 1994-2016 Regular 2.268 2.366 2.239 2.178 2.219 2.249 1990-2016 Conventional Areas 2.199 2.303 2.157 2.119 2.161 2.186 1990-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.413 2.497 2.411 2.300 2.339 2.382 1994-2016 Midgrade 2.510 2.603 2.488 2.427

  1. Optimal Charging Profiles with Minimal Intercalation-Induced Stresses for Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Reformulated Pseudo 2-Dimensional Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suthar, B; Northrop, PWC; Braatz, RD; Subramanian, VR

    2014-07-30

    This paper illustrates the application of dynamic optimization in obtaining the optimal current profile for charging a lithium-ion battery by restricting the intercalation-induced stresses to a pre-determined limit estimated using a pseudo 2-dimensional (P2D). model. This paper focuses on the problem of maximizing the charge stored in a given time while restricting capacity fade due to intercalation-induced stresses. Conventional charging profiles for lithium-ion batteries (e.g., constant current followed by constant voltage or CC-CV) are not derived by considering capacity fade mechanisms, which are not only inefficient in terms of life-time usage of the batteries but are also slower by not taking into account the changing dynamics of the system. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives 4.0 License (CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is not changed in any way and is properly cited. For permission for commercial reuse, please email: oa@electrochem.org. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficient Reformulation of Solid Phase Diffusion in Electrochemical-Mechanical Coupled Models for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Effect of Intercalation Induced Stresses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De, S; Suthar, B; Rife, D; Sikha, G; Subramanian, VR

    2013-07-23

    Lithium-ion batteries are typically modeled using porous electrode theory coupled with various transport and reaction mechanisms with an appropriate discretization or approximation for the solid phase diffusion within the electrode particle. One of the major difficulties in simulating Li-ion battery models is the need for simulating solid-phase diffusion in the second radial dimension r within the particle. It increases the complexity of the model as well as the computation time/cost to a great extent. This is Particularly true for the inclusion of pressure induced diffusion inside particles experiencing volume change. A computationally efficient representation for solid-phase diffusion is discussed in this paper. The operating condition has a significant effect on the validity, accuracy, and efficiency of various approximations for the solid-phase transport governed by pressure induced diffusion. This paper introduces efficient methods for solid phase reformulation - (1) parabolic profile approach and (2) a mixed order finite difference method for approximating/representing solid-phase concentration variations within the active materials of porous electrodes for macroscopic models for lithium-ion batteries. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Considerations When Comparing LED and Conventional Lighting ...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    When comparing LED lighting performance to conventional lighting, buyers will want to consider energy efficiency, operating life and lumen depreciation, light outputdistribution, ...

  4. Commercial Photovoltaic Application- California Convention Center

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In this b-roll, several photovoltaic arrays turn a California convention center rooftop and parking structure into a source of clean energy.

  5. Japanese Ratify Convention on Supplementary Compensation for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    The United States Ratifies The Convention On Supplementary Compensation United States and France Sign Joint Statement on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage A Statement from U.S. ...

  6. Joint Convention | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Joint Convention U.S. Leads Fifth International Review Meeting on the Safety of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste Management at the IAEA VIENNA, AUSTRIA - Today, representatives...

  7. Alaska Federation of Natives Annual Convention

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Alaska Federation of Natives (AFN) Convention is the largest representative annual gathering in the United States of any Native peoples.

  8. High-temperature superconductivity: A conventional conundrum...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: High-temperature superconductivity: A conventional conundrum Citation ... OSTI Identifier: 1245373 Report Number(s): BNL--111729-2016-JA Journal ID: ISSN 1745-2473; ...

  9. ATNI Mid-Year Convention 2016

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Affiliated Tribes of Northwest Indians (ATNI) is hosting its mid-year convention. The three-day conference is hosted by the Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde.

  10. EM Contributes to Joint Convention Meeting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    EM officials recently participated in the Fifth Review Meeting of the Parties to the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (Joint Convention) at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) headquarters.

  11. Atlantic City Convention Center Solar Power Plant | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Convention Center Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Atlantic City Convention Center Solar Power Plant Facility Atlantic City Convention Center Sector Solar...

  12. Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    1995 Introduction On August 27, 1997, the EPA promulgated revised the rules that allow ... Notice Citation (1) Date Final Rule by EPA allows foreign refiners to establish ...

  13. Reformulated diesel fuel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McAdams, Hiramie T [Carrollton, IL; Crawford, Robert W [Tucson, AZ; Hadder, Gerald R [Oak Ridge, TN; McNutt, Barry D [Arlington, VA

    2006-08-22

    A method for mathematically identifying at least one diesel fuel suitable for combustion in an automotive diesel engine with significantly reduced emissions and producible from known petroleum blendstocks using known refining processes, including the use of cetane additives (ignition improvers) and oxygenated compounds.

  14. Solar on Salt Lake City Convention Center

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This photograph features the Calvin L. Rampton Salt Palace Convention Center, which will soon become a solar power-producing giant. Salt Lake County and its project partners announced plans to...

  15. High-temperature superconductivity: A conventional conundrum

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Božović, Ivan

    2016-01-07

    High-temperature superconductivity in ultrathin films of iron selenide deposited on strontium titanate has been attributed to various exotic mechanisms, and new experiments indicate that it may be conventional, with broader implications.

  16. Indian Gaming 2012 Tradeshow and Convention

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Indian Gaming Association (NIGA) 2012 tradeshow and convention will take place April 1-4, 2012, in San Diego, California. The event features seminars and trainings and other activities...

  17. Photovoltaic System on Orange County Convention Center

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The solar photovoltaic (PV) rooftop system on the Orange County Convention Center in Orlando, Florida, was completed in 2009 over the south concourse. This project is a U.S. Department of Energy...

  18. Nanoporous films: Beyond conventional to the conformal

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Stavila, Vitalie

    2015-12-01

    Here, thin and continuous films of porous metal-organic frameworks can now be conformally deposited on various substrates using a vapor-phase synthesis approach that departs from conventional solution-based routes.

  19. Nanoporous films: From conventional to the conformal

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Stavila, Vitalie

    2015-12-14

    Here, thin and continuous films of porous metal-organic frameworks can now be conformally deposited on various substrates using a vapor-phase synthesis approach that departs from conventional solution-based routes.

  20. Alternatives to conventional diesel fuel-some potential implications of California's TAC decision on diesel particulate.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberhardt, J. J.; Rote, D. M.; Saricks, C. L.; Stodolsky, F.

    1999-08-10

    Limitations on the use of petroleum-based diesel fuel in California could occur pursuant to the 1998 declaration by California's Air Resources Board (CARB) that the particulate matter component of diesel exhaust is a carcinogen, therefore a toxic air contaminant (TAC) subject to provisions of the state's Proposition 65. It is the declared intention of CARB not to ban or restrict diesel fuel, per se, at this time. Assuming no total ban, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) explored two feasible ''mid-course'' strategies. (1) Increased penetration of natural gas and greater gasoline use in the transportation fuels market, to the extent that some compression-ignition (CI) applications revert to spark-ignition (SI) engines. (2) New specifications requiring diesel fuel reformulation based on exhaust products of individual diesel fuel constituents. Each of these alternatives results in some degree of (conventional) diesel displacement. In the first case, diesel fuel is assumed admissible for ignition assistance as a pilot fuel in natural gas (NG)-powered heavy-duty vehicles, and gasoline demand in California increases by 32.2 million liters per day overall, about 21 percent above projected 2010 baseline demand. Natural gas demand increases by 13.6 million diesel liter equivalents per day, about 7 percent above projected (total) consumption level. In the second case, compression-ignition engines utilize substitutes for petroleum-based diesel having similar ignition and performance properties. For each case we estimated localized air emission plus generalized greenhouse gas and energy changes. Economic implications of vehicle and engine replacement were not evaluated.

  1. The chemical weapons conventional legal issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1997-12-31

    Because the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) contains the best developed verification regime in multilaterial arms control history, some have raised concerns for the chemical industry that have legal implications. Chief among these are safeguarding confidential business information and protecting constitutional rights during inspections. This discussion will show how the CWC and proposed national implementing legislation work together to allay these concerns. Both concerns are legitimate. Confidential business information could be lost to a national government or the CWC governing body accidentially or purposely. The CWC regime of routine and challenge inspections are searches under the constitution and could, if abused, potentially conflict with recognized commercial privacy interests. Neither concern justifies opposition to the convention, but both need to be addressed in national implementing legislation. Proposed US legislation goes far in this direction, but can be improved.

  2. Westin Convention Center Hotel, Pittsburgh, PA

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Materials for Harsh Service Conditions Workshop, November 19 - 20, 2015 Westin Convention Center Hotel, Pittsburgh, PA Topic - Materials for Harsh Service Conditions Page 1 of 4 11/12/2015 Overall Purpose * To gather input from stakeholders on the vision of future opportunities and technical challenges facing development and scale-up of materials, process, and equipment that can make step-change improvements of system performance in harsh service conditions. The Advanced Manufacturing Office

  3. Meeting Notes re NOI for Convention on Supplementary Compensation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Notes re NOI for Convention on Supplementary Compensation Meeting Notes re NOI for Convention on Supplementary Compensation notes from meeting on Convention on Supplementary Compensation Meeting Notes re NOI for Convention on Supplementary Compensation (45.83 KB) More Documents & Publications Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation Public comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation on Nuclear Damage Contingent

  4. Conventional Hydropower Technologies, Wind And Water Power Program...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Conventional Hydropower Technologies, Wind And Water Power Program (WWPP) (Fact Sheet) Conventional Hydropower Technologies, Wind And Water Power Program (WWPP) (Fact Sheet) The US ...

  5. Non Conventional Energy Development Agency NEDA | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Non Conventional Energy Development Agency NEDA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Non-Conventional Energy Development Agency (NEDA) Place: Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India Zip: 226010...

  6. Public Comment re NOI on Convention on Supplementary Compensation...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation -75 FR 43945 PDF icon Public Comment re NOI on Convention on Supplementary Compensation for...

  7. File:EIA-conventional-gas.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    conventional-gas.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Natural Gas Production in Conventional Fields, Lower 48 States Size of this preview: 776 600...

  8. Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Section 934 Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation, Section 934 LES comments in response to Notice of Inquiry on Convention on...

  9. Public Comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation for...

    Energy Savers

    Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation Public Comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost...

  10. Energy.gov File Naming Conventions for Downloads | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    File Naming Conventions for Downloads Energy.gov File Naming Conventions for Downloads When uploading files to download pages in Energy.gov's content management system (CMS), ...

  11. Characterizing Structural Controls of EGS Candidate and Conventional...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Structural Controls of EGS Candidate and Conventional Geothermal Reservoirs in the Great ... Characterizing Structural Controls of EGS Candidate and Conventional Geothermal Reservoirs ...

  12. Challenging Conventional Wisdom: A Clean and Highly Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Challenging Conventional Wisdom: A Clean and Highly Efficient Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Engine Challenging Conventional Wisdom: A Clean and Highly Efficient Opposed-Piston ...

  13. Fifth National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fifth National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management Fifth National Report for the Joint Convention ...

  14. National Report Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    National Report Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management National Report Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent ...

  15. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Hurkmans, Coen; Mutic, Sasa; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Brame, Scott; Straube, William; Galvin, James; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  16. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing Monthly Table 45. Prime supplier sales volumes of motor gasoline by grade, formula on, PAD District, and state thousand gallons per day Geographic area month Regular Midgrade Conven onal Reformulated Total Conven onal Reformulated Total United States August 2016 224,204.0 109,576.3 333,780.5 4,597.4 2,879.9 7,477.3 July 2016 223,560.7 108,562.0 332,122.8 4,692.3

  17. X:\\L6046\\Data_Publication\\Pma\\current\\ventura\\pma.vp

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . August 1989 The Introduction of Unleaded Midgrade Gasoline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

  18. untitled

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . August 1989 The Introduction of Unleaded Midgrade Gasoline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

  19. X:\\L6046\\Data_Publication\\Pma\\current\\ventura\\pma.vp

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . August 1989 The Introduction of Unleaded Midgrade Gasoline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

  20. U.S. Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    25,220.5 25,860.0 25,967.6 26,711.1 26,333.6 26,532.9 1983-2016 by Grade Regular 20,698.8 21,263.3 21,331.0 21,940.6 21,587.4 21,748.3 1983-2016 Midgrade 1,790.7 1,828.0 1,842.8 1,898.9 1,887.9 1,899.4 1988-2016 Premium 2,731.0 2,768.7 2,793.8 2,871.6 2,858.4 2,885.3 1983-2016 by Formulation Conventional 16,220.8 16,658.8 16,651.0 17,047.0 16,981.8 17,079.3 1994-2016 Oxygenated - - - - - - 1994-2016 Reformulated 8,999.7 9,201.2 9,316.6 9,664.1 9,351.8 9,453.6

  1. The framework convention on climate change a convention for sustainable energy development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassing, P.; Mendis, M.S.; Menezes, L.M.; Gowen, M.M.

    1996-12-31

    In 1992, over 165 countries signed the United Nation`s Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). These countries have implicitly agreed to alter their `anthropogenic activities` that increase the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere and deplete the natural sinks for these same greenhouse gases. The energy sector is the major source of the primary anthropogenic GHGs, notably carbon dioxide and methane. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries presently account for the major share of GHG emissions from the energy sector. However, the developing countries are also rapidly increasing their contribution to global GHG emissions as a result of their growing consumption of fossil-based energy. Implementation of this global climate change convention, if seriously undertaken by the signatory countries, will necessitate changes in the energy mix and production processes in both the OECD and developing countries. International actions also will be needed to put the world on a sustainable energy path. By adoption of the FCCC, representatives of the world`s populations have indicated their desire to move toward such a path. The Conference of Parties to the Convention has just concluded its second meeting, at which the Parties endorsed a U.S. proposal that legally binding and enforceable emissions targets be adopted. It is clearly evident that the FCCC, as presently operating, cannot achieve the objective of stabilizing GHG concentrations in the atmosphere unless it adopts a major protocol to significantly reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. As demonstrated here, a good starting point in determining the steps the Parties to the FCCC should take in designing a protocol is to remember that the primary source of anthropogenic GHG emissions is the consumption of fossil fuels and the future growth of GHG emissions will derive primarily from the ever-increasing demand for and consumption of these fuels.

  2. Convention on Supplementary Compensation Rulemaking | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Convention on Supplementary Compensation Rulemaking Convention on Supplementary Compensation Rulemaking The Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) provides for a global nuclear liability regime assuring prompt and equitable compensation in the event of certain nuclear incidents, and features the creation of an international fund to supplement the amount of compensation available for nuclear damage resulting from such incidents. Section 934 of the Energy Independence

  3. Conventional Energy Forum & Associated Vertical Business Development: Best

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Practices in Indian Country | Department of Energy Conventional Energy Forum & Associated Vertical Business Development: Best Practices in Indian Country Conventional Energy Forum & Associated Vertical Business Development: Best Practices in Indian Country March 1, 2012 Las Vegas, Nevada Mandalay Bay Resort & Casino The Office of Indian Energy Tribal Leader Energy Forum on "Conventional Energy (Oil, Gas, and Coal) Forum & Associated Vertical Business Development: Best

  4. The United States Ratifies The Convention On Supplementary Compensation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy The United States Ratifies The Convention On Supplementary Compensation The United States Ratifies The Convention On Supplementary Compensation May 21, 2008 - 12:00pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC -Today the United States deposited its instrument of ratification for the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) with the Director-General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The CSC is an international treaty developed to create a global legal

  5. ,"U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...www.eia.govdnavpetpetprirefmg2cnusepm0udpgalm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ... Conventional Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per ...

  6. H2A Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis Models and Conventional...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    A Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis Models and Conventional Pathway Options Analysis Results - Interim Report H2A Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis Models and ...

  7. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  8. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    - - - - W W - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 86 Energy Information...

  9. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    - - - - 64.7 64.7 - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 86 Energy Information...

  10. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  11. Public comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation on...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of 2007 DOE Notice of Inquiry on the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) Contingent Cost Allocation - March 2, 2011 Meeting with CIGNL Exelon response

  12. Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent...

    Energy Savers

    the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. FR CSC NOPR (324.93 KB) More Documents & Publications Convention on Supplementary Compensation Rulemaking NOPR Fluor NOPR Exelon

  13. Current Status of the high enthalpy conventional geothermal fields...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Current Status of the high enthalpy conventional geothermal fields in Europe and the potential perspectives for their exploitation in terms of EGS Jump to: navigation, search...

  14. Public comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation Contingent...

    Energy Savers

    Compensation Contingent Cost Allocation Public comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation Contingent Cost Allocation DOE published a Notice of Inquiry in the Federal...

  15. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah Michael Vanden Berg; Paul Anderson; Janae Wallace;...

  16. Agency for Non conventional Energy and Rural Technology ANERT...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    agency responsible for identification, promotion and development of non-conventional energy sources. Coordinates: 8.50838, 76.94773 Show Map Loading map......

  17. Conventional Energy (Oil, Gas, and Coal) Forum & Associated Vertical...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    South, Las Vegas, NV 89119 The dynamic world of conventional energy (focusing on oil, gas and coal energy) is ... discoveries, new oil and gas production methods, associated research ...

  18. Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional Manufacturing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive ...

  19. Low Temperature Heat Release Behavior of Conventional and Alternative...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Heat Release Behavior of Conventional and Alternative Fuels in a Motored Engine Low ... Kinetic Modeling of Fuels Fuel Modification t Facilitate Future Combustion ...

  20. Third National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Third National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management Third National Report for the Joint ...

  1. Second National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Second National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management Second National Report for the Joint ...

  2. Fourth National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fourth National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management Fourth National Report for the Joint ...

  3. Characterizing Structural Controls of EGS Candidate and Conventional

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Geothermal Reservoirs in the Great Basin: Developing Successful Exploration Strategies in Extended Terranes | Department of Energy Structural Controls of EGS Candidate and Conventional Geothermal Reservoirs in the Great Basin: Developing Successful Exploration Strategies in Extended Terranes Characterizing Structural Controls of EGS Candidate and Conventional Geothermal Reservoirs in the Great Basin: Developing Successful Exploration Strategies in Extended Terranes DOE Geothermal Peer Review

  4. Convention on Supplementary Compensation Rulemaking | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Rulemaking Convention on Supplementary Compensation Rulemaking DOE made a presentation at the information session held on January 7, 2015. CSC Rulemaking Information Session Presentation (133.19 KB) More Documents & Publications NOPR NEI NOPR Fluor Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation

  5. Parametric Investigations of Non-Conventional Hall Thruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2001-01-12

    Hall thrusters might better scale to low power with non-conventional geometry. A 9 cm cylindrical, ceramic-channel, Hall thruster with a cusp-type magnetic field distribution has been investigated. It exhibits discharge characteristics similar to conventional coaxial Hall thrusters, but does not expose as much channel surface. Significantly, its operation is not accompanied by large amplitude discharge low frequency oscillations.

  6. EM's Acting Assistant Secretary Selected to Lead Joint Convention

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (Joint Convention) selected David Huizenga, Acting Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management, as the President for the Fifth Review Meeting of the Parties.

  7. Reformulated Gasoline Sales to End Users Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    394 - - - - - 1994-2015 East Coast (PADD 1) 2.347 - - - - - 1994-2015 New England (PADD 1A) 2.374 - - - - - 1994-2015 Connecticut 2.415 - - - - - 1994-2015 Maine - - - - - - ...

  8. Retail Prices for Regular Gasoline - Reformulated Areas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    2.017 1.961 1994-2016 East Coast (PADD1) 1.997 1.975 1.906 1.880 1.850 1.806 1994-2016 New England (PADD 1A) 2.025 1.988 1.934 1.904 1.875 1.827 1994-2016 Central Atlantic (PADD...

  9. Reformulated Gasoline Sales to End Users Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Connecticut - - - - - - 1994-2016 Maine - - - - - - 1994-2016 Massachusetts - - - - - - 1994-2016 New Hampshire - - - - - - 1994-2016 Rhode Island - - - - - - 1994-2016 Vermont - - ...

  10. Conventional Hydropower Technologies, Wind And Water Power Program...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... For example, the program is creating a database of Conventional Hydropower Technologies WIND AND WATER POWER PROGRAM C L E A N C I T I E S Grant County Public Utility District ...

  11. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah Citation Details In-Document Search ...

  12. Fact #880: July 6, 2015 Conventional Vehicle Energy Use: Where...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Not all of the fuel that is put into a car's fuel tank is used to move the car down the road. In fact, only 14-30% of the energy put into a conventional car is used for that ...

  13. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water-re...

  14. Public comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation Contingent Cost Allocation

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE published a Notice of Inquiry in the Federal Register (75 Fed. Reg. 43,945) requesting public comment on issues related to the funding obligations under the Convention on Supplementary...

  15. H2A Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis Models and Conventional

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Pathway Options Analysis Results - Interim Report | Department of Energy Delivery Infrastructure Analysis Models and Conventional Pathway Options Analysis Results - Interim Report H2A Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis Models and Conventional Pathway Options Analysis Results - Interim Report An in-depth comparative analysis of promising infrastructure options for hydrogen delivery and distribution to refueling stations from central, semi-central, and distributed production facilities.

  16. Defect Control of Conventional and Anomalous Electron Transport at Complex

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Oxide Interfaces (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Defect Control of Conventional and Anomalous Electron Transport at Complex Oxide Interfaces Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Defect Control of Conventional and Anomalous Electron Transport at Complex Oxide Interfaces Authors: Gunkel, F. ; Bell, Chris ; Inoue, Hisashi ; Kim, Bongju ; Swartz, Adrian G. ; Merz, Tyler A. ; Hikita, Yasuyuki ; Harashima, Satoshi ; Sato, Hiroki K. ; Minohara, Makoto ; Hoffmann-Eifert, Susanne ;

  17. Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Water Heating » Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:39pm Addthis Illustration showing the components of a storage water heater. On top of the tank are two thin pipes; one pipe is the hot water outlet, and the other is the cold water inlet. A large pipe in the middle is called a vent pipe. A pressure/temperature relief valve is also on top of the tank and is connected to an open pipe that runs down the side of the tank. Another

  18. Japanese Ratify Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    "The Japanese ratification of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) marks an important milestone towards creating a global nuclear liability regime that will assure prompt and meaningful compensation in the event of a nuclear accident and will facilitate international cooperation on nuclear projects such as ongoing clean-up work at the Fukushima site."

  19. ,"Conventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)","New Mexico Conventional Gasoline Retail Sales by ...928.8,,587,12358.1,196,1145.9,128.8,497.8,,2030.3,,459.7,56.4,3.9,4678.6,764.1,9.3,1677.4,...

  20. CONVENTION ON SUPPLEMENTARY COMPENSATION NOTICE OF PROPOSED RULEMAKING |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy On December 10, 2014, DOE General Counsel Steven P. Croley signed a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR), which sets forth proposed regulations to establish the retrospective risk pooling program called for under section 934 of EISA. CSC NOPR (4.49 MB) More Documents & Publications Convention on Supplementary Compensation Rulemaking NEI Request for Extension of Public Comment Period DOE-HQ-201.... NOPR NEI

  1. CONVENTION ON SUPPLEMENTARY COMPENSATION NOTICE OF PROPOSED RULEMAKING |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy After a regulatory action has been completed, Executive Order 12866 requires agencies to identify the substantive changes between the draft submitted to Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) for review and the action subsequently announced, and to identify those changes made at the suggestions or recommendation of OIRA. CSC NOPR Compare (3.91 MB) More Documents & Publications CONVENTION ON SUPPLEMENTARY COMPENSATION NOTICE OF PROPOSED RULEMAKING Changes

  2. Conventional armed forces in Europe: Technology scenario development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houser, G.M.

    1990-07-01

    In January 1986, the Soviet Union's Mikhail Gorbachev proposed elimination of all nuclear weapons by the year 2000. In April of that year, Mr. Gorbachev proposed substantial reductions of conventional weapons in Europe, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains, including reductions in operational-tactical nuclear weapons. In May 1986, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) responded with the Brussels Declaration on Conventional Arms Control,'' which indicated readiness to open East/West discussions on establishing a mandate for negotiating conventional arms control throughout Europe. The Group of 23,'' which met in Vienna beginning in February 1987, concluded the meeting in January 1989 with a mandate for the Conventional Armed Forced in Europe (CFE) negotiations. On 6 March 1989, CFE talks began, and these talks have continued through six rounds (as of April 1990). Although US President George Bush, on 30 May 1989, called for agreement within six months to a year, and the Malta meeting of December 1989 called for completion of a CFE agreement by the end of 1990, much remains to be negotiated. This report provides three types of information. First, treaty provisions brought to the table by both sides are compared. Second, on the basis of these provisions, problem areas for each of the provision elements are postulated and possible scenarios for resolving these problem areas are developed. Third, the scenarios are used as requirements for tasks assigned program elements for possible US implementation of a CFE treaty. As progress is achieved during the negotiations, this report could be updated, as necessary, in each of the areas to provide a continuing systematic basis for program implementation and technology development. 8 refs.

  3. Scientists challenge conventional wisdom to improve predictions of the

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    bootstrap current at the edge of fusion plasmas | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Scientists challenge conventional wisdom to improve predictions of the bootstrap current at the edge of fusion plasmas By John Greenwald May 3, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Simulation shows trapped electrons at left and passing electrons at right that are carried in the bootstrap current of a tokamak. Credit: Kwan Liu-Ma, University of California, Davis. Simulation shows trapped electrons at

  4. Scientists challenge conventional wisdom to improve predictions of the

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    bootstrap current at the edge of fusion plasmas | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Scientists challenge conventional wisdom to improve predictions of the bootstrap current at the edge of fusion plasmas By John Greenwald May 3, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Simulation shows trapped electrons at left and passing electrons at right that are carried in the bootstrap current of a tokamak. Credit: Kwan Liu-Ma, University of California, Davis. Simulation shows trapped electrons at

  5. In-Cylinder Imaging of Conventional and Advanced, Low-Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    In-Cylinder Imaging of Conventional and Advanced, Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion In-Cylinder Imaging of Conventional and Advanced, Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion 2005 Diesel ...

  6. Model national implementing legislation for the chemical weapons convention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanzman, E.A.; Kellman, B.

    1995-12-31

    Good day. It is an honor to address this distinguished audience. I am grateful to the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia for hosting this important gathering and to the staff of the Provisional Technical Secretariat of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (PTS) for sponsoring it. I also want to express my gratitude to the DePaul University Human Rights Law Institute, the Merck Foundation, and Argonne National Laboratory for supporting my participation here. This workshop is an another excellent opportunity for all of us to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. At this meeting I speak only for myself, neither for the government of the United States of America nor for any other institution. Today, I shall discuss model national implementing legislation under the CWC. Such implementing legislation is likely to be required in every State Party--not only to the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also to the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons programme. This new need for national measures to implement multilateral arms control agreements has generated unease due to a perception that implementation may be burdensome and at odds with existing national law. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried but.

  7. ISSUANCE 2015-07-23: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Ovens

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Ovens, Comment Period Extension

  8. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Woody

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional woody feedstock design has been developed that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying woody biomass as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints and consideration of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move woody biomass from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the use of the slash stream since it is a more conservative analysis and represents the material actually used in the experimental part of the project.

  9. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Herbaceous

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional bale feedstock design has been established that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying herbaceous feedstocks as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move herbaceous biomass feedstock from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the uses of field-dried corn stover or switchgrass as a feedstock to annually supply an 800,000 DM ton conversion facility.

  10. Feasibility of Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Recovery in Conventional Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Thornton, M.

    2009-04-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) generators convert heat directly into electricity when a temperature gradient is applied across junctions of two dissimilar metals. The devices could increase the fuel economy of conventional vehicles by recapturing part of the waste heat from engine exhaust and generating electricity to power accessory loads. A simple vehicle and engine waste heat model showed that a Class 8 truck presents the least challenging requirements for TE system efficiency, mass, and cost; these trucks have a fairly high amount of exhaust waste heat, have low mass sensitivity, and travel many miles per year. These factors help maximize fuel savings and economic benefits. A driving/duty cycle analysis shows strong sensitivity of waste heat, and thus TE system electrical output, to vehicle speed and driving cycle. With a typical alternator, a TE system could allow electrification of 8%-15% of a Class 8 truck's accessories for 2%-3% fuel savings. More research should reduce system cost and improve economics.

  11. Model National Implementing Legislation for the Chemical Weapons Convention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanzman, E.A.; Kellman, B.

    1997-12-31

    It is an honor to address this distinguished audience. We are grateful to the Republique Gabonaise for hosting this important gathering and to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for supporting it. This seminar is another excellent opportunity for all of us to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. At this meeting we speak only for ourselves, neither for the government of the United States of America nor for any other institution. This paper discusses model national implementing legislation under the CWC. Every State Party likely must enact implementing legislation - not only the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons programme.

  12. Boron-Lined Multichamber and Conventional Neutron Proportional Counter Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2010-09-07

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride (BF3)-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated non-scintillating plastic fibers. In addition, a few other companies have detector technologies that might be competitive in the near term as an alternative technology. Reported here are the results of tests of a boron-lined, multichamber proportional counter manufactured by LND, Inc. Also reported are results obtained with an earlier design of conventional, boron-lined, proportional counters from LND. This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma-ray rejection capabilities of the detectors.

  13. A Prescription for List-Mode Data Processing Conventions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beddingfield, David H.; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; Huszti, Jozsef; Newell, Matthew R.

    2015-10-08

    There are a variety of algorithmic approaches available to process list-mode pulse streams to produce multiplicity histograms for subsequent analysis. In the development of the INCC v6.0 code to include the processing of this data format, we have noted inconsistencies in the “processed time” between the various approaches. The processed time, tp, is the time interval over which the recorded pulses are analyzed to construct multiplicity histograms. This is the time interval that is used to convert measured counts into count rates. The observed inconsistencies in tp impact the reported count rate information and the determination of the error-values associated with the derived singles, doubles, and triples counting rates. This issue is particularly important in low count-rate environments. In this report we will present a prescription for the processing of list-mode counting data that produces values that are both correct and consistent with traditional shift-register technologies. It is our objective to define conventions for list mode data processing to ensure that the results are physically valid and numerically aligned with the results from shift-register electronics.

  14. Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis: SPA Convention andProject

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Ali, A.; Allanach, B.C.; Arnowitt, R.; Baer, H.A.; Bagger, J.A.; Balazs, C.; Barger, V.; Barnett, M.; Bartl, A.; Battaglia, M.; Bechtle, P.; Belanger, G.; Belyaev, A.; Berger, E.L.; Blair, G.; Boos, E.; Carena, M.; Choi, S.Y.; Deppisch, F.; De Roeck, A.; /Lisbon, IST /DESY /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Texas A-M /Florida State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Argonne /Wisconsin U., Madison /LBL, Berkeley /Vienna U. /SLAC /Annecy, LAPTH /Michigan State U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /SINP, Moscow /Fermilab /Chonbuk Natl. U. /CERN /Freiburg U. /Chile U., Catolica /Orsay, LAL

    2005-12-02

    High-precision analyses of supersymmetry parameters aim at reconstructing the fundamental supersymmetric theory and its breaking mechanism. A well defined theoretical framework is needed when higher-order corrections are included. We propose such a scheme, Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis SPA, based on a consistent set of conventions and input parameters. A repository for computer programs is provided which connect parameters in different schemes and relate the Lagrangian parameters to physical observables at LHC and high energy e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider experiments, i.e., masses, mixings, decay widths and production cross sections for supersymmetric particles. In addition, programs for calculating high-precision low energy observables, the density of cold dark matter (CDM) in the universe as well as the cross sections for CDM search experiments are included. The SPA scheme still requires extended efforts on both the theoretical and experimental side before data can be evaluated in the future at the level of the desired precision. We take here an initial step of testing the SPA scheme by applying the techniques involved to a specific supersymmetry reference point.

  15. Conventional engine technology. volume 3: comparisons and future potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowdy, M.W.

    1981-12-01

    The status of five conventional automobile engine technologies was assessed and the future potential for increasing fuel economy and reducing exhaust emission was discussed, using the 1980 EPA California emisions standards as a comparative basis. By 1986, the fuel economy of a uniform charge Otto engine with a three-way catalyst is expected to increase 10%, while vehicles with lean burn (fast burn) engines should show a 20% fuel economy increase. Although vehicles with stratified-charge engines and rotary engines are expected to improve, their fuel economy will remain inferior to the other engine types. When adequate NO emissions control methods are implemented to meet the EPA requirements, vehicles with prechamber diesel engines are expected to yield a fuel economy advantage of about 15%. While successful introduction of direct injection diesel engine technology will provide a fuel savings of 30 to 35%, the planned regulation of exhaust particulates could seriously hinder this technology, because it is expected that only the smallest diesel engine vehicles could meet the proposed particulate requirements.

  16. Conventional engine technology. Volume III. Comparisons and future potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowdey, M.W.

    1981-12-15

    The status of five conventional automobile engine technologies is assessed and the future potential for increasing fuel economy and reducing exhaust emissions is discussed, using the 1980 EPA California emissions standards as a comparative basis. By 1986, the fuel economy of a uniform charge Otto engine with a three-way catalyst is expected to increase 10%, while vehicles with lean burn (fast burn) engines should show a 20% fuel economy increase. Although vehicles with stratified-charge engines and rotary engines are expected to improve, their fuel economy will remain inferior to the other engine types. When adequate NO/sub x/ emissions control methods are implemented to meet the EPA requirements, vehicles with prechamber diesel engines are expected to yield a fuel economy advantage of about 15%. While successful introduction of direct injection diesel engine technology will provide a fuel savings of 30 to 35%, the planned regulation of exhaust particulates could seriously hinder this technology, because it is expected that only the smallest diesel engine vehicles could meet the proposed particulate requirements.

  17. Letter box line blackener for the HDTV/conventional-analog hybrid system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wysocki, Frederick J.; Nickel, George H.

    2006-07-18

    A blackener for letter box lines associated with a HDTV/conventional-analog hybrid television transmission where the blackener counts horizontal sync pulses contained in the HDTV/conventional-analog hybrid television transmission and determines when the HDTV/conventional-analog hybrid television transmission is in letter-box lines: if it is, then the blackener sends substitute black signal to an output; and if it is not, then the blackener sends the HDTV/conventional-analog hybrid television transmission to the output.

  18. Ash formation, deposition, corrosion, and erosion in conventional boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, S.A.; Jones, M.L.

    1995-12-01

    The inorganic components (ash-forming species) associated with coals significantly affect boiler design, efficiency of operation, and lifetimes of boiler parts. During combustion in conventional pulverized fuel boilers, the inorganic components are transformed into inorganic gases, liquids, and solids. This partitioning depends upon the association of the inorganic components in the coal and combustion conditions. The inorganic components are associated as mineral grains and as organically associated elements, and these associations of inorganic components in the fuel directly influence their fate upon combustion. Combustion conditions, such as temperature and atmosphere, influence the volatility and the interaction of inorganic components during combustion and gas cooling, which influences the state and size composition distribution of the particulate and condensed ash species. The intermediate species are transported with the bulk gas flow through the combustion systems, during which time the gases and entrained ash are cooled. Deposition, corrosion, and erosion occur when the ash intermediate species are transported to the heat-transfer surface, react with the surface, accumulate, sinter, and develop strength. Research over the past decade has significantly advanced understanding of ash formation, deposition, corrosion, and erosion mechanisms. Many of the advances in understanding and predicting ash-related issues can be attributed to advanced analytical methods to determine the inorganic composition of fuels and the resulting ash materials. These new analytical techniques have been the key to elucidation of the mechanisms of ash formation and deposition. This information has been used to develop algorithms and computer models to predict the effects of ash on combustion system performance.

  19. CSV File Documentation: Consumption

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Product: Total Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Greater than Ed55 Conventional Other Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O.,

  20. Second National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management | Department of Energy Second National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management Second National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management This second National Report updates the first National Report published on May 3, 2003, under the terms of the Joint Convention on the

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: ampCNG Puts Conventional Fuels Out to

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Pasture with Renewable Natural Gas ampCNG Puts Conventional Fuels Out to Pasture with Renewable Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: ampCNG Puts Conventional Fuels Out to Pasture with Renewable Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: ampCNG Puts Conventional Fuels Out to Pasture with Renewable Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: ampCNG Puts Conventional Fuels Out to Pasture with Renewable Natural Gas on

  2. Conventional Hydropower Technologies, Wind And Water Power Program (WWPP) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The US Department of Energy conducts research on conventional hydropower technologies to increase generation and improve existing means of generating hydroelectricity.

  3. oint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    oint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr...

  4. Comparison of Value Retention of Plug-in Vehicles and Conventional...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Other Numbers EVS29-5920356 Keywords battery electric vehicle, BEV, consumers, market, ... of their conventional and hybrid electric (HEV) counterparts by the National Automobile ...

  5. Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation, Section 934

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    LES comments in response to Notice of Inquiry on Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation, Section 934

  6. Public Comment re NOI on Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    ENERGYSOLUTIONS' Comment in Response to Notice of Inquiry, Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation -75 FR 43945

  7. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Movements by Pipeline between PAD

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Districts Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Normal Butane/Butylene Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Renewable Fuels Renewable Diesel Fuel Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional

  8. Boston Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    310 2.312 2.313 2.312 2.310 2.288 2003-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.310 2.312 2.313 2.312 2.310 2.288 2003-2016 Regular 2.210 2.208 2.205 2.203 2.198 2.171 2003-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.210 2.208 2.205 2.203 2.198 2.171 2003-2016 Midgrade 2.424 2.434 2.452 2.450 2.451 2.440 2003-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.424 2.434 2.452 2.450 2.451 2.440 2003-2016 Premium 2.639 2.654 2.660 2.665 2.668 2.659 2003-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.639 2.654 2.660 2.665 2.668 2.659

  9. California Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    855 2.860 2.853 2.880 2.866 2.812 2000-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.855 2.860 2.853 2.880 2.866 2.812 1995-2016 Regular 2.799 2.805 2.798 2.824 2.809 2.755 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.799 2.805 2.798 2.824 2.809 2.755 1995-2016 Midgrade 2.928 2.934 2.926 2.955 2.941 2.892 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.928 2.934 2.926 2.955 2.941 2.892 1995-2016 Premium 3.044 3.050 3.041 3.072 3.059 3.005 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 3.044 3.050 3.041 3.072 3.059 3.005 1995-2016 Diesel (On-Highway)

  10. Chicago Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    43 2.416 2.399 2.298 2.372 2.267 2000-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.543 2.416 2.399 2.298 2.372 2.267 2000-2016 Regular 2.420 2.291 2.274 2.172 2.246 2.140 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.420 2.291 2.274 2.172 2.246 2.140 2000-2016 Midgrade 2.745 2.623 2.605 2.507 2.580 2.482 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.745 2.623 2.605 2.507 2.580 2.482 2000-2016 Premium 3.074 2.958 2.946 2.848 2.924 2.820 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 3.074 2.958 2.946 2.848 2.924 2.820 2000

  11. Houston Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    112 2.125 2.135 2.107 2.083 2.065 2000-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.112 2.125 2.135 2.107 2.083 2.065 2000-2016 Regular 1.981 1.996 2.003 1.969 1.952 1.933 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 1.981 1.996 2.003 1.969 1.952 1.933 2000-2016 Midgrade 2.276 2.285 2.298 2.301 2.242 2.224 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.276 2.285 2.298 2.301 2.242 2.224 2000-2016 Premium 2.547 2.550 2.569 2.552 2.517 2.503 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.547 2.550 2.569 2.552 2.517 2.503

  12. Los Angeles Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    901 2.916 2.898 2.968 2.949 2.894 2000-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.901 2.916 2.898 2.968 2.949 2.894 2000-2016 Regular 2.847 2.862 2.845 2.914 2.895 2.839 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.847 2.862 2.845 2.914 2.895 2.839 2000-2016 Midgrade 2.960 2.975 2.958 3.028 3.009 2.958 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.960 2.975 2.958 3.028 3.009 2.958 2000-2016 Premium 3.071 3.086 3.067 3.137 3.119 3.067 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 3.071 3.086 3.067 3.137 3.119 3.067

  13. Massachusetts Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3 2.310 2.312 2.314 2.313 2.293 2003-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.313 2.310 2.312 2.314 2.313 2.293 2003-2016 Regular 2.213 2.204 2.202 2.202 2.201 2.176 2003-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.213 2.204 2.202 2.202 2.201 2.176 2003-2016 Midgrade 2.420 2.429 2.447 2.444 2.446 2.437 2003-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.420 2.429 2.447 2.444 2.446 2.437 2003-2016 Premium 2.624 2.635 2.644 2.653 2.656 2.644 2003-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.624 2.635 2.644 2.653 2.656 2.644

  14. New York City Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    330 2.331 2.349 2.348 2.461 2.451 2000-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.330 2.331 2.349 2.348 2.461 2.451 2000-2016 Regular 2.180 2.182 2.201 2.200 2.314 2.307 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.180 2.182 2.201 2.200 2.314 2.307 2000-2016 Midgrade 2.512 2.508 2.519 2.521 2.628 2.609 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.512 2.508 2.519 2.521 2.628 2.609 2000-2016 Premium 2.709 2.708 2.726 2.724 2.837 2.819 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.709 2.708 2.726 2.724 2.837 2.819

  15. San Francisco Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    885 2.877 2.877 2.861 2.845 2.780 2000-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.885 2.877 2.877 2.861 2.845 2.780 2000-2016 Regular 2.823 2.815 2.815 2.798 2.782 2.719 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.823 2.815 2.815 2.798 2.782 2.719 2000-2016 Midgrade 2.984 2.975 2.976 2.962 2.941 2.871 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.984 2.975 2.976 2.962 2.941 2.871 2000-2016 Premium 3.085 3.077 3.078 3.065 3.049 2.981 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 3.085 3.077 3.078 3.065 3.049 2.981

  16. Sandia

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    885 2.877 2.877 2.861 2.845 2.780 2000-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.885 2.877 2.877 2.861 2.845 2.780 2000-2016 Regular 2.823 2.815 2.815 2.798 2.782 2.719 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.823 2.815 2.815 2.798 2.782 2.719 2000-2016 Midgrade 2.984 2.975 2.976 2.962 2.941 2.871 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.984 2.975 2.976 2.962 2.941 2.871 2000-2016 Premium 3.085 3.077 3.078 3.065 3.049 2.981 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 3.085 3.077 3.078 3.065 3.049 2.981

    Sandia grew out of

  17. BoxLib Case Study

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    310 2.312 2.313 2.312 2.310 2.288 2003-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.310 2.312 2.313 2.312 2.310 2.288 2003-2016 Regular 2.210 2.208 2.205 2.203 2.198 2.171 2003-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.210 2.208 2.205 2.203 2.198 2.171 2003-2016 Midgrade 2.424 2.434 2.452 2.450 2.451 2.440 2003-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.424 2.434 2.452 2.450 2.451 2.440 2003-2016 Premium 2.639 2.654 2.660 2.665 2.668 2.659 2003-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.639 2.654 2.660 2.665 2.668 2.659

    BoxLib Case Study BoxLib

  18. New York Times covers National Labs Race to Stop Iran

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    330 2.331 2.349 2.348 2.461 2.451 2000-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.330 2.331 2.349 2.348 2.461 2.451 2000-2016 Regular 2.180 2.182 2.201 2.200 2.314 2.307 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.180 2.182 2.201 2.200 2.314 2.307 2000-2016 Midgrade 2.512 2.508 2.519 2.521 2.628 2.609 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.512 2.508 2.519 2.521 2.628 2.609 2000-2016 Premium 2.709 2.708 2.726 2.724 2.837 2.819 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.709 2.708 2.726 2.724 2.837 2.819

    430 2.435 2.464 2.466 2.496

  19. Chin Guok

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    43 2.416 2.399 2.298 2.372 2.267 2000-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.543 2.416 2.399 2.298 2.372 2.267 2000-2016 Regular 2.420 2.291 2.274 2.172 2.246 2.140 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.420 2.291 2.274 2.172 2.246 2.140 2000-2016 Midgrade 2.745 2.623 2.605 2.507 2.580 2.482 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.745 2.623 2.605 2.507 2.580 2.482 2000-2016 Premium 3.074 2.958 2.946 2.848 2.924 2.820 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 3.074 2.958 2.946 2.848 2.924 2.820 2000

    Chin Guok About ESnet

  20. International - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    112 2.125 2.135 2.107 2.083 2.065 2000-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.112 2.125 2.135 2.107 2.083 2.065 2000-2016 Regular 1.981 1.996 2.003 1.969 1.952 1.933 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 1.981 1.996 2.003 1.969 1.952 1.933 2000-2016 Midgrade 2.276 2.285 2.298 2.301 2.242 2.224 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.276 2.285 2.298 2.301 2.242 2.224 2000-2016 Premium 2.547 2.550 2.569 2.552 2.517 2.503 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.547 2.550 2.569 2.552 2.517 2.503

    Projects published on Beta

  1. Press Room - Presentations - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    901 2.916 2.898 2.968 2.949 2.894 2000-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.901 2.916 2.898 2.968 2.949 2.894 2000-2016 Regular 2.847 2.862 2.845 2.914 2.895 2.839 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.847 2.862 2.845 2.914 2.895 2.839 2000-2016 Midgrade 2.960 2.975 2.958 3.028 3.009 2.958 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.960 2.975 2.958 3.028 3.009 2.958 2000-2016 Premium 3.071 3.086 3.067 3.137 3.119 3.067 2000-2016 Reformulated Areas 3.071 3.086 3.067 3.137 3.119 3.067

    60 2.371 2.350 2.327 2.324

  2. Employment impacts of selected solar and conventional energy systems: a framework for comparisons and preliminary findings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smeltzer, K.K.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary comprehensive analyses of quantitative and qualitative employment effects of selected solar and conventional energy systems are presented. It proposes a framework for analyzing the direct, indirect, induced, displacement, disposable income, and qualitative employment effects of alternative energy systems. The analyses examine current research findings on these effects for a variety of solar and conventional energy sources and compare expected employment impacts. In general, solar energy systems have higher direct and indirect employment requirements than do conventional energy systems. In addition, employment displaced from conventional sources and employment effects due to changes in consumers' disposable income are highly significant variables in net employment comparisons. Analyses of the size and location of projected energy developments suggest that dispersed solar energy systems have a more beneficial impact on host communities than do large conventional facilities, regardless of the relative magnitude of employment per unit of energy output.

  3. ISSUANCE 2015-05-29: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Ovens, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Ovens, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  4. Fact #880: July 6, 2015 Conventional Vehicle Energy Use: Where Does the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Go? - Dataset | Department of Energy 0: July 6, 2015 Conventional Vehicle Energy Use: Where Does the Energy Go? - Dataset Fact #880: July 6, 2015 Conventional Vehicle Energy Use: Where Does the Energy Go? - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Conventional Vehicle Energy Use: Where Does the Energy Go? fotw#880_web.xlsx (17.02 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #882: July 20, 2015 Hybrid Vehicle Energy Use: Where Does the Energy Go? - Dataset Fact #884: August 3, 2015

  5. ,"U.S. Reformulated Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Sales Volumes",6,"Monthly","22016","1151994" ,"Release Date:","522016" ,"Next Release Date:","612016" ,"Excel File Name:","petconsrefmgcnusepm0rmgalpdm.xls" ...

  6. 0101,"SPRAGUE ENERGY CORP",1,150,"MOGAS, REFORMULATED",0131,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    REFG & MKTG INC",2,152,"MOGAS, OTHER FINISHED",4908,"PONCE, PR","PR",600,830,"SPAIN",230,0,0 0101,"TEXACO REFG & MKTG INC",3,152,"MOGAS, OTHER FINISHED",1003,"NEWARK,...

  7. Reformulated Gasoline Use Under the 8-Hour Ozone Rule

    Reports and Publications

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact on gasoline price and supply when additional ozone non-attainment areas come under the new 8-hour ozone standard.

  8. Refiner and Blender Net Production of Reformulated Gasoline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    3,225 3,240 3,261 3,264 3,266 3,189 1993-2016 PADD 1 1,271 1,277 1,307 1,300 1,319 1,253 1993-2016 PADD 2 355 357 368 365 365 361 1993-2016 PADD 3 467 474 477 475 482 471 1993-2016 PADD 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993-2016 PADD 5 1,132 1,132 1,109 1,124 1,100 1,103 1993

  9. ,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    File Name:","petprirefmg2cnusepm0rdpgalm.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavpetpetprirefmg2cnusepm0rdpgalm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy ...

  10. Demand and Price Outlook for Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, 2000

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    78-2005 Citygate 5.67 9.03 7.19 5.67 5.54 5.87 1984-2015 Residential 15.12 15.38 15.24 13.65 13.21 12.62 1967-2015 Commercial 13.26 13.58 13.31 11.78 11.42 10.70 1967-2015 Industrial 10.18 11.69 11.61 11.24 10.95 10.11 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 24.55 28.76 30.97 1995-2012 Electric Power W W -- -- -- -- 1997-2015 Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Injections 1967-1975 Withdrawals 1967-1975 Net Withdrawals 1967-1975 Liquefied Natural Gas Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Additions 73 64 117 63 157

  11. U.S. Reformulated Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8,999.7 9,201.2 9,316.6 9,664.1 9,351.8 9,453.6 1994-2016 Through Retail Outlets 8,975.9 9,175.7 9,291.9 9,637.8 9,331.5 9,427.9 1994-2016 Sales for Resale, Total NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994-2016 DTW 18,390.2 18,584.8 18,492.9 18,354.8 18,204.6 18,684.5 1994-2016 Rack 74,336.9 76,465.1 76,955.7 79,301.3 77,485.9 78,619.2 1994-2016 Bulk 3,422.9 2,916.2 4,005.0 4,319.8 3,976.6 3,10

  12. U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    736 1.921 2.011 2.078 1.998 1.885 1994-2016 Through Retail Outlets 1.737 1.921 2.012 2.079 1.999 1.885 1994-2016 Sales for Resale, Average 1.463 1.601 1.694 1.740 1.574 1.553 1994-2016 DTW 1.783 1.895 1.917 1.983 1.884 1.732 1994-2016 Rack 1.388 1.533 1.645 1.690 1.504 1.513 1994-2016 Bulk 1.377 1.514 1.602 1.619 1.524 1.479

  13. East Coast (PADD 1) Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Net Receipts by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail Product: Total Crude Oil and Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Ether* MGBC - Reformulated GTAB* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other

  14. 2014-02-06 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Cooking Products; Request for Information

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register request for information and notice of document availability regarding energy conservation standards for residential conventional cooking products, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 6, 2014.

  15. Table 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    88.4 87.8 80.1 70.0 NA 72.6 See footnotes at end of table. 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 16 Energy Information Administration ...

  16. Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5.7 5.9 4.4 12.9 NA 17.3 See footnotes at end of table. 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 18 Energy Information Administration ...

  17. Table 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    87.4 86.9 78.3 68.5 W 70.8 See footnotes at end of table. 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 16 Energy Information Administration ...

  18. A comparative study of conventionally sintered and microwave sintered nickel zinc ferrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rani, Rekha; Juneja, J. K.; Raina, K. K.; Kotnala, R. K.; Prakash, Chandra

    2014-04-24

    For the present work, nickel zinc ferrite having compositional formula Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized by conventional solid state method and sintered in conventional and microwave furnaces. Pellets were sintered with very short soaking time of 10 min at 1150 °C in microwave furnace whereas 4 hrs of soaking time was selected for conventional sintering at 1200 °C. Phase formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis technique. Scanning electron micrographs were taken for microstructural study. Dielectric properties were studied as a function of temperature. To study magnetic behavior, M-H hysteresis loops were recorded for both samples. It is observed that microwave sintered sample could obtain comparable properties to the conventionally sintered one in lesser soaking time at lower sintering temperature.

  19. Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0.1 18.7 See footnotes at end of table. 18 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade...

  20. EM Prepares Report for Convention on Safety of Spent Fuel and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Convention was established in 2001 as the first instrument to directly address issues related to the safety of spent fuel and radioactive waste on a global scale. EM...

  1. Public Comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Comments by International Group on Nuclear Liability (CIGNL), in response to U.S. Department of Energy Notice of Inquiry on Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent...

  2. Public comment re Convention on Supplementary Compensation on Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Comments by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) on Convention on Supplementary Compensation on Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation; Section 934 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007

  3. EM Prepares Report for Convention on Safety of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – EM supported DOE in its role as the lead technical agency to produce a report recently for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management.

  4. ISC Conventional Reading Rooms | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ISC Conventional Reading Rooms Integrated Support Center (ISC) ISC Home About Services Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Privacy Act Advisory Exemptions How to Submit a FOIA Request Fee Waiver and Reduction Criteria Electronic Reading Room ISC Conventional Reading Rooms Reference Links Privacy Act NEPA Documents Contact Information Integrated Support Center Roxanne Purucker U.S. Department of Energy 9800 S. Cass Avenue Argonne, IL 60439 P: (630) 252-2110 Kenneth Tarcza U.S. Department of Energy

  5. Fifth National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management | Department of Energy Fifth National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management Fifth National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management This Fifth United States of America (U.S.) National Report updates the Fourth Report published in October 2011, under the terms of the Joint

  6. Fourth National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management | Department of Energy Fourth National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management Fourth National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management This Fourth United States of America (U.S.) National Report updates the Third Report published in October 2008, under the terms of the

  7. Fact #817: February 17, 2014 Conventional and Alternative Fuel Price Trends

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    from 2000 to 2013 | Department of Energy 7: February 17, 2014 Conventional and Alternative Fuel Price Trends from 2000 to 2013 Fact #817: February 17, 2014 Conventional and Alternative Fuel Price Trends from 2000 to 2013 Retail prices for most transportation fuels have been highly volatile over the past 13 years. The figure below shows quarterly price fluctuations for select fuel types from 2000 to 2013. Gasoline, diesel, propane, E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline), and B20 (20% biodiesel

  8. DOE Notice of Inquiry on the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Nuclear Damage (CSC) Contingent Cost Allocation - March 2, 2011 Meeting with CIGNL | Department of Energy Inquiry on the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) Contingent Cost Allocation - March 2, 2011 Meeting with CIGNL DOE Notice of Inquiry on the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) Contingent Cost Allocation - March 2, 2011 Meeting with CIGNL On March 2, 2011, representatives of CIGNL met at the Forrestal Building with DOE

  9. Turbine Aeration Design Software for Mitigating Adverse Environmental Impacts Resulting From Conventional Hydropower Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulliver, John S.

    2015-03-01

    Conventional hydropower turbine aeration test-bed for computational routines and software tools for improving environmental mitigation technologies for conventional hydropower systems. In achieving this goal, we have partnered with Alstom, a global leader in energy technology development and United States power generation, with additional funding from the Initiative for Renewable Energy and the Environment (IREE) and the College of Science and Engineering (CSE) at the UMN

  10. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah Saline water disposal is one of the most pressing issues with regard to increasing

  11. Third National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management | Department of Energy Third National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management Third National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management This Third United States National Report updates the second National Report published in October 2005, under the terms of the Joint

  12. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M. P.; Burton, J.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P100H hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These four cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations. The NY Composite cycle, the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle cycle, and the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) cycle as well as a custom Baltimore parcel delivery cycle were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory. Fuel consumption was measured and analyzed for all three vehicles. Vehicle laboratory results are compared on the basis of fuel economy. The hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery van demonstrated 19%-52% better fuel economy than the conventional diesel parcel delivery van and 30%-56% better fuel economy than the conventional gasoline parcel delivery van on cycles other than the highway-oriented HHDDT cycle.

  13. U.S. Refiner Sales to End Users (Average) Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Sales Type: Sales to End Users, Average Through Retail Outlets Sales for Resale, Average DTW Rack Bulk Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Formulation/ Grade Sales Type Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Conventional, Average 1.450 1.617 1.790 1.894 1.697 1.682 1994-2016 Conventional Regular 1.412 1.576 1.749 1.854 1.649 1.636 1994-2016 Conventional Midgrade 1.601 1.781 1.950 2.041

  14. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Products by PAD District and State, April 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene Reformulated Conventional Total ...

  15. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Annual Energy Outlook

    gasoline classified by an importer as blendstock to be either blended or reclassified with respect to reformulated or conventional gasoline. GTAB was classified on EIA ...

  16. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    U.S. refi ner reformulated motor gasoline prices by grade and sales type dollars per gallon excluding taxes Year month Regular Midgrade Sales to end users Sales for resale Sales to end users Sales for resale Through retail outlets Average[a] DTW Rack Bulk Average Through retail outlets Average[a] DTW Rack Bulk Average 1994 0.764 0.758 0.720 0.569 0.543 0.638 0.879 0.873 0.770 0.628 W 0.728 1995 0.749 0.744 0.707 0.605 0.573 0.650 0.836 0.833 0.753 0.651 - 0.723 1996 0.834 0.830 0.788 0.698 0.677

  17. Life Cycle GHG Emissions from Conventional Natural Gas Power Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.; O'Donoughue, P.; Whitaker, M.

    2012-12-01

    This research provides a systematic review and harmonization of the life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of electricity generated from conventionally produced natural gas. We focus on estimates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in the life cycle of electricity generation from conventionally produced natural gas in combustion turbines (NGCT) and combined-cycle (NGCC) systems. A process we term "harmonization" was employed to align several common system performance parameters and assumptions to better allow for cross-study comparisons, with the goal of clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. This presentation summarizes preliminary results.

  18. Comparison of conventional and novel quadrupole drift tube magnets inspired by Klaus Halbach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feinberg, B.

    1995-02-01

    Quadrupole drift tube magnets for a heavy-ion linac provide a demanding application of magnet technology. A comparison is made of three different solutions to the problem of providing an adjustable high-field-strength quadrupole magnet in a small volume. A conventional tape-wound electromagnet quadrupole magnet (conventional) is compared with an adjustable permanent-magnet/iron quadrupole magnet (hybrid) and a laced permanent-magnet/iron/electromagnet (laced). Data is presented from magnets constructed for the SuperHILAC heavy-ion linear accelerator, and conclusions are drawn for various applications.

  19. Comparison between laser terahertz emission microscope and conventional methods for analysis of polycrystalline silicon solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakanishi, Hidetoshi Ito, Akira; Takayama, Kazuhisa Kawayama, Iwao Murakami, Hironaru Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    2015-11-15

    A laser terahertz emission microscope (LTEM) can be used for noncontact inspection to detect the waveforms of photoinduced terahertz emissions from material devices. In this study, we experimentally compared the performance of LTEM with conventional analysis methods, e.g., electroluminescence (EL), photoluminescence (PL), and laser beam induced current (LBIC), as an inspection method for solar cells. The results showed that LTEM was more sensitive to the characteristics of the depletion layer of the polycrystalline solar cell compared with EL, PL, and LBIC and that it could be used as a complementary tool to the conventional analysis methods for a solar cell.

  20. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmichael, Richard W.

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2000.

  1. NV Energy Solar Integration Study: Cycling and Movements of Conventional Generators for Balancing Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guo, Xinxin

    2011-07-01

    With an increasing penetration level of solar power in the southern Nevada system, the impact of solar on system operations needs to be carefully studied from various perspectives. Qualitatively, it is expected that the balancing requirements to compensate for solar power variability will be larger in magnitude; meanwhile, generators providing load following and regulation services will be moved up or down more frequently. One of the most important tasks is to quantitatively evaluate the cycling and movements of conventional generators with solar power at different penetration levels. This study is focused on developing effective methodologies for this goal and providing a basis for evaluating the wear and tear of the conventional generators

  2. DOE to Host Energy Sessions at 2016 Native American Indian Housing Convention

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 2016 AMERIND Risk/Native American Indian Housing Council (NAIHC) Annual Convention & Tradeshow on May 8–11, in Oahu, Hawaii, is fast approaching. Through focused breakout sessions and informative exhibits, attendees will explore new and innovative strategies for addressing a variety of challenges related to workplace safety, housing management, human resources, and much more.

  3. Standards and conventions for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loftis, J.P.; Truett, L.F.; Shipe, P.C.; Faby, E.Z.; Fluker, J.; Grubb, J.W.; Hancock, B.R.; Ferguson, R.A.

    1995-02-28

    This document, prepared for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB), provides standards and conventions for the screens developed using ORACLE`s SQL*Menu, SQL*Forms, and SQL*Reportwriter; for the ORACLE keys; and for commenting ORACLE code. It also covers standards for database system transfers. The results of adherence to these standards and conventions by all developers at both geographically separated development sites, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and The Military Traffic Management Command`s Eastern Area (EA), will be a consistent appearance of ICDB to users, code that is easily maintained, and a system that will be quicker to develop and integrate. This final report of the Standards and Conventions contains general guidelines to be followed for the development of the ICDB user interface screens. Though additional ICDB user interface screens are being developed both at ORNL and EA, and existing screens may have fields added to or deleted from them, the standards and conventions presented in this document should remain unchanged.

  4. Conventional {delta}f-particle simulations of electromagnetic perturbations with finite elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishchenko, Alexey; Hatzky, Roman; Koenies, Axel

    2004-12-01

    The possibility of electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations with a conventional {delta}f approach is shown in slab geometry using finite elements. Both the ion-temperature-gradient driven mode and the shear Alfven wave are reproduced and benchmarked with the analytical linear dispersion relation. Particularly, the Alfven wave is simulated successfully at the limit k{sub perpendicular}{yields}0.

  5. Fact #880: July 6, 2015 Conventional Vehicle Energy Use: Where Does the Energy Go?

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Not all of the fuel that is put into a car's fuel tank is used to move the car down the road. In fact, only 14-30% of the energy put into a conventional car is used for that purpose. The rest of...

  6. Nuclear forward scattering vs. conventional Mossbauer studies of atomically tailored Eu-based materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konjhodzic, A.; Adamczyk, A.; Hasan, Z.; Alp, E. E.; Sturhahn, W.; Zhao, J.; Carroll, J. J.; Vagizov, F.; Univ. of Philadelphia; Youngstown State Univ.

    2006-01-01

    With the decrease in size of devices, rapid characterization of nano-devices is an inevitable necessity. It is shown that Moessbauer spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation from the advanced photon source provides such a tool of investigation. Results are presented and compared for conventional Moessbauer and Nuclear Forward Scattering for {sup 151}Eu-doped magnesium sulfide as an example, especially at low concentrations.

  7. Guidelines for the verification and validation of expert system software and conventional software: Bibliography. Volume 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, L.A.; Hayes, J.E.; Mirsky, S.M.

    1995-03-01

    This volume contains all of the technical references found in Volumes 1-7 concerning the development of guidelines for the verification and validation of expert systems, knowledge-based systems, other AI systems, object-oriented systems, and conventional systems.

  8. Gasoline-fueled hybrid vs. conventional vehicle emissions and fuel economy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.; Bharathan, D.; He, J.; Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.; Vyas, A.

    1999-06-18

    This paper addresses the relative fuel economy and emissions behavior, both measured and modeled, of technically comparable, contemporary hybrid and conventional vehicles fueled by gasoline, in terms of different driving cycles. Criteria pollutants (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides) are discussed, and the potential emissions benefits of designing hybrids for grid connection are briefly considered. In 1997, Toyota estimated that their grid-independent hybrid vehicle would obtain twice the fuel economy of a comparable conventional vehicle on the Japan 10/15 mode driving cycle. This initial result, as well as the fuel economy level (66 mpg), made its way into the U.S. press. Criteria emissions amounting to one-tenth of Japanese standards were cited, and some have interpreted these results to suggest that the grid-independent hybrid can reduce criteria emissions in the U.S. more sharply than can a conventional gasoline vehicle. This paper shows that the potential of contemporary grid-independent hybrid vehicle technology for reducing emissions and fuel consumption under U.S. driving conditions is less than some have inferred. The importance (and difficulty) of doing test and model assessments with comparable driving cycles, comparable emissions control technology, and comparable performance capabilities is emphasized. Compared with comparable-technology conventional vehicles, grid-independent hybrids appear to have no clear criteria pollutant benefits (or disbenefits). (Such benefits are clearly possible with grid-connectable hybrids operating in zero emissions mode.) However, significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., fuel consumption) are possible with hybrid vehicles when they are used to best advantage.

  9. 2014-11-24 Issuance: Test Procedures for Conventional Cooking Products; Supplementary Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register Supplementary Notice of Proposed Rulemaking regarding test procedures for conventional cooking products, as issued by the Deputy Asisstant Secretary for Energy Efficiency. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  10. Quantifying the Operational Benefits of Conventional and Advanced Pumped Storage Hydro on Reliability and Efficiency: Preprint

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    08GO28308 Quantifying the Operational Benefits of Conventional and Advanced Pumped Storage Hydro on Reliability and Efficiency Preprint I. Krad and E. Ela National Renewable Energy Laboratory V. Koritarov Argonne National Laboratory To be presented at the IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting National Harbor, Maryland July 27-31, 2014 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5D00-60806 July 2014 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

  11. Cooperative Mmonitoring Center Occasional Paper/5: Propspects of Conventional Arms Control in South Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Amit; Kamal, Nazir

    1998-11-01

    The intensely adversarial relationship between India and Pakistan is marked by military rivalry, mutual distrust, and suspicion. The most dividing disagreement has been over the Kashmir region. An inability to discuss the Kashmir issue has prevented discussion on other important issues. Since there is little prospect of detente, at least in the near-term, the question is whether this rivalry can be contained by other means, such as arms control approaches. Conventional arms control has been applied flexibly and successfully in some regions to reduce threat-perceptions and achieve reassuring military stability. Some lessons from other international models might be applied to the India/Pakistan context. This paper discusses the status of conventional arms control in South Asia, the dominant Indian and Pakistani perceptions about arms control, the benefits that could be derived from arms control, as well as the problems and prospects of arms control. It also discusses existing conventional arms control agreements at the regional and global levels as well as the potential role of cooperative monitoring technology.

  12. Technical Site Information: Planning group of the Directorate and Conventional Construction Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-11-01

    This document presents the technical site information for the Superconducting Super Collider project. The Ellis County, Texas site was selected by the Department of Energy in 1989. After assembling the initial staff at temporary facilities in Dallas, the SSC Laboratory began site-specific design work. The resulting design for the SSC accelerators, experimental areas, and laboratory facilities were described in the Site-Specific Conceptual Design Report of July 1990. Since then, design specifications for the technical components and conventional facilities have been formulated. In fact, a very significant amount of surface and underground construction has been initiated and many buildings have been completed. Testing of prototypes for most technical components is advanced. The construction phase of the SSC project is approximately 20% complete. At this time, it is appropriate to capture the conventional design work which has taken place since 1990. This documents records regional and physical information used in site studies, summarizes the site studies for conventional facilities, and presents site layouts for buildings and utilities as they would have been at the end of the construction project. As such, this documents summarizes and complements the work of many groups in the SSC laboratory, the Texas National Research Laboratory Commission (TNRLC), and several subcontractors to the SSC project. The document contains extensive references to their work contained in other drafts and final reports. In particular, it borrows heavily from the Site Development Plan (released in draft form in January, 1992) which has, to date, guided aspects of site development.

  13. Manufacture of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Steel Alloys by Conventional Casting and Hot-Working Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, M.P.; Yamamoto, Y.; Magee, J.H.

    2009-03-10

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Carpenter Technology Corporation (CarTech) participated in an in-kind cost share cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) effort under the auspices of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Technology Maturation Program to explore the feasibility for scale up of developmental ORNL alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels by conventional casting and rolling techniques. CarTech successfully vacuum melted 301b heats of four AFA alloy compositions in the range of Fe-(20-25)Ni-(12-14)Cr-(3-4)Al-(l-2.5)Nb wt.% base. Conventional hot/cold rolling was used to produce 0.5-inch thick plate and 0.1-inch thick sheet product. ORNL subsequently successfully rolled the 0.1-inch sheet to 4 mil thick foil. Long-term oxidation studies of the plate form material were initiated at 650, 700, and 800 C in air with 10 volume percent water vapor. Preliminary results indicated that the alloys exhibit comparable (good) oxidation resistance to ORNL laboratory scale AFA alloy arc casting previously evaluated. The sheet and foil material will be used in ongoing evaluation efforts for oxidation and creep resistance under related CRADAs with two gas turbine engine manufacturers. This work will be directed to evaluation of AFA alloys for use in gas turbine recuperators to permit higher-temperature operating conditions for improved efficiencies and reduced environmental emissions. AFA alloy properties to date have been obtained from small laboratory scale arc-castings made at ORNL. The goal of the ORNL-CarTech CRADA was to establish the viability for producing plate, sheet and foil of the AFA alloys by conventional casting and hot working approaches as a first step towards scale up and commercialization of the AFA alloys. The AFA alloy produced under this effort will then be evaluated in related CRADAs with two gas turbine engine manufacturers for gas turbine recuperator applications.

  14. Global Harmonization of Quality Assurance Naming Conventions in Radiation Therapy Clinical Trials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melidis, Christos; Bosch, Walther R.; Izewska, Joanna; Fidarova, Elena; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Ulin, Kenneth; Ishikura, Satoshi; Followill, David; Galvin, James; Haworth, Annette; Besuijen, Deidre; Clark, Clark H.; Miles, Elizabeth; Aird, Edwin; and others

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To review the various radiation therapy quality assurance (RTQA) procedures used by the Global Clinical Trials RTQA Harmonization Group (GHG) steering committee members and present the harmonized RTQA naming conventions by amalgamating procedures with similar objectives. Methods and Materials: A survey of the GHG steering committee members' RTQA procedures, their goals, and naming conventions was conducted. The RTQA procedures were classified as baseline, preaccrual, and prospective/retrospective data capture and analysis. After all the procedures were accumulated and described, extensive discussions took place to come to harmonized RTQA procedures and names. Results: The RTQA procedures implemented within a trial by the GHG steering committee members vary in quantity, timing, name, and compliance criteria. The procedures of each member are based on perceived chances of noncompliance, so that the quality of radiation therapy planning and treatment does not negatively influence the trial measured outcomes. A comparison of these procedures demonstrated similarities among the goals of the various methods, but the naming given to each differed. After thorough discussions, the GHG steering committee members amalgamated the 27 RTQA procedures to 10 harmonized ones with corresponding names: facility questionnaire, beam output audit, benchmark case, dummy run, complex treatment dosimetry check, virtual phantom, individual case review, review of patients' treatment records, and protocol compliance and dosimetry site visit. Conclusions: Harmonized RTQA harmonized naming conventions, which can be used in all future clinical trials involving radiation therapy, have been established. Harmonized procedures will facilitate future intergroup trial collaboration and help to ensure comparable RTQA between international trials, which enables meta-analyses and reduces RTQA workload for intergroup studies.

  15. Reduction of worldwide plutonium inventories using conventional reactors and advanced fuels: A systems study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Chodak, P. III

    1997-09-01

    The potential for reducing plutonium inventories in the civilian nuclear fuel cycle through recycle in LWRs of a variety of mixed-oxide forms is examined by means of a cost-based plutonium-flow systems model that includes an approximate measure of proliferation risk. The impact of plutonium recycle in a number of forms is examined, including the introduction of nonfertile fuels into conventional (LWR) reactors to reduce net plutonium generation, to increase plutonium burnup, and to reduce exo-reactor plutonium inventories.

  16. An entry-level conventional radar-driven rocket anti-satellite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1993-11-01

    Simple anti-satellites (ASATs) can be based on current, conventional technology available to most countries today. ASATs based on radar-guidance could release pellets in front of a satellite to destroy it or consume its maneuver fuel. The relationship between satellite mass and area is fixed, as is that with altitude. Sensor satellites should be large and high; non-sensor satellites should be small. The optimized radar powers and areas and ASAT masses are in the range of components now in commerce, which suggests that they could be developed and used soon.

  17. SPACE PROPULSION SYSTEM PHASED-MISSION PROBABILITY ANALYSIS USING CONVENTIONAL PRA METHODS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Smith; James Knudsen

    2006-05-01

    As part of a series of papers on the topic of advance probabilistic methods, a benchmark phased-mission problem has been suggested. This problem consists of modeling a space mission using an ion propulsion system, where the mission consists of seven mission phases. The mission requires that the propulsion operate for several phases, where the configuration changes as a function of phase. The ion propulsion system itself consists of five thruster assemblies and a single propellant supply, where each thruster assembly has one propulsion power unit and two ion engines. In this paper, we evaluate the probability of mission failure using the conventional methodology of event tree/fault tree analysis. The event tree and fault trees are developed and analyzed using Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE). While the benchmark problem is nominally a "dynamic" problem, in our analysis the mission phases are modeled in a single event tree to show the progression from one phase to the next. The propulsion system is modeled in fault trees to account for the operation; or in this case, the failure of the system. Specifically, the propulsion system is decomposed into each of the five thruster assemblies and fed into the appropriate N-out-of-M gate to evaluate mission failure. A separate fault tree for the propulsion system is developed to account for the different success criteria of each mission phase. Common-cause failure modeling is treated using traditional (i.e., parametrically) methods. As part of this paper, we discuss the overall results in addition to the positive and negative aspects of modeling dynamic situations with non-dynamic modeling techniques. One insight from the use of this conventional method for analyzing the benchmark problem is that it requires significant manual manipulation to the fault trees and how they are linked into the event tree. The conventional method also requires editing the resultant cut sets to

  18. Protein folding and non-conventional drug design: a primer for nuclear structure physicists

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broglia, R.A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Tiana, G.; Provasi, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy)

    2004-02-27

    Some of the paradigms emerging from the study of the phenomena of phase transitions in finite many-body systems, like e.g. the atomic nucleus can be used at profit to solve the protein folding problem within the framework of simple (although not oversimplified) models. From this solution a paradigm emerges for the design of non-conventional drugs, which inhibit enzymatic action without inducing resistance (mutations). The application of these concepts to the design of an inhibitor to the HIV-protease central in the life cycle of the HIV virus is discussed.

  19. Concepts for the development of nanoscale stable precipitation-strengthened steels manufactured by conventional methods

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Yablinsky, C. A.; Tippey, K. E.; Vaynman, S.; Anderoglu, O.; Fine, M. E.; Chung, Y. -W.; Speer, J. G.; Findley, K. O.; Dogan, O. N.; Jablonski, P. D.; et al

    2014-11-11

    In this study, the development of oxide dispersion strengthened ferrous alloys has shown that microstructures designed for excellent irradiation resistance and thermal stability ideally contain stable nanoscale precipitates and dislocation sinks. Based upon this understanding, the microstructures of conventionally manufactured ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels can be designed to include controlled volume fractions of fine, stable precipitates and dislocation sinks via specific alloying and processing paths. The concepts proposed here are categorized as advanced high-Cr ferritic-martensitic (AHCr-FM) and novel tailored precipitate ferritic (TPF) steels, which have the potential to improve the in-reactor performance of conventionally manufactured alloys. AHCr-FM steels have modifiedmore » alloy content relative to current reactor materials (such as alloy NF616/P92) to maximize desirable precipitates and control phase stability. TPF steels are designed to incorporate nickel aluminides, in addition to microalloy carbides, in a ferritic matrix to produce fine precipitate arrays with good thermal stability. Both alloying concepts may also benefit from thermomechanical processing to establish dislocation sinks and modify phase transformation behaviors. Alloying and processing paths toward designed microstructures are discussed for both AHCr-FM and TPF material classes.« less

  20. Concepts for the development of nanoscale stable precipitation-strengthened steels manufactured by conventional methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yablinsky, C. A.; Tippey, K. E.; Vaynman, S.; Anderoglu, O.; Fine, M. E.; Chung, Y. -W.; Speer, J. G.; Findley, K. O.; Dogan, O. N.; Jablonski, P. D.; Maloy, S. A.; Hackenberg, R. E.; Clarke, A. J.; Clarke, K. D.

    2014-11-11

    In this study, the development of oxide dispersion strengthened ferrous alloys has shown that microstructures designed for excellent irradiation resistance and thermal stability ideally contain stable nanoscale precipitates and dislocation sinks. Based upon this understanding, the microstructures of conventionally manufactured ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels can be designed to include controlled volume fractions of fine, stable precipitates and dislocation sinks via specific alloying and processing paths. The concepts proposed here are categorized as advanced high-Cr ferritic-martensitic (AHCr-FM) and novel tailored precipitate ferritic (TPF) steels, which have the potential to improve the in-reactor performance of conventionally manufactured alloys. AHCr-FM steels have modified alloy content relative to current reactor materials (such as alloy NF616/P92) to maximize desirable precipitates and control phase stability. TPF steels are designed to incorporate nickel aluminides, in addition to microalloy carbides, in a ferritic matrix to produce fine precipitate arrays with good thermal stability. Both alloying concepts may also benefit from thermomechanical processing to establish dislocation sinks and modify phase transformation behaviors. Alloying and processing paths toward designed microstructures are discussed for both AHCr-FM and TPF material classes.

  1. A database system for characterization of munitions items in conventional ammunition demilitarization stockpiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun, K.C.; Chiu, S.Y.; Ditmars, J.D.; Huber, C.C.; Nortunen, L.; Sabb, R.

    1994-05-01

    The MIDAS (Munition Items Disposition Action System) database system is an electronic data management system capable of storage and retrieval of information on the detailed structures and material compositions of munitions items designated for demilitarization. The types of such munitions range from bulk propellants and small arms to projectiles and cluster bombs. The database system is also capable of processing data on the quantities of inert, PEP (propellant, explosives and pyrotechnics) and packaging materials associated with munitions, components, or parts, and the quantities of chemical compounds associated with parts made of PEP materials. Development of the MIDAS database system has been undertaken by the US Army to support disposition of unwanted ammunition stockpiles. The inventory of such stockpiles currently includes several thousand items, which total tens of thousands of tons, and is still growing. Providing systematic procedures for disposing of all unwanted conventional munitions is the mission of the MIDAS Demilitarization Program. To carry out this mission, all munitions listed in the Single Manager for Conventional Ammunition inventory must be characterized, and alternatives for resource recovery and recycling and/or disposal of munitions in the demilitarization inventory must be identified.

  2. Origin of fractured cretaceous conventional and unconventional reservoirs, southern Powder River basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, G.C.; Rogers, M.H.

    1993-08-01

    Cretaceous conventional and unconventional fractured reservoirs in the southern Powder River basin, Wyoming, are associated with small throw (10 to 30 ft) normal faults. The faults are nearly vertical, trend northwest-southeast and northeast-southwest, and probably are basement derived. The faults are most easily identified in Cretaceous marine shales and are exposed at the surface in Tertiary units. Erosion and subsequent deposition of Cretaceous sandstones, limestones, and shales affected by the extensional normal faults form stratigraphic traps. The reservoirs are interbedded with, or composed of, mature source rocks have generated and expelled significant hydrocarbons. Overpressuring from the maturation and expulsion processes is still present and has preserved open fractures and porosity in reservoirs from the Lower Cretaceous Fall River through the Upper Cretaceous Niobrara formations. The faults have offset thin sandstone reservoirs forming permeability barriers. The faulting and associated fractures have provided pathways for organic acids that assisted formation of secondary perosity in Upper Cretaceous sandstones. The fracturing of mature source rocks provides areally extensive unconventional reservoirs. Fracturing associated with the extensional normal faults provides significant exploration and exploitation potential for the use of horizontal drilling techniques to evaluate multiple, fractured, overpressured conventional, and unconventional reservoirs that may contain large reserves.

  3. Accounting for the Variation of Driver Aggression in the Simulation of Conventional and Advanced Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation discusses a method of accounting for realistic levels of driver aggression to higher-level vehicle studies, including the impact of variation in real-world driving characteristics (acceleration and speed) on vehicle energy consumption and different powertrains (e.g., conventionally powered vehicles versus electrified drive vehicles [xEVs]). Aggression variation between drivers can increase fuel consumption by more than 50% or decrease it by more than 20% from average. The normalized fuel consumption deviation from average as a function of population percentile was found to be largely insensitive to powertrain. However, the traits of ideal driving behavior are a function of powertrain. In conventional vehicles, kinetic losses dominate rolling resistance and aerodynamic losses. In xEVs with regenerative braking, rolling resistance and aerodynamic losses dominate. The relation of fuel consumption predicted from real-world drive data to that predicted by the industry-standard HWFET, UDDS, LA92, and US06 drive cycles was not consistent across powertrains, and varied broadly from the mean, median, and mode of real-world driving. A drive cycle synthesized by NREL's DRIVE tool accurately and consistently reproduces average real-world for multiple powertrains within 1%, and can be used to calculate the fuel consumption effects of varying levels of driver aggression.

  4. Implementing the Espoo Convention in transboundary EIA between Germany and Poland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albrecht, Eike

    2008-08-15

    Poland and Germany have a long common border which leads to the necessity to cooperate and consult each other in the case of large-scale projects or infrastructure measures likely to cause negative transboundary effects on the environment. There are already binding provisions for transboundary EIA. In the area of the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), transboundary EIA is intended to be legally binding for the Member States by the Espoo Convention which was ratified by Germany 8.8.2002 and by Poland 12.6.1997. Due to corresponding directives, the same is applicable in the context of the European Union. In German legislation, this issue is regulated by Art. 8 of the Federal EIA Act in regard to transboundary participation of administration and by Art. 9a in respect of transboundary public participation. However, these EIA regulations on transboundary participation do not surpass a certain detail level, as they have to be applied between Germany and all neighbouring states. Therefore both countries decided to agree on more detailed provisions in particular regarding procedural questions. During the 12th German-Polish Environmental Council, Germany and Poland reached an agreement on 11.4.2006 in Neuhardenberg/Brandenburg an agreement upon the implementation of the Espoo Convention, the so called Neuhardenberg Agreement. This article assesses the agreement under consideration of already existing law and discusses major improvements and problems.

  5. Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Henderson

    2007-09-30

    The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in line with

  6. Reduction of Worldwide Plutonium Inventories Using Conventional Reactors and Advanced Fuels: A Systems Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krakowski, R.A., Bathke, C.G.

    1997-12-31

    The potential for reducing plutonium inventories in the civilian nuclear fuel cycle through recycle in LWRs of a variety of mixed oxide forms is examined by means of a cost based plutonium flow systems model. This model emphasizes: (1) the minimization of separated plutonium; (2) the long term reduction of spent fuel plutonium; (3) the optimum utilization of uranium resources; and (4) the reduction of (relative) proliferation risks. This parametric systems study utilizes a globally aggregated, long term (approx. 100 years) nuclear energy model that interprets scenario consequences in terms of material inventories, energy costs, and relative proliferation risks associated with the civilian fuel cycle. The impact of introducing nonfertile fuels (NFF,e.g., plutonium oxide in an oxide matrix that contains no uranium) into conventional (LWR) reactors to reduce net plutonium generation, to increase plutonium burnup, and to reduce exo- reactor plutonium inventories also is examined.

  7. Isotopic hydrogen analysis via conventional and surface-enhanced fiber optic Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LASCOLA, ROBERT

    2004-09-23

    This report describes laboratory development and process plant applications of Raman spectroscopy for detection of hydrogen isotopes in the Tritium Facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a U.S. Department of Energy complex. Raman spectroscopy provides a lower-cost, in situ alternative to mass spectrometry techniques currently employed at SRS. Using conventional Raman and fiber optics, we have measured, in the production facility glove boxes, process mixtures of protium and deuterium at various compositions and total pressures ranging from 1000-4000 torr, with detection limits ranging from 1-2 percent for as low as 3-second integration times. We are currently investigating fabrication techniques for SERS surfaces in order to measure trace (0.01-0.1 percent) amounts of one isotope in the presence of the other. These efforts have concentrated on surfaces containing palladium, which promotes hydrogen dissociation and forms metal hydride bonds, essentially providing a chemical enhancement mechanism.

  8. Comparison of reliability performance of group connected and conventional HVDC transmission systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuruganty, S.

    1995-10-01

    A group connected HVDC transmission scheme is a variant of the unit connection where instead of a single generator, a group of generators are directly connected to the converter. Studies conducted in the past indicated that significant cost reduction can be achieved using this scheme. This is mainly due to the elimination of many components which results in considerable capital and operating cost savings to the utility. Concerns regarding the reliability performance of unit connected schemes were raised, however, there has not been a detailed reliability study conducted. This paper addresses the reliability evaluation aspect of a group connected scheme and compares the reliability performance of the group connected scheme with that of the conventional common collector system. Reliability models for both schemes were developed using a hypothetical system model based on the Nelson River system. Practical system component outage data was used to examine the reliability performance of both schemes.

  9. Effects of Mid-Level Ethanol Blends on Conventional Vehicle Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, K.; West, B.; Huff, S.; Thomas, J.; Orban, J.; Cooper, C.

    2010-06-01

    Tests were conducted in 2008 on 16 late-model conventional vehicles (1999-2007) to determine short-term effects of mid-level ethanol blends on performance and emissions. Vehicle odometer readings ranged from 10,000 to 100,000 miles, and all vehicles conformed to federal emissions requirements for their federal certification level. The LA92 drive cycle, also known as the Unified Cycle, was used for testing because it more accurately represents real-world acceleration rates and speeds than the Federal Test Procedure. Test fuels were splash-blends of up to 20 volume percent ethanol with federal certification gasoline. Both regulated and unregulated air-toxic emissions were measured. For the 16-vehicle fleet, increasing ethanol content resulted in reductions in average composite emissions of both nonmethane hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide and increases in average emissions of ethanol and aldehydes.

  10. A method to determine the number of nanoparticles in a cluster using conventional optical microscopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Hyeonggon; Attota, Ravikiran Tondare, Vipin; Vladár, András E.; Kavuri, Premsagar

    2015-09-07

    We present a method that uses conventional optical microscopes to determine the number of nanoparticles in a cluster, which is typically not possible using traditional image-based optical methods due to the diffraction limit. The method, called through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM), uses a series of optical images taken at varying focus levels to achieve this. The optical images cannot directly resolve the individual nanoparticles, but contain information related to the number of particles. The TSOM method makes use of this information to determine the number of nanoparticles in a cluster. Initial good agreement between the simulations and the measurements is also presented. The TSOM method can be applied to fluorescent and non-fluorescent as well as metallic and non-metallic nano-scale materials, including soft materials, making it attractive for tag-less, high-speed, optical analysis of nanoparticles down to 45 nm diameter.

  11. Estimations and prospects of secondary recovery through conventional gas and waterflooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Araujo, J.B.

    1981-03-01

    Conventional waterflooding and/or gas injection have been used extensively for the production of additional hydrocarbons, preferably in light and medium oil reservoirs, and in a lesser extent in heavy oil reservoirs. There are 182 active projects of secondary recovery distributed in Venezuela as follows: 113 projects of gas injection, 64 of waterflooding, and 5 projects of simultaneous injection of gas and water. The daily production by using these methods is 800,000 bpd (40% of national production), and it is expected that 6,000 million bbl of additional oil will be recovered. An objective estimation of the active projects of gas injection and/or waterflooding performed at the present in Venezuela is presented based on statistical data and relevant results. The future prospects also are predicted and quantified.

  12. Conventional Versus Automated Implantation of Loose Seeds in Prostate Brachytherapy: Analysis of Dosimetric and Clinical Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genebes, Caroline; Filleron, Thomas; Graff, Pierre; Jonca, Frdric; Huyghe, Eric; Thoulouzan, Matthieu; Soulie, Michel; Malavaud, Bernard; Aziza, Richard; Brun, Thomas; Delannes, Martine; Bachaud, Jean-Marc

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To review the clinical outcome of I-125 permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) for low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer and to compare 2 techniques of loose-seed implantation. Methods and Materials: 574 consecutive patients underwent I-125 PPB for low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer between 2000 and 2008. Two successive techniques were used: conventional implantation from 2000 to 2004 and automated implantation (Nucletron, FIRST system) from 2004 to 2008. Dosimetric and biochemical recurrence-free (bNED) survival results were reported and compared for the 2 techniques. Univariate and multivariate analysis researched independent predictors for bNED survival. Results: 419 (73%) and 155 (27%) patients with low-risk and intermediate-risk disease, respectively, were treated (median follow-up time, 69.3 months). The 60-month bNED survival rates were 95.2% and 85.7%, respectively, for patients with low-risk and intermediate-risk disease (P=.04). In univariate analysis, patients treated with automated implantation had worse bNED survival rates than did those treated with conventional implantation (P<.0001). By day 30, patients treated with automated implantation showed lower values of dose delivered to 90% of prostate volume (D90) and volume of prostate receiving 100% of prescribed dose (V100). In multivariate analysis, implantation technique, Gleason score, and V100 on day 30 were independent predictors of recurrence-free status. Grade 3 urethritis and urinary incontinence were observed in 2.6% and 1.6% of the cohort, respectively, with no significant differences between the 2 techniques. No grade 3 proctitis was observed. Conclusion: Satisfactory 60-month bNED survival rates (93.1%) and acceptable toxicity (grade 3 urethritis <3%) were achieved by loose-seed implantation. Automated implantation was associated with worse dosimetric and bNED survival outcomes.

  13. Adaptive evolution of simian immunodeficiency viruses isolated from two conventional progressor macaques with neuroaids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foley, Brian T; Korber, Bette T

    2008-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus infection of macaques may result in neuroAIDS, a feature more commonly observed in macaques with rapid progressive disease than in those with conventional disease. This is the first report of two conventional progressors (H631 and H636) with encephalitis in rhesus macaques inoculated with a derivative of SIVsmES43-3. Phylogenetic analyses of viruses isolated from the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from both animals demonstrated tissue compartmentalization. Additionally, virus from the central nervous system (CNS) was able to infect primary macaque monocyte-derived macrophages more efficiently than virus from plasma. Conversely, virus isolated from plasma was able to replicate better in peripheral blood mononuclear cells than virus from CNS. We speculate that these viruses were under different selective pressures in their separate compartments. Furthermore, these viruses appear to have undergone adaptive evolution to preferentially replicate in their respective cell targets. Analysis of the number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS) in gp160 showed that there was a statistically significant loss of PNGS in viruses isolated from CNS in both macaques compared to SIVsmE543-3. Moreover, virus isolated from the brain in H631, had statistically significant loss of PNGS compared to virus isolated from CSF and plasma of the same animal. It is possible that the brain isolate may have adapted to decrease the number of PNGS given that humoral immune selection pressure is less likely to be encountered in the brain. These viruses provide a relevant model to study the adaptations required for SIV to induce encephalitis.

  14. Total Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data Series: Imports - Total Imports - Crude Oil Imports - Crude Oil, Commercial Imports - by SPR Imports - into SPR by Others Imports - Total Products Imports - Total Motor Gasoline Imports - Finished Motor Gasoline Imports - Reformulated Gasoline Imports - Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Imports - Other Reformulated Gasoline Imports - Conventional Gasoline Imports - Conv. Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Imports - Conv. Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 & < Imports -

  15. Comparison of Conventional Diesel and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion in a Light-Duty Engine

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    CFD modeling was used to compare conventional diesel and dual-fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition combustion at US Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx levels, while accounting for Diesel Exhaust Fluid needed to meet NOx constraints with aftertreatment.

  16. National measures under the chemical weapons convention to protect confidential business information and compensate for its loss

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanzman, E.A.; Kellman, B.

    1995-07-01

    This report contains a discussion presented at the Regional Seminar on the National Authority and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Measures to protect confidential business information and compensation for information which has not been sufficiently protected is discussed.

  17. National Report Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This is the first National Report prepared under the terms of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management hereafter referred to as...

  18. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Net Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock. Conventional Gasoline, Ed55 and Lower Finished conventional motor gasoline blended with a maximum of 55 volume percent denatured fuel ethanol. Conventional Gasoline, Greater than Ed55

  19. In-Use and Vehicle Dynamometer Evaluation and Comparison of Class 7 Hybrid Electric and Conventional Diesel Delivery Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton, J.; Walkowicz, K.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2013-10-01

    This study compared fuel economy and emissions between heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and equivalent conventional diesel vehicles. In-use field data were collected from daily fleet operations carried out at a FedEx facility in California on six HEV and six conventional 2010 Freightliner M2-106 straight box trucks. Field data collection primarily focused on route assessment and vehicle fuel consumption over a six-month period. Chassis dynamometer testing was also carried out on one conventional vehicle and one HEV to determine differences in fuel consumption and emissions. Route data from the field study was analyzed to determine the selection of dynamometer test cycles. From this analysis, the New York Composite (NYComp), Hybrid Truck Users Forum Class 6 (HTUF 6), and California Air Resource Board (CARB) Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) drive cycles were chosen. The HEV showed 31% better fuel economy on the NYComp cycle, 25% better on the HTUF 6 cycle and 4% worse on the CARB HHDDT cycle when compared to the conventional vehicle. The in-use field data indicates that the HEVs had around 16% better fuel economy than the conventional vehicles. Dynamometer testing also showed that the HEV generally emitted higher levels of nitric oxides than the conventional vehicle over the drive cycles, up to 77% higher on the NYComp cycle (though this may at least in part be attributed to the different engine certification levels in the vehicles tested). The conventional vehicle was found to accelerate up to freeway speeds over ten seconds faster than the HEV.

  20. Conventional empirical law reverses in the phase transitions of 122-type iron-based superconductors

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Yu, Zhenhai; Wang, Lin; Wang, Luhong; Liu, Haozhe; Zhao, Jinggeng; Li, Chunyu; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Wu, Wei; Luo, Jianlin; Wang, Nanlin; et al

    2014-11-24

    Phase transition of solid-state materials is a fundamental research topic in condensed matter physics, materials science and geophysics. It has been well accepted and widely proven that isostructural compounds containing different cations undergo same pressure-induced phase transitions but at progressively lower pressures as the cation radii increases. However, we discovered that this conventional law reverses in the structural transitions in 122-type iron-based superconductors. In this report, a combined low temperature and high pressure X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement has identified the phase transition curves among the tetragonal (T), orthorhombic (O) and the collapsed-tetragonal (cT) phases in the structural phase diagram ofmore » the iron-based superconductor AFe2As2 (A = Ca, Sr, Eu, and Ba). As a result, the cation radii dependence of the phase transition pressure (T → cT) shows an opposite trend in which the compounds with larger ambient radii cations have a higher transition pressure.« less

  1. Next Generation of Renewable Electricity Policy: How Rapid Change is Breaking Down Conventional Policy Categories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couture, T. D.; Jacobs, D.; Rickerson, W.; Healey, V.

    2015-02-01

    A number of policies have been used historically in order to stimulate the growth of the renewable electricity sector. This paper examines four of these policy instruments: competitive tendering, sometimes called renewable electricity auctions, feed-in tariffs, net metering and net billing, and tradable renewable energy certificates. In recent years, however, a number of changes to both market circumstances and to policy priorities have resulted in numerous policy innovations, including the emergence of policy hybrids. With no common language for these evolving policy mechanisms, policymakers have generally continued to use the same traditional policy labels, occasionally generating confusion as many of these new policies no longer look, or act, like their traditional predecessors. In reviewing these changes, this paper makes two separate but related claims: first, policy labels themselves are breaking down and evolving. As a result, policy comparisons that rely on the conventional labels may no longer be appropriate, or advisable. Second, as policymakers continue to adapt, we are in effect witnessing the emergence of the next generation of renewable electricity policies, a change that could have significant impacts on investment, as well as on market growth in both developed and developing countries.

  2. Challenges and Potential Solutions for Reducing Climate Control Loads in Conventional and Hybrid Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrington, R.B., Anderson, R., Blake, D.M., Burch, S.D.; Cuddy, M.R., Keyser, M.A., Rugh, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory, is collaborating with U.S. automotive manufacturers to develop innovative techniques to reduce national fuel consumption and vehicle tailpipe emissions by reducing vehicle climate control loads. A new U.S. emissions test, the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), will soon begin measuring tailpipe emissions with the air conditioning system operating. Modeled results show that emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) more than double during the air conditioning part of the SFTP. Reducing the transmittance of the glazing can have a greater impact on the cabin soak temperature than ventilating the vehicle during a hot soak. Reducing the amount of outside air can decrease cooling and heating loads but requires that the recirculated air be cleaned. We discuss a photocatalytic oxidation air-cleaning process for removing volatile organic compounds and bioareosols. We conclude with an example of modeling the thermal comfort of the occupants. An auxiliary load increase of only 400 Watts (W) results in a 0.4 km/L (1 mpg) decrease for a conventional 11.9-L/100-km (28-mpg) vehicle. If every vehicle in the United States were to save only 0.4 km/L (1 mpg), $4 billion (U.S. dollars) would be saved annually in gasoline and oil costs. Further information can be found at http://www.ctts.nrel.gov/auxload.html.

  3. Use of deep penetration flash radiography in conventional ordnance, and impact dynamics research and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fradkin, D.B.

    1995-05-01

    The use of penetrating flash radiography (FXR) as a diagnostic tool in explosive ordnance and impact dynamics research and development is discussed by the presentation of numerous examples of its utility in analyzing dynamic interactions and in bench marking hydrodynamic computer codes. The Los Alamos Terminal Ballistic Test Range is described. Examples of the use of the new Los Alamos Pulsed Intense X raY (PIXY) machine for deep-penetration radiography are also presented. PIXY is a state-of-the-art, flash x-ray machine recently installed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Along with the LANL sled track and the large- and small-bore gun range, it is a major component of the LANL Terminal Ballistic Test Range. When operating at full voltage, the machine is capable of obtaining a radiographic image through 8-12 in. of armor steel or ceramic. Deep-penetration flash radiographs show the capabilities of PIXY and further illustrate the enhanced information now available to the conventional munitions research and development community. Commercially available radiographic machines are also described and examples of their use presented. It is concluded that flash radiography is an excellent diagnostic tool for benchmarking hydrodynamic and finite-element computer codes.

  4. Conventional empirical law reverses in the phase transitions of 122-type iron-based superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Zhenhai; Wang, Lin; Wang, Luhong; Liu, Haozhe; Zhao, Jinggeng; Li, Chunyu; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Wu, Wei; Luo, Jianlin; Wang, Nanlin; Yang, Ke; Zhao, Yusheng; Mao, Ho -kwang

    2014-11-24

    Phase transition of solid-state materials is a fundamental research topic in condensed matter physics, materials science and geophysics. It has been well accepted and widely proven that isostructural compounds containing different cations undergo same pressure-induced phase transitions but at progressively lower pressures as the cation radii increases. However, we discovered that this conventional law reverses in the structural transitions in 122-type iron-based superconductors. In this report, a combined low temperature and high pressure X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement has identified the phase transition curves among the tetragonal (T), orthorhombic (O) and the collapsed-tetragonal (cT) phases in the structural phase diagram of the iron-based superconductor AFe2As2 (A = Ca, Sr, Eu, and Ba). As a result, the cation radii dependence of the phase transition pressure (T → cT) shows an opposite trend in which the compounds with larger ambient radii cations have a higher transition pressure.

  5. ISSUANCE 2016-09-23:Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Cooking Products; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, Comment Period Extension

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Cooking Products; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, Comment Period Extension

  6. ISSUANCE 2016-08-16 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Cooking Products; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (SNOPR)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Cooking Products; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (SNOPR)

  7. Fish Passage Assessment of an Advanced Hydropower Turbine and Conventional Turbine Using Blade-strike Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-01-04

    In the Columbia and Snake River basins, several species of Pacific salmon were listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 due to significant declines of fish population. Dam operators and design engineers are thus faced with the task of making those hydroelectric facilities more ecologically friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, applied for re-licensing from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that were designed to increase power generation and improve fish passage conditions. We applied both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models to the newly installed turbine and an existing turbine. Modeled probabilities were compared to the results of a large-scale live fish survival study and a sensor fish study under the same operational parameters. Overall, injury rates predicted by the deterministic model were higher than experimental rates of injury while those predicted by the stochastic model were in close agreement with experiment results. Fish orientation at the time of entry into the plane of the leading edges of the turbine runner blades was an important factor contributing to uncertainty in modeled results. The advanced design turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the existing turbine design; however, there was no statistical evidence that suggested significant differences in blade-strike injuries between the two turbines and the hypothesis that direct fish survival rate through the advanced hydropower turbine is equal or better than that through the conventional turbine could not be rejected.

  8. Life-cycle Analysis of Bioproducts and Their Conventional Counterparts in GREET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Jennifer B.; Adom, Felix; Sather, Norm; Han, Jeongwoo; Snyder, Seth; He, Chang; Gong, Jian; Yue, Dajun; You, Fengqi

    2015-09-01

    To further expand upon the literature in this field and to develop a platform for bioproduct LCA, we developed LCA results for ten bioproducts produced either from algal glycerol or from corn stover-derived sugars. We used Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREETTM) model as the platform for this study. The data and calculations reported herein are available to GREET users in a bioproducts module included in the fall 2015 GREET release. This report documents our approach to this analysis and the results. In Chapter 2, we review the process we underwent to select the bioproducts for analysis based on market and technology readiness criteria. In Chapter 3, we review key parameters for production of the two feedstocks we considered: corn stover and algae. Given the lack of publicly available information about the production of bioproducts, which is caused in large part by the emerging nature of the industry, we developed Aspen Plus® simulations of the processes that could be used to produce each bioproduct. From these simulations, we extracted the energy and material flows of these processes, which were important inputs to the GREET bioproducts module. Chapter 4 provides the details of these Aspen Plus simulations. It is important to compare the LCA results for bioproducts to those for their petroleum counterparts. We therefore also developed material and energy flow data for conventional products based mostly on the literature. These data are described in Chapter 5 and are also included in the GREET bioproducts module. In Chapter 6, we present results from this analysis and examine areas for refinement and future research.

  9. Poster Thur Eve 57: Evaluation of laryngeal mucosal dose with conventional linac and TomoTherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nusrat, H; Lekx, K; Eapen, L

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not underdosing occurs in the mucosal layer during treatment of glottis cancer. A larynx phantom was produced and regions at risk of recurrence due to suspected underdosing were identified and wells drilled into the phantom for flush placement of TLDs. Seven interest points were chosen. CT simulation was completed prior to the wells being drilled, and again afterwards with the TLD locations indicated using BBs. Treatment plans created for this investigation included: 3DCRT using Elekta-XiO (n=9) and VMAT created using Elekta-Monaco (n=9), both delivered on an Elekta linac; standard TomoTherapy plan (n=11) and a directionally blocked TomoTherapy plan to approximate a 3D-conformal approach (n=5). Imaging dose during TomoTherapy deliveries was accounted for. The average TLD result at each interest point was compared to the planned value using a paired t-test. There was no significant difference between the planned and measured 3DCRT dose (268.9 vs. 267.0 cGy, respectively; p>0.05). Similarly, the planned and measured TomoTherapy treatment did not show any significant differences (271.7 vs 269.7 cGy; p>0.05). In the blocked TomoTherapy plan, significant overdosing was seen (274.5 vs 294.9 cGy; p<0.05) and underdosing was not seen in the VMAT treatment (303.5 vs 321.8 cGy; p>0.05). Further investigation is ongoing to ensure appropriate normalization of results and to investigate the overdosing noted with the blocked TomoTherapy plan. Results from this study suggest that significant underdosing does not occur in the conventional treatment of early glottic cancer using 6MV photons.

  10. Measurement of joint kinematics using a conventional clinical single-perspective flat-panel radiography system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seslija, Petar; Teeter, Matthew G.; Yuan Xunhua; Naudie, Douglas D. R.; Bourne, Robert B.; MacDonald, Steven J.; Peters, Terry M.; Holdsworth, David W.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: The ability to accurately measure joint kinematics is an important tool in studying both normal joint function and pathologies associated with injury and disease. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy, accuracy, precision, and clinical safety of measuring 3D joint motion using a conventional flat-panel radiography system prior to its application in an in vivo study. Methods: An automated, image-based tracking algorithm was implemented to measure the three-dimensional pose of a sparse object from a two-dimensional radiographic projection. The algorithm was tested to determine its efficiency and failure rate, defined as the number of image frames where automated tracking failed, or required user intervention. The accuracy and precision of measuring three-dimensional motion were assessed using a robotic controlled, tibiofemoral knee phantom programmed to mimic a subject with a total knee replacement performing a stair ascent activity. Accuracy was assessed by comparing the measurements of the single-plane radiographic tracking technique to those of an optical tracking system, and quantified by the measurement discrepancy between the two systems using the Bland-Altman technique. Precision was assessed through a series of repeated measurements of the tibiofemoral kinematics, and was quantified using the across-trial deviations of the repeated kinematic measurements. The safety of the imaging procedure was assessed by measuring the effective dose of ionizing radiation associated with the x-ray exposures, and analyzing its relative risk to a human subject. Results: The automated tracking algorithm displayed a failure rate of 2% and achieved an average computational throughput of 8 image frames/s. Mean differences between the radiographic and optical measurements for translations and rotations were less than 0.08 mm and 0.07 Degree-Sign in-plane, and 0.24 mm and 0.6 Degree-Sign out-of-plane. The repeatability of kinematics measurements performed

  11. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Pipeline Between PADDs Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB) Motor gasoline blending components intended for blending with oxygenates to produce finished conventional motor gasoline. Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock.

  12. Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, as of Dec. 31

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Districts Pipeline between PAD Districts Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Normal Butane/Butylene Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Renewable Fuels Renewable Diesel Fuel Finished Motor Gasoline

  13. Experimental investigation of piston heat transfer under conventional diesel and reactivity-controlled compression ignition combustion regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A; Hendricks, Terry Lee; Ghandhi, Jaal B

    2014-01-01

    The piston of a heavy-duty single-cylinder research engine was instrumented with 11 fast-response surface thermocouples, and a commercial wireless telemetry system was used to transmit the signals from the moving piston. The raw thermocouple data were processed using an inverse heat conduction method that included Tikhonov regularization to recover transient heat flux. By applying symmetry, the data were compiled to provide time-resolved spatial maps of the piston heat flux and surface temperature. A detailed comparison was made between conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition combustion operations at matched conditions of load, speed, boost pressure, and combustion phasing. The integrated piston heat transfer was found to be 24% lower, and the mean surface temperature was 25 C lower for reactivity-controlled compression ignition operation as compared to conventional diesel combustion, in spite of the higher peak heat release rate. Lower integrated piston heat transfer for reactivity-controlled compression ignition was found over all the operating conditions tested. The results showed that increasing speed decreased the integrated heat transfer for conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition. The effect of the start of injection timing was found to strongly influence conventional diesel combustion heat flux, but had a negligible effect on reactivity-controlled compression ignition heat flux, even in the limit of near top dead center high-reactivity fuel injection timings. These results suggest that the role of the high-reactivity fuel injection does not significantly affect the thermal environment even though it is important for controlling the ignition timing and heat release rate shape. The integrated heat transfer and the dynamic surface heat flux were found to be insensitive to changes in boost pressure for both conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition

  14. Evaluation of the reliability of a conventional platform installed in South Pass Block 47 of the Mississippi River delta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bea, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    In August 1995, the Energy Development Corporation (EDC) installed a conventional drilling and production platform in South Pass Block 47 (SP 47). Due to its proximity to the delta of the Mississippi River, this platform will be subject to the environmental forces developed by hurricanes and movements of the sea floor. This paper summarizes results from probability based study of the reliability characteristics of a conventional platform installed in SP 47. Bases for evaluation of the acceptability of the reliability of the platform are developed. This paper shows how reliability methods can be used to help improve the efficiency of offshore platforms. Application of traditional engineering approaches indicated the need for a mudslide resistant platform. Given that a mudslide resistant platform was required, then the gas reserves could not have been developed.

  15. Helical Tomotherapy Versus Conventional Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Primary Chemoradiation in Cervical Cancer Patients: An Intraindividual Comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnitz, Simone; Lukarski, Dusko; Koehler, Christhardt; Wlodarczyk, Waldemar; Ebert, Andreas; Budach, Volker; Schneider, Achim; Stromberger, Carmen

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To compare intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivered by helical tomotherapy (HT) with conventional IMRT for primary chemoradiation in cervical cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Twenty cervical cancer patients undergoing primary chemoradiation received radiation with HT; 10 patients underwent pelvic irradiation (PEL) and 10 extended-field irradiation (EXT). For treatment planning, the simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) concept was applied. Tumor, pelvic, with or without para-aortic lymph nodes were defined as planning target volume A (PTV-A) with a prescribed dose of 1.8/50.4 Gy (28 fractions). The SIB dose for the parametrium (PTV-B), was 2.12/59.36 Gy. The lower target constraints were 95% of the prescribed dose in 95% of the target volume, and the upper dose constraint was 107%. The irradiated small-bowel volumes were kept as low as possible. For every HT plan, a conventional IMRT plan was calculated and compared with regard to dose-volume histogram, conformity index and conformity number, and homogeneity index. Results: Both techniques allowed excellent target volume coverage and sufficient SB sparing. Conformity index and conformity number results for both PTV-A and PTV-B, homogeneity index for PTV-B, and SB sparing for V45, V50, Dmax, and D1% were significantly better with HT. SB sparing was significantly better for conventional IMRT at low doses (V10). Conclusions: Both HT and conventional IMRT provide optimal treatment of cervical cancer patients. The HT technique was significantly favored with regard to target conformity, homogeneity, and SB sparing. Randomized trials are needed to assess the oncological outcome, toxicity, and clinical relevance of these differences.

  16. Hypofractionation vs Conventional Radiation Therapy for Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma: A Matched-Cohort Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janssens, Geert O.; Jansen, Marc H.; Nowak, Peter J.; Oldenburger, Foppe R.; Bouffet, Eric; Kamphuis-van Ulzen, Karin; Lindert, Erik J. van; Schieving, Jolanda H.; Boterberg, Tom; Kaspers, Gertjan J.; Gidding, Corrie E.; Hargrave, Darren

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Despite conventional radiation therapy, 54 Gy in single doses of 1.8 Gy (54/1.8 Gy) over 6 weeks, most children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) will die within 1 year after diagnosis. To reduce patient burden, we investigated the role of hypofractionation radiation therapy given over 3 to 4 weeks. A 1:1 matched-cohort analysis with conventional radiation therapy was performed to assess response and survival. Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven children, aged 3 to 14, were treated according to 1 of 2 hypofractionation regimens over 3 to 4 weeks (39/3 Gy, n=16 or 44.8/2.8 Gy, n=11). All patients had symptoms for {<=}3 months, {>=}2 signs of the neurologic triad (cranial nerve deficit, ataxia, long tract signs), and characteristic features of DIPG on magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-seven patients fulfilling the same diagnostic criteria and receiving at least 50/1.8 to 2.0 Gy were eligible for the matched-cohort analysis. Results: With hypofractionation radiation therapy, the overall survival at 6, 9, and 12 months was 74%, 44%, and 22%, respectively. Progression-free survival at 3, 6, and 9 months was 77%, 43%, and 12%, respectively. Temporary discontinuation of steroids was observed in 21 of 27 (78%) patients. No significant difference in median overall survival (9.0 vs 9.4 months; P=.84) and time to progression (5.0 vs 7.6 months; P=.24) was observed between hypofractionation vs conventional radiation therapy, respectively. Conclusions: For patients with newly diagnosed DIPG, a hypofractionation regimen, given over 3 to 4 weeks, offers equal overall survival with less treatment burden compared with a conventional regimen of 6 weeks.

  17. In-Use and Vehicle Dynamometer Evaluation and Comparison of Class 7 Hybrid Electric and Conventional Diesel Delivery Trucks

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL/CP-5400-60098. Posted with permission. Presented at the SAE 2013 Commercial Vehicle Engineering Congress. 2013-01-2468 Published 09/24/2013 doi:10.4271/2013-01-2468 saecomveh.saejournals.org In-Use and Vehicle Dynamometer Evaluation and Comparison of Class 7 Hybrid Electric and Conventional Diesel Delivery Trucks Jonathan Burton, Kevin Walkowicz, Petr Sindler, and Adam Duran National Renewable Energy Laboratory ABSTRACT This study compared fuel economy and emissions between heavy-duty

  18. Electric Vehicle Performance at McMurdo Station (Antarctica) and Comparison with McMurdo Station Conventional Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sears, T.; Lammert, M.; Colby, K.; Walter, R.

    2014-09-01

    This report examines the performance of two electric vehicles (EVs) at McMurdo, Antarctica (McMurdo). The study examined the performance of two e-ride Industries EVs initially delivered to McMurdo on February 16, 2011, and compared their performance and fuel use with that of conventional vehicles that have a duty cycle similar to that of the EVs used at McMurdo.

  19. untitled

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    132,393 Reformulated Blended with Fuel Ethanol ...... 434,150 4,158 438,308 102,324 ... 613,247 Conventional Blended with Fuel Ethanol ...... 619,244 75,378 694,622 434,810 ...

  20. Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed preprocessing supply system designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muth, jr., David J.; Langholtz, Matthew H.; Tan, Eric; Jacobson, Jacob; Schwab, Amy; Wu, May; Argo, Andrew; Brandt, Craig C.; Cafferty, Kara; Chiu, Yi-Wen; Dutta, Abhijit; Eaton, Laurence M.; Searcy, Erin

    2014-03-31

    The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to the

  1. Methodology for comparing a standoff weapon with current conventional munitions in a runway attack scenario. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coulter, D.M.; Fry, D.W.

    1986-03-01

    This research developed a SLAM discrete-event simulation model to support a methodology for comparing a standoff weapon with current conventional weapons. This study is limited to the defensive threats within a 20-NM terminal area surrounding a generic Warsaw Pact airfield. The emphasis of the study was simulation of the standoff weapon interactions with the terminal threats. Previous models have not attempted to model the threat reactions to the standoff-weapons. The resulting simulation enables the analyst to study the effects of weapon release conditions on weapon attrition, runway damage effectiveness, and aircraft attrition.

  2. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5.PDF Table 35. Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks of Selected Petroleum Products by PAD District and State, January 2015 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components 1 Kerosene Reformulated Conventional Total Reformulated Conventional Total PAD District 1 ............................................ 23 2,951 2,974 17,332 34,987 52,319 1,393 Connecticut ............................................. - - - 929 - 929 150 Delaware

  3. Distillate Fuel Oil Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Product: Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Conventional Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Propane/Propylene Period-Units: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources &

  4. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tessum, Christopher W.; Hill, Jason D.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-12-30

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration–response, and economic health impact modeling for ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or “grid average” electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles.

  5. Optimization of the magnetic horn for the nuSTORM non-conventional neutrino beam using the genetic algorithm

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Liu, A.; Bross, A.; Neuffer, D.

    2015-05-28

    This paper describes the strategy for optimizing the magnetic horn for the neutrinos from STORed Muons (nuSTORM) facility. The nuSTORM magnetic horn is the primary collection device for the secondary particles generated by bombarding a solid target with 120 GeV protons. As a consequence of the non-conventional beamline designed for nuSTORM, the requirements on the horn are different from those for a conventional neutrino beamline. At nuSTORM, muons decay while circulating in the storage ring, and the detectors are placed downstream of the production straight so as to be exposed to the neutrinos from muon decay. nuSTORM aims at preciselymore » measuring the neutrino cross sections, and providing a definitive statement about the existence of sterile neutrinos. The nuSTORM horn aims at focusing the pions into a certain phase space so that more muons from pion decay can be accepted by the decay ring. The paper demonstrates a numerical method that was developed to optimize the horn design to gain higher neutrino flux from the circulating muons. A Genetic Algorithm (GA) was applied to the simultaneous optimization of the two objectives in this study. In conclusion, the application of the technique discussed in this paper is not limited to either the nuSTORM facility or muon based facilities, but can be used for other neutrino facilities that use magnetic horns as collection devices.« less

  6. Manufacture of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steel Alloys by Conventional Casting and Hot-Working Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, M.P.; Yamamoto, Y.; Magee, J.H. (Carpenter Technol. Corp.)

    2009-03-23

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Carpenter Technology Corporation (CarTech) participated in an in-kind cost share cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) effort under the auspices of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Technology Maturation program to explore the feasibility for scale up of developmental ORNL alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels by conventional casting and rolling techniques. CarTech successfully vacuum melted 30lb heats of four AFA alloy compositions in the range of Fe-(20-25)Ni-(12-14)Cr-(3-4)Al-(1-2.5)Nb wt.% base. Conventional hot/cold rolling was used to produce 0.5-inch thick plate and 0.1-inch thick sheet product. ORNL subsequently successfully rolled the 0.1-inch sheet to 4 mil thick foil. Long-term oxidation studies of the plate form material were initiated at 650, 700, and 800 C in air with 10 volume percent water vapor. Preliminary results indicated that the alloys exhibit comparable (good) oxidation resistance to ORNL laboratory scale AFA alloy arc casting previously evaluated. The sheet and foil material will be used in ongoing evaluation efforts for oxidation and creep resistance under related CRADAs with two gas turbine engine manufacturers. This work will be directed to evaluation of AFA alloys for use in gas turbine recuperators to permit higher-temperature operating conditions for improved efficiencies and reduced environmental emissions.

  7. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Tessum, Christopher W.; Hill, Jason D.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-12-30

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration–response, and economic health impact modeling for ozonemore » (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or “grid average” electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles.« less

  8. The transboundary EIA convention in the context of private sector operations co-financed by an International Financial Institution: two case studies from Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazari, Mehrdad M

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents two case studies involving private sector, offshore, oil field developments in the Caspian Sea. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) of these operations indicated that major and unmitigated oil spills could potentially result in transboundary impacts. Both projects were co-financed by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), an International Financial Institution (IFI). Project review and financing decision by the EBRD occurred when neither country hosting the projects was a Party to the 1991 Convention on EIA in a Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention). Discussions with government agencies during project review highlighted their limited institutional capacity to pursue transboundary notification and consultation activities. However, without being formal Parties or having clearly defined roles under the Convention, the combined presence of the EBRD, the private sector developer and its project needing financing became important drivers to promote the Espoo Convention. Surveying for similar IFI-project combinations in developing and transition economies could provide a 'bottom up' input to further optimise the Convention Secretariat's awareness raising, intervention design, and alliance-building strategies. The knowledge management model and user-friendly Web site of the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity highlight approaches that may also prove effective for the Espoo Convention.

  9. Kinetic Model Development for the Combustion of Particulate Matter from Conventional and Soy Methyl Ester Diesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea

    2009-12-01

    The primary objective of this research has been to investigate how the oxidation characteristics of diesel particulate matter (PM) are affected by blending soy-based biodiesel fuel with conventional ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. PM produced in a light duty engine from different biodiesel-conventional fuel blends was subjected to a range of physical and chemical measurements in order to better understand the mechanisms by which fuel-related changes to oxidation reactivity are brought about. These observations were then incorporated into a kinetic model to predict PM oxidation. Nanostructure of the fixed carbon was investigated by HR-TEM and showed that particulates from biodiesel had a more open structure than particulates generated from conventional diesel fuel, which was confirmed by BET surface area measurements. Surface area evolution with extent of oxidation reaction was measured for PM from ULSD and biodiesel. Biodiesel particulate has a significantly larger surface area for the first 40% of conversion, at which point the samples become quite similar. Oxidation characteristics of nascent PM and the fixed carbon portion were measured by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and it was noted that increased biodiesel blending lowered the light-off temperature as well as the temperature where the peak rate of oxidation occurred. A shift in the oxidation profiles of all fuels was seen when the mobile carbon fraction was removed, leaving only the fixed carbon, however the trend in temperature advantage of the biofuel blending remained. The mobile carbon fraction was measured by temperature programmed desorption found to generally increase with increasing biodiesel blend level. The relative change in the light-off temperatures for the nascent and fixed carbon samples was found to be related to the fraction of mobile carbon. Effective Arrhenius parameters for fixed carbon oxidation were directly measured with isothermal, differential oxidation experiments

  10. Patch-based generation of a pseudo CT from conventional MRI sequences for MRI-only radiotherapy of the brain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreasen, Daniel; Van Leemput, Koen; Hansen, Rasmus H.; Andersen, Jon A. L.; Edmund, Jens M.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy (RT) based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the only modality, the information on electron density must be derived from the MRI scan by creating a so-called pseudo computed tomography (pCT). This is a nontrivial task, since the voxel-intensities in an MRI scan are not uniquely related to electron density. To solve the task, voxel-based or atlas-based models have typically been used. The voxel-based models require a specialized dual ultrashort echo time MRI sequence for bone visualization and the atlas-based models require deformable registrations of conventional MRI scans. In this study, we investigate the potential of a patch-based method for creating a pCT based on conventional T{sub 1}-weighted MRI scans without using deformable registrations. We compare this method against two state-of-the-art methods within the voxel-based and atlas-based categories. Methods: The data consisted of CT and MRI scans of five cranial RT patients. To compare the performance of the different methods, a nested cross validation was done to find optimal model parameters for all the methods. Voxel-wise and geometric evaluations of the pCTs were done. Furthermore, a radiologic evaluation based on water equivalent path lengths was carried out, comparing the upper hemisphere of the head in the pCT and the real CT. Finally, the dosimetric accuracy was tested and compared for a photon treatment plan. Results: The pCTs produced with the patch-based method had the best voxel-wise, geometric, and radiologic agreement with the real CT, closely followed by the atlas-based method. In terms of the dosimetric accuracy, the patch-based method had average deviations of less than 0.5% in measures related to target coverage. Conclusions: We showed that a patch-based method could generate an accurate pCT based on conventional T{sub 1}-weighted MRI sequences and without deformable registrations. In our evaluations, the method performed better than existing voxel-based and

  11. Traditional (Conventional) Projects

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Cost P 3.0 1 3.0 1 3.0 4 12.0 5 15.0 A6 Forecast of Cost at Completion P 3.0 NA 0.0 NA ... B1 Project Schedule H 7.5 1 7.5 2 15.0 5 37.5 5 37.5 B2 Major Milestones P 3.0 1 3.0 2 6.0 ...

  12. conventional_gas.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ... Uinta Basin Paradox Basin Arkoma Basin Greater Green River Basin Black Warrior Basin Palo ... Miles Source: Energy Information Administration based on data from HPDI, IN Geological ...

  13. Stocks of Conventional Gasoline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Nuclear & Uranium Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Status of U.S. nuclear outages (interactive) Nuclear power plants Uranium & nuclear fuel Spent nuclear fuel All nuclear data reports Analysis & Projections Major Topics Most popular Nuclear plants and reactors Projections Recurring Uranium All reports Browse by Tag Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud ‹ See all Nuclear Reports State Nuclear Profiles Data for 2010 (See also State Electricity Profiles) | Release Date: April 26, 2012 |

  14. Conventional Medical Screening Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Medical screening is a strategy used to identify diseases or conditions in a select population at an early stage, often before signs and symptoms develop, and to refer individuals with suspicious findings to their personal physician or a specialist for further testing, diagnosis, and treatment. The program is not intended to serve as a substitute for routine medical exams through an individual's personal physician.

  15. Update of Summer Reformulated Gasoline Supply Assessment for New York and Connecticut

    Reports and Publications

    2004-01-01

    In October 2003, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) published a review of the status of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban transition in New York (NY) and Connecticut (CT) that noted significant uncertainties in gasoline supply for those states for the summer of 2004. To obtain updated information, EIA spoke to major suppliers to the two states over the past several months as the petroleum industry began the switch from winter- to summer-grade gasoline.

  16. Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules (Released in the STEO January 1998)

    Reports and Publications

    1998-01-01

    On August 27, 1997, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated revised the rules that allow foreign refiners to establish and use individual baselines, but it would not be mandatory (the optional use of an individual refinery baseline is not available to domestic refiners.) If a foreign refiner did not establish and use an individual baseline, the gasoline they export to the United States would be regulated through the importer, and subject to the importer's baseline (most likely the statutory baseline). Specific regulatory provisions are implemented to ensure that the option to use an individual baseline would not lead to adverse environmental impacts. This involves monitoring the average quality of imported gasoline, and if a specified benchmark is exceeded, remedial action would be taken by adjusting the requirements applicable to imported gasoline.

  17. Areas Participating in the Reformulated Gasoline Program (Released in the STEO June 1999)

    Reports and Publications

    1999-01-01

    Section 107(d) of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990 (the Act), required states to identify all areas that do not meet the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone, and directed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to designate these areas as ozone nonattainment areas. Section 181 of the Act required EPA to classify each area as a marginal, moderate, serious, severe or extreme ozone nonattainment area. EPA classified all areas that were designated as in nonattainment for ozone at the time of the enactment of the 1990 Amendments, except for certain "nonclassifiable" areas (56 FR 56694, November 6, 1991).

  18. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    March ... 76.7 76.3 72.0 65.8 65.5 68.8 86.0 85.7 77.9 70.0 - 75.6 April ... 87.7 87.3 83.5 77.0 77.3 80.2 96.5 96.2 88.8 81.4 -...

  19. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    92.4 92.1 83.7 74.1 W 80.9 1997 January ... 82.4 82.1 77.1 74.3 73.6 75.6 92.1 91.8 82.7 78.1 W 81.4 February ... 82.9 82.6 77.8 71.2 72.9...

  20. REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Chin; Xiaolei Sun; George W. Roberts; Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Sourabh Pansare; James G. Goodwin Jr; Richard W. Rice; James J. Spivey

    2005-06-01

    Hydrocarbon fuels must be reformed in a series of steps to provide hydrogen for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Preferential oxidation (PROX) is one method to reduce the CO concentration to less than 10 ppm in the presence of {approx}40% H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and steam. This will prevent CO poisoning of the PEMFC anode. Structured supports, such as ceramic monoliths, can be used for the PROX reaction. Alternatively, metal foams offer a number of advantages over the traditional ceramic monolith.

  1. REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mr. Paul Chin; Dr. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts; Professor James J. Spivey; Mr. Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Dr. James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Dr. Richard W. Rice

    2002-12-31

    Several different catalytic reactions must be carried out in order to convert hydrocarbons (or alcohols) into hydrogen for use as a fuel for polyelectrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Each reaction in the fuel-processing sequence has a different set of characteristics, which influences the type of catalyst support that should be used for that particular reaction. A wide range of supports are being evaluated for the various reactions in the fuel-processing scheme, including porous and non-porous particles, ceramic and metal straight-channel monoliths, and ceramic and metal monolithic foams. These different types of support have distinctly different transport characteristics. The best choice of support for a given reaction will depend on the design constraints for the system, e.g., allowable pressure drop, and on the characteristics of the reaction for which the catalyst is being designed. Three of the most important reaction characteristics are the intrinsic reaction rate, the exothermicity/endothermicity of the reaction, and the nature of the reaction network, e.g., whether more than one reaction takes place and, in the case of multiple reactions, the configuration of the network. Isotopic transient kinetic analysis was used to study the surface intermediates. The preferential oxidation of low concentrations of carbon monoxide in the presence of high concentrations of hydrogen (PROX) is an important final step in most fuel processor designs. Data on the behavior of straight-channel monoliths and foam monolith supports will be presented to illustrate some of the factors involved in choosing a support for this reaction.

  2. REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Chin; George W. Roberts; James J. Spivey

    2003-12-31

    Uses for structured catalytic supports, such as ceramic straight-channel monoliths and ceramic foams, have been established for a long time. One of the most prominent examples is the washcoated ceramic monolith as a three-way catalytic converter for gasoline-powered automobiles. A distinct alternative to the ceramic monolith is the metal foam, with potential use in fuel cell-powered automobiles. The metal foams are characterized by their pores per inch (ppi) and density ({rho}). In previous research, using 5 wt% platinum (Pt) and 0.5 wt% iron (Fe) catalysts, washcoated metal foams, 5.08 cm in length and 2.54 cm in diameter, of both varying and similar ppi and {rho} were tested for their activity (X{sub CO}) and selectivity (S{sub CO}) on a CO preferential oxidation (PROX) reaction in the presence of a H{sub 2}-rich gas stream. The variances in these metal foams' activity and selectivity were much larger than expected. Other structured supports with 5 wt% Pt, 0-1 wt% Fe weight loading were also examined. A theory for this phenomenon states that even though these structured supports have a similar nominal catalyst weight loading, only a certain percentage of the Pt/Fe catalyst is exposed on the surface as an active site for CO adsorption. We will use two techniques, pulse chemisorption and temperature programmed desorption (TPD), to characterize our structured supports. Active metal count, metal dispersion, and other calculations will help clarify the causes for the activity and selectivity variations between the supports. Results on ceramic monoliths show that a higher Fe loading yields a lower dispersion, potentially because of Fe inhibition of the Pt surface for CO adsorption. This theory is used to explain the reason for activity and selectivity differences for varying ppi and {rho} metal foams; less active and selective metal foams have a lower Fe loading, which justifies their higher metal dispersion. Data on the CO desorption temperature and average metal crystallite size for TPD are also collected.

  3. Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    24.1 9.1 61.1 3.9 4.0 7.3 3.1 W 10.4 1998 ... 14.3 14.5 28.6 23.0 8.3 59.9 3.7 3.8 7.4 3.1 W 10.5 See footnotes at end of table. 26 Energy Information...

  4. Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    12.0 69.2 3.4 3.5 6.9 3.1 W 10.1 December ... 14.8 15.1 31.7 29.5 10.8 72.0 3.6 3.7 7.3 3.3 W 10.7 1999 ... 14.5 14.8 29.8 26.1 9.6...

  5. Reformulation RELAP5-3D in FORTRAN 95 and Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. George L Mesina

    2010-08-01

    RELAP5-3D is a nuclear power plant code used worldwide for safety analysis, design, and operator training. In keeping with ongoing developments in the computing industry, we have re-architected the code in the FORTRAN 95 language, the current, fully-available, FORTRAN language. These changes include a complete reworking of the database and conversion of the source code to take advantage of new constructs. The improvements and impacts to the code are manifold. It is a completely machine-independent code that produces machine independent fluid property and plot files and expands to the exact size needed to accommodate the user’s input. Runtime is generally better for larger input models. Other impacts of code conversion are improved code readability, reduced maintenance and development time, increased adaptability to new computing platforms, and increased code longevity. The conversion methodology, code improvements and testing upgrades are presented in a manner that will be useful to future conversion projects for other such large codes. Comparison between the pre- and post-conversion code are made on the basis of code metrics and code performance.

  6. Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    retail outlets, e.g., sales to agricultural customers, commercial sales, and industrial sales. Note: Totals may not equal the sum of the components due to rounding....

  7. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    retail outlets, e.g., sales to agricultural customers, commercial sales, and industrial sales. Source: Energy Information Administration Form EIA-782A, "Refiners'Gas...

  8. Total energy cycle assessment of electric and conventional vehicles: an energy and environmental analysis. Volume 1: technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuenca, R.; Formento, J.; Gaines, L.; Marr, B.; Santini, D.; Wang, M.; Adelman, S.; Kline, D.; Mark, J.; Ohi, J.; Rau, N.; Freeman, S.; Humphreys, K.; Placet, M.

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the energy use, oil use and emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) with those of conventional, gasoline-powered vehicles (CVs) over the total life cycle of the vehicles. The various stages included in the vehicles` life cycles include vehicle manufacture, fuel production, and vehicle operation. Disposal is not included. An inventory of the air emissions associated with each stage of the life cycle is estimated. Water pollutants and solid wastes are reported for individual processes, but no comprehensive inventory is developed. Volume I contains the major results, a discussion of the conceptual framework of the study, and summaries of the vehicle, utility, fuel production, and manufacturing analyses. It also contains summaries of comments provided by external peer reviewers and brief responses to these comments.

  9. Note: Electrochemical cell for in operando X-ray diffraction measurements on a conventional X-ray diffractometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartung, Steffen; Bucher, Nicolas; Bucher, Ramona; Srinivasan, Madhavi

    2015-08-15

    Electrochemical in operando X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a powerful method to analyze structural changes of energy storage materials while inserting/de-inserting charge carriers, such as Li- or Na-ions, into/from a host structure. The design of an XRD in operando cell is presented, which enables the use of thin (6 μm) aluminum foil as X-ray window as a non-toxic alternative to conventional beryllium windows. Owing to the reduced thickness, diffraction patterns and their changes during cycling can be observed with excellent quality, which was demonstrated for two cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries in a half-cell set-up, P2-Na{sub 0.7}MnO{sub 2} and Na{sub 2.55}V{sub 6}O{sub 16} ⋅ 0.6H{sub 2}O.

  10. A theoretical comparison of x-ray angiographic image quality using energy-dependent and conventional subtraction methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanguay, Jesse; Kim, Ho Kyung; Cunningham, Ian A.

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: X-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is widely used for vascular imaging. However, the need to subtract a mask image can result in motion artifacts and compromised image quality. The current interest in energy-resolving photon-counting (EPC) detectors offers the promise of eliminating motion artifacts and other advanced applications using a single exposure. The authors describe a method of assessing the iodine signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that may be achieved with energy-resolved angiography (ERA) to enable a direct comparison with other approaches including DSA and dual-energy angiography for the same patient exposure. Methods: A linearized noise-propagation approach, combined with linear expressions of dual-energy and energy-resolved imaging, is used to describe the iodine SNR. The results were validated by a Monte Carlo calculation for all three approaches and compared visually for dual-energy and DSA imaging using a simple angiographic phantom with a CsI-based flat-panel detector. Results: The linearized SNR calculations show excellent agreement with Monte Carlo results. While dual-energy methods require an increased tube heat load of 2x to 4x compared to DSA, and photon-counting detectors are not yet ready for angiographic imaging, the available iodine SNR for both methods as tested is within 10% of that of conventional DSA for the same patient exposure over a wide range of patient thicknesses and iodine concentrations. Conclusions: While the energy-based methods are not necessarily optimized and further improvements are likely, the linearized noise-propagation analysis provides the theoretical framework of a level playing field for optimization studies and comparison with conventional DSA. It is concluded that both dual-energy and photon-counting approaches have the potential to provide similar angiographic image quality to DSA.

  11. A Statement from U.S. Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz on India Joining the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    “India’s membership in the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) is a crucial step toward facilitating the growth of safe, civilian nuclear energy in the world’s second...

  12. Measured Laboratory and In-Use Fuel Economy Observed over Targeted Drive Cycles for Comparable Hybrid and Conventional Package Delivery Vehicles

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    2-01-2049 Measured Laboratory and In-Use Fuel Economy Published Observed over Targeted Drive Cycles for 09/24/2012 Comparable Hybrid and Conventional Package Delivery Vehicles Michael P. Lammert, Kevin Walkowicz, Adam Duran and Petr Sindler National Renewable Energy Laboratory ABSTRACT This research project compares the in-use and laboratory- derived fuel economy of a medium-duty hybrid electric drivetrain with "engine off at idle" capability to a conventional drivetrain in a typical

  13. Measured Laboratory and In-Use Fuel Economy Observed over Targeted Drive Cycles for Comparable Hybrid and Conventional Package Delivery Vehicles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    2-01-2049 Measured Laboratory and In-Use Fuel Economy Published Observed over Targeted Drive Cycles for 09/24/2012 Comparable Hybrid and Conventional Package Delivery Vehicles Michael P. Lammert, Kevin Walkowicz, Adam Duran and Petr Sindler National Renewable Energy Laboratory ABSTRACT This research project compares the in-use and laboratory- derived fuel economy of a medium-duty hybrid electric drivetrain with "engine off at idle" capability to a conventional drivetrain in a typical

  14. Analysis of Nitro-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Conventional Diesel and Fischer--Tropsch Diesel Fuel Emissions Using Electron Monochromator-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havey, C. D.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Dane, A. J.; Voorhees, K. J.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) in diesel fuel emissions has been studied for a number of years predominantly because of their contribution to the overall health and environmental risks associated with these emissions. Electron monochromator-mass spectrometry (EM-MS) is a highly selective and sensitive method for detection of NPAHs in complex matrixes, such as diesel emissions. Here, EM-MS was used to compare the levels of NPAHs in fuel emissions from conventional (petroleum) diesel, ultra-low sulfur/low-aromatic content diesel, Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel/synthetic diesel blend. The largest quantities of NPAHs were detected in the conventional diesel fuel emissions, while the ultra-low sulfur diesel and synthetic diesel fuel demonstrated a more than 50% reduction of NPAH quantities when compared to the conventional diesel fuel emissions. The emissions from the blend of conventional diesel with 30% synthetic diesel fuel also demonstrated a more than 30% reduction of the NPAH content when compared to the conventional diesel fuel emissions. In addition, a correlation was made between the aromatic content of the different fuel types and NPAH quantities and between the nitrogen oxides emissions from the different fuel types and NPAH quantities. The EM-MS system demonstrated high selectivity and sensitivity for detection of the NPAHs in the emissions with minimal sample cleanup required.

  15. X:\\L6046\\Data_Publication\\Pma\\current\\ventura\\pma.vp

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1 Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, and PAD District (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Month Regular Midgrade Sales to End Users...

  16. untitled

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table 39. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) Geographic Area Month Regular Midgrade Sales to End Users...

  17. X:\\L6046\\Data_Publication\\Pma\\current\\ventura\\pma.vp

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table 39. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) Geographic Area Month Regular Midgrade Sales to End Users...

  18. untitled

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) Geographic Area Month Regular Midgrade Sales to End Users...

  19. untitled

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, and PAD District (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Month Regular Midgrade Sales to End Users Sales for Resale Sales to...

  20. X:\\L6046\\Data_Publication\\Pma\\current\\ventura\\pma.vp

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, and PAD District (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Month Regular Midgrade Sales to End Users Sales for Resale Sales to...

  1. untitled

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7 Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, and PAD District (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Month Regular Midgrade Sales to End Users...

  2. X:\\L6046\\Data_Publication\\Pma\\current\\ventura\\pma.vp

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2 Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, and PAD District (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Month Regular Midgrade Sales to End Users...

  3. Price of Motor Gasoline Through Retail Outlets

    Annual Energy Outlook

    & Stocks by State (Dollars per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Data Series: Retail Price - Motor Gasoline Retail Price - Regular Gasoline Retail Price - Midgrade Gasoline Retail Price...

  4. Getting to low-cost algal biofuels: A monograph on conventional and cutting-edge harvesting and extraction technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coons, James E.; Kalb, Daniel M.; Dale, Taraka; Marrone, Babetta L.

    2014-08-31

    Among the most formidable challenges to algal biofuels is the ability to harvest algae and extract intracellular lipids at low cost and with a positive energy balance. Here, we construct two paradigms that contrast energy requirements and costs of conventional and cutting-edge Harvesting and Extraction (H&E) technologies. By application of the parity criterion and the moderate condition reference state, an energy–cost paradigm is created that allows 1st stage harvesting technologies to be compared with easy reference to the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts (NAABB) target of $0.013/gallon of gasoline equivalent (GGE) and to the U.S. DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office 2022 cost metrics. Drawing from the moderate condition reference state, a concentration-dependency paradigm is developed for extraction technologies, making easier comparison to the National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap (NABTR) target of less than 10% total energy. This monograph identifies cost-bearing factors for a variety of H&E technologies, describes a design basis for ultrasonic harvesters, and provides a framework to measure future technological advancements toward reducing H&E costs. Finally, we show that ultrasonic harvesters and extractors are uniquely capable of meeting both NAABB and NABTR targets. Ultrasonic technologies require further development and scale-up before they can achieve low-cost performance at industrially relevant scales. But, the advancement of this technology would greatly reduce H&E costs and accelerate the commercial viability of algae-based biofuels.

  5. Intrinsic differences in atomic ordering of calcium (alumino)silicate hydrates in conventional and alkali-activated cements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Claire E.; Daemen, Luke L.; Hartl, Monika; Page, Katharine

    2015-01-15

    The atomic structures of calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H) and calcium (–sodium) aluminosilicate hydrate (C–(N)–A–S–H) gels, and their presence in conventional and blended cement systems, have been the topic of significant debate over recent decades. Previous investigations have revealed that synthetic C–S–H gel is nanocrystalline and due to the chemical similarities between ordinary Portland cement (OPC)-based systems and low-CO{sub 2} alkali-activated slags, researchers have inferred that the atomic ordering in alkali-activated slag is the same as in OPC–slag cements. Here, X-ray total scattering is used to determine the local bonding environment and nanostructure of C(–A)–S–H gels present in hydrated tricalcium silicate (C{sub 3}S), blended C{sub 3}S–slag and alkali-activated slag, revealing the large intrinsic differences in the extent of nanoscale ordering between C–S–H derived from C{sub 3}S and alkali-activated slag systems, which may have a significant influence on thermodynamic stability, and material properties at higher length scales, including long term durability of alkali-activated cements.

  6. Emissions from Medium-Duty Conventional and Diesel-Electric Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragatz, A.; Duran, A.; Thornton, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-04-02

    This presentation discusses the results of emissions testing for medium-duty conventional and diesel-electric hybrid vehicles. Testing was based on a field evaluation approach that utilized the Fleet DNA drive cycle database and NREL’s Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory chassis dynamometer. Vehicles tested included parcel delivery (Class 6 step vans), beverage delivery (Class 8 tractors), and parcel delivery (Class 7 box trucks) vehicles, all with intended service class medium/heavy heavy-duty diesel (MHDD).
    Results for fuel economy and tailpipe NOx emissions included: diesel hybrid electric vehicles showed an average fuel economy advantage on identified test cycles: Class 6 Step Vans: 26%; Class 7 Box Trucks: 24.7%; Class 8 Tractors: 17.3%. Vehicle miles traveled is an important factor in determining total petroleum and CO2 displacement. Higher NOx emissions were observed over some test cycles: highly drive cycle dependent; engine-out differences may result from different engine operating point; and selective catalyst reduction temperature may play a role, but does not explain the whole story.

  7. Guidelines for the verification and validation of expert system software and conventional software: User`s manual. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirsky, S.M.; Hayes, J.E.; Miller, L.A.

    1995-03-01

    This report provides a step-by-step guide, or user manual, for personnel responsible for the planning and execution of the verification and validation (V&V), and developmental testing, of expert systems, conventional software systems, and various other types of artificial intelligence systems. While the guide was developed primarily for applications in the utility industry, it applies well to all industries. The user manual has three sections. In Section 1 the user assesses the stringency of V&V needed for the system under consideration, identifies the development stage the system is in, and identifies the component(s) of the system to be tested next. These three pieces of information determine which Guideline Package of V&V methods is most appropriate for those conditions. The V&V Guideline Packages are provided in Section 2. Each package consists of an ordered set of V&V techniques to be applied to the system, guides on choosing the review/evaluation team, measurement criteria, and references to a book or report which describes the application of the method. Section 3 presents details of 11 of the most important (or least well-explained in the literature) methods to assist the user in applying these techniques accurately.

  8. An electrochemical cell for in operando studies of lithium/sodium batteries using a conventional x-ray powder diffractometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Yanbin; Pedersen, Erik E.; Christensen, Mogens; Iversen, Bo B.

    2014-10-15

    An electrochemical cell has been designed for powder X-ray diffraction studies of lithium ion batteries (LIB) and sodium ion batteries (SIB) in operando with high time resolution using a conventional powder X-ray diffractometer. The cell allows for studies of both anode and cathode electrode materials in reflection mode. The cell design closely mimics that of standard battery testing coin cells and allows obtaining powder X-ray diffraction patterns under representative electrochemical conditions. In addition, the cell uses graphite as the X-ray window instead of beryllium, and it is easy to operate and maintain. Test examples on lithium insertion/extraction in two spinel-type LIB electrode materials (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode) are presented as well as first results on sodium extraction from a layered SIB cathode material (Na{sub 0.84}Fe{sub 0.56}Mn{sub 0.44}O{sub 2})

  9. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    U.S. refi ner reformulated motor gasoline volumes by grade and sales type million gallons per day Year month Regular Midgrade Sales to end users Sales for resale Sales to end users Sales for resale Through retail outlets Total[a] DTW Rack Bulk Total Through retail outlets Total[a] DTW Rack Bulk Total 1994 0.6 0.6 2.1 1.6 0.6 4.3 0.2 0.2 0.7 0.3 W 1.0 1995 7.8 8.1 20.7 W W 43.3 3.0 3.1 7.4 3.1 - 10.5 1996 10.7 11.1 26.1 20.5 8.0 54.6 3.3 3.4 7.9 3.3 W 11.3 1997 13.4 13.8 28.0 21.7 7.6 57.3 3.6

  10. An extended conventional fuel cycle for the B and W mPower{sup TM} small modular nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarangella, M. J.

    2012-07-01

    The B and W mPower{sup TM} reactor is a small pressurized water reactor (PWR) with an integral once-through steam generator and a thermal output of about 500 MW; it is intended to replace aging fossil power plants of similar output. The core is composed of 69 reduced-height PWR assemblies with the familiar 17 x 17 fuel rod array. The Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) is offering a core loading and cycle management plan for a four-year cycle based on its presumed attractiveness to potential customers. This option is a once-through fuel cycle in which the entire core is discharged and replaced after four years. In addition, a conventional fuel utilization strategy, employing a periodic partial reload and shuffle, was developed as an alternative to the four-year once-through fuel cycle. This study, which was performed using the Studsvik core design code suite, is a typical multi-cycle projection analysis of the type performed by most fuel management organizations such as fuel vendors and utilities. In the industry, the results of such projections are used by the financial arms of these organizations to assist in making long-term decisions. In the case of the B and W mPower reactor, this analysis demonstrates flexibility for customers who consider the once-through fuel cycle unacceptable from a fuel utilization standpoint. As expected, when compared to the once-through concept, reloads of the B and W mPower reactor will achieve higher batch average discharge exposure, will have adequate shut-down margin, and will have a relatively flat hot excess reactivity trend at the expense of slightly increased peaking. (authors)

  11. Getting to low-cost algal biofuels: A monograph on conventional and cutting-edge harvesting and extraction technologies

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Coons, James E.; Kalb, Daniel M.; Dale, Taraka; Marrone, Babetta L.

    2014-08-31

    Among the most formidable challenges to algal biofuels is the ability to harvest algae and extract intracellular lipids at low cost and with a positive energy balance. Here, we construct two paradigms that contrast energy requirements and costs of conventional and cutting-edge Harvesting and Extraction (H&E) technologies. By application of the parity criterion and the moderate condition reference state, an energy–cost paradigm is created that allows 1st stage harvesting technologies to be compared with easy reference to the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts (NAABB) target of $0.013/gallon of gasoline equivalent (GGE) and to the U.S. DOE's Bioenergy Technologiesmore » Office 2022 cost metrics. Drawing from the moderate condition reference state, a concentration-dependency paradigm is developed for extraction technologies, making easier comparison to the National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap (NABTR) target of less than 10% total energy. This monograph identifies cost-bearing factors for a variety of H&E technologies, describes a design basis for ultrasonic harvesters, and provides a framework to measure future technological advancements toward reducing H&E costs. Finally, we show that ultrasonic harvesters and extractors are uniquely capable of meeting both NAABB and NABTR targets. Ultrasonic technologies require further development and scale-up before they can achieve low-cost performance at industrially relevant scales. But, the advancement of this technology would greatly reduce H&E costs and accelerate the commercial viability of algae-based biofuels.« less

  12. Mixing and flame structures inferred from OH-PLIF for conventional and low-temperature diesel engine combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Satbir; Musculus, Mark P.B.; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2009-10-15

    The structure of first- and second-stage combustion is investigated in a heavy-duty, single-cylinder optical engine using chemiluminescence imaging, Mie-scatter imaging of liquid-fuel, and OH planar laser-induced fluorescence (OH-PLIF) along with calculations of fluorescence quenching. Three different diesel combustion modes are studied: conventional non-diluted high-temperature combustion (HTC) with either (1) short or (2) long ignition delay, and (3) highly diluted low-temperature combustion (LTC) with early fuel injection. For the short ignition delay HTC condition, the OH fluorescence images show that second-stage combustion occurs mainly on the fuel jet periphery in a thickness of about 1 mm. For the long ignition delay HTC condition, the second-stage combustion zone on the jet periphery is thicker (5-6 mm). For the early-injection LTC condition, the second-stage combustion is even thicker (20-25 mm) and occurs only in the down-stream regions of the jet. The relationship between OH concentration and OH-PLIF intensity over a range of equivalence ratios is estimated from quenching calculations using collider species concentrations predicted by chemical kinetics simulations of combustion. The calculations show that both OH concentration and OH-PLIF intensity peak near stoichiometric mixtures and fall by an order of magnitude or more for equivalence ratios less than 0.2-0.4 and greater than 1.4-1.6. Using the OH fluorescence quenching predictions together with OH-PLIF images, quantitative boundaries for mixing are established for the three engine combustion modes. (author)

  13. Technical evaluation of a solar heating system having conventional hydronic solar collectors and a radiant panel slab. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starr, R.J.

    1984-04-01

    A simple innovative solar heating design (Solar Option One) using conventional hydronic solar collectors and a radiant panel slab was constructed. An objective of hybrid solar design is to combine the relative advantages of active and passive design approaches while minimizing their respective disadvantages. A test house using the Solar Option One heating system was experimentally monitored to determine its energy based performance during the 1982-83 heating season. The test residence is located in Lyndonville, Vermont, an area which has a characteristically cold and cloudy climate. The two story residence has a floor area of about 1400 square feet and is constructed on a 720 square foot 5.5 inch thick floor slab. A 24 inch packed gravel bed is located beneath the slab and the slab-gravel bed is insulated by two inches of polystyrene insulation. The test building is of frame construction and uses insulation levels which have become commonplace throughout the country. The structure would not fall into the superinsulated category but was tightly constructed so as to have a low infiltration level. The building is sun-tempered in that windows were concentrated somewhat on the South side and all but avoided on the North. A solar greenhouse on the South side of the building was closed off from the structure permanently throughout the testing so as to better observe the solar heating invention without confounding variables. The monitoring equipment generated an internal gain of about 17,000 BTUs per day, roughly the equivalent of occupancy by two persons. A full description of the experimental testing program is given. System efficiency and performance are reported.

  14. Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a Solar PV System at the San José Convention Center

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of San José is considering the installation of a solar photovoltaic (PV) system on the roof of the San José Convention Center. The installation would be on a lower section of the roof covering approximately 21,000 ft2. To assist city staff in making a decision on the PV installation, the Department of Energy Tiger Team has investigated potential indirect benefits of installing a solar PV system on the Convention Center roof. The indirect benefits include potential increase in roof life, as well as potential reduced heating and cooling load in the building due to roof shading from the PV system.

  15. ,,,"with Any"," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion Turbines with Heat Recovery",,,"Combined-Cycle Combusion Turbines",,,"Internal Combusion Engines with Heat Recovery",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Heat Recovered from High-Temperature Processes",,,," "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 8.3;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,"Establishments" ,,,"with Any"," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion Turbines with Heat Recovery",,,"Combined-Cycle Combusion Turbines",,,"Internal Combusion Engines with Heat Recovery",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Heat Recovered from High-Temperature Processes",,,," "

  16. " "," ",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion Turbines with Heat Recovery",,,"Combined-Cycle Combusion Turbines",,,"Internal Combusion Engines with Heat Recovery",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Heat Recovered from High-Temperature Processes",,,," "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 8.3;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion Turbines with Heat Recovery",,,"Combined-Cycle Combusion Turbines",,,"Internal Combusion Engines with Heat Recovery",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Heat Recovered from High-Temperature Processes",,,," " " "," "

  17. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks by State Definitions Key Terms Definition Bulk Terminal A facility used primarily for the storage and/or marketing of petroleum products which has a total bulk storage capacity of 50,000 barrels or more and/or receives petroleum products by tanker, barge, or pipeline. Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate

  18. A comparison of Nannochloropsis salina growth performance in two outdoor pond designs: conventional raceways versus the ARID pond with superior temperature management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, Braden J.; Attalah, Said; Agrawal, Shweta; Waller, Peter; Ryan, Randy; Van Wagenen, Jonathan M.; Chavis, Aaron R.; Kyndt, John; Kacira, Murat; Ogden, Kimberly L.; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2012-10-01

    The present study examines how climatic conditions and pond design affect the growth performance of microalgae. From January to April of 2011, outdoor batch cultures of Nannochloropsis salina were grown in three replicate 780 L conventional raceways, as well as in an experimental 7500 L ARID (Algae Raceway Integrated Design) pond. The ARID culture system utilizes a series of 8 to 20 cm deep basins and a 1.5 m deep canal to enhance light exposure and mitigate temperature variations and extremes. The ARID culture reached the stationary phase 27 days earlier than the conventional raceways, which can be attributed to its superior temperature management and shallower basins. On a night when the air temperature dropped to -9 C, the water temperature was 18 C higher in the ARID pond than in the conventional raceways. Lipid and fatty acid content ranged from 16 - 25 % and 5 - 15 %, respectively, as a percentage of AFDW. Palmitic, palmitoleic, and eicosapentaenoic acid comprised the majority of fatty acids. While the ARID culture system achieved nearly double the volumetric productivity relative to the conventional raceways (0.023 vs 0.013 g L-1day-1), areal biomass productivities were of similar magnitude in both pond systems (3.34 vs. 3.47 g m-2day-1), suggesting that the ARID pond design has to be further optimized, most likely by increasing the culture depth or operating at higher cell densities while maintaining adequate mixing.

  19. A Comparison of Nannochloropsis salina Growth Performance in Two Outdoor Pond Designs: Conventional Raceways versus the ARID Pond with Superior Temperature Management

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Crowe, Braden; Attalah, Said; Agrawal, Shweta; Waller, Peter; Ryan, Randy; Van Wagenen, Jon; Chavis, Aaron; Kyndt, John; Kacira, Murat; Ogden, Kim L.; et al

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines how climatic conditions and pond design affect the growth performance of microalgae. From January to April of 2011, outdoor batch cultures of Nannochloropsis salina were grown in three replicate 780 L conventional raceways, as well as in an experimental 7500 L algae raceway integrated design (ARID) pond. The ARID culture system utilizes a series of 8-20 cm deep basins and a 1.5 m deep canal to enhance light exposure and mitigate temperature variations and extremes. The ARID culture reached the stationary phase 27 days earlier than the conventional raceways, which can be attributed to its superiormore » temperature management and shallower basins. On a night when the air temperature dropped to -9°C, the water temperature was 18°C higher in the ARID pond than in the conventional raceways. Lipid and fatty acid content ranged from 16 to 25% and from 5 to15%, respectively, as a percentage of AFDW. Palmitic, palmitoleic, and eicosapentaenoic acids comprised the majority of fatty acids. While the ARID culture system achieved nearly double the volumetric productivity relative to the conventional raceways (0.023 versus 0.013 g L-1day-1), areal biomass productivities were of similar magnitude in both pond systems (3.47 versus 3.34 g m-2day-1), suggesting that the ARID pond design has to be further optimized, most likely by increasing the culture depth or operating at higher cell densities while maintaining adequate mixing.« less

  20. A Comparison of Nannochloropsis salina Growth Performance in Two Outdoor Pond Designs: Conventional Raceways versus the ARID Pond with Superior Temperature Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, Braden; Attalah, Said; Agrawal, Shweta; Waller, Peter; Ryan, Randy; Van Wagenen, Jon; Chavis, Aaron; Kyndt, John; Kacira, Murat; Ogden, Kim L.; Huesemann, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines how climatic conditions and pond design affect the growth performance of microalgae. From January to April of 2011, outdoor batch cultures of Nannochloropsis salina were grown in three replicate 780 L conventional raceways, as well as in an experimental 7500 L algae raceway integrated design (ARID) pond. The ARID culture system utilizes a series of 8-20 cm deep basins and a 1.5 m deep canal to enhance light exposure and mitigate temperature variations and extremes. The ARID culture reached the stationary phase 27 days earlier than the conventional raceways, which can be attributed to its superior temperature management and shallower basins. On a night when the air temperature dropped to -9C, the water temperature was 18C higher in the ARID pond than in the conventional raceways. Lipid and fatty acid content ranged from 16 to 25% and from 5 to15%, respectively, as a percentage of AFDW. Palmitic, palmitoleic, and eicosapentaenoic acids comprised the majority of fatty acids. While the ARID culture system achieved nearly double the volumetric productivity relative to the conventional raceways (0.023 versus 0.013 g L-1day-1), areal biomass productivities were of similar magnitude in both pond systems (3.47 versus 3.34 g m-2day-1), suggesting that the ARID pond design has to be further optimized, most likely by increasing the culture depth or operating at higher cell densities while maintaining adequate mixing.

  1. Detailed chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes and iso-alkanes found in conventional and F-T diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Mehl, M

    2008-12-15

    Detailed chemical kinetic models are needed to simulate the combustion of current and future transportation fuels. These models should represent the various chemical classes in these fuels. Conventional diesel fuels are composed of n-alkanes, iso-alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatics (Farrell et al. 2007). For future fuels, there is a renewed interest in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) processes which can be used to synthesize diesel and other transportation fuels from biomass, coal and natural gas. F-T diesel fuels are expected to be similar to F-T jet fuels which are commonly comprised of iso-alkanes with some n-alkanes (Smith and Bruno, 2008). Thus, n-alkanes and iso-alkanes are common chemical classes in these conventional and future fuels. This paper reports on the development of chemical kinetic models of large n-alkanes and iso-alkanes to represent these chemical classes in conventional and future fuels. Two large iso-alkanes are 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane, which is a primary reference fuel for diesel, and isooctane, a primary reference fuel for gasoline. Other iso-alkanes are branched alkanes with a single methyl side chain, typical of most F-T fuels. The chemical kinetic models are then used to predict the effect of these fuel components on ignition characteristics under conditions found in internal combustion engines.

  2. Responses of Conventional Ring Closures of Drum Type Packages to Regulatory Drop Tests with Application to the 9974/9975 Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.S.

    2002-05-31

    DOT, DOE and NRC Type A and Type B radioactive material (RAM) transport packages routinely use industrial or military specification drums with conventional clamp ring closures as an overpack. Considerable testing has been performed on these type packages over the past 30 years. Observations from test data have resulted in various design changes and recommendations to the standard drum specification and use, enhancing the reliability of the overpack. Recently, performance capability of the 9975 conventional clamp ring closure design was questioned by the Regulatory Authority. This paper highlights the observations of recent 9974 and 9975 package testing that led to redesign of the 9975, replacing the standard clamp ring closure with a bolted ring closure. In the course of this review and redesign effort, 18 package designs and approximately 100 Hypothetical Accident Condition (HAC) drops of various size and weight drum packages were evaluated. A trend was observed with respect to overpack lid failures for packages utilizing conventional ring closure. Based on this trend, a limit on the ratio of the content weight to total package weight was identified, beyond which clamp ring closure failure may be expected.

  3. SU-E-T-501: Normal Tissue Toxicities of Pulsed Low Dose Rate Radiotherapy and Conventional Radiotherapy: An in Vivo Total Body Irradiation Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cvetkovic, D; Zhang, P; Wang, B; Chen, L; Ma, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Pulsed low dose rate radiotherapy (PLDR) is a re-irradiation technique for therapy of recurrent cancers. We have previously shown a significant difference in the weight and survival time between the mice treated with conventional radiotherapy (CRT) and PLDR using total body irradiation (TBI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo effects of PLDR on normal mouse tissues.Materials and Methods: Twenty two male BALB/c nude mice, 4 months of age, were randomly assigned into a PLDR group (n=10), a CRT group (n=10), and a non-irradiated control group (n=2). The Siemens Artiste accelerator with 6 MV photon beams was used. The mice received a total of 18Gy in 3 fractions with a 20day interval. The CRT group received the 6Gy dose continuously at a dose rate of 300 MU/min. The PLDR group was irradiated with 0.2Gyx20 pulses with a 3min interval between the pulses. The mice were weighed thrice weekly and sacrificed 2 weeks after the last treatment. Brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, gastrointestinal, urinary and reproductive organs, and sternal bone marrow were removed, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and stained with H and E. Morphological changes were observed under a microscope. Results: Histopathological examination revealed atrophy in several irradiated organs. The degree of atrophy was mild to moderate in the PLDR group, but severe in the CRT group. The most pronounced morphological abnormalities were in the immune and hematopoietic systems, namely spleen and bone marrow. Brain hemorrhage was seen in the CRT group, but not in the PLDR group. Conclusions: Our results showed that PLDR induced less toxicity in the normal mouse tissues than conventional radiotherapy for the same dose and regimen. Considering that PLDR produces equivalent tumor control as conventional radiotherapy, it would be a good modality for treatment of recurrent cancers.

  4. Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed pre-processing supply system designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Matthew H. Langholtz; Eric C. D. Tan; Jacob J. Jacobson; Amy Schwab; May M. Wu; Andrew Argo; Craig C. Brandt; Kara G. Cafferty; Yi-Wen Chiu; Abhijit Dutta; Laurence M. Eaton; Erin M. Searcy

    2014-08-01

    The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to the

  5. Total energy cycle assessment of electric and conventional vehicles: an energy and environmental analysis. Volume 2: appendices A-D to technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the energy use, oil use and emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) with those of conventional, gasoline- powered vehicles (CVs) over the total life cycle of the vehicles. The various stages included in the vehicles` life cycles include vehicle manufacture, fuel production, and vehicle operation. Disposal is not included. An inventory of the air emissions associated with each stage of the life cycle is estimated. Water pollutants and solid wastes are reported for individual processes, but no comprehensive inventory is developed. Volume II contains additional details on the vehicle, utility, and materials analyses and discusses several details of the methodology.

  6. Total energy cycle assessment of electric and conventional vehicles: an energy and environmental analysis. Volume 4: peer review comments on technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the energy use, oil use and emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) with those of conventional, gasoline-powered vehicles (CVs) over the total life cycle of the vehicles. The various stages included in the vehicles` life cycles include vehicle manufacture, fuel production, and vehicle operation. Disposal is not included. An inventory of the air emissions associated with each stage of the life cycle is estimated. Water pollutants and solid wastes are reported for individual processes, but no comprehensive inventory is developed. Volume IV includes copies of all the external peer review comments on the report distributed for review in July 1997.

  7. Recovery act. Characterizing structural controls of EGS-candidate and conventional geothermal reservoirs in the Great Basin. Developing successful exploration strategies in extended terranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faulds, James

    2015-06-25

    We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the structural controls of geothermal systems within the Great Basin and adjacent regions. Our main objectives were to: 1) Produce a catalogue of favorable structural environments and models for geothermal systems. 2) Improve site-specific targeting of geothermal resources through detailed studies of representative sites, which included innovative techniques of slip tendency analysis of faults and 3D modeling. 3) Compare and contrast the structural controls and models in different tectonic settings. 4) Synthesize data and develop methodologies for enhancement of exploration strategies for conventional and EGS systems, reduction in the risk of drilling non-productive wells, and selecting the best EGS sites.

  8. Guidelines for the verification and validation of expert system software and conventional software: Survey and documentation of expert system verification and validation methodologies. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groundwater, E.H.; Miller, L.A.; Mirsky, S.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report is the third volume in the final report for the Expert System Verification and Validation (V&V) project which was jointly sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ultimate objective is the formulation of guidelines for the V&V of expert systems for use in nuclear power applications. The purpose of this activity was to survey and document techniques presently in use for expert system V&V. The survey effort included an extensive telephone interviewing program, site visits, and a thorough bibliographic search and compilation. The major finding was that V&V of expert systems is not nearly as established or prevalent as V&V of conventional software systems. When V&V was used for expert systems, it was almost always at the system validation stage after full implementation and integration usually employing the non-systematic dynamic method of {open_quotes}ad hoc testing.{close_quotes} There were few examples of employing V&V in the early phases of development and only weak sporadic mention of the possibilities in the literature. There is, however, a very active research area concerning the development of methods and tools to detect problems with, particularly, rule-based expert systems. Four such static-testing methods were identified which were not discovered in a comprehensive review of conventional V&V methods in an earlier task.

  9. Conventional Hydropower Technologies Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-07-01

    This factsheet gives a description of the U.S. Department of Energy Water Power Program's efforts to increase generating capacity and efficiency at existing hydroelectric facilities, add hydroelectric generating capacity to non-powered dams, and reduce the environmental effects of hydropower.

  10. Detailed chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes and iso-alkanes found in conventional and F-T diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M; Curran, H J

    2009-03-09

    n-Hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane represent the primary reference fuels for diesel that are used to determine cetane number, a measure of the ignition property of diesel fuel. With the development of chemical kinetics models for both primary reference fuels, a new capability is now available to model diesel fuel ignition. Additionally, we have developed chemical kinetic models for a whole series of large n-alkanes and a large iso-alkane to represent these chemical classes in fuel surrogates for conventional and future fuels. These chemical kinetic models are used to predict the effect of the aforementioned fuel components on ignition characteristics under conditions found in internal combustion engines.

  11. Development and Demonstration of a High Efficiency, Rapid Heating, Low NOx Alternative to Conventional Heating of Round Steel Shapes, Steel Substrate (Strip) and Coil Box Transfer Bars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurek, Harry; Wagner, John

    2010-01-25

    Direct Flame Impingement involves the use of an array of very high-velocity flame jets impinging on a work piece to rapidly heat the work piece. The predominant mode of heat transfer is convection. Because of the locally high rate of heat transfer at the surface of the work piece, the refractory walls and exhaust gases of a DFI furnace are significantly cooler than in conventional radiant heating furnaces, resulting in high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions. A DFI furnace is composed of a successive arrangement of heating modules through or by which the work piece is conveyed, and can be configured for square, round, flat, and curved metal shapes (e.g., billets, tubes, flat bars, and coiled bars) in single- or multi-stranded applications.

  12. Factors influencing the sustained-performance capabilities of 155-mm howitzer sections in simulated conventional and chemical warfare environments. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauch, T.M.; Banderet, L.E.; Tharion, W.J.; Munro, I.; Lussier, A.R.

    1986-04-01

    Factors that limit the performance capabilities of sustained artillery operations in simulated conventional and chemical warfare environments were studied. The results show that perceptions of psychological (mental) fatigue, rather than perceptions of muscular fatigue, were primary factors affecting sustained artillery performance. Furthermore, variations in these psychological states were correlated with artillery task performance during the period. In the simulated chemical warfare environment, extreme symptom and mood changes resulted in medical casualties, combat ineffectiveness, and early termination of all testing. Significant perosnality differences existed between casualties and survivors. The majority of casualties voluntarily terminated operational duties because of intense symptoms associated with wearing the chemical protective mask and clothing system. These symptoms were manifestations of respiratory and thermal stress.

  13. WE-E-BRE-06: High-Dose Microbeam Radiation Induces Different Responses in Tumor Microenvironment Compared to Conventional Seamless Radiation in Window Chamber Tumor Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S; Zhang, J; Hadsell, M; Fontanella, A; Schroeder, T; Palmer, G; Dewhirst, M; Boss, M; Berman, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy and GRID therapy are different forms of Spatially-Fractioned Radiation Therapy (SFRT) that is fundamentally different from the conventional seamless and temporally fractionated radiation therapy. SFRT is characterized by a ultra-high dose (10s –100s Gy) dose single treatment with drastic inhomogeneity pattern of given spatial frequencies. Preclinical and limited clinical studies have shown that the SFRT treatments may offer significant improvements in reducing treatment toxicity, especially for those patients who have not benefited from the state-of-the-art radiation therapy approaches. This preliminary study aims to elucidate the underlying working mechanisms of SFRT, which currently remains poorly understood. Methods: A genetically engineered 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma cell line and nude mice skin fold window chamber were used. A nanotechnology-based 160kV x-ray irradiator delivered 50Gy (entrance dose) single treatments of microbeam or seamless radiation. Animals were in 3 groups: mock, seamless radiation, and 300μm microbeam radiation. The windows were imaged using a hyperspectral system to capture total hemoglobin/saturation, GFP fluorescence emission, RFP fluorescence emission, and vessel density at 9 time points up to 7 days post radiation. Results: We found unique physiologic changes in different tumor/normal tissue regions and differential effects between seamless and microbeam treatments. They include 1) compared to microbeam and mock radiation seamless radiation damaged more microvasculature in tumor-surrounding normal tissue, 2) a pronounced angiogenic effect was observed with vascular proliferation in the microbeam irradiated portion of the tumor days post treatment (no such effect observed in seamless and mock groups), and 3) a notable change in tumor vascular orientation was observed where vessels initially oriented parallel to the beam length were replaced by vessels running perpendicular to the irradiation

  14. This Week In Petroleum Gasoline Section

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Regular gasoline retail prices (dollars per gallon) U.S. Average Conventional Reformulated U.S. retail regular gasoline prices graph Retail average regular gasoline prices graph Retail conventional regular gasoline prices graph Retail reformulated regular gasoline prices graph Retail average regular gasoline prices (dollars per gallon) more price data › Year ago Most recent 11/16/15 11/14/16 11/07/16 10/31/16 10/24/16 10/17/16 10/10/16 10/03/16 U.S. 2.178 2.184 2.233 2.230 2.243 2.257 2.272

  15. MO-E-17A-06: Organ Dose in Abdomen-Pelvis CT: Does TG 111 Equilibrium Dose Concept Better Accounts for KVp Dependence Than Conventional CTDI?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X; Morgan, A; Davros, W; Dong, F; Primak, A; Segars, W

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In CT imaging, a desirable quality assurance (QA) dose quantity should account for the dose variability across scan parameters and scanner models. Recently, AAPM TG 111 proposed to use equilibrium dose-pitch product, in place of CT dose index (CTDI100), for scan modes involving table translation. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether this new concept better accounts for the kVp dependence of organ dose than the conventional CTDI concept. Methods: The adult reference female extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom was used for this study. A Monte Carlo program developed and validated for a 128-slice CT system (Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare) was used to simulate organ dose for abdomenpelvis scans at five tube voltages (70, 80, 100, 120, 140 kVp) with a pitch of 0.8 and a detector configuration of 2x64x0.6 mm. The same Monte Carlo program was used to simulate CTDI100 and equilibrium dose-pitch product. For both metrics, the central and peripheral values were used together with helical pitch to calculate a volume-weighted average, i.e., CTDIvol and (Deq)vol, respectively. Results: While other scan parameters were kept constant, organ dose depended strongly on kVp; the coefficient of variation (COV) across the five kVp values ranged between 70–75% for liver, spleen, stomach, pancreas, kidneys, colon, small intestine, bladder, and ovaries, all of which were inside the primary radiation beam. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the effect of kVp was highly significant (p=3e−30). When organ dose was normalized by CTDIvol, the COV across the five kVp values reduced to 7–16%. The effect of kVp was still highly significant (p=4e−4). When organ dose was normalized by (Deq)vol, the COV further reduced to 4−12%. The effect of kVp was borderline significant (p=0.04). Conclusion: In abdomen-pelvis CT, TG 111 equilibrium dose concept better accounts for kVp dependence than the conventional CTDI. This work is supported by a faculty startup

  16. SU-D-207-05: Real-Time Intrafractional Motion Tracking During VMAT Delivery Using a Conventional Elekta CBCT System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Yang-Kyun; Sharp, Gregory C.; Gierga, David P.; Winey, Brian A.; Ye, Sung-Joon

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Real-time kV projection streaming capability has become recently available for Elekta XVI version 5.0. This study aims to investigate the feasibility and accuracy of real-time fiducial marker tracking during CBCT acquisition with or without simultaneous VMAT delivery using a conventional Elekta linear accelerator. Methods: A client computer was connected to an on-board kV imaging system computer, and receives and processes projection images immediately after image acquisition. In-house marker tracking software based on FFT normalized cross-correlation was developed and installed in the client computer. Three gold fiducial markers with 3 mm length were implanted in a pelvis-shaped phantom with 36 cm width. The phantom was placed on a programmable motion platform oscillating in anterior-posterior and superior-inferior directions simultaneously. The marker motion was tracked in real-time for (1) a kV-only CBCT scan with treatment beam off and (2) a kV CBCT scan during a 6-MV VMAT delivery. The exposure parameters per projection were 120 kVp and 1.6 mAs. Tracking accuracy was assessed by comparing superior-inferior positions between the programmed and tracked trajectories. Results: The projection images were successfully transferred to the client computer at a frequency of about 5 Hz. In the kV-only scan, highly accurate marker tracking was achieved over the entire range of cone-beam projection angles (detection rate / tracking error were 100.0% / 0.6±0.5 mm). In the kV-VMAT scan, MV-scatter degraded image quality, particularly for lateral projections passing through the thickest part of the phantom (kV source angle ranging 70°-110° and 250°-290°), resulting in a reduced detection rate (90.5%). If the lateral projections are excluded, tracking performance was comparable to the kV-only case (detection rate / tracking error were 100.0% / 0.8±0.5 mm). Conclusion: Our phantom study demonstrated a promising Result for real-time motion tracking using a

  17. Cleveland Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

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    396 2.273 2.156 2.155 2.211 2.147 2003-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.396 2.273 2.156 2.155 2.211 2.147 2003-2016 Regular 2.265 2.144 2.023 2.019 2.074 2.015 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.265 2.144 2.023 2.019 2.074 2.015 2003-2016 Midgrade 2.564 2.427 2.329 2.336 2.391 2.323 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.564 2.427 2.329 2.336 2.391 2.323 2003-2016 Premium 2.875 2.754 2.641 2.647 2.711 2.623 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.875 2.754 2.641 2.647 2.711 2.623 2003

  18. Colorado Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

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    266 2.269 2.265 2.261 2.226 2.186 2000-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.266 2.269 2.265 2.261 2.226 2.186 2000-2016 Regular 2.160 2.164 2.160 2.155 2.119 2.079 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.160 2.164 2.160 2.155 2.119 2.079 2000-2016 Midgrade 2.427 2.429 2.425 2.422 2.387 2.348 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.427 2.429 2.425 2.422 2.387 2.348 2000-2016 Premium 2.688 2.686 2.683 2.684 2.652 2.611 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.688 2.686 2.683 2.684 2.652 2.611 2000

  19. Denver Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

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    247 2.254 2.254 2.249 2.220 2.182 2000-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.247 2.254 2.254 2.249 2.220 2.182 2000-2016 Regular 2.133 2.141 2.141 2.136 2.107 2.070 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.133 2.141 2.141 2.136 2.107 2.070 2000-2016 Midgrade 2.423 2.431 2.428 2.422 2.392 2.354 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.423 2.431 2.428 2.422 2.392 2.354 2000-2016 Premium 2.686 2.695 2.691 2.689 2.661 2.621 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.686 2.695 2.691 2.689 2.661 2.621 2000

  20. Miami Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

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    85 2.597 2.588 2.575 2.559 2.542 2003-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.585 2.597 2.588 2.575 2.559 2.542 2003-2016 Regular 2.423 2.439 2.429 2.414 2.397 2.382 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.423 2.439 2.429 2.414 2.397 2.382 2003-2016 Midgrade 2.710 2.717 2.712 2.705 2.691 2.677 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.710 2.717 2.712 2.705 2.691 2.677 2003-2016 Premium 3.020 3.020 3.015 3.004 2.987 2.967 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 3.020 3.020 3.015 3.004 2.987 2.967 2003

  1. Minnesota Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    238 2.218 2.187 2.151 2.112 2.053 2000-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.238 2.218 2.187 2.151 2.112 2.053 2000-2016 Regular 2.173 2.155 2.124 2.088 2.048 1.987 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.173 2.155 2.124 2.088 2.048 1.987 2000-2016 Midgrade 2.318 2.298 2.266 2.231 2.193 2.136 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.318 2.298 2.266 2.231 2.193 2.136 2000-2016 Premium 2.563 2.532 2.504 2.470 2.431 2.388 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.563 2.532 2.504 2.470 2.431 2.388

  2. Ohio Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

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    392 2.258 2.147 2.157 2.214 2.107 2003-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.392 2.258 2.147 2.157 2.214 2.107 2003-2016 Regular 2.275 2.140 2.029 2.037 2.095 1.986 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.275 2.140 2.029 2.037 2.095 1.986 2003-2016 Midgrade 2.543 2.404 2.297 2.307 2.365 2.265 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.543 2.404 2.297 2.307 2.365 2.265 2003-2016 Premium 2.822 2.690 2.581 2.595 2.651 2.547 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.822 2.690 2.581 2.595 2.651 2.547 2003

  3. PADD 4 Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    328 2.356 2.374 2.383 2.358 2.324 1993-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.328 2.356 2.374 2.383 2.358 2.324 1994-2016 Regular 2.244 2.269 2.286 2.293 2.268 2.235 1992-2016 Conventional Areas 2.244 2.269 2.286 2.293 2.268 2.235 1992-2016 Midgrade 2.426 2.462 2.485 2.498 2.472 2.437 1994-2016 Conventional Areas 2.426 2.462 2.485 2.498 2.472 2.437 1994-2016 Premium 2.650 2.681 2.702 2.716 2.692 2.657 1994-2016 Conventional Areas 2.650 2.681 2.702 2.716 2.692 2.657 1994-2016 Diesel (On-Highway)

  4. Seattle Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    743 2.753 2.758 2.754 2.764 2.716 2003-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.743 2.753 2.758 2.754 2.764 2.716 2003-2016 Regular 2.686 2.698 2.704 2.699 2.708 2.661 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.686 2.698 2.704 2.699 2.708 2.661 2003-2016 Midgrade 2.859 2.867 2.870 2.870 2.880 2.836 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.859 2.867 2.870 2.870 2.880 2.836 2003-2016 Premium 2.975 2.978 2.983 2.984 2.995 2.942 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.975 2.978 2.983 2.984 2.995 2.942

  5. Washington Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    735 2.733 2.762 2.760 2.749 2.711 2003-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.735 2.733 2.762 2.760 2.749 2.711 2003-2016 Regular 2.673 2.670 2.698 2.696 2.685 2.646 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.673 2.670 2.698 2.696 2.685 2.646 2003-2016 Midgrade 2.857 2.855 2.884 2.883 2.870 2.837 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.857 2.855 2.884 2.883 2.870 2.837 2003-2016 Premium 2.996 2.992 3.028 3.027 3.016 2.980 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.996 2.992 3.028 3.027 3.016 2.980 2003

  6. Seawolf Manufacturing Challenge | Y-12 National Security Complex

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

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    Seawolf Manufacturing ...

  7. Washington River Protection Solutions - Hanford Site

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    735 2.733 2.762 2.760 2.749 2.711 2003-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.735 2.733 2.762 2.760 2.749 2.711 2003-2016 Regular 2.673 2.670 2.698 2.696 2.685 2.646 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.673 2.670 2.698 2.696 2.685 2.646 2003-2016 Midgrade 2.857 2.855 2.884 2.883 2.870 2.837 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.857 2.855 2.884 2.883 2.870 2.837 2003-2016 Premium 2.996 2.992 3.028 3.027 3.016 2.980 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.996 2.992 3.028 3.027 3.016 2.980 2003

    Contracting Washington

  8. Clients

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

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    Clients Clients There

  9. Combinatorial Multilevel Mold Insert Using Micromachining and X-ray Lithography

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Colorado

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  10. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    735 2.733 2.762 2.760 2.749 2.711 2003-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.735 2.733 2.762 2.760 2.749 2.711 2003-2016 Regular 2.673 2.670 2.698 2.696 2.685 2.646 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.673 2.670 2.698 2.696 2.685 2.646 2003-2016 Midgrade 2.857 2.855 2.884 2.883 2.870 2.837 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.857 2.855 2.884 2.883 2.870 2.837 2003-2016 Premium 2.996 2.992 3.028 3.027 3.016 2.980 2003-2016 Conventional Areas 2.996 2.992 3.028 3.027 3.016 2.980 2003

    All Petrolem Reports

  11. Department of Energy Environmental Management Consolidated Business Center

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    247 2.254 2.254 2.249 2.220 2.182 2000-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.247 2.254 2.254 2.249 2.220 2.182 2000-2016 Regular 2.133 2.141 2.141 2.136 2.107 2.070 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.133 2.141 2.141 2.136 2.107 2.070 2000-2016 Midgrade 2.423 2.431 2.428 2.422 2.392 2.354 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.423 2.431 2.428 2.422 2.392 2.354 2000-2016 Premium 2.686 2.695 2.691 2.689 2.661 2.621 2000-2016 Conventional Areas 2.686 2.695 2.691 2.689 2.661 2.621 2000

    Department Of Energy

  12. SU-E-P-58: Dosimetric Study of Conventional Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and Knowledge-Based Radiation Therapy for Postoperation of Cervix Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, C; Yin, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric difference of the target volume and organs at risk(OARs) between conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy(C-IMRT) and knowledge-based radiation therapy (KBRT) plans for cervix cancer. Methods: 39 patients with cervical cancer after surgery were randomly selected, 20 patient plans were used to create the model, the other 19 cases used for comparative evaluation. All plans were designed in Eclipse system. The prescription dose was 30.6Gy, 17 fractions, OARs dose satisfied to the clinical requirement. A paired t test was used to evaluate the differences of dose-volume histograms (DVH). Results: Comparaed to C-IMRT plan, the KBRT plan target can achieve the similar target dose coverage, D98,D95,D2,HI and CI had no difference (P≥0.05). The dose of rectum, bladder and femoral heads had no significant differences(P≥0.05). The time was used to design treatment plan was significant reduced. Conclusion: This study shows that postoperative radiotherapy of cervical KBRT plans can achieve the similar target and OARs dose, but the shorter designing time.

  13. The effects of ionizing radiation on Reillex trademark HPQ, a new macroporous polyvinylpyridine resin, and on four conventional polystyrene anion exchange resins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, S.F.

    1990-11-01

    This study compares the effects of ionizing radiation on Reillex{trademark} HPQ, a recently available macroporous copolymer of 1-methyl-4-vinylpyridine/divinylbenzene, and on four conventional strong-base polystyrene anion exchange resins. The polystyrene resins investigated included one gel type, Dowex{trademark} 1 {times} 4, and three macroporous resins: Dow{trademark} MSA-1, Amberlite{trademark} IRA-900, and Lewatit{trademark} MP-500-FK. Each resin, in 7 M nitric acid, was subjected to seven different levels of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation ranging from 100 to 1000 megarads. Irradiated resins were measured for changes in dry weight, wet volume, chloride and Pu(IV) exchange capacities, and thermal stability. In separate experiments, each resin was subjected to approximately 340 megarads of in situ alpha particles from sorbed plutonium. Resin damage from alpha particles was less than half that caused by gamma rays, which may be a consequence of different production rates of radiolytic nitrite and nitro radicals in the two systems. Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin provided the greatest radiation stability, whereas Lewatit{trademark} MP-500-FK was the least stable of the resins tested. Thermogravimetric analyses of dry, nitrate-form resin revealed that dry Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin offered the best thermal stability for absorbed gamma doses to 370 megarads, but the worst thermal stability after exposures of 550 megarads or more. 25 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Bone scintigraphy in evaluating the viability of composite bone grafts revascularized by microvascular anastomoses, conventional autogenous bone grafts, and free non-revascularized periosteal grafts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, A.; Weiland, A.J.; Ostrup, L.T.

    1982-07-01

    Researchers studied the value of bone scintigraphy in the assessment of anastomotic patency and bone-cell viability in free bone grafts revascularized by microvascular anastomoses in twenty-seven dogs. The dogs were divided into three different groups, and scintigraphy was carried out using technetium-labeled methylene diphosphonate in composite bone grafts revascularized by microvascular anastomoses, conventional autogenous bone grafts, and periosteal grafts placed in different recipient beds. The viability of the grafts were evaluated by histological examination and fluorescence microscopy after triple labeling with oxytetracycline on the first postoperative day, alizarin complexone on the fourth postoperative day, and DCAF on the eleventh postoperative day. A positive scintiscan within the first week following surgery indicated patent microvascular anastomoses, and histological study and fluorescence microscopy confirmed that bone throughout the graft was viable. A positive scintiscan one week after surgery or later does not necessarily indicate microvascular patency or bone-cell survival, because new bone formed by creeping substitution on the surface of a dead bone graft can result in this finding.

  15. Measured Laboratory and In-Use Fuel Economy Observed over Targeted Drive Cycles for Comparable Hybrid and Conventional Package Delivery Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M. P.; Walkowicz, K.; Duran, A.; Sindler, P.

    2012-10-01

    In-use and laboratory-derived fuel economies were analyzed for a medium-duty hybrid electric drivetrain with 'engine off at idle' capability and a conventional drivetrain in a typical commercial package delivery application. Vehicles studied included eleven 2010 Freightliner P100H hybrids in service at a United Parcel Service facility in Minneapolis during the first half of 2010. The hybrids were evaluated for 18 months against eleven 2010 Freightliner P100D diesels at the same facility. Both vehicle groups use the same 2009 Cummins ISB 200-HP engine. In-use fuel economy was evaluated using UPS's fueling and mileage records, periodic ECM image downloads, and J1939 CAN bus recordings during the periods of duty cycle study. Analysis of the in-use fuel economy showed 13%-29% hybrid advantage depending on measurement method, and a delivery route assignment analysis showed 13%-26% hybrid advantage on the less kinetically intense original diesel route assignments and 20%-33% hybrid advantage on the more kinetically intense original hybrid route assignments. Three standardized laboratory drive cycles were selected that encompassed the range of real-world in-use data. The hybrid vehicle demonstrated improvements in ton-mi./gal fuel economy of 39%, 45%, and 21% on the NYC Comp, HTUF Class 4, and CARB HHDDT test cycles, respectively.

  16. Phase formation sequences in the silicon-phosphorous system : determined by in-situ synchrotron andj conventional x-ray diffraction measurements and predicted by a theoretical model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsson, J. R. A.; Clevenger, L.; Madsen, L. D.; Hultman, L.; Li, X.-H.; Jordan-Sweet, J.; Lavoie, C.; Roy, R. A.; Cabral, C., Jr.; Morales, G.; Ludwig, K. L.; Stephenson, G. B.; Hentzell, H. T. G.; Materials Science Division; Linkoeping Univ.; IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; Boston Univ.

    1997-01-01

    The phase formation sequences of Si-P alloy thin films with P concentrations between 20 and 44 at. % have been studied. The samples were annealed at progressively higher temperatures and the newly formed phases were identified both after each annealing step by ex-situ conventional X-ray diffraction (XRD) and continuously by in-situ synchrotron XRD. It was found that Si was the only phase to form in a sample with 20 at.% P since the evaporation of P at the crystallization temperature prevented phosphides from forming. For a sample with 30at.% P, the Si{sub 12}P{sub 5} phase formed prior to the SiP phase. For samples with 35 and 44at.%P, the formation of SiP preceded the formation of the Si{sub 12}P{sub 5} phase. The experimentally determined phase formation sequences were successfully predicted by a proposed model. According to the model, the first and second crystalline phases to form are those with the lowest and next-lowest crystallization temperatures of the competing compounds predicted by the Gibbs free-energy diagram.

  17. Dosimetric comparison of conventional and forward-planned intensity-modulated techniques for comprehensive locoregional irradiation of post-mastectomy left breast cancers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavey, Matthew L. . E-mail: mlcavey@utmb.edu; Bayouth, John E.; Endres, Eugene J.; Pena, John M.; Colman, Martin; Hatch, Sandra

    2005-06-30

    Three recently published randomized trials have shown a survival benefit to postoperative radiation therapy when the internal mammary chain (IMC), supraclavicular (SCV), and axillary lymphatics are treated. When treating the IMC, techniques that minimize dose to the heart and lungs may be utilized to prevent excess morbidity and mortality and achieve the survival benefit reported. The purpose of this study was to dosimetrically compare forward-planned intensity-modulated radiation therapy (fIMRT) with conventional techniques for comprehensive irradiation of the chest wall and regional lymphatics. For irradiation of the chest wall and IMC, 3 treatment plans, (1) fIMRT, (2) partially-wide tangent (PWT) fields, and (3) a photon-electron (PE) technique, were compared for 12 patients previously treated at our institution with fIMRT to the left chest wall and regional lymphatics. Additionally, the SCV and infraclavicular lymphatics were irradiated and 4 methods were compared: 2 with anterior fields only (dose prescribed to 3 and 5 cm [SC3cm, SC5cm]) and 2 with anterior and posterior fields (fIMRT, 3DCRT). Each patient was planned to receive 50 Gy in 25 fractions. Regions of interest (ROIs) created for each patient included chest wall (CW) planning target volume (PTV), IMC PTV, and SCV PTV. Additionally, the following organs at risk (OAR) volumes were created: contralateral breast, heart, and lungs. For each plan and ROI, target volume coverage (V{sub 95-107}) and dose homogeneity (D{sub 95-5}) were evaluated. Additionally, the mean OAR dose and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) were computed. For irradiation of the CW, target volume coverage and dose homogeneity were improved for the fIMRT technique as compared to PE (p < 0.001, p = 0.023, respectively). Similar improvements were seen with respect to IMC PTV (p = 0.012, p = 0.064). These dosimetric parameters were also improved as compared to PWT, but not to the same extent (p = 0.011, p = 0.095 for CW PTV

  18. Characterization study of conventional chromium films, amorphous bright chromium deposited (ABCD) films, N{sup +} implanted ABCD films and the preparation of ABCD films using propionic acid as an organic additive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, R.I.

    1998-05-01

    Electroplated chromium films are widely used and are extremely important in industrial processes because the films produced are hard, corrosion resistant, bright and have good adhesive properties. Unfortunately, the utilization of conventional Cr layers is limited to low-temperature applications (generally less than 500C) because they soften at elevated temperatures. This problem has been overcome through the development of the amorphous bright chromium deposition (ABCD) method. In the ABCD method organic compounds containing -CHO or -COOH groups are added to the electroplating bath, and the bath is operated under different conditions than the conventional Sargent bath. The resulting ABCD films have exceptional properties compared to conventional Cr films. Most importantly, the hardness of ABCD films increases greatly either by annealing at fairly low temperatures for long periods (2000C for 48 hrs) or higher temperatures for shorter periods (6000C for 1/2 hr) thereby opening new application areas for Cr layers.

  19. Individualized Positron Emission Tomography–Based Isotoxic Accelerated Radiation Therapy Is Cost-Effective Compared With Conventional Radiation Therapy: A Model-Based Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bongers, Mathilda L.; Coupé, Veerle M.H.; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Oberije, Cary; Lambin, Philippe; Uyl-de Groot, Cornelia A.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term health effects, costs, and cost-effectiveness of positron emission tomography (PET)-based isotoxic accelerated radiation therapy treatment (PET-ART) compared with conventional fixed-dose CT-based radiation therapy treatment (CRT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Our analysis uses a validated decision model, based on data of 200 NSCLC patients with inoperable stage I-IIIB. Clinical outcomes, resource use, costs, and utilities were obtained from the Maastro Clinic and the literature. Primary model outcomes were the difference in life-years (LYs), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness and cost/utility ratio (ICER and ICUR) of PET-ART versus CRT. Model outcomes were obtained from averaging the predictions for 50,000 simulated patients. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis and scenario analyses were carried out. Results: The average incremental costs per patient of PET-ART were €569 (95% confidence interval [CI] €−5327-€6936) for 0.42 incremental LYs (95% CI 0.19-0.61) and 0.33 QALYs gained (95% CI 0.13-0.49). The base-case scenario resulted in an ICER of €1360 per LY gained and an ICUR of €1744 per QALY gained. The probabilistic analysis gave a 36% probability that PET-ART improves health outcomes at reduced costs and a 64% probability that PET-ART is more effective at slightly higher costs. Conclusion: On the basis of the available data, individualized PET-ART for NSCLC seems to be cost-effective compared with CRT.

  20. Side-by-side evaluation of a stressed-skin insulated-core panel house and a conventional stud-frame house. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Chandra, S.

    1994-01-14

    Side-by-side energy testing and monitoring was conducted on two houses in Louisville, KY between January--March 1993. Both houses were identical except that one house was constructed with conventional US 2 by 4 studs and a truss roof while the other house was constructed with stress-skin insulated core panels for the walls and second floor ceiling. Air-tightness testing included fan pressurization by blower door, hour long tracer tests using sulphur hexafluoride, and two-week long time-averaged tests using perfluorocarbon tracers. An average of all the air-tightness test results showed the SSIC panel house to have 22 percent less air infiltration than the frame house. Air-tightness testing resulted in a recommendation that both houses have a fresh air ventilation system installed to provide 0.35 air changes per hour continuously. Thermal insulation quality testing was by infrared imaging. Pressure differential testing resulted in recommendations to use sealed combustion appliances, and to allow for more return air flow from closed rooms. This can be accomplished by separate return ducts or transfer ducts which simply connect closed rooms to the main body with a short duct. The SSIC house UA was lower in both cases. By measurement, co-heating tests showed the SSIC panel house total UA to be 12 percent lower than the frame house. Short-term energy monitoring was also conducted for the two houses. A 17 day period of electric heating and a 14 day period of gas furnace heating was evaluated. Monitoring results showed energy savings for the panel house to be 12 percent during electric heating and 15 percent during gas heating. A comparison of the two monitoring periods showed that the lumped efficiency of the gas furnace and air distribution system for both houses was close to 80 percent. Simple regression models using Typical Meteorological Year weather data gave a preliminary prediction of seasonal energy savings between 14 and 20 percent.

  1. SU-E-P-55: The Reaserch of Cervical Cancer Delivered with Constant Dose Rate and Gantry Speed Arc Therapy(CDR-CAS-IMAT) On Conventional Linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, R; Bai, W; Chi, Z; Gao, C; Xiaomei, F; Gao, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Postoperative cervical cancer patients with large target volume and the target shape is concave, treatmented with static intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is time consuming. The purpose of this study is to investigate using constant dose rate and gantry speed arc therapy(CDR-CAS-IMAT) on conventional linear accelrator, by comparing with the IMRT technology to evaluate the performance of CDR-CAS-IMAT on postoperative cervical cancer patients. Methods: 18 cervical cancer patients treated with IMRT on Varian 23IX were replanted using CDR-CAS-IMAT. The plans were generated on Oncentra v4.1 planning system, PTV was prescribed to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Plans were evaluated based on the ability to meet the dose volume histogram. The homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI) of target volume, the dose of organs at risk, radiation delivery time and monitor units were also compared. SPSS 19.0 software paired T-test analysis was carried out on the two sets of data. Results: Compared with the IMRT plans PTV’s CI (t= 3.85, P =0.001), CTV’s CI, HI, D90, D95, D98, V95, V98, V100 (t=4.21, −3.18, 2.13, 4.65, 7.79, 2.29, 6.00, 2.13, p=0.001, 0.005, 0.049, 0.000, 0.000, 0.035, 0.000, 0.049), and cord D2 and rectum V40 (t=−2.65, −2.47, p= P =0.017, 0.025), and treatment time and MU (t=−36.0, −6.26, P =0.000, 0.000) were better than that of IMRT group. But the IMRT plans in terms of decreasing bladder V50, bowel V30 (t=2.14, 3.00, P =0.048, 0.008) and low dose irradiation volume were superior to that of CDR-CAS-IMAT plans. There were no significant differences in other statistical index. Conclusion: Cervical cancer patients with CDR-CAS-IMAT on Varian Clinical 23IX can get equivalent or superior dose distribution compared with the IMRT technology. IMAT have much less treatment time and MU can reduce the uncertainty factor and patient discomfort in treatment. This work was supported by the Medical Science Foundation of the health department of Hebei

  2. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy vs conventional fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy in a whole-ventricular irradiation: A planning comparison study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakanaka, Katsuyuki; Mizowaki, Takashi; Sato, Sayaka; Ogura, Kengo; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluated the dosimetric difference between volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and conventional fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (cIMRT) in whole-ventricular irradiation. Computed tomography simulation data for 13 patients were acquired to create plans for VMAT and cIMRT. In both plans, the same median dose (100% = 24 Gy) was prescribed to the planning target volume (PTV), which comprised a tumor bed and whole ventricles. During optimization, doses to the normal brain and body were reduced, provided that the dose constraints of the target coverage were satisfied. The dose-volume indices of the PTV, normal brain, and body as well as monitor units were compared between the 2 techniques by using paired t-tests. The results showed no significant difference in the homogeneity index (0.064 vs 0.065; p = 0.824) of the PTV and conformation number (0.78 vs 0.77; p = 0.065) between the 2 techniques. In the normal brain and body, the dose-volume indices showed no significant difference between the 2 techniques, except for an increase in the volume receiving a low dose in VMAT; the absolute volume of the normal brain and body receiving 1 Gy of radiation significantly increased in VMAT by 1.6% and 8.3%, respectively, compared with that in cIMRT (1044 vs 1028 mL for the normal brain and 3079.2 vs 2823.3 mL for the body; p<0.001). The number of monitor units to deliver a 2.0-Gy fraction was significantly reduced in VMAT compared with that in cIMRT (354 vs 873, respectively; p<0.001). In conclusion, VMAT delivers IMRT to complex target volumes such as whole ventricles with fewer monitor units, while maintaining target coverage and conformal isodose distribution comparable to cIMRT; however, in addition to those characteristics, the fact that the volume of the normal brain and body receiving a low dose would increase in VMAT should be considered.

  3. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    11,251 Reformulated Blended with Fuel Ethanol ...... 38,205 113 38,318 8,671 1,492 ... 56,309 Conventional Blended with Fuel Ethanol ...... 53,891 6,166 60,057 37,515 ...

  4. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Michael Vanden; Anderson, Paul; Wallace, Janae; Morgan, Craig; Carney, Stephanie

    2012-04-30

    Saline water disposal is one of the most pressing issues with regard to increasing petroleum and natural gas production in the Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah. Conventional oil fields in the basin provide 69 percent of Utah?s total crude oil production and 71 percent of Utah?s total natural gas, the latter of which has increased 208% in the past 10 years. Along with hydrocarbons, wells in the Uinta Basin produce significant quantities of saline water ? nearly 4 million barrels of saline water per month in Uintah County and nearly 2 million barrels per month in Duchesne County. As hydrocarbon production increases, so does saline water production, creating an increased need for economic and environmentally responsible disposal plans. Current water disposal wells are near capacity, and permitting for new wells is being delayed because of a lack of technical data regarding potential disposal aquifers and questions concerning contamination of freshwater sources. Many companies are reluctantly resorting to evaporation ponds as a short-term solution, but these ponds have limited capacity, are prone to leakage, and pose potential risks to birds and other wildlife. Many Uinta Basin operators claim that oil and natural gas production cannot reach its full potential until a suitable, long-term saline water disposal solution is determined. The enclosed project was divided into three parts: 1) re-mapping the base of the moderately saline aquifer in the Uinta Basin, 2) creating a detailed geologic characterization of the Birds Nest aquifer, a potential reservoir for large-scale saline water disposal, and 3) collecting and analyzing water samples from the eastern Uinta Basin to establish baseline water quality. Part 1: Regulators currently stipulate that produced saline water must be disposed of into aquifers that already contain moderately saline water (water that averages at least 10,000 mg/L total dissolved solids). The UGS has re-mapped the moderately saline water boundary

  5. Study of the microstructure of plasma sprayed coatings obtained from Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}13TiO{sub 2} nanostructured and conventional powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gral, A.; ?rawski, W.; Lity?ska-Dobrzy?ska, L.

    2014-10-15

    The microstructure of coatings obtained from nanostructured or conventional Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}13TiO{sub 2} powders and deposited by plasma spraying technique on low-carbon steel was examined by transmission electron microscopy techniques. The dominating phase in both coatings was ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase. It has been observed that the grains of ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} grew in various shapes and sizes, that are particularly visible in the case of coating sprayed from nanostructured powder. The coatings obtained from the fully melted conventional powders exhibited a typical lamellar microstructure, into which the strips of TiO{sub 2} phase were extended. The microstructure of coatings produced from agglomerates of nanostructured particles also revealed the regions consisting of partially melted ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders surrounded by the net-like structure formed from fully melted oxides that improved the coating properties. Along with the observed morphology diversity some changes in the chemical composition on the cross sections of obtained coatings have been also noticed. - Highlights: Plasma sprayed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}13TiO{sub 2} coatings reveal diversity of microstructure. Microstructure of conventional coating was formed from fully melted crushed powders. Nanostructured coating contains completely and partially melted initial agglomerates.

  6. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Schamel

    1998-02-27

    A previously idle portion of the Midway-Sunset field, the ARCO Western Energy Pru Fee property, is being brought back into commercial production through tight integration of geologic characterization, geostatistical modeling, reservoir simulation, and petroleum engineering. This property, shut-in over a decade ago as economically marginal using conventional cyclic steaming methods, has a 200-300 foot thick oil column in the Monarch Sand. However, the sand lacks effective steam barriers and has a thick water-saturation zone above the oil-water contact. These factors require an innovative approach to steam flood production design that will balance optimal total oil production against economically viable steam-oil ratios and production rates. The methods used in the Class III demonstration are accessible to most operators in the Midway-Sunset field and could be used to revitalize properties with declining production of heavy oils throughout the region. In January 1997 the project entered its second and main phase with the purpose of demonstrating whether steamflood can be a more effective mode of production of the heavy, viscous oils from the Monarch Sand reservoir than the more conventional cyclic steaming. The objective is not just to produce the pilot site within the Pru Fee property south of Taft, but to test which production parameters optimize total oil recovery at economically acceptable rates of production and production costs.

  7. Integration and conventional systems at STAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matis, Howard S.; Brown, Ralph L.; Christie, William; Edwards, W.R.; Jared, Richard; Minor, Bob; Salz, Paul

    2002-02-20

    At the beginning of the design and construction of the STAR Detector, the collaboration assigned a team of physicists and engineers the responsibility of coordinating the construction of the detector. This group managed the general space assignments for each sub-system and coordinated the assembly and planning for the detector. Furthermore, as this group was the only STAR group with the responsibility of looking at the system as a whole, the collaboration assigned it several tasks that spanned the different sub-detectors. These items included grounding, rack layout, cable distribution, electrical, power and water, and safety systems. This paper describes these systems and their performance.

  8. USHCC 2016 National Convention | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers

    IX Title IX Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, as amended, prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in all educational programs and activities of institutions that receive federal financial assistance. The law states, in part, that: No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance. Click here to

  9. AFN Annual Convention | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers

    5 Steps to Making Your Windows More Energy Efficient 5 Steps to Making Your Windows More Energy Efficient December 13, 2013 - 4:06pm Addthis Keep your hard-earned dollars from flying out the window by following the <a href="http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/building_america/measure_guide_wood_windows.pdf">latest guidelines for window repair, rehabilitation and replacement</a>. | Photo courtesy of the Weatherization Assistance Program Technical

  10. Conventional Gasoline Sales to End Users Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    289 - - - - - 1994-2015 East Coast (PADD 1) 2.280 - - - - - 1994-2015 New England (PADD 1A) 2.378 - - - - - 1994-2015 Connecticut - - - - - - 1994-2015 Maine 2.360 - - - - - ...

  11. Retail Prices for Regular Gasoline - Conventional Areas

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    1.933 1.922 1990-2016 East Coast (PADD1) 2.075 2.060 2.033 2.029 2.013 2.000 1992-2016 New England (PADD 1A) 2.205 2.197 2.156 2.130 2.106 2.097 1993-2016 Central Atlantic (PADD...

  12. Westin Convention Center Hotel, Pittsburgh, PA

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... ultra-supercritical steam turbine, and desalination systems. * Mechanical Wear in Gas ... development of manufacture-able products such gas turbines and desalination systems. ...

  13. Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis: SPA Convention and Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinchliffe, I.; et al.

    2005-05-05

    High-precision analyses of supersymmetry parameters aim atreconstructing the fundamental supersymmetric theory and its breakingmechanism. A well defined theoretical framework is needed whenhigher-order corrections are included. We propose such a scheme,Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis SPA, based on a consistent set ofconventions and input parameters. A repository for computer programs isprovided which connect parameters in different schemes and relate theLagrangian parameters to physical observables at LHC and high energy e+e-linear collider experiments, i.e., masses, mixings, decay widths andproduction cross sections for supersymmetric particles. In addition,programs for calculating high-precision low energy observables, thedensity of cold dark matter (CDM) in the universe as well as the crosssections for CDM search experiments are included. The SPA scheme stillrequires extended efforts on both the theoretical and experimental sidebefore data can be evaluated in the future at the level of the desiredprecision. We take here an initial step of testing the SPA scheme byapplying the techniques involved to a specific supersymmetry referencepoint.

  14. Cetane Performance and Chemistry Comparing Conventional Fuels...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006deerbunting.pdf (405.64 ...

  15. American Veterans 69th Annual National Convention

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Where AMVETS leaders and members will be given a chance to shape the future of our great organization. From electing new leaders to voting on resolutions that set the foundation of AMVETS, the...

  16. Conventional Gasoline Sales to End Users Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Contango in Cushing? Evidence on Financial-Physical Interactions in the U.S. Crude Oil Market Louis H. Ederington, University of Oklahoma Chitru S. Fernano, University of Oklahoma Kateryna Holland, University of Oklahoma Thomas K. Lee, U.S. Energy Information Administration March, 2012 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Energy Information Administration Washington, DC 20585 This paper is released to encourage discussion and critical comment. The analysis and conclusions

  17. Single-spin asymmetries: The Trento conventions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacchetta, Alessandro; D'Alesio, Umberto; Diehl, Markus; Miller, C. Andy

    2004-12-01

    During the workshop 'Transversity: New Developments in Nucleon Spin Structure' (ECT, Trento, Italy, 14-18 June 2004), a series of recommendations was put forward by the participants concerning definitions and notations for describing effects of intrinsic transverse-momentum of partons in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering.

  18. In contrast to conventional inactivated influenza vaccines, 4xM2e.HSP70c fusion protein fully protected mice against lethal dose of H1, H3 and H9 influenza A isolates circulating in Iran

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebrahimi, Seyyed Mahmoud, E-mail: smebrahimi@shirazu.ac.ir [Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-3651,Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center of Virus and Vaccine, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Science, P.O.Box 14155-3651, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dabaghian, Mehran [Department of Pathobiology, University of Tehran, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 14155-6453, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Pathobiology, University of Tehran, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 14155-6453, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tebianian, Majid [Department of Biotechnology, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute (RVSRI), P.O. Box 31975/148, Karaj, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Biotechnology, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute (RVSRI), P.O. Box 31975/148, Karaj, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zabeh Jazi, Mohammad Hossein [Department of Pathobiology, University of Tehran, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 14155-6453, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Pathobiology, University of Tehran, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 14155-6453, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Ideal vaccines against influenza viruses should elicit not only a humoral response, but also a cellular response. Mycobacterium tuberculosis HSP70 (mHSP70) have been found to promote immunogenic APCs function, elicit a strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response, and prevent the induction of tolerance. Moreover, it showed linkage of antigens to the C-terminus of mHSP70 (mHSP70c) can represent them as vaccines resulted in more potent, protective antigen specific responses in the absence of adjuvants or complex formulations. Hence, recombinant fusion protein comprising C-terminus of mHSP70 genetically fused to four tandem repeats of the ectodomain of the conserved influenza matrix protein M2 (M2e) was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified under denaturing condition, refolding, and then confirmed by SDS-PAGE, respectively. The recombinant fusion protein, 4xM2e.HSP70c, retained its immunogenicity and displayed the protective epitope of M2e by ELISA and FITC assays. A prime-boost administration of 4xM2e.HSP70c formulated in F105 buffer by intramuscular route in mice (Balb/C) provided full protection against lethal dose of mouse-adapted H1N1, H3N2, or H9N2 influenza A isolates from Iran compared to 0-33.34% survival rate of challenged unimmunized and immunized mice with the currently in use conventional vaccines designated as control groups. However, protection induced by immunization with 4xM2e.HSP70c failed to prevent weight loss in challenged mice; they experienced significantly lower weight loss, clinical symptoms and higher lung viral clearance in comparison with protective effects of conventional influenza vaccines in challenged mice. These data demonstrate that C-terminal domain of mHSP70 can be a superior candidate to deliver the adjuvant function in M2e-based influenza A vaccine in order to provide significant protection against multiple influenza A virus strains.

  19. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schamel, Steven; Deo, Milind; Deets, Mike; Olsen, Keven

    2000-04-20

    During the initial phase of the project a multifaceted feasibility study was carried out to examine whether the pilot project could be justified technically and economically at this site. This study included: (1) Recompletion of 9 shut-in wells and drilling of a additional producer and a new temperature observation well. A core was taken from the reservoir interval in the new producer, Pru-101. The wells were produced by conventional cyclic steaming over a period of 15 months to establish a production baseline for the site, (2) Characterization of the stratigraphy and petrophysical properties of the Monarch Sand reservoir using existing well logs and analyses on samples in the core taken from Pru-101. The resulting data were used to develop a geostatistical model of the reservoir at the Pru Fee property and a specific reservoir simulator for the pilot test site on the property, and (3) Use of the reservoir simulator to test various steamflood and cyclic steaming production options leading to design of a production strategy for the pilot steamflood based on a four pattern, 9-spot array covering 8 ac near the center of the 40 ac Pru Fee property. The array chosen required drilling additional producers and injectors to supplement the existing wells recompleted in the initial phase of the project.

  20. Activities implemented jointly: First report to the Secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Accomplishments and descriptions of projects accepted under the U.S. Initiative on Joint Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    More than 150 countries are now Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which seeks, as its ultimate objective, to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases at a level that would prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system. As a step toward this goal, all Parties are to take measures to mitigate climate change and to promote and cooperate in the development and diffusion of technologies and practices that control or reduce emissions and enhance sinks of greenhouse gases. In the US view, efforts between countries or entities within them to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions undertaken cooperatively--called joint implementation (JI)--holds significant potential both for combating the threat of global warming and for promoting sustainable development. To develop and operationalize the JI concept, the US launched its Initiative on Joint Implementation (USIJI) in October 1993, and designed the program to attract private sector resources and to encourage the diffusion of innovative technologies to mitigate climate change. The USIJI provides a mechanism for investments by US entities in projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide and has developed a set of criteria for evaluating proposed projects for their potential to reduce net GHG emissions.

  1. Optimal Conventional and Semi-Natural Treatments for the Upper Yakima Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Treatment Definitions and Descriptions and Biological Specifications for Facility Design, 1995-1999 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hager, Robert C.; Costello, Ronald J.

    1999-10-01

    This report describes the Yakima Fisheries Project facilities (Cle Elum Hatchery and acclimation satellites) which provide the mechanism to conduct state-of-the-art research for addressing questions about spring chinook supplementation strategies. The definition, descriptions, and specifications for the Yakima spring chinook supplementation program permit evaluation of alternative fish culture techniques that should yield improved methods and procedures to produce wild-like fish with higher survival that can be used to rebuild depleted spring chinook stocks of the Columbia River Basin. The definition and description of three experimental treatments, Optimal Conventional (OCT), Semi-Natural (SNT), Limited Semi-Natural (LSNT), and the biological specifications for facilities have been completed for the upper Yakima spring chinook salmon stock of the Yakima Fisheries Project. The task was performed by the Biological Specifications Work Group (BSWG) represented by Yakama Indian Nation, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, and Bonneville Power Administration. The control and experimental variables of the experimental treatments (OCT, SNT, and LSNT) are described in sufficient detail to assure that the fish culture facilities will be designed and operated as a production scale laboratory to produce and test supplemented upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Product specifications of the treatment groups are proposed to serve as the generic templates for developing greater specificity for measurements of product attributes. These product specifications will be used to monitor and evaluate treatment effects, with respect to the biological response variables (post release survival, long-term fitness, reproductive success and ecological interactions).

  2. Structural, electrical, and thermoelectrical properties of (Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x}){sub 2}Se{sub 3} alloys prepared by a conventional melting technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shokr, E. Kh.; Ibrahim, E. M. M. Abdel Hakeem, A. M.; Adam, A. M.

    2013-01-15

    Polycrystalline solid solutions of (Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x}){sub 2}Se{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075, 0.100) were prepared using a facile method based on the conventional melting technique followed by annealing process. X-ray analysis and Raman spectroscopical measurements revealed formation of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} in single phase. The electrical and thermoelectric properties have been studied on the bulk samples in the temperature range 100-420 K. The electrical conductivity measurements show that the activation energy and room-temperature electrical conductivity dependences on the Sb content respectively exhibit minimum and maximum values at x = 0.05. The thermoelectric power exhibited a maximum value near the room temperature suggesting promising materials for room-temperature applications. The highest power factor value was found to be 13.53 {mu}W K{sup -2} cm{sup -1} and recorded for the x = 0.05 compound.

  3. Word Pro - S9

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    6 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review October 2016 Table 9.4 Retail Motor Gasoline and On-Highway Diesel Fuel Prices (Dollars a per Gallon, Including Taxes) Platt's / Bureau of Labor Statistics Data U.S. Energy Information Administration Data Motor Gasoline by Grade Regular Motor Gasoline by Area Type On-Highway Diesel Fuel Leaded Regular Unleaded Regular Unleaded Premium b All Grades c Conventional Gasoline Areas d Reformulated Gasoline Areas e All Areas 1950 Average

  4. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Imports & Exports Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether),

  5. A comparison of Unified creep-plasticity and conventional creep models for rock salt based on predictions of creep behavior measured in several in situ and bench-scale experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, H.S.; Krieg, R.D.

    1988-04-01

    A unified creep-plasticity (UCP) model, a conventional elastic-secondary creep (ESC) model, and an elastic-secondary creep model with greatly reduced elastic moduli (RESC model) are used to compute creep responses for five experimental configurations in which rock salt is subjected to several different complex loadings. The UCP model is exercised with three sets of model parameters. Two sets are for salt from the site of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico, and the third is for salt from Avery Island, Louisiana. The WIPP reference secondary creep parameters are used in both the EC and RESC models. The WIPP reference values for the elastic moduli are also used in the ESC model. These moduli are divided by 12.5 in the RESC model. The geometrical configurations include the South Drift at the WIPP site, a hypothetical shaft in rock salt, a large hollow cylinder of rock salt subjected to external pressure while still in the floor of a drift at Avery Island, Louisiana, a laboratory-scale hollow cylinder subjected to external pressure, and a model pillar of salt subjected to axial load. Measured creep responses are available for all of these experiments except the hypothetical shaft. In all cases, deformations computed with the UCP model are much larger than the ESC predictions and are in better agreement with the data. The RESC model also produces larger deformations than the ESC model, and for the South Drift, the RESC predictions agree well with measured closures. 46 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) vs. conventional fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy for {sup 18}F-FDG-PET-guided dose escalation in oropharyngeal cancer: A planning study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teoh, May; Beveridge, Sabeena; Wood, Katie; Whitaker, Stephen; Adams, Elizabeth; Rickard, Donna; Jordan, Tom; Nisbet, Andrew; Clark, Catharine H.

    2013-04-01

    Arc. Compared with conventional fixed-field IMRT, RapidArc can achieve better dose conformity, improve contralateral parotid sparing, and uses fewer MU.

  7. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Geographic area month Regular Midgrade Premium All grades Sales to end users Sales for ... 1.956 1.885 2.297 W 2.063 2.505 W 2.333 2.151 1.981 1.939 Subdistrict 1A July 2016 W W ...

  8. Fact #880: July 6, 2015 Conventional Vehicle Energy Use: Where...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fact 884: August 3, 2015 All-electric Vehicle: Where Does the Energy Go? - Dataset Fact 856 January 19, 2015 Plug-in and Hybrid Cars Receive High Scores for Owner ...

  9. ,"U.S. Conventional Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Sales Volumes",6,"Monthly","22016","1151994" ,"Release Date:","522016" ,"Next Release Date:","612016" ,"Excel File Name:","petconsrefmgcnusepm0umgalpdm.xls" ...

  10. Metrics for Evaluating Conventional and Renewable Energy Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M. K.

    2013-01-01

    With numerous options for the future of natural gas, how do we know we're going down the right path? How do we designate a metric to measure and demonstrate change and progress, and how does that metric incorporate all stakeholders and scenarios?

  11. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    65.7 65.5 58.6 50.5 - 53.7 April ... 68.1 68.0 64.2 56.7 47.2 56.2 76.5 76.2 69.8 60.5 - 63.9 May ... 68.9...

  12. NCAI Annual Convention & Marketplace | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers

    Military and Reservist Military and Reservist Documents Available for Download March 10, 2010 Rights and Benefits of Reservists Called to Active Duty Detailed description of USERRA benefits and rights for Military employees called to active duty and the HR actions which need to occur. December 23, 2009 The Reemployment Checklist (USERRA) Reemployment works differently from service activation. To exercise reemployment right and benefits, the individual Federal employee leaving active service

  13. Characterizing Structural Controls of EGS Candidate and Conventional...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... studied in detail - Comparative analysis paper - Geothermal exploration course - Infusion of techniques (structural analysis, 3D modeling, etc.) into industry with training of ...

  14. Conventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    25,064.8 17,695.8 14,527.4 13,957.6 16,229.5 1994-2015 East Coast (PADD 1) 9,423.6 7,778.2 5,183.5 3,684.8 W W 1994-2015 New England (PADD 1A) W W W - - - 1994-2015 ...

  15. Refiner and Blender Net Production of Conventional Gasoline

    Annual Energy Outlook

    6,435 6,753 6,419 6,813 6,107 6,155 1994-2016 PADD 1 1,716 1,827 1,822 1,889 1,709 1,670 1994-2016 PADD 2 2,083 2,203 2,119 2,244 1,968 1,984 1994-2016 PADD 3 1,842 1,973 1,769...

  16. Conventional Start-Stop Vehicles | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    16,220.8 16,658.8 16,651.0 17,047.0 16,981.8 17,079.3 1994-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) W W W W W W 1994-2016 New England (PADD 1A) - - - - - - 1994-2016 Connecticut - - - - - - 1994-2016 Maine - - - - - - 1994-2016 Massachusetts - - - - - - 1994-2016 New Hampshire - - - - - - 1994-2016 Rhode Island - - - - - - 1994-2016 Vermont - - - - - - 1994-2016 Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) W W W W W W 1994-2016 Delaware - - - - - - 1994-2016 District of Columbia - - - - - - 1994-2016 Maryland - - - - - -

  17. Conventional Hydropower Technologies, Wind And Water Power Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Water Power for a Clean Energy Future (Fact Sheet), Wind and Water Power Program (WWPP) Environmental Impacts of Increased Hydroelectric Development at Existing Dams Hydropower ...

  18. Fact #817: February 17, 2014 Conventional and Alternative Fuel...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The figure below shows quarterly price fluctuations for select fuel types from 2000 to 2013. Gasoline, diesel, propane, E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline), and B20 (20% biodiesel ...

  19. Fact #648: November 8, 2010 Conventional and Alternative Fuel...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    prices for the period July 12 through July 23, 2010 for the following fuels: gasoline (regular), diesel, CNG, ethanol (E85), propane, biodiesel (B20), and biodiesel (B99-B100). ...

  20. Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Notice of extension of public comment period for reply comments. On July 27, 2010, the ... The NOI stated that comments were to be submitted by September 27, 2010. This notice ...

  1. Physical properties of conventional explosives deduced from radio frequency emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harlin, Jeremiah D; Nemzek, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory collected broadband radio frequency (RF) electric field change measurements from multiple detonations of high explosives (HE). Three types of HE were used: small cylinders of flake TNT, solid TNT, and PBX-9501. Low frequency signals (<80 MHz) were shot-to-shot repeatable and occurred within the first 100 {mu} s at measured amplitudes of about 2 V m{sup -1} at 35 m distance. High frequency signals (>290 MHz) occurred later, were an order of magnitude lower in signal strength, and were not repeatable. There is a positive correlation between the maximum electric field change and the shock velocity of the HE. The amount of free charge produced in the explosion estimated from the first RF pulse is between 10 and 150 {mu} C. This implies a weakly ionized plasma with temperatures between 2600 and 2900 K.

  2. Characterizing Structural Controls of EGS-Candidate and Conventional...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    systems in the Great Basin and adjacent regions. Phase I (Year 1) involves a broad inventory of structural settings of geothermal systems in the Great Basin, Walker Lane,...

  3. An introduction of new features for conventional and hybrid GSHP...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 105; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7788 Publisher: Elsevier Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: Netherlands ...

  4. Conventional Gasoline Movements by Tanker, Pipeline, Barge and Rail between

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    PAD Districts 39,540 19,921 9,308 6,440 6,092 6,078 1993-2015 PADD 3 110 0 0 0 0 0 1993-2015 PADD 5 2004-2004 From PADD 2 to PADD 1 1,641 1,596 2,173 2,438 2,673 2,085 1993-2015 PADD 3 10,256 11,814 9,652 6,995 2,538 2,203 1993-2015 PADD 4 11,265 11,992 11,046 9,366 3,304 2,796 1993-2015 From PADD 3 to PADD 1 254,671 171,446 126,922 122,451 128,664 123,367 1993-2015 PADD 2 80,358 57,508 31,876 35,040 10,051 9,941 1993-2015 PADD 4 6,156 1993-2010 PADD 5 3,534 1,131 840 1993-2012 From PADD 4

  5. Comparing the Performance of SunDiesel and Conventional Diesel...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Mixed-mode diesel HCCI with External Mixture Formation: Preliminary Results Fuel Formulation Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection, Combustion, Emissions and Emission Control Variable ...

  6. Master EM Project Definition Rating Index - Traditional (Conventional...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... both approved and pending changes, as appropriate. The forecast of cost at completion is a reasonable projection based on the status of the project and the experience to-date. ...

  7. Load rejection operation in conventional power plants in ENEL - Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gadda, E. ); Radice, A. )

    1989-09-01

    The capability of maintaining auxiliary load after a main breaker trip following an emergency in the electric power system is of major concern for any thermoelectric generating unit. In ENEL the reliability of run back to house load of fossil fired units has been greatly improved by adopting a new procedure. Instead of that originally recommended the new procedure allows to trip all fuel input to the boiler and maintains house load operating the turbine on mass and energy stored in the boiler. This procedure was qualified a few years ago and since then is used in the 320 MW units in operation (the main bulk of ENEL's thermal capacity) whether equipped with subcritical once through boilers or with assisted circulation drum boilers. A series of test carried out recently on supercritical 660 MW units have shown that adopting the same procedure these larger units can sustain successfully the run back to house load too. Up to now the new procedure has been used in many other thermal units of size ranging between 70 MW to 240 MW and can be performed in most of ENEL's thermal power plants.

  8. Conventional Start-Stop Vehicles | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Facilities Publications News Research Advanced Combustion Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Advanced Vehicle Technologies Buildings and Climate-Environment Education...

  9. Application of the Australian Geothermal Reporting Code to "Convention...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    This paper describes how the Code principles and the underlying resource estimation methodology have been applied in those cases. Some of the major issues which had to be...

  10. Phase development in conventional and active belite cement pastes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain) European ... Benjamin Franklin, 17 Paterna, Valencia (Spain) Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, ...

  11. Performance of non-conventional factorization approaches for neutron kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulla, S.; Nervo, M.

    2013-07-01

    The use of factorization techniques provides a interesting option for the simulation of the time-dependent behavior of nuclear systems with a reduced computational effort. While point kinetics neglects all spatial and spectral effects, quasi-statics and multipoint kinetics allow to produce results with a higher accuracy for transients involving relevant modifications of the neutron distribution. However, in some conditions these methods can not work efficiently. In this paper, we discuss some possible alternative formulations for the factorization process for neutron kinetics, leading to mathematical models of reduced complications that can allow an accurate simulation of transients involving spatial and spectral effects. The performance of these innovative approaches are compared to standard techniques for some test cases, showing the benefits and shortcomings of the method proposed. (authors)

  12. Air exchange effectiveness of conventional and task ventilation for offices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Prill, R.J.

    1991-12-01

    Air quality and comfort complaints within large buildings are often attributed to air distribution problems. We define three air exchange effectiveness parameters related to air distribution. The first two indicate the indoor air flow pattern (i.e., the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement flow) for an entire building or region. The third parameter is most useful for assessments of the spatial variability of ventilation. We also define the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern within specific rooms or sections of buildings. The results of measurements of these parameters in US office buildings by the authors and other researchers are reviewed. Almost all measurements indicate very limited short circuiting or displacement flow between locations of air supply and removal. However, a moderate degree of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. The results of laboratory-based measurements by the authors are consistent with the field data. Our measurements in office buildings do indicate that ventilation rates can vary substantially between indoor locations, probably due to variation in air supply rates between locations rather than variation in the indoor air flow patterns. One possible method of improving air distribution is to employ task ventilation with air supplied closer to the occupant`s breathing zone. We have evaluated two task ventilation systems in a laboratory setting. During most operating conditions, these systems did not provide a region of substantially increased ventilation where occupants breath. However, both systems are capable of providing substantially enhanced ventilation at the breathing zone under some operating conditions. Therefore, task ventilation is a potential option for using ventilation air more effectively.

  13. Air exchange effectiveness of conventional and task ventilation for offices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Prill, R.J.

    1991-12-01

    Air quality and comfort complaints within large buildings are often attributed to air distribution problems. We define three air exchange effectiveness parameters related to air distribution. The first two indicate the indoor air flow pattern (i.e., the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement flow) for an entire building or region. The third parameter is most useful for assessments of the spatial variability of ventilation. We also define the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern within specific rooms or sections of buildings. The results of measurements of these parameters in US office buildings by the authors and other researchers are reviewed. Almost all measurements indicate very limited short circuiting or displacement flow between locations of air supply and removal. However, a moderate degree of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. The results of laboratory-based measurements by the authors are consistent with the field data. Our measurements in office buildings do indicate that ventilation rates can vary substantially between indoor locations, probably due to variation in air supply rates between locations rather than variation in the indoor air flow patterns. One possible method of improving air distribution is to employ task ventilation with air supplied closer to the occupant's breathing zone. We have evaluated two task ventilation systems in a laboratory setting. During most operating conditions, these systems did not provide a region of substantially increased ventilation where occupants breath. However, both systems are capable of providing substantially enhanced ventilation at the breathing zone under some operating conditions. Therefore, task ventilation is a potential option for using ventilation air more effectively.

  14. Phoenix Convention Center * Phoenix, Arizona Playing the Entire...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Phoenix, Arizona Playing the Entire Value Chain for Energy Storage Session 6: Innovation Energy Storage for Federal Installations Scott Sklar The Stella Group, LTD August 12, 2015 ...

  15. Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) has issued proposed regulations under section 934 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

  16. Comparison of enclosed space detection system with conventional methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kercel, S.W.; Baylor, V.M.; Labaj, L.E.

    1997-09-01

    Enclosed Space Detection System (ESDS) is a fast, inexpensive, and reliable device for detecting human occupants hidden in vehicles. Operation requires less than two minutes. ESDS is used to foil attempts at smuggling illegal aliens, terrorists, and escaping prisoners. It is being tested at nuclear weapons facilities and has been operated at several prisons and international border crossings. ESDS is the first practical electronic alternative to physical searches of vehicles for hidden passengers. At critical checkpoints, a thorough physical search of a single fully loaded truck requires a team of from two to six people, and may take as long as eight hours. Despite this level of security, experience has shown that the search can occasionally be foiled. Due to the enormous time and expense of thorough physical searches of vehicles, they are seldom conducted at any but the most critical of locations, simply leaving many sites vulnerable to crime and terrorism. Prior to the development of the ESDS, the only other effective alternative to physical search was the use of specially-trained canines, which can be vastly superior to the physical search in both time and accuracy. However, as discussed in this paper, canine inspection is not really a competitive substitute for ESDS because canine reliability (80% at most) is not as high as that of the ESDS (99%+), while the costs, training requirements, and operator skill needed are significantly higher with canines than with the ESDS. In addition, the ESDS has straightforward self-diagnostic tests to ensure the system is operating correctly; such tests are not currently available with either canine or human inspectors. ESDS offers an attractive supplement or alternative to meet current security requirements for vehicle searches at portals at government, nuclear, industrial, and other facilities where concealed persons may pose a threat either by entering or leaving.

  17. Comparison of Conventional Diesel and Reactivity Controlled Compressio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies High Efficiency Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load limit

  18. DOE Notice of Inquiry on the Convention on Supplementary Compensation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    This summary of the meeting is being provided to memorialize the discussions in accordance with DOE's Guidance on Ex Parte Communications. 74 Fed.Reg. 52795 (Oct. 14, 2009). PDF ...

  19. Meghalaya Non Conventional and Rural Energy Development Agency...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Development Agency Place: Shillong, Meghalaya, India Zip: 793012 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: India-based state nodal agency to promote renewable energy. Coordinates:...

  20. 2012 Alaska Federation of Natives Convention | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Addthis Related Articles Alaska Native Village Energy Development Workshop: Anchorage DOE to Host Alaska Native Village Energy Development Workshop April 29-30 2012 Alaska ...

  1. Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Notice of extension of public comment period for reply comments. On July 27, 2010, the Department of Energy (DOE) published in the Federal Register, a notice of inquiry (NOI) and request for...

  2. ,"U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    File Name:","petprirefmg2cnusepm0udpgalm.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavpetpetprirefmg2cnusepm0udpgalm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy ...

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    from free liquids, such as crude oil, hydrocarbon condensate, water, and entrained solids. ... quality specifications with respect to water content, hydrocarbon dew point, heating ...

  4. Analysis of Coconut-Derived Biodiesel and Conventional Diesel...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    ... The water separability was gauged to determine if the diesel fuels or the CME-diesel fuel blends mixed with salt water. Test results show that the diesel fuels and the CME-diesel ...

  5. Conventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Connecticut - - - - - - 1994-2016 Maine - - - - - - 1994-2016 Massachusetts - - - - - - 1994-2016 New Hampshire - - - - - - 1994-2016 Rhode Island - - - - - - 1994-2016 Vermont - - ...

  6. U.S. Conventional Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    16,220.8 16,658.8 16,651.0 17,047.0 16,981.8 17,079.3 1994-2016 Through Retail Outlets 15,975.8 16,410.6 16,423.3 16,794.5 16,769.8 16,820.1 1994-2016 Sales for Resale, Total NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994-2016 DTW 5,025.3 5,123.9 5,157.2 5,202.5 5,145.3 5,240.4 1994-2016 Rack 180,638.8 183,340.4 183,482.9 189,028.0 189,769.5 188,472.3 1994-2016 Bulk 21,990.0 16,061.8 17,658.4 18,698.8 21,361.2 20,56

  7. U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    450 1.617 1.790 1.894 1.697 1.682 1994-2016 Through Retail Outlets 1.451 1.617 1.791 1.895 1.696 1.682 1994-2016 Sales for Resale, Average 1.276 1.416 1.573 1.597 1.452 1.487 1994-2016 DTW 1.369 1.498 1.641 1.696 1.643 1.563 1994-2016 Rack 1.283 1.421 1.583 1.602 1.451 1.495 1994-2016 Bulk 1.194 1.339 1.451 1.522 1.410 1.393

  8. Optimizing Dam Operations for Power and for Fish: an Overview of the US Department of Energy and US Army Corps of Engineers ADvanced Turbine Development R&D. A Pre-Conference Workshop at HydroVision 2006, Oregon Convention Center, Portland, Oregon July 31, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dauble, Dennis D.

    2006-08-01

    This booklet contains abstracts of presentations made at a preconference workshop on the US Department of Energy and US Army Corps of Engineers hydroturbine programs. The workshop was held in conjunction with Hydrovision 2006 July 31, 2006 at the Oregon Convention Center in Portland Oregon. The workshop was organized by the Corps of Engineers, PNNL, and the DOE Wind and Hydropower Program. Presenters gave overviews of the Corps' Turbine Survival Program and the history of the DOE Advanced Turbine Development Program. They also spoke on physical hydraulic models, biocriteria for safe fish passage, pressure investigations using the Sensor Fish Device, blade strike models, optimization of power plant operations, bioindex testing of turbine performance, approaches to measuring fish survival, a systems view of turbine performance, and the Turbine Survival Program design approach.

  9. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    All Grades, Areas and Formulations" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Regular Conventional",20,"Weekly","11/14/2016","8/20/1990" ,"Data 2","Regular Reformulated",18,"Weekly","11/14/2016","11/28/1994" ,"Data

  10. Environmental implications of alternative-fueled automobiles: Air quality and greenhouse gas tradeoffs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MaClean, H.L.; Lave, L.B.

    2000-01-15

    The authors analyze alternative fuel-powerstrain options for internal combustion engine automobiles. Fuel/engine efficiency, energy use, pollutant discharges, and greenhouse gas emissions are estimated for spark and compression ignited, direct injected (DI), and indirect injected (II) engines fueled by conventional and reformulated gasoline, reformulated diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and alcohols. Since comparisons of fuels and technologies in dissimilar vehicles are misleading, the authors hold emissions level, range, vehicle size class, and style constant. At present, CNG vehicles have the best exhaust emissions performance while DI diesels have the worst. Compared to a conventional gasoline fueled II automobile, greenhouse gases could be reduced by 40% by a DI CNG automobile and by 25% by a DI diesel. Gasoline- and diesel-fueled automobiles are able to attain long ranges with little weight or fuel economy penalty. CNG vehicles have the highest penalty for increasing range, due to their heavy fuel storage systems, but are the most attractive for a 160-km range. DI engines, particularly diesels, may not be able to meet strict emissions standards, at least not without lowering efficiency.

  11. Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation fuel-cyl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Michael

    2000-06-20

    The GREET model estimates the full fuel-cycle energy use and emissions associated with various transportation fuels and advanced vehile technologies applied to motor vehicles. GREET 1.5 includes the following cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, conventional diesel, reformulated diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, dimethyl ether, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; corn, woody biomass, and herbaceous biomass to ethanol; soybeans to biodiesel; flared gas to methanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and dimethyl ether; and landfill gases to methanol. For a given fuel/transportation technology combination, GREET 1.5 calculates (1) the fuel-cycle consumption of total energy (all energy sources), fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, and coal), and petroleum; (2) the fuel-cycle emissions of GHGs -- primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N20); and (3) the fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (C0), nitrogen oxides (N0x), sulfur oxides (S0x), and particulate matter with a diameter measuring 10 micrometers or less (PM10). The model is designed to readily allow researchers to input their own assumptions and generate fuel-cycle energy and emission results for specified fuel/technology combinations.

  12. Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation fuel-cyl

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-06-20

    The GREET model estimates the full fuel-cycle energy use and emissions associated with various transportation fuels and advanced vehile technologies applied to motor vehicles. GREET 1.5 includes the following cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, conventional diesel, reformulated diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, dimethyl ether, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; corn, woody biomass, andmore » herbaceous biomass to ethanol; soybeans to biodiesel; flared gas to methanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and dimethyl ether; and landfill gases to methanol. For a given fuel/transportation technology combination, GREET 1.5 calculates (1) the fuel-cycle consumption of total energy (all energy sources), fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, and coal), and petroleum; (2) the fuel-cycle emissions of GHGs -- primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N20); and (3) the fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (C0), nitrogen oxides (N0x), sulfur oxides (S0x), and particulate matter with a diameter measuring 10 micrometers or less (PM10). The model is designed to readily allow researchers to input their own assumptions and generate fuel-cycle energy and emission results for specified fuel/technology combinations.« less

  13. Refiners Switch to RFG Complex Model

    Reports and Publications

    1998-01-01

    On January 1, 1998, domestic and foreign refineries and importers must stop using the "simple" model and begin using the "complex" model to calculate emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), toxic air pollutants (TAP), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from motor gasoline. The primary differences between application of the two models is that some refineries may have to meet stricter standards for the sulfur and olefin content of the reformulated gasoline (RFG) they produce and all refineries will now be held accountable for NOx emissions. Requirements for calculating emissions from conventional gasoline under the anti-dumping rule similarly change for exhaust TAP and NOx. However, the change to the complex model is not expected to result in an increase in the price premium for RFG or constrain supplies.

  14. Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Imports & Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    3,605 3,481 3,405 3,676 3,647 3,885 2008-2016 Commercial 2,932 2,891 2,874 3,088 3,086 3,245 1990-2016 Total Products 673 590 531 589 560 640 2008-2016 Total Motor Gasoline 66 72 63 34 46 44 2008-2016 Finished Motor Gasoline 1 1 1 1 0 0 2008-2016 Reformulated 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008-2016 Blended with Fuel Ethanol 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008-2016 Other 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010-2016 Conventional 1 1 1 1 0 0 2008-2016 Blended with Fuel Ethanol 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008-2016 Ed55 and Lower 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010-2016 Greater than Ed55 0 0

  15. PADD 1 Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    18,290 17,961 18,180 18,018 18,125 17,282 1990-2016 Commercial Crude Oil (Incl. Lease Stock) 1990-2016 Total Motor Gasoline 57,932 60,907 62,874 60,969 55,592 56,167 1990-2016 Finished Motor Gasoline 4,744 4,978 5,028 5,125 4,576 4,856 1994-2016 Reformulated 29 28 25 28 33 29 1993-2016 Blended with Fuel Ethanol 29 28 25 28 33 29 2004-2016 Conventional 4,715 4,950 5,003 5,097 4,543 4,827 1994-2016 Blended with Fuel Ethanol 62 53 53 53 44 44 2004-2016 Blended with Fuel Ethanol, Greater than Ed55 0

  16. A practical perspective on the implementation of hyperdynamics for accelerated simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Woo Kyun; Falk, Michael L.

    2014-01-28

    Consideration is given to several practical issues arising during the implementation of hyperdynamics, a methodology that extends the time scale of the conventional molecular dynamics simulation potentially by orders of magnitude. First, the methodology is reformulated in terms of the transition rate based on the buffer region approach (buffer rate), which can describe transitions in more general contexts than the transition state theory (TST). It will be shown that hyperdynamics can exactly preserve the buffer rate as well as the TST rate, which broadens the scope of the method. Next, the originally proposed scheme to compute the boost factor on-the-fly is reviewed and some alternative methods, one of which uses the umbrella sampling method, are presented. Finally, the methodology is validated in the context of a 1-dimensional example potential and a 3-dimensional simulation of the motion of an atomic force microscope tip moving along a surface.

  17. U.S. Blender Net Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Total 2,166,766 2,330,990 2,399,279 2,539,817 2,824,414 2,989,256 2008-2015 Finished Motor Gasoline 2,164,209 2,324,739 2,391,313 2,524,525 2,811,987 2,974,061 2005-2015 Reformulated 1,076,458 1,066,648 1,063,540 1,081,451 1,099,933 1,131,196 2005-2015 Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol 1,069,661 1,066,648 1,063,540 1,081,451 1,099,933 1,131,196 2005-2015 Other 6,797 2008-2010 Conventional 1,087,751 1,258,091 1,327,773 1,443,074 1,712,054 1,842,865 2005-2015

  18. U.S. Blender Net Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Total 257,966 253,449 266,167 262,901 269,502 271,805 2008-2016 Finished Motor Gasoline 256,713 252,171 264,834 261,521 268,192 270,272 2005-2016 Reformulated 97,652 96,135 100,079 99,019 101,179 102,401 2005-2016 Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol 97,652 96,135 100,079 99,019 101,179 102,375 2005-2016 Other 26 2008-2016 Conventional 159,061 156,036 164,755 162,502 167,013 167,871 2005-2016 Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol 166,111 163,255 169,786 168,927

  19. Table 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1996 January ... 68.4 67.8 61.8 54.9 51.4 55.0 77.5 76.9 68.0 59.1 - 61.2 February ... 68.5 67.9 63.4 56.2 52.1 56.4 77.9 77.3 69.7 60.2 -...

  20. Table 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... - - - - - - - - - - - - October ... 69.2 68.7 62.8 56.0 52.1 56.8 79.4 78.8 68.4 58.1 NA 62.0 November ... 65.4 64.9...

  1. Cetane Performance and Chemistry Comparing Conventional Fuels and Fuels Derived from Heavy Crude Sources

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs.

  2. Quantifying the Operational Benefits of Conventional and Advanced Pumped Storage Hydro on Reliability and Efficiency: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krad, I.; Ela, E.; Koritarov, V.

    2014-07-01

    Pumped storage hydro (PSH) plants have significant potential to provide reliability and efficiency benefits in future electric power systems with high penetrations of variable generation. New PSH technologies, such as adjustable-speed PSH, have been introduced that can also present further benefits. This paper demonstrates and quantifies some of the reliability and efficiency benefits afforded by PSH plants by utilizing the Flexible Energy Scheduling Tool for the Integration of Variable generation (FESTIV), an integrated power system operations tool that evaluates both reliability and production costs.

  3. Fact #765: February 4, 2013 EPA's Top 10 Conventionally-Fueled...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fueleconomy.gov's Top Ten EPA-Rated Fuel Sippers, 2013* Table showing top ten EPA-rated fuel sippers for 2013. See table below for more detailed information. *Excludes electric and ...

  4. Measurement of biodiesel blend and conventional diesel spray structure using x-ray radiography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kastengren, A. L.; Powell, C. F.; Wang, Y. J.; IM, K. S.; Wang, J.

    2009-11-01

    The near-nozzle structure of several nonevaporating biodiesel-blend sprays has been studied using X-ray radiography. Radiography allows quantitative measurements of the fuel distribution in sprays to be made with high temporal and spatial resolution. Measurements have been made at different values of injection pressure, ambient density, and with two different nozzle geometries to understand the influences of these parameters on the spray structure of the biodiesel blend. These measurements have been compared with corresponding measurements of Viscor, a diesel calibration fluid, to demonstrate the fuel effects on the spray structure. Generally, the biodiesel-blend spray has a similar structure to the spray of Viscor. For the nonhydroground nozzle used in this study, the biodiesel-blend spray has a slightly slower penetration into the ambient gas than the Viscor spray. The cone angle of the biodiesel-blend spray is generally smaller than that of the Viscor spray, indicating that the biodiesel-blend spray is denser than the Viscor spray. For the hydroground nozzle, both fuels produce sprays with initially wide cone angles that transition to narrow sprays during the steady-state portion of the injection event. These variations in cone angle with time occur later for the biodiesel-blend spray than for the Viscor spray, indicating that the dynamics of the injector needle as it opens are somewhat different for the two fuels.

  5. Volumetric Image Guidance Using Carina vs Spine as Registration Landmarks for Conventionally Fractionated Lung Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavoie, Caroline; Higgins, Jane; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre; Le, Lisa W.; Sun, Alexander; Brade, Anthony; Hope, Andrew; Cho, John; Bezjak, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To compare the relative accuracy of 2 image guided radiation therapy methods using carina vs spine as landmarks and then to identify which landmark is superior relative to tumor coverage. Methods and Materials: For 98 lung patients, 2596 daily image-guidance cone-beam computed tomography scans were analyzed. Tattoos were used for initial patient alignment; then, spine and carina registrations were performed independently. A separate analysis assessed the adequacy of gross tumor volume, internal target volume, and planning target volume coverage on cone-beam computed tomography using the initial, middle, and final fractions of radiation therapy. Coverage was recorded for primary tumor (T), nodes (N), and combined target (T+N). Three scenarios were compared: tattoos alignment, spine registration, and carina registration. Results: Spine and carina registrations identified setup errors {>=}5 mm in 35% and 46% of fractions, respectively. The mean vector difference between spine and carina matching had a magnitude of 3.3 mm. Spine and carina improved combined target coverage, compared with tattoos, in 50% and 34% (spine) to 54% and 46% (carina) of the first and final fractions, respectively. Carina matching showed greater combined target coverage in 17% and 23% of fractions for the first and final fractions, respectively; with spine matching, this was only observed in 4% (first) and 6% (final) of fractions. Carina matching provided superior nodes coverage at the end of radiation compared with spine matching (P=.0006), without compromising primary tumor coverage. Conclusion: Frequent patient setup errors occur in locally advanced lung cancer patients. Spine and carina registrations improved combined target coverage throughout the treatment course, but carina matching provided superior combined target coverage.

  6. Devices to improve the performance of a conventional two-stroke...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (3) developing a high-energy ignition system; and (4) employing high-octane fuel, such as methanol, ethanol, eucalyptus oil, and orange oil, as a blending agent with gasoline. ...

  7. Table 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    71.2 66.2 70.8 91.4 90.9 83.1 75.4 - 77.2 February ... 80.7 80.1 74.9 68.5 64.3 68.3 90.1 89.5 81.3 72.3 - 74.5 March ... 78.5 77.9 72.4...

  8. Penetrator reliability investigation and design exploration : from conventional design processes to innovative uncertainty-capturing algorithms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Canales, Monica L.; Heaphy, Robert; Gramacy, Robert B.; Taddy, Matt; Chiesa, Michael L.; Thomas, Stephen W.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Hough, Patricia Diane; Lee, Herbert K. H.; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Gray, Genetha Anne

    2006-11-01

    This project focused on research and algorithmic development in optimization under uncertainty (OUU) problems driven by earth penetrator (EP) designs. While taking into account uncertainty, we addressed three challenges in current simulation-based engineering design and analysis processes. The first challenge required leveraging small local samples, already constructed by optimization algorithms, to build effective surrogate models. We used Gaussian Process (GP) models to construct these surrogates. We developed two OUU algorithms using 'local' GPs (OUU-LGP) and one OUU algorithm using 'global' GPs (OUU-GGP) that appear competitive or better than current methods. The second challenge was to develop a methodical design process based on multi-resolution, multi-fidelity models. We developed a Multi-Fidelity Bayesian Auto-regressive process (MF-BAP). The third challenge involved the development of tools that are computational feasible and accessible. We created MATLAB{reg_sign} and initial DAKOTA implementations of our algorithms.

  9. Verification of conventional equations of state for tantalum under quasi-isentropic compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binqiang, Luo; Guiji, Wang; Jianjun, Mo; Hongpin, Zhang; Fuli, Tan; Jianheng, Zhao; Cangli, Liu; Chengwei, Sun

    2014-11-21

    Shock Hugoniot data have been widely used to calibrate analytic equations of state (EOSs) of condensed matter at high pressures. However, the suitability of particular analytic EOSs under off-Hugoniot states has not been sufficiently verified using experimental data. We have conducted quasi-isentropic compression experiments (ICEs) of tantalum using the compact pulsed power generator CQ-4, and explored the relation of longitudinal stress versus volume of tantalum under quasi-isentropic compression using backward integration and characteristic inverse methods. By subtracting the deviatoric stress and additional pressure caused by irreversible plastic dissipation, the isentropic pressure can be extracted from the longitudinal stress. Several theoretical isentropes are deduced from analytic EOSs and compared with ICE results to validate the suitability of these analytic EOSs in isentropic compression states. The comparisons show that the Gruneisen EOS with Gruneisen Gamma proportional to volume is accurate, regardless whether the Hugoniot or isentrope is used as the reference line. The Vinet EOS yields better accuracy in isentropic compression states. Theoretical isentropes derived from Tillotson, PUFF, and Birch-Murnaghan EOSs well agree with the experimental isentrope in the range of 0–100 GPa, but deviate gradually with pressure increasing further.

  10. CONVERT 15 WELLS TO BORS PUMPING UNITS AND TEST/COMPARE TO CONVENTIONAL UNITS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter B. North

    2003-02-04

    A new type of fluid lifting equipment called Balanced Oil Recovery System (trade named BORS Lift{trademark}) was installed on several idle oil wells to demonstrate the operating efficiency of this innovative equipment technology. The BORS Lift system is designed to bring oil to the surface without the accompanying formation water. The BORS Lift system uses an innovative strap mechanism that takes oil from the top of the downhole oilwater column and lifts it to the surface, eliminating production of the formation water. Eliminating salt water production could potentially increase oil production, reduce operational costs, benefit the environment, and cut salt water disposal costs. Although the BORS Lift units did not function as intended, lessons learned during the course of the field demonstration project resulted in improvements in the technology and redesign of subsequent generation BORS Lift units which are reported to have significantly improved their performance characteristics. BORS Lift units were installed on 15 temporarily abandoned wells which had been shut down due to low oil production, high water production, and uneconomic operating conditions. The wells had been producing with artificial lift at a high watercut from a shallow (850-900 feet), pressure depleted oil sand reservoir prior to being shut down. The electrical motor driven BORS Lift units provided a possible approach for economically returning the shallow, low-volume oil wells to production. The BORS Lift units used in this field demonstration were designed to recover up to roughly 22 barrels of fluid per day from depths ranging to 1,700 feet, ideal for many marginal stripper well operations. The BORS units were first-production-model test units, operated under oil field conditions for the first time, and were naturally expected to experience some design problems. From the onset, the operator experienced mechanical, design, and operational problems with the BORS Lift units and was unable to maintain un-interrupted production operations. The inventor provided considerable on-site technical support in an ongoing effort to correct the problems with the units and the inventor worked extensively with the operator to make design and manufacturing changes to the units to try to improve their reliability and performance. The operational problems were mostly related to the durability of the various components under oil field operating conditions such as inadequate mechanical, electrical, and electronic design for rough service, extended operation, and severe weather conditions. During the course of the demonstration project, it further appeared that the producing formation lacked sufficient reservoir energy and/or favorable oil properties to mobilize and displace oil from the formation into the well bore in order to recharge the oil column in the well. The BORS Lift units were then moved to a second lease which appeared to have more favorable WTI quality oil properties. Eight of these units were reported to have been installed and placed in operation on the second lease, however, operational difficulties continued. It was determined that the units were inadequately designed and would need to be replace by improved second generation units. Due to the lack of success with the first generation units and the extra cost to replace them with the redesigned units, the operators decided not to continue with the project and the project was terminated at that point.

  11. On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  12. Fossil resource and energy security dynamics in conventional and carbon-constrained worlds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCollum, David; Bauer, Nico; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kitous, Alban; Riahi, Keywan

    2014-04-01

    Fossil resource endowments and the future development of fossil fuel prices are important factors that will critically influence the nature and direction of the global energy system. In this paper we analyze a multi-model ensemble of long-term energy and emissions scenarios that were developed within the framework of the EMF27 integrated assessment model inter-comparison exercise. The diverse nature of these models highlights large uncertainties in the likely development of fossil resource (coal, oil, and natural gas) consumption, trade, and prices over the course of the twenty-first century and under different climate policy frameworks. We explore and explain some of the differences across scenarios and models and compare the scenario results with fossil resource estimates from the literature. A robust finding across the suite of IAMs is that the cumulative fossil fuel consumption foreseen by the models is well within the bounds of estimated recoverable reserves and resources. Hence, fossil resource constraints are, in and of themselves, unlikely to limit future GHG emissions. Our analysis also shows that climate mitigation policies could lead to a major reallocation of financial flows between regions, in terms of expenditures on fossil fuels and carbon, and can help to alleviate near-term energy security concerns via the reductions in oil imports and increases in energy system diversity they will help to motivate.

  13. League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) 83rd Annual LULAC National Convention & Exposition

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    LULAC  focuses on education, civil rights, and employment for Hispanics. Workshops will address Executive Core Qualifications and the Fundamental Competencies required by the Office of Personell...

  14. On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Matt; Matthews, Ron

    2011-09-30

    The goal of the research was to refine and complete development of an on-board particulate matter (PM) sensor for diesel, DISI, and HCCI engines, bringing it to a point where it could be commercialized and marketed.

  15. Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1996 ... 24.1 25.4 17.8 108.5 27.1 153.4 5.7 5.9 4.4 12.9 NA 17.3 1997 January ... 20.6 22.0 14.8 98.3 26.4 139.6 4.7 4.9 3.7 11.5...

  16. The potential for alcohols and related ethers to displace conventional gasoline components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; McNutt, B.D.

    1996-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy is required by law to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace 30 percent of the projected United States consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including alcohols, natural gas and certain other components. A linear program has been used to study refinery impacts for production of ``low petroleum`` gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and major contributors to cost increase can include investment in processes to produce olefins for etherification with alcohols. High oxygenation can increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon, with substantial decreases in greenhouse gas emissions in some cases. Cost estimates are sensitive to assumptions about extrapolation of a national model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues. Reduction in crude oil use, a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program, is 10 to 17 percent in the analysis.

  17. Energy minimization of separation processes using conventional/membrane hybrid systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gottschlich, D.E.; Roberts, D.L. )

    1990-09-28

    The purpose of this study was to identify the general principles governing the choice of hybrid separation systems over straight membrane or straight nonmembrane systems and to do so by examining practical applications (process design and economics). Our focus was to examine the energy consumption characteristics and overall cost factors of the membrane and nonmembrane technologies that cause hybrid systems to be preferred over nonhybrid systems. We evaluated four cases studies, chosen on the basis of likelihood of commercial viability of a hybrid system and magnitude of energy savings: (1) propane/propylene separation; (2) removal of nitrogen from natural gas; (3) concentration of Kraft black liquor; and (4)solvent deasphalting. For propane/propylene splitting, the membrane proved to be superior to distillation in both thermodynamic efficiency and processing cost (PC) when the product was 95% pure propylene. However, to produce higher purity products, the membrane alone could not perform the separation, and a membrane/distillation hybrid was required. In these cases, there is an optimum amount of separation to be accomplished by the membrane (expressed as the fraction of the total availability change of the membrane/distillation hybrid that takes place in the membrane and defined as {phi}{sub m}, the thermodynamic extent of separation). Qualitative and quantitative guidelines are discussed with regard to choosing a hybrid system. 54 refs., 66 figs., 36 tabs.

  18. 2H2A Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis Models and Conventional...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... would need to be supplied by a new, medium voltage cable directly from the substation. ... pre-cooling with liquid nitrogen to drop the hydrogen below the inversion temperature. ...

  19. Challenging Conventional Wisdom: A Clean and Highly Efficient Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Engine

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Measured indicated TE values of an opposed-piston, two-stroke engine are all near or exceeding 50%fuel; engine-out emissions levels are well within range, with modern aftertreatment systems, of 2010 EPA levels.

  20. Signal-to-noise and radiation exposure considerations in conventional and diffraction x-ray microscopy

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Huang, Xiaojing; Miao, Huijie; Steinbrener, Jan; Nelson, Johanna; Shapiro, David; Stewart, Andrew; Turner, Joshua; Jacobsen, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Using a signal-to-noise ratio estimation based on correlations between multiple simulated images, we compare the dose efficiency of two soft x-ray imaging systems: incoherent brightfield imaging using zone plate optics in a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), and x-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) where an image is reconstructed from the far-field coherent diffraction pattern. In XDM one must computationally phase weak diffraction signals; in TXM one suffers signal losses due to the finite numerical aperture and efficiency of the optics. In simulations with objects representing isolated cells such as yeast, we find that XDM has the potential for delivering equivalent resolution imagesmore » using fewer photons. As a result, this can be an important advantage for studying radiation-sensitive biological and soft matter specimens.« less