National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for methanol supplemental natural

  1. ,"Florida Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Florida Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels ... 1:56:30 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Florida Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels ...

  2. Florida Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels ... Total Supplemental Supply of Natural Gas Florida Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas ...

  3. Nevada Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Nevada Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels ... Referring Pages: Total Supplemental Supply of Natural Gas Nevada Supplemental Supplies of ...

  4. New York Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Input Supplemental ... Referring Pages: Total Supplemental Supply of Natural Gas New York Supplemental Supplies ...

  5. New Mexico Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Input Supplemental ... Referring Pages: Total Supplemental Supply of Natural Gas New Mexico Supplemental Supplies ...

  6. New Jersey Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) New Jersey Natural Gas Input Supplemental ... Referring Pages: Total Supplemental Supply of Natural Gas New Jersey Supplemental Supplies ...

  7. North Dakota Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Input Supplemental ... Referring Pages: Total Supplemental Supply of Natural Gas North Dakota Supplemental ...

  8. North Carolina Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) North Carolina Natural Gas Input ... Referring Pages: Total Supplemental Supply of Natural Gas North Carolina Supplemental ...

  9. ,"Maine Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maine Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","0930...

  10. Alaska Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 ... of Natural Gas Supplies of Natural Gas Supplemental Fuels (Annual Supply & Disposition)

  11. Natural gas annual 1992: Supplement: Company profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The data for the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement : Company Profiles are taken from Form EIA-176, (open quotes) Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition (close quotes). Other sources include industry literature and corporate annual reports to shareholders. The companies appearing in this report are major interstate natural gas pipeline companies, large distribution companies, or combination companies with both pipeline and distribution operations. The report contains profiles of 45 corporate families. The profiles describe briefly each company, where it operates, and any important issues that the company faces. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the 45 large companies profiled.

  12. Natural gas annual 1993 supplement: Company profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1993 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of 45 selected companies in the natural gas industry. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the companies profiled. The companies in this report are interstate pipeline companies or local distribution companies (LDC`s). Interstate pipeline companies acquire gas supplies from company owned production, purchases from producers, and receipts for transportation for account of others. Pipeline systems, service area maps, company supply and disposition data are presented.

  13. Wyoming Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 ...

  14. Illinois Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Illinois Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 ...

  15. Indiana Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Indiana Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 ...

  16. Connecticut Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Connecticut Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 ...

  17. Oregon Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Oregon Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 ...

  18. Kentucky Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 ...

  19. Iowa Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Iowa Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 ...

  20. Arizona Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Arizona Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 ...

  1. Virginia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 ...

  2. Arkansas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Arkansas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 ...

  3. Georgia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Georgia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 ...

  4. Colorado Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 ...

  5. District of Columbia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) District of Columbia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 ...

  6. Ohio Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 ...

  7. Alabama Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 ...

  8. Nebraska Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 ...

  9. Hawaii Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Hawaii Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 ...

  10. Washington Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Washington Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 ...

  11. Delaware Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Delaware Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 ...

  12. Vermont Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Vermont Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 ...

  13. Wisconsin Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Wisconsin Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 ...

  14. New Hampshire Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) New Hampshire Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 ...

  15. Louisiana Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 2010's 249 435 553 560 517 478 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 10/31/2016 Next Release Date: 11/30/2016 Referring Pages: Total Supplemental Supply of Natural Gas Louisiana Supplemental

  16. Fuel Cell System Challenges Utilizing Natural Gas and Methanol

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Smarter Solutions for a Clean Energy Future Fuel Cell System Challenges Utilizing Natural Gas ... fuel processing hardware and system integration March 19, 2014 2 NASDAQ:BLDP TSX:BLD ...

  17. Total Supplemental Supply of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Product: Total Supplemental Supply Synthetic Propane-Air Refinery Gas Biomass Other Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History U.S. 64,575 60,088 61,366 54,650 59,642 58,625 1980-2015 Alabama 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Alaska 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004-2015 Arizona 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Arkansas 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Colorado 5,148 4,268 4,412 4,077

  18. South Carolina Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) South Carolina Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 74 184 63 73 62 87 31 22 191 201 1990's 17 47 26 34 154 62 178 10 0 18 2000's 63 6 3 15 2 86 75 0 2010's 0 0 17 9 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  19. Maryland Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Maryland Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 484 498 984 352 332 373 155 136 743 899 1990's 24 72 126 418 987 609 882 178 80 498 2000's 319 186 48 160 124 382 41 245 181 170 2010's 115 89 116 107 809 818 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  20. Tennessee Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 12 42 90 39 25 36 13 26 36 78 1990's 3 8 12 13 84 33 73 19 4 11 2000's 13 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 10/31/2016

  1. Texas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 1 14 2 9 19 4 4 9 1990's 1,240 1,076 1 3 1 1 0 0 0 17 2000's 0 1,505 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 10/31/2016 Next

  2. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 3,127 10,532 5,621 3,844 82 221 196 247 254 305 1990's 220 222 132 110 252 75 266 135 80 119 2000's 261 107 103 126 131 132 124 145 123 205 2010's 4 2 2 3 20 28 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  3. Rhode Island Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Rhode Island Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 257 951 718 594 102 130 182 109 391 219 1990's 51 92 155 126 0 27 42 18 1 1 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  4. South Dakota Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) South Dakota Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 9 24 50 1 0 0 0 0 10 16 1990's 10 3 10 9 61 37 87 30 4 5 2000's 13 5 3 57 5 4 0 1 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 10/31/2016 Next

  5. Maine Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Maine Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 157 94 71 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 96 61 31 24 43 2000's 6 0 5 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 10/31/2016 Next Release

  6. Massachusetts Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Massachusetts Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 15,366 21,828 17,586 10,732 6,545 3,668 2,379 1,404 876 692 1990's 317 120 105 61 154 420 426 147 68 134 2000's 26 16 137 324 80 46 51 15 13 10 2010's 0 3 108 90 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure

  7. Michigan Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 3 3,038 2,473 2,956 2,773 2,789 2,754 2,483 2,402 2,402 1990's 19,106 15,016 14,694 12,795 13,688 21,378 21,848 22,238 21,967 20,896 2000's 12,423 4,054 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld

  8. Minnesota Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Minnesota Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 48 106 337 1 3 11 2 1 385 315 1990's 56 49 52 78 289 194 709 172 50 64 2000's 101 118 13 42 71 154 13 54 46 47 2010's 12 20 9 22 66 10 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  9. Missouri Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Missouri Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 65 60 2,129 1,278 326 351 1 1 2 1,875 1990's 0 0 0 0 371 4 785 719 40 207 2000's 972 31 62 1,056 917 15 78 66 6 10 2010's 18 172 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  10. U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Synthetic Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Synthetic Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Synthetic Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 123,543 128,003 103,025 95,634 78,632 91,074 81,951 67,017 62,021 67,190 1990's 64,073 62,131 69,229 70,051 67,693 65,335 58,637 55,809 57,387 55,938 2000's 51,958 53,693 55,786 55,794 49,976 53,921 56,971 53,788 53,090 55,934 2010's 57,279 53,745 55,032 48,375 51,127 51,320 - = No

  11. U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Biomass Gas (Million Cubic...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Biomass Gas (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Biomass Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  12. U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Propane Air (Million Cubic...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Propane Air (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Propane Air (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 ...

  13. The Methanol Economy Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olah, George; Prakash, G. K.

    2014-02-01

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO2 capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO2 and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO2 and H2, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields.

  14. Supplement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    SUPPLEMENT NOVEMBER 2015 DOE/EIS-0463-S1 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ELECTRICITY DELIVERY AND ENERGY RELIABILITY WASHINGTON, DC DRAFT NORTHERN PASS TRANSMISSION LINE PROJECT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT DOE/EIS-0463-S1 Supplement U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ELECTRICITY DELIVERY AND ENERGY RELIABILITY COOPERATING AGENCIES United States Forest Service - White Mountain National Forest United States Environmental Protection Agency- Region 1 United States Army Corps of Engineers -

  15. Low temperature methanol process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Hare, T.E.; Sapienza, R.S.; Mahajan, D.; Skaperdas, G.T.

    1986-06-01

    The world's abundant natural gas resources could provide methanol in fuel quantities to the utility system. Natural gas liquefaction is the current major option available for international export transport of natural gas. Gas production is on the increase and international trade even more so, with LNG making most progress. The further penetration of natural gas into distant markets can be substantially increased by a new methanol synthesis process under development. The new methanol process is made possible by the discovery of a catalyst that drops synthesis temperatures from about 275/sup 0/C to about 100/sup 0/C. Furthermore, the new catalyst is a liquid phase system, which permits the synthesis reaction to proceed at fully isothermal conditions. Therefore, the new low temperature liquid catalyst can convert synthesis gas completely to methanol in a single pass through the methanol synthesis reactor. This characteristic leads to a further major improvement in the methanol plant. Atmospheric nitrogen can be tolerated in the synthesis gas, and still the volume of gas fed to the reactor can be smaller than the volume of gas that must be fed to the reactor when accommodating the very low conversions furnished by the best of currently available catalysts. The energy disadvantage of the methanol option must be balanced against the advantage of a much lower capital investment requirement made possible by the new BNL synthesis. Preliminary estimates show that methanol conversion and shipping require an investment for liquefaction to methanol, and shipping liquefied methanol that can range from 35 to 50% of that needed for the LNG plant and LNG shipping fleet.

  16. The Development of Methanol Industry and Methanol Fuel in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W.Y.; Li, Z.; Xie, K.C.

    2009-07-01

    In 2007, China firmly established itself as the driver of the global methanol industry. The country became the world's largest methanol producer and consumer. The development of the methanol industry and methanol fuel in China is reviewed in this article. China is rich in coal but is short on oil and natural gas; unfortunately, transportation development will need more and more oil to provide the fuel. Methanol is becoming a dominant alternative fuel. China is showing the rest of the world how cleaner transportation fuels can be made from coal.

  17. ,"Alabama Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_sal_2a.xls"

  18. ,"Alaska Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  19. ,"Arizona Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arizona Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_saz_2a.xls"

  20. ,"Arkansas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arkansas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_sar_2a.xls"

  1. ,"Colorado Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_sco_2a.xls"

  2. ,"Connecticut Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Connecticut Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  3. ,"Delaware Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Delaware Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_sde_2a.xls"

  4. ,"Georgia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Georgia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_sga_2a.xls"

  5. ,"Hawaii Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Hawaii Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_shi_2a.xls"

  6. ,"Illinois Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Illinois Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_sil_2a.xls"

  7. ,"Indiana Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Indiana Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_sin_2a.xls"

  8. ,"Iowa Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Iowa Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_sia_2a.xls"

  9. ,"Kentucky Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kentucky Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_sky_2a.xls"

  10. ,"Louisiana Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  11. ,"Maryland Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maryland Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_smd_2a.xls"

  12. ,"Massachusetts Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Massachusetts Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  13. ,"Michigan Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Michigan Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_smi_2a.xls"

  14. ,"Minnesota Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Minnesota Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_smn_2a.xls"

  15. ,"Missouri Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Missouri Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_smo_2a.xls"

  16. ,"Vermont Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Vermont Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_svt_2a.xls"

  17. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_sva_2a.xls"

  18. ,"Washington Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Washington Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  19. ,"Wisconsin Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wisconsin Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_swi_2a.xls"

  20. ,"Wyoming Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wyoming Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_swy_2a.xls"

  1. ,"Nebraska Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Nebraska Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_sne_2a.xls"

  2. ,"Nevada Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Nevada Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_snv_2a.xls"

  3. ,"New Hampshire Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Hampshire Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  4. ,"New Jersey Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Jersey Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  5. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  6. ,"New York Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_sny_2a.xls"

  7. ,"North Carolina Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","North Carolina Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  8. ,"North Dakota Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","North Dakota Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  9. ,"Ohio Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Ohio Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_soh_2a.xls"

  10. ,"Oregon Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oregon Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_sor_2a.xls"

  11. ,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Pennsylvania Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  12. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Rhode Island Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  13. ,"South Carolina Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","South Carolina Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  14. ,"South Dakota Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","South Dakota Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  15. ,"Tennessee Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Tennessee Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_stn_2a.xls"

  16. ,"Texas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","na1400_stx_2a.xls"

  17. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n9090us2a.xls"

  18. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1991-1995 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maynard, Desmond J.; Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnken, Conrad V.W.

    1996-08-01

    In this report, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), presents research findings and guidelines for development and evaluation of innovative culture techniques to increase postrelease survival of hatchery fish. The Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) described in this report is a collection of experimental approaches designed to produce hatchery-reared chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that exhibit wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology. The NATURES culture research for salmonids included multiple tests to develop techniques such as: raceways equipped with cover, structure, and natural substrates to promote development of proper body camouflage coloration; feed-delivery systems that condition fish to orient to the bottom rather than the surface of the rearing vessel; predator conditioning of fish to train them to avoid predators; and supplementing diets with natural live foods to improve foraging ability. The underlying assumptions are that NATURES will: (1) promote the development of natural cryptic coloration and antipredator behavior; (2) increase postrelease foraging efficiency; (3) improve fish health and condition by alleviating chronic, artificial rearing habitat-induced stress; and (4) reduce potential genetic selection pressures induced by the conventional salmon culture environment. A goal in using NATURES is to provide quality fish for rebuilding depleted natural runs.

  19. Methanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Methanol Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Methanol Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMethanol&oldid267176" Feedback...

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    This fuel is generally produced by steam-reforming natural gas to create a synthesis gas. Feeding this synthesis gas into a reactor with a catalyst produces methanol and water ...

  1. OTEC energy via methanol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avery, W.H.; Richards, D.; Niemeyer, W.G.; Shoemaker, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The conceptual design of an 160 MW/sub e/ OTEC plantship has been documented; it is designed to produce 1000 tonne/day of fuel-grade methanol from coal slurry shipped to the plantship, using oxygen and hydrogen from the on-board electrolysis of water. Data and components are used that were derived by Brown and Root Development, Inc. (BARDI) in designing a barge-mounted plant to make methanol from natural gas for Litton Industries and in the design and construction of a coal-to-ammonia demonstration plant in operation at Muscle Shoals, Alabama, for the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The OTEC-methanol plant design is based on the use of the Texaco gasifier and Lurgi synthesis units. The sale price of OTEC methanol delivered to port from this first-of-a-kind plant is estimated to be marginally competitive with methanol from other sources at current market prices.

  2. U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Other (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Other (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Other (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 336 21,682 16,230 16,206 18,445 17,757 14,877 16,931 18,873 18,003 1990's 42,284 30,845 30,345 24,738 24,970 31,155 30,951 31,458 29,685 30,855 2000's 22,777 16,393 7,444 8,133 7,964 7,676 7,957 7,800 6,746 7,979 2010's 5,602 4,639 4,452 4,327 4,666 4,493 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  3. U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Refinery Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Refinery Gas (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Refinery Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 10,243 11,231 12,001 12,021 8,782 13,405 12,734 14,373 14,999 14,661 1990's 14,973 18,055 16,732 16,724 8,935 7,568 9,354 9,746 10,900 6,781 2000's 8,684 13,085 3,817 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  4. Method for making methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mednick, R. Lawrence; Blum, David B.

    1987-01-01

    Methanol is made in a liquid-phase methanol reactor by entraining a methanol-forming catalyst in an inert liquid and contacting said entrained catalyst with a synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  5. Method for making methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mednick, R. Lawrence; Blum, David B.

    1986-01-01

    Methanol is made in a liquid-phase methanol reactor by entraining a methanol-forming catalyst in an inert liquid and contacting said entrained catalyst with a synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  6. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Status of Libyan Loading Ports and Oil and Natural Gas Fields

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Status of Libyan Loading Ports and Oil and Natural Gas Fields Tuesday, September 10, 2013, 10:00AM EST Overview During July and August 2013, protests at major oil loading ports in the central-eastern region of Libya forced the complete or partial shut-in of oil fields linked to the ports. As a result of protests at ports and at some oil fields, crude oil production fell to 1.0 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in July and 600,000 bbl/d in August, although the

  7. Hydrocarbons from methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    During the early 1970s, the conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons emerged as a viable industrial process due to two events: the discovery by workers at Mobil Oil Company of the selective catalytic conversion of methanol to high octane gasoline over zeolite catalysts and the 1973 Arab oil embargo. This survey attempts to comprehensively cover the journal literature and selectively cover the patent literature dealing with the theoretical aspects of the methanol conversion. 178 references. (BLM)

  8. Thermally integrated staged methanol reformer and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skala, Glenn William; Hart-Predmore, David James; Pettit, William Henry; Borup, Rodney Lynn

    2001-01-01

    A thermally integrated two-stage methanol reformer including a heat exchanger and first and second reactors colocated in a common housing in which a gaseous heat transfer medium circulates to carry heat from the heat exchanger into the reactors. The heat transfer medium comprises principally hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methanol vapor and water vapor formed in a first stage reforming reaction. A small portion of the circulating heat transfer medium is drawn off and reacted in a second stage reforming reaction which substantially completes the reaction of the methanol and water remaining in the drawn-off portion. Preferably, a PrOx reactor will be included in the housing upstream of the heat exchanger to supplement the heat provided by the heat exchanger.

  9. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  10. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  11. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  12. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  13. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maynard, Desmond J.

    2001-09-13

    This report covers the 1996-1998 Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research for increasing hatchery salmon postrelease survival and producing fish with more wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology prior to release. Experiments were conducted evaluating automatic subsurface feeders; natural diets; exercise systems; seminatural raceway habitat enriched with cover, structure, and substrate; and predator avoidance conditioning for hatchery salmonids. Automatic subsurface feed delivery systems did not affect chinook salmon depth distribution or vulnerability to avian predators. Live-food diets only marginally improved the ability of chinook salmon to capture prey in stream enclosures. A prototype exercise system that can be retrofitted to raceways was developed, however, initial testing indicated that severe amounts of exercise may increase in culture mortality. Rearing chinook salmon in seminatural raceway habitat with gravel substrate, woody debris structure, and overhead cover improved coloration and postrelease survival without impacting in-culture health or survival. Steelhead fry reared in enriched environments with structure, cover, and point source feeders dominated and outcompeted conventionally reared fish. Exposing chinook salmon to caged predators increased their postrelease survival. Chinook salmon showed an antipredator response to chemical stimuli from injured conspecifics and exhibited acquired predator recognition following exposure to paired predator-prey stimuli. The report also includes the 1997 Natural Rearing System Workshop proceedings.

  14. Status and Monitoring of Natural and Supplemented Chinook Salmon in Johnson Creek, Idaho, 2006-2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabe, Craig D.; Nelson, Douglas D.

    2008-11-17

    The Nez Perce Tribe Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement Project (JCAPE) has conducted juvenile and adult monitoring and evaluation studies for its 10th consecutive year. Completion of adult and juvenile Chinook salmon studies were conducted for the purpose of evaluating a small-scale production initiative designed to increase the survival of a weak but recoverable spawning aggregate of summer Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. The JCAPE program evaluates the life cycle of natural origin (NOR) and hatchery origin (HOR) supplementation fish to quantify the key performance measures: abundance, survival-productivity, distribution, genetics, life history, habitat, and in-hatchery metrics. Operation of a picket style weir and intensive multiple spawning ground surveys were completed to monitor adult Chinook salmon and a rotary screw trap was used to monitor migrating juvenile Chinook salmon in Johnson Creek. In 2007, spawning ground surveys were conducted on all available spawning habitat in Johnson Creek and one of its tributaries. A total of 63 redds were observed in the index reach and 11 redds for all other reaches for a combined count of 74 redds. Utilization of carcass recovery surveys and adult captures at an adult picket weir yielded a total estimated adult escapement to Johnson Creek of 438 Chinook salmon. Upon deducting fish removed for broodstock (n=52), weir mortality/ known strays (n=12), and prespawning mortality (n=15), an estimated 359 summer Chinook salmon were available to spawn. Estimated total migration of brood year 2005 NOR juvenile Chinook salmon at the rotary screw trap was calculated for three seasons (summer, fall, and spring). The total estimated migration was 34,194 fish; 26,671 of the NOR migrants left in the summer (July 1 to August 31, 2005) as fry/parr, 5,852 left in the fall (September 1 to November 21, 2005) as presmolt, and only 1,671 NOR fish left in the spring (March 1 to June 30, 2006) as smolt. In addition, there

  15. Method for making methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mednick, R.L.; Blum, D.B.

    1987-01-27

    A process is described for preparing methanol from synthesis gas containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide comprising the steps: (a) entraining methanol-forming catalyst particles in an inert liquid, the catalyst particles having an average particle size of less than about 125 microns; (b) contacting the synthesis gas with the entrained catalyst in a reaction zone at a temperature of from 100/sup 0/C. to 500/sup 0/C. and at a pressure of from 200 to 10,000 psia; (c) withdrawing from the reaction zone the inert liquid with the entrained catalyst and cooling the same in a cooling zone; (d) recycling the inert liquid with the entrained catalyst particles back to the reaction zone; and (e) withdrawing from the reaction zone methanol and unreacted synthesis gas.

  16. Deactivation of methanol synthesis catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, G.W.; Brown, D.M.; Hsiung, T.H.; Lewnard, J.J. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States))

    1993-08-01

    A novel methanol synthesis process, the liquid-phase methanol (LPMEOH) process, has been developed and scaled up to a nominal 380 kg/h (10 ton/day) pilot plant. The process is based on a gas-sparged slurry reactor instead of a conventional, fixed-bed reactor. The use of slurry reactors, which are essentially gradientless, greatly facilitated the interpretation and quantification of catalyst deactivation phenomena. With a poison-free, CO-rich feedstream, the rate of deactivation of the Cu/ZnO catalyst increased rapidly with temperature. At constant temperature, in the absence of poisons, the decline with time in the rate constant for methanol synthesis correlated with the loss of BET surface area. Iron carbonyl, nickel carbonyl, and carbonyl sulfide are severe and highly specific poisons for methanol-synthesis catalyst. There was a linear relationship between the catalyst activity loss and the concentration of metal or sulfur on the catalyst.

  17. SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    2 Supplement Analysis 1 October 2013 SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS for the FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT for NECO (FORMERLY HAXTUN) WIND ENERGY PROJECT LOGAN AND PHILLIPS COUNTIES, COLORADO U. S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Golden Field Office and U.S. Department of Energy Western Area Power Administration Rocky Mountain Customer Service Region OCTOBER 2013 DOE/EA-1812/SA-1 DOE/EA-1812 Supplement Analysis 2 October 2013 SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS for the FINAL

  18. Rapid starting methanol reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chludzinski, Paul J.; Dantowitz, Philip; McElroy, James F.

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

  19. Intercooling effects of methanol on turbocharged diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, T.; Daisho, Y.; Aoki, Y.; Kawase, N.

    1984-01-01

    From the viewpoint of utilizing methanol fuel in an automotive turbocharged direct-injection diesel engine, an intercooling system supplying liquid methanol has been devised and its effects on engine performance and exhaust gas emissions have been investigated. With an electronically controlled injector in this system, methanol as a supplementary fuel to diesel fuel can be injected into the intake pipe in order to intercool a hot air charge compressed by the turbocharger. It has been confirmed that especially at heavy load conditions, methanol-intercooling can yield a higher thermal efficiency, and lower nox and smoke emissions simultaneously, compared with three other cases without using methanol: natural aspiration and the cases with and without an ordinary intercooler. However, methanol fueling must be avoided at lower loads since sacrifices in efficiency and hydrocarbon emissions are involved.

  20. Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren; Xiaoming

    2003-07-22

    A method for activating a membrane electrode assembly for a direct methanol fuel cell is disclosed. The method comprises operating the fuel cell with humidified hydrogen as the fuel followed by running the fuel cell with methanol as the fuel.

  1. List of Methanol Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Commercial Industrial Anaerobic Digestion Biodiesel Biomass CHPCogeneration Ethanol Hydrogen Landfill Gas Methanol Microturbines Municipal Solid Waste Yes Business Energy Tax...

  2. Enhanced methanol utilization in direct methanol fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2001-10-02

    The fuel utilization of a direct methanol fuel cell is enhanced for improved cell efficiency. Distribution plates at the anode and cathode of the fuel cell are configured to distribute reactants vertically and laterally uniformly over a catalyzed membrane surface of the fuel cell. A conductive sheet between the anode distribution plate and the anodic membrane surface forms a mass transport barrier to the methanol fuel that is large relative to a mass transport barrier for a gaseous hydrogen fuel cell. In a preferred embodiment, the distribution plate is a perforated corrugated sheet. The mass transport barrier may be conveniently increased by increasing the thickness of an anode conductive sheet adjacent the membrane surface of the fuel cell.

  3. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming

    2002-01-01

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source.

  4. Methanol production method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    1984-01-01

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  5. Supplement Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Supplement Analysis to the LCLS-ll Environmental Assessment, July. 2014 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Office of *ENERGY 1 Science SLAG Site Office SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory 2575 Sand Hill Road, MS-8A Menlo Park, CA 94025 DATE: September 15, 2015 MEMORANDUM FOR: Paul Golan, Site Manager, SLAC Site Office THROUGH: James Elmore, ISC-OR NEPA Compliance Officer, Oak Ridge Office FROM: Mitzi Heard, NEPA Coornator, SLAC Site Office SUBJECT: Supplement Analysis to SLAC LCLS-I1 Environmental Assessment.

  6. Direct methanol fuel cell and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2004-10-26

    A fuel cell having an anode and a cathode and a polymer electrolyte membrane located between anode and cathode gas diffusion backings uses a methanol vapor fuel supply. A permeable polymer electrolyte membrane having a permeability effective to sustain a carbon dioxide flux equivalent to at least 10 mA/cm.sup.2 provides for removal of carbon dioxide produced at the anode by reaction of methanol with water. Another aspect of the present invention includes a superabsorpent polymer material placed in proximity to the anode gas diffusion backing to hold liquid methanol or liquid methanol solution without wetting the anode gas diffusion backing so that methanol vapor from the liquid methanol or liquid methanol-water solution is supplied to the membrane.

  7. EIS-0169-SA-02: Supplement Analysis

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Yakima Fisheries Project-Natural Spawning Channels, Increased On-site Housing, and Upgrades to the Prosser Hatchery. Cle Elum Supplementation and Research Facility, Cle Elum, Washington

  8. Methods of conditioning direct methanol fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, Cynthia; Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2005-11-08

    Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. In a first method, an electrical current of polarity opposite to that used in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is passed through the anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly. In a second method, methanol is supplied to an anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, allowed to cross over the polymer electrolyte membrane of the membrane electrode assembly to a cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, and an electrical current of polarity opposite to that in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is drawn through the membrane electrode assembly, wherein methanol is oxidized at the cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly while the catalyst on the anode surface is reduced. Surface oxides on the direct methanol fuel cell anode catalyst of the membrane electrode assembly are thereby reduced.

  9. Optimal Conventional and Semi-Natural Treatments for the Upper Yakima Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Treatment Definitions and Descriptions and Biological Specifications for Facility Design, 1995-1999 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hager, Robert C.; Costello, Ronald J.

    1999-10-01

    This report describes the Yakima Fisheries Project facilities (Cle Elum Hatchery and acclimation satellites) which provide the mechanism to conduct state-of-the-art research for addressing questions about spring chinook supplementation strategies. The definition, descriptions, and specifications for the Yakima spring chinook supplementation program permit evaluation of alternative fish culture techniques that should yield improved methods and procedures to produce wild-like fish with higher survival that can be used to rebuild depleted spring chinook stocks of the Columbia River Basin. The definition and description of three experimental treatments, Optimal Conventional (OCT), Semi-Natural (SNT), Limited Semi-Natural (LSNT), and the biological specifications for facilities have been completed for the upper Yakima spring chinook salmon stock of the Yakima Fisheries Project. The task was performed by the Biological Specifications Work Group (BSWG) represented by Yakama Indian Nation, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, National Marine Fisheries Service, and Bonneville Power Administration. The control and experimental variables of the experimental treatments (OCT, SNT, and LSNT) are described in sufficient detail to assure that the fish culture facilities will be designed and operated as a production scale laboratory to produce and test supplemented upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Product specifications of the treatment groups are proposed to serve as the generic templates for developing greater specificity for measurements of product attributes. These product specifications will be used to monitor and evaluate treatment effects, with respect to the biological response variables (post release survival, long-term fitness, reproductive success and ecological interactions).

  10. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

    1990-01-01

    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  11. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2002-01-01

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source. Water loss from the cell is minimized by making the conductive cathode assembly hydrophobic and the conductive anode assembly hydrophilic.

  12. Methanol as a fuel for commercial vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinrich, W.; Marquardt, K.J.; Schaefer, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses two possibilities for using methanol in heavy-duty engines. If the engine is modified according to the fuel properties, pure methanol can be used as fuel for a spark ignition methanol-gas engine. When the fuel is adapted to meet the requirements of the engine additized methanol serves as a fuel for an only slightly modified direct-injection diesel engine. The comparison takes into consideration fuel cost, convertibility of vehicles already in use, operational safety and reliability, requirements regarding fuel production and distribution, conventional fuel/alternative fuel reversibility, and environmental aspects.

  13. Developments in the European methanol market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speed, J.

    1995-12-31

    In the late eighties/early nineties the World Methanol Market was basically divided into three regional markets--America, Asia Pacific and Europe. These markets were interrelated but each had its own specific characteristics and traditional suppliers. Now the situation has changed; in the mid nineties there is a Global Methanol Market with global players and effective global pricing and the European market is governed by events world-wide. Europe is however a specific market with specific characteristics which are different from those of other markets although it is also part of the Global Market. Hence before the author focuses on Europe he looks at the World Market. The paper discusses world methanol production and consumption by region, world methanol consumption by end use, world methanol supply demand balance, the west European market, western European methanol production, methanol imports to W. Europe, the Former Soviet Union supplies, W. European methanol consumption by end use, MTBE in Europe, duties on methanol imports into W. Europe, investment in Europe, the effect of the 1994/95 price spike, and key issues for the future of the industry.

  14. Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell ...

  15. Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects ...

  16. Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes The ...

  17. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation DMFCC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation DMFCC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation (DMFCC) Place: Altadena, California Zip: 91001 Product: DMFCC is...

  18. Medicare Supplemental

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    7 National Medicare Supplement Medicare (Part A) Hospital Services - Per Benefit Period* SERVICES MEDICARE PAYS THIS PLAN PAYS YOU PAY** Hospitalization* Semiprivate room and board, general nursing, and miscellaneous services and supplies First 60 days All but $1,288 $1,288 (Part A deductible)*** $0 61st through 90th day All but $322 a day $322 a day $0 91st day and after: * While using 60 lifetime reserve days All but $644 a day $644 a day $0 * Once lifetime reserve days are used: - Additional

  19. Medicare Supplemental

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    6 National Medicare Supplement Medicare (Part A) Hospital Services - Per Benefit Period* SERVICES MEDICARE PAYS THIS PLAN PAYS YOU PAY** Hospitalization* Semiprivate room and board, general nursing, and miscellaneous services and supplies First 60 days All but $1,288 $1,288 (Part A deductible) $0 61st through 90th day All but $322 a day $322 a day $0 91st day and after: * While using 60 lifetime reserve days All but $644 a day $644 a day $0 * Once lifetime reserve days are used: - Additional 365

  20. Direct Methanol Fuel Cells - Energy Innovation Portal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... plate and the anodic membrane surface forms a mass transport barrier to the methanol fuel that is large relative to a mass transport barrier for a gaseous hydrogen fuel cell. ...

  1. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder; Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.13 ), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  2. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder; Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.

    1991-02-12

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.-), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  3. UK group plans major methanol project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-31

    International Offshore Chemicals (IOC; Aberdeen, UK), a project development and management company, has formed a consortium to seek permission to build a 2,500-m.t./day methanol plant near the St. Fergus terminal in northeast Scotland. Robert Spiers, technical adviser to IOC, tells CW that the $255-million plant, based on the ICI process, would begin production in second-quarter 1999. The key market would be Europe. Jacobs Engineering and Davy are negotiating for the construction contract. Spiers says Europe imports 3 million m.t./year of methanol, and-even with Statoil`s plant under construction in Norway-there is room for more. ICI is the UK`s only producer of methanol. Another company, reportedly Kemira, may build a 360,000-m.t./year ammonia plant nearby if the methanol scheme goes ahead.

  4. Federal Methanol Fleet Project final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, B.H.; McGill, R.N.; Hillis, S.L.; Hodgson, J.W.

    1993-03-01

    The Federal Methanol Fleet Project concluded with the termination of data collection from the three fleet sites in February 1991. The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) completed five years of operation, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) completed its fourth year in the project, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed its third. Twenty of the thirty-nine vehicles in the fleet were powered by fuel methanol (typically M85, 85 % methanol, 15 % unleaded gasoline, although the LBL fleet used M88), and the remaining control vehicles were comparable gasoline vehicles. Over 2.2 million km (1.4 million miles) were accumulated on the fleet vehicles in routine government service. Data collected over the years have included vehicle mileage and fuel economy, engine oil analysis, emissions, vehicle maintenance, and driver acceptance. Fuel economies (on an energy basis) of the methanol and gasoline vehicles of the same type were comparable throughout the fleet testing. Engine oil analysis has revealed higher accumulation rates of iron and other metals in the oil of the methanol vehicles, although no significant engine damage has been attributed to the higher metal content. Vehicles of both fuel types have experienced degradation in their emission control systems, however, the methanol vehicles seem to have degraded their catalytic converters at a higher rate. The methanol vehicles have required more maintenance than their gasoline counterparts, in most cases, although the higher levels of maintenance cannot be attributed to ``fuel-related`` repairs. According to the daily driver logs and results from several surveys, drivers of the fleet vehicles at all three sites were generally satisfied with the methanol vehicles.

  5. Federal Methanol Fleet Project final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, B.H.; McGill, R.N. ); Hillis, S.L.; Hodgson, J.W. )

    1993-03-01

    The Federal Methanol Fleet Project concluded with the termination of data collection from the three fleet sites in February 1991. The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) completed five years of operation, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) completed its fourth year in the project, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed its third. Twenty of the thirty-nine vehicles in the fleet were powered by fuel methanol (typically M85, 85 % methanol, 15 % unleaded gasoline, although the LBL fleet used M88), and the remaining control vehicles were comparable gasoline vehicles. Over 2.2 million km (1.4 million miles) were accumulated on the fleet vehicles in routine government service. Data collected over the years have included vehicle mileage and fuel economy, engine oil analysis, emissions, vehicle maintenance, and driver acceptance. Fuel economies (on an energy basis) of the methanol and gasoline vehicles of the same type were comparable throughout the fleet testing. Engine oil analysis has revealed higher accumulation rates of iron and other metals in the oil of the methanol vehicles, although no significant engine damage has been attributed to the higher metal content. Vehicles of both fuel types have experienced degradation in their emission control systems, however, the methanol vehicles seem to have degraded their catalytic converters at a higher rate. The methanol vehicles have required more maintenance than their gasoline counterparts, in most cases, although the higher levels of maintenance cannot be attributed to fuel-related'' repairs. According to the daily driver logs and results from several surveys, drivers of the fleet vehicles at all three sites were generally satisfied with the methanol vehicles.

  6. 15.11.21 RH Methanol - JCAP

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    an electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide exclusively to methanol Javier, A. et al. Overlayer Au-on-W Near-Surface Alloy for the Selective Electrochemical Reduction of CO2 to Methanol: Empirical (DEMS) Corroboration of a Computational (DFT) Prediction. Electrocatalysis, DOI: 10.1007/s12678-015-0276-8 (2015). With kind permission from Springer Science+Business Media: Javier, A. et al. Overlayer Au-on-W Near-Surface Alloy for the Selective Electrochemical Reduction of carbon dioxide to

  7. 15.11.21 Methanol - JCAP

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    an electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide exclusively to methanol Javier, A. et al. Overlayer Au-on-W Near-Surface Alloy for the Selective Electrochemical Reduction of CO2 to Methanol: Empirical (DEMS) Corroboration of a Computational (DFT) Prediction. Electrocatalysis, DOI: 10.1007/s12678-015-0276-8 (2015). With kind permission from Springer Science+Business Media: Javier, A. et al. Overlayer Au-on-W Near-Surface Alloy for the Selective Electrochemical Reduction of carbon dioxide to

  8. Transesterification of waste vegetable oil under pulse sonication using ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Pulse sonication effect on transesterification of waste vegetable oil was studied. • Effects of ethanol, methanol, and alcohol mixtures on FAMEs yield were evaluated. • Effect of ultrasonic intensity, power density, and its output rates were evaluated. • Alcohol mixtures resulted in higher biodiesel yields due to better solubility. - Abstract: This study reports on the effects of direct pulse sonication and the type of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) on the transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil without any external heating or mechanical mixing. Biodiesel yields and optimum process conditions for the transesterification reaction involving ethanol, methanol, and ethanol–methanol mixtures were evaluated. The effects of ultrasonic power densities (by varying sample volumes), power output rates (in W), and ultrasonic intensities (by varying the reactor size) were studied for transesterification reaction with ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol (50%-50%) mixtures. The optimum process conditions for ethanol or methanol based transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil were determined as: 9:1 alcohol to oil ratio, 1% wt. catalyst amount, 1–2 min reaction time at a power output rate between 75 and 150 W. It was shown that the transesterification reactions using ethanol–methanol mixtures resulted in biodiesel yields as high as >99% at lower power density and ultrasound intensity when compared to ethanol or methanol based transesterification reactions.

  9. Methanol-Tolerant Cathode Catalyst Composite For Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yimin; Zelenay, Piotr

    2006-03-21

    A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) having a methanol fuel supply, oxidant supply, and its membrane electrode assembly (MEA) formed of an anode electrode and a cathode electrode with a membrane therebetween, a methanol oxidation catalyst adjacent the anode electrode and the membrane, an oxidant reduction catalyst adjacent the cathode electrode and the membrane, comprises an oxidant reduction catalyst layer of a platinum-chromium alloy so that oxidation at the cathode of methanol that crosses from the anode through the membrane to the cathode is reduced with a concomitant increase of net electrical potential at the cathode electrode.

  10. Methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst composite for direct methanol fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yimin; Zelenay, Piotr

    2006-09-05

    A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) having a methanol fuel supply, oxidant supply, and its membrane electrode assembly (MEA) formed of an anode electrode and a cathode electrode with a membrane therebetween, a methanol oxidation catalyst adjacent the anode electrode and the membrane, an oxidant reduction catalyst adjacent the cathode electrode and the membrane, comprises an oxidant reduction catalyst layer of Pt.sub.3Cr/C so that oxidation at the cathode of methanol that crosses from the anode through the membrane to the cathode is reduced with a concomitant increase of net electrical potential at the cathode electrode.

  11. Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, Musahid; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Belau, Leonid; Kostko, Oleg

    2008-05-12

    In this work we report on thevacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuumultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH +, (CH 3OH)2 +, (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-9), and (CH 3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-9 ) as a function of photon energy. With an increase in the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

  12. Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization of Small Methanol and Methanol-Water Clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostko, Oleg; Belau, Leonid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2008-04-24

    In this work, we report on the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH+(n = 1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH+, (CH3OH)2+, (CH3OH)nH+ (n = 1-9), and (CH3OH)n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-9) as a function of photon energy. With an increasein the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for the methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

  13. Idaho Supplementation Studies, 1991-1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leitzinger, Eric J.; Bowles, Edward C.; Plaster, Kurtis

    1993-10-01

    Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) will help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho. The objectives are to monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon; monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation and; determine which supplementation strategies (broodstock and release stage) provide the quickest effects on and highest response in natural production without adverse productivity.

  14. Supplemental Environmental Projects Update

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Supplement_V_regarding_Application_Submission_Schedule_(June_22,_2016) Supplement_V_regarding_Application_Submission_Schedule_(June_22,_2016) Supplement V regarding Application Submission Schedule (June 22, 2016).pdf (187.74 KB) More Documents & Publications Supplement VI regarding Application Submission Schedule (June 22, Department of Energy

    Supplemental Analysis for the Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplemental Analysis for the Final Environmental

  15. Energy balances in the production and end-use of methanol derived from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-12-10

    Analysis is performed for three combinations of fuels, specifically: net petroleum gain (petroleum only); net premium fuel gain (natural gas and petroleum); and net energy gain (includes all fuels; does not include free energy from sun). The base case selected for evaluation was that of an energy-efficient coal-to-methanol plant located in Montana/Wyoming and using the Lurgi conversion process. The following variations of the base coal-methanol case are also analyzed: gasoline from coal with methanol as an intermediate step (Mobil-M); and methanol from coal (Texaco gasification process). For each process, computations are made for the product methanol as a replacement for unleaded gasoline in a conventional spark ignition engine and as a chemical feedstock. For the purpose of the energy analysis, computations are made for three situations regarding mileage of methanol/ gasoline compared to that of regular unleaded gasoline: mileage of the two fuels equal, mileage 4 percent better with gasohol, and mileage 4 percent worse with gasohol. The standard methodology described for the base case applies to all of the variations.

  16. Computational study of ion distributions at the air/liquid methanol interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiuquan; Wick, Collin D.; Dang, Liem X.

    2011-06-16

    Molecular dynamic simulations with polarizable potentials were performed to systematically investigate the distribution of NaCl, NaBr, NaI, and SrCl2 at the air/liquid methanol interface. The density profiles indicated that there is no substantial enhancement of anions at the interface for the NaX systems in contrast to what was observed at the air/aqueous interface. The surfactant-like shape of the larger more polarizable halide anions is compensated by the surfactant nature of methanol itself. As a result, methanol hydroxy groups strongly interacted with one side of polarizable anions, in which their induced dipole points, and methanol methyl groups were more likely to be found near the positive pole of anion induced dipoles. Furthermore, salts were found to disrupt the surface structure of methanol, reducing the observed enhancement of methyl groups at the outer edge of the air/liquid methanol interface. With the additional of salts to methanol, the computed surface potentials increased, which is in contrast to what is observed in corresponding aqueous systems, where the surface potential decreases with the addition of salts. Both of these trends have been indirectly observed with experiments. This was found to be due to the propensity of anions for the air/water interface that is not present at the air/liquid methanol interface. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  17. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. Supplement I. [Additional information on 38 items requested by KY/DNREP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearson, Jr., John F.

    1981-02-13

    In response to a letter from KY/DNREP, January 19, 1981, ICRC and DOE have prepared the enclosed supplement to the Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Permit Application for Air Contaminant Source for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Each of the 38 comments contained in the letter has been addressed in accordance with the discussions held in Frankfort on January 28, 1981, among representatives of KY/DNREP, EPA Region IV, US DOE, and ICRC. The questions raised involve requests for detailed information on the performance and reliability of proprietary equipment, back-up methods, monitoring plans for various pollutants, composition of wastes to flares, emissions estimates from particular operations, origin of baseline information, mathematical models, storage tanks, dusts, etc. (LTN)

  18. Methanol and the productivity of tropical crops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, T.U.

    1995-12-31

    Studies are being conducted in Trinidad and Tobago, St. Lucia and St. Kitts/Nevis to determine the effect of aqueous solutions of methanol on the growth and yield of a wide range of vegetable, field and perennial crops. The paper presents a summary of results to data for ten of the crops studied. Six of these crops, lettuce, sweet pepper, tomato, mango and breadfruit, have shown significant increases in growth or yield with methanol application, while others such as pigeon pea, rice, banana and cocoa have shown more limited responses. There appears to be some potential for the use of methanol in tropical crop production but further studies are required before this apparent potential can be harnessed.

  19. Methanol sensor operated in a passive mode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2002-01-01

    A sensor outputs a signal related to a concentration of methanol in an aqueous solution adjacent the sensor. A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is included with an anode side and a cathode side. An anode current collector supports the anode side of the MEA and has a flow channel therethrough for flowing a stream of the aqueous solution and forms a physical barrier to control access of the methanol to the anode side of the MEA. A cathode current collector supports the cathode side of the MEA and is configured for air access to the cathode side of the MEA. A current sensor is connected to measure the current in a short circuit across the sensor electrodes to provide an output signal functionally related to the concentration of methanol in the aqueous solution.

  20. New methanol plant for Kharg Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1992-04-08

    Iran`s National Petrochemical Co. (NPC; Teheran) plans to set up a world scale export-oriented methanol plant on Kharg Island in the Persian Gulf. It says discussions are being held with three Western groups - C. Itoh (Tokyo), H & G (London), and Uhde (Dortmund) - to supply the 660,000-m.t./year facility. The estimated $150-million project would be repaid through export of methanol within three to four years. NPC hopes to conclude talks this year. Strategically located, Kharg Island is described as a good location in peacetime. It already serves as an oil terminal. NPC has an LPG and sulfur complex there.

  1. 37 GHz METHANOL MASERS : HORSEMEN OF THE APOCALYPSE FOR THE CLASS II METHANOL MASER PHASE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingsen, S. P.; Breen, S. L.; Sobolev, A. M.; Voronkov, M. A.; Caswell, J. L.; Lo, N.

    2011-12-01

    We report the results of a search for class II methanol masers at 37.7, 38.3, and 38.5 GHz toward a sample of 70 high-mass star formation regions. We primarily searched toward regions known to show emission either from the 107 GHz class II methanol maser transition, or from the 6.035 GHz excited OH transition. We detected maser emission from 13 sources in the 37.7 GHz transition, eight of these being new detections. We detected maser emission from three sources in the 38 GHz transitions, one of which is a new detection. We find that 37.7 GHz methanol masers are only associated with the most luminous 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol maser sources, which in turn are hypothesized to be the oldest class II methanol sources. We suggest that the 37.7 GHz methanol masers are associated with a brief evolutionary phase (of 1000-4000 years) prior to the cessation of class II methanol maser activity in the associated high-mass star formation region.

  2. Liquid phase methanol reactor staging process for the production of methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonnell, Leo W.; Perka, Alan T.; Roberts, George W.

    1988-01-01

    The present invention is a process for the production of methanol from a syngas feed containing carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Basically, the process is the combination of two liquid phase methanol reactors into a staging process, such that each reactor is operated to favor a particular reaction mechanism. In the first reactor, the operation is controlled to favor the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide, and in the second reactor, the operation is controlled so as to favor the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. This staging process results in substantial increases in methanol yield.

  3. Pitting of iron and carbon steel in mixtures of methanol-water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pischik, L.M.; Novitskii, V.S.; Lysak, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    Since the technological media used for the production of methanol contains dissolved carbon dioxide and trace quantities of formic acid, pit formation on Armco iron (State Standard (GOST) 3836-73) and carbon steel St 3 (GOST 390-71) was studied in pure mixtures of rectified methanol and water in the presence of CO/sub 2/ at 30/sup 0/ and 60/sup 0/. This was done in order to determine the nature and concentration of active components and also to see what were the effects of water (5-30% by mass), metal purity, and temperature on the kinetic parameters of pit formation.

  4. Methanex, Hoechst Celanese dissolve methanol partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, G.D.L.

    1993-03-31

    One of the many joint venture alliances recently announced in the petrochemical sector is ending in divorce. Hoechst Celanese Chemical (Dallas) and Methanex Corp. (Vancouver) are in the process of dissolving the partnership they had formed to restart Hoechst Celanese's methanol plant at Clear Lake, TX. Hoechst Celanese says it is actively seeking replacement partners and has several likely prospects, while Methanex is concentrating on its other ventures. Those include its just-completed acquisition of Fletcher Challenge's (Auckland, NZ) methanol business and a joint venture with American Cyanamid to convert an ammonia plant at Fortier, LA to methanol. Methanex will still be the world's largest producer of methanol. Officially, the negotiations between Methanex and Hoechst Celanese just broke down over the last month or so,' says Steve Yurich, operations manager for the Clear Lake plant. Market sources, however, say that Methanex found itself with too many irons in the fire' and pulled out before it ran into financial or perhaps even antitrust difficulties.

  5. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS AROUND 6.7 GHz METHANOL MASERS. I. AMMONIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandian, J. D.; Wyrowski, F.; Menten, K. M.

    2012-07-01

    Methanol masers at 6.7 GHz are known to be tracers of high-mass star formation in our Galaxy. In this paper, we study the large-scale physical conditions in the star-forming clumps/cores associated with 6.7 GHz methanol masers using observations of the (1, 1), (2, 2), and (3, 3) inversion transitions of ammonia with the Effelsberg telescope. The gas kinetic temperature is found to be higher than in infrared dark clouds, highlighting the relatively evolved nature of the maser sources. Other than a weak correlation between maser luminosity and the ammonia line width, we do not find any differences between low- and high-luminosity methanol masers.

  6. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts Print Wednesday, 03 December 2014 00:00 Researchers have found novel nanocatalysts that...

  7. High pressure injection and atomization characteristics of methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aigal, A.K.; Pundir, B.P.; Khatchian, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    Research on conversion of diesel engines for operation on methanol is, currently, of worldwide interest. Due to requirements of higher cyclic delivery of methanol and changes in fuel properties e.g. compressibility, wave propagation velocity, viscosity, surface tension, density etc., injection and atomization characteristics of methanol are expected to be different from diesel. From the equation of continuity and forces acting on the injection system elements and applying the principles of similarity, modifications required in the injection system were identified. Methanol injection and atomization characteristics were studied with a modified injection system and compared with those observed with diesel fuel. Methanol gave more favourable cyclic delivery characteristics than diesel. Laser diffraction technique was used to study time and space resolved drop size distribution in methanol and diesel sprays. With methanol, drop size distribution were, generally, much narrower and droplets were smaller than diesel. Spatial distribution of drop size in methanol spray showed somewhat different trends than for diesel.

  8. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

  9. Methanol coproduction; Strategies for effective use of IGCC power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, W.H. ); Mednick, R.L. ); Bradshaw, D.T. )

    1988-01-01

    Coproduction of methanol and electricity provides stategies for effective utilization of IGCC power plants over a wide range of capacity factors. The choice among the various configurations will depend upon the operating requirements of the particular utility system, such as the load duration curve and the desirability of using coal-derived fuel grade methanol on the other units being dispatched on the system. Methanol coproduction is an advantage for load variation, since methanol can be stored and the combined cycle portion of the plant is less expensive than the gasifier. The possibilities for integration of methanol coproduction into IGCC plants are discussed.

  10. Methanol-fueled transit bus demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, M.D.; Fong, D.W.; Powars, C.A.; Smith, K.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a California study to investigate the technical, environmental, and economic viability of using coal-derived fuels for transportation. Since nearly all of California's major urban areas have pollution problems, emphasis is placed on those options which are capable of achieving low exhaust emissions. A broad range of fuels are considered, including solids, gases, and liquids. Methanol, used in heavy-duty engines designed for this fuel, meets California's environmental, economic, and technical requirements for clean coal fuels. The combination has lower exhaust emissions than conventional Diesels -- smoke is eliminated and NO/SUB x/ and CO emissions are reduced. Further, thermal efficiencies comparable or exceeding conventional Diesels are possible. A demonstration of this new technology is now underway. Transit buses will be purchased with the objective of demonstrating alternative methanol engine designs. Economic viability in transit operations will be established.

  11. Platinum Nickel Nanowires as Methanol Oxidation Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alia, Shaun M.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Neyerlin, Kenneth C.; Kocha, Shyam S.; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2015-08-27

    We investigated platinum(Pt) nickel (Ni) nanowires (PtNiNWs) as methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) catalysts in rotating disk electrode (RDE) half-cells under acidic conditions. Pt-ruthenium (Ru) nanoparticles have long been the state of the art MOR catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) where Ru provides oxophilic sites, lowering the potential for carbon monoxide oxidation and the MOR onset. Ru, however, is a precious metal that has long term durability concerns. Ni/Ni oxide species offer a potential to replace Ru in MOR electrocatalysis. PtNiNWs were investigated for MOR and oxygen annealing was investigated as a route to improve catalyst performance (mass activity 65% greater) and stability to potential cycling. Our results presented show that PtNiNWs offer significant promise in the area, but also result in Ni ion leaching that is a concern requiring further evaluation in fuel cells.

  12. Platinum Nickel Nanowires as Methanol Oxidation Electrocatalysts

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Alia, Shaun M.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Neyerlin, Kenneth C.; Kocha, Shyam S.; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2015-08-27

    We investigated platinum(Pt) nickel (Ni) nanowires (PtNiNWs) as methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) catalysts in rotating disk electrode (RDE) half-cells under acidic conditions. Pt-ruthenium (Ru) nanoparticles have long been the state of the art MOR catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) where Ru provides oxophilic sites, lowering the potential for carbon monoxide oxidation and the MOR onset. Ru, however, is a precious metal that has long term durability concerns. Ni/Ni oxide species offer a potential to replace Ru in MOR electrocatalysis. PtNiNWs were investigated for MOR and oxygen annealing was investigated as a route to improve catalyst performance (mass activitymore » 65% greater) and stability to potential cycling. Our results presented show that PtNiNWs offer significant promise in the area, but also result in Ni ion leaching that is a concern requiring further evaluation in fuel cells.« less

  13. The methanol industry`s missed opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stokes, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Throughout its history the methanol industry has been backward in research and development and in industry cooperation on public image and regulatory matters. It has been extremely reticent as to the virtue of its product for new uses, especially for motor fuel. While this is perhaps understandable looking back, it is inexcusable looking forward. The industry needs to cooperate on a worldwide basis in research and market development, on the one hand, and in image-building and political influence, on the other, staying, of course, within the US and European and other regional antitrust regulations. Unless the industry develops the motor fuel market, and especially the exciting new approach through fuel cell operated EVs, to siphon off incremental capacity and keep plants running at 90% or more of capacity, it will continue to live in a price roller-coaster climate. A few low-cost producers will do reasonably well and the rest will just get along or drop out here and there along the way, as in the past. Having come so far from such a humble beginning, it is a shame not to realize the full potential that is clearly there: a potential to nearly double sales dollars without new plants and to produce from a plentiful resource, at least for the next half-century, all the methanol that can be imagined to be needed. Beyond that the industry can turn to renewable energy--the sun--via biomass growth, to make their product. In so doing, it can perhaps apply methanol as a plant growth stimulant, in effect making the product fully self-sustainable. The world needs to know what methanol can do to provide--economically and reliably--the things upon which a better life rests.

  14. Liquid methanol under a static electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassone, Giuseppe; Giaquinta, Paolo V.; Saija, Franz; Saitta, A. Marco

    2015-02-07

    We report on an ab initio molecular dynamics study of liquid methanol under the effect of a static electric field. We found that the hydrogen-bond structure of methanol is more robust and persistent for field intensities below the molecular dissociation threshold whose value (?0.31 V/) turns out to be moderately larger than the corresponding estimate obtained for liquid water. A sustained ionic current, with ohmic current-voltage behavior, flows in this material for field intensities above 0.36 V/, as is also the case of water, but the resulting ionic conductivity (?0.40 S cm{sup ?1}) is at least one order of magnitude lower than that of water, a circumstance that evidences a lower efficiency of proton transfer processes. We surmise that this study may be relevant for the understanding of the properties and functioning of technological materials which exploit ionic conduction, such as direct-methanol fuel cells and Nafion membranes.

  15. Virginia Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook

    47 159 89 48 130 301 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 247 159 89 48 130 301 1980-2014 Other 0 0 0 2005

  16. New York Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook

    6 2 0 0 0 0 1967-2014 Synthetic 1980-2005 Propane-Air 6 2 1980-2010 Biomass 1993-2005 Other 1980-2005

  17. Pennsylvania Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook

    205 4 2 2 3 20 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 205 4 2 2 3 20 1980-2014 Refinery Gas 1980-2005

  18. New Jersey Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook

    454 457 392 139 255 530 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 0 0 1980-2014 Refinery Gas 1980-2005 Biomass 0 0 1993-2014 Other 454 457 392 139 255 530 1980-2014

  19. Massachusetts Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook

    0 * 0 * 3 8 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 10 0 0 3 8 1980-2014 Refinery Gas 1980-2005 Other 0 2005

  20. Ohio Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook

    522 353 296 366 416 641 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 66 40 27 6 34 263 1980-2014 Biomass 456 313 269 360 383 378 1993-201

  1. North Dakota Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook

    53,495 54,813 51,303 52,541 45,736 48,394 1967-2014 Synthetic 53,495 54,813 51,303 52,541 45,736 48,394 1980-2014 Propane-Air 0 0 1980

  2. Maryland Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook

    70 115 89 116 107 809 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 170 115 89 116 107 809 1980-2014 Refinery Gas 1980-2005 Other 0 0 1980

  3. Louisiana Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    249 435 553 560 517 478 2007-2015 Biomass 249 435 553 560 517 478 201

  4. Maine Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2003

  5. Michigan Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1998 Other 1980-1998

  6. Minnesota Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2 20 9 22 66 10 1967-2015 Synthetic 0 0 0 1980-2015 Propane-Air 12 20 9 22 66 1

  7. Missouri Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    18 * * * 172 * 1967-2015 Synthetic 0 0 0 0 0 * 2007-2015 Propane-Air 18 0 172

  8. Nebraska Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    12 9 4 2 376 29 1967-2015 Propane-Air 12 9 4 2 376 23 1980-2015 Biomass 0 0 6 1999

  9. New Hampshire Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Propane-Air 1980-2007

  10. Alabama Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Synthetic 1980-2003 Propane-Air 1980-2003 Biomass 1993-2003

  11. Alaska Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2004-2015

  12. Arkansas Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Propane-Air 1980-1998

  13. New Mexico Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Propane-Air 1981-1998

  14. Oregon Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Propane-Air 1982-2004

  15. Hawaii Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook

    2,447 2,472 2,467 2,510 2,658 2,743 1980-2014 Synthetic 2,438 2,465 2,442 2,491 2,639 2,733 1980-2014 Propane-Air 9 6 25 20 19 10 2004...

  16. South Carolina Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    * * 17 9 1967-2015 Propane-Air 0 0 17 9 1980-201

  17. South Dakota Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Propane-Air 1980-2007 Biomass 1999-2005 Other 1980-2005

  18. Tennessee Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Synthetic 1980-2003 Propane-Air 1980-2004

  19. Texas Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Propane-Air 1981-2005 Refinery Gas 1981-2005 Other 1999-2005

  20. Vermont Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2 3 3 5 3 1967-2015 Propane-Air 1 2 3 3 5 3 1984

  1. Wisconsin Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Synthetic 1980-1998 Propane-Air 1980-1998

  2. Nevada Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    0

  3. North Carolina Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Propane-Air 1980-2003

  4. Rhode Island Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Propane-Air 1980-1998

  5. Washington Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Propane-Air 1980-1998 Other

  6. Wyoming Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Propane-Air 1980-1998 Other

  7. Colorado Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5,148 4,268 4,412 4,077 4,120 4,032 1967-2015 Propane-Air 4 21 99 6 10 2 1980-2015 Other 5,144 4,247 4,313 4,071 4,110 4,030 1980-2015

  8. Connecticut Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Synthetic 1980-2005 Propane-Air 1980-2009

  9. Delaware Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1 0 * * 6 8 1967-2015 Propane-Air 1 0 0 6 8 1980-2015 Refinery Gas 1980-2005 Other 0 0 1999

  10. Georgia Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    732 701 660 642 635 554 1967-2015 Propane-Air 0 0 0 1980-2015 Biomass 732 701 660 642 608 554 1993-2015 Other 0 26 0 1980

  11. Hawaii Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,472 2,467 2,510 2,658 2,742 2,724 1980-2015 Synthetic 2,465 2,442 2,491 2,639 2,733 2,719 1980-2015 Propane-Air 6 25 20 19 9 4 2004

  12. Illinois Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7 1 1 * 63 1 1967-2015 Synthetic 0 0 0 1980-2015 Propane-Air 17 1 1 0 63 1 1980-2015 Refinery Gas 1980-2005 Biomass 0 0 0 1999-2015 Other 0 0 0 2005

  13. Indiana Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1 5 1 6 69 78 1967-2015 Propane-Air 1 5 1 6 69 78 1980-2015 Refinery Gas 1980-200

  14. Iowa Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1 0 0 1 * 1967-2015 Propane-Air 2 1 1 * 1980-2015 Biomass 0 0 1993-2015 Other 0 0 1980

  15. Kentucky Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5 8 1 29 52 51 1967-2015 Propane-Air 5 8 1 29 52 51 1980-201

  16. Georgia Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook

    52 732 701 660 642 635 1967-2014 Propane-Air 0 0 1980-2014 Biomass 52 732 701 660 642 608 1993-2014 Other 0 0 26 1980...

  17. New York Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    6 2 0 0 0 0 1967-2014 Synthetic 1980-2005 Propane-Air 6 2 1980-2010 Biomass 1993-2005 Other 1980-2005...

  18. Illinois Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    20 17 1 1 * 63 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 20 17 1 1 0 63 1980-2014 Refinery Gas 1980-2005 Biomass 0 0 1999-2014 Other 0 0 2005...

  19. Ohio Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    522 353 296 366 416 641 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 66 40 27 6 34 263 1980-2014 Biomass 456 313 269 360 383 378 1993-201...

  20. New Jersey Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    454 457 392 139 255 530 1967-2014 Synthetic 0 0 0 1980-2014 Propane-Air 0 0 1980-2014 Refinery Gas 1980-2005 Biomass 0 0 1993-2014 Other 454 457 392 139 255 530 1980-2014...

  1. Arizona Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

  2. Florida Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Propane-Air 1980-1998

  3. Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Ramsey, John C.

    2005-03-08

    A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint. A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  4. PBS-30 Supplemental Information

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the April 8, 2015 Committee meeting David Rhodes DOE, Provided Supplemental Information on Project Categories for LANL Clean-up Budget Year 2017.

  5. Activation of catalysts for synthesizing methanol from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blum, David B.; Gelbein, Abraham P.

    1985-01-01

    A method for activating a methanol synthesis catalyst is disclosed. In this method, the catalyst is slurried in an inert liquid and is activated by a reducing gas stream. The activation step occurs in-situ. That is, it is conducted in the same reactor as is the subsequent step of synthesizing methanol from a methanol gas stream catalyzed by the activated catalyst still dispersed in a slurry.

  6. Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells - Energy Innovation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Find More Like This Return to Search Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact LANL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. In a first method, an electrical current of polarity opposite to that used in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is passed through the anode surface of the membrane electrode

  7. Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 - October 1, 2009 roger_arkema_kickoff.pdf (394.12 KB) More Documents & Publications Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Advance Patent Waiver W(A)2010-028 Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes

  8. Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Applications | Department of Energy Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Download the presentation slides from Arkema at the July 17, 2012, Fuel Cell Technologies Program webinar, "Fuel Cells for Portable Power." Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Webinar Slides (790.15 KB) More Documents & Publications

  9. EIS-0509: Supplemental Notice of Intent to Prepare Environmental Impact

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Statement | Department of Energy 9: Supplemental Notice of Intent to Prepare Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0509: Supplemental Notice of Intent to Prepare Environmental Impact Statement Mississippi River LNG Project; Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued a supplemental notice of intent (NOI) to prepare an EIS that analyzes the potential environmental impacts of proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) export terminal facilities in Plaquemines

  10. EIS-0510: Supplemental Notice of Intent | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Supplemental Notice of Intent EIS-0510: Supplemental Notice of Intent Calcasieu Pass Project, Cameron Parish, Louisiana The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) announced modification in scope for both the proposed liquefied natural gas terminal Calcasieu Pass DOE is a cooperating agency in preparing the EIS. Download Document EIS-0510: Supplemental Notice of Intent (198.57 KB) More Documents & Publications SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR VENTURE GLOBAL CALCASIEU PASS, LLC (formerly Venture

  11. EIS-0513: FERC Supplemental Notice of Intent to Prepare Environmental

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Impact Statement | Department of Energy Supplemental Notice of Intent to Prepare Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0513: FERC Supplemental Notice of Intent to Prepare Environmental Impact Statement Jacksonville Project, Jacksonville, Florida The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued a supplemental notice of intent to prepare an EIS that analyzes the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to construct and operate a natural gas liquefaction, storage, and export facility on

  12. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts Print Researchers have found novel nanocatalysts that lower the barrier to converting carbon dioxide (CO2)-an abundant greenhouse...

  13. Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    PDF icon Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct ...

  14. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Prototype Demonstration for Consumer Electronics Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlstrom, Charles, M., Jr.

    2009-07-07

    This report is the final technical report for DOE Program DE-FC36-04GO14301 titled “Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Prototype Demonstration for Consumer Electronics Applications”. Due to the public nature of this report some of the content reported in confidential reports and meetings to the DOE is not covered in detail in this report and some of the content has been normalized to not show actual values. There is a comparison of the projects accomplishments with the objectives, an overview of some of the key subsystem work, and a review of the three levels of prototypes demonstrated during the program. There is also a description of the eventual commercial product and market this work is leading towards. The work completed under this program has significantly increased the understanding of how Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) can be deployed successfully to power consumer electronic devices. The prototype testing has demonstrated the benefits a direct methanol fuel cell system has over batteries typically used for powering consumer electronic devices. Three generations of prototypes have been developed and tested for performance, robustness and life. The technologies researched and utilized in the fuel cell stack and related subsystems for these prototypes are leveraged from advances in other industries such as the hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell industry. The work under this program advanced the state of the art of direct methanol fuel cells. The system developed by MTI micro fuel cells aided by this program differs significantly from conventional DMFC designs and offers compelling advantages in the areas of performance, life, size, and simplicity. The program has progressed as planned resulting in the completion of the scope of work and available funding in December 2008. All 18 of the final P3 prototypes builds have been tested and the results showed significant improvements over P2 prototypes in build yield, initial performance, and durability. The systems have

  15. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

    1986-09-30

    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160 C) and preferably in the range 80--120 C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen are disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa-M(OAc)[sub 2] where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1--6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)[sub 6] is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  16. Low temperature catalyst system for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.

    1984-04-20

    This patent discloses a catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (150/sup 0/C) and preferably in the range 80 to 120/sup 0/C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The catalyst components are used in slurry form and comprise (1) a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH-ROH-M(OAc)/sub 2/ where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms and (2) a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. For the first component, Nic is preferred (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). For the second component, Mo(CO)/sub 6/ is preferred. The mixture is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  17. Electrolytic synthesis of methanol from CO.sub.2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer

    1976-01-01

    A method and system for synthesizing methanol from the CO.sub.2 in air using electric power. The CO.sub.2 is absorbed by a solution of KOH to form K.sub.2 CO.sub.3 which is electrolyzed to produce methanol, a liquid hydrocarbon fuel.

  18. DME: The next market breakthrough or a methanol-related fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gradassi, M.J.; Basu, A.; Fleisch, T.H.; Masin, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    Amoco has been involved for several years in the development of technology for the synthesis of liquid fuels from remote natural gas. In a recent collaborative work with Haldor Topsoe S/A, AVL LIST GmbH and Navistar, Amoco identified Dimethyl Ether (DME) as a new, ultraclean alternative fuel for diesel engines. DME can be handled like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), itself an important alternative transportation fuel. However, unlike most other fuels, the raw exhaust of diesel engines fueled with DME satisfies California 1998 ULEV (Ultra Low Emission Vehicle) standards, now. DME`s greenhouse gas emissions, measured from cradle-to-grave, are lowest among all transportation fuel alternatives. Today, DME is manufactured from methanol and is used primarily as an aerosol propellant because of its attractive physical properties and its environmentally benign characteristics. Haldor Topsoe S/A developed a process for the direct production of DME from natural gas. The process can be used for the large scale manufacture of DME using predominantly single-train process units. When manufactured at large scale, DME can be produced and marketed at a cost comparable to conventional transportation fuels. The market driven demand for DME as a transportation fuel is envisioned to grow in three stages. Initially, DME is envisioned to be produced via methanol dehydration, followed by retrofits, and lastly by large scale dedicated plants. DME fuel demonstration fleet tests are scheduled to commence during 1996. Today`s methanol producer likely also will be tomorrow`s DME producer.

  19. Methanol as a fuel for a lean turbocharged spark ignition engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pannone, G.M.; Johnson, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    Lean turbocharged operation with methanol was characterized using a single-cylinder spark, ignition engine. Efficiency, exhaust emissions, and combustion properties were measured over a range of air/fuel ratios at two naturally-aspirated and three turbocharged conditions. When compared to stoichiometric, naturally-aspirated operation, the lean turbocharged conditions improved efficiency while reducing carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen emissions. However, unburned fuel and aldehyde emissions increased. If used in conjunction with an oxidizing catalyst and appropriate feedback controls, lean turbocharged operation has the potential of improving efficiency and exhaust emissions performance over a stoichiometric, three-way catalyst system.

  20. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Weather Sensitivity in...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Supplement: Weather Sensitivity in Natural Gas Markets October 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy ...

  1. Methanol with dimethyl ether ignition promotor as fuel for compression ignition engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brook, D.L.; Cipolat, D.; Rallis, C.J.

    1984-08-01

    Reduction of the world dependence upon crude oil necessitates the use of long term alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Alcohols appear to offer a solution as in the short term they can be manufactured from natural gas and coal, while ultimately they may be produced from agricultural products. A fair measure of success has been achieved in using alcohols in spark ignition engines. However the more widely used compression ignition engines cannot utilize unmodified pure alcohols. The current techniques for using alcohol fuels in compression ignition engines all have a number of shortcomings. This paper describes a novel technique where an ignition promotor, dimethyl ether (DME), is used to increase the cetane rating of methanol. The systems particular advantage is that the DME can be catalyzed from the methanol base fuel, in situ. This fuel system matches the performance characteristics of diesel oil fuel.

  2. Modifications for use of methanol or methanol-gasoline blends in automotive vehicles, September 1976-January 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, D.J.; Bolt, J.A.; Cole, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    Methanol or blends of methanol and gasoline as automotive fuels may be attractive means for extending the nation's petroleum reserves. The present study was aimed at identifying potential problems and solutions for this use of methanol. Retrofitting of existing vehicles as well as future vehicle design have been considered. The use of ethanol or higher alcohols was not addressed in this study but will be included at a later date. Several potentially serious problems have been identified with methanol use. The most attractive solutions depend upon an integrated combination of vehicle modifications and fuel design. No vehicle problems were found which could not be solved with relatively minor developments of existing technology providing the methanol or blend fuel was itself engineered to ameliorate the solution. Research needs have been identified in the areas of lubrication and materials. These, while apparently solvable, must precede use of methanol or methanol-gasoline blends as motor fuels. Because of the substantial costs and complexities of a retrofitting program, use of methanol must be evaluated in relation to other petroleum-saving alternatives. Future vehicles can be designed initially to operate satisfactorily on these alternate fuels. However a specific fuel composition must be specified around which the future engines and vehicles can be designed.

  3. Nov 2007 STEO Supplement

    Annual Energy Outlook

    07 1 November 2007 Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Why Are Oil Prices So High? 1 Crude oil prices have increased dramatically in recent years. West Texas Intermediate (WTI) ...

  4. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite for methanol synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W.; Wender, Irving; Palekar, Vishwesh M.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  5. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  6. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  7. Supplementation in the Columbia Basin : Summary Report Series : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-12-01

    This progress report broadly defines the scope of supplementation plans and activities in the Columbia Basin. It provides the foundation for more detailed analysis of supplementation in subsequent reports in this series. Topics included in this report are: definition of supplementation, project diversity, objectives and performance standards, uncertainties and theory. Since this is a progress report, the content is subject to modification with new information. The supplementation theory will continue to evolve throughout the duration of RASP and beyond. The other topics in this report are essentially complete and are not expected to change significantly. This is the first of a series of four reports which will summarize information contained in the larger, RASP progress and completion reports. Our goal is to make the findings of RASP more accessible by grouping related topics into smaller but complete narratives on important aspects of supplementation. We are planning to publish the following reports under the general title Supplementation in the Columbia River Basin: Part 1, Background, Description, Performance Measures, Uncertainty and Theory; Part 2, Theoretical Framework and Models; Part 3, Planning Guidelines; and Part 4, Regional Coordination of Research and Monitoring. Supplementation is expected to be a major contributor to the planned increase in salmon and steelhead production in the Columbia Basin. The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) uses three approaches to protect and enhance salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin: (1) enhance fish production; (2) improve passage in the mainstem rivers; and (3) revise harvest management to support the rebuilding of fish runs (NPPC 1987). The fish production segment calls for a three-part approach focused on natural production, hatchery production, and supplementation. Supplementation is planned to provide over half of the total production increases. The Regional Assessment

  8. Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carson, Stephen; Mountz, David; He, Wensheng; Zhang, Tao

    2013-12-31

    Direct methanol fuel cell membranes were developed using blends of different polyelectrolytes with PVDF. The membranes showed complex relationships between polyelectrolyte chemistry, morphology, and processing. Although the PVDF grade was found to have little effect on the membrane permselectivity, it does impact membrane conductivity and methanol permeation values. Other factors, such as varying the polyelectrolyte polarity, using varying crosslinking agents, and adjusting the equivalent weight of the membranes impacted methanol permeation, permselectivity, and areal resistance. We now understand, within the scope of the project work completed, how these inter-related performance properties can be tailored to achieve a balance of performance.

  9. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.; Mahajan, Devinder

    1986-01-01

    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160.degree. C.) and preferably in the range 80.degree.-120.degree. C. used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa--M(OAc).sub.2 where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1-6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M=Ni and R=tertiary amyl). Mo(CO).sub.6 is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  10. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

    1986-10-28

    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160 C) and preferably in the range 80--120 C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen are disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa-M(OAc)[sub 2] where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1-6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is NiC (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)[sub 6] is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  11. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

    1985-03-12

    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160/sup 0/C) and preferably in the range 80 to 120/sup 0/C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH-RONa-M(OAc)/sub 2/ where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)/sub 6/ is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  12. NREL Teams with Industry to Validate Methanol Fuel Cell Technology...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Teams with Industry to Validate Methanol Fuel Cell Technology February 18, 2011 The ... The total cost of the project is just over 2 million; NREL will contribute 900,000 to ...

  13. Removal of sulfur contaminants in methanol for fuel cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Kumar, R.; Sederquist, R.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell power plants are being developed for transit bus and passenger car applications that use methanol as the on-board fuel. Commodity methanol by itself contains very little sulfur; however, it may occasionally be contaminated with up to about 1% diesel fuel or gasoline in current liquid-fuel distribution systems, leading to the presence of sulfur in the methanol fuel. This sulfur must be removed because of its deleterious effect on the reforming catalysts. International Fuel Cells has set the allowable sulfur limit in the methanol fuel at less than 1 ppm. The equilibrium adsorption isotherm and breakthrough data were used to assess the feasibility of developing a granular activated carbon adsorber for the removal of sulfur from transportation fuel cell systems.

  14. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    oxide (ceria) in contact with copper will form metal-oxide interfaces that allow the adsorption and activation of CO2, opening a new reaction pathway for the synthesis of methanol....

  15. Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 - October 1, 2009 dinh-gennett_topic_5a_dmfc_nrel_kickoff.pdf (1.41 MB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Materials and Concepts for Portable Power Fuel Cells Catalysis Working Group Meeting: July 2016 Introduction to DMFCs - Advanced Materials and

  16. Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Number: Arkema Inc. (1281) This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Chris Roger and David Mountz October 1, 2009 2009 Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting Announcement Number: DE-PS36-08GO98009 Project Objectives z Develop ultra-thin membranes having extremely low methanol crossover, high conductivity, durability, and low cost. z Develop cathode catalysts that can operate

  17. Improved Flow-Field Structures for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurau, Bogdan

    2013-05-31

    The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is ideal if high energy-density liquid fuels are required. Liquid fuels have advantages over compressed hydrogen including higher energy density and ease of handling. Although state-of-the-art DMFCs exhibit manageable degradation rates, excessive fuel crossover diminishes system energy and power density. Although use of dilute methanol mitigates crossover, the concomitant lowering of the gross fuel energy density (GFED) demands a complex balance-of-plant (BOP) that includes higher flow rates, external exhaust recirculation, etc. An alternative approach is redesign of the fuel delivery system to accommodate concentrated methanol. NuVant Systems Inc. (NuVant) will maximize the GFED by design and assembly of a DMFC that uses near neat methanol. The approach is to tune the diffusion of highly concentrated methanol (to the anode catalytic layer) to the back-diffusion of water formed at the cathode (i.e. in situ generation of dilute methanol at the anode layer). Crossover will be minimized without compromising the GFED by innovative integration of the anode flow-field and the diffusion layer. The integrated flow-field-diffusion-layers (IFDLs) will widen the current and potential DMFC operating ranges and enable the use of cathodes optimized for hydrogen-air fuel cells.

  18. EIS-0451: Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0451: Supplemental Draft ... Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) BPA prepared a supplemental draft EIS to evaluate an ...

  19. FTCP Supplemental Competencies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Supplemental Competencies cover important skills and abilities that are less than an entire function or position, and for which an entire Functional Area Qualification Standard (FAQS) is not appropriate. They are developed for or by the FTCP, approved by the Panel, and posted on the FTCP web pages for use.

  20. WABASH RIVER IMPPCCT, INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doug Strickland

    2001-09-28

    the existing Wabash River Energy Ltd., plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. During the reporting period work was furthered to support the development of capital and operating cost estimates associated with the installation of liquid or gas phase methanol synthesis technology in a Commercial Embodiment Plant (CEP) utilizing the six cases previously defined. In addition, continued development of the plant economic model was accomplished by providing combined cycle performance data. Performance and emission estimates for gas turbine combined cycles was based on revised methanol purge gas information. The economic model was used to evaluate project returns with various market conditions and plant configurations and was refined to correct earlier flaws. Updated power price projections were obtained and incorporated in the model. Sensitivity studies show that break-even methanol prices which provide a 12% return are 47-54 cents/gallon for plant scenarios using $1.25/MM Btu coal, and about 40 cents/gallon for most of the scenarios with $0.50/MM Btu petroleum coke as the fuel source. One exception is a high power price and production case which could be economically attractive at 30 cents/gallon methanol. This case was explored in more detail, but includes power costs predicated on natural gas prices at the 95th percentile of expected price distributions. In this case, the breakeven methanol price is highly sensitive to the required project return rate, payback period, and plant on-line time. These sensitivities result mainly from the high capital investment required for the CEP facility ({approx}$500MM for a single train IGCC-methanol synthesis plant). Finally, during the reporting period the Defense Contractor Audit Agency successfully executed an accounting audit of Global Energy Inc. for data accumulated over the first year of the IMPPCCT project under the Cooperative Agreement.

  1. NNSA Supplement | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    NNSA Supplement NNSA Supplement Contractor OCI and Personal COI - NNSA AG Supplement.pdf (128.86 KB) More Documents & Publications Acquisition Guide Chapter 9.505 - Organizational and Consultant Conflicts of Interest Inspection Report: DOE/IG-0853 DOE F 2030.2

  2. Steelhead Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1993 Annual report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrne, Alan

    1996-01-01

    The Steelhead Supplementation Study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using artificial production to increase natural steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations and to collect baseline life history, genetic, and disease data from natural steelhead populations. To evaluate supplementation, the authors focused their experimental design on post-release survival, reproductive success, long-term fitness, and ecological interactions. They began field experiments in 1993 by outplanting hatchery adults and fingerlings to assess reproductive fitness and long-term survival. They snorkeled eight streams to estimate juvenile steelhead densities, recorded temperatures in 17 streams, and tagged natural steelhead in six streams with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags.

  3. Performance of direct methanol polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Dong Ryul; Jung, Doo Hwan; Lee, Chang Hyeong; Chun, Young Gab

    1996-12-31

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) using polymer electrolyte membrane are promising candidate for application of portable power sources and transportation applications because they do not require any fuel processing equipment and can be operated at low temperature of 60{degrees}C - 130{degrees}C. Elimination of the fuel processor results in simpler design, higher operation reliability, lower weight volume, and lower capital and operating cost. However, methanol as a fuel is relatively electrochemical inert, so that kinetics of the methanol oxidation is too slow. Platinum and Pt-based binary alloy electrodes have been extensively studied for methanol electro-oxidation in acid electrolyte at ambient and elevated temperatures. Particularly, unsupported carbon Pt-Ru catalyst was found to be superior to the anode of DMFC using a proton exchange membrane electrolyte (Nafion). The objective of this study is to develop the high performance DNTC. This paper summarizes the results from half cell and single cell tests, which focus on the electrode manufacturing process, catalyst selection, and operating conditions of single cell such as methanol concentration, temperature and pressure.

  4. Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Ferrin, Peter A.; Tritsaris, Georgios A.; Nilekar, Anand U.; Koh, Shirlaine; Bae, Sang Eun; Brankovic, Stanko R.; Strasser, Peter; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2012-06-13

    Using the binding energy of OH* and CO* on close-packed surfaces as reactivity descriptors, we screen bulk and surface alloy catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation activity. Using these two descriptors, we illustrate that a good methanol electro-oxidation catalyst must have three key properties: (1) the ability to activate methanol, (2) the ability to activate water, and (3) the ability to react off surface intermediates (such as CO* and OH*). Based on this analysis, an alloy catalyst made up of Cu and Pt should have a synergistic effect facilitating the activity towards methanol electro-oxidation. Using these two reactivity descriptors, a surface PtCu3 alloy is proposed to have the best catalytic properties of the PtCu model catalysts tested, similar to those of a PtRu bulk alloy. To validate the model, experiments on a Pt(111) surface modified with different amounts of Cu adatoms are performed. Adding Cu to a Pt(111) surface increases the methanol oxidation current by more than a factor of three, supporting our theoretical predictions for improved electrocatalysts.

  5. Petroleum Data, Natural Gas Data, Coal Data, Macroeconomic Data, Petroleum Import Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Supplemental tables to the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2006 for petroleum, natural gas, coal, macroeconomic, and import data

  6. Density Functional Studies of Methanol Decomposition on Subnanometer Pd Clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehmood, Faisal; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2009-12-31

    A density functional theory study of the decomposition of methanol on subnanometer palladium clusters (primarily Pd4) is presented. Methanol dehydrogenation through C-H bond breaking to form hydroxymethyl (CH2OH) as the initial step, followed by steps involving formation of hydroxymethylene (CHOH), formyl (CHO), and carbon monoxide (CO), is found to be the most favorable reaction pathway. A competing dehydrogenation pathway with O-H bond breaking as the first step, followed by formation of methoxy (CH3O) and formaldehyde (CH2O), is slightly less favorable. In contrast, pathways involving C-O bond cleavage are much less energetically favorable, and no feasible pathways involving C-O bond formation to yield dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3) are found. Comparisons of the results are made with methanol decomposition products adsorbed on more extended Pd surfaces; all reaction intermediates are found to bind slightly more strongly to the clusters than to the surfaces.

  7. Discovery of methanol electro-oxidation catalysts by combinatorial analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallouk, T.E.; Reddington, E.; Pu, C.

    1996-12-31

    Hydrogen fuel cells are likely to become a major energy source in the next century, but they are not ideal for all applications. A safe alternative fuel with a high energy density will be necessary for transportation and mobile applications. Direct methanol-air fuel cells (DMFCs) are an attractive alternative to hydrogen fuel cells because of the high energy density and low cost of methanol as a fuel. However, in order for DMFCs to become commercially viable, better electrocatalysts for the anode reaction need to be developed. This paper describes a combinatorial technique for generating an array of electrodes with varying metal compositions.

  8. Injector spray characterization of methanol in reciprocating engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D.

    1994-06-01

    This report covers a study that addressed cold-starting problems in alcohol-fueled, spark-ignition engines by using fine-spray port-fuel injectors to inject fuel directly into the cylinder. This task included development and characterization of some very fine-spray, port-fuel injectors for a methanol-fueled spark-ignition engine. After determining the spray characteristics, a computational study was performed to estimate the evaporation rate of the methanol fuel spray under cold-starting and steady-state conditions.

  9. Environmental information volume: Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of the Liquid Phase Methanol Process using coal-derived synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This report describes the proposed actions, alternative to the proposed action, the existing environment at the coal gasification plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, environmental impacts, regulatory requirements, offsite fuel testing, and DME addition to methanol production. Appendices include the air permit application, solid waste permits, water permit, existing air permits, agency correspondence, and Eastman and Air Products literature.

  10. Process assessment of small scale low temperature methanol synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendriyana; Susanto, Herri Subagjo

    2015-12-29

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource and has the potential to make a significant impact on domestic fuel supplies. Biomass can be converted to fuel like methanol via several step process. The process can be split into following main steps: biomass preparation, gasification, gas cooling and cleaning, gas shift and methanol synthesis. Untill now these configuration still has a problem like high production cost, catalyst deactivation, economy of scale and a huge energy requirements. These problems become the leading inhibition for biomass conversion to methanol, which should be resolved to move towards the economical. To address these issues, we developed various process and new configurations for methanol synthesis via methyl formate. This configuration combining two reactors: the one reactor for the carbonylation of methanol and CO to form methyl formate, and the second for the hydrogenolysis of methyl formate and H{sub 2} to form two molecule of methanol. Four plant process configurations were compared with the biomass basis is 300 ton/day. The first configuration (A) is equipped with a steam reforming process for converting methane to CO and H{sub 2} for increasing H{sub 2}/CO ratio. CO{sub 2} removal is necessary to avoid poisoning the catalyst. COSORB process used for the purpose of increasing the partial pressure of CO in the feed gas. The steam reforming process in B configuration is not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. For C configuration, the steam reforming process and COSORB are not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. D configuration is almost similar to the configuration A. This configuration difference is in the synthesis of methanol which was held in a single reactor. Carbonylation and hydrogenolysis reactions carried out in the same reactor one. These processes were analyzed in term of technical process, material and energy

  11. Supplement Analysis Plutonium Consolidation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    229-SA-4 SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS STORAGE OF SURPLUS PLUTONIUM MATERIALS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE In April 2002, DOE decided to immediately consolidate long-term storage at the Savannah River Site (SRS) of surplus, non-pit weapons-usable plutonium then stored at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) (DOE, 2002a). That 2002 decision did not affect an earlier DOE decision made in the January 21, 1997, Record of Decision (ROD, DOE, 1997) for the Storage and

  12. Methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst composite for direct methanol fuel cells

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane Hydrate Methane Hydrate Types of Methane Hydrate Deposits Types of Methane Hydrate Deposits Methane hydrate is a cage-like lattice of ice inside of which are trapped molecules of methane, the chief constituent of natural gas. If methane hydrate is either warmed or depressurized, it will revert back to water and natural gas. When brought to the earth's surface, one cubic meter of gas hydrate releases 164 cubic meters of natural gas. Hydrate deposits may be several hundred meters thick and

  13. On direct and indirect methanol fuel cells for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gottesfield, S.

    1996-04-01

    Research on direct oxidation methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) and polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is discussed. Systems considered for transportation applications are addressed. The use of platinum/ruthenium anode electrocatalysts and platinum cathode electrocatalysts in polymer electrolyte DMFCs has resulted in significant performance enhancements.

  14. On direct and indirect methanol fuel cells for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Xiaoming; Wilson, M.S.; Gottesfeld, S.

    1995-09-01

    Power densities in electrolyte Direct Methanol Fuel Cells have been achieved which are only three times lower than those achieved with similar reformate/air fuel cells. Remaining issues are: improved anode catalyst activity, demonstrated long-term stable performance, and high fuel efficiencies.

  15. Romania program targets methanol and Fischer-Tropsch research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    Currently, the chemical organic industry, the petrochemical and engine fuels industry in Romania are entirely based on hydrocarbons from oil. To reduce the oil dependence of this sector and to ensure the stipulated growth rate of 8-9%, research and development programs have been set up with a view to the diversification of raw materials. In research on hydrocarbons from alcohol conversion, three process variants are known, i.e. olefins from methanol, gasolines from methanol and a combined gasolines and aromatic hydrocarbons from methanol. The Romanian process of methanol conversion to hydrocarbons is very flexible, with all the variants mentioned being carried out in the same plant by modifying the catalysts. In research on hydrocarbons from synthesis gas a modern process is being developed for gasification of brown coal in a fluidized bed, under pressure, in the presence of oxygen and water vapors. In the field of carbon oxide hydrogenation, studies have been carried out on selective Fischer-Tropsch processes in which the reaction products are high value hydrocarbon fractions.

  16. Methanol market slowly tightens as Brazil starts soaking up material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, I.

    1992-11-25

    Although the US methanol market's response to mandated oxygen requirements in reformulated gasoline has been disappointing, the European market has surprisingly been tightening in recent weeks and looks set for a price rise in first-quarter 1993. The tightness is being felt mainly in the Mediterranean market, where the Libyan methanol plant is running at only 70% because of problems with gas feedstock supplies. More significantly, the Brazilian government has now given the go-ahead for a yearlong extension on imports of methanol for use as an ethanol replacement in fuel blending. The new authorization sets a monthly import limit of 48,000 m.t. during that period. Libya is an important supplier of methanol to the Brazilian market and has already shipped about 20,000 m.t. since the authorization was given. Another major supplier to Brazil is Russia, from its two giant 750,000-m.t./year plants at Gubakha and Tomsk. The material is shipped from the terminal at Yuzhnyy on the Black Sea, in Ukrainian territory since the collapse of the Soviet Union.

  17. FTCP Issue Paper Supplemental Competencies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    FTCP Issue Paper Supplemental Competencies DOCUMENT NUMBER FTCP-12- 003 PROBLEM: There is no approved process for issuing supplemental competencies. BACKGROUND: Supplemental competencies cover important skills and abilities that are less than an entire function or position, and for which an entire Functional Area Qualification Standard (FAQS) is not appropriate. The Human Factors Engineering (HFE) competencies issued by the FTCP in March 2012 are an example. The FTCP established a working group

  18. SUPPLEMENT III REGARDING APPLICATION SUBMISSION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    III REGARDING APPLICATION SUBMISSION SCHEDULE FOR: ADVANCED NUCLEAR ENERGY PROJECTS U.S. Department of Energy Loan Programs Office (As of January 19, 2016) THIRD SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT FEDERAL LOAN GUARANTEES FOR ADVANCED NUCLEAR ENERGY PROJECTS Solicitation Number: DE-SOL- DE-SOL-0007791 OMB Control Number: 1910-5134; OMB Expiration Date 11/30/2016 Announcement Type: Supplemental Supplement Date: January 19, 2016 The above-referenced Loan Guarantee Solicitation

  19. Natural gas annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  20. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey -- Overview

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Buildings The Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993 provides building-level energy-related characteristics for a special sample of commercial buildings owned by the...

  1. Development of a bench scale test to evaluate lubricants for use with methanol-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, R.; Klaus, E.; Duda, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    In methanol-fueled diesel engines, the crankcase lubricant is used to lubricate both the engine and the fuel injector system. Crankcase lubricants including some designed for methanol-fueled engines are not completely compatible with the methanol fuel. In order to test the effect of methanol extraction on diesel engine lubricant performance, two extraction protocols were developed: one to simulate the fuel injector (1000 parts of methanol to one part of lubricant) and the other to simulate an extreme case of methanol contamination in the crank-case (one part of methanol to five parts of lubricant). The extracted samples of the lubricant were stripped to remove the methanol. The samples were then evaluated for changes in oxidative stability and lubricity. 12 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinh, H.; Gennett, T.

    2010-06-11

    This presentation is a summary of a Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts.

  3. Vermont Agency of Natural Resources Floodplain Manager Regions...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Supplemental Material: Vermont Agency of Natural Resources Floodplain Manager RegionsPermittingRegulatory...

  4. Natural Gas Industry and Markets

    Reports and Publications

    2006-01-01

    This special report provides an overview of the supply and disposition of natural gas in 2004 and is intended as a supplement to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Natural Gas Annual 2004 (NGA). Unless otherwise stated, all data and figures in this report are based on summary statistics published in the NGA 2004.

  5. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux. Synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Bamberger, I.; Goldstein, A. H.; Gu, L.; Guenther, A.; Hansel, A.; Heinesch, B.; Holst, T.; Hörtnagl, L.; Karl, T.; Laffineur, Q.; Neftel, A.; McKinney, K.; Munger, J. W.; Pallardy, S. G.; Schade, G. W.; Seco, R.; Schoon, N.

    2015-07-09

    Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates, reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the land–atmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, as well as stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; however, they are neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow for full advantage to be taken of

  6. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux. Synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Bamberger, I.; Goldstein, A. H.; Gu, L.; Guenther, A.; Hansel, A.; Heinesch, B.; et al

    2015-07-09

    Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates, reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis ofmore » the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the land–atmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, as well as stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; however, they are neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow for full advantage to be

  7. Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process. Peroxide formation of dimethyl ether in methanol mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waller, F.J.

    1997-11-01

    Organic peroxides could form when dimethyl ether in methanol is stored for three to six months at a time. The objective of this work was to determine the level of peroxide formation from dimethyl ether in reagent grade methanol and raw methanol at room temperature under 3 atmospheres (45 psig) of air. Raw methanol is methanol made from syngas by the LPMEOH Process without distillation. Aliphatic ethers tend to react slowly with oxygen from the air to form unstable peroxides. However, there are no reports on peroxide formation from dimethyl ether. After 172 days of testing, dimethyl ether in either reagent methanol or raw methanol at room temperature and under 60--70 psig pressure of air does not form detectable peroxides. Lack of detectable peroxides suggests that dimethyl ether or dimethyl ether and methanol may be stored at ambient conditions. Since the compositions of {approximately} 1.3 mol% or {approximately} 4.5 mol% dimethyl ether in methanol do not form peroxides, these compositions can be considered for diesel fuel or an atmospheric turbine fuel, respectively.

  8. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment V. The Florida eucalyptus energy farm: environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The overall environmental impact of the eucalyptus to methanol energy system in Florida is assessed. The environmental impacts associated with the following steps of the process are considered: (1) the greenhouse and laboratory; (2) the eucalyptus plantation; (3) transporting the mature logs; (4) the hammermill; and (5) the methanol synthesis plant. Next, the environmental effects of methanol as an undiluted motor fuel, methanol as a gasoline blend, and gasoline as motor fuels are compared. Finally, the environmental effects of the eucalypt gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to the coal liquefaction and conversion system.

  9. High specific power, direct methanol fuel cell stack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, John C.; Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2007-05-08

    The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold with an integral flow restrictor to the outlet manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  10. Supplemental Directives | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Supplemental Directives NNSA Supplemental Directives provide policy for NNSA employees and contractors which supplement DOE policy. NNSA Supplemental Directives provide policy for NNSA employees and contractors which supplement DOE policy. NA-1 SD 226.1-1A Headquarters Biennial Review of Nuclear Safety Performance December 16, 2011 NNSA SD 226.1B NNSA Site Governance August 12, 2016 NNSA SD 243.1 Admin Change 1 Records Management Program March 21, 2016 NA SD 251.1 NNSA Policies, Supplemental

  11. Density functional studies of methanol decomposition on subnanometer Pd clusters.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehmood, F.; Greeley, J.; Curtiss, L. A.

    2009-12-31

    A density functional theory study of the decomposition of methanol on subnanometer palladium clusters (primarily Pd{sub 4}) is presented. Methanol dehydrogenation through C-H bond breaking to form hydroxymethyl (CH{sub 2}OH) as the initial step, followed by steps involving formation of hydroxymethylene (CHOH), formyl (CHO), and carbon monoxide (CO), is found to be the most favorable reaction pathway. A competing dehydrogenation pathway with O-H bond breaking as the first step, followed by formation of methoxy (CH{sub 3}O) and formaldehyde (CH{sub 2}O), is slightly less favorable. In contrast, pathways involving C-O bond cleavage are much less energetically favorable, and no feasible pathways involving C-O bond formation to yield dimethyl ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) are found. Comparisons of the results are made with methanol decomposition products adsorbed on more extended Pd surfaces; all reaction intermediates are found to bind slightly more strongly to the clusters than to the surfaces.

  12. Recent advances in high-performance direct methanol fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narayanan, S.R.; Chun, W.; Valdez, T.I.

    1996-12-31

    Direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications have been advanced significantly under DARPA- and ARO-sponsored programs over the last five years. A liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell developed under these programs, employs a proton exchange membrane as electrolyte and operates on aqueous solutions of methanol with air or oxygen as the oxidant. Power densities as high as 320 mW/cm{sup 2} have been demonstrated. Demonstration of five-cell stack based on the liquid-feed concept have been successfully performed by Giner Inc. and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Over 2000 hours of life-testing have been completed on these stacks. These fuel cells have been also been demonstrated by USC to operate on alternate fuels such as trimethoxymethane, dimethoxymethane and trioxane. Reduction in the parasitic loss of fuel across the fuel cell, a phenomenon termed as {open_quotes}fuel crossover{close_quotes} has been achieved using polymer membranes developed at USC. As a result efficiencies as high as 40% is considered attainable with this type of fuel cell. The state-of-development has reached a point where it is now been actively considered for stationary, portable and transportation applications. The research and development issues have been the subject of several previous articles and the present article is an attempt to summarize the key advances in this technology.

  13. New Catalysts for Direct Methanol Oxidation Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adzic, Radoslav

    1998-08-01

    A new class of efficient electrocatalytic materials based on platinum - metal oxide systems has been synthetized and characterized by several techniques. Best activity was found with NiWO{sub 4}-, CoWO{sub 4}-, and RuO{sub 2}- srpported platinum catalysts. A very similar activity at room temperature was observed with the electrodes prepared with the catalyst obtained from International Fuel Cells Inc. for the same Pt loading. Surprisingly, the two tungstates per se show a small activity for methanol oxidation without any Pt loading. Synthesis of NiWO{sub 4} and CoWO{sub 4} were carried out by solid-state reactions. FTIR spectroscopy shows that the tungstates contain a certain amount of physically adsorbed water even after heating samples at 200{degrees}C. A direct relationship between the activity for methanol oxidation and the amount of adsorbed water on those oxides has been found. The Ru(0001) single crystal shows a very small activity for CO adsorption and oxidation, in contrast to the behavior of polycrystalline Ru. In situ extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) showed that the OH adsorption on Ru in the Pt-Ru alloy appears to be the limiting step in methanol oxidation. This does not occur for Pt-RuO{SUB 2} electrocatalyst, which explains its advantages over the Pt-Ru alloys. The IFCC electrocatalyst has the properties of the Pt-Ru alloy.

  14. Conversion of Methanol, Ethanol and Propanol over Zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-04

    Renewable fuel from lignocellulosic biomass has recently attracted more attention due to its environmental and the potential economic benefits over the crude oil [1]. In particular the production of fuel range hydrocarbon (HC) from alcohol generated lots of interest since the alcohol can be produced from biomass via thermochemical [2] (mixed alcohol from gasification derived synthesis gas) as well as the biochemical routes [3] (alcohol fermentation). Along with the development of ZSM5 synthesis and the discovery of methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process by Mobil in 1970’s triggered lots of interest in research and development arena to understand the reaction mechanisms of alcohols over zeolites in particular ZSM5 [4]. More detailed research on methanol conversion was extensively reported [5] and in recent times the research work can be found on ethanol [6] and other alcohols as well but comprehensive comparison of catalyst activity and the deactivation mechanism of the conversion of various alcohols over zeolites has not been reported. The experiments were conducted on smaller alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol over HZSM5. The experimental results on the catalyst activity and the catalyst deactivation mechanism will be discussed.

  15. THIRD SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY PROJECTS Solicitation Number: DE-SOL-0006303 OMB Control Number: 1910-5134; OMB Expiration Date 11302016 Announcement Type: Supplemental Supplement Date:...

  16. Management and Program Analyst (Supplemental Labor)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in the Supplemental Labor Management Office (NSP), Supply Chain Services (NS), Chief Administrative Office (N), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Supplemental...

  17. Supplement Analyses (SA) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... November 20, 2014 EA-1792-S1: Supplement Analysis University of Maine's Deepwater Offshore ... September 5, 2013 EA-1792-S1: Supplement Analysis University of Maine's Deepwater Offshore ...

  18. Supplement Analyses (SA) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Supplement Analysis Transmission System Vegetation Management Program, Snohomish-Murray No. 1 Transmission Line January 27, 2003 EIS-0285-SA-118: Supplement Analysis...

  19. Supplement Analyses (SA) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    EIS-0285-SA-55: Supplement Analysis Transmission System Vegetation Management Program, Pierce County, Washington April 10, 2002 EIS-0285-SA-57: Supplement Analysis Transmission...

  20. Unbiased water and methanol maser surveys of NGC 1333

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyo, A-Ran; Kim, Jongsoo; Byun, Do-Young; Lee, Ho-Gyu

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of unbiased 22 GHz H{sub 2}O water and 44 GHz class I CH{sub 3}OH methanol maser surveys in the central 7' 10' area of NGC 1333 and two additional mapping observations of a 22 GHz water maser in a ?3' 3' area of the IRAS4A region. In the 22 GHz water maser survey of NGC 1333 with a sensitivity of ? ? 0.3 Jy, we confirmed the detection of masers toward H{sub 2}O(B) in the region of HH 7-11 and IRAS4B. We also detected new water masers located ?20'' away in the western direction of IRAS4B or ?25'' away in the southern direction of IRAS4A. We could not, however, find young stellar objects or molecular outflows associated with them. They showed two different velocity components of ?0 and ?16 km s{sup 1}, which are blue- and redshifted relative to the adopted systemic velocity of ?7 km s{sup 1} for NGC 1333. They also showed time variabilities in both intensity and velocity from multi-epoch observations and an anti-correlation between the intensities of the blue- and redshifted velocity components. We suggest that the unidentified power source of these masers might be found in the earliest evolutionary stage of star formation, before the onset of molecular outflows. Finding this kind of water maser is only possible through an unbiased blind survey. In the 44 GHz methanol maser survey with a sensitivity of ? ? 0.5 Jy, we confirmed masers toward IRAS4A2 and the eastern shock region of IRAS2A. Both sources are also detected in 95 and 132 GHz methanol maser lines. In addition, we had new detections of methanol masers at 95 and 132 GHz toward IRAS4B. In terms of the isotropic luminosity, we detected methanol maser sources brighter than ?5 10{sup 25} erg s{sup 1} from our unbiased survey.

  1. SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS FOR THE SUPPLEMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT/FINDING OF

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    FOR THE SUPPLEMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT/FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT FOR THE UNIVERSITY OF MAINE'S DEEPWATER OFFSHORE FLOATING WIND TURBINE TESTING AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT CASTINE, MAINE DOE/EA-1792-S1 US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Golden, Colorado September 2013 Supplement Analysis i September 5, 2013 DOE/EA-1792-S1 CONTENTS 1.0 Background

  2. CENTRAL NEVPJJA SUPPLEMENTAL TEST AREA

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    r r r r r r t r r t r r r * r r r r r r CENTRAL NEVPJJA SUPPLEMENTAL TEST AREA ,FACILITY RECORDS 1970 UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMlSSION NEVADA OPERATIONS OFFICE LAS VEGAS, NEVADA September 1970 Prepared By Holmes & Narver. Inc. On-Continent Test Division P.O. Box 14340 Las Vegas, Nevada 338592 ...._- _._--_ .. -- - - - - - - .. .. - .. - - .. - - - CENTRAL NEVPJJA SUPPLEMENTAL TEST AREA FACILITY RECORDS 1970 This page intentionally left blank - - .. - - - PURPOSE This facility study has

  3. II. GENERAL COMPLIANCE SUPPLEMENT INTRODUCTION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Rather than repeat these compliance requirements, audit objectives, and suggested audit procedures for each program, they are provided once in this part. For each program in this Compliance Supplement (this Supplement), the program-specific compliance guidance section (Part III of this guidance) contains additional information about the compliance requirements that arise from laws and regulations applicable to each program, including the requirements specific to each program that should be

  4. FOURTH SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    FOURTH SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT for RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS AND EFFICIENT ENERGY PROJECTS Solicitation

  5. Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conocophillips

    2007-09-30

    . The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and offered commercially by COP as the E-Gas technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC, and later COP and the industrial partners investigated the use of syngas produced by the E-Gas technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort were to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from syngas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The intended result of the project was to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that would be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The EECP study conducted in Phase 1 of the IMPPCCT Project confirmed that the concept for the integration of gasification-based (E-Gas) electricity generation from coal and/or petroleum coke and methanol production (Liquid Phase Methanol or LPMEOH{trademark}) processes was feasible for the coproduction of power and chemicals. The results indicated that while there were minimal integration issues that impact the deployment of an IMPPCCT CEP, the major concern was the removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, which are known methanol catalyst poisons, from the syngas. However, economic concerns in the domestic methanol market which is driven by periodic low natural gas prices and cheap offshore supplies limit the commercial viability of this more capital intensive concept. The objective of Phase 2 was to conduct RD&T as outlined in the Phase 1 RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction

  6. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert C. Tsang

    2004-03-26

    Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and offered commercially by COP as the E-Gas technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC, and now COP and the industrial partners are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-Gas technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The early entrance coproduction plant study conducted in Phase I of the IMPPCCT project confirmed that the concept for the integration of gasification-based (E-Gas) electricity generation from coal and/or petroleum coke and methanol production (Liquid Phase Methanol or LPMEOH{trademark}) processes was feasible for the coproduction of power and chemicals. The results indicated that while there are minimal integration issues that impact the deployment of an IMPPCCT CEP, the major concern was the removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, which are known methanol catalyst poisons, from the synthesis gas (syngas). However, economic concerns in the domestic methanol market which is driven by periodic low natural gas prices and cheap offshore supplies limit the commercial viability of this more capital intensive concept. The objective of Phase II is to conduct RD&T as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. Studies will address

  7. Dimethyl ether production from methanol and/or syngas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dagle, Robert A; Wang, Yong; Baker, Eddie G; Hu, Jianli

    2015-02-17

    Disclosed are methods for producing dimethyl ether (DME) from methanol and for producing DME directly from syngas, such as syngas from biomass. Also disclosed are apparatus for DME production. The disclosed processes generally function at higher temperatures with lower contact times and at lower pressures than conventional processes so as to produce higher DME yields than do conventional processes. Certain embodiments of the processes are carried out in reactors providing greater surface to volume ratios than the presently used DME reactors. Certain embodiments of the processes are carried out in systems comprising multiple microchannel reactors.

  8. Interaction of alkanes with an amorphous methanol film at 15-180 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souda, Ryutaro

    2005-09-15

    The hydrogen-bond imperfections and glass-liquid transition of the amorphous methanol film have been investigated on the basis of the film dewetting and the incorporation/desorption of alkane molecules adsorbed on the surface. The butane is incorporated completely in the bulk of the porous methanol film up to 70 K. At least two distinct states exist for the incorporated butane; one is assignable to solvated molecules in the bulk and the other is weakly bound species at the surface or in the subsurface site. For the nonporous methanol film, the uptake of butane in the bulk is quenched but butane forms a surface complex with methanol above 80 K. The butane incorporated in the bulk of the glassy methanol film is released at 120 K, where dewetting of the methanol film occurs simultaneously due to evolution of the supercooled liquid phase.

  9. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert Tsang

    2003-10-14

    to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. During the reporting period, DOE approved the RD&T Plan submitted in the previous quarter. The RD&T Plan forms the basis for the Continuation Application to initiate the transition of the project from Phase I to Phase II. Potential technologies for removing contaminants from synthesis gas to the level required by methanol synthesis will be tested in slipstream units at the WREL facility during Phase II. A supplemental information package consisting of a revised Work Breakdown Structure and Budget Plan for Phase II and other necessary forms was also submitted. Agreement is being reached with DOE's patent attorney on the scope of the limited rights data to be provided under the Cooperative Agreement. Preparation of a comprehensive Final Report for Phase I of the project, which will consolidate the remaining deliverables including the Initial Feasibility Report, Concept Report, Site Analysis Report, Economic Analysis, and Preliminary Project Financing Plan, continued during the reporting period. Significant progress was made in the Subsystem Design Specification section of the report.

  10. STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF 12.2 GHz METHANOL MASERS ASSOCIATED WITH A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF 6.7 GHz METHANOL MASERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breen, S. L.; Caswell, J. L.; Green, J. A.; Voronkov, M. A.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Fuller, G. A.; Quinn, L. J.; Avison, A.

    2011-06-01

    We present definitive detection statistics for 12.2 GHz methanol masers toward a complete sample of 6.7 GHz methanol masers detected in the Methanol Multibeam survey south of declination -20{sup 0}. In total, we detect 250 12.2 GHz methanol masers toward 580 6.7 GHz methanol masers. This equates to a detection rate of 43.1%, which is lower than that of previous significant searches of comparable sensitivity. Both the velocity ranges and the flux densities of the target 6.7 GHz sources surpass that of their 12.2 GHz companion in almost all cases. Eighty percent of the detected 12.2 GHz methanol maser peaks are coincident in velocity with the 6.7 GHz maser peak. Our data support an evolutionary scenario whereby the 12.2 GHz sources are associated with a somewhat later evolutionary stage than the 6.7 GHz sources devoid of this transition. Furthermore, we find that the 6.7 GHz and 12.2 GHz methanol sources increase in luminosity as they evolve. In addition to this, evidence for an increase in velocity range with evolution is presented. This implies that it is not only the luminosity but also the volume of gas conducive to the different maser transitions that increases as the sources evolve. Comparison with GLIMPSE mid-infrared sources has revealed a coincidence rate between the locations of the 6.7 GHz methanol masers and GLIMPSE point sources similar to that achieved in previous studies. Overall, the properties of the GLIMPSE sources with and without 12.2 GHz counterparts are similar. There is a higher 12.2 GHz detection rate toward those 6.7 GHz methanol masers that are coincident with extended green objects.

  11. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux: synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An ecosystem-scale ...

  12. Methanol as an alternative transportation fuel in the U.S.

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    ... G. METHANOL FROM BIOMASS: WATER REQUIREMENTS......using both oxygen and steam (including water-shift reaction): C + O 2 <-> CO (Partial ...

  13. Solvent Exchange in Liquid Methanol and Rate Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dang, Liem X.; Schenter, Gregory K.

    2016-01-01

    To enhance our understanding of the solvent exchange mechanism in liquid methanol, we report a systematic study of this process using molecular dynamics simulations. We use transition state theory, the Impey-Madden-McDonald method, the reactive flux method, and Grote-Hynes theory to compute the rate constants for this process. Solvent coupling was found to dominate, resulting in a significantly small transmission coefficient. We predict a positive activation volume for the methanol exchange process. The essential features of the dynamics of the system as well as the pressure dependence are recovered from a Generalized Langevin Equation description of the dynamics. We find that the dynamics and response to anharmonicity can be decomposed into two time regimes, one corresponding to short time response (< 0.1 ps) and long time response (> 5 ps). An effective characterization of the process results from launching dynamics from the planar hypersurface corresponding to Grote-Hynes theory. This results in improved numerical convergence of correlation functions. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  14. Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R. Scott; Matthiesen, Jesper; Kay, Bruce D.

    2014-09-18

    The desorption kinetics of methanol, ethanol, and water from graphene covered Pt(111) are investigated. The temperature programmed desorption (TPD) spectra for both methanol and ethanol have well-resolved first, second, third, and multilayer layer desorption peaks. The alignment of the leading edges is consistent with zero-order desorption kinetics from all layers. In contrast, for water the first and second layers are not resolved. At low water coverages (< 1 ML) the initial desorption leading edges are aligned but then fall out of alignment at higher temperatures. For thicker water layers (10 to 100 ML), the desorption leading edges are in alignment throughout the desorption of the film. The coverage dependence of the desorption behavoir suggests that at low water coverages the non-alignment of the desorption leading edges is due to water dewetting from the graphene substrate. Kinetic simulations reveal that the experimental results are consistent with zero-order desorption. The simulations also show that fractional order desorption kinetics would be readily apparent in the experimental TPD spectra.

  15. ARM - Field Campaign - Supplemental Sondes

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsSupplemental Sondes ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Supplemental Sondes 1999.05.01 - 1999.10.31 Lead Scientist : Barry Lesht Data Availability Data Quality Report Vaisala has confirmed ARM findings of an apparent dry bias in the relative humidity measured by RS-80H radiosondes. The cause of the dry bias is thought to be contamination of the humidity sensor by volatile organic

  16. Utilization of coal mine methane for methanol and SCP production. Topical report, May 5, 1995--March 4, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    The feasibility of utilizing a biological process to reduce methane emissions from coal mines and to produce valuable single cell protein (SCP) and/or methanol as a product has been demonstrated. The quantities of coal mine methane from vent gas, gob wells, premining wells and abandoned mines have been determined in order to define the potential for utilizing mine gases as a resource. It is estimated that 300 MMCFD of methane is produced in the United States at a typical concentration of 0.2-0.6 percent in ventilation air. Of this total, almost 20 percent is produced from the four Jim Walter Resources (JWR) mines, which are located in very gassy coal seams. Worldwide vent gas production is estimated at 1 BCFD. Gob gas methane production in the U.S. is estimated to be 38 MMCFD. Very little gob gas is produced outside the U.S. In addition, it is estimated that abandoned mines may generate as much as 90 MMCFD of methane. In order to make a significant impact on coal mine methane emissions, technology which is able to utilize dilute vent gases as a resource must be developed. Purification of the methane from the vent gases would be very expensive and impractical. Therefore, the process application must be able to use a dilute methane stream. Biological conversion of this dilute methane (as well as the more concentrated gob gases) to produce single cell protein (SCP) and/or methanol has been demonstrated in the Bioengineering Resources, Inc. (BRI) laboratories. SCP is used as an animal feed supplement, which commands a high price, about $0.11 per pound.

  17. U.S. Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Show Data By: Product Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Total 64,575 60,088 61,366 54,650 59,642 58,625 1980-2015 Synthetic 57,279 53,745 55,032 48,375 51,127 51,320 ...

  18. Supplies of Natural Gas Supplemental Fuels (Annual Supply & Disposition)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    64,575 60,088 61,366 54,650 59,642 58,625 1980-2015 Alabama 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Alaska 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004-2015 Arizona 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Arkansas 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Colorado 5,148 4,268 4,412 4,077 4,120 4,032 1967-2015 Connecticut 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Delaware 1 0 * * 6 8 1967-2015 District of Columbia 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Florida 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Georgia 732 701 660 642 635 554 1967-2015 Hawaii 2,472 2,467 2,510 2,658 2,742 2,724 1980-2015 Illinois 17 1 1 * 63 1 1967-2015 Indiana

  19. District of Columbia Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Other 1980-2003

  20. EIS-0290-SA-02: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Supplement Analysis EIS-0290-SA-02: Supplement Analysis Naval Reactors Facility Sludge Pan Container Disposition Project DOEEIS-0290-SA-02: Supplement Analysis Naval Reactors...

  1. EIS-0265-SA-100: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    0: Supplement Analysis EIS-0265-SA-100: Supplement Analysis Oregon Fish Screening Project, Screen Replacements PDF icon Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program...

  2. EIS-0312-SA-01: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    -SA-01: Supplement Analysis EIS-0312-SA-01: Supplement Analysis Fish and Wildlife Implementation Plan Supplement Analysis for the Fish and Wildlife Implementation Plan EIS (DOE...

  3. EA-1429-SA-01: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    9-SA-01: Supplement Analysis EA-1429-SA-01: Supplement Analysis Security Perimeter Project This Supplement Analysis (SA) has been prepared to determine if previous Department of...

  4. EIS-0026-SA-05: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers

    SA-05: Supplement Analysis EIS-0026-SA-05: Supplement Analysis Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Wide Operations, Carlsbad, New Mexico This supplement analysis examines changes to ...

  5. EIS-0200-SA-03: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers

    3: Supplement Analysis EIS-0200-SA-03: Supplement Analysis Treatment of Transuranic Waste ... PDF icon DOEEIS-0200-SA-03, Supplement Analysis for the Treatment of Transuranic Waste at ...

  6. DISTRIBUTED ENERGY PROJECTS SUPPLEMENT TO ADVANCED FOSSIL LOAN...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    SUPPLEMENT TO ADVANCED FOSSIL LOAN GUARANTEE ANNOUNCEMENT DISTRIBUTED ENERGY PROJECTS SUPPLEMENT TO ADVANCED FOSSIL LOAN GUARANTEE ANNOUNCEMENT LPO has released a supplement to its ...

  7. EIS-0197: Supplement to Record of Decision | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Supplement to Record of Decision EIS-0197: Supplement to Record of Decision Delivery of the Canadian Entitlement The United States Entity has decided to supplement an earlier...

  8. Fact Sheet for Supplement for Electric Vehicle Charging | Department...

    Energy Savers

    Fact Sheet for Supplement for Electric Vehicle Charging Fact Sheet for Supplement for Electric Vehicle Charging Fact Sheet for Supplement for Electric Vehicle Charging (379.47 KB) ...

  9. Supplemental Analysis for the Final Environmental Impact Statement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Supplemental Analysis for the Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplemental Analysis for the Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplemental Analysis for the Final ...

  10. Spin-torsion effects in the hyperfine structure of methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coudert, L. H. Gutlé, C.; Huet, T. R.; Grabow, J.-U.; Levshakov, S. A.

    2015-07-28

    The magnetic hyperfine structure of the non-rigid methanol molecule is investigated experimentally and theoretically. 12 hyperfine patterns are recorded using molecular beam microwave spectrometers. These patterns, along with previously recorded ones, are analyzed in an attempt to evidence the effects of the magnetic spin-torsion coupling due to the large amplitude internal rotation of the methyl group [J. E. M. Heuvel and A. Dymanus, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 47, 363 (1973)]. The theoretical approach setup to analyze the observed data accounts for this spin-torsion in addition to the familiar magnetic spin-rotation and spin-spin interactions. The theoretical approach relies on symmetry considerations to build a hyperfine coupling Hamiltonian and spin-rotation-torsion wavefunctions compatible with the Pauli exclusion principle. Although all experimental hyperfine patterns are not fully resolved, the line position analysis yields values for several parameters including one describing the spin-torsion coupling.

  11. Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Wensheng He, David Mountz, Tao Zhang, Chris Roger July 17, 2012 2 Outline Background on Arkema's polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) blend membrane technology Overview of membrane properties and performance Summary 3 Membrane Technology Polymer Blend * Kynar ® PVDF * Chemical and electrochemical stability * Mechanical strength * Excellent barrier against methanol * Polyelectrolyte * H + conduction and water uptake

  12. Infrared spectroscopy of the methanol cation and its methylene-oxonium isomer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosley, J. D.; Young, J. W.; Duncan, M. A. E-mail: maduncan@uga.edu; Huang, M.; McCoy, A. B. E-mail: maduncan@uga.edu

    2015-03-21

    The carbenium ion with nominal formula [C,H{sub 4},O]{sup +} is produced from methanol or ethylene glycol in a pulsed-discharge supersonic expansion source. The ion is mass selected, and its infrared spectrum is measured from 2000 to 4000 cm{sup ?1} using laser photodissociation spectroscopy and the method of rare gas atom tagging. Computational chemistry predicts two isomers, the methanol and methylene-oxonium cations. Predicted vibrational spectra based on scaled harmonic and reduced dimensional treatments are compared to the experimental spectra. The methanol cation is the only isomer produced when methanol is used as a precursor. When ethylene glycol is used as the precursor, methylene-oxonium is produced in addition to the methanol cation. Theoretical results at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level show that methylene-oxonium is lower in energy than methanol cation by 6.4 kcal/mol, and is in fact the global minimum isomer on the [C,H{sub 4},O]{sup +} potential surface. Methanol cation is trapped behind an isomerization barrier in our source, providing a convenient method to produce and characterize this transient species. Analysis of the spectrum of the methanol cation provides evidence for strong CH stretch vibration/torsion coupling in this molecular ion.

  13. Palladium catalysts synthesized by atomic layer deposition for methanol decomposition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elam, J. W.; Feng, H.; Stair, P. C.; Libera, J. A.; Setthapun, W.; Northwestern Univ.

    2010-05-25

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) palladium films were deposited at 200 C on various ALD metal oxide surfaces using sequential exposures to Pd(II) hexafluoroacetylacetonate (Pd(hfac)2) and formalin. In situ quartz crystal microbalance measurements as well as ex situ measurements performed on planar substrates revealed that the Pd growth begins with a relatively slow nucleation process and accelerates once an adequate amount of Pd has deposited on the surface. Furthermore, the Pd nucleation is faster on ALD ZnO surfaces compared to ALD Al2O3 surfaces. ALD was utilized to synthesize highly dispersed, uniform Pd nanoparticles (1 to 2 nm in diameter) on ALD ZnO and Al2O3 coated mesoporous silica gel, and the catalytic performances of these samples were compared in the methanol decomposition reaction. The ALD Pd-Al2O3 showed high activity and hydrogen selectivity at relatively low temperatures while the ALD Pd-ZnO showed very low activity as well as quick deactivation. In situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurement revealed that the Pd supported on ZnO 'dissolves' into the substrate during the methanol decomposition reaction which accounts for the gradual disappearance of its catalytic activity. By applying one cycle of ALD Al2O3 on top of the Pd-ZnO catalyst, the activity was enhanced and the catalyst deactivation was mitigated. This Al2O3 overcoating method stabilizes the Pd-ZnO and effectively prevents the dissolution of Pd into the ZnO substrate.

  14. Advanced Nuclear Supplement_November 2015

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced Nuclear Supplement_November 2015 SECOND SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT FEDERAL LOAN GUARANTEES FOR ADVANCED NUCLEAR ENERGY PROJECTS Solicitation Number: DE-SOL- DE-SOL-0007791

  15. Supplement Analyses (SA) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Site, Richland, Washington August 15, 2011 EIS-0399-SA-01: Supplement Analysis Montana-Alberta Tie Ltd. 230-kV Transmission Line Project August 4, 2011 EIS-0348-SA-03: Supplement...

  16. Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, James H.; Cox, Philip; Harrington, William J; Campbell, Joseph L

    2013-09-03

    ABSTRACT Project Title: Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing PROJECT OBJECTIVE The objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell system technology towards the commercial targets of power density, energy density and lifetime. These targets were laid out in the DOE’s R&D roadmap to develop an advanced direct methanol fuel cell power supply that meets commercial entry requirements. Such a power supply will enable mobile computers to operate non-stop, unplugged from the wall power outlet, by using the high energy density of methanol fuel contained in a replaceable fuel cartridge. Specifically this project focused on balance-of-plant component integration and miniaturization, as well as extensive component, subassembly and integrated system durability and validation testing. This design has resulted in a pre-production power supply design and a prototype that meet the rigorous demands of consumer electronic applications. PROJECT TASKS The proposed work plan was designed to meet the project objectives, which corresponded directly with the objectives outlined in the Funding Opportunity Announcement: To engineer the fuel cell balance-of-plant and packaging to meet the needs of consumer electronic systems, specifically at power levels required for mobile computing. UNF used existing balance-of-plant component technologies developed under its current US Army CERDEC project, as well as a previous DOE project completed by PolyFuel, to further refine them to both miniaturize and integrate their functionality to increase the system power density and energy density. Benefits of UNF’s novel passive water recycling MEA (membrane electrode assembly) and the simplified system architecture it enabled formed the foundation of the design approach. The package design was hardened to address orientation independence, shock, vibration, and environmental requirements. Fuel cartridge and fuel subsystems were improved to ensure effective fuel

  17. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W.; Wender, Irving; Palekar, Vishwesh M.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  18. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-24

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  19. The Influence of Chain Dynamics on the Far Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Methanol-Water Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, K.N.; Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-07-12

    Far-infrared absorption spectroscopy has been used to study the low frequency ({center_dot} 100 cm{sup -1}) intermolecular modes of methanol in mixtures with water. With the aid of a first principles molecular dynamics simulation on an equivalent system, a detailed understanding about the origin of the low frequency IR modes has been established. The total dipole spectrum from the simulation suggests that the bands appearing in the experimental spectra at approximately 55 cm{sup -1} and 70 cm{sup -1} in methanol and methanol-rich mixtures arise from both fluctuations and torsional motions occurring within the methanol hydrogen-bonded chains. The influence of these modes on both the solvation dynamics and the relaxation mechanisms in the liquid are discussed within the context of recent experimental and theoretical results that have emerged from studies focusing on the short time dynamics in the methanol hydrogen bond network.

  20. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1993 Natural Gas Consumption Natural Gas Expenditures Distribution of per per per per Building-Level Intensities Total Building Square Worker per per Thousand (cubic feetsquare...

  1. FIFTH SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY PROJECTS Solicitation Number: DE-SOL-0006303 OMB Control Number: 1910-5134; OMB Expiration Date 11/30/2016 Announcement Type: Supplemental Supplement Date: October __, 2015 The above-referenced Loan Guarantee Solicitation Announcement, as previously supplemented (the "Solicitation") is supplemented as set forth below (capitalized terms used herein and not otherwise defined have the meanings ascribed thereto in the Solicitation). The second paragraph of Section

  2. FOURTH SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS AND EFFICIENT ENERGY PROJECTS Solicitation Number: DE-SOL-0007154 OMB Control Number: 1910-5134; OMB Expiration Date 11/30/2016 Announcement Type: Supplemental Supplement Date: October __, 2015 The above-referenced Loan Guarantee Solicitation Announcement, as previously supplemented (the "Solicitation") is supplemented as set forth below (capitalized terms used herein and not otherwise defined have the meanings ascribed thereto in the Solicitation). The second

  3. FIFTH SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    FIFTH SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT for FOR ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY PROJECTS Solicitation Number: DE-SOL-0006303

  4. SECOND SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    SECOND SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT FEDERAL LOAN GUARANTEES FOR ADVANCED NUCLEAR ENERGY PROJECTS Solicitation Number: DE-SOL- DE-SOL-0007791 OMB Control Number: 1910-5134; OMB Expiration Date 11/30/2016 Announcement Type: Supplemental Supplement Date: November 6, 2015 The above-referenced Loan Guarantee Solicitation Announcement, as previously supplemented (the "Solicitation"), identifies as Eligible Projects (1) nuclear power projects and the associated

  5. SIXTH SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    RENEWABLE ENERGY AND EFFICIENT ENERGY PROJECTS Solicitation Number: DE-SOL-0007154 OMB Control Number: 1910-5134; OMB Expiration Date 11/30/2016 Announcement Type: Supplemental Supplement Date: July 21, 2016 The above-referenced Loan Guarantee Solicitation Announcement (the "Solicitation") as previously supplemented is further supplemented as set forth below (capitalized terms used herein and not otherwise defined have the meanings ascribed thereto in the Solicitation). The following

  6. Supplemental Audit Services | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Supplemental Audit Services Supplemental Audit Services The Office of Procurement and Assistance Management (OPAM) awarded a contract for supplemental audit services on May 12,20 10. The purpose of this contract is to perform audit services in support of both financial assistance and contractual instrument awards department-wide. Although the focus of this contract is for auditing ARRA work, other non-ARRA auditing services may also be ordered. PF2010-57 Supplemental Audit Services (147.08 KB)

  7. IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason M. Keith

    2005-02-01

    This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

  8. DETECTION OF A METHANOL MEGAMASER IN A MAJOR-MERGER GALAXY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xi; Baan, Willem A.; Qiao, Hai-Hua; Li, Juan; An, Tao; Ellingsen, Simon P.; Breen, Shari L.

    2015-02-10

    We have detected emission from both the 4{sub ?1}?3{sub 0} E (36.2 GHz) class I and 7{sub ?2}?8{sub ?1} E (37.7 GHz) class II methanol transitions toward the center of the closest ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Arp 220. The emission in both methanol transitions shows narrow spectral features and has luminosities approximately 8 orders of magnitude stronger than those observed from typical class I methanol masers observed in Galactic star formation regions. The emission is also orders of magnitude stronger than the expected intensity of thermal emission from these transitions and based on these findings we suggest that the emission from the two transitions are masers. These observations provide the first detection of a methanol megamaser in the 36.2 and 37.7 GHz transitions and represent only the second detection of a methanol megamaser, following the recent report of an 84 GHz methanol megamaser in NGC 1068. We find that the methanol megamasers are significantly offset from the nuclear region and arise toward regions where there is H? emission, suggesting that they are associated with starburst activity. The high degree of correlation between the spatial distribution of the 36.2 GHz methanol and X-ray plume emission suggests that the production of strong extragalactic class I methanol masers is related to galactic-outflow-driven shocks and perhaps cosmic rays. In contrast to OH and H{sub 2}O megamasers which originate close to the nucleus, methanol megamasers provide a new probe of feedback (e.g., outflows) processes on larger scales and of star formation beyond the circumnuclear starburst regions of active galaxies.

  9. Composition dependent structural organization in trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride ionic liquid-methanol mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Aditya; Sharma, Shobha; Kashyap, Hemant K.

    2015-04-07

    This article reports results from the molecular dynamics simulations on the structural arrangement of the ions and molecules in the mixtures of trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride ([P{sub 666,14}{sup +}][Cl{sup ?}]) ionic liquid (IL) and methanol (MeOH) over the entire composition range. Effects of composition on the charge and polarity orderings have been investigated via computation of X-ray scattering structure function, S(q), and by using a partitioning scheme proposed for such multi-component mixtures. Except for the neat methanol liquid, the total S(q) shows two peaks in its intermolecular region for all the mole-fractions. The lowest q peak is dominated primarily by anion-anion, cation-anion, and methanol-anion correlations. Our results signify that the methanol bulk structure, which predominantly has short-distance characteristic correlations and is governed by polar group of methanol, is retained for x{sub IL} ? 0.1. Then, the mixture goes through gradual structural changes from methanol-like to the IL-like for 0.1 < x{sub IL} ? 0.7. The dipolar interaction between methanol molecules weakens in this range, and the structural landscape of the mixture is steered by strong ion-ion, anion-methanol, and nonpolar interactions. The IL-like structural arrangement is virtually recovered for x{sub IL} > 0.7. At all the compositions studied, while the cation head groups are predominantly solvated by anions and subsequently by methanol molecules, the polar hydroxyl group of methanol is preferentially solvated by the anions. The radial distribution functions of selected pair of atomic species have also confirmed these observations.

  10. Electron-Stimulated Reactions and O-2 Production in Methanol-Covered Amorphous Solid Water Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akin, Minta C.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kimmel, Gregory A.

    2009-03-14

    The low-energy, electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) of molecular products from amorphous solid water (ASW) films capped with methanol is investigated versus methanol coverage (0 - 4 x 1015 cm-2) at 50 K using 100 eV incident electrons. The major ESD products from a monolayer of methanol on ASW are quite similar to the ESD products from bulk methanol film: H2, CH4, H2O, C2H6, CO, CH2O, and CH3OH. For 40 ML ASW films, the molecular oxygen, hydrogen, and water ESD yields from the ASW are suppressed with increasing methanol coverage, while the CH3OH ESD yield increases proportionally to the methanol coverage. The suppression of the water ESD products by methanol is consistent with the non-thermal reactions occurring preferentially at or near the ASW/vacuum interface and not in the interior of the film. The water and molecular hydrogen ESD yields from the water layer decrease exponentially with the methanol cap coverage with 1/e constants of ~ 0.6 x 1015 cm-2 and 1.6 x 1015 cm-2, respectively. In contrast, the O2 ESD from the water layer is very efficiently quenched by small amounts of methanol (1/e ~ 6.5 x 1013 cm-2). The rapid suppression of O2 production by small amounts of methanol is due to reactions between CH3OH and the precursors for the O2 - mainly OH radicals. A kinetic model for the O2 ESD which semi-quantitatively accounts for the observations is presented.

  11. supplemental directives | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    supplemental directives Supplemental Directives NA-1 SD 226.1-1A Headquarters Biennial Review of Nuclear Safety Performance December 16, 2011 NNSA SD 226.1B NNSA Site Governance August 12, 2016 NNSA SD 243.1 Admin Change 1 Records Management Program March 21, 2016 NA SD 251.1 NNSA Policies, Supplemental Directives, and Business Operating

  12. Identification of the Active Species in Photochemical Hole Scavenging Reactions of Methanol on TiO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Mingmin; Henderson, Michael A.

    2011-11-03

    Molecular and dissociative methanol adsorption species were prepared on rutile TiO2(110) surfaces to study photocatalytic oxidation of methanol in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Adsorbed methoxy groups (CH3O-) were found to be the photoactive form of adsorbed methanol converted to adsorbed formaldehyde and a surface OH group by hole-mediated C-H bond cleavage. These results suggest that adsorbed methoxy is the effective hole scavenger in photochemical reactions involving methanol.

  13. Draft STD-1027 Supplemental Directive (Alternate Hazard Categorization...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    STD-1027 Supplemental Directive (Alternate Hazard Categorization) Methodology Draft STD-1027 Supplemental Directive (Alternate Hazard Categorization) Methodology Presentation from...

  14. EIS-0030-S: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Bonneville Power Administration Proposed FY 1980 Program, Facility Location Supplement, Northwest Montana/North Idaho Support and Libby Integration, Supplemental

  15. EA-1611-S1: Final Supplemental Environmental Assessment | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Final Supplemental Environmental Assessment Colorado Highlands Wind Project, Logan County, Colorado DOE's Western Area Power Administration issued a final supplemental...

  16. Theoretical study of syngas hydrogenation to methanol on the polar Zn-terminated ZnO(0001) surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Ya-Fan; Rousseau, Roger J.; Li, Jun; Mei, Donghai

    2012-08-02

    Methanol synthesis from syngas (CO/CO2/H2) hydrogenation on the perfect Znterminated polar ZnO(0001) surface have been investigated using periodic density functional theory calculations. Our results show that direct CO2 hydrogenation to methanol on the perfect ZnO(0001) surface is unlikely because in the presence of surface atomic H and O the highly stable formate (HCOO) and carbonate (CO3) readily produced from CO2 with low barriers 0.11 and 0.09 eV will eventually accumulate and block the active sites of the ZnO(0001) surface. In contrast, methanol synthesis from CO hydrogenation is thermodynamically and kinetically feasible on the perfect ZnO(0001) surface. CO can be consecutively hydrogenated into formyl (HCO), formaldehyde (H2CO), methoxy (H3CO) intermediates, leading to the final formation of methanol (H3COH). The reaction route via hydroxymethyl (H2COH) intermediate, a previously proposed species on the defected Oterminated ZnO( ) surface, is kinetically inhibited on the perfect ZnO(0001) surface. The rate-determining step in the consecutive CO hydrogenation route is the hydrogenation of H3CO to H3COH. We also note that this last hydrogenation step is pronouncedly facilitated in the presence of water by lowering the activation barrier from 1.02 to 0.55 eV. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Biosciences and Geosciences, and performed at EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energys Office of Biological and Environmental Research located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Computational resources were provided at EMSL and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. J. Li and Y.-F. Zhao were also financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 20933003 and 91026003) and the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2011CB932400). Y

  17. FORMALDEHYDE AND METHANOL DEUTERATION IN PROTOSTARS: FOSSILS FROM A PAST FAST HIGH-DENSITY PRE-COLLAPSE PHASE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taquet, V.; Ceccarelli, C.; Kahane, C.

    2012-03-20

    Extremely high deuteration of several molecules has been observed around low-mass protostars for a decade. Among them, formaldehyde and methanol present particularly high deuteration, with observations of abundant doubly and triply deuterated forms. Both species are thought to be mainly formed on interstellar grains during the low-temperature and dense pre-collapse phase by H and D atom additions on the iced CO. We present here a theoretical study of the formaldehyde and methanol deuteration obtained with our gas-grain model, GRAINOBLE. This model takes into account the multilayer nature of the mantle and explores the robustness of the results against the uncertainties of poorly constrained chemical and surface model parameters. The comparison of the model predictions with the observations leads to two major results: (1) the observed high deuteration is obtained during the last phase of the pre-collapse stage, when the density reaches {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} cm{sup -3}, and this phase is fast, lasting only several thousands years; and (2) D and H abstraction and substitution reactions are crucial in making up the observed deuteration ratios. This work shows the power of chemical composition as a tool to reconstruct the past history of protostars.

  18. ESPC Project Performance: Supplemental Data

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    These Excel spreadsheets provide supplemental data to Reported Energy and Cost Savings from the DOE ESPC Programannual reports, which summarize the realization rate of energy and cost savings from the U.S. Department of Energy’s energy savings performance contract (ESPC) program. These reports are based on information reported by the energy services companies (ESCOs) that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites.

  19. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  20. A 95 GHz CLASS I METHANOL MASER SURVEY TOWARD GLIMPSE EXTENDED GREEN OBJECTS (EGOs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Xi; Shen Zhiqiang; Gan Conggui; Ellingsen, Simon P.; Titmarsh, Anita

    2011-09-01

    We report the results of a systematic survey for 95 GHz class I methanol masers toward a new sample of 192 massive young stellar object candidates associated with ongoing outflows (known as extended green objects or EGOs) identified from the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) survey. The observations were made with the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) Mopra 22 m radio telescope and resulted in the detection of 105 new 95 GHz class I methanol masers. For 92 of the sources our observations provide the first identification of a class I maser transition associated with these objects (i.e., they are new class I methanol maser sources). Our survey proves that there is indeed a high detection rate (55%) of class I methanol masers toward EGOs. Comparison of the GLIMPSE point sources associated with EGOs with and without class I methanol maser detections shows that they have similar mid-IR colors, with the majority meeting the color selection criteria -0.6 < [5.8]-[8.0] < 1.4 and 0.5 < [3.6]-[4.5] < 4.0. Investigations of the Infrared Array Camera and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer 24 {mu}m colors and the associated millimeter dust clump properties (mass and density) of the EGOs for the sub-samples based on the class of methanol masers they are associated with suggest that the stellar mass range associated with class I methanol masers extends to lower masses than for class II methanol masers, or alternatively class I methanol masers may be associated with more than one evolutionary phase during the formation of a high-mass star.

  1. THE ROLE OF METHANOL IN THE CRYSTALLIZATION OF TITAN'S PRIMORDIAL OCEAN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deschamps, Frederic; Mousis, Olivier; Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2010-12-01

    A key parameter that controls the crystallization of primordial oceans in large icy moons is the presence of anti-freeze compounds, which may have maintained primordial oceans over the age of the solar system. Here we investigate the influence of methanol, a possible anti-freeze candidate, on the crystallization of Titan's primordial ocean. Using a thermodynamic model of the solar nebula and assuming a plausible composition of its initial gas phase, we first calculate the condensation sequence of ices in Saturn's feeding zone, and show that in Titan's building blocks methanol can have a mass fraction of {approx}4 wt% relative to water, i.e., methanol can be up to four times more abundant than ammonia. We then combine available data on the phase diagram of the water-methanol system and scaling laws derived from thermal convection to estimate the influence of methanol on the dynamics of the outer ice I shell and on the heat transfer through this layer. For a fraction of methanol consistent with the building blocks composition we determined, the vigor of convection in the ice I shell is strongly reduced. The effect of 5 wt% methanol is equivalent to that of 3 wt% ammonia. Thus, if methanol is present in the primordial ocean of Titan, the crystallization may stop, and a sub-surface ocean may be maintained between the ice I and high-pressure ice layers. A preliminary estimate indicates that the presence of 4 wt% methanol and 1 wt% ammonia may result in an ocean of thickness at least 90 km.

  2. EFFECTS OF METAL-SUPPORT INTERACTIONS ON THE SYNTHESIS OF METHANOL OVER PALLADIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryndin, Yu A.; Hicks, R. F.; Bell, A. T.; Yermakov, Yu I.

    1980-04-01

    The synthesis of methanol and other products from CO and H{sub 2} was studied over Pd catalysts prepared by adsorption of Pd({pi}-C{sub 3}H{sub 5}){sub 2} on MgO, ZnO, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} , SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, and ZrO{sub 2} as well as over a SiO{sub 2}-supported Pd catalyst prepared from PdCl{sub 2} and Pd black. Both the activity and selectivity of Pd were affected strongly by the nature of the support and the composition of the Pd precursor. The specific activity for methanol synthesis decreased in the order Pd/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} >> Pd/SiO{sub 2} [derived from PdCl{sub 2}] > Pd/ZrO{sub 2} > Pd/ZnO ~ Pd/MgO > PdTiO{sub 2} > Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ~ Pd/SiO{sub 2} [derived from Pd({pi}-C{sub 3}H{sub 5}){sub 2}] >> Pd black while the specific activity for hydrocarbon synthesis decreased in the order Pd/TiO{sub 2} > Pd/ZrO{sub 2} > Pd/La{sub 2}O{sub 3}> Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ~ Pd/SiO{sub 2} [derived from PdCl{sub 2}] > Pd/SiO{sub 2} [derived from Pd({pi}-C{sub 3}H{sub 5}){sub 2}] ~ Pd black >> Pd/MgO > Pd/ZnO. Dimethyl ether production was observed over four of the catalysts and the activity for formation of this product decreased in the order Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} >> Pd/TiO{sub 2} >> Pd/MgO ~ Pd/ZrO{sub 2}. The effects of support composition on the catalytic properties of Pd are discussed in the light of current ideas concerning metal-support interactions and the acid-base properties of the support.

  3. Pulse radiolysis studies of solvated electrons in supercritical ethane with methanol as cosolvent.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimitrijevic, N. M.; Takahashi, K.; Bartels, D. M.; Jonah, C. D.; Chemistry

    2001-08-02

    Pulse radiolysis has been used to study the solvated electron in supercritical ethane with methanol as a cosolvent. These measurements give information about the liquid structure of the cosolvent in these systems. The results show that at temperatures below 110 {sup o}C, there are high local concentrations of alcohol molecules (clusters), which are capable of solvating an electron. The agglomeration number of methanol clusters depends on mole fraction of alcohol at a fixed temperature. Addition of salts increases the size of methanol clusters.

  4. Visible absorption spectra of crystal violet in supercritical ethane - methanol solution.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimitrijevic, N. M.; Takahashi, K.; Jonah, C. D.; Chemistry

    2002-11-01

    The effects of concentration and mole fraction of methanol in supercritical ethane on the absorption spectra of crystal violet (CV) were examined. Keeping the concentration of CV in the cell constant at 50 {mu}mol l{sup -1}, both the methanol concentration (from 0.4 to 1.2 mol l{sup -1}) and pressure of ethane (from 60 to 150 bar) were varied. The degree of solvation of CV depends both on the mole fraction and concentration of cosolvent. The dimerization of CV was found to decrease with pressure, and with the ratio between methanol and CV concentrations.

  5. Improvement of performance and emissions of a compression ignition methanol engine with dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, J.; Chikahisa, Takemi; Murayama, Tadashi; Miyano, Masaharu

    1994-10-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) has very good compression ignition characteristics and can be converted from methanol using a {gamma}-alumina catalyst. In this study a torch ignition chamber (TIC) head with TIC close to the center of the main combustion chamber was designed for the TIC method. The possibility of improvements in reducing the quantities of DME and emission were investigated by optimizing the TIC position, methanol injection timing, DME injection timing, and intake and exhaust throttling. It was found that the necessary amount of DME was greatly reduced when optimizing methanol and DME injection timings. 2 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  6. SHAPE SELECTIVE NANOCATALYSTS FOR DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murph, S.

    2012-09-12

    While gold and platinum have long been recognized for their beauty and value, researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are working on the nano-level to use these elements for creative solutions to our nation's energy and security needs. Multiinterdisciplinary teams consisting of chemists, materials scientists, physicists, computational scientists, and engineers are exploring unchartered territories with shape-selective nanocatalysts for the development of novel, cost effective and environmentally friendly energy solutions to meet global energy needs. This nanotechnology is vital, particularly as it relates to fuel cells.SRNL researchers have taken process, chemical, and materials discoveries and translated them for technological solution and deployment. The group has developed state-of-the art shape-selective core-shell-alloy-type gold-platinum nanostructures with outstanding catalytic capabilities that address many of the shortcomings of the Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). The newly developed nanostructures not only busted the performance of the platinum catalyst, but also reduced the material cost and overall weight of the fuel cell.

  7. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3. Consumption and Expenditures for Sum of Major Fuels, Electricity, and Natural Gas in FBSS Buildings in Federal Region 3, 1993 Sum of Sum of Major Major Electricity Natural...

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    idle since mid-December 2008. According to the companys press release, Terras methanol, ammonia, and nitrogen plants have resumed operations. Mosaic Company also restarted...

  9. Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation over a Pd4/In2O3 Model Catalyst: A Combined DFT and Kinetic Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Jingyun; Liu, Changjun; Mei, Donghai; Ge, Qingfeng

    2014-08-01

    Methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation on Pd4/In2O3 has been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and microkinetic modeling. In this study, three possible routes in the reaction network of CO2 + H2 ? CH3OH + H2O have been examined. Our DFT results show that the HCOO route competes with the RWGS route whereas a high activation barrier kinetically blocks the HCOOH route. DFT results also suggest that H2COO* + H* ? H2CO* +OH* and cis-COOH* + H* ?CO* + H2O* are the rate limiting steps in the HCOO route and the RWGS route, respectively. Microkinetic modeling results demonstrate that the HCOO route is the dominant reaction route for methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation. We found that the activation of H adatom on the small Pd cluster and the presence of H2O on the In2O3 substrate play important roles in promoting the methanol synthesis. The hydroxyl adsorbed at the interface of Pd4/In2O3 induces the transformation of the supported Pd4 cluster from a butterfly structure into a tetrahedron structure. This important structure change not only indicates the dynamical nature of the supported nanoparticle catalyst structure during the reaction but also shifts the final hydrogenation step from H2COH to CH3O.

  10. Results from the second year of operation of the Federal Methanol Fleet at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, B.H.; McGill ); Hillis, S.L. )

    1990-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has completed its second year of operation of ten vehicles for the Federal Methanol Fleet Project; five of the vehicles are fueled with methanol. Over 56,000 miles were accumulated on the vehicles in the second year bringing the total to over 152,000 miles. Energy consumption for the methanol cars was slightly higher than that of the gasoline cars again this year, most likely as a result of shorter average trip lengths for the methanol gas. Iron and lead have accumulated at greater rates in the lubricating oil of the methanol cars. Driver's ratings of vehicles reflected some dissatisfaction with the cold-weather performance of the methanol cars, but the cars have no special provisions for cold weather starting, and the fuel vapor pressure has not been tailored to the season as at other test sites. Otherwise, drivers' opinions of the methanol cars have been favorable. 13 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Low pressure CO₂ hydrogenation to methanol over gold nanoparticles activated on a CeOx/TiO₂ interface

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Yang, Xiaofang; Boscoboinik, J. Anibal; Kattel, Shyam; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Nie, Xiaowa; Graciani, Jesus; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Liu, Ping; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2015-07-28

    Capture and recycling of CO₂ into valuable chemicals such as alcohols could help mitigate its emissions into the atmosphere. Due to its inert nature, the activation of CO₂ is a critical step in improving the overall reaction kinetics during its chemical conversion. Although pure gold is an inert noble metal and cannot catalyze hydrogenation reactions, it can be activated when deposited as nanoparticles on the appropriate oxide support. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, it is shown that an electronic polarization at the metal–oxide interface of Au nanoparticles anchored and stabilized on a CeOx/TiO₂ substrate generates active centers formore » CO₂ adsorption and its low pressure hydrogenation, leading to a higher selectivity toward methanol. In conclusion, this study illustrates the importance of localized electronic properties and structure in catalysis for achieving higher alcohol selectivity from CO₂ hydrogenation.« less

  12. Methanol Synthesis over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3: The Active Site in Industrial Catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behrens, Malte

    2012-03-28

    Unlike homogeneous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts that have been optimized through decades are typically so complex and hard to characterize that the nature of the catalytically active site is not known. This is one of the main stumbling blocks in developing rational catalyst design strategies in heterogeneous catalysis. We show here how to identify the crucial atomic structure motif for the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} methanol synthesis catalyst. Using a combination of experimental evidence from bulk-, surface-sensitive and imaging methods collected on real high-performance catalytic systems in combination with DFT calculations. We show that the active site consists of Cu steps peppered with Zn atoms, all stabilized by a series of well defined bulk defects and surface species that need jointly to be present for the system to work.

  13. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment III. Florida's eucalyptus energy farm and methanol refinery: the background environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    A wide array of general background information is presented on the Central Florida area in which the eucalyptus energy plantation and methanol refinery will be located. Five counties in Central Florida may be affected by the project, DeSoto, Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk. The human resources of the area are reviewed. Included are overviews of population demographic and economic trends. Land use patterns and the transportation are system described, and the region's archeological and recreational resources are evaluated. The region's air quality is emphasized. The overall climate is described along with noise and air shed properties. An analysis of the region's water resources is included. Ground water is discussed first followed by an analysis of surface water. Then the overall quality and water supply/demand balance for the area is evaluated. An overview of the region's biota is presented. Included here are discussions of the general ecosystems in Central Florida, and an analysis of areas with important biological significance. Finally, land resources are examined.

  14. WATER AND METHANOL MASER ACTIVITIES IN THE NGC 2024 FIR 6 REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Byun, Do-Young; Lee, Jeong-Eun

    2012-11-10

    The NGC 2024 FIR 6 region was observed in the water maser line at 22 GHz and the methanol class I maser lines at 44, 95, and 133 GHz. The water maser spectra displayed several velocity components and month-scale time variabilities. Most of the velocity components may be associated with FIR 6n, while one component was associated with FIR 4. A typical lifetime of the water maser velocity components is about eight months. The components showed velocity fluctuations with a typical drift rate of about 0.01 km s{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The methanol class I masers were detected toward FIR 6. The methanol emission is confined within a narrow range around the systemic velocity of the FIR 6 cloud core. The methanol masers suggest the existence of shocks driven by either the expanding H II region of FIR 6c or the outflow of FIR 6n.

  15. Surface-Bound Intermediates in Low-Temperature Methanol Synthesis on Copper. Participants and Spectators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yong; Mei, Donghai; Peden, Charles H.F.; Campbell, Charles T.; Mims, Charles A.

    2015-11-03

    The reactivity of surface adsorbed species present on copper catalysts during methanol synthesis at low temperatures was studied by simultaneous infrared spectroscopy (IR) and mass spectroscopy (MS) measurements during “titration” (transient surface reaction) experiments with isotopic tracing. The results show that adsorbed formate is a major bystander species present on the surface under steady-state methanol synthesis reaction conditions, but it cannot be converted to methanol by reaction with pure H2, nor with H2 plus added water. Formate-containing surface adlayers for these experiments were produced during steady state catalysis in (a) H2:CO2 (with substantial formate coverage) and (b) moist H2:CO (with no IR visible formate species). Both these reaction conditions produce methanol at steady state with relatively high rates. Adlayers containing formate were also produced by (c) formic acid adsorption. Various "titration" gases were used to probe these adlayers at modest temperatures (T = 410-450K) and 6 bar total pressure. Methanol gas (up to ~1% monolayer equivalent) was produced in "titration" from the H2:CO2 catalytic adlayers by H2 plus water, but not by dry hydrogen. The decay in the formate IR features accelerated in the presence of added water vapor. The H2:CO:H2O catalytic adlayer produced similar methanol titration yields in H2 plus water but showed no surface formate features in IR (less than 0.2% monolayer coverage). Finally, formate from formic acid chemisorption produced no methanol under any titration conditions. Even under (H2:CO2) catalytic reaction conditions, isotope tracing showed that pre-adsorbed formate from formic acid did not contribute to the methanol produced. Although non-formate intermediates exist during low temperature methanol synthesis on copper which can be converted to methanol gas

  16. HUD Updated Supplemental Lists - February 18, 2016 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Updated Supplemental Lists - February 18, 2016 HUD Updated Supplemental Lists - February 18, 2016 HUD Updated Supplemental Lists - February 18, 2016 Updated_supplemental_lists_1Q_2Q_ 2-18-16.xlsx (23.23 KB) More Documents & Publications updated_supplemental_lists_1n-2n-3m_07-06-2012.xlsx updated_supplemental_lists_1m-2m-3l-04-05-2012.xlsx updated_supplemental_lists_1p_2p_3o_04302013.xlsx

  17. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

    2007-04-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  18. The Influence of Chain Dynamics on theFar-Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, K.N.; Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-07-11

    Far-infrared absorption spectroscopy is used to investigate the low frequency ({center_dot} 100 cm{sup -1}) intermolecular interactions in liquid methanol. Using an intense source of far-infrared radiation, modes are elucidated at approximately 30 cm{sup -1} and 70 cm{sup -1} in the absorption spectrum. These modes are believed to arise from intermolecular bending and librational motions respectively and are successfully reproduced in an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of methanol.

  19. A SEARCH FOR 95 GHz CLASS I METHANOL MASERS IN MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, Cong-Gui; Chen, Xi; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Xu, Ye; Ju, Bing-Gang

    2013-01-20

    We have observed a sample of 288 molecular outflow sources including 123 high-mass and 165 low-mass sources in order to search for class I methanol masers at the 95 GHz transition and to investigate the relationship between outflow characteristics and class I methanol maser emission with the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m radio telescope. Our survey detected 62 sources with 95 GHz methanol masers above a 3{sigma} detection limit, which includes 47 high-mass sources and 15 low-mass sources. Therefore, the detection rate is 38% for high-mass outflow sources and 9% for low-mass outflow sources, suggesting that class I methanol masers are relatively easily excited in high-mass sources. There are 37 newly detected 95 GHz methanol masers (including 27 high-mass and 10 low-mass sources), 19 of which are newly identified (i.e., first identification) class I methanol masers (including 13 high-mass and 6 low-mass sources). A statistical analysis of the distributions of maser detections with the outflow parameters reveals that the maser detection efficiency increases with the outflow properties (e.g., mass, momentum, kinetic energy, mechanical luminosity of outflows, etc.). Systematic investigations of the relationships between the intrinsic luminosity of methanol masers and the outflow properties (including mass, momentum, kinetic energy, bolometric luminosity, and mass-loss rate of the central stellar sources) indicate a positive correlation. This further supports the theory that class I methanol masers are collisionally pumped and associated with shocks when outflows interact with the surrounding ambient medium.

  20. FIFTH SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    RENEWABLE ENERY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROJECTS Solicitation Number: DE-SOL-0007154 OMB Control Number: 1910-5134; OMB Expiration Date 11/30/2016 Announcement Type: Supplemental Supplement Date: June 22, 2016 The above-referenced Loan Guarantee Solicitation Announcement (the "Solicitation") is supplemented as set forth below (capitalized terms used herein and not otherwise defined have the meanings ascribed thereto in the Solicitation). Section V.A "Application Submission

  1. FOURTH SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY PROJECTS Solicitation Number: DE-SOL-0006303 OMB Control Number: 1910-5134; OMB Expiration Date 11/30/2016 Announcement Type: Supplemental Supplement Date: August 24, 2015 Background As used in this supplement the term "Distributed Energy Projects" means projects that are comprised of installations of facilities utilizing a single technology, or a defined suite of technologies (either is referred to herein as "Distributed Technology"), at multiple

  2. National Supplemental Screening Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Supplemental Screening Program National Supplemental Screening Program For more information regarding the National Supplemental Screening Program, please call toll-free at (866) 812-6703 or visit their website at http://www.orau.org/nssp. This program serves the following populations: Sites not covered by regional projects (please see Covered Sites/Populations for a complete list of regional construction worker and production workers projects); and Former workers from sites served by regional

  3. SIXTH SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY PROJECTS Solicitation Number: DE-SOL-0006303 OMB Control Number: 1910-5134; OMB Expiration Date 11/30/2016 Announcement Type: Supplemental Supplement Date: June 22, 2016 The above-referenced Loan Guarantee Solicitation Announcement (the "Solicitation") is supplemented as set forth below (capitalized terms used herein and not otherwise defined have the meanings ascribed thereto in the Solicitation). Section V.A "Application Submission Schedule" is

  4. THIRD SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT

    Energy Savers

    RENEWABLE ENERY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROJECTS Solicitation Number: DE-SOL-0007154 OMB Control Number: 1910-5134; OMB Expiration Date 11/30/2016 Announcement Type: Supplemental Supplement Date: August 24, 2015 Background As used in this supplement the term "Distributed Energy Projects" means projects that are comprised of installations of facilities utilizing a single technology, or a defined suite of technologies (either is referred to herein as "Distributed Technology"), at

  5. THIRD SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY PROJECTS Solicitation Number: DE-SOL-0006303 OMB Control Number: 1910-5134; OMB Expiration Date 11/30/2016 Announcement Type: Supplemental Supplement Date: June 23, 2015 The above-referenced Loan Guarantee Solicitation Announcement (the "Solicitation") is supplemented as set forth below (capitalized terms used herein and not otherwise defined have the meanings ascribed thereto in the Solicitation). The following is inserted as the first illustrative example in

  6. THIRD SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    RENEWABLE ENERY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROJECTS Solicitation Number: DE-SOL-0007154 OMB Control Number: 1910-5134; OMB Expiration Date 11/30/2016 Announcement Type: Supplemental Supplement Date: August 24, 2015 Background As used in this supplement the term "Distributed Energy Projects" means projects that are comprised of installations of facilities utilizing a single technology, or a defined suite of technologies (either is referred to herein as "Distributed Technology"), at

  7. OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS ON METHANOL PRODUCTION IN INTERSTELLAR AND PREPLANETARY ICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittet, D. C. B.; Cook, A. M.; Herbst, Eric; Chiar, J. E.; Shenoy, S. S.

    2011-11-20

    Methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) is thought to be an important link in the chain of chemical evolution that leads from simple diatomic interstellar molecules to complex organic species in protoplanetary disks that may be delivered to the surfaces of Earthlike planets. Previous research has shown that CH{sub 3}OH forms in the interstellar medium predominantly on the surfaces of dust grains. To enhance our understanding of the conditions that lead to its efficient production, we assemble a homogenized catalog of published detections and limiting values in interstellar and preplanetary ices for both CH{sub 3}OH and the other commonly observed C- and O-bearing species, H{sub 2}O, CO, and CO{sub 2}. We use this catalog to investigate the abundance of ice-phase CH{sub 3}OH in environments ranging from dense molecular clouds to circumstellar envelopes around newly born stars of low and high mass. Results show that CH{sub 3}OH production arises during the CO freezeout phase of ice-mantle growth in the clouds, after an ice layer rich in H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} is already in place on the dust, in agreement with current astrochemical models. The abundance of solid-phase CH{sub 3}OH in this environment is sufficient to account for observed gas-phase abundances when the ices are subsequently desorbed in the vicinity of embedded stars. CH{sub 3}OH concentrations in the ices toward embedded stars show order-of-magnitude object-to-object variations, even in a sample restricted to stars of low mass associated with ices lacking evidence of thermal processing. We hypothesize that the efficiency of CH{sub 3}OH production in dense cores and protostellar envelopes is mediated by the degree of prior CO depletion.

  8. Supplement Analyses (SA) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    EIS-0285-SA-22: Supplement Analysis Transmission System Vegetation Management Program, King and Snohomish Counties, WA, in the Snohomish Region August 14, 2001 EIS-0265-SA-59:...

  9. SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT FEDERAL...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ENERGY PROJECTS AND EFFICIENT ENERGY PROJECTS Solicitation Number: DE-SOL-0007154 OMB Control Number: 1910-5134; OMB Expiration Date 11302016 Announcement Type: Supplemental...

  10. Title XVII Supplements on Distributed Energy Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    The loan guarantee authority will be available following a 45-day Congressional notification period. Guidance on Distributed Energy Projects: LPO is publishing supplements to ...

  11. Microsoft Word - STEO Supplement.doc

    Annual Energy Outlook

    ... Information AdministrationShort-Term Energy Outlook Supplement - May 2009 3 maintenance schedules; however, consideration of these factors is beyond the scope of this analysis. ...

  12. EIS-0285-SA-451: Supplement Analysis

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS- 0285/SA-451 Carlton-Tillamook Transmission Line Corridor, PP&A-2068)

  13. EIS-0285-SA-452: Supplement Analysis

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-452 Ross-St. Johns No. 1) PP&A Project

  14. EA-1212-SA-01: Final Supplement Analysis

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Supplement Analysis for the Environmental Assessment for the Lease of Land for the Development of a Research Park at Los Alamos National Laboratory

  15. EIS-0377: Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Impact Statement EIS-0377: Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement Big Stone II Power Plant and Transmission Project In May 2006, Western Area Power...

  16. EIs-0285-0455: Supplement Analysis

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS- 0285/SA-455 Bandon-Rogue No. 1) PP&A Project #2178

  17. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey - Index Page

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Buildings 1993 Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey Overview Full Report Tables Energy usage and energy costs, by building characteristics, for federally-owned buildings in...

  18. National Nuclear Security Administration Supplemental Listing...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration Supplemental Listing of Directives Affecting Nuclear Safety Requirements Last Updated 062014 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Nuclear ...

  19. FEDERAL LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION & SUPPLEMENTS FOR: ADVANCED...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ADVANCED NUCLEAR ENERGY PROJECTS U.S. Department of Energy Loan Programs Office ... 10, 2014 Solicitation for Advanced Nuclear Energy Projects SUPPLEMENT I June 23, ...

  20. Supplement Analyses (SA) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Analysis Transmission System Vegetation Management Program March 19, 2003 EIS-0285-SA-132: Supplement Analysis Transmission System Vegetation Management Program March 12, 2003...

  1. EIS-0075-SA-01: Supplement Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Operational and Engineering Modifications, Regulatory Review, and Socioeconomic Variation - Supplement Analysis of Site-Specific and Programmatic EISs, Strategic Petroleum Reserve, New Orleans, Louisiana

  2. FIFTH SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    FIFTH SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT FEDERAL LOAN GUARANTEES FOR ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY PROJECTS Solicitation Number: DE-SOL-0006303 OMB Control Number: ...

  3. EIS-0075-SA-03: Supplement Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Operational and Engineering Modifications and Regulatory Review – Supplement Analysis of Site-Specific and Programmatic EISs, Strategic Petroleum Reserve, New Orleans, Louisiana

  4. EIS-0075-SA-02: Supplement Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Operational and Engineering Modifications and Regulatory Review - Supplement Analysis of Site-Specific and Programmatic EISs, Strategic Petroleum Reserve, New Orleans, Louisiana

  5. EIS-1069-SA-07: Supplement Analysis

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Yakima/Kilickitat Fisheries Project, Noxious Weed Control at Cle Elum and Jack Creek, Cle Elum Supplementation and Research Facility and Jack Creek Acclimation Site, Kittitas County, Washington

  6. Supplement Analyses (SA) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Accelerators September 2, 2002 EIS-0169-SA-05: Supplement Analysis YakimaKlickitat Fisheries Project, Cle Elum, Kittitas County, Washington September 2, 2002...

  7. Methanol conversion to light olefins over nanostructured CeAPSO-34 catalyst: Thermodynamic analysis of overall reactions and effect of template type on catalytic properties and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aghamohammadi, Sogand; Haghighi, Mohammad; Charghand, Mojtaba

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: In this research nanostructured CeAPSO-34 was synthesized to explore the effect of TEAOH and morpholine on its physiochemical properties and MTO performance. Prepared catalysts were characterized with XRD, FESEM, BET, FTIR and NH3-TPD techniques. The results indicated that the nature of the template determines the physiochemical properties of CeAPSO-34 due to different rate of crystal growth. The catalyst obtained by using morpholine showed longer life time as well as sustaining light olefins selectivity at higher values. Furthermore, a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis of overall reactions network was carried out to address the major channels of methanol to olefins conversion. - Highlights: • Introduction of Ce into SAPO-34 framework. • Comparison of CeAPSO-34 synthesized using morpholine and TEAOH. • The nature of the template determines the physiochemical properties of CeAPSO-34. • Morpholine enhances catalyst lifetime in MTO process. • Presenting a complete reaction network for MTO process. - Abstract: TEAOH and morpholine were employed in synthesis of nanostructured CeAPSO-34 molecular sieve and used in methanol to olefins conversion. Prepared samples were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET, FTIR and NH{sub 3}-TPD techniques. XRD patterns reflected the higher crystallinity of the catalyst synthesized with morpholine. The FESEM results indicated that the nature of the template determines the morphology of nanostructured CeAPSO-34 due to different rate of crystal growth. There was a meaningful difference in the strength of both strong and weak acid sites for CeAPSO-34 catalysts synthesized with TEAOH and morpholine templates. The catalyst synthesized with morpholine showed higher desorption temperature of both weak and strong acid sites evidenced by NH{sub 3}-TPD characterization. The catalyst obtained using morpholine template had the longer lifetime and sustained desired light olefins at higher values. A comprehensive

  8. Mechanism of Methanol Synthesis on Cu through CO2 and CO Hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grabow, Lars C.; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2011-03-04

    We present a comprehensive mean-field microkinetic model for the methanol synthesis and water-gas-shift (WGS) reactions that includes novel reaction intermediates, such as formic acid (HCOOH) and hydroxymethoxy (CH?O?) and allows for the formation of formic acid (HCOOH), formaldehyde (CH?O), and methyl formate (HCOOCH?) as byproducts. All input model parameters were initially derived from periodic, self-consistent, GGA-PW91 density functional theory calculations on the Cu(111) surface and subsequently fitted to published experimentalmethanol synthesis rate data, which were collected under realistic conditions on a commercial Cu/ZnO/Al?O? catalyst. We find that the WGS reaction follows the carboxyl (COOH)-mediated path and that both CO and CO? hydrogenation pathways are active for methanol synthesis. Under typical industrial methanol synthesis conditions, CO? hydrogenation is responsible for ?2/3 of the methanol produced. The intermediates of the CO? pathway for methanol synthesis include HCOO*, HCOOH*, CH?O?*, CH?O*, and CH?O*. The formation of formate (HCOO*) from CO?* and H* on Cu(111) does not involve an intermediate carbonate (CO?*) species, and hydrogenation of HCOO* leads to HCOOH* instead of dioxymethylene (H?CO?*). The effect of CO is not only promotional; CO* is also hydrogenated in significant amounts to HCO*, CH?O *, CH?O*, and CH?OH*. We considered two possibilities for CO promotion: (a) removal of OH* via COOH* to form CO? and hydrogen (WGS), and (b) CO-assisted hydrogenation of various surface intermediates, with HCO* being the H-donor. Only the former mechanism contributes to methanol formation, but its effect is small compared with that of direct CO hydrogenation to methanol. Overall, methanol synthesis rates are limited by methoxy (CH?O*) formation at low CO?/(CO+CO?) ratios and by CH?O* hydrogenation in CO?-rich feeds. CH?O* hydrogenation is the common slow step for both the CO and the CO? methanol synthesis routes; the relative contribution of

  9. 2011 Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) Supplement | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Supplement 2011 Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) Supplement 2011 Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) Supplement 2011 ASER Supplement (1.65 MB) More Documents & Publications 2010 Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) Supplement DOE Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASER) Memorandum Guidance for the Preparation of Department of Energy (DOE) Annual Site Environmental reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2014

  10. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Expenditures Sum of Major Fuels, Electricity, Natural Gas 3.43 3.44 3.45 3.43 3.44 3.45 Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities 3.46 3.47. 3.48 3.46 3.47 3.48 Natural...

  11. National Supplemental Screening Program | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    National Supplemental Screening Program The National Supplemental Screening Program (NSSP) offers medical screenings at no charge for former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site workers who may have been exposed to hazardous substances at work. For more information, see the documents below. PDF icon Retiree_Benefits_NSSPbrochure.pdf PDF icon Retiree_Benefits_newtest.pdf PDF icon Retiree_Benefits_NSSPemployees

  12. Role of Water in Methanol Photochemistry on Rutile TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Mingmin; Henderson, Michael A.

    2012-08-07

    Photochemistry of the molecularly and dissociatively adsorbed forms of methanol on the vacuum-annealed rutile TiO2(110) surface was explored using temperature programmed desorption (TPD), both with and without coadsorbed water. Methoxy, and not methanol, was confirmed as the photochemically active form of adsorbed methanol on this surface. UV irradiation of methoxy-covered TiO2(110) lead to depletion of the methoxy coverage and formation of formaldehyde and a surface OH group. Coadsorbed water did not promote either molecular methanol photochemistry or thermal decomposition of methanol to methoxy. However, terminal OH groups (OHt), prepared by coadsorption of water and oxygen atoms, thermally converted molecularly adsorbed methanol to methoxy at 120 K, thus enabling photoactivity. While chemisorbed water molecules had no influence on methoxy photochemistry, water molecules hydrogen-bonded in the second layer to bridging oxygen (Obr) sites inhibited the methoxy photodecomposition to formaldehyde. From this we conclude that Obr sites accept protons from the hole-mediated conversion of methoxy to formaldehyde. These results provide new fundamental understanding of the hole-scavenging role of methanol in photochemical processes on TiO2-based materials and how water influences this photochemistry. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle under contract DEAC05-76RL01830. The research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  13. Importance of Diffusion in Methanol Photochemistry on TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Mingmin; Acharya, Danda P.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Henderson, Michael A.

    2012-12-06

    The photoactivity of methanol on the rutile TiO2(110) surface is shown to depend on the ability of methanol to diffuse on the surface and find sites active for its thermal dissociation to methoxy. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) results show that the extent of methanol photodecomposition to formaldehyde is negligible on the clean TiO2(110) surface at 100 K due to a scarcity of sites that can convert (photoinactive) methanol to (photoactive) methoxy. The extent of photoactivity at 100 K significantly increases when methanol is coadsorbed with oxygen, however only those molecules able to adsorb near (next to) a coadsorbed oxygen species are active. Preannealing coadsorbed methanol and oxygen to above 200 K prior to UV irradiation results in a significant increase in photoactivity. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images clearly show that the advent of increased photoactivity in TPD correlates with the onset of methanol diffusion along the surfaces Ti4+ rows at ~200 K. These results demonstrate that optimizing thermal processes (such as diffusion or proton transfer reactions) can be critical to maximizing photocatalytic reactivity on TiO2 surfaces. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle under contract DEAC05-76RL01830. The research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  14. Supplemental report on cost estimates'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-04-29

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have completed an analysis of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 budget request for its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. The results were presented to an interagency review group (IAG) of senior-Administration officials for their consideration in the budget process. This analysis included evaluations of the underlying legal requirements and cost estimates on which the ERWM budget request was based. The major conclusions are contained in a separate report entitled, ''Interagency Review of the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program.'' This Corps supplemental report provides greater detail on the cost analysis.

  15. Coadsorbed species explain the mechanism of methanol temperature-desorption on CeO2(111)

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Sutton, Jonathan E.; Steven H. Overbury; Beste, Ariana

    2016-03-24

    Here, we have used density functional theory calculations to investigate the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of methanol from CeO2(111). For the first time, low-temperature water formation and high-temperature methanol desorption are explained by our calculations. High coverages of methanol, which correspond to experimental conditions, are required to properly describe these features of the TPD spectrum. We identify a mechanism for the low-temperature formation of water involving the dissociation of two methanol molecules on the same surface O atom and filling of the resulting surface vacancy with one of the methoxy products. After water desorption, methoxy groups are stabilized on the surfacemore » and react at higher temperatures to form methanol and formaldehyde by a disproportionation mechanism. Alternatively, the stabilized methoxy groups undergo sequential C–H scission reactions to produce formaldehyde. Calculated energy requirements and methanol/formaldehyde selectivity agree with the experimental data.« less

  16. EIS-0378-SA-01: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    -SA-01: Supplement Analysis EIS-0378-SA-01: Supplement Analysis Port Angeles-Juan de Fuca Transmssion Project Supplement Analysis for the Port Angeles-Juan de Fuca Transmssion...

  17. EIS-0287-SA-01: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    -SA-01: Supplement Analysis EIS-0287-SA-01: Supplement Analysis Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition DOEEIS-0287-SA-01: Supplement Analysis for the Idaho High-Level ...

  18. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  19. Fuel and power coproduction: The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process demonstration at Kingsport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drown, D.P.; Brown, W.R.; Heydorn, E.C.; Moore, R.B.; Schaub, E.S.; Brown, D.M.; Jones, W.C.; Kornosky, R.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process uses a slurry bubble column reactor to convert syngas (primarily a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) to methanol. Because of its superior heat management, the process is able to be designed to directly handle the carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas characteristic of the gasification of coal, petroleum coke, residual oil, wastes, or of other hydrocarbon feedstocks. When added to an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, the LPMEOH{trademark} process converts a portion of the CO-rich syngas produced by the gasifier to methanol, and the remainder of the unconverted gas is used to fuel the gas turbine combined-cycle power plant. The LPMEOH{trademark} process has the flexibility to operate in a daily electricity demand load-following manner. Coproduction of power and methanol via IGCC and the LPMEOH{trademark} process provides opportunities for energy storage for electrical demand peak shaving, clean fuel for export, and/or chemical methanol sales.

  20. DETECTION OF 36GHz CLASS I METHANOL MASER EMISSION TOWARD NGC253

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingsen, Simon P.; Chen, Xi; Qiao, Hai-Hua; Baan, Willem; An, Tao; Li, Juan; Breen, Shari L.

    2014-08-01

    We have used the Australia Telescope Compact Array to search for emission from the 4{sub 1} ? 3{sub 0} E transition of methanol (36.2GHz) toward the center of the nearby starburst galaxy NGC253. Two regions of emission were detected, offset from the nucleus along the same position angle as the inner spiral arms. The emission is largely unresolved on a scale of 5'', has a FWHM line width of <30 km s{sup 1}, and an isotropic luminosity orders of a magnitude larger than that observed in any Galactic star formation region. These characteristics suggest that the 36.2GHz methanol emission is most likely a maser, although observations with higher angular and spectral resolution are required to confirm this. If it is a maser, this represents the first detection of a class I methanol maser outside the Milky Way. The 36.2GHz methanol emission in NGC253 has more than an order of magnitude higher isotropic luminosity than the widespread emission recently detected toward the center of the Milky Way. If emission from this transition scales with the nuclear star formation rate, then it may be detectable in the central regions of many starburst galaxies. Detection of methanol emission in ultra-luminous infrared galaxies would open up a new tool for testing for variations in fundamental constants (particularly the proton-to-electron mass ratio) on cosmological scales.

  1. Comparative Density Functional Study of Methanol Decomposition on Cu4 and Co4 Clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehmood, Faisal; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Zapol, Peter; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2010-11-18

    A density functional theory study of the decomposition of methanol on Cu4 and Co4 clusters is presented. The reaction intermediates and activation barriers have been determined for reaction steps to form H2 and CO. For both clusters, methanol decomposition initiated by C-H and O-H bond breaking was investigated. In the case of a Cu4 cluster, methanol dehydrogenation through hydroxymethyl (CH2OH), hydroxymethylene (CHOH), formyl (CHO), and carbon monoxide (CO) is found to be slightly more favorable. For a Co4 cluster, the dehydrogenation pathway through methoxy (CH3O) and formaldehyde (CH2O) is slightly more favorable. Each of these pathways results in formation of CO and H2. The Co cluster pathway is very favorable thermodynamically and kinetically for dehydrogenation. However, since CO binds strongly, it is likely to poison methanol decomposition to H2 and CO at low temperatures. In contrast, for the Cu cluster, CO poisoning is not likely to be a problem since it does not bind strongly, but the dehydrogenation steps are not energetically favorable. Pathways involving C-O bond cleavage are even less energetically favorable. The results are compared to our previous study of methanol decomposition on Pd4 and Pd8 clusters. Finally, all reaction energy changes and transition state energies, including those for the Pd clusters, are related in a linear, Broensted-Evans-Polanyi plot.

  2. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    tank where heat produced from the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, fuel oil, or coal is used to generate hot water or steam. Many buildings have their own boilers, while...

  3. The efficient use of natural gas in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

    1992-04-01

    Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

  4. The efficient use of natural gas in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

  5. EIS-0203-SA-04: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Supplement Analysis EIS-0203-SA-04: Supplement Analysis Naval Reactors Facility Sludge Pan Container Disposition Project The NRF SPC Disposition Project would provide for the...

  6. TEST PROCEDURES FOR GENERAL SERVICE LAMPS; Supplemental Notice...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    TEST PROCEDURES FOR GENERAL SERVICE LAMPS; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TEST PROCEDURES FOR GENERAL SERVICE LAMPS; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking GSL TP ...

  7. DOE response to questions from AHAM on the supplemental proposed...

    Energy Savers

    on the supplemental proposed test procedure for residential clothes washers DOE response to questions from AHAM on the supplemental proposed test procedure for residential ...

  8. EIS-0317-S1: Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0317-S1: Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement Kangley-Echo Lake Transmission Line Project Bonneville Power...

  9. EIS-0317-S1: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0317-S1: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement Kangley-Echo Lake Transmission Line Project Bonneville Power...

  10. EIS-0005-FS: Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bonneville Power Administration Proposed FY 1979 Program, Facility Location on Supplement, Southwest Oregon Area Service, Buckley-Summer Lake 500 kV Line, Supplemental

  11. EIS-0505: EPA Notice of Availability of Supplemental Draft Environment...

    Energy Savers

    5: EPA Notice of Availability of Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0505: EPA Notice of Availability of Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement ...

  12. EIS-0515: EPA Notice of Availability of Supplemental Draft Environment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    EPA Notice of Availability of Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0515: EPA Notice of Availability of Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement Bay Delta ...

  13. A Supplement Analysis on Plutonium Consolidation at Savannah...

    Energy Savers

    A Supplement Analysis on Plutonium Consolidation at Savannah River Site A Supplement Analysis on Plutonium Consolidation at Savannah River Site DOE's April 2002 decision to ...

  14. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants Prev Next Title: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula...

  15. EIS-0265-SA-83: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    3: Supplement Analysis EIS-0265-SA-83: Supplement Analysis Watershed Management Program Proposed Action: Bear Creek Irrigation Siphon Project (0265-SA-83) (June 2002) PDF icon...

  16. EIS-0183-SA-05: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    5: Supplement Analysis EIS-0183-SA-05: Supplement Analysis Boise River Diversion Dam Powerplant Rehabilitation Boise River Diversion Dam - Amendment to Capital Investment...

  17. EIS-0312-SA-02: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    2: Supplement Analysis EIS-0312-SA-02: Supplement Analysis Fish and Wildlife Implementation Plan Columbia Basin Riparian Conservation Easement Program. The action area for the...

  18. EIS-0285-SA-75: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    5: Supplement Analysis EIS-0285-SA-75: Supplement Analysis Transmission System Vegetation Management Program BPA proposes to remove danger trees as well as unwanted vegetation in...

  19. EIS-0246-SA-24: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    4: Supplement Analysis EIS-0246-SA-24: Supplement Analysis Wildlife Mitigation Program BPA proposes to purchase a conservation easement on approximately 221 acres of the Herbert...

  20. Supplemental Information for Fiscal Year 2017 Project Prioritization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Supplemental Information for Fiscal Year 2017 Project Prioritization Supplemental Information for Fiscal Year 2017 Project Prioritization Topic: David Rhodes DOE, Provided ...

  1. EIS-0421-SA-2: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    2: Supplement Analysis EIS-0421-SA-2: Supplement Analysis The Bonneville Power Administration evaluated: design adjustments to minimize impacts to an area of high cultural...

  2. EIS-0421-SA-1: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    1: Supplement Analysis EIS-0421-SA-1: Supplement Analysis The Bonneville Power Administration evaluated project modifications identified after the start of construction. PDF icon...

  3. EIS-0229: Supplement Analysis (September 2007) | Department of...

    Energy Savers

    This Supplement Analysis (SA) evaluates the need for additional National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review regarding this proposal. PDF icon DOEEIS-0229, Supplement Analysis ...

  4. EIS-0246-SA-20: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    6-SA-20: Supplement Analysis EIS-0246-SA-20: Supplement Analysis Wildlife Mitigation Program BPA proposes to purchase approximately 1,370 acres of riparian and wetland habitat ...

  5. EIS-0380-SA-01: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    -SA-01: Supplement Analysis EIS-0380-SA-01: Supplement Analysis Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory: Proposed Transport of Low Level Radioactive Waste by Truck ...

  6. EIS-0283-SA-02: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    SA-02: Supplement Analysis EIS-0283-SA-02: Supplement Analysis Surplus Plutonium Dispostion Program: Waste Solidification Building The National Nuclear Security Administration ...

  7. EIS-0026-SA-06: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EIS-0026-SA-06: Supplement Analysis Transportation of Transuranic Waste in TRUPACT-III Containers, Carlsbad Field Office This supplement analysis (SA) addresses a proposed action ...

  8. EIS-0218-SA-02: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    2: Supplement Analysis EIS-0218-SA-02: Supplement Analysis Foreign Research Reactor (FRR) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Acceptance Program The objective of this analysis was to...

  9. EIS-0265-SA-90: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Analysis EIS-0265-SA-90: Supplement Analysis Watershed Management Program Naches River Water Treatment Plant Intake Screening Project (September 2002) PDF icon Supplement...

  10. DISTRIBUTED ENERGY PROJECTS SUPPLEMENTS TO RENEWABLE ENERGY AND...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    SUPPLEMENTS TO RENEWABLE ENERGY AND EFFICIENCY ENERGY PROJECTS SOLICITATION DISTRIBUTED ENERGY PROJECTS SUPPLEMENTS TO RENEWABLE ENERGY AND EFFICIENCY ENERGY PROJECTS SOLICITATION ...

  11. EIS-0005-FS: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Bonneville Power Administration Proposed FY 1979 Program, Facility Location on Supplement, Southwest Oregon Area Service, Buckley-Summer Lake 500 kV Line, Supplemental

  12. EIS-0285-SA-80: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (July 2002) More Documents & Publications EIS-0285-SA-62: Supplement Analysis EIS-0285-SA-40: Supplement Analysis EIS-0285-SA-132...

  13. EIS-0285-SA-113: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Management Program Updates 92702 SA-113 (December 2002) More Documents & Publications EIS-0285-SA-151: Supplement Analysis EIS-0285-SA-132: Supplement Analysis EIS-0285-SA-17...

  14. EIS-0283-S2: Surplus Plutonium Disposition Supplemental Environmental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    EIS-0283-S2: Surplus Plutonium Disposition Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement Summary This Supplemental EIS (SEIS) analyzes the potential environmental impacts associated ...

  15. EIS-0250-S1: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    EIS-0250-S1: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository ... DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD January 8, 2016 EIS-0203-SA-07: Supplement Analysis ...

  16. EIS-0312-SA-03: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    EIS-0312-SA-03: Supplement Analysis Fish and Wildlife Implementation Plan The attached Supplement Analysis for Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA's) Fish and Wildlife ...

  17. EIS-0225-SA-04: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    4: Supplement Analysis EIS-0225-SA-04: Supplement Analysis Continued Operation of the Pantex Plant and Associated Storage of Nuclear Weapon Components This second 5-Year update SA...

  18. EIS-0350-SA-02: Final Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    350-SA-02: Final Supplement Analysis EIS-0350-SA-02: Final Supplement Analysis Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Building Replacement Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los...

  19. Kinetic, Spectroscopic, and Theoretical Assessment of Associative and Dissociative Methanol Dehydration Routes in Zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Andrew J.; Iglesia, Enrique

    2014-11-03

    Mechanistic interpretations of rates and in situ IR spectra combined with density functionals that account for van der Waals interactions of intermediates and transition states within confining voids show that associative routes mediate the formation of dimethyl ether from methanol on zeolitic acids at the temperatures and pressures of practical dehydration catalysis. Methoxy-mediated dissociative routes become prevalent at higher temperatures and lower pressures, because they involve smaller transition states with higher enthalpy, but also higher entropy, than those in associative routes. These enthalpyentropy trade-offs merely reflect the intervening role of temperature in activation free energies and the prevalence of more complex transition states at low temperatures and high pressures. This work provides a foundation for further inquiry into the contributions of H-bonded methanol and methoxy species in homologation and hydrocarbon synthesis reactions from methanol.

  20. Polymer electrolyte direct methanol fuel cells: an option for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gottesfeld, S.; Cleghorn, S.J.C.; Ren, X.; Springer, T.E.; Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, T.A.

    1996-10-01

    PEFCs most frequently considered for electric vehicles have been based on either hydrogen carried aboard, or steam-reforming of methanol on board to produce H2 + CO2. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), which use a liquid methanol fuel feed, completely avoid the complexity and weight penalties of the reformer, but have not been considered a serious option until recently, because of much lower power densities. Recent advances in DMFCs have been dramatic, however, with the DMFC reaching power densities which are significant fractions of those provided by reformate/air fuel cells. Use of established Pt-Ru anode electrocatalysts and Pt cathode electrocatalysts in polymer electrolyte DMFCs has resulted in enhanced DMFC performance, particularly when operated above 100 C and when catalyst layer composition and structure are optimized. The higher DMFC power densities recently achieved provide a new basis for considering DMFCs for transportation applications.

  1. Kinetic and thermodynamic study of the liquid-phase etherification of isoamylenes with methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piccoli, R.L. ); Lovisi, H.R. )

    1995-02-01

    The kinetics and thermodynamics of liquid-phase etherification of isoamylenes with methanol on ion exchange catalyst (Amberlyst 15) were studied. Thermodynamic properties and rate data were obtained in a batch reactor operating under 1,013 kPa and 323--353 K. The kinetic equation was modeled following the Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson formalism according to a proposed surface mechanism where the rate-controlling step is the surface reaction. According to the experimental results, methanol adsorbs very strongly on the active sites, covering them completely, and thus the reaction follows an apparent first-order behavior. The isoamylenes, according to the proposed mechanism, adsorb simultaneously on the same single active center already occupied by methanol, migrating through the liquid layer formed by the alcohol around the catalyst to react in the acidic site. From the proposed mechanism a model was suggested and the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were obtained using nonlinear estimation methods.

  2. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2004-04-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the second report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1--March 31, 2004. This quarter saw progress in five areas. These areas are: (1) Internal and external evaluations of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel; (2) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation; (3) Design and set up of the autothermal reactor; (4) Steam reformation of Coal Based Methanol; and (5) Initial catalyst degradation studies. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  3. Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Grohse, E.W.

    1995-06-27

    A process is described for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol. 3 figs.

  4. Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer; Grohse, Edward W.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol.

  5. Detection of class I methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) maser candidates in supernova remnants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pihlstrm, Y. M.; Mesler, R. A.; McEwen, B. C.; Sjouwerman, L. O.; Frail, D. A.; Claussen, M. J.

    2014-04-01

    We have used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to search for 36 GHz and 44 GHz methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) lines in a sample of 21 Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs). Mainly the regions of the SNRs with 1720 MHz OH masers were observed. Despite the limited spatial extent covered in our search, methanol masers were detected in both G1.40.1 and W28. Additional masers were found in Sgr A East. More than 40 masers were found in G1.40.1, which we deduce are due to interactions between the SNR and at least two separate molecular clouds. The six masers in W28 are associated with the molecular cloud that is also associated with the OH maser excitation. We discuss the possibility that the methanol maser may be more numerous in SNRs than the OH maser, but harder to detect due to observational constraints.

  6. Natural gas annual 1992. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-22

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data for the Nation from 1930 to 1992, and by State from 1967 to 1992. The Supplement of this report presents profiles of selected companies.

  7. Natural Gas Monthly August 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-08-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. Explanatory notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication.

  8. Military Construction Appropriations and Emergency Hurricane Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2005 (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications

    2005-01-01

    H.R. 4837, The Military Construction Appropriations and Emergency Hurricane Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2005, was signed into law on October 13, 2004. The Act provides for construction to support the operations of the U.S. Armed Forces and for military family housing. It also provides funds to help citizens in Florida and elsewhere in the aftermath of multiple hurricanes and other natural disasters. In addition, it authorizes construction of an Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline.

  9. WIDESPREAD METHANOL EMISSION FROM THE GALACTIC CENTER: THE ROLE OF COSMIC RAYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Royster, M.; Cotton, W.; Viti, S.; Wardle, M.

    2013-02-20

    We report the discovery of a widespread population of collisionally excited methanol J = 4{sub -1} to 3{sub 0} E sources at 36.2 GHz from the inner 66' Multiplication-Sign 18' (160 Multiplication-Sign 43 pc) of the Galactic center. This spectral feature was imaged with a spectral resolution of 16.6 km s{sup -1} taken from 41 channels of a Very Large Array continuum survey of the Galactic center region. The revelation of 356 methanol sources, most of which are maser candidates, suggests a large abundance of methanol in the gas phase in the Galactic center region. There is also spatial and kinematic correlation between SiO (2-1) and CH{sub 3}OH emission from four Galactic center clouds: the +50 and +20 km s{sup -1} clouds and G0.13-0.13 and G0.25 + 0.01. The enhanced abundance of methanol is accounted for in terms of induced photodesorption by cosmic rays as they travel through a molecular core, collide, dissociate, ionize, and excite Lyman Werner transitions of H{sub 2}. A time-dependent chemical model in which cosmic rays drive the chemistry of the gas predicts CH{sub 3}OH abundance of 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -7} on a chemical timescale of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} years. The average methanol abundance produced by the release of methanol from grain surfaces is consistent with the available data.

  10. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is mandated by Congress to be the agency that collects, analyzes, and disseminates impartial, comprehensive data about energy including the volume consumed, its customers, and the purposes for which it is used. The Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey (FBSS) was conducted by EIA in conjunction with DOE`s Office of Federal Energy Management Programs (OFEMP) to gain a better understanding of how Federal buildings use energy. This report presents the data from 881 completed telephone interviews with Federal buildings in three Federal regions. These buildings were systematically selected using OFEMP`s specifications; therefore, these data do not statistically represent all Federal buildings in the country. The purpose of the FBSS was threefold: (1) to understand the characteristics of Federal buildings and their energy use; (2) to provide a baseline in these three Federal regions to measure future energy use in Federal buildings as required in EPACT; and (3) to compare building characteristics and energy use with the data collected in the CBECS.

  11. Liquid phase low temperature method for production of methanol from synthesis gas and catalyst formulations therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2005-07-26

    The invention provides a homogenous catalyst for the production of methanol from purified synthesis gas at low temperature and low pressure which includes a transition metal capable of forming transition metal complexes with coordinating ligands and an alkoxide, the catalyst dissolved in a methanol solvent system, provided the transition metal complex is not transition metal carbonyl. The coordinating ligands can be selected from the group consisting of N-donor ligands, P-donor ligands, O-donor ligands, C-donor ligands, halogens and mixtures thereof.

  12. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2005-04-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the sixth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) Autothermal reforming of coal derived methanol, (2) Catalyst deactivation, (3) Steam reformer transient response, and (4) Catalyst degradation with bluff bodies. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  13. Preparation of silver nanoparticles/graphene nanosheets as a catalyst for electrochemical oxidation of methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Kun; Miao, Peng; Tang, Yuguo; Tong, Hui; Zhu, Xiaoli; Liu, Tao; Cheng, Wenbo

    2014-02-03

    In this report, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) decorated graphene nanosheets have been prepared based on the reduction of Ag ions by hydroquinone, and their catalytic performance towards the electrochemical oxidation of methanol is investigated. The synthesis of the nano-composite is confirmed by transmission electron microscope measurements and UV-vis absorption spectra. Excellent electrocatalytic performance of the material is demonstrated by cyclic voltammograms. This material also contributes to the low peak potential of methanol oxidation compared with most of the other materials.

  14. EIS-0285-SA-448: Supplement Analysis

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS- 0285/SA448 Pearl-Marion No. 1 Transmission Line Corridor) Project No. PP&A # 2049

  15. EA-1975: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    5: Supplement Analysis EA-1975: Supplement Analysis LINAC Coherent Light Source-Il, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California This document provides an analysis of the potential impacts of the proposed reconfigured cryogenic plants, a new cooling tower, and other added components. It contains a description of the revised project layout, the larger second cryogenic plant and added cooling tower, and the added construction and operation requirements, as well as an analysis of

  16. III. PROGRAM-SPECIFIC COMPLIANCE SUPPLEMENTS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    III. PROGRAM-SPECIFIC COMPLIANCE SUPPLEMENTS For fiscal year 2010, no DOE programs have compliance requirements that are distinct from the general compliance requirements included in Part II of this guidance (General Compliance Supplement). Therefore, audits of recipients and subrecipients with fiscal years ending in 2010 should be conducted in accordance with the compliance requirements included in Part II of this guidance. For fiscal years subsequent to 2010, program-specific compliance

  17. SIXTH SUPPLEMENT TO RENEWABLE ENERGY AND EFFICIENT ENERGY PROJECTS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    SOLICITATION | Department of Energy SIXTH SUPPLEMENT TO RENEWABLE ENERGY AND EFFICIENT ENERGY PROJECTS SOLICITATION SIXTH SUPPLEMENT TO RENEWABLE ENERGY AND EFFICIENT ENERGY PROJECTS SOLICITATION SIXTH SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT - FEDERAL LOAN GUARANTEES FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY AND EFFICIENT ENERGY PROJECTS (186.31 KB) More Documents & Publications FOURTH SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT

  18. DOE Publishes Supplemental Proposed Determination for Miscellaneous Residential Refrigeration Products

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has published a supplemental proposed determination regarding miscellaneous residential refrigeration products.

  19. EIS-0026-S: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Carlsbad, New Mexico

  20. Supplement VI regarding Application Submission Schedule (June 22, 2016) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Supplement VI regarding Application Submission Schedule (June 22, 2016) Supplement VI regarding Application Submission Schedule (June 22, 2016) Supplement VI regarding Application Submission Schedule (June 22, 2016).pdf (187.43 KB) More Documents & Publications Supplement_V_regarding_Application_Submission_Schedule_(June_22,_

  1. Properties of a soft-core model of methanol: An integral equation theory and computer simulation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Matej; Urbic, Tomaz; Muna, Gianmarco

    2014-10-28

    Thermodynamic and structural properties of a coarse-grained model of methanol are examined by Monte Carlo simulations and reference interaction site model (RISM) integral equation theory. Methanol particles are described as dimers formed from an apolar Lennard-Jones sphere, mimicking the methyl group, and a sphere with a core-softened potential as the hydroxyl group. Different closure approximations of the RISM theory are compared and discussed. The liquid structure of methanol is investigated by calculating site-site radial distribution functions and static structure factors for a wide range of temperatures and densities. Results obtained show a good agreement between RISM and Monte Carlo simulations. The phase behavior of methanol is investigated by employing different thermodynamic routes for the calculation of the RISM free energy, drawing gas-liquid coexistence curves that match the simulation data. Preliminary indications for a putative second critical point between two different liquid phases of methanol are also discussed.

  2. Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2004-09-30

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the fourth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of July 1-Sept 30, 2004 along with a recap of progress from the start of the project on Oct 1, 2003 to Sept 30, 2004. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule. This year saw progress in several areas. These areas are: (1) External and internal evaluation of coal based methanol and a fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design set up and initial testing of three laboratory scale steam reformers, (3) Design, set up and initial testing of a laboratory scale autothermal reactor, (4) Hydrogen generation from coal-derived methanol using steam reformation, (5) Experiments to determine the axial and radial thermal profiles of the steam reformers, (6) Initial catalyst degradation studies with steam reformation and coal based methanol, and (7) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  3. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  4. Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-02-02

    This report consists of Detailed Data Acquisition Sheets for Runs E-6 and E-7 for Task 2.2 of the Modification, Operation, and Support Studies of the Liquid Phase Methanol Laporte Process Development Unit. (Task 2.2: Alternate Catalyst Run E-6 and Catalyst Activity Maintenance Run E-7).

  5. 2010 Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) Supplement | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy 0 Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) Supplement 2010 Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) Supplement 2010 Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) Supplement 2010 ASER Supplement (537.27 KB) More Documents & Publications 2011 Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) Supplement Memorandum Guidance for the Preparation of Department of Energy (DOE) Annual Site Environmental reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2014 DOE Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASER)

  6. X-ray absorption and electrochemical studies of direct methanol fuel cell catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zurawski, D.J.; Aldykiewicz, A.J. Jr.; Baxter, S.F.; Krumpelt, M.

    1996-12-31

    In order for polymer electrolyte fuel cells to operate directly on methanol instead of hydrogen, a distinct advantage for portable applications, methanol oxidation must be catalyzed effectively in the acidic environment of the cell. Platinum-ruthenium and platinum-ruthenium oxide are generally considered to be the most active catalysts for this purpose. The presence of ruthenium significantly enhances the activity of platinum in these catalysts, for reasons not yet fully understood. We are using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and electrochemical techniques to evaluate the mechanisms proposed to account for this enhancement in order to further improve the catalyst`s activity. We are considering three enhancement mechanisms. An intermediate in the oxidation of methanol on platinum is carbon monoxide and its oxidation is the rate-determining step in the overall oxidation mechanism. It has been proposed that ruthenium facilitates the removal of carbon monoxide from the platinum surface. First, it has been proposed that ruthenium decreases the strength of the platinum-carbon monoxide bond. Carbon monoxide bonds to the catalyst by interacting with the d-band of platinum, therefore a change in the d-band occupancy of platinum as a result of alloying may influence the bond strength of carbon monoxide. Another proposed enhancement mechanism involves lowering of the potential for the formation of the CO-oxidizing species. Finally, the binary catalysts may have a structure which is more conducive to the methanol dehydrogenation and carbon monoxide reactions. Based on these three proposed enhancement mechanisms, a goal of this study is to correlate catalyst electronic properties, structure, and oxidation state with the performance of proton-exchange membrane (Nafion) direct methanol fuel cells.

  7. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-30

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHT") demonstration project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L. P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. A demonstration unit producing 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons-per-day) of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) was designed, constructed, and is operating at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration period. This project is sponsored under the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to "demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOWM Process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility." The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low-sulfur dioxide, low-nitrogen oxides alternative fiel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research and market verification studies show promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the four-year demonstration period. The LPMEOITM process is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and the DOE in a program that started in 1981. It was successfdly piloted at a 10 tons-per- day (TPD) rate in the DOE-owned experimental unit at Air Products' LaPorte, Texas, site. This demonstration project is the culmination of that extensive cooperative development effort.

  8. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LOMEOH(TM)) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million effort being conducted under a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. A demonstration unit producing 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons-per-day (TPD)) of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) was designed, constructed, and began a four-year operational period in April of 1997 at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration period. This project is sponsored under the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to "demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOH?M Process in conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility." The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low-sulfur dioxide, low-nitrogen oxides alternative fiel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research and market verification studies show promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the four-year demonstration period. The LPMEOJYM process is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and the DOE in a program that started in 1981. It was successfidly piloted at a 10-TPD rate in the DOE-owned experimental unit at Air Products' LaPorte, Texas, site. This Demonstration Project is the culmination of that extensive cooperative development effort.

  9. Natural Gas

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage ...

  10. Site Competition During Coadsorption of Acetone with Methanol and Water on TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Mingmin; Henderson, Michael A.

    2011-08-02

    The competitive interaction between acetone and two solvent molecules (methanol and water) for surface sites on rutile TiO2(110) was studied using temperature programmed desorption (TPD). On a vacuum reduced TiO2(110) surface, which possessed ~5% oxygen vacancy sites, excess methanol displaced preadsorbed acetone molecules to weakly bound and physisorbed desorption states below 200 K, whereas acetone was stabilized to 250 K against displacement by methanol on an oxidized surface through formation of an acetone-diolate species. These behaviors of acetone differ from the competitive interactions between acetone and water in that acetone is less susceptible to displacement by water. Examination of acetone+methanol and acetone+water multilayer combinations shows that acetone is more compatible in water-ice films than in methanol-ice films, presumably because water has greater potential as a hydrogen-bond donor than does methanol. Acetone molecules displaced from the TiO2(110) surface by water are more likely to be retained in the near-surface region, having a greater opportunity to revisit the surface, than when methanol is used as a coadsorbate. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  11. COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF THE LIQUID PHASE METHANOL (LPMEOH) PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.C. Heydorn; B.W. Diamond; R.D. Lilly

    2003-06-01

    This project, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Technology Program to demonstrate the production of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas), has completed the 69-month operating phase of the program. The purpose of this Final Report for the ''Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process'' is to provide the public with details on the performance and economics of the technology. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project was a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the DOE and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). The DOE's cost share was $92,708,370 with the remaining funds coming from the Partnership. The LPMEOH{trademark} demonstration unit is located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The technology was the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} Process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern coal gasifiers. Originally tested at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU), a small, DOE-owned process development facility in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst, and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project accomplished the objectives set out in the Cooperative Agreement with DOE for this Clean Coal Technology project

  12. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOTH) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-21

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOW) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership) to produce methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOI-P Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman coal-to-chemicals complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, initial planning and procurement work continued on the seven project sites which have been accepted for participation in the off-site, product-use test program. Approximately 12,000 gallons of fuel-grade methanol (98+ wt% methanol, 4 wt% water) produced during operation on carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas at the LPMEOW Demonstration Unit was loaded into trailers and shipped off-site for Mure product-use testing. At one of the projects, three buses have been tested on chemical-grade methanol and on fhel-grade methanol from the LPMEOW Demonstration Project. During the reporting period, planning for a proof-of-concept test run of the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME~ Process at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, TX continued. The commercial catalyst manufacturer (Calsicat) has prepared the first batch of dehydration catalyst in large-scale equipment. Air Products will test a sample of this material in the laboratory autoclave. Catalyst activity, as defined by the ratio of the rate constant at any point in time to the rate constant for freshly reduced catalyst (as determined in the laborato~ autoclave), was monitored for the initial extended operation at the lower initial reactor operating temperature of 235oC. At this condition, the decrease in catalyst activity with time from the period 20 December 1997 through 27 January 1998 occurred at a rate of 1.0% per

  13. Natural gas annual 1992: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-22

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. The 1992 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production top its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1988 to 1992 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. Volume 2 of this report presents State-level historical data.

  14. A Theoretical Study of Methanol Synthesis from CO(2) Hydrogenation on Metal-doped Cu(111) Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu P.; Yang, Y.; White, M.G.

    2012-01-12

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations were employed to investigate the methanol synthesis reaction from CO{sub 2} hydrogenation (CO{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2} {yields} CH{sub 3}OH + H{sub 2}O) on metal-doped Cu(111) surfaces. Both the formate pathway and the reverse water-gas shift (RWGS) reaction followed by a CO hydrogenation pathway (RWGS + CO-Hydro) were considered in the study. Our calculations showed that the overall methanol yield increased in the sequence: Au/Cu(111) < Cu(111) < Pd/Cu(111) < Rh/Cu(111) < Pt/Cu(111) < Ni/Cu(111). On Au/Cu(111) and Cu(111), the formate pathway dominates the methanol production. Doping Au does not help the methanol synthesis on Cu(111). Pd, Rh, Pt, and Ni are able to promote the methanol production on Cu(111), where the conversion via the RWGS + CO-Hydro pathway is much faster than that via the formate pathway. Further kinetic analysis revealed that the methanol yield on Cu(111) was controlled by three factors: the dioxomethylene hydrogenation barrier, the CO binding energy, and the CO hydrogenation barrier. Accordingly, two possible descriptors are identified which can be used to describe the catalytic activity of Cu-based catalysts toward methanol synthesis. One is the activation barrier of dioxomethylene hydrogenation, and the other is the CO binding energy. An ideal Cu-based catalyst for the methanol synthesis via CO{sub 2} hydrogenation should be able to hydrogenate dioxomethylene easily and bond CO moderately, being strong enough to favor the desired CO hydrogenation rather than CO desorption but weak enough to prevent CO poisoning. In this way, the methanol production via both the formate and the RWGS + CO-Hydro pathways can be facilitated.

  15. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gass, Carrie; Olson, Jim M.

    2004-11-01

    In 2001 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, brood stock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate project data points and augment past data. Due to low adult spring Chinook returns to Kooskia National Fish Hatchery (KNFH) in brood year 1999 there was no smolt supplementation treatment release into Clear Creek in 2001. A 17,014 spring Chinook parr supplementation treatment (containing 1000 PIT tags) was released into Pete King Creek on July 24, 2001. On Clear Creek, there were 412 naturally produced spring Chinook parr PIT tagged and released. Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 320 naturally produced spring Chinook pre-smolts on Clear Creek, and 16 natural pre-smolts on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. There were no PIT tag detections of brood year 1999 smolts from Clear or Pete King creeks. A total of 2261 adult spring Chinook were collected at KNFH. Forty-three females were used for supplementation brood stock, and 45 supplementation (ventral fin-clip), and 45 natural (unmarked) adults were released upstream of KNFH to spawn naturally. Spatial and temporal distribution of 37 adults released above the KNFH weir was determined through the use of radio telemetry. On Clear Creek, a total of 166 redds (8.2 redds/km) were observed and data was collected from 195 carcasses. Seventeen completed redds (2.1 redds/km) were found, and data was collected data from six carcasses on Pete King Creek.

  16. Natural gas monthly, July 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-21

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Explanatory Notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided in the Data Sources section. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. All natural gas volumes are reported at a pressure base of 14.73 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) and at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Cubic feet are converted to cubic meters by applying a factor of 0.02831685.

  17. Reactions of Deuterated Methanol (CD3OD) on Fe3O4(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhisheng; Potapenko, Denis V.; Rim, Kwang T.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Flynn, George; Osgood, Richard; Wen, Xiaodong; Batista, Enrique R.

    2015-01-15

    We report an experimental and theoretical investigation of the decomposition (partial oxidation) of deuterated methanol (CD3OD) on a single-crystal Fe3O4(111) surface. The crystal surface contains majority areas of a Fe-terminated Fe3O4(111) surface as well as smaller regions of O-terminated FeO(111) or biphase surface reconstruction. Our investigation uses a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy, temperature-programmed desorption, and density functional theory calculations to examine the surface reactions and adsorbates as a function of coverage. Our studies show that the reaction of methanol on this ironoxide surface is highly sensitive to atomic-level surface reconstructions

  18. Effect of under-inhibition with methanol and ethylene glycol on the hydrate control process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yousif, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    Hydrate control can be achieved by chemical injection. Currently, methanol and ethylene glycol are the most widely used inhibitors in offshore hydrate control operations. To achieve effective hydrate inhibition, a sufficient amount of inhibitor must be injected to shift the thermodynamic equilibrium condition for hydrate formation outside the pipeline operating pressure and temperature. Recently published field experiments showed that hydrate blockages form more readily in under-inhibited systems than in systems completely without inhibitor. A laboratory study is conducted to determine the effect of low concentration (1--5wt%) methanol and ethylene glycol on the hydrate formation process. The results show that, although these chemicals are effective hydrate inhibitors when added in sufficient quantities, they actually enhance the rate of hydrate formation when added at low concentrations to the water. Furthermore, the presence of these chemicals seems to affect the size of the forming hydrate particles.

  19. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the ninth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1, 2005-December 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) reformate purification, (2) heat transfer enhancement, (3) autothermal reforming coal-derived methanol degradation test; and (4) model development for fuel cell system integration. The project is on schedule and is now shifting towards the design of an integrated PEM fuel cell system capable of using the coal-derived product. This system includes a membrane clean up unit and a commercially available PEM fuel cell.

  20. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2006-04-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the tenth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2006. This quarter saw progress in six areas. These areas are: (1) The effect of catalyst dimension on steam reforming, (2) Transient characteristics of autothermal reforming, (3) Rich and lean autothermal reformation startup, (4) Autothermal reformation degradation with coal derived methanol, (5) Reformate purification system, and (6) Fuel cell system integration. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.