National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for mechanical collectors cyclones

  1. Fluidic Solar Collectors New Materials and Mechanisms for Heliostats...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fluidic Solar Collectors New Materials and Mechanisms for Heliostats Fluidic Solar Collectors New Materials and Mechanisms for Heliostats This presentation was delivered at the ...

  2. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, K.C.

    1990-11-06

    This patent describes a tracking solar collector mechanism. It comprises: a stationary base structure which supports the tracking components; two parallel rows of uniformly spaced axial polar bearings attached to the base structure, each row comprising at least one bearing, wherein each member bearing of each row is coaligned with an associated bearing of the other row, the line joining each pair of coaligned polar bearings defining an associated polar tracking axis wherein the pair's polar axes are mutually parallel and are adapted to be aligned with the Earth's axis; at least one tracking module, each of which is supported by and turns on one of the pairs of coaligned polar bearings.

  3. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, K.C.

    1992-12-08

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion. 16 figs.

  4. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    1992-01-01

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion.

  5. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion.

  6. Solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassidy, V.M.

    1981-11-01

    Practical applications of solar energy in commercial, industrial and institutional buildings are considered. Two main types of solar collectors are described: flat plate collectors and concentrating collectors. Efficiency of air and hydronic collectors among the flat plate types are compared. Also several concentrators are described, including their sun tracking mechanisms. Descriptions of some recent solar installations are presented and a list representing the cross section of solar collector manufacturers is furnished.

  7. Tracking system for solar collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, B.

    1980-10-01

    A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

  8. Tracking system for solar collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

  9. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  10. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  11. Solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1982-05-04

    The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame. A thin film window is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  12. Solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    The invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame. A thin film window is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  13. Solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1982-01-01

    The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame (14). A thin film window (42) is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber (24) of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers (24a, 24b) that are sealed perimetrically. The layers (24a, 24b) define a fluid-tight planar envelope (24c) of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber (24) is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  14. Cyclone reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Converse, Alvin O.; Grethlein, Hans E.; Holland, Joseph E.

    1989-04-04

    A system is provided to produce sugars from a liquid-solid mixture containing biomass, and an acid, wherein the mixture is heated to an appropriate temperature to achieve hydrolysis. The liquid-solid mixture is introduced as a stream into the circular-cylindrical chamber of a cyclone reaction vessel and steam is introduced to the vessel to provide the necessary heat for hydrolysis as well as to establish the liquid-solid mixture in a rotary flow field whereby the liquids and solids of the mixture move along spiral paths within the chamber. The liquid-solid mixture may be introduced at the periphery of the chamber to spiral down toward and be discharged at or near the center of the chamber. Because of differing mass, the solid particles in the mixture move radially inward at a different rate than the liquid and that rate is controlled to maximize the hydrolysis of the solids and to minimize the decomposition of sugars, thus formed.

  15. Solar collector with altitude tracking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for turning a solar collector about an east-west horizontal axis so that the collector is tilted toward the sun as the EWV altitude of the sun varies each day. It includes one or more heat responsive elements and a shading means aligned so that within a range of EWV altitudes of the sun during daylight hours the shading means shades the element or elements while during the rest of the daylight hours the elements or elements are heated by the sun to assume heated, stable states. Mechanical linkage between the collector and the element is responsive to the states of the element or elements to tilt the collector in accordance with variations in the EWV altitude of the sun.

  16. Freeze protection apparatus for solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duval, E.F.; Bagshaw, D.P.; Kast, M.A.; Masters, G.M.; Whitehouse, H.T.

    1984-05-29

    A freeze protection system allows the working fluid contained in the communicating tubes of the solar collector to drain from both the input and output tubes of the collector when a first predetermined temperature of the working fluid is detected and to fill the collector via both the input and output tubes when a second predetermined temperature is detected. The invention includes valve mechanisms, of the spool valve variety, that communicate the working fluid to be heated to the collector and therefrom to a storage tank, a valve actuator and a sensor. The actuator moves a valve element from a first position for communicating working fluid to be heated from a source to the imput tube of the collector and for communicating heated working fluid from the output tube of the collector to a storage facility to a second position for interrupting fluid communication from the source to the collector and for communicating both the input and output tubes of the collector to a drainpipe-draining the collector of working fluid-when the first predetermined temperature level is detected by the sensor. Upon detection of the second predetermined temperature level the sensor causes the actuator to return the valve element to the first position via an intermediate position that closes the drainpipe and temporarily communicates the working fluid to both the input and output tubes of the collector.

  17. Ultracapacitor current collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jerabek, Elihu Calfin (Glenmont, NY); Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2001-10-16

    An ultracapacitor having two solid, nonporous current collectors, two porous electrodes separating the collectors, a porous separator between the electrodes and an electrolyte occupying the pores in the electrodes and separator. At least one of the current collectors comprises a conductive metal substrate coated with a metal nitride, carbide or boride coating.

  18. Pulsed depressed collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, Mark A

    2015-11-03

    A high power RF device has an electron beam cavity, a modulator, and a circuit for feed-forward energy recovery from a multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The electron beam cavity include a cathode, an anode, and the multi-stage depressed collector, and the modulator is configured to provide pulses to the cathode. Voltages of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are allowed to float as determined by fixed impedances seen by the electrode stages. The energy recovery circuit includes a storage capacitor that dynamically biases potentials of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector and provides recovered energy from the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The circuit may also include a step-down transformer, where the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are electrically connected to separate taps on the step-down transformer.

  19. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook

    6 Number of companies expecting to introduce new solar new solar thermal collector products in 2010 Low-Temperature Collectors 4 Medium-Temperature Collectors 16 High-Temperature ...

  20. Omnidirectional solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, W.A.

    1982-02-09

    A solar energy black body collector is disclosed that gathers the sun's radiant forms of energy, transforms the energy to heat energy and transfers this energy to a medium fluid (Air). The energy absorbing structure consists of a cell layer (Secondary black body collector) and a flat plate (Primary black body collector) almost perpendicular to each other. This combined structure collects the sun's rays from any inbound angle and reduces, to a minimum, reflected rays out of the black body collector frontal area. The black body collector structure is mounted between a transparent (To light wave energy) front panel and an opaque rear panel. The entire unit is hermetically sealed to the outside elements and is a completed unit ready for service.

  1. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook

    4 Average thermal performance rating of solar thermal collectors by type shipped in 2009 ... Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey." ...

  2. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook

    5 Shipments of complete solar thermal collector systems, 2008 and 2009 Shipment ... Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey."

  3. Internal absorber solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herskovitz, S.B.; Holt, F.S.; Sletten, C.J.; Sletten, E.J.

    1981-12-29

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60/sup 0/ in elevation angle by 120/sup 0/ or more in the azimuth secto with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  4. Internal absorber solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sletten, Carlyle J.; Herskovitz, Sheldon B.; Holt, F. S.; Sletten, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  5. Solar collector panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessford, J.D.

    1983-03-01

    A solar collector panel and a method of making the collector panel. The solar collector panel has four layers of fiberglass mat which are each saturated with a catalyzed liquiform resin. Between the first two layers, unimpregnated kraft honeycomb paper having an open cellular structure is placed so as to form a resinated honeycomb core between these first two layers. A plurality of fluid channels are then bonded to the second layer of resin saturated fiberglass mat. The fluid channels are made of a material having a coefficient of thermal expansion essentially equal to that of the fiberglass mat. The third layer of resinsaturated fiberglass mat is placed over the fluid channels. A second layer of kraft honeycomb paper is then placed between the third and fourth layers of resin-saturated fiberglass mat, and a clear gel coat mixed with an ultraviolet inhibitor solution is rolled out over the top of the solar collector panel to partially screen out ultraviolet rays.

  6. Fuel cell current collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Murray; Bonk, Stanley P.; Maricle, Donald L.; Abrams, Martin

    1991-01-01

    A fuel cell has a current collector plate (22) located between an electrode (20) and a separate plate (25). The collector plate has a plurality of arches (26, 28) deformed from a single flat plate in a checkerboard pattern. The arches are of sufficient height (30) to provide sufficient reactant flow area. Each arch is formed with sufficient stiffness to accept compressive load and sufficient resiliently to distribute the load and maintain electrical contact.

  7. Stellate solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Womack, R. R.

    1981-02-03

    A solar collector device of the type adapted for heating water and the like is disclosed. An elongated, opaque collector is provided with a plurality of radially extending vanes so as to define a hollow interior of stellate cross-section. Water is sprayed through a feeding conduit which extends through the hollow interior. As the sprayed water accumulates upon the interior vane surfaces, the collector wheel is rotated according to the weight of the deposited water. As the vane tips are rotated downwardly, the water is heated by conductive contact with the interior vane surfaces and by convection and radiation within the hollow interior. The heated water is then discharged downwardly through apertures in the vane tips into a collector pan. The invention is distinguished from the prior art in its introduction of the water upon the interior surfaces of collector vanes within a paddle wheel of stellate configuration, rather than upon the exterior surfaces of the vanes. The stellate configuration provides an increased area of exposure to the radiation of the sun within a compact unit and provides heating of the water by conduction, convection and radiation.

  8. Solvent vapor collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1979-01-30

    A solvent vapor collector is mounted on the upstream inlet end of an oven having a gas-circulating means and intended for curing a coating applied to a strip sheet metal at a coating station. The strip sheet metal may be hot and solvent vapors are evaporated at the coating station and from the strip as it passes from the coating station to the oven. Upper and lower plenums within a housing of the collector are supplied with oven gases or air from the gas-circulating means and such gases or air are discharged within the collector obliquely in a downstream direction against the strip passing through that collector to establish downstream gas flows along the top and under surfaces of the strip so as, in turn, to induct solvent vapors into the collector at the coating station. A telescopic multi-piece shroud is usefully provided on the housing for movement between an extended position in which it overlies the coating station to collect solvent vapors released thereat and a retracted position permitting ready cleaning and adjustment of that coating station.

  9. Biological sample collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  10. Structurally integrated steel solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, S.W.

    1975-06-03

    Herein is disclosed a flate plate solar heat collector unit. The solar collector is integrated as a structural unit so that the collector also functions as the building roof. The functions of efficient heat collection, liquid coolant flow passages, roof structural support, and building insulation are combined into one unit.

  11. Structurally integrated steel solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Stanley W.

    1977-03-08

    Herein is disclosed a flat plate solar heat collector unit. The solar collector is integrated as a structural unit so that the collector also functions as the building roof. The functions of efficient heat collection, liquid coolant flow passages, roof structural support and building insulation are combined into one unit.

  12. Inflatable solar energy collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brindle, D.K.; Shanfelt, D.Y.

    1980-01-08

    An inflatable solar energy collector utilizes flexible materials and is adapted to be inflated by a flow of pressurized gas therethrough. Inflation positions a solar energy collecting panel at an appropriate predetermined angle for effectively collecting solar energy. The solar collector includes an enclosure defining a generally tubular configuration, and the energy collecting panel extends in a planar and chord-like manner through the interior of the enclosure. Wall portions of the enclosure comprise solar radiation transparent material to allow incident solar radiation to pass therethrough onto the energy collecting panel. A second panel of solar radiation transparent material is operatively sealed to the energy collecting panel in selected positions to define a gas conducting conduit extending over the energy collecting panel. A flow of pressurized gas is conducted into the gas conducting conduit and removes the solar radiation absorbed by the energy collecting panel in the form of heat. Means conducts pressurized gas from the gas conducting conduit into the interior of the enclosure for inflating the collector and positioning the energy collecting panel at the optimum angle for absorbing incident solar radiation. Attaching means are positioned at the exterior of the enclosure for selectively attaching the enclosure to a support surface in a desired manner whereby the energy collecting panel is optimally angled upon inflation of the collector.

  13. Solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brin, Raymond L.; Pace, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

  14. Multiple discharge cylindrical pump collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, Charlton; Bremner, Robert J.; Meng, Sen Y.

    1989-01-01

    A space-saving discharge collector 40 for the rotary pump 28 of a pool-type nuclear reactor 10. An annular collector 50 is located radially outboard for an impeller 44. The annular collector 50 as a closed outer periphery 52 for collecting the fluid from the impeller 44 and producing a uniform circumferential flow of the fluid. Turning means comprising a plurality of individual passageways 54 are located in an axial position relative to the annular collector 50 for receiving the fluid from the annular collector 50 and turning it into a substantially axial direction.

  15. Solar collector array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  16. Solar collector panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessford, J.D.

    1980-11-11

    A solar collector panel and method of making same are disclosed. The solar collector panel has four layers of fiberglass mat which are each saturated with a catalyzed liquiform resin. Between the first two layers, unimpregnated kraft honeycomb paper having an open cellular structure is placed so as to form a resinated honeycomb core between these first two layers. A black gel coat is sprayed onto the second layer of resin-saturated fiberglass mat and a plurality of copper tubes are then placed onto the black gel coat so as to be bonded in heat-transfer relation thereto. The third layer of resin-saturated fiberglass mat is draped over the copper tubes so as to insulate them. A second layer of kraft honeycomb paper is then placed between the third and forth layers of resin-saturated fiberglass mat, and a clear gel coat mixed with an ultraviolet inhibitor solution is rolled out over the top of the solar collector panel to partially screen out ultraviolet rays.

  17. Turning collectors for solar radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for turning a solar collector about the polar axis so that the collector is directed toward the sun as the sun tracks the sky each day. It includes two heat-expansive elements and a shadow plate. In the morning a first expansive element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the second expansive element is shaded by the plate. In the afternoon the second element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the first is shaded by the plate.

  18. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook

    2 Solar thermal collector shipments by type, quantity, revenue, and average price, 2008 ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  19. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook

    1 Distribution of domestic solar thermal collector shipments (thousand square feet) 2008 ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  20. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Annual shipments of solar thermal collectors by type, 2000 - 2009 (thousand square feet) ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  1. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Shipments of solar thermal collectors ranked by origin and destination, 2009 Origin Top ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  2. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Annual shipments of solar thermal collectors by source, 2000 - 2009 Imports Domestically ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  3. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Annual shipments of solar thermal collectors by disposition, 2000 - 2009 (thousand square ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  4. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook

    7 Percent of solar thermal collector shipments by the 10 largest companies, 2000 - 2009 ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  5. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook

    8 Import shipments of solar thermal collectors by country, 2008 and 2009 (square feet) ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  6. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook

    7 Import shipments of solar thermal collectors by type, 2000 - 2009 (thousand square feet) ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  7. Solar energy collector system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natter, H.

    1981-12-29

    A solar energy collector system is described having an array of solar concentrators mounted at spaced intervals along a conduit network through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated. The concentrators include an arcuate channel providing a heat absorption surface and a saddle member for mounting the channel section to the conduit. An insulation shroud surrounds the channel member and conduit. An elongate lens panel is positionable over the absorption surface for focusing incident solar radiation. The angle of inclination of the lens panel can be varied by manual rotation of the solar concentrators about the longitudinal axis of the conduit.

  8. Conductivity fuel cell collector plate and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braun, James C.

    2002-01-01

    An improved method of manufacturing a PEM fuel cell collector plate is disclosed. During molding a highly conductive polymer composite is formed having a relatively high polymer concentration along its external surfaces. After molding the polymer rich layer is removed from the land areas by machining, grinding or similar process. This layer removal results in increased overall conductivity of the molded collector plate. The polymer rich surface remains in the collector plate channels, providing increased mechanical strength and other benefits to the channels. The improved method also permits greater mold cavity thickness providing a number of advantages during the molding process.

  9. Integrated solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tchernev, Dimiter I.

    1985-01-01

    A solar collector having a copper panel in a contiguous space relationship with a condenser-evaporator heat exchanger located under the panel, the panel having a honeycomb-like structure on its interior defining individual cells which are filled with zeolite loaded, in its adsorbed condition, with 18 to 20% by weight of water. The interior of the panel and heat exchanger are maintained at subatmospheric pressure of about 0.1 to 1 psia. The panel and heat exchanger are insulated on their lateral sides and bottoms and on the top of the heat exchange. The panel has a black coating on its top which is exposed to and absorbs solar energy. Surrounding the insulation (which supports the panel) is an extruded aluminum framework which supports a pair of spaced-apart glass panels above the solar panel. Water in conduits from a system for heating or cooling or both is connected to flow into an inlet and discharge from outlet of a finned coil received within the heat exchanger. The collector panel provides heat during the day through desorption and condensing of water vapor from the heated solar panel in the heat exchanger and cools at night by the re-adsorption of the water vapor from the heat exchanger which lowers the absolute pressure within the system and cools the heat exchange coils by evaporation.

  10. Solar collector panel and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, W. S.

    1985-04-23

    A solar collector panel having a solar energy collector plate and means for flowing a fluid along one side of the plate in a perpendicular serpentine path so that the fluid is repetitively moved toward and away from the plate as it moves along the plate.

  11. Biobriefcase aerosol collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Perry M.; Christian, Allen T.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Willis, Ladona; Masquelier, Donald A.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2009-09-22

    A system for sampling air and collecting particles entrained in the air that potentially include bioagents. The system comprises providing a receiving surface, directing a liquid to the receiving surface and producing a liquid surface. Collecting samples of the air and directing the samples of air so that the samples of air with particles entrained in the air impact the liquid surface. The particles potentially including bioagents become captured in the liquid. The air with particles entrained in the air impacts the liquid surface with sufficient velocity to entrain the particles into the liquid but cause minor turbulence. The liquid surface has a surface tension and the collector samples the air and directs the air to the liquid surface so that the air with particles entrained in the air impacts the liquid surface with sufficient velocity to entrain the particles into the liquid, but cause minor turbulence on the surface resulting in insignificant evaporation of the liquid.

  12. Solar collector assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, C. M.

    1985-12-24

    A solar collector assembly designed for installation in a southerly facing wall in order to heat the interior of an enclosed structure. The assembly comprises a transparent window combined with an outwardly extending fixed upper panel for blocking out the rays of the summer sun and an inwardly extending fixed lower panel with a reflective top surface for directing the rays of the sun inside during the cooler months. The window and fixed panels are situated in an open rectangular frame so that the window is tilted at an appropriate angle from the horizontal in order to maximize the thermal benefits of the sun. The frame provides both structural integrity and a means for mounting the solar assembly in the wall of the building. A hinged panel is attached to the outside of the assembly for shading the lower portion of the window when desired.

  13. Solar heat collector module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lightfoot, D.J.

    1980-09-23

    A solar heat system is comprised of a panel or bank of heat collector modules each of which has a fluid-carrying tube of an elongated triangular shape in transverse cross section formed with longitudinally extended inwardly projected heat radiating fins. A tube is mounted within a concavo-convex reflector of a hyperbolic form such that the side walls of the tube are subjected to reflected rays of solar radiation over an effective range of solar exposure of about one hundred and fifty (150*) degrees. The reflected rays are concentrated in a longitudinally extended focal zone on each side wall of the tube and these zones of concentrated solar radiation move transversely of a side wall in response to the angle of the solar rays falling upon the reflector.

  14. Radiant energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntire, William R.

    1983-01-01

    A cylindrical radiant energy collector is provided which includes a reflector spaced apart from an energy absorber. The reflector is of a particular shape which ideally eliminates gap losses. The reflector includes a plurality of adjacent facets of V shaped segments sloped so as to reflect all energy entering between said absorber and said reflector onto said absorber. The outer arms of each facet are sloped to reflect one type of extremal ray in a line substantially tangent to the lowermost extremity of the energy absorber. The inner arms of the facets are sloped to reflect onto the absorber all rays either falling directly thereon or as a result of reflection from an outer arm.

  15. Solar energy collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcclintock, M.

    1983-01-18

    A solar window which can alternatively act either as a passive solar heat collector or an active solar heat collector. A substantially transparent pair of panels are mounted in opposed position to each other and define a chamber therebetween. When it is desired to admit solar energy to the structure in which the window is mounted, air is permitted to be retained in the chamber and sunlight to pass through the window to thus heat the interior of the structure. When heat is not required in the structure, a second fluid which may be an optically dense solar energy absorbent or reflective fluid is passed through the chamber so as to respectively absorb or reflect the sunlight passing into the chamber, and in this way reduce the amount of solar heat passing through the window, and, in the case of an absorbent fluid, to retain the heat for later use. Pleasing architectural aesthetics or practical advantages in the case of greenhouses may further be obtained by passing colored fluid through the chamber which fluid may additionally achieve the selective absorption of light of certain wavelengths passing through the window. An alternative embodiment of the invention includes providing the inside window panel with grooves adjacent the chamber and disposed at such an angle thereto that radiation in a spectral region in which the material of said window is at least partially transparent attempting to pass outwardly through said window is substantially reflected back into said structure. Accordingly the angle at which the walls of such grooves are disposed must exceed the critical angle to support total internal reflection for the particular materials utilized.

  16. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  17. Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.

  18. FRACTIONATING COLUMN PRODUCT COLLECTOR CONTROL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paxson, G.D. Jr.

    1964-03-10

    Means for detecting minute fluid products from a chemical separation column and for advancing a collector tube rack in order to automatically separate and collect successive fractionated products are described. A charge is imposed on the forming drops at the column orifice to create an electric field as the drop falls in the vicinity of a sensing plate. The field is detected by an electrometer tube coupled to the plate causing an output signal to actuate rotation of a collector turntable rack, thereby positioning new collectors under the orifice. The invention provides reliable automatic collection independent of drop size, rate of fall, or chemical composition. (AEC)

  19. Wisconsin collector-efficiency study, phase two

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abright, B.L.

    1982-01-15

    The collector efficiency study developed a solar collector rating methodology specific to Wisconsin conditions. Existing rating programs were researched and a collector methodology was developed. A computer program was written to calculate the collector ratings and 25 collector models were rated. The accuracy of the proposed rating methodology was evaluated for 16 collectors placed in 11 domestic hot water systems. One liquid space heating analysis with storage and one air space heating analysis without storage were completed. A solar assisted heat pump in which the solar collectors function as evaporators was also analyzed.

  20. Radiant energy collector. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntire, W.R.

    1980-02-14

    A cylindrical radiant energy collector is provided which includes a reflector spaced apart from an energy absorber. The reflector is of a particular shape which ideally eliminates gap losses.

  1. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook

    9 Companies involved in solar thermal collector related activities by type, 2008 and 2009 ... 26 32 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal

  2. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook

    8 Employment in the solar thermal collector industry, 2000 - 2009 2000 284 2001 256 2002 ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal

  3. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook

    U.S. Total 74 88 Percent of Total Sales Revenue Number of Companies Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers ...

  4. SOLAR NANTENNA ELECTROMAGNETIC COLLECTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven D. Novack; Dale K. Kotter; Dennis Slafer; Patrick Pinhero

    2008-08-01

    This research explores a new efficient approach for producing electricity from the abundant energy of the sun. A nanoantenna electromagnetic collector (NEC) has been designed, prototyped, and tested. Proof of concept has been validated. The device targets mid-infrared wavelengths where conventional photovoltaic (PV) solar cells do not respond but is abundant in solar energy. The initial concept of designing NEC antennas was based on scaling of radio frequency antenna theory. This approach has proven unsuccessful by many due to not fully understanding and accounting for the optical behavior of materials in the THz region. Also until recent years the nanofabrication methods were not available to fabricate the optical antenna elements. We have addressed and overcome both technology barriers. Several factors were critical in successful implementation of NEC including: 1) frequency-dependent modeling of antenna elements, 2) selection of materials with proper THz properties and 3) novel manufacturing methods that enable economical large-scale manufacturing. The work represents an important step toward the ultimate realization of a low-cost device that will collect as well as convert this radiation into electricity, which will lead to a wide spectrum, high conversion efficiency, and low cost solution to complement conventional PVs.

  5. Thin film solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aykan, Kamran; Farrauto, Robert J.; Jefferson, Clinton F.; Lanam, Richard D.

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  6. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  7. HOMOLOGOUS CYCLONES IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xinting; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ting; Zhang, Yuzong; Yang, Shuhong E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn E-mail: yuzong@nao.cas.cn

    2014-02-20

    Through observations with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, we tracked one rotating network magnetic field (RNF) near the solar equator. It lasted for more than 100 hr, from 2013 February 23 to 28. During its evolution, three cyclones were found to be rooted in this structure. Each cyclone event lasted for about 8 to 10 hr. While near the polar region, another RNF was investigated. It lasted for a shorter time (?70 hr), from 2013 July 7 to 9. There were two cyclones rooted in the RNF and each lasted for 8 and 11 hr, respectively. For the two given examples, the cyclones have a similar dynamic evolution, and thus we put forward a new term: homologous cyclones. The detected brightening in AIA 171 Ĺ maps indicates the release of energy, which is potentially available to heat the corona.

  8. Corrugated cover plate for flat plate collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hollands, K. G. Terry; Sibbitt, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    A flat plate radiant energy collector is providing having a transparent cover. The cover has a V-corrugated shape which reduces the amount of energy reflected by the cover away from the flat plate absorber of the collector.

  9. Multiple discharge cylindrical pump collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, C.; Bremmer, R.J.; Meng, S.Y.

    1989-10-17

    This patent describes an improvement in a method for circulating fluid coolant through a reactor core of a pool-type nuclear reactor having a sealed containment vessel containing a reactor core submersed in a body of liquid coolant. The method for circulating coolant including utilization of a rotary pump including an impeller for producing a highly circumferential flow of cooling fluid and a method for collecting and discharging coolant fluid, the improvement to the method of collecting and discharging coolant fluid including the steps of: producing a substantially uniform circumferential flow of the fluid by directing the flow through a plurality of diffuser vanes and into an annular collector located radially outboard from the impeller. The annular collector having an entirely closed outer periphery; and turning the flow of cooling fluid into a substantially axially direction while maintaining a substantially constant average flow velocity by directing the coolant flow from the annular collector into a plurality of individual passageways located in an axial position relative to the annular collector.

  10. Thin film solar energy collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrauto, R.J.; Myers, H.; Williams, J.C.

    1982-03-23

    A solar energy collector has improved absorptance and emissivity levels comprising: (1) a silver-copper oxide-rhodium oxide solar absorption film, (2) a cerium oxide interlayer and a substrate of quartz, silica glass or metal. The cerium oxide interlayer minimizes agglomeration of the metal particles, maintains a relatively low thermal emittance and improves overall stability.

  11. Experimental comparison of retrofit vertical air collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, A.T.; Stickney, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    Two vertical air collector systems were built and monitored. One of these is a back-pass collector in which a layer of sheet metal serves as the absorber plate. The other is a front pass collector in which the wall surface serves as the absorber plate. The results demonstrate the importance of considering heat moving through walls even when storage of heat in the wall is of limited significance. With poorly insulated walls, heat is better able to move through the wall with a front pass collector, indicating that this type of collector is a more effective heating system.

  12. Desiccant cooling using unglazed transpired solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A A; Wipke, K

    1992-05-01

    The use of unglazed solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are lower in cost than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors was obtained. We found that the thermal performance of the unglazed system was lower than the thermal performance of the glazed system because the unglazed system could not take advantage of the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. For a 3-ton cooling system, although the area required for the unglazed collector was 69% more than that required for the glazed collector, the cost of the unglazed collector array was 44% less than the cost of the glazed collector array. The simple payback period of the unglazed system was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when compared to an equivalent gas-fired system. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors makes economic sense, some practical considerations may limit their use in desiccant regeneration. 8 refs.

  13. Transpired Solar Collector - Energy Innovation Portal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Transpired Solar Collector National Renewable Energy ...

  14. Centerless-drive solar collector system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, B. L.

    1985-12-24

    A parabolic-trough solar collector system is disclosed, with each collector driven to track the sun using a ring driven in centerless fashion. The parabolic troughs are made of laminated plywood or molded or formed of plastics or metals. The drive motor moves a flexible belt, i.e., chain or cable, which is routed about the drive ring on each collector. The motion of the cable moves all drive rings together to track the sun. A photodetector senses the position of the sun and provides the signal needed to drive the collectors in the correct direction.

  15. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell current collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bischoff, Brian L.; Sutton, Theodore G.; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2010-07-20

    An internal current collector for use inside a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (TSOFC) electrode comprises a tubular coil spring disposed concentrically within a TSOFC electrode and in firm uniform tangential electrical contact with the electrode inner surface. The current collector maximizes the contact area between the current collector and the electrode. The current collector is made of a metal that is electrically conductive and able to survive under the operational conditions of the fuel cell, i.e., the cathode in air, and the anode in fuel such as hydrogen, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O or H.sub.2S.

  16. Self-Cleaning CSP Collectors

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet details the efforts of a Boston University-led team which is working on a DOE SunShot Initative project. The concentrated solar power industry needs an automated, efficient cleaning process that requires neither water nor moving parts to keep the solar collectors clean for maximum reflectance and energy output. This project team is working to develop a transparent electrodynamic screen as a self-cleaning technology for solar concentrators; cleaning is achieved without water, moving parts, or manual labor. Because of these features, it has a strong potential for worldwide deployment.

  17. Automated solar collector installation design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2014-08-26

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives.

  18. Cyclone reduction of taconite. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, P.R.; Bartlett, R.W.; Abdel-latif, M.A.; Hou, X.; Kumar, P.

    1995-05-01

    A cyclone reactor system for the partial reduction and melting of taconite concentrate fines has been engineered, designed and operated. A non-transferred arc plasma torch was employed as a heat source. Taconite fines, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide were fed axially into the reactor, while the plasma gas was introduced tangentially into the cyclone. The average reactor temperature was maintained at above 1400{degrees}C, and reduction experiments were performed under various conditions. The influence of the following parameters on the reduction of taconite was investigated experimentally; carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide inlet feed ratio, carbon monoxide inlet partial pressure, and average reactor temperature. The interactions of the graphite lining with carbon dioxide and taconite were also studied. An attempt was made to characterize the flow behavior of the molten product within the cyclone. The results suggest that the system may approach a plug flow reactor, with little back mixing. Finally, a fundamental mathematical model was developed. The model describes the flow dynamics of gases and solid particles in a cyclone reactor, energy exchange, mass transfer, and the chemical kinetics associated with cyclone smelting of taconite concentrate fines. The influence of the various parameters on the reduction and melting of taconite particles was evaluated theoretically.

  19. Solar collector with improved thermal concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1976-01-01

    Reduced heat loss from the absorbing surface of the energy receiver of a cylindrical radiant energy collector is achieved by providing individual, insulated, cooling tubes for adjacent parallel longitudinal segments of the receiver. Control means allow fluid for removing heat absorbed by the tubes to flow only in those tubes upon which energy is then being directed by the reflective wall of the collector.

  20. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-04

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  1. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Collector R&D

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Collector research at NREL focuses on developing and testing the next generation of concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors that reduce delivered electricity costs by 50%. ...

  2. Apparatus for preventing high temperatures in a glazed solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckley, Bruce S.

    1979-01-01

    Venting the glazing (i.e., transparent cover) of a solar collector can be used to prevent the collector's absorber surface from reaching too high a temperature.

  3. Cyclone separator having boundary layer turbulence control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krishna, Coimbatore R.; Milau, Julius S.

    1985-01-01

    A cyclone separator including boundary layer turbulence control that is operable to prevent undue build-up of particulate material at selected critical areas on the separator walls, by selectively varying the fluid pressure at those areas to maintain the momentum of the vortex, thereby preventing particulate material from inducing turbulence in the boundary layer of the vortical fluid flow through the separator.

  4. Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molnar, Attila; Charles, Ruth

    2014-07-31

    The intent of “Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP” program was to develop key technology elements for collectors in Phase 1 (Budget Period 1), design these elements in Phase 2 (Budget Period 2) and to deploy and test the final collector in Phase 3 (Budget Period 3). 3M and DOE mutually agreed to terminate the program at the end of Budget Period 1, primarily due to timeline issues. However, significant advancements were achieved in developing a next generation reflective material and panel that has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of CSP systems.

  5. Evaluation of a Combined Cyclone and Gas Filtration System for Particulate Removal in the Gasification Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rizzo, Jeffrey J.

    2010-04-30

    The Wabash gasification facility, owned and operated by sgSolutions LLC, is one of the largest single train solid fuel gasification facilities in the world capable of transforming 2,000 tons per day of petroleum coke or 2,600 tons per day of bituminous coal into synthetic gas for electrical power generation. The Wabash plant utilizes Phillips66 proprietary E-Gas (TM) Gasification Process to convert solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal into synthetic gas that is fed to a combined cycle combustion turbine power generation facility. During plant startup in 1995, reliability issues were realized in the gas filtration portion of the gasification process. To address these issues, a slipstream test unit was constructed at the Wabash facility to test various filter designs, materials and process conditions for potential reliability improvement. The char filtration slipstream unit provided a way of testing new materials, maintenance procedures, and process changes without the risk of stopping commercial production in the facility. It also greatly reduced maintenance expenditures associated with full scale testing in the commercial plant. This char filtration slipstream unit was installed with assistance from the United States Department of Energy (built under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-97FT34158) and began initial testing in November of 1997. It has proven to be extremely beneficial in the advancement of the E-Gas (TM) char removal technology by accurately predicting filter behavior and potential failure mechanisms that would occur in the commercial process. After completing four (4) years of testing various filter types and configurations on numerous gasification feed stocks, a decision was made to investigate the economic and reliability effects of using a particulate removal gas cyclone upstream of the current gas filtration unit. A paper study had indicated that there was a real potential to lower both installed capital and operating costs by implementing a char

  6. Collector/Receiver Characterization (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities for collector/receiver characterization: determining optical efficiency, measuring heat loss, developing and testing concentrators, concentrating the sun's power, and optically characterizing CSP plants.

  7. Tilt assembly for tracking solar collector assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Almy, Charles; Peurach, John; Sandler, Reuben

    2012-01-24

    A tilt assembly is used with a solar collector assembly of the type comprising a frame, supporting a solar collector, for movement about a tilt axis by pivoting a drive element between first and second orientations. The tilt assembly comprises a drive element coupler connected to the drive element and a driver, the driver comprising a drive frame, a drive arm and a drive arm driver. The drive arm is mounted to the drive frame for pivotal movement about a drive arm axis. Movement on the drive arm mimics movement of the drive element. Drive element couplers can extend in opposite directions from the outer portion of the drive arm, whereby the assembly can be used between adjacent solar collector assemblies in a row of solar collector assemblies.

  8. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Rain Collector

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This photograph features the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee's rainwater collector that was put to use during the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon on the National Mall. The butterfly...

  9. Next-Generation Solar Collectors for CSP

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet on Next-Generation Collectors for CSP highlights a solar energy program awarded through the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D awards. The team is developing new solar collector base technologies for next-generation heliostats used in power tower systems. If successful, this project will result in a 50% reduction in solar field equipment cost and a 30% reduction in field installation cost compared to existing heliostat designs.

  10. Integrated solar thermal energy collector system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.D.

    1987-08-18

    A solar thermal collector system is described one of a class of devices which converts solar radiation into heat and transmits this heat to storage from whence it is utilized, comprising: an evacuated glass solar collector, the evacuated glass solar collector having a glass vacuum envelope, the upper portion of the glass vacuum envelope also serving as window to pass solar radiation, the evacuated glass solar collector having a multiplicity of substantially parallel linear adjacent concentrating troughs, each trough shaped and mirror surfaced so as concentrate solar radiation in the vacuum, the mirror surface inside the vacuum and the concentration approximately ideal, the multiplicity of substantially parallel linear adjacent troughs extending substantially over the entire length and width of the evacuated glass solar collector; a heat storage system, the heat storage system adjacent to the evacuated glass solar collector, the heat storage system having a heat storage tank which is thermally insulated, the heat storage tank containing a heat storage medium, and the heat storage system including means of removal of heat from the heat storage tank for utilization.

  11. Research and Development of a Low Cost Solar Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ansari, Asif; Philip, Lee; Thouppuarachchi, Chirath

    2012-08-01

    conventional Fresnel collector. The noteworthy design features of the BPFC architecture include the use of relatively cheaper flat mirrors and a design which allows the mirror support beam sections to act as load-bearing structural elements resulting in more than a 36% reduction in the overall structural weight compared to an optimized parabolic trough. Also, it was shown that the utilization of small mass-produced elements significantly lowers mass-production and logistics costs that can more quickly deliver economies of scale, even for smaller installations while also reducing shipping and installation costs. Moreover, unlike the traditional Fresnel trough the BPFC architecture does not require complex articulating drive mechanisms but instead utilizes a standard parabolic trough hydraulic drive mechanism. In addition to the development of the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector, an optimized conventional space-frame type parabolic trough was also designed, built, analyzed and field-tested during the first phase of this award. The design of the conventional space-frame parabolic collector was refined with extensive FEA and CFD analysis to reduce material costs and re-designed for simpler fabrication and more accurate lower-cost field assembly. This optimized parabolic trough represented an improvement over the state-of-the art of the traditional parabolic trough architecture and also served as a more rigorous and less subjective benchmark that was used for comparison of new candidate design architectures. The results of the expanded 1st phase of the DOE award project showed that both the Optimized Parabolic Trough and the new Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector design concepts failed to meet the primary objectives for the project of achieving a 50% cost reduction from the industry reference total installed cost of $350/m2. Results showed that the BPFC came in at projected total installed cost of $237/m2 representing a 32% savings compared to the industry benchmark conventional parabolic

  12. Babcock and Wilcox cyclone furnace vitrification. Technology demonstration summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    A Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Demonstration of the Babcock and Wilcox Cyclone Furnace Vitrification Technology was conducted in November 1991. This Demonstration occurred at the Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Alliance Research Center (ARC) in Alliance, OH. The B and W cyclone furnace may be used for thermal treatment of soils contaminated with organics, metals, and radionuclides. The cyclone furnace is designed to destroy organic contaminants and to immobilize metals and radionuclides in a vitrified soil matrix (slag).

  13. DENSE MEDIA CYCLONE OPTIMIZATION (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fieldwork associated with Task 1 (Baseline Assessment) was completed this quarter. Detailed cyclone inspections completed at all but one plant during maintenance shifts. Analysis...

  14. Integrated main rail, feed rail, and current collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petri, R.J.; Meek, J.; Bachta, R.P.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1994-11-08

    A separator plate is described for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced. 9 figs.

  15. Integrated main rail, feed rail, and current collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petri, Randy J.; Meek, John; Bachta, Robert P.; Marianowski, Leonard G.

    1994-01-01

    A separator plate for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced.

  16. Stress in shaped glass evacuated collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.D.; Fischer-Cripps, A.

    1997-02-01

    Shaped glass evacuated collectors have the lower vacuum envelope formed with a CPC shape. The internal surface is silvered. This surface concentrates solar radiation onto an internal absorbing tube. The upper part of the vacuum envelope is a window to pass the solar radiation in to the absorbing tube. A computer program using analytical equations is used to design these collectors while keeping the glass tensile stress arising from evacuation below acceptable limits. A finite element computer program is used to test the accuracy of the stress calculated analytically. The calculations agree within about 1 MPa. Wind and thermal stresses in the glass are lower than the stresses caused by evacuation.

  17. Project Profile: Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Cost Solar Thermal Collector Project Profile: Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector SunTrough Energy logo SunTrough, under the Baseload CSP FOA, developed a new class of solar ...

  18. Ocean Barrier Layers’ Effect on Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, P.; Saravanan, R.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Xu, Zhao; Li, M.; Hsieh, J.

    2012-09-04

    Improving a tropical cyclone's forecast and mitigating its destructive potential requires knowledge of various environmental factors that influence the cyclone's path and intensity. Herein, using a combination of observations and model simulations, we systematically demonstrate that tropical cyclone intensification is significantly affected by salinity-induced barrier layers, which are 'quasi-permanent' features in the upper tropical oceans. When tropical cyclones pass over regions with barrier layers, the increased stratification and stability within the layer reduce storm-induced vertical mixing and sea surface temperature cooling. This causes an increase in enthalpy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and, consequently, an intensification of tropical cyclones. On average, the tropical cyclone intensification rate is nearly 50% higher over regions with barrier layers, compared to regions without. Our finding, which underscores the importance of observing not only the upper-ocean thermal structure but also the salinity structure in deep tropical barrier layer regions, may be a key to more skillful predictions of tropical cyclone intensities through improved ocean state estimates and simulations of barrier layer processes. As the hydrological cycle responds to global warming, any associated changes in the barrier layer distribution must be considered in projecting future tropical cyclone activity.

  19. Solar Air Collectors: How Much Can You Save?

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Newburn, J. D.

    1985-04-01

    A collector efficiency curve is used to determine the output of solar air collectors based on the testing of seven solar collectors sold in Iowa. In this application the solar heater is being used as a space heater for a house. The performance of the solar air heater was analyzed and an 8% savings in energy was achieved over a one year period using two 4 x 8 collectors in a typical house.

  20. Solar collector apparatus having increased energy rejection during stagnation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, S.W.

    1981-01-16

    An active solar collector having increased energy rejection during stagnation is disclosed. The collector's glazing is brought into substantial contact with absorber during stagnation to increase re-emittance and thereby to maintan lower temperatures when the collector is not in operation.

  1. Solar collector apparatus having increased energy rejection during stagnation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Stanley W.

    1983-07-12

    The disclosure relates to an active solar collector having increased energy rejection during stagnation. The collector's glazing is brought into substantial contact with absorber during stagnation to increase re-emittance and thereby to maintain lower temperatures when the collector is not in operation.

  2. Project Profile: Self-Cleaning CSP Collectors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Boston University and its partners, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D FOA, are working to develop a new method to keep solar collectors dirt- and dust-free and thereby maintain high optical efficiency.

  3. Operating characteristics of a cartridge collector utilizing medium-pressure purge air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, J. )

    1993-11-01

    For over 20 years, dust collectors equipped with cleanable paper cartridge pulse-jet cleaning mechanisms. Applications have been limited primarily to light inlet dust loads of 2 grains/dscf (4.6g/m[sup 3] or less). One manufacturer has successfully tested and operated a dust collector utilizing a full-scale, medium-pressure (6 to 8 psig, 4.0 to 5.5 MPa), utilizing 6-in. (150-mm) diameter by 50-in. (1,270-mm) cellulose cartridge filter elements, under high inlet dust load conditions.

  4. Compendium of information on identification and testing of materials for plastic solar thermal collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGinniss, V.D.; Sliemers, F.A.; Landstrom, D.K.; Talbert, S.G.

    1980-07-31

    This report is intended to organize and summarize prior and current literature concerning the weathering, aging, durability, degradation, and testing methodologies as applied to materials for plastic solar thermal collectors. Topics covered include (1) rate of aging of polymeric materials; (2) environmental factors affecting performance; (3) evaluation and prediction of service life; (4) measurement of physical and chemical properties; (5) discussion of evaluation techniques and specific instrumentation; (6) degradation reactions and mechanisms; (7) weathering of specific polymeric materials; and (8) exposure testing methodology. Major emphasis has been placed on defining the current state of the art in plastics degradation and on identifying information that can be utilized in applying appropriate and effective aging tests for use in projecting service life of plastic solar thermal collectors. This information will also be of value where polymeric components are utilized in the construction of conventional solar collectors or any application where plastic degradation and weathering are prime factors in material selection.

  5. Solar absorber panel, collector assembly and installation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, D.L.

    1980-12-23

    A solar absorber panel assembly has a pair of substantially parallel plates sealed together at their perimeter. A raised integral header is formed in one of the plates. An external header is in fluid communication with the integral header and is spaced from and mechanically connected to the plates. A solar collector assembly includes hanger brackets mounted on an inclined support surface to engage and retain bodies of insulation material and solar absorber panels. The absorber panels are in side-by-side relation with relatively slidable slightly overlapping marginal portions. External headers on the absorber panels are connected together by slip-on resilient sleeves of silicone rubber. An enclosure having a transparent cover and a wall extending around a plurality of absorber panels and external headers is attached directly to the support surface independently of the hanger brackets and absorber panels. The cover is supported by cover support brackets mounted on the support surface and extending upwardly between panels, passing through openings formed by lateral recesses in the marginal portions of the absorber panels. A solar collector is installed by attaching hanger brackets to an inclined support surface, placing thermal insulation and absorber panels on the hanger brackets to prevent downward slipping movement, and enclosing the absorber panels with a cover which is transmissive of radiant solar energy.

  6. Compact cyclone filter train for radiological and hazardous environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bench, T.R.

    1998-04-28

    A compact cyclone filter train is disclosed for the removal of hazardous and radiological particles from a gaseous fluid medium. This filter train permits a small cyclone separator to be used in a very small space envelope due to the arrangement of the filter housing adjacent to the separator with the cyclone separator and the filters mounted on a plate. The entire unit will have a hoist connection at the center of gravity so that the entire unit including the separator, the filters, and the base can be lifted and repositioned as desired. 3 figs.

  7. Compact cyclone filter train for radiological and hazardous environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bench, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    A compact cyclone filter train for the removal of hazardous and radiologi particles from a gaseous fluid medium which permits a small cyclone separator to be used in a very small space envelope due to the arrangement of the filter housing adjacent to the separator with the cyclone separator and the filters mounted on a plate. The entire unit will have a hoist connection at the center of gravity so that the entire unit including the separator, the filters, and the base can be lifted and repositioned as desired.

  8. A Self-Biasing Pulsed Depressed Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, Mark A.; Jensen, Aaron; Neilson, Jeff; /SLAC

    2014-05-29

    Depressed collectors have been utilized successfully for many years to improve the electrical efficiency of vacuum electron devices. Increasingly, pulsed, high-peak power accelerator applications are placing a premium on electrical efficiency. As RF systems are responsible for a large percentage of the overall energy usage at accelerator laboratories, methods to improve upon the state-of-the-art in pulsed high-power sources are desired. This paper presents a technique for self-biasing the stages in a multistage depressed collector. With this technique, the energy lost during the rise and fall times of the pulse can be recovered, separate power supplies are not needed, and existing modulators can be retrofitted. Calculations show that significant cost savings can be realized with the implementation of this device in high-power systems. In this paper, the technique is described along with experimental demonstration. (auth)

  9. Final Report- Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar Thermal Electric (STE) power generation is facing significant challenges from other sources of renewable energy; their advances have made it more and more difficult for solar thermal to remain a cost effective alternative in the United States. The primary advantage of STE is the thermal storage capability, which allows plants to continue producing electricity long after the sun has set. While it is necessary for the industry to fully develop this storage technology, it is also critical that significant cost reductions are found in the solar field construction and installation. If STE is to be competitive, these cost reductions must be recognized not only in the design and manufacture of the collectors, but also in the assembly and installation of the solar field. The goal of this project was to evaluate the current state of the art parabolic trough collector field and develop an improved field that can be installed for

  10. Solar collector with blackened layer facing insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brugger, R.

    1981-05-12

    A solar collector has a surface turned toward the sun and forms a heat exchange cell which has at least one wall composed of sheet aluminum. A tramsmitting layer of such a wall or the absorption layer thereof is a black layer of aluminum oxide containing Ag or Sn and formed unitarily on the aluminum sheet, e.g. By a chemical or electrochemical process.

  11. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  12. Collector main replacement at Indianapolis Coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sickle, R.R. Van

    1997-12-31

    Indianapolis Coke is a merchant coke producer, supplying both foundry and blast furnace coke to the industry. The facility has three coke batteries: two 3 meter batteries, one Wilputte four divided and one Koppers Becker. Both batteries are underjet batteries and are producing 100% foundry coke at a net coking time of 30.6 hours. This paper deals with the No. 1 coke battery, which is a 72 oven, gun fired, 5 meter Still battery. No. 1 battery produces both foundry and blast furnace coke at a net coking rate of 25.4 hours. No. 1 battery was commissioned in 1979. The battery is equipped with a double collector main. Although many renovations have been completed to the battery, oven machinery and heating system, to date no major construction projects have taken place. Deterioration of the collector main was caused in part from elevated levels of chlorides in the flushing liquor, and temperature fluctuations within the collector main. The repair procedures are discussed.

  13. Tropical cyclone motion and recurvature in TCM-90. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzpatrick, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    Rawinsonde and satellite data collected during the Tropical Cyclone Motion (TCM90) experiment, which was conducted during the summer of 1990 in the Western North pacific, is used to examine tropical cyclone steering motion and recurvature. TCM-90 composite results are compared with those found in a composite study using twenty-one years (1957-77) of Western North Pacific rawinsonde data during the same August-September period and also for all months during this same 21-year period. Both data sets indicate that the composite deep-layer-mean (850-300 mb) winds 5-7 deg from the cyclone center provide an important component of the steering flow for tropical cyclones. However, despite the rawinsonde data enhancements of the TCM-90 experiment, data limitations prevented an accurate observation of steering flow conditions at individual time periods or for the average of only 5-10 time periods when composited together.

  14. Solar heat pump systems with refrigerant-filled collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Dell, M.P.; Beckman, W.A.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The heat pump system with a refrigerant-filled evaporator consists of a standard air-to-air or air-to-liquid heat pump that utilizes a solar panel as the evaporator. A combination of solar energy and convection heat transfer acts as the ''free'' energy absorbed by the collector/evaporator. In this paper, the seasonal performance of such systems for industrial applications will be presented. Performance of collector/evaporator heat pumps will be compared with alternative heat pump and solar systems. The benefits of covered and coverless collector/evaporators will be discussed. Results to date have shown that refrigerant-filled collector heat pumps do not perform as well as conventional heat pumps at small collector areas but have as much as 15% performance improvement over conventional heat pumps at an appropriate collector area.

  15. Project Profile: Advanced High Temperature Trough Collector Developmen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Project Profile: Advanced High Temperature Trough Collector Development Solar Millennium logo The Solar Millennium Group and its subsidiary Flagsol, under the CSP R&D FOA, are ...

  16. Project Profile: Next-Generation Parabolic Trough Collectors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Project Profile: Next-Generation Parabolic Trough Collectors and Components for CSP Applications Abengoa logo Abengoa Solar, under the CSP R&D FOA, is developing the technology ...

  17. Surface-Modified Copper Current Collector for Lithium Ion Battery...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Copper Current Collector for Lithium Ion Battery Anode Lawrence Berkeley National ... swelling during charge recharge operations and a major cause of shortened battery life. ...

  18. Detailed analysis of the energy yield of systems with covered sheet-and-tube PVT collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santbergen, R.; Rindt, C.C.M.; van Zolingen, R.J.Ch.; Zondag, H.A.

    2010-05-15

    Solar cells have a typical efficiency in the range of 5-20%, implying that 80% or more of the incident solar energy can be harvested in the form of heat and applied for low-temperature heating. In a PVT collector one tries to collect this heat. In this work, the electrical and thermal yield of solar domestic hot water systems with one-cover sheet-and-tube PVT collectors were considered. Objectives of the work were to understand the mechanisms determining these yields, to investigate measures to improve these yields and to investigate the yield consequences if various solar cell technologies are being used. The work was carried out using numerical simulations. A detailed quantitative understanding of all loss mechanisms was obtained, especially of those being inherent to the use of PVT collectors instead of PV modules and conventional thermal collectors. The annual electrical efficiencies of the PVT systems investigated were up to 14% (relative) lower compared to pure PV systems and the annual thermal efficiencies up to 19% (relative) lower compared to pure thermal collector systems. The loss of electrical efficiency is mainly caused by the relatively high fluid temperature. The loss of thermal efficiency is caused both by the high emissivity of the absorber and the withdrawal of electrical energy. However, both the loss of electrical and thermal efficiency can be reduced further by the application of anti-reflective coatings. The thermal efficiency can be improved by the application of a low-emissivity coating on the absorber, however at the cost of a reduced electrical efficiency. (author)

  19. Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elastic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

  20. Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elestic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

  1. Combined current collector and electrode separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerenser, R.J.; Littauer, E.L.

    1983-08-23

    This relates to reactive metal cells wherein there is a cathode and a consumable anode. It is necessary to separate the cathode from the anode so that an electrolyte may constantly flow over the face of the anode opposing the cathode. It has been found that this separator may also beneficially function as a current collector. The combined current collector and separator includes a peripheral supporting frame of which a portion may function as a bus-bar. A plurality of bars or ribs extend in parallel relation across the opening defined by the supporting frame and are electrically connected to the bus-bar portion. It is preferred that each bar or rib have a pointed or line edge which will engage and slightly bite into the associated anode to maintain the bar or rib in electrical contact with the anode. This abstract forms no part of the specification of this application and is not to be construed as limiting the claims of the application. 6 figs.

  2. Combined current collector and electrode separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerenser, Robert J.; Littauer, Ernest L.

    1983-01-01

    This relates to reactive metal cells wherein there is a cathode and a consumable anode. It is necessary to separate the cathode from the anode so that an electrolyte may constantly flow over the face of the anode opposing the cathode. It has been found that this separator may also beneficially function as a current collector. The combined current collector and separator includes a peripheral supporting frame of which a portion may function as a bus-bar. A plurality of bars or ribs extend in parallel relation across the opening defined by the supporting frame and are electrically connected to the bus-bar portion. It is preferred that each bar or rib have a pointed or line edge which will engage and slightly bite into the associated anode to maintain the bar or rib in electrical contact with the anode. This abstract forms no part of the specification of this application and is not to be construed as limiting the claims of the application.

  3. Opposed-flow virtual cyclone for particle concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rader, Daniel J.; Torczynski, John R.

    2000-12-05

    An opposed-flow virtual cyclone for aerosol collation which can accurately collect, classify, and concentrate (enrich) particles in a specific size range. The opposed-flow virtual cyclone is a variation on the virtual cyclone and has its inherent advantages (no-impact particle separation in a simple geometry), while providing a more robust design for concentrating particles in a flow-through type system. The opposed-flow virtual cyclone consists of two geometrically similar virtual cyclones arranged such that their inlet jets are inwardly directed and symmetrically opposed relative to a plane of symmetry located between the two inlet slits. A top plate bounds both jets on the "top" side of the inlets, while the other or lower wall curves "down" and away from each inlet jet. Each inlet jet will follow the adjacent lower wall as it turns away, and that particles will be transferred away from the wall and towards the symmetry plane by centrifugal action. After turning, the two jets merge smoothly along the symmetry line and flow parallel to it through the throat. Particles are transferred from the main flows, across a dividing streamline, and into a central recirculating region, where particle concentrations become greatly increased relative to the main stream.

  4. Solar collector panels having coated fibrous filling for fire inhibition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinert, C.P.

    1982-04-13

    Solar collector panels filled with porous fiber mats have the fibers coated with a pigmented intumescent paint which expands to partially fill the spaces between the fibers for retarding convective fluid flow through the fiber mat in the case of a fire in the structure with which the collector is associated.

  5. Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, V.E.; Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W.

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

  6. Performance of a double pass solar air collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramani, B.M.; Gupta, Akhilesh; Kumar, Ravi

    2010-11-15

    Double pass counter flow solar air collector with porous material in the second air passage is one of the important and attractive design improvement that has been proposed to improve the thermal performance. This paper presents theoretical and experimental analysis of double pass solar air collector with and without porous material. A mathematical model has been developed based on volumetric heat transfer coefficient. Effects of various parameters on the thermal performance and pressure drop characteristics have been discussed. Comparison of results reveals that the thermal efficiency of double pass solar air collector with porous absorbing material is 20-25% and 30-35% higher than that of double pass solar air collector without porous absorbing material and single pass collector respectively. (author)

  7. Selective flotation of phosphate minerals with hydroxamate collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Jan D.; Wang, Xuming; Li, Minhua

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for separating phosphate minerals from a mineral mixture, particularly from high-dolomite containing phosphate ores. The method involves conditioning the mineral mixture by contacting in an aqueous in environment with a collector in an amount sufficient for promoting flotation of phosphate minerals. The collector is a hydroxamate compound of the formula; ##STR1## wherein R is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms. M is a cation, typically hydrogen, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. Preferably, the collector also comprises an alcohol of the formula, R'--OH wherein R' is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties so that it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms.

  8. Efficiency of a solar collector with internal boiling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeper, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The behavior of a solar collector with a boiling fluid is analyzed to provide a simple algebraic model for future systems simulations, and to provide guidance for testing. The efficiency equation is developed in a form linear in the difference between inlet and saturation (boiling) temperatures, whereas the expression upon which ASHRAE Standard 109P is based utilizes the difference between inlet and ambient temperatures. The coefficient of the revised linear term is a weak function of collector parameters, weather, and subcooling of the working fluid. For a glazed flat-plate collector with metal absorber, the coefficient is effectively constant. Therefore, testing at multiple values of insolation and subcooling, as specified by ASHRAE 109P, should not be necessary for most collectors. The influences of collector properties and operating conditions on efficiency are examined.

  9. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McConnell, Robert D.; Vansant, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  10. Alignment method for solar collector arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Driver, Jr., Richard B

    2012-10-23

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for establishing camera fixture location for aligning mirrors on a solar collector array (SCA) comprising multiple mirror modules. The method aligns the mirrors on a module by comparing the location of the receiver image in photographs with the predicted theoretical receiver image location. To accurately align an entire SCA, a common reference is used for all of the individual module images within the SCA. The improved method can use relative pixel location information in digital photographs along with alignment fixture inclinometer data to calculate relative locations of the fixture between modules. The absolute locations are determined by minimizing alignment asymmetry for the SCA. The method inherently aligns all of the mirrors in an SCA to the receiver, even with receiver position and module-to-module alignment errors.

  11. Electron beam collector for a microwave power tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dandl, Raphael A.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a cylindrical, electron beam collector that efficiently couples the microwave energy out of a high power microwave source while stopping the attendant electron beam. The interior end walls of the collector are a pair of facing parabolic mirrors and the microwave energy from an input horn is radiated between the two mirrors and reassembled at the entrance to the output waveguide where the transmitted mode is reconstructed. The mode transmission through the collector of the present invention has an efficiency of at least 94%.

  12. Theoretical and experimental investigation of heat pipe solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azad, E.

    2008-09-15

    Heat pipe solar collector was designed and constructed at IROST and its performance was measured on an outdoor test facility. The thermal behavior of a gravity assisted heat pipe solar collector was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A theoretical model based on effectiveness-NTU method was developed for evaluating the thermal efficiency of the collector, the inlet, outlet water temperatures and heat pipe temperature. Optimum value of evaporator length to condenser length ratio is also determined. The modelling predictions were validated using experimental data and it shows that there is a good concurrence between measured and predicted results. (author)

  13. Fluidic Solar Collectors New Materials and Mechanisms for Heliostats

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  14. Cyclone reactor with internal separation and axial recirculation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1988-07-19

    A cyclone combustor apparatus contains a circular partition plate containing a central circular aperture is described. The partition plate divides the apparatus into a cylindrical precombustor chamber and a combustor chamber. A coal-water slurry is passed axially into the inlet end of the precombustor chamber, and primary air is passed tangentially into said chamber to establish a cyclonic air flow. Combustion products pass through the partition plate aperture and into the combustor chamber. Secondary air may also be passed tangentially into the combustor chamber adjacent the partition plate to maintain the cyclonic flow. Flue gas is passed axially out of the combustor chamber at the outlet end and ash is withdrawn tangentially from the combustor chamber at the outlet end. A first mixture of flue gas and ash may be tangentially withdrawn from the combustor chamber at the outlet end and recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber with the coal-water slurry. A second mixture may be tangentially withdrawn from the outlet end and passed to a heat exchanger for cooling. Cooled second mixture is then recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber. In another embodiment a single cyclone combustor chamber is provided with both the recirculation streams of the first mixture and the second mixture. 10 figs.

  15. Cyclone reactor with internal separation and axial recirculation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.

    1989-01-01

    A cyclone combustor apparatus contains a circular partition plate containing a central circular aperture. The partition plate divides the apparatus into a cylindrical precombustor chamber and a combustor chamber. A coal-water slurry is passed axially into the inlet end of the precombustor chamber, and primary air is passed tangentially into said chamber to establish a cyclonic air flow. Combustion products pass through the partition plate aperture and into the combustor chamber. Secondary air may also be passed tangentially into the combustor chamber adjacent the partition plate to maintain the cyclonic flow. Flue gas is passed axially out of the combustor chamber at the outlet end and ash is withdrawn tangentially from the combuston chamber at the outlet end. A first mixture of flue gas and ash may be tangentially withdrawn from the combustor chamber at the outlet end and recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber with the coal-water slurry. A second mixture of flue gas and ash may be tangentially withdrawn from the outlet end of the combustor chamber and passed to a heat exchanger for cooling. Cooled second mixture is then recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber. In another embodiment a single cyclone combustor chamber is provided with both the recirculation streams of the first mixture and the second mixture.

  16. Self-Cleaning CSP Collectors, Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Boston University is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their advanced collectors. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

  17. Project Profile: Advanced High Temperature Trough Collector Development

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solar Millennium Group and its subsidiary Flagsol, under the CSP R&D FOA, are completing work on an advanced parabolic trough collector that uses molten salt as a heat transfer fluid.

  18. Positive electrode current collector for liquid metal cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimotake, Hiroshi; Bartholme, Louis G.

    1984-01-01

    A current collector for the positive electrode of an electrochemical cell with a positive electrode including a sulfide. The cell also has a negative electrode and a molten salt electrolyte including halides of a metal selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals in contact with both the positive and negative electrodes. The current collector has a base metal of copper, silver, gold, aluminum or alloys thereof with a coating thereon of iron, nickel, chromium or alloys thereof. The current collector when subjected to cell voltage forms a sulfur-containing compound on the surface thereby substantially protecting the current collector from further attack by sulfur ions during cell operation. Both electroless and electrolytic processes may be used to deposit coatings.

  19. Positive-electrode current collector for liquid-metal cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimotake, H.; Bartholme, L.G.

    1982-09-27

    A current collector for the positive electrode of an electrochemical cell with a positive electrode including a sulfide. The cell also has a negative electrode and a molten salt electrolyte including halides of a metal selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals in contact with both the positive and negative electrodes. The current collector has a base metal of copper, silver, gold, aluminum or alloys thereof with a coating thereon of iron, nickel, chromium or alloys thereof. The current collector when subjected to cell voltage forms a sulfur-containing compound on the surface thereby substantially protecting the current collector from further attack by sulfur ions during cell operation. Both electroless and electrolytic processes may be used to deposit coatings.

  20. Current Collector Corrosion in Ca-Ion Batteries - Joint Center...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    May 23, 2015, Research Highlights Current Collector Corrosion in Ca-Ion Batteries C45 ... Ca-ion batteries, but it should not be a roadblock to practical implementation. ...

  1. Low cost bare-plate solar air collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maag, W.L.; Wenzler, C.J.; Rom, F.E.; VanArsdale, D.R.

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a low cost, bare-plate collector, determine its performance for a variety of climatic conditions, analyze the economics of this type of solar collector and evaluate specific applications. Two prototype collectors were designed, fabricated and installed into an instrumented test system. Tests were conducted for a period of five months. Results of the tests showed consistent operating efficiencies of 60% or greater with air preheat temperature uses up to 20/sup 0/F for one of the prototypes. The economic analyses indicated that an installed cost of between $5 and $10 per square foot would make this type of solar system economically viable. For the materials of construction and the type of fabrication and installation perceived, these costs for the bare-plate solar collector are believed to be attainable. Specific applications for preheating ventilation air for schools were evaluated and judged to be economically viable.

  2. Thermal efficiency of single-pass solar air collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, Zamry; Ibarahim, Zahari; Yatim, Baharudin; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz

    2013-11-27

    Efficiency of a finned single-pass solar air collector was studied. This paper presents the experimental study to investigate the effect of solar radiation and mass flow rate on efficiency. The fins attached at the back of absorbing plate to improve the thermal efficiency of the system. The results show that the efficiency is increased proportional to solar radiation and mass flow rate. Efficiency of the collector archived steady state when reach to certain value or can be said the maximum performance.

  3. Means of increasing efficiency of CPC solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, Bei Tse; Rabl, Ari

    1977-02-15

    A device is provided for improving the thermal efficiency of a cylindrical radiant energy collector. A channel is placed next to and in close proximity to the nonreflective side of an energy reflective wall of a cylindrical collector. A coolant is piped through the channel and removes a portion of the nonreflective energy incident on the wall which is absorbed by the wall. The energy transferred to the coolant may be utilized in a useful manner.

  4. Means of increasing efficiency of CPC solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, B.T.; Rabl, A.

    1975-06-27

    A device is provided for improving the thermal efficiency of a cylindrical radiant energy collector. A channel is placed next to and in close proximity to the nonreflective side of an energy reflective wall of a cylindrical collector. A coolant is piped through the channel and removes a portion of the nonreflective energy incident on the wall which is absorbed by the wall. The energy transferred to the coolant may be utilized in a useful manner.

  5. Dual curvature acoustically damped concentrating collector. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, G.A.; Rausch, R.A.

    1980-05-01

    A development program was conducted to investigate the design and performance parameters of a novel, dual curvature, concentrating solar collector. The reflector of the solar collector is achieved with a stretched-film reflective surface that approximates a hyperbolic paraboloid and is capable of line-focusing at concentration ratios ranging from 10 to 20X. A prototype collector was designed based on analytical and experimental component trade-off activities as well as economic analyses of solar thermal heating and cooling systems incorporating this type of collector. A prototype collector incorporating six 0.66 x 1.22 m (2 x 4 ft) was fabricated and subjected to a limited thermal efficiency test program. A peak efficiency of 36% at 121/sup 0/C (250/sup 0/F) was achieved based upon the gross aperture area. Commercialization activities were conducted, including estimated production costs of $134.44/m/sup 2/ ($12.49/ft/sup 2/) for the collector assembly (including a local suntracker and controls) and $24.33/m/sup 2/ ($2.26/ft/sup 2/) for the reflector subassembly.

  6. High air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masquelier, Donald A.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Willeke, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    A high air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector. A high volume flow of aerosol particles is drawn into an annular, centripetal slot in a collector which directs the aerosol flow into a small volume of liquid pool contained is a lower center section of the collector. The annular jet of air impinges into the liquid, imbedding initially airborne particles in the liquid. The liquid in the pool continuously circulates in the lower section of the collector by moving to the center line, then upwardly, and through assistance by a rotating deflector plate passes back into the liquid at the outer area adjacent the impinging air jet which passes upwardly through the liquid pool and through a hollow center of the collector, and is discharged via a side outlet opening. Any liquid droplets escaping with the effluent air are captured by a rotating mist eliminator and moved back toward the liquid pool. The collector includes a sensor assembly for determining, controlling, and maintaining the level of the liquid pool, and includes a lower centrally located valve assembly connected to a liquid reservoir and to an analyzer for analyzing the particles which are impinged into the liquid pool.

  7. Performance testing of the Acurex solar-collector Model 3001-03

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, V.E.; Workhoven, R.M.

    1982-03-01

    Results are summarized of tests conducted at the Collector Module Test Facility on an Acurex Model 3001-03 Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Collector. Test temperaure range was 100/sup 0/C to 300/sup 0/C. Tests were conducted with the collector axis oriented east-west and again with the collector axis oriented north-south. Three collectors were tested: one using polished aluminum mirrors, one using glass mirrors, and another using an aluminized acrylic film mirror.

  8. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  9. Gas reburn retrofit on an industrial cyclone boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farzan, H.; Latham, C.E.; Maringo, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Eastman Kodak Company`s cyclone boiler (Unit No. 43), located in Rochester, New York, is being retrofitted with the gas reburning technology developed by Babcock & Wilcox (B & W) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in order to comply with the Title I, ozone nonattainment, of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The required NO{sub x} reduction from baseline levels necessary to meet the presumptive limit set in New York`s regulation is about 47%. Eastman Kodak and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) are cosponsoring this project. B & W is the prime contractor and contract negotiations with Chevron as the gas supplier are presently being finalized. Equipment installation for the gas reburn system is scheduled for a September 1995 outage. No. 43 Boiler`s maximum continuous rating (MCR) is 550,000 pounds per hour of steam flow or approximately equivalent to 60 MW{sub e}. Because of the compact boiler design, there is insufficient gas residence time to use pulverized coal or oil as the reburn fuel, thus making it a prime candidate for gas reburn. Kodak currently has four cyclone boilers. Based on successful completion of this gas reburn project, modifying the other three cyclone boilers with gas reburn technology is anticipated. The paper will describe B & W`s gas reburn data from a cyclone-equipped pilot facility (B & W`s Small Boiler Simulator), gas reburn design information specific to Eastman Kodak No. 43 Boiler, and numerical modeling experiences based on the pilot-scale Small Boiler Simulator (SBS) results along with those from a full-scale commercial boiler.

  10. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  11. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  12. Fuel cell collector plate and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braun, James C.; Zabriskie, Jr., John E.; Neutzler, Jay K.; Fuchs, Michel; Gustafson, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    An improved molding composition is provided for compression molding or injection molding a current collector plate for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. The molding composition is comprised of a polymer resin combined with a low surface area, highly-conductive carbon and/or graphite powder filler. The low viscosity of the thermoplastic resin combined with the reduced filler particle surface area provide a moldable composition which can be fabricated into a current collector plate having improved current collecting capacity vis-a-vis comparable fluoropolymer molding compositions.

  13. Design and test of non-evacuated solar collectors with compound...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Design and test of non-evacuated solar collectors with compound parabolic concentrators Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design and test of non-evacuated solar collectors ...

  14. Low-cost solar collectors using thin-film plastics absorbers and glazings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    The design, fabrication, performance, cost, and marketing of flat plate solar collectors using plastic absorbers and glazings are described. Manufacturing cost breakdowns are given for single-glazed and double-glazed collectors. (WHK)

  15. Thin polymer film collectors as a contribution to the solar industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1984-06-01

    Achievements made in research on thin polymer film solar flat-plate collectors using monocoque construction techniques are briefly discussed. The significance of these achievements for cost reduction of flat-plate collectors without compromising performance is briefly discussed.

  16. NREL Develops New Optical Evaluation Approach for Parabolic Trough Collectors (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    New analytical method makes it possible to carry out fast evaluation of trough collectors for design purposes.

  17. Transpired Solar Collectors: Office of Power Technologies (OPT) Success Stories Series Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2000-08-01

    Transpired solar collectors are a reliable, low-cost way to preheat ventilation air in commercial buildings.

  18. Check valve and spring to prevent forward and reverse thermosiphoning in solar collector systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagshaw, D. P.; Kast, M. A.; Whitehouse, H. T.

    1985-09-17

    A freeze protection system allows the working fluid contained in the communicating tubes of the solar collector to drain from both the input and output tubes of the collector when a first predetermined temperature of the working fluid is detected and to fill the collector via both the input and output tubes when a second predetermined temperature is detected.

  19. Inverse Marx modulators for self-biasing klystron depressed collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, Mark A.

    2014-07-31

    A novel pulsed depressed collector biasing scheme is proposed. This topology feeds forward energy recovered during one RF pulse for use on the following RF pulse. The presented ''inverse'' Marx charges biasing capacitors in series, and discharges them in parallel. Simulations are shown along with experimental demonstration on a 62kW klystron.

  20. Evaluation of solar collectors for heat pump applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skartvedt, Gary; Pedreyra, Donald; McMordle, Dr., Robert; Kidd, James; Anderson, Jerome; Jones, Richard

    1980-08-01

    The study was initiated to evaluate the potential utility of very low cost (possibly unglazed and uninsulated) solar collectors to serve as both heat collection and rejection devices for a liquid source heat pump. The approach consisted of exercising a detailed analytical simulation of the complete heat pump/solar collector/storage system against heating and cooling loads derived for typical single-family residences in eight US cities. The performance of each system was measured against that of a conventional air-to-air heat pump operating against the same loads. In addition to evaluation of solar collector options, the study included consideration of water tanks and buried pipe grids to provide thermal storage. As a supplement to the analytical tasks, the study included an experimental determination of night sky temperature and convective heat transfer coefficients for surfaces with dimensions typical of solar collectors. The experiments were conducted in situ by placing the test apparatus on the roofs of houses in the Denver, Colorado, area. (MHR)

  1. Wind load design methods for ground-based heliostats and parabolic dish collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterka, J A; Derickson, R G

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this design method is to define wind loads on flat heliostat and parabolic dish collectors in a simplified form. Wind loads are defined for both mean and peak loads accounting for the protective influence of upwind collectors, wind protective fences, or other wind-blockage elements. The method used to define wind loads was to generalize wind load data obtained during tests on model collectors, heliostats or parabolic dishes, placed in a modeled atmospheric wind in a boundary-layer wind-tunnel at Colorado State University. For both heliostats and parabolic dishes, loads are reported for solitary collectors and for collectors as elements of a field. All collectors were solid with negligible porosity; thus the effects of porosity in the collectors is not addressed.

  2. A Reassessment of the Integrated Impact of Tropical Cyclones on Surface Chlorophyll in the Western Subtropical North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foltz, Gregory R.; Balaguru, Karthik; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-02-28

    The impact of tropical cyclones on surface chlorophyll concentration is assessed in the western subtropical North Atlantic Ocean during 1998–2011. Previous studies in this area focused on individual cyclones and gave mixed results regarding the importance of tropical cyclone-induced mixing for changes in surface chlorophyll. Using a more integrated and comprehensive approach that includes quantification of cyclone-induced changes in mixed layer depth, here it is shown that accumulated cyclone energy explains 22% of the interannual variability in seasonally-averaged (June–November) chlorophyll concentration in the western subtropical North Atlantic, after removing the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The variance explained by tropical cyclones is thus about 70% of that explained by the NAO, which has well-known impacts in this region. It is therefore likely that tropical cyclones contribute significantly to interannual variations of primary productivity in the western subtropical North Atlantic during the hurricane season.

  3. Lightweight diaphragm mirror module system for solar collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, Barry L.

    1985-01-01

    A mirror module system is provided for accurately focusing solar radiation on a point or a line as defined by an array of solar collectors. Each mirror module includes a flexible membrane stretched over a frame in a manner similar to that of a drum or a trampoline and further includes a silvered glass or plastic mirror for forming an optical reflecting surface. The configuration of the optical reflecting surface is variably adjustable to provide for the accurate focusing of the solar energy on a given collector array, e.g., a point or a linear array arrangement. The flexible mirror-membrane combination is lightweight to facilitate installation and reduce system cost yet structurally strong enough to provide for the precise focusing of the incident solar radiation in a semi-rigid reflector system in which unwanted reflector displacement is minimized.

  4. Lightweight diaphragm mirror module system for solar collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    A mirror module system is provided for accurately focusing solar radiation on a point or a line as defined by an array of solar collectors. Each mirror module includes a flexible membrane stretched over a frame in a manner similar to that of a drum or a trampoline and further includes a silvered glass or plastic mirror for forming an optical reflecting surface. The configuration of the optical reflecting surface is variably adjustable to provide for the accurate focusing of the solar energy on a given collector array, e.g., a point or a linear array arrangement. The flexible mirror-membrane combination is lightweight to facilitate installation and reduce system cost yet structurally strong enough to provide for the precise focusing of the incident solar radiation in a semi-rigid reflector system in which unwanted reflector displacement is minimized.

  5. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

  6. Metal Current Collector Protected by Oxide Film - Energy Innovation Portal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Current Collector Protected by Oxide Film Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummarySteven Visco, Craig Jacobson, and Lutgard DeJonghe have designed a cost-efficient, structurally sound technology for current collection and cell-to-cell interconnection of high temperature (>600 C) planar electrochemical devices. Current collection is normally achieved using expensive metal oxides or metals such as platinum or nickel.

  7. Multi-stage depressed collector for small orbit gyrotrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, A.; Ives, R.L.; Schumacher, R.V.; Mizuhara, Y.M.

    1998-07-14

    A multi-stage depressed collector for receiving energy from a small orbit gyrating electron beam employs a plurality of electrodes at different potentials for sorting the individual electrons on the basis of their total energy level. Magnetic field generating coils, for producing magnetic fields and magnetic iron for magnetic field shaping produce adiabatic and controlled non-adiabatic transitions of the incident electron beam to further facilitate the sorting. 9 figs.

  8. Multi-stage depressed collector for small orbit gyrotrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Amarjit; Ives, R. Lawrence; Schumacher, Richard V.; Mizuhara, Yosuke M.

    1998-01-01

    A multi-stage depressed collector for receiving energy from a small orbit gyrating electron beam employs a plurality of electrodes at different potentials for sorting the individual electrons on the basis of their total energy level. Magnetic field generating coils, for producing magnetic fields and magnetic iron for magnetic field shaping produce adiabatic and controlled non-adiabatic transitions of the incident electron beam to further facilitate the sorting.

  9. Low-cost solar flat-plate-collector development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goals were developed for the collector which led to the rejection of conventional approaches and to the exploration of thin-film technology. A thin-film sola absorber suited for high-speed continous-roll manufacture at low cost was designed. The absorber comprises two sheets of aluminum-foil/polymeric-material laminate bonded together at intervals to form channels with water as the heat transfer fluid. Several flat-plate panels were fabricated and tested. (MHR)

  10. Discrimination and quantification of contamination and implanted solar wind in Genesis collector shards using grazing incidence synchrotron x-ray techniqies: Initial results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitts, K.; Sutton, S.; Eng, P.; Ghose, S.; Burnett, D.

    2006-12-13

    Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence is a non-destructive technique that can differentiate the embedded solar wind component from surface contamination and collector background in the Genesis shards. Initial solar Fe abundance in D30554 is 8 x 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2}. Accurate knowledge of the composition of the Sun provides a baseline, which allows an understanding of how the solar system has evolved over time and how solar processes and solar wind mechanics behave. Unfortunately, the errors in photospheric abundances are too large for many planetary science problems and this hampers our understanding of these different processes. Analyses of solar wind implanted in meteorites or lunar soils have provided more precise data but alteration processes on these bodies may complicate such information. In response to this need for pristine solar wind samples, NASA developed and launched the Genesis Probe. Unfortunately, the probe smashed into the Utah desert shattering the 300 collector plates into 15,000+ pieces all of which are now coated in a both a fine terrestrial dust and Si and Ge powder from the disrupted collectors themselves. The solar wind penetration depth is 100-200 nm and the superposed contamination layers are typically 40-50 nm. Stringent cleaning regimes have the potential of removing the solar wind itself. The best solution is to have sufficient spatial resolution to separately analyze the surface contamination and penetrated solar wind. To that end, three Genesis collector array shards and their appropriate flight spares were characterized via grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence and x-ray reflectivity. The goals were (1) to evaluate the various cleaning methods used to eliminate contamination, (2) to identify the collector substrates most suited for this technique, (3) to determine whether the solar wind signature could be deconvolved from the collector background signature, and (4) to measure the relative abundances of Ca to Ge in the embedded solar

  11. Thin-film absorber for a solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1982-02-09

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  12. Directory of SRCC certified solar collector ratings: supplement to Fall 1983 edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The solar collector thermal performance ratings contained in this Directory Supplement provide both the manufacturer and the solar consumer with a means for making informed comparisons between collectors over a broad range of applications. The thermal performance rating figures for collectors as published in the directory are calculated from test data generated from either ASHRAE 93-77 or ASHRAE 96-1980 test standards (SRCC Standard 100-81). These rating numbers represent the all day energy output of a collector and are expressed in terms of thousands of Btu's (British Thermal Units) per Day per Panel. The directory is divided into four sections representing the main generic types of collector panels. Each entry contains not only the thermal performance ratings, but collector material descriptions, fluid capacity, tested flow rate, maximum recommended flow rate, operating temperature and pressure as well as an efficiency equation, incident angle modifier, and Y-intercept and slope values.

  13. New Optical Evaluation Approach for Parabolic Trough Collectors: First-Principle OPTical Intercept Calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, G.; Lewandowski, A.

    2012-11-01

    A new analytical method -- First-principle OPTical Intercept Calculation (FirstOPTIC) -- is presented here for optical evaluation of trough collectors. It employs first-principle optical treatment of collector optical error sources and derives analytical mathematical formulae to calculate the intercept factor of a trough collector. A suite of MATLAB code is developed for FirstOPTIC and validated against theoretical/numerical solutions and ray-tracing results. It is shown that FirstOPTIC can provide fast and accurate calculation of intercept factors of trough collectors. The method makes it possible to carry out fast evaluation of trough collectors for design purposes. The FirstOPTIC techniques and analysis may be naturally extended to other types of CSP technologies such as linear-Fresnel collectors and central-receiver towers.

  14. Analytically calculating shading in regular arrays of sun-pointing collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meller, Yosef

    2010-11-15

    A method is presented for deriving an algorithm for analytically calculating shading of sun-pointing solar collectors by other identical collectors in the field. The method is particularly suited to regularly-spaced collectors, with convex aperture shapes. Using this method, an algorithm suitable for circular-aperture collectors is derived. The algorithm is validated against results obtained using an existing algorithm, and an example for usage of the algorithm as a tool for validating assumptions of an existing algorithm is presented. (author)

  15. Equivalencing the Collector System of a Large Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Ellis, A.; Mechenbier, J.; Hochheimer, J.; Young, R.; Miller, N.; Delmerico, R.; Zavadil, R.; Smith, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on our effort to develop an equivalent representation of a wind power plant collector system for power system planning studies.

  16. Grid collector: An event catalog with automated file management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Kesheng; Zhang, Wei-Ming; Sim, Alexander; Gu, Junmin; Shoshani, Arie

    2003-10-17

    High Energy Nuclear Physics (HENP) experiments such as STAR at BNL and ATLAS at CERN produce large amounts of data that are stored as files on mass storage systems in computer centers. In these files, the basic unit of data is an event. Analysis is typically performed on a selected set of events. The files containing these events have to be located, copied from mass storage systems to disks before analysis, and removed when no longer needed. These file management tasks are tedious and time consuming. Typically, all events contained in the files are read into memory before a selection is made. Since the time to read the events dominate the overall execution time, reading the unwanted event needlessly increases the analysis time. The Grid Collector is a set of software modules that works together to address these two issues. It automates the file management tasks and provides ''direct'' access to the selected events for analyses. It is currently integrated with the STAR analysis framework. The users can select events based on tags, such as, ''production date between March 10 and 20, and the number of charged tracks > 100.'' The Grid Collector locates the files containing relevant events, transfers the files across the Grid if necessary, and delivers the events to the analysis code through the familiar iterators. There has been some research efforts to address the file management issues, the Grid Collector is unique in that it addresses the event access issue together with the file management issues. This makes it more useful to a large variety of users.

  17. A prototype photovoltaic/thermal system integrated with transpired collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Athienitis, Andreas K.; Bambara, James; O'Neill, Brendan; Faille, Jonathan

    2011-01-15

    Building-integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) systems may be utilized to produce useful heat while simultaneously generating electricity from the same building envelope surface. A well known highly efficient collector is the open-loop unglazed transpired collector (UTC) which consists of dark porous cladding through which outdoor air is drawn and heated by absorbed solar radiation. Commercially available photovoltaic systems typically produce electricity with efficiencies up to about 18%. Thus, it is beneficial to obtain much of the normally wasted heat from the systems, possibly by combining UTC with photovoltaics. Combination of BIPV/T and UTC systems for building facades is considered in this paper - specifically, the design of a prototype facade-integrated photovoltaic/thermal system with transpired collector (BIPV/T). A full scale prototype is constructed with 70% of UTC area covered with PV modules specially designed to enhance heat recovery and compared to a UTC of the same area under outdoor sunny conditions with low wind. The orientation of the corrugations in the UTC is horizontal and the black-framed modules are attached so as to facilitate flow into the UTC plenum. While the overall combined thermal efficiency of the UTC is higher than that of the BIPV/T system, the value of the generated energy - assuming that electricity is at least four times more valuable than heat - is between 7% and 17% higher. Also, the electricity is always useful while the heat is usually utilized only in the heating season. The BIPV/T concept is applied to a full scale office building demonstration project in Montreal, Canada. The ratio of photovoltaic area coverage of the UTC may be selected based on the fresh air heating needs of the building, the value of the electricity generated and the available building surfaces. (author)

  18. Fuel cell collector plates with improved mass transfer channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gurau, Vladimir; Barbir, Frano; Neutzler, Jay K.

    2003-04-22

    A fuel cell collector plate can be provided with one or more various channel constructions for the transport of reactants to the gas diffusion layer and the removal of water therefrom. The outlet channel can be arranged to have a reduced volume compared to the inlet channel, in both interdigitated and discontinuous spiral applications. The land width between an inlet channel and outlet channel can be reduced to improved mass flow rate in regions of deleted reactant concentrations. Additionally or alternatively, the depth of the inlet channel can be reduced in the direction of flow to reduce the diffusion path as the concentration of reactant is reduced.

  19. Slope Error Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed an optical measurement tool for parabolic solar collectors that measures the combined errors due to absorber misalignment and reflector slope error. The combined absorber alignment and reflector slope errors are measured using a digital camera to photograph the reflected image of the absorber in the collector. Previous work using the image of the reflection of the absorber finds the reflector slope errors from the reflection of the absorber and an independent measurement of the absorber location. The accuracy of the reflector slope error measurement is thus dependent on the accuracy of the absorber location measurement. By measuring the combined reflector-absorber errors, the uncertainty in the absorber location measurement is eliminated. The related performance merit, the intercept factor, depends on the combined effects of the absorber alignment and reflector slope errors. Measuring the combined effect provides a simpler measurement and a more accurate input to the intercept factor estimate. The minimal equipment and setup required for this measurement technique make it ideal for field measurements.

  20. Integral collector storage system with heat exchange apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Richard O.

    2004-04-20

    The present invention relates to an integral solar energy collector storage systems. Generally, an integral collector storage system includes a tank system, a plurality of heat exchange tubes with at least some of the heat exchange tubes arranged within the tank system, a first glazing layer positioned over the tank system and a base plate positioned under the tank system. In one aspect of the invention, the tank system, the first glazing layer an the base plate each include protrusions and a clip is provided to hold the layers together. In another aspect of the invention, the first glazing layer and the base plate are ribbed to provide structural support. This arrangement is particularly useful when these components are formed from plastic. In yet another aspect of the invention, the tank system has a plurality of interconnected tank chambers formed from tubes. In this aspect, a supply header pipe and a fluid return header pipe are provided at a first end of the tank system. The heat exchange tubes have inlets coupled to the supply header pipe and outlets coupled to the return header pipe. With this arrangement, the heat exchange tubes may be inserted into the tank chambers from the first end of the tank system.

  1. Cable tensioned membrane solar collector module with variable tension control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, L.M.

    1984-01-09

    Disclosed is a solar collector comprising a membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a plurality of elongated structural members for suspending the membrane member thereon, and a plurality of control members for adjustably tensioning the membrane member, as well as for controlling a focus produced by the membrane members. Each control member is disposed at a different corresponding one of the plurality of structural members. The collector also comprises an elongated flexible tensioning member, which serves to stretch the membrane member and to thereafter hold it in tension, and a plurality of sleeve members which serve to provide the membrane member with a desired surface contour during tensioning of the membrane member. The tensioning member is coupled to the structural members such that the tensioning member is adjustably tensioned through the structural members. The tensioning member is also coupled to the membrane member through the sleeve members such that the sleeve members uniformly and symmetrically stretch the membrane member upon applying tension to the tensioning member with the control members.

  2. Cable tensioned membrane solar collector module with variable tension control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar collector comprising a membrane for concentrating sunlight, a plurality of elongated structural members for suspending the membrane member thereon, and a plurality of control members for adjustably tensioning the membrane member, as well as for controlling a focus produced by the membrane members. Each control member is disposed at a different corresponding one of the plurality of structural members. The collector also comprises an elongated flexible tensioning member, which serves to stretch the membrane member and to thereafter hold it in tension, and a plurality of sleeve members, which serve to provide the membrane member with a desired surface contour during tensioning of the membrane member. The tensioning member is coupled to the structural members such that the tensioning member is adjustably tensioned through the structural members. The tensioning member is also coupled to the membrane member through the sleeve members such that the sleeve members uniformly and symmetrically stretch the membrane member upon applying tension to the tensioning member with the control members.

  3. ULTRASONICALLY-ENHANCED DENSE-MEDIUM CYCLONING FOR FINE COAL AND COAL REFUSE IMPOUNDMENT MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Mark S. Klima; Dr. Barbara J. Arnold

    2001-08-01

    The Pennsylvania State University, its project team (Typlex, Inc., DAGER, Inc., and PrepTech, Inc.), and advisory committee members have demonstrated the application of ultrasonic energy during dense-medium cyclining and subsequent recovery of fine coal and coal refuse impoundment materials. The results will help to extend the range of conventional dense-medium cyclining to sizes now typically cleaned in relatively inefficient water-only cyclone and spiral concentrators circuits. This technology also provides a potential approach to produce ultra-clean material as would be used for feedstocks for premium carbon products. This report describes Phase I of the project, which involved laboratory testing of dense-medium cyclining and subsequent medium recovery, with and without ultrasonic treatment, along with fundamental dispersion testing. Dense-medium cycloning was conducted with a 76.2-mm (3-in.) diameter cyclone under various conditions including magnetite grade, medium relative density, inlet pressure, cyclone geometry, and feed coal. Dense-medium recovery testing was carried out with a 305-mm (12-in.) diameter x 152-mm (6-in.) wide wet-drum magnetic separator using the cyclone clean coal and refuse products as the feed material. Fundamental testing of dispersion/reagglomeration phenomena was conducted with coal/clay mixtures. In almost all cases, the dense-medium cyclone was capable of achieving separations down to approximately 0.037 mm. Ultrasonic treatment had a slight effect on reducing the ash content of the clean coal. It was also found that ultrasonic treatment improved the purity of the magnetic fraction during wet-drum magnetic separation. The treatment was particularly beneficial for the cyclone overflow material. The fundamental testing indicated that agitation after ultrasonic treatment is necessary to disperse fine particles and to prevent agglomeration.

  4. Low-cost, high-performance solar flat-plate collectors for applications in northern latitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Solar flat plate collector designs have been developed which incorporate high performance polymer film and laminate technology that have a projected manufacturing cost approaching $15/m/sup 2/ and potential thermal performance consistent with the best commercial solar flat plate collectors available today.

  5. Review of state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes. Task 1 of solar collector studies for solar heating and cooling applications. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, J E; Diegle, R B

    1980-04-11

    The state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes is reviewed, and Task 1 of a current research program on use of aqueous heat transfer fluids for solar heating and cooling is summarized. The review of available published literature has indicated that lack of quantitative information exists relative to collector corrosion at the present time, particularly for the higher temperature applications of solar heating and cooling compared to domestic water heating. Solar collector systems are reviewed from the corrosion/service life viewpoint, with emphasis on various applications, collector design, heat transfer fluids, and freeze protection methods. Available information (mostly qualitative) on collector corrosion technology is reviewed to indicate potential corrosion problem areas and corrosion prevention practices. Sources of limited quantitative data that are reviewed are current solar applications, research programs on collector corrosion, and pertinent experience in related applications of automotive cooling and non-solar heating and cooling. A data bank was developed to catalog corrosion information. Appendix A of this report is a bibliography of the data bank, with abstracts reproduced from presently available literature accessions (about 220). This report is presented as a descriptive summary of information that is contained in the data bank.

  6. Method Of Making Solar Collectors By In-Situ Encapsulation Of Solar Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carrie, Peter J.; Chen, Kingsley D. D.

    2000-10-24

    A method of making solar collectors by encapsulating photovoltaic cells within a base of an elongated solar collector wherein heat and pressure are applied to the cells in-situ, after an encapsulating material has been applied. A tool is fashioned having a bladder expandable under gas pressure, filling a region of the collector where the cells are mounted. At the same time, negative pressure is applied outside of the bladder, enhancing its expansion. The bladder presses against a platen which contacts the encapsulated cells, causing outgassing of the encapsulant, while heat cures the encapsulant. After curing, the bladder is deflated and the tool may be removed from the collector and base and reflective panels put into place, if not already there, thereby allowing the solar collector to be ready for use.

  7. Attaching solar collectors to a structural framework utilizing a flexible clip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, John S

    2014-03-25

    Methods and apparatuses described herein provide for the attachment of solar collectors to a structural framework in a solar array assembly. A flexible clip is attached to either end of each solar collector and utilized to attach the solar collector to the structural framework. The solar collectors are positioned to allow a member of the framework to engage a pair of flexible clips attached to adjacent solar collectors during assembly of the solar array. Each flexible clip may have multiple frame-engaging portions, each with a flange on one end to cause the flexible clip to deflect inward when engaged by the framework member during assembly and to guide each of the frame-engaging portions into contact with a surface of the framework member for attachment.

  8. Advanced Manufacture of Second-Surface, Silvered Glass Reflectors for High-Performance, Low-Cost CSP Collector Systems

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced Manufacture of Second-Surface, Silvered Glass Reflectors for High-Performance, Low-Cost CSP Collector Systems

  9. Rim-drive cable-aligned heliostat collector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dolan, J.E.; Sands, T.D.

    1982-09-30

    Disclosed is a heliostat collector apparatus comprising at least one heliostat suspended from a plurality of longitudinally extending linkage means. An enclosure structure is disposed adjacent the heliostat and provides a means for allowing the heliostat to be substantially protected from weathering. A first drive means is operatively connected to the heliostat to effect steering thereof in at least one of first and second predetermined directions. Finally, a frame member is adapted for supporting the heliostat at an inner portion thereof. The frame includes a plurality of outer expandable portions. Each one of the expandable portions is adapted to slidably engage a corresponding one of the plurality of linkage means. The expandable portions are further adapted to allow the heliostat to be slidably moved along the linkage means in directions away from and towards the enclosure structure and to substantially reduce stress acting on the heliostat during steering.

  10. Focusing solar collector and method for manufacturing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar collector comprising an annular-shaped frame and a composite membrane member for concentrating and focusing sun radiation. The composite membrane member is supported and tensioned by the frame and consists of first and second differentially pretensioned sheet members which are integrally bonded to one another. The frame and one of the two sheet members are adapted to allow tensions in both of the two sheets to be adjusted. Subsequent to bonding and upon adjusting a tension in one of the two sheet members, both of the two bonded sheet members react with one another so as to cause the composite membrane member to have a contoured configuration, which enables the membrane member to be focusable. Additionally, adjusting the tension in one of the two sheet members provides a reciprocal adjustment in a focus provided by the membrane member.

  11. Focusing solar collector and method for manufacturing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar collector comprising an annular-shaped frame and a composite membrane member for concentrating and focusing sun radiation. The composite membrane member is supported and tensioned by the frame and consists of first and second differentially pretensioned sheet members which are integrally bonded to one another. The frame and one of the two sheet members are adapted to allow tensions in both of the sheets to be adjusted. Subsequent to bonding and upon adjusting a tension in one of the two sheet members, both of the two bonded sheet members react with one another so as to cause the composite membrane member to have a contoured configuration, which enables the membrane member to be focusable. Additionally, adjusting the tension in one of the two sheet members provides a reciprocal adjustment in a focus provided by the membrane member.

  12. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henning, Carl D.

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

  13. Particle collector scoops for improved exhaust in ''axisymmetric'' devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conn, R.W.; Wolf, G.H.

    1987-11-01

    Application of particle collector scoops in front of the pumping ducts of axisymmetric divertor/magnetic limiter configurations is proposed. These scoops should enclose a significant fraction of the recycling particles. The resulting increase in natural particle pressure in front of the pumping ducts leads to an improved exhaust efficiency. This can permit an extension of the operational margin for density control. Alternatively, aiming at a prescribed exhaust flow in reactor-type devices such as INTOR, the pumping ducts could be reduced in aperture, leaving valuable space for other components. The lay-out of the proposed scheme depends on the heat load on the leading edge in front of the scoop and on the deflector in front of the pumping ducts. 14 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Rim-drive cable-aligned heliostat collector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dolan, James E.; Sands, Timothy D.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a heliostat collector apparatus comprising at least one heliostat suspended from a plurality of longitudinally extending linkage means. An enclosure structure is disposed adjacent the heliostat and provides a means for allowing the heliostat to be substantially protected from weathering. A first drive means is operatively connected to the heliostat to effect steering thereof in at least one of first and second predetermined directions. Finally, a frame member is adapted for supporting the heliostat at an inner portion thereof. The frame includes a plurality of outer expandable portions. Each one of the expandable portions is adapted to slidably engage a corresponding one of the plurality of linkage means. The expandable portions are further adapted to allow the heliostat to be slidably moved along the linkage means in directions away from and towards the enclosure structure and to substantially reduce stress acting on the heliostat during steering.

  15. Development of polymer film solar collectors: a status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.; Andrews, J.W.

    1982-08-01

    Solar energy collector panels using polymer film and laminate technology have been developed which demonstrate low cost and high thermal performance for residential and commercial applications. This device uses common water in the absorber/heat exchanger which is constructed with polymer film adhesively laminated to aluminum foil as the outer surfaces. Stressed polymer films are also used for the outer window and back surface of the panel forming a high strength structural composite. Rigid polymer foam complements the design by contributing insulation and structural definition. This design has resulted in very low weight (3.5 kg/m/sup 2/), potentially very low manufacturing cost (approx. $11/m/sup 2/), and high thermal performance. The development of polymer materials for this technology will be a key to early commercial success. This report summarizes the current status of development and discusses the information gained from system tests are summarized.

  16. Free-formed insulated concentrating solar collector. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodwin, G.

    1981-01-01

    A free-formed, insulated solar concentrating-collector was designed, built, and tested. The design utilizes new concepts to achieve simplicity, low cost, high efficiency, and long service life. Three concepts were utilized to meet these goals: First, the concentrating reflector is free-formed by hand from a thin steel sheet. Second, a transparent cover is placed over the concentrator and insulation is placed on the back and ends reduce heat losses and protect the reflecting surface from attack by rain and dust. Third, a highly-reflective aluminum film, protected by bonding between two thin sheets of uv stabilized polyester, is fastened to the steel substrate by peelable adhesive. The material cost of the unit without sun seeking electronics and drive motor is about $6.75 per square foot of sun capturing area. Sun following equipment adds to the cost, however, in units of about 100 square feet sun following equipment contributes about $2.00 per square foot. Labor costs are estimated to be approximately $3.00 per square foot for a $5.00 per hour labor rate for a trained crew. On a do-it-yourself basis a 100 square foot unit would cost about $875. Tests of the prototype collector performed by a certified solar test laboratory were made and the results compared with similar tests of a commercial unit. These tests indicate that the efficiency of the prototype is higher than the commercial unit at outlet temperatures below 160/sup 0/F and comparable with the commercial unit at the boiling point of water.

  17. Thermal performance testing and mathematically modeling of integral collector storage solar hot water systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, W.C.

    1985-02-01

    An investigation was carried out to evaluate a possible alternative test method for integral collector storage solar hot water systems. The new test method is an alternative to the established consensus standard method which requires that integral collector storage systems be tested using a solar irradiance simulator. The concept behind the alternative method is to characterize the thermal performance of the solar collection elements in the integral system using standard test methods for conventional solar collectors. After measuring the efficiency and incident angle response, the integral collector storage hot water system would be tested using an electrical heat source to simulate the absorbed solar energy. The research included both experimental and analytical investigations on the collector elements and on the complete system. All-day tests were performed on two commercial integral collector storage solar domestic hot water systems. Tests were performed under a variety of ambient conditions and irradiance levels. An analytical model was developed to predict the thermal performance of one of the systems. Predicted performance was compared with experimental results. Experimental and analytical results indicated that thermal stratification has a minimal effect on the daily collection efficiency of integral storage collectors. While the investigation showed that it is technically feasible to implement the new test method, further recommendations on implementation are contigent on validation of the method in a system test facility.

  18. Low-Cost Self-Cleaning Coatings for CSP Collectors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Cost Self-Cleaning Coatings for CSP Collectors Low-Cost Self-Cleaning Coatings for CSP Collectors This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. csp_review_meeting_042413_hunter.pdf (5.38 MB) More Documents & Publications PowerPoint Presentation - FY13 Q1 Low-Cost Self-Cleaning Reflector Coatings for CSP Collectors - FY13 Q2 Urban Heat Islands: Anti-Soiling Cool Roof Coatings

  19. Numerical simulation of solar collectors: The effect of nonuniform and nonsteady state of the boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliva, A.; Costa, M.; Perez Segarra, C.D. )

    1991-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed for determination of thermal behavior of solar collector. The model takes into account the multidimensional and transient aspects that characterize the phenomenon of heat transfer in a collector. The modelization carried out allows the analysis of the influence of such aspects as: flow nonuniformity distribution, areas of shadow, and variations in dimension and properties of the different elements. These aspects can be analyzed equally for steady and nonsteady outdoor conditions. Illustrative situations of the influence on the collector performance of the different aspects previously mentioned are shown.

  20. Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tischer, R.P.; Winterbottom, W.L.; Wroblowa, H.S.

    1987-03-10

    This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery. The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500--1,000 angstroms. 2 figs.

  1. Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tischer, Ragnar P.; Winterbottom, Walter L.; Wroblowa, Halina S.

    1987-01-01

    This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector (14) for a sodium/sulfur battery (10). The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material (16) formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500-1000 angstroms.

  2. Thin-film flat-plate solar collectors for low-cost manufacture and installation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.; Wilhelm, W.G.

    1980-03-01

    A flat-plate solar energy collector design using thin-film plastics in both the absorber and glazing is described. The design approach proceeded in two steps. First, cost constraints on solar collectors were determined using reasonable economic projections. Second, engineering was applied only to those ideas which had hope of falling within those cost boundaries. The use of thin-film plastics appeared most attractive according to these criteria. The nature of the marketing and distribution network can be expected to have a strong impact on the final installed cost of the collector; the proposed design has characteristics which could make possible a reduced price markup.

  3. Electrolytic/fuel cell bundles and systems including a current collector in communication with an electrode thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawkes, Grant L.; Herring, James S.; Stoots, Carl M.; O& #x27; Brien, James E.

    2013-03-05

    Electrolytic/fuel cell bundles and systems including such bundles include an electrically conductive current collector in communication with an anode or a cathode of each of a plurality of cells. A cross-sectional area of the current collector may vary in a direction generally parallel to a general direction of current flow through the current collector. The current collector may include a porous monolithic structure. At least one cell of the plurality of cells may include a current collector that surrounds an outer electrode of the cell and has at least six substantially planar exterior surfaces. The planar surfaces may extend along a length of the cell, and may abut against a substantially planar surface of a current collector of an adjacent cell. Methods for generating electricity and for performing electrolysis include flowing current through a conductive current collector having a varying cross-sectional area.

  4. Determination of the distribution of incident solar radiation in cavity receivers with approximately real parabolic dish collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bammert, K.; Lange, H. ); Hegazy, A. )

    1990-11-01

    The absorption of solar heat and the attendant thermal and mechanical loadings on the tubes of cavity receivers depend predominantly on the flux distribution of the incident solar radiation. For an axially symmetric cavity receiver with a parabolic dish collector, it is simple to determine the insolation pattern on the receiver internal surfaces if the system is ideal. In such a system the surface of the dish is perfectly parabolic (no contour flaws are present), and the sun's central ray impinges on the dish surface parallel to the focal axis (no sun tracking flaws are present). These two conditions cannot be achieved in practice, and therefore the feasible parabolic dish system is referred to as a real system although, in actual fact, it is only an approximation to any actual system. The purpose of this paper is to devise calculation principles which permit analysis of a receiver designed for ideal conditions to verify its structural adequacy under the nonideal conditions to be expected in reality. Of the many possible imperfections in real collectors, two were selected which increase the loadings sustained. The first case concerns flaws in the contour of the dish surface. These locally increase the radiation concentration on the receiver inside walls and tubing. In the second case, sun-tracking errors give rise to axially asymmetric radiation distributions. In both examples, greater than design basis loadings will occur in the receiver tubing. Both kinds of flaws considered in this paper are of a purely deterministic nature.

  5. UBIQUITOUS ROTATING NETWORK MAGNETIC FIELDS AND EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET CYCLONES IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Jun; Liu Yang E-mail: yliu@sun.stanford.edu

    2011-11-01

    We present Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observations of EUV cyclones in the quiet Sun. These cyclones are rooted in the rotating network magnetic fields (RNFs). Such cyclones can last several to more than 10 hr and, at the later phase, they are found to be associated with EUV brightenings (microflares) and even EUV waves. SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) observations show a ubiquitous presence of RNFs. Using HMI line-of-sight magnetograms on 2010 July 8, we find 388 RNFs in an area of 800 x 980 arcsec{sup 2} near the disk center where no active region is present. The sense of rotation shows a weak hemisphere preference. The unsigned magnetic flux of the RNFs is about 4.0 x 10{sup 21} Mx, or 78% of the total network flux. These observational phenomena at small scale reported in this Letter are consistent with those at large scale in active regions. The ubiquitous RNFs and EUV cyclones over the quiet Sun may suggest an effective way to heat the corona.

  6. Impact of surface coupling grids on tropical cyclone extremes in high-resolution atmospheric simulations

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Zarzycki, Colin M.; Reed, Kevin A.; Bacmeister, Julio T.; Craig, Anthony P.; Bates, Susan C.; Rosenbloom, Nan A.

    2016-02-25

    This article discusses the sensitivity of tropical cyclone climatology to surface coupling strategy in high-resolution configurations of the Community Earth System Model. Using two supported model setups, we demonstrate that the choice of grid on which the lowest model level wind stress and surface fluxes are computed may lead to differences in cyclone strength in multi-decadal climate simulations, particularly for the most intense cyclones. Using a deterministic framework, we show that when these surface quantities are calculated on an ocean grid that is coarser than the atmosphere, the computed frictional stress is misaligned with wind vectors in individual atmospheric gridmore » cells. This reduces the effective surface drag, and results in more intense cyclones when compared to a model configuration where the ocean and atmosphere are of equivalent resolution. Our results demonstrate that the choice of computation grid for atmosphere–ocean interactions is non-negligible when considering climate extremes at high horizontal resolution, especially when model components are on highly disparate grids.« less

  7. Demonstration of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program, under Round 2, a project for Full Scale Demonstration of Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x},) Control was selected. DOE sponsored The Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Company, with Wisconsin Power & Light (WP&L) as the host utility, to demonstrate coal reburning technology at WP&L`s 110 MW{sub c}, cyclone-fired Unit No.2 at the Nelson Dewey Generating Station in Cassville, Wisconsin. The coal reburning demonstration was justified based on two prior studies. An Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and B&W sponsored engineering feasibility study indicated that the majority of cyclone-equipped boilers could successfully apply reburning technology to reduce NO{sub x}, emissions by 50 to 70%. An EPRI/Gas Research Institute (GRI)/B&W pilot-scale evaluation substantiated this conclusion through pilot-scale testing in B&W`s 6 million Btu/hr Small Boiler Simulator. Three different reburning fuels, natural gas, No. 6 oil, and pulverized coal were tested. This work showed that coal as a reburning fuel performs nearly as well as gas/oil without deleterious effects of combustion efficiency. Coal was selected for a full scale demonstration since it is available to all cyclone units and represents the highest level of technical difficulty-in demonstrating the technology.

  8. Wind Tunnel Tests of Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors: March 2001--August 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosoya, N.; Peterka, J. A.; Gee, R. C.; Kearney, D.

    2008-05-01

    Conducted extensive wind-tunnel tests on parabolic trough solar collectors to determine practical wind loads applicable to structural design for stress and deformation, and local component design for concentrator reflectors.

  9. Intergrated function nonimaging concentrating collector tubes for solar thermal energy. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winston, R

    1982-09-01

    A substantial improvement in optical efficiency over contemporary external reflector evacuated tube collectors has been achieved by integrating the reflector surface into the outer glass envelope. Described are the design fabrication and test results for a prototype collector based on this concept. A comprehensive test program to measure performance and operational characteristics of a 2 m/sup 2/ panel (45 tubes) has been completed. Efficiencies above 50% relative to beam at 200/sup 0/C have been repeatedly demonstrated. Both the instantaneous and long term average performance of this totally stationary solar collector are comparable to those for tracking line focus parabolic troughs. The yield, reliability and stability of performance achieved have been excellent. Subcomponent assemblies and fabrication procedures have been used which are expected to be compatible with high volume production. The collector has a wide variety of applications in the 100/sup 0/C to 300/sup 0/C range including industrial process heat, air conditioning and Rankine engine operation.

  10. Next-Generation Solar Collectors for CSP, Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    3M Company is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their advanced collectors. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

  11. Comparison of indoor-outdoor thermal performance for the Sunpak evacuated tube liquid collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    Performance data is provided for current Sunpak production collectors. The effects of an improved manifold are seen from the test results. The test results show excellent correlation between the solar simulator derived test results and outdoor test results. Also, because of different incident angle modifiers, the all-day efficiency of this collector with a diffuse reflector is found to be comparable to the performance with the standard shaped specular reflector.

  12. Project Profile: Low-Cost Self-Cleaning Reflector Coatings for CSP Collectors

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    -- This project is inactive -- The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), under the National Laboratory R&D competitive funding opportunity, is developing self-cleaning, optically transparent coatings that can be applied to the surfaces of heliostats and collector mirrors in concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. The coatings can help to achieve the SunShot Initiative cost goals by reducing the time and costs associated with cleaning collector and heliostat mirror surfaces and increasing the reliability and efficiency of CSP systems.

  13. Analytical predictions of liquid and air photovoltaic/thermal flat-plate collector performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raghuraman, P.; Hendrie, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    Two separate one-dimensional analyses have been developed for the prediction of the thermal and electrical performance of both liquid and air flat-plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors. The analyses account for the temperature difference between the primary insolation absorber (the photovoltaic cells) and the secondary absorber (a thermal absorber flat plate). The results of the analyses are compared with test measurements, and therefrom, design recommendations are made to maximize the total energy extracted from the collectors.

  14. NO{sub x} control using natural gas reburn on an industrial cyclone boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farzan, H.; Maringo, G.J.; Beard, C.T.; Weed, G.E.; Pratapas, J.

    1997-07-01

    Eastman Kodak Company`s cyclone boiler (Unit No. 43), located in Rochester, New York, has been retrofitted with the gas reburn. technology developed by the Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Company to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in order to comply with the New York State regulations adopted in conformance with the Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. At the peak load, the ozone nonattainment required NO{sub x} reduction from baseline levels necessary to meet the presumptive limit for cyclone boilers in this regulation is 56%. Eastman Kodak Company and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) are co-sponsoring this project. Chevron has supplied the natural gas. Equipment installation for the gas reburn system was performed in a September 1995 outage. Boiler No. 43`s maximum continuous rating (MCR) is 550,000 pounds per hour of steam flow (or approximately equivalent to 60 MW{sub e}). Because of the compact boiler design, there is insufficient furnace residence time to use coal or oil as the reburn fuel, thus making it a prime candidate for gas reburn. Kodak currently has four cyclone boilers. Contingent upon successful completion of this gas reburn project, modification of Kodak`s other cyclone boilers to include reburn technology will be considered. The paper will describe B&W`s gas reburn data from a cyclone-equipped pilot facility (B&W`s Small Boiler Simulator), gas reburn system design, manufacturing, and installation information specific to Kodak`s Unit No. 43. In addition, the paper will discuss numerical modeling and the full-scale commercial boiler test results.

  15. NO{sub x} control using natural gas reburn on an industrial cyclone boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farzan, H.; Maringo, G.J.; Beard, C.T.; Weed, G.E.; Pratapas, J.

    1996-12-31

    Eastman Kodak Company`s cyclone boiler (Unit No. 43), located in Rochester, New York, has been retrofitted with the gas reburn technology developed by the Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Company to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in order to comply with the New York State regulations adopted in conformance with the Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. At the peak load, the ozone nonattainment required NO{sub x} reduction from baseline levels necessary to meet the presumptive limit for cyclone boilers in this regulation is 56%. Eastman Kodak Company and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) are co-sponsoring this project. Chevron has supplied the natural gas. Equipment installation for the gas reburn system was performed in a September 1995 outage. Boiler No. 43`s maximum continuous rating (MCR) is 550,000 pounds per hour of steam flow (or approximately equivalent to 60 MW{sub e}). Because of the compact boiler design, there is insufficient furnace residence time to use coal or oil as the reburn fuel, thus making it a prime candidate for gas reburn. Kodak currently has four cyclone boilers. Contingent upon successful completion of this gas reburn project, modification of Kodak`s other cyclone boilers to include reburn technology will be consideredd. The paper will describe B and W`s gas reburn data from a cyclone-equipped pilot facility (B and W`s Small Boiler Simulator), gas reburn system design, manufacturing, and installation information specific to Kodak`s Unit No. 43. In addition, the paper will discuss numerical modeling and the full-scale commercial boiler test results.

  16. Solar swimming pool heating -- A copper collector after 26 years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winter, F. de

    1999-07-01

    This paper is a progress report and a technology overview for a do-it-yourself solar swimming pool heater built by the author. Since March 1973 the heater has operated successfully day in day out for over 26 years, as a simple component in the pool circulation system, for three successive homeowners. The heater project was sponsored by the Copper Development Association (CDA), and used a copper flat plate collector design mounted on a small building, which provided both the roofing and the solar collection function. The heater was built in Pasadena, California, at 34.2 degrees north latitude and 118.2 degrees west longitude. A do-it-yourself manual was written so others could build such heaters, and about 100,000 copies of this manual have been distributed. The manual has helped many to get a better understanding of solar energy, has allowed many around the world to build similar swimming pool heater, and caused this author to get into the solar energy field.

  17. Low-cost evacuated-tube solar collector. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beecher, D. T.

    1981-02-10

    A prototype design for an evacuated tube air cooled solar collector module has been completed. A product cost study, based on the production of 60,000 of the prototype modules per year (approx. 1,000,000 square feet annually), estimates that the module as shipped would have a cost at inventory of $7.09 to $7.40 per square foot of aperture. Computer programs were developed to predict the optical and thermal performance of the module. Antireflective coatings (porous aluminum oxide) which could be formed by spraying or dipping were demonstrated but degraded more rapidly when exposed to a high humidity ambient than acid etched films. A selective black chromium oxide multi-layered graded film was vapor deposited which had an absorptivity of about 0.9 and an emissivity of 0.03. When the film was heated to temperatures of 400/sup 0/C in a gettered vacuum for as little as 24 hours, however, irreversible changes took place both between and within coating layers which resulted in ..cap alpha.. decreasing to about 0.73 and epsilon increasing to 0.14. The product cost studies indicate that module design changes are warranted to reduce product cost prior to tooling for production.

  18. Do-it-yourself low-cost solar-hot-air-collector design book. Final report, April 1983-September 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bumpus, P.; Croteau, R.

    1985-12-01

    The book contains a detailed step-by-step instruction manual on how to assemble a 4' X 8' wood collector with a domestic hot-water option. A complete material list of all components necessary to fabricate a solar hot-air-collector are included in the text. The book also contains actual performance and computer-simulated performance of a site-built solar hot-air collector.

  19. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance of the Acurex solar collector with FEK 244 reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal performance predictions are presented for the Acurex solar collector, with FEK 244 reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  20. Finite element modeling of concentrating solar collectors for evauation of gravity loads, bending, and optical characterization.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, Joshua M.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2010-04-01

    Understanding the effects of gravity and wind loads on concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors is critical for performance calculations and developing more accurate alignment procedures and techniques. This paper presents a rigorous finite-element model of a parabolic trough collector that is used to determine the impact of gravity loads on bending and displacements of the mirror facets and support structure. The geometry of the LUZ LS-2 parabolic trough collector was modeled using SolidWorks, and gravity-induced loading and displacements were simulated in SolidWorks Simulation. The model of the trough collector was evaluated in two positions: the 90{sup o} position (mirrors facing upward) and the 0{sup o} position (mirrors facing horizontally). The slope errors of the mirror facet reflective surfaces were found by evaluating simulated angular displacements of node-connected segments along the mirror surface. The ideal (undeformed) shape of the mirror was compared to the shape of the deformed mirror after gravity loading. Also, slope errors were obtained by comparing the deformed shapes between the 90{sup o} and 0{sup o} positions. The slope errors resulting from comparison between the deformed vs. undeformed shape were as high as {approx}2 mrad, depending on the location of the mirror facet on the collector. The slope errors resulting from a change in orientation of the trough from the 90{sup o} position to the 0{sup o} position with gravity loading were as high as {approx}3 mrad, depending on the location of the facet.

  1. Annual collectible energy of a two-axis tracking flat-plate solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attalage, R.A.; Reddy, T.A. )

    1992-01-01

    A correlation for annual collectible energy of a two-axis tracking flat-plate solar collector has been developed using simulated results based on typical meteorological year (TMY) data for 26 US locations. A preliminary validation of this correlation has been carried out with data from four Australian locations. With the advent of increasing interest in photovoltaic systems, there are a number of advantages of using a two-axis flat-plate collector. Since the tracking system is generally much cheaper than the collector panel, such a mode permits the incident solar radiation to be collected more efficiently. Incidence angle effects are minimized and, moreover, contrary to concentrating collectors, such a mode enables both the diffuse and beam components of solar radiation to be collected. In tropical locations where the diffuse fraction is generally high, this may be a great advantage. The objective of this study was to develop a correlation for the annual collectible energy of a two-axis tracking flat-plate collector.

  2. "A New Paradigm for Secondary Eyewall Formation in Tropical Cyclones",

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Chun-Chieh Wu (National Taiwan University) | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab July 27, 2012, 12:00pm to 1:15pm Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Smagorinsky Seminar Room Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Princeton University Forrestal Campus 201 Forrestal Road Princeton, NJ 08540-6649 "A New Paradigm for Secondary Eyewall Formation in Tropical Cyclones", Chun-Chieh Wu (National Taiwan University) Contact Information Website: Website

  3. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Cyclone furnaces operate with high excess air and at high temperature. The heat release during combustion is very high and as a result the boiler volume is much smaller than would be found in a conventional pc-fired system. The Marion Unit 1 boiler, at the level of the cyclone entry, has a small cross-section; about 5-feet in depth and about 20-feet in width. A boiler schematic showing the LNS Burner and relative location of the superheater region and overfire air ports is shown in Figure 1. The LNS Burner's combustion process is fundamentally different from that of the cyclone, and the combustion products are also different. The LNS Burner products enter the boiler as hot, fuel-rich gases. Additional overfire air must be added to complete this combustion step with care taken to avoid the formation of thermal NO{sub x}. If done correctly, S0{sub 2} is controlled and significant NO{sub x} reductions are achieved. Because of the small boiler volume, flow modelling was found to be necessary to insure that adequate mixing of LNS Burner combustion products with air can be accomplished to achieve NO{sub x} emissions goals. Design requirements for the air injection system for the Marion boiler were developed using FLUENT, a commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. A series of runs were made to obtain a design for final air injection that met the process design goals as closely as possible.

  4. Heat exchanger for concentrating solar collectors and method for making the heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stultz, R.A.

    1983-08-09

    nment of the flow passages with the A heat exchanger assembly is disclosed for use with concentrating solar collectors of the type employing an elongated conduit for transporting a heat exchange fluid, the heat exchanger being positioned within an opening in the upper surface of the conduit and operating to transfer heat to the heat exchange fluid. The heat exchanger includes a plurality of stacked heat conducting heat exchanger plates having grooves oriented to form flow passage extending in the direction of fluid flow. The heat direction of heat exchange fluid flow. The grooved heat exchange plates may be fabricated by stamp from a sheet of heat conducting material to facilitate manufacturing of the heat exchanger. In another embodiment, the plates are positioned normal to the fluid flow direction with openings in the plates serving to form flow channels. The heat exchanger is usuable with collectors employing either photovoltaic cells or a solar radiation absorbing flat plate collector.

  5. Design of solar cells for use in photovoltaic/thermal collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, C.H. III

    1980-01-01

    A promising design development for combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors is one in which the photovoltaic cell is both the conversion device for electrical energy and the absorber of thermal energy. To accomplish this, the PV cell design is modified to use the approximately 25 percent of the air mass 1 spectrum at lambda > 1.1 ..mu..m that is currently rejected by the cell. The parameters investigated are: cell back metallization, back surface field, texture etching and anti-reflective coating. A model indicating the increase in absorptance as a function of these parameters is presented, together with the results of experimental measurements. Discussion closes with the presentation of a PV/T collector design that incorporates the improved cells, has 10 percent greater thermal output than current PV/T collectors, and exhibits no degradation in electrical output.

  6. Automated solar collector installation design including ability to define heterogeneous design preferences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2013-01-08

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives. Embodiments may also include definition of one or more design apertures, each of which may correspond to boundaries in which solar collector layouts should comply with distinct sets of user-defined design preferences. Distinct apertures may provide heterogeneous regions of collector layout according to the user-defined design preferences.

  7. Automated solar collector installation design including ability to define heterogeneous design preferences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2014-04-29

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre -defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives. Embodiments may also include definition of one or more design apertures, each of which may correspond to boundaries in which solar collector layouts should comply with distinct sets of user-defined design preferences. Distinct apertures may provide heterogeneous regions of collector layout according to the user-defined design preferences.

  8. Advanced In-Furnace NOx Control for Wall and Cyclone-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid Sarv

    2009-02-28

    A NO{sub x} minimization strategy for coal-burning wall-fired and cyclone boilers was developed that included deep air staging, innovative oxygen use, reburning, and advanced combustion control enhancements. Computational fluid dynamics modeling was applied to refine and select the best arrangements. Pilot-scale tests were conducted by firing an eastern high-volatile bituminous Pittsburgh No.8 coal at 5 million Btu/hr in a facility that was set up with two-level overfire air (OFA) ports. In the wall-fired mode, pulverized coal was burned in a geometrically scaled down version of the B and W DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} burner. At a fixed overall excess air level of 17%, NO{sub x} emissions with single-level OFA ports were around 0.32 lb/million Btu at 0.80 burner stoichiometry. Two-level OFA operation lowered the NO{sub x} levels to 0.25 lb/million Btu. Oxygen enrichment in the staged burner reduced the NO{sub x} values to 0.21 lb/million Btu. Oxygen enrichment plus reburning and 2-level OFA operation further curbed the NO{sub x} emissions to 0.19 lb/million Btu or by 41% from conventional air-staged operation with single-level OFA ports. In the cyclone firing arrangement, oxygen enrichment of the cyclone combustor enabled high-temperature and deeply staged operation while maintaining good slag tapping. Firing the Pittsburgh No.8 coal in the optimum arrangement generated 112 ppmv NO{sub x} (0.15 lb/million Btu) and 59 ppmv CO. The optimum emissions results represent 88% NO{sub x} reduction from the uncontrolled operation. Levelized costs for additional NO{sub x} removal by various in-furnace control methods in reference wall-fired or cyclone-fired units already equipped with single-level OFA ports were estimated and compared with figures for SCR systems achieving 0.1 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu. Two-level OFA ports could offer the most economical approach for moderate NO{sub x} control, especially for smaller units. O{sub 2} enrichment in combination with 2-level

  9. Reducing heat loss from the energy absorber of a solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, Bei Tse; Rabl, Ari

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing convective heat loss in a cylindrical radiant energy collector. It includes a curved reflective wall in the shape of the arc of a circle positioned on the opposite side of the exit aperture from the reflective side walls of the collector. Radiant energy exiting the exit aperture is directed by the curved wall onto an energy absorber such that the portion of the absorber upon which the energy is directed faces downward to reduce convective heat loss from the absorber.

  10. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data: Sun-Heet nontracking solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), is currently conducting a program to predict the performance and measure the characteristics of commercially available solar collectors that have the potential for use in industrial process heat and enhanced oil recovery applications. The thermal performance predictions for the Sun-Heet nontracking, line-focusing parabolic trough collector at five cities in the US are presented. (WHK)

  11. Electron emission in a source-collector sheath system: A kinetic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rizopoulou, N. Coppins, M.; Bacharis, M.; Robinson, A. P. L.

    2014-10-15

    The classical source-collector sheath system describes a plasma that forms between a Maxwellian source and an absorbing wall. The plasma is assumed to be collisionless and without ionization. Two distinct areas are being formed: the collector sheath, an ion-rich region in contact with the absorbing boundary, and the source sheath, which is an electron-rich area near the Maxwellian source. In this work, we study a modified version of the classical source-collector sheath system, where the wall is no longer absorbing but emits electrons. As a result, we have two different types of collector sheath, one where a potential well is formed and one without a potential well. We examine the effect of electron emission for a range of conditions for the plasma and the emitted electrons. In the first part of this work, we study the problem analytically, and in the second, using our kinetic Vlasov code, Yggdrasil. The simulation results are in very good agreement with the predictions of our theoretical model.

  12. Planar fuel cell utilizing nail current collectors for increased active surface area

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, Thomas J.; Meacham, G. B. Kirby

    2002-03-26

    A plurality of nail current collector members are useful in the gas flow passages of an electrochemical device to optimize the active surfaces of the device and to provide structural support. In addition, the thicknesses of cathode and anode layers within the electrochemical device are varied according to current flow through the device to reduce resistance and increase operating efficiency.

  13. Design considerations for solar industrial process heat systems: nontracking and line focus collector technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1981-03-01

    Items are listed that should be considered in each aspect of the design of a solar industrial process heat system. The collector technologies covered are flat-plate, evacuated tube, and line focus. Qualitative design considerations are stressed rather than specific design recommendations. (LEW)

  14. Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-08

    The transpired solar collector was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for the this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

  15. Supplemental grounding of extended emp collectors. Final report, 1 May 1980-31 January 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denny, H.W.; Acree, D.W.; Melson, G.B.; Millard, D.P.

    1982-01-31

    The external conductors of a facility, particularly long, above ground types, pose a severe EMP threat. A primary purpose of this program was to investigate the premise that supplemental ground connections in these types of conductors could serve to reduce this threat. To support this investigation an External Collector Analysis Model (ECAM) was developed. ECAM was applied to analyzing the EMP-induced current levels appearing at a facility under various conditions of line length, line height, and number of grounds. From the results, approaches to the treatment of external collector penetrations are suggested. In addition to the external collector assessments, preliminary studies of internal collector responses are reported. Supplemental studies of techniques for measuring the responses of earth electrode systems over the EMP power spectrum are described. A successful technique utilizing currently available instrumentation was used to validate a test probe and to evaluate scaled models of various commonly used earth electrode geometries. From the measurements, observations relating to the behavior of various geometries up to 500 MHz are made.

  16. Internal thermal coupling in direct-flow coaxial vacuum tube collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glembin, J.; Rockendorf, G.; Scheuren, J.

    2010-07-15

    This investigation covers the impact of low flow rates on the efficiency of coaxial vacuum tube collectors. Measurements show an efficiency reduction of 10% if reducing the flow rate from 78 kg/m{sup 2} h to 31 kg/m{sup 2} h for a collector group with 60 parallel vacuum tubes with a coaxial flow conduit at one-sided connection. For a more profound understanding a model of the coaxial tube was developed which defines the main energy fluxes including the internal thermal coupling. The tube simulations show a non-linear temperature profile along the tube with the maximum temperature in the outer pipe. Due to heat transfer to the entering flow this maximum is not located at the fluid outlet. The non-linearity increases with decreasing flow rates. The experimentally determined flow distribution allows simulating the measured collector array. The simulation results confirm the efficiency decrease at low flow rates. The flow distribution has a further impact on efficiency reduction, but even at an ideal uniform flow, a considerable efficiency reduction at low flow rates is to be expected. As a consequence, low flow rates should be prevented for coaxial tube collectors, thus restricting the possible operation conditions. The effect of constructional modifications like diameter or material variations is presented. Finally the additional impact of a coaxial manifold design is discussed. (author)

  17. Collector surface for a microwave tube comprising a carbon-bonded carbon-fiber composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Johnson, A.C.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1998-07-28

    In a microwave tube, an improved collector surface coating comprises a porous carbon composite material, preferably a carbon-bonded carbon fiber composite having a bulk density less than about 2 g/cc. Installation of the coating is readily adaptable as part of the tube manufacturing process. 4 figs.

  18. Collector surface for a microwave tube comprising a carbon-bonded carbon-fiber composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.; Johnson, Arvid C.; Moorhead, Arthur J.

    1998-01-01

    In a microwave tube, an improved collector surface coating comprises a porous carbon composite material, preferably a carbon-bonded carbon fiber composite having a bulk density less than about 2 g/cc. Installation of the coating is readily adaptable as part of the tube manufacturing process.

  19. Cyclone Boiler Field Testing of Advanced Layered NOx Control Technology in Sioux Unit 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marc A. Cremer; Bradley R. Adams

    2006-06-30

    A four week testing program was completed during this project to assess the ability of the combination of deep staging, Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) to reduce NOx emissions below 0.15 lb/MBtu in a cyclone fired boiler. The host site for the tests was AmerenUE's Sioux Unit 1, a 500 MW cyclone fired boiler located near St. Louis, MO. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team including AmerenUE, FuelTech Inc., and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This layered approach to NOx reduction is termed the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA). Installed RRI and SNCR port locations were guided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based modeling conducted by REI. During the parametric testing, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were achieved consistently from overfire air (OFA)-only baseline NOx emissions of 0.25 lb/MBtu or less, when firing the typical 80/20 fuel blend of Powder River Basin (PRB) and Illinois No.6 coals. From OFA-only baseline levels of 0.20 lb/MBtu, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were also achieved, but at significantly reduced urea flow rates. Under the deeply staged conditions that were tested, RRI performance was observed to degrade as higher blends of Illinois No.6 were used. NOx emissions achieved with ALTA while firing a 60/40 blend were approximately 0.15 lb/MBtu. NOx emissions while firing 100% Illinois No.6 were approximately 0.165 lb/MBtu. Based on the performance results of these tests, economics analyses of the application of ALTA to a nominal 500 MW cyclone unit show that the levelized cost to achieve 0.15 lb/MBtu is well below 75% of the cost of a state of the art SCR.

  20. The Role of Moist Processes in the Intrinsic Predictability of Indian Ocean Cyclones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taraphdar, Sourav; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Zhang, Fuqing; Abhilash, S.; Goswami, B. N.

    2014-07-16

    The role of moist processes and the possibility of error cascade from cloud scale processes affecting the intrinsic predictable time scale of a high resolution convection permitting model within the environment of tropical cyclones (TCs) over the Indian region are investigated. Consistent with past studies of extra-tropical cyclones, it is demonstrated that moist processes play a major role in forecast error growth which may ultimately limit the intrinsic predictability of the TCs. Small errors in the initial conditions may grow rapidly and cascades from smaller scales to the larger scales through strong diabatic heating and nonlinearities associated with moist convection. Results from a suite of twin perturbation experiments for four tropical cyclones suggest that the error growth is significantly higher in cloud permitting simulation at 3.3 km resolutions compared to simulations at 3.3 km and 10 km resolution with parameterized convection. Convective parameterizations with prescribed convective time scales typically longer than the model time step allows the effects of microphysical tendencies to average out so convection responds to a smoother dynamical forcing. Without convective parameterizations, the finer-scale instabilities resolved at 3.3 km resolution and stronger vertical motion that results from the cloud microphysical parameterizations removing super-saturation at each model time step can ultimately feed the error growth in convection permitting simulations. This implies that careful considerations and/or improvements in cloud parameterizations are needed if numerical predictions are to be improved through increased model resolution. Rapid upscale error growth from convective scales may ultimately limit the intrinsic mesoscale predictability of the TCs, which further supports the needs for probabilistic forecasts of these events, even at the mesoscales.

  1. Final test results for the Schott HCE on a LS-2 collector.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, Timothy A.; Brosseau, Douglas A.

    2005-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed thermal performance testing on the Schott parabolic trough receiver using the LS-2 collector on the Sandia rotating platform at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque, NM. This testing was funded as part of the US DOE Sun-Lab USA-Trough program. The receiver tested was a new Schott receiver, known as Heat Collector Elements (HCEs). Schott is a new manufacturer of trough HCEs. The Schott HCEs are 4m long; therefore, two were joined and mounted on the LS-2 collector module for the test. The Schott HCE design consists of a 70mm diameter high solar absorptance coated stainless steel (SS) tube encapsulated within a 125mm diameter Pyrex{reg_sign} glass tube with vacuum in the annulus formed between the SS and glass tube to minimize convection heat losses. The Schott HCE design is unique in two regards. First, the bellows used to compensate for the difference in thermal expansion between the metal and glass tube are inside the glass envelope rather than outside. Second, the composition of materials at the glass-to-metal seal has very similar thermal expansion coefficients making the joint less prone to breakage from thermal shock. Sandia National Laboratories provided both the azimuth and elevation collector module tracking systems used during the tests. The test results showed the efficiency of the Schott HCE to be very similar to current HCEs being manufactured by Solel. This testing provided performance verification for the use of Schott tubes with Solargenix trough collector assemblies at currently planned trough power plant projects in Arizona and Nevada.

  2. Composition and chemistry of particulates from the Tidd Clean Coal Demonstration Plant pressurized fluidized bed combustor, cyclone, and filter vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.H.; Grimm, U.; Haddad, G.

    1995-12-31

    In a Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC)/cyclone/filter system ground coal and sorbent are injected as pastes into the PFBC bed; the hot gases and entrained fine particles of ash and calcined or reacted sorbent are passed through a cyclone (which removes the larger entrained particles); and the very-fine particles that remain are then filtered out, so that the cleaned hot gas can be sent through a non-ruggedized hot-gas turbine. The 70 MWe Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant in Brilliant, Ohio was completed in late 1990. The initial design utilized seven strings of primary and secondary cyclones to remove 98% of the particulate matter. However, the Plant also included a pressurized filter vessel, placed between the primary and secondary cyclones of one of the seven strings. Coal and dolomitic limestone (i.e, SO{sub 2} sorbent) of various nominal sizes ranging from 12 to 18 mesh were injected into the combustor operating at about 10 atm pressure and 925{degree}C. The cyclone removed elutriated particles larger than about 0.025 mm, and particles larger than ca. 0.0005 mm were filtered at about 750{degree}C by ceramic candle filters. Thus, the chemical reaction times and temperatures, masses of material, particle-size distributions, and chemical compositions were substantially different for particulates removed from the bed drain, the cyclone drain, and the filter unit. Accordingly, we have measured the particle-size distributions and concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sulfur, silicon, and aluminum for material taken from the three units, and also determined the chemical formulas and predominant crystalline forms of the calcium and magnesium sulfate compounds formed. The latter information is particularly novel for the filter-cake material, from which we isolated the ``new`` compound Mg{sub 2}Ca(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.

  3. Experimental analysis of thermal performance of flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors in stationary standard and daily conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zambolin, E.; Del Col, D.

    2010-08-15

    New comparative tests on two different types of solar collectors are presented in this paper. A standard glazed flat plate collector and an evacuated tube collector are installed in parallel and tested at the same working conditions; the evacuated collector is a direct flow through type with external compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) reflectors. Efficiency in steady-state and quasi-dynamic conditions is measured following the standard and it is compared with the input/output curves measured for the whole day. The first purpose of the present work is the comparison of results in steady-state and quasi-dynamic test methods both for flat plate and evacuated tube collectors. Besides this, the objective is to characterize and to compare the daily energy performance of these two types of collectors. An effective mean for describing and analyzing the daily performance is the so called input/output diagram, in which the collected solar energy is plotted against the daily incident solar radiation. Test runs have been performed in several conditions to reproduce different conventional uses (hot water, space heating, solar cooling). Results are also presented in terms of daily efficiency versus daily average reduced temperature difference: this allows to represent the comparative characteristics of the two collectors when operating under variable conditions, especially with wide range of incidence angles. (author)

  4. Low No sub x /SO sub x burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

    1991-05-01

    The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative's (SIPC's) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC's Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner's SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

  5. Modeling High-Impact Weather and Climate: Lessons From a Tropical Cyclone Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Done, James; Holland, Greg; Bruyere, Cindy; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Suzuki-Parker, Asuka

    2012-06-01

    Although the societal impact of a weather event increases with the rarity of the event, our current ability to assess extreme events and their impacts is limited by not only rarity but also by current model fidelity and a lack of understanding of the underlying physical processes. This challenge is driving fresh approaches to assess high-impact weather and climate. Recent lessons learned in modeling high-impact weather and climate are presented using the case of tropical cyclones as an illustrative example. Through examples using the Nested Regional Climate Model to dynamically downscale large-scale climate data the need to treat bias in the driving data is illustrated. Domain size, location, and resolution are also shown to be critical and should be guided by the need to: include relevant regional climate physical processes; resolve key impact parameters; and to accurately simulate the response to changes in external forcing. The notion of sufficient model resolution is introduced together with the added value in combining dynamical and statistical assessments to fill out the parent distribution of high-impact parameters. Finally, through the example of a tropical cyclone damage index, direct impact assessments are presented as powerful tools that distill complex datasets into concise statements on likely impact, and as highly effective communication devices. Capsule: "Combining dynamical modeling of high-impact weather using traditional regional climate models with statistical techniques allows for comprehensive sampling of the full distribution, uncertainty estimation, direct assessment of impacts, and increased confidence in future changes."

  6. Modeling High-Impact Weather and Climate: Lessons From a Tropical Cyclone Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Done, James; Holland, Greg; Bruyere, Cindy; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Suzuki-Parker, Asuka

    2013-10-19

    Although the societal impact of a weather event increases with the rarity of the event, our current ability to assess extreme events and their impacts is limited by not only rarity but also by current model fidelity and a lack of understanding of the underlying physical processes. This challenge is driving fresh approaches to assess high-impact weather and climate. Recent lessons learned in modeling high-impact weather and climate are presented using the case of tropical cyclones as an illustrative example. Through examples using the Nested Regional Climate Model to dynamically downscale large-scale climate data the need to treat bias in the driving data is illustrated. Domain size, location, and resolution are also shown to be critical and should be guided by the need to: include relevant regional climate physical processes; resolve key impact parameters; and to accurately simulate the response to changes in external forcing. The notion of sufficient model resolution is introduced together with the added value in combining dynamical and statistical assessments to fill out the parent distribution of high-impact parameters. Finally, through the example of a tropical cyclone damage index, direct impact assessments are resented as powerful tools that distill complex datasets into concise statements on likely impact, and as highly effective communication devices.

  7. Discovery of Non-random Spatial Distribution of Impacts in the Stardust Cometary Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westphal, A J; Bastien, R K; Borg, J; Bridges, J; Brownlee, D E; Burchell, M J; Cheng, A F; Clark, B C; Djouadi, Z; Floss, C; Franchi, I; Gainsforth, Z; Graham, G; Green, S F; Heck, P R; Horanyi, M; Hoppe, P; Horz, F P; Huth, J; Kearsley, A; Leroux, H; Marhas, K; Nakamura-Messenger, K; Sandford, S A; See, T H; Stadermann, F J; Teslich, N E; Tsitrin, S; Warren, J L; Wozniakiewicz, P J; Zolensky, M E

    2007-04-06

    We report the discovery that impacts in the Stardust cometary collector are not distributed randomly in the collecting media, but appear to be clustered on scales smaller than {approx} 10 cm. We also report the discovery of at least two populations of oblique tracks. We evaluated several hypotheses that could explain the observations. No hypothesis was consistent with all the observations, but the preponderance of evidence points toward at least one impact on the central Whipple shield of the spacecraft as the origin of both clustering and low-angle oblique tracks. High-angle oblique tracks unambiguously originate from a non-cometary impact on the spacecraft bus just forward of the collector.

  8. A description of the new 3D electron gun and collector modeling tool: MICHELLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petillo, J.; Mondelli, A.; Krueger, W.

    1999-07-01

    A new 3D finite element gun and collector modeling code is under development at SAIC in collaboration with industrial partners and national laboratories. This development program has been designed specifically to address the shortcomings of current simulation and modeling tools. In particular, although there are 3D gun codes that exist today, their ability to address fine scale features is somewhat limited in 3D due to disparate length scales of certain classes of devices. Additionally, features like advanced emission rules, including thermionic Child's law and comprehensive secondary emission models also need attention. The program specifically targets problems classes including gridded-guns, sheet-beam guns, multi-beam devices, and anisotropic collectors. The presentation will provide an overview of the program objectives, the approach to be taken by the development team, and a status of the project.

  9. Advanced Lithium Battery Cathodes Using Dispersed Carbon Fibers as the Current Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha, Surendra K; Kiggans, Jim; Nanda, Jagjit; Dudney, Nancy J

    2011-01-01

    To fabricate LiFePO4 battery cathodes, highly conductive carbon fibers of 10-20 m in diameter have been used to replace a conventional aluminum (Al) foil current collector. This disperses the current collector throughout the cathode sheet and increases the contact area with the LiFePO4 (LFP) particles. In addition, the usual organic binder plus carbon-black can be replaced by a high temperature binder of <5 weight % carbonized petroleum pitch (P-pitch). Together these replacements increase the specific energy density and energy per unit area of the electrode. Details of the coating procedure, characterization and approach for maximizing the energy density are discussed. In a side-by-side comparison with conventional cathodes sheets of LFP on Al foil, the carbon fiber composite cathodes have a longer cycle life, higher thermal stability, and high capacity utilization with little sacrifice of the rate performance.

  10. Design optimization studies for nonimaging concentrating solar collector tubes. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winston, R.

    1983-09-30

    The Integrated Stationary Evacuated Concentrator or ISEC solar collector panel has achieved the best high temperature performance ever measured with a stationary collector. A development effort to carry out a review and optimization of the initial proof of concept design has been completed. Changes in the optical design to improve the angular response function and increase the optical efficiency have been determined. A recommended profile design having a concentration ratio of 1.55x and an acceptance angle of +- 35/sup 0/ has been identified. Based on the preferred double ended flow-through design two alternative panel/module configurations are recommended. Parasitic thermal and pumping losses have been shown to be reducible to acceptable levels, and two passive approaches to the problem of ensuring stagnation survival have been identified.

  11. Low cost, bare plate solar air collector. Semi-annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A low cost, bare plate solar collector that is specifically designed to preheat ambient air with solar energy is discussed. Two prototype solar collector test systems have been designed, fabricated and assembled. Each system has been instrumented to provide instantaneous and average thermal performance data by means of a computerized data logger system. This data logger system is currently being made operational. Data collection is scheduled to begin March 1, 1980 and continue until the project completion date of June 17, 1980. Some preliminary test data have been obtained for both prototype systems. The results showed that ambient air was preheated between 5/sup 0/F and 10/sup 0/F with the systems achieving a thermal performance of between 15% and 30% efficiency.

  12. Evaluation of static pressure drops and PM10 and TSP emissions for modified 1D-3D cyclones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holt, G.A.; Baker, R.V.; Hughs, S.E.

    1999-12-01

    Five modifications of a standard 1D3D cyclone were tested and compared against the standard 1D3D design in the areas of particulate emissions and static pressure drop across the cyclone. The modifications to the 1D3D design included a 2D2D inlet, a 2D2D air outlet, a D/3 trash exit, an expansion chamber with a D/3 trash exit, and a tapered air outlet duct. The 1D3D modifications that exhibited a significant improvement in reducing both PM10 and total suspended particulate (TSP) emissions were the designs with the 2D2D inlet and air exhaust combined with either the conical D/3 tail cone or the expansion chamber. In reference to the standard 1D3D cyclone, the average reduction in PM10 emissions was 24 to 29% with a 29 to 35% reduction observed in TSP emissions. The modifications with the tapered air outlets did not show any significant improvements in controlling PM10 emissions. However, the modification with the tapered air outlet/expansion chamber combination exhibited statistical significance in reducing TSP emissions by 18% compared to the 1D3D cyclone. All modifications tested exhibited lower static pressure drops than the standard 1D3D.

  13. Optical performance of the TBC-2 solar collector before and after the 1993 mirror lustering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houser, R.; Strachan, J.

    1995-02-01

    In 1993, the mirror facets of one of Sandia`s point-focusing solar collectors, the Test Bed Concentrator {number_sign}2 (TBC-2), were reconditioned. The concentrator`s optical performance was evaluated before and after this operation. This report summarizes and compares the results of these tests. The tests demonstrated that the concentrator`s total power and peak flux were increased while the overall flux distribution in the focal plane remained qualitatively the same.

  14. Collector sealants and breathing. Final Report, 25 September 1978-31 December 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsohn, M A; Luck, R M; Yeoman, F A; Navish, Jr, F W

    1980-02-20

    The objectives of this program were: (1) to investigate the pertinent properties of a variety of possible sealants for solar collectors and identify the most promising candidates, and (2) to study the effect of breathing in flat-plate, thermal solar collector units. The study involved two types of sealants, Class PS which includes preformed seals or gaskets and Class SC which includes sealing compounds or caulks. It was the intent of the study to obtain data regarding initial properties of candidate elastomers from manufacturers and from the technical literature and to use those sources to provide data pertaining to endurance of these materials under environmental service conditions. Where necessary, these data were augmented by experimental measurements. Environmental stresses evaluated by these measurements included elevated temperatures, moisture, ultraviolet light, ozone and oxygen, and fungus. The second major area of the work involved a study of the effects of materials used and design on the durability of solar collectors. Factors such as design, fabrication, materials of construction, seals and sealing techniques and absorber plate coatings were observed on actual field units removed from service. Such phenomena as leakage, corrosion and formation of deposits on glazing and absorber plate were noted. An evaluation of the properties of several desiccants was made in order to providemeans to mitigate the deleterious effects of water on collector life. Adsorbents for organic degradation products of sealants were also investigated in order to protect the glazing and absorber plate from deposited coatings. Since adsorbents and desiccants in general tend to take up both water and organic decomposition products, relative affinities of a number of these agents for water and for organic compounds were determined . Results are presented in detail.

  15. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, C.B.; Kutscher, C.F.; Gawlik, K.M.

    1997-12-02

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprises an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution. 3 figs.

  16. Performance Modeling of an Air-Based Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, R. D.; Brandemuehl, M. J.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies a collector design that utilizes unglazed photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors preheating air for glazed air heating modules. The performance modeling of these collectors is examined both individually and in series. For each collector type, a dynamic, finite difference, first-law model has been created using literature correlations for friction. The models were compared to performance data, calibrating the models by scaling of friction terms for best fit. The calibrated models generally agree well with the experimental data; even during sudden changes to ambient conditions. The root mean square error between the unglazed PV/T model and experiment results for the useful thermal energy gain and the outlet air temperature are 7.12 W/m{sup 2} and 1.07 C, respectively. The annual source energy performance of the building-integrated PV/T (BIPV/T) array is then simulated for residential applications in seven climate zones of the United States of America. The performance of the BIPV/T array is characterized by the amount of net electrical energy and useful thermal energy produced. The useful thermal energy is defined as the amount of energy offset by the BIPV/T system for water heating and space conditioning. A BIPV/T system composed 87.5% of PV modules, and 12.5% of glazed air heating modules, offsets the same amount of source energy as a roof-mounted PV system of the same area. This array composition increases the thermal energy gain by 47% over a BIPV/T array composed solely of PV modules.

  17. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, Craig B.; Kutscher, Charles F.; Gawlik, Keith M.

    1997-01-01

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprising an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution.

  18. Electron beam simulation from gun to collector: Towards a complete solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertzig, R. Shornikov, A. Wenander, F.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.

    2015-01-09

    An electron-beam simulation technique for high-resolution complete EBIS/T modelling is presented. The technique was benchmarked on the high compression HEC{sup 2} test-stand with an electron beam current, current density and energy of 10 A, 10 kA/cm{sup 2} and 49.2 keV, and on the immersed electron beam at REXEBIS for electron beam characteristics of 0.4 A, 200 A/cm{sup 2} and 4.5 keV. In both Brillouin-like and immersed beams the electron-beam radius varies from several millimeters at the gun, through some hundreds of micrometers in the ionization region to a few centimeters at the collector over a total length of several meters. We report on our approach for finding optimal meshing parameters, based on the local beam properties such as magnetic field-strength, electron energy and beam radius. This approach combined with dividing the problem domain into sub-domains, and subsequent splicing of the local solutions allowed us to simulate the beam propagation in EBISes from the gun to the collector using a conventional PC in about 24–36 h. Brillouin-like electron beams propagated through the complete EBIS were used to analyze the beam behavior within the collector region. We checked whether elastically reflected paraxial electrons from a Brillouin-like beam will escape from the collector region and add to the loss current. We have also studied the power deposition profiles as function of applied potentials using two electrode geometries for a Brillouin-like beam including the effects of backscattered electrons.

  19. Development of low-cost polymer film solar collectors. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.; Le Doux, P.; Metz, P.D.; Wilhelm, W.G.

    1983-09-01

    This report covers work performed on the Brookhaven National Laboratory polymer film collector project during the period October 1, 1981 to November 1, 1982, in four major areas of endeavor: materials, engineering, economics, and testing. It also describes the search for solutions to the major problem - delamination of the polymer and metal sheets in the absorber - which occurred during the severe conditions associated with solar cooling applications. Finally, it outlines the plan of work for fiscal year 1983.

  20. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility Program for predicting thermal performance of line-focusing, concentrating solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1980-11-01

    The program at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, for predicting the performance of line-focusing solar collectors in industrial process heat applications is described. The qualifications of the laboratories selected to do the testing and the procedure for selecting commercial collectors for testing are given. The testing program is outlined. The computer program for performance predictions is described. An error estimate for the predictions and a sample of outputs from the program are included.

  1. Performance of a double-effect absorption chiller driven by ICPC solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergquam, J.B.; Duff, W.S.; Brezner, J.M.; Henkel, E.T.; Winston, R.; O'Gallagher, J.; Sethi, P.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents experimental data and analytical results describing the performance of a 70 kW (20 ton), water-fired, double-effect absorption chiller. The chiller is driven by a 106 m{sup 2} array of integrated compound parabolic concentrator (ICPC) solar collectors. For this project, an existing gas-fired chiller was modified to operate on hot water. The water was heated by an array of 336 evacuated ICPC tubes. Each tube has an effective area of 0.317 m{sup 2}. The chiller and collector array are part of a complete solar HVAC system that provides air conditioning and space heating for a 743 m{sup 2} (8,000 ft{sup 2}) commercial building in Sacramento, CA. The other components of the HVAC system are a high temperature storage tank, a cooling tower, a gas-fired back-up boiler and five 14 kW (4 ton) cooling/heating fan coil units. The experimental data are used to determine; (1) the efficiency of the collectors; (2) the coefficient of performance of the chiller; and (3) the overall energy balance on the system. Computer models have also been developed to predict the performance and to optimize the design and operating characteristics of the HVAC system.

  2. Evaluating the Performance and Economics of Transpired Solar Collectors for Commercial Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Deru, M.; Slayzak, S.; Norton, P.; Barker, G.; McClendon, J,

    2008-07-01

    Using transpired solar collectors to preheat ventilation air has recently become recognized as an economic alternative for integrating renewable energy into commercial buildings in heating climates. The collectors have relatively low installed costs and operate on simple principles. Theory and performance testing have shown that solar collection efficiency can exceed 70% of incident solar. However, implementation and current absorber designs have adversely affected the efficiency and associated economics from this initial analysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has actively studied this technology and monitored performance at several installations. A calibrated model that uses typical meteorological weather data to determine absorber plate efficiency resulted from this work. With this model, an economic analysis across heating climates was done to show the effects of collector size, tilt, azimuth, and absorptivity. The analysis relates the internal rate of return of a system based on the cost of the installed absorber area. In general, colder and higher latitude climates return a higher rate of return because the heating season extends into months with good solar resource.

  3. Copper corrosion and its relationship to solar collectors:a compendium.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menicucci, David F.; Mahoney, Alan Roderick

    2007-07-01

    Copper has many fine qualities that make it a useful material. It is highly conductive of both heat and electricity, is ductile and workable, and reasonably resistant to corrosion. Because of these advantages, the solar water heating industry has been using it since the mid-1970s as the material of choice for collectors, the fundamental component of a solar water heating system. In most cases copper has performed flawlessly, but in some situations it has been known to fail. Pitting corrosion is the usual failure mode, but erosion can also occur. In 2000 Sandia National Laboratories and the Copper Development Association were asked to analyze the appearance of pin-hole leaks in solar collector units installed in a housing development in Arizona, and in 2002 Sandia analyzed a pitting corrosion event that destroyed a collector system at Camp Pendleton. This report includes copies of the reports and accounts of these corrosion failures, and provides a bibliography with references to many papers and articles that might be of benefit to the solar community. It consolidates in a single source information that has been accumulated at Sandia relative to copper corrosion, especially as it relates to solar water heaters.

  4. High-Resolution Modeling to Assess Tropical Cyclone Activity in Future Climate Regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lackmann, Gary

    2013-06-10

    Applied research is proposed with the following objectives: (i) to determine the most likely level of tropical cyclone intensity and frequency in future climate regimes, (ii) to provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty in these predictions, and (iii) to improve understanding of the linkage between tropical cyclones and the planetary-scale circulation. Current mesoscale weather forecasting models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are capable of simulating the full intensity of tropical cyclones (TC) with realistic structures. However, in order to accurately represent both the primary and secondary circulations in these systems, model simulations must be configured with sufficient resolution to explicitly represent convection (omitting the convective parameterization scheme). Most previous numerical studies of TC activity at seasonal and longer time scales have not utilized such explicit convection (EC) model runs. Here, we propose to employ the moving nest capability of WRF to optimally represent TC activity on a seasonal scale using a downscaling approach. The statistical results of a suite of these high-resolution TC simulations will yield a realistic representation of TC intensity on a seasonal basis, while at the same time allowing analysis of the feedback that TCs exert on the larger-scale climate system. Experiments will be driven with analyzed lateral boundary conditions for several recent Atlantic seasons, spanning a range of activity levels and TC track patterns. Results of the ensemble of WRF simulations will then be compared to analyzed TC data in order to determine the extent to which this modeling setup can reproduce recent levels of TC activity. Next, the boundary conditions (sea-surface temperature, tropopause height, and thermal/moisture profiles) from the recent seasons will be altered in a manner consistent with various future GCM/RCM scenarios, but that preserves the large-scale shear and incipient disturbance

  5. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, June--September 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

  6. A Semi-Preemptive Garbage Collector for Solid State Drives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Junghee; Kim, Youngjae; Shipman, Galen M; Oral, H Sarp; Wang, Feiyi; Kim, Jongman

    2011-01-01

    NAND flash memory is a preferred storage media for various platforms ranging from embedded systems to enterprise-scale systems. Flash devices do not have any mechanical moving parts and provide low-latency access. They also require less power compared to rotating media. Unlike hard disks, flash devices use out-of-update operations and they require a garbage collection (GC) process to reclaim invalid pages to create free blocks. This GC process is a major cause of performance degradation when running concurrently with other I/O operations as internal bandwidth is consumed to reclaim these invalid pages. The invocation of the GC process is generally governed by a low watermark on free blocks and other internal device metrics that different workloads meet at different intervals. This results in I/O performance that is highly dependent on workload characteristics. In this paper, we examine the GC process and propose a semi-preemptive GC scheme that can preempt on-going GC processing and service pending I/O requests in the queue. Moreover, we further enhance flash performance by pipelining internal GC operations and merge them with pending I/O requests whenever possible. Our experimental evaluation of this semi-preemptive GC sheme with realistic workloads demonstrate both improved performance and reduced performance variability. Write-dominant workloads show up to a 66.56% improvement in average response time with a 83.30% reduced variance in response time compared to the non-preemptive GC scheme.

  7. Characteristics of tropical cyclones in high-resolution models in the present climate

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Shaevitz, Daniel A.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Sobel, Adam H.; Jonas, Jeffrey A.; Kim, Daehyun; Kumar, Arun; LaRow, Timothy E.; Lim, Young -Kwon; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Reed, Kevin A.; et al

    2014-12-05

    The global characteristics of tropical cyclones (TCs) simulated by several climate models are analyzed and compared with observations. The global climate models were forced by the same sea surface temperature (SST) fields in two types of experiments, using climatological SST and interannually varying SST. TC tracks and intensities are derived from each model's output fields by the group who ran that model, using their own preferred tracking scheme; the study considers the combination of model and tracking scheme as a single modeling system, and compares the properties derived from the different systems. Overall, the observed geographic distribution of global TCmore » frequency was reasonably well reproduced. As expected, with the exception of one model, intensities of the simulated TC were lower than in observations, to a degree that varies considerably across models.« less

  8. Characteristics of tropical cyclones in high-resolution models in the present climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaevitz, Daniel A.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Sobel, Adam H.; Jonas, Jeffrey A.; Kim, Daehyun; Kumar, Arun; Lim, Young -Kwon; Reed, Kevin A.; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Ming; Henderson, Naomi

    2014-12-05

    The global characteristics of tropical cyclones (TCs) simulated by several climate models are analyzed and compared with observations. The global climate models were forced by the same sea surface temperature (SST) fields in two types of experiments, using climatological SST and interannually varying SST. TC tracks and intensities are derived from each model's output fields by the group who ran that model, using their own preferred tracking scheme; the study considers the combination of model and tracking scheme as a single modeling system, and compares the properties derived from the different systems. Overall, the observed geographic distribution of global TC frequency was reasonably well reproduced. As expected, with the exception of one model, intensities of the simulated TC were lower than in observations, to a degree that varies considerably across models.

  9. Linkages of Remote Sea Surface Temperatures and Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Activity Mediated by the African Monsoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taraphdar, Sourav; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Hagos, Samson M.

    2015-01-28

    Warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in North Atlantic and Mediterranean (NAMED) can influence tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the tropical East Atlantic by modulating summer convection over western Africa. Analysis of 30 years of observations show that the NAMED SST is linked to a strengthening of the Saharan heat low and enhancement of moisture and moist static energy in the lower atmosphere over West Africa, which favors a northward displacement of the monsoonal front. These processes also lead to a northward shift of the African easterly jet that introduces an anomalous positive vorticity from western Africa to the main development region (50W–20E; 10N–20N) of Atlantic TC. By modulating multiple processes associated with the African monsoon, this study demonstrates that warm NAMED SST explains 8% of interannual variability of Atlantic TC frequency. Thus NAME SST may provide useful predictability for Atlantic TC activity on seasonal-to-interannual time scale.

  10. Applying Nonlinear Signal Analysis Technologies to Flame Scanner Signals to Improve Staging of Cyclone Boilers for NOx control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flynn, T. J.; Bailey, R. T.; Fuller, T. A.; FINNEY, Charles E A; Daw, C Stuart; Stallings, J.; Himes, R.; Bermke, R.

    2006-08-01

    Cyclone{trademark} boiler owners continue to drive down NO{sub x} emissions by increasingly sophisticated staging and air distribution schemes. For example, Alliant Energy has employed RMT's SmartBurn{reg_sign} technology, and Ameren UE has pioneered neural nets to reduce emissions. Over the last 11 years under sponsorship of EPRI, the team of ORNL and B&W has developed pulverized coal burner diagnostic technology by applying nonlinear signal analysis techniques to flame scanner signals. The team has extended the technology to cyclones to facilitate deeper staging of the cyclones to reduce NO{sub x} emissions. Development projects were conducted at the Alliant Energy Edgewater Units 3 and 4, and Ameren UE Sioux Unit 1. Nonlinear analysis statistics were correlated to upsets in cyclone operation resulting from poor air distribution in the burner and barrel. The team demonstrated that the lighter and main flame scanners can be used to independently guide adjustments to the burner and barrel.

  11. Assess the Efficacy of an Aerial Distant Observer Tool Capable of Rapid Analysis of Large Sections of Collector Fields: FY 2008 CSP Milestone Report, September 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, G.; Burkholder, F.; Gray, A.; Wendelin, T.

    2009-02-01

    We assessed the feasibility of developing an aerial Distant Observer optical characterization tool for collector fields in concentrating solar power plants.

  12. Table 10.6 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Type, Price, and Trade, 1974-2009 (Thousand Square Feet, Except as Noted)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Type, Price, and Trade, 1974-2009 (Thousand Square Feet, Except as Noted) Year Low-Temperature Collectors 1 Medium-Temperature Collectors 2 High-Temperature Collectors 3 Total Shipments Trade Number of U.S. Manu- facturers Quantity Shipped Shipments per Manu- facturer Price 4 (dollars 5 per square foot) Number of U.S. Manu- facturers Quantity Shipped Shipments per Manu- facturer Price 4 (dollars 5 per square foot) Quantity Shipped Price 4 (dollars 5 per

  13. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance of the Suntec solar collector with heat-formed glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal performance predictions are presented for the Suntec solar collector, with heat-formed glass reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  14. Tin removal from extreme ultraviolet collector optics by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, H.; Srivastava, S. N.; Ruzic, D. N. [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Tin (Sn) has the advantage of delivering higher conversion efficiency compared to other fuel materials (e.g., Xe or Li) in an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source, a necessary component for the leading next generation lithography. However, the use of a condensable fuel in a lithography system leads to some additional challenges for maintaining a satisfactory lifetime of the collector optics. A critical issue leading to decreased mirror lifetime is the buildup of debris on the surface of the primary mirror that comes from the use of Sn in either gas discharge produced plasma (GDPP) or laser produced plasma (LPP). This leads to a decreased reflectivity from the added material thickness and increased surface roughness that contributes to scattering. Inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching with halide ions is one potential solution to this problem. This article presents results for etch rate and selectivity of Sn over SiO{sub 2} and Ru. The Sn etch rate in a chlorine plasma is found to be much higher (of the order of hundreds of nm/min) than the etch rate of other materials. A thermally evaporated Sn on Ru sample was prepared and cleaned using an inductively coupled plasma etching method. Cleaning was confirmed using several material characterization techniques. Furthermore, a collector mock-up shell was then constructed and etching was performed on Sn samples prepared in a Sn EUV source using an optimized etching recipe. The sample surface before and after cleaning was analyzed by atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy. The results show the dependence of etch rate on the location of Sn samples placed on the collector mock-up shell.

  15. Analytical Approach Treating Three-Dimensional Geometrical Effects of Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binotti, M.; Zhu, G.; Gray, A.; Manzollini, G.

    2012-04-01

    An analytical approach, as an extension of one newly developed method -- First-principle OPTical Intercept Calculation (FirstOPTIC) -- is proposed to treat the geometrical impact of three-dimensional (3-D) effects on parabolic trough optical performance. The mathematical steps of this analytical approach are presented and implemented numerically as part of the suite of FirstOPTIC code. In addition, the new code has been carefully validated against ray-tracing simulation results and available numerical solutions. This new analytical approach to treating 3-D effects will facilitate further understanding and analysis of the optical performance of trough collectors as a function of incidence angle.

  16. Method of preparing electrodes with porous current collector structures and solid reactants for secondary electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Eddie C.; Martino, Fredric J.

    1976-01-01

    Particulate electrode reactants, for instance transition metal sulfides for the positive electrodes and lithium alloys for the negative electrodes, are vibratorily compacted into porous, electrically conductive structures. Structures of high porosity support sufficient reactant material to provide high cell capacity per unit weight while serving as an electrical current collector to improve the utilization of reactant materials. Pore sizes of the structure and particle sizes of the reactant material are selected to permit uniform vibratory loading of the substrate without settling of the reactant material during cycling.

  17. 22.5% efficient silicon heterojunction solar cell with molybdenum oxide hole collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geissbühler, Jonas Werner, Jérémie; Martin de Nicolas, Silvia; Hessler-Wyser, Aïcha; Tomasi, Andrea; Niesen, Bjoern; De Wolf, Stefaan; Barraud, Loris; Despeisse, Matthieu; Nicolay, Sylvain; Ballif, Christophe

    2015-08-24

    Substituting the doped amorphous silicon films at the front of silicon heterojunction solar cells with wide-bandgap transition metal oxides can mitigate parasitic light absorption losses. This was recently proven by replacing p-type amorphous silicon with molybdenum oxide films. In this article, we evidence that annealing above 130 °C—often needed for the curing of printed metal contacts—detrimentally impacts hole collection of such devices. We circumvent this issue by using electrodeposited copper front metallization and demonstrate a silicon heterojunction solar cell with molybdenum oxide hole collector, featuring a fill factor value higher than 80% and certified energy conversion efficiency of 22.5%.

  18. Approach to make macroporous metal sheets as current collectors for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Canfield, Nathan L.; Wang, Deyu; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Li, Xiaohong S.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Bonham, Charles C.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2010-05-05

    A new approach and simple method is described to produce macroporous metal sheet as current collector for anode in lithium ion battery. This method, based on slurry blending, tape casting, sintering, and reducing of metal oxides, produces a uniform, macroporous metal sheet. Silicon film sputter-coated on such porous copper substrate shows much higher capacity and longer cycle life than on smooth Cu foil. This methodology produces very limited wastes and is also adaptable to many other materials. It is easy for industrial scale production.

  19. Low cost anti-soiling coatings for CSP collector mirrors and heliostats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Barton Barton; Polyzos, Georgios; Schaeffer, Daniel A; Lee, Dominic F; Datskos, Panos G

    2014-01-01

    Most concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities in the USA are located in the desert southwest of the country where land and sunshine are abundant. But one of the significant maintenance problems and cost associated with operating CSP facilities in this region is the accumulation of dust, sand and other pollutants on the collector mirrors and heliostats. In this paper we describe the development of low cost, easy to apply anti-soiling coatings based on superhydrophobic (SH) functionalized nano silica materials and polymer binders that posses the key requirements necessary to inhibit particulate deposition on and sticking to CSP mirror surfaces, and thereby significantly reducing mirror cleaning costs and facility downtime.

  20. Testing results of tubeless flat-plate phase-change solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamimi, A. ); Rawajfeh, K. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a tubeless solar collector charged with Refrigerant-113 (R-113) that was installed and tested. Steady-state performance of this system showed high efficiency values; this was due to phase-change heat transfer characteristics of a boiling process that is accompanied by low plate temperature as well as low thermal resistance to heat flow from the absorber plate to the working fluid. The only resistance to heat flow toward the working fluid is the conduction resistance through the upper plate, which is negligible.

  1. Project Profile: High Temperature Heat Pipe Receiver for Parabolic Trough Collectors (SuNLaMP)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project, done in partnership with Norwich Technologies, focuses on the development of heat pipe receiver technology for use with parabolic trough collectors. Heat pipe receivers are where the boiling and condensing of a fluid efficiently absorbs the incident concentrated solar energy and transfers the heat to the thermal energy storage system. The lab is combining its expertise in high temperature heat pipes and optically selective glass coatings with Norwich Technologies’ expertise in design, construction, and characterization of high temperature cavity receivers. The resulting technology will reduce the levelized cost of energy through a reduction in system costs, parasitic loads and a net energy conversion efficiency increase.

  2. CONC/11: a computer program for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-02-15

    CONC/11 is a computer program designed for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems. It is intended to aid the system or collector designer in evaluating the performance to be expected with possible design alternatives. From design or test data on the characteristics of the various subsystems, CONC/11 calculates the efficiencies of the collector and the overall power system as functions of the receiver temperature for a specified insolation. If desired, CONC/11 will also determine the receiver aperture and the receiver temperature that will provide the highest efficiencies at a given insolation. The program handles both simple and compound concentrators. CONC/11 is written in Athena Extended Fortran (similar to Fortran 77) to operate primarily in an interactive mode on a Sperry 1100/81 computer. It could also be used on many small computers.

  3. Midtemperature solar systems test faclity predictions for thermal performance based on test data: Solar Kinetics T-700 solar collector with glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), is currently conducting a program to predict the performance and measure the characteristics of commercially available solar collectors that have the potential for use in industrial process heat and enhanced oil recovery applications. The thermal performance predictions for the Solar Kinetics solar line-focusing parabolic trough collector for five cities in the US are presented. (WHK)

  4. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data: AAI solar collector with pressure-formed glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), is currently conducting a program to predict the performance and measure the characteristics of commercially available solar collectors that have the potential for use in industrial process heat and enhance oil recovery applications. The thermal performance predictions for the AAI solar line-focusing slat-type collector for five cities in the US are presented. (WHK)

  5. Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    The transpired solar collector was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for the this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

  6. Coaxial extrusion conversion concept for polymeric flat plate solar collectors. Final technical report, September 30, 1978-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, R.O.; Chapman, N.J.; Chao, K.C.; Sorenson, K.F.

    1980-01-01

    This study investigated materials and processes for fundamental improvements in flat-plate solar collector cost and performance. The goal was to develop a process for direct conversion of inexpensive raw materials into a completed solar collector unit, without labor intensive assembly operations. It was thought that materials carefully matched to the process and end-use environment would substantially reduce collector costs, as compared to conventional industry practice. The project studied the feasibility of a cost-effective, glazed solar collector, with low labor input, utilizing a coaxial extrusion of compatible polymeric materials. This study evaluated all considered materials for the desired application. In addition, there was a trial extrusion of the leading candidate glazing and absorber materials, which resulted in successfully performing a coaxial extrusion of one cell. At the time the study was conducted, there were no materials available that met the necessary requirements for the specified utilization. It was recommended that, if potentially compatible materials become available, further investigation into the suitability of those materials be researched. Then, if a suitable material was found, proceeding into Phase II would be recommended.

  7. Simulation of a photovoltaic/thermal heat pump system having a modified collector/evaporator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Guoying; Deng, Shiming; Zhang, Xiaosong; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Yuehong

    2009-11-15

    A new photovoltaic/thermal heat pump (PV/T-HP) system having a modified collector/evaporator (C/E) has been developed and numerically studied. Multi-port flat extruded aluminum tubes were used in the modified C/E, as compared to round copper tubes used in a conventional C/E. Simulation results suggested that a better operating performance can be achieved for a PV/T-HP system having such a modified C/E. In addition, using the meteorological data in both Nanjing and Hong Kong, China, the simulation results showed that this new PV/T-HP system could efficiently generate electricity and thermal energy simultaneously in both cities all-year-round. Furthermore, improved operation by using variable speed compressor has been designed and discussed. (author)

  8. Low-cost evacuated-tube solar collector appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beecher, D.T.

    1980-05-31

    A low cost solar heat energy collector module and array has been designed using the evacuated tube, selective absorber, air cooled concept. Glass tubing as used in fluorescent lamps with automatic sealing methods is a key feature of the evacuated tube design. A molded fiber glass concentrating reflector panel and sheet metal header assembly are proposed. Major design problems involved included the cost of materials and labor, thermal expansion and distortion problems, high stagnation and operating temperatures, isolation, thermal efficiency, sealing, joining, air pressure drop, and weight of the preassembled module. A cost of less than $5 per active square foot of collecting surface has been estimated for materials and labor of the module and its mounting frame.

  9. Cleaning strategies for parabolic-trough solar-collector fields; guidelines for decisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeron, K.D.; Freese, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    This report is intended to assist the owner or operator of a parabolic trough solar collector system to decide on a cleaning strategy (equipment, materials, procedures, and schedules). The guidelines are based on information obtained in past research studies, as well as interviews with vendors and users of cleaning and water treatment equipment. The basic procedure recommended utilizes high pressure portable washing equipment. However, since the cleaning problem is so site-specific, no single, detailed approach can be specified. A systematic procedure for evaluating the particular requirements of a site is therefore given. This will allow the solar energy system operator to develop a cleaning strategy which is cost-effective because it is suited to local conditions.

  10. Cell and current collector felt arrangement for solid oxide electrochemical cell combinations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichner, Philip

    1988-01-01

    A solid electrolyte electrochemical cell combination 1 is made, comprising an annular, axially elongated, inner electrode 2 containing at least one interior gas feed conduit 3; annular solid electrolyte segments 4 around and covering portions of the inner electrode; annular outer electrode segments 6 around and covering portions of the electrolyte segments; electronically conducting, non-porous, interconnection material 5 disposed between electrolyte segments and in contact with the inner electrode, and electronically conducting, porous, metal fiber current collector felts 7 disposed on top of the non-porous interconnect material and outer electrode segments, where both the non-porous interconnect material and the porous metal felts are disposed circumferentially about the cell, transversely to the axial length of the cell and the inner electrode is continuous for the entire axial length of the cell combination.

  11. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaffe, L.D.

    1983-08-15

    In parabolic dish solar collectors, walk-off of the spot of concentrated sunlight can be a hazard if a malfunction causes the concentration to stop following the sun. Therefore, a test program was carried out to evaluate the behavior of various ceramics, metals, and polymers under solar irradiation of about 7000 kW/m/sup 2/ (peak) for 15 minutes. The only materials that did not slump or shatter were two grades of medium-grain extruded graphite. High-purity, slip-cast silica might be satisfactory at somewhat lower flux. Oxidation of the graphite appeared acceptable during tests simulating walk-off, acquisition (2000 cycles on/off sun), and spillage (continuous on-sun operation).

  12. Flat-plate solar collectors utilizing polymeric film for high performance and very low cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Polymeric films are used in the construction of the absorber and window portions of a flat plate solar collector. The absorber heat exchanger consists of a channeled liquid envelope constructed using a polymeric film and metal foil laminate. In addition, the composite films and light frame monocoque construction contribute to very light weight and low cost. The use of high-performance polymers permits low-loss designs with high thermal performance. The construction concepts are consistent with high speed mass production and installation with manufacturing cost projections of $15/m/sup 2/. Tests performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and elsewhere indicate performance potential consistent with applications incorporating solar absorption air conditioning.

  13. Theory and Manufacturing Processes of Solar NanoAntenna Electromagnetic Collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale K. Kotter; Steven D. Novack

    2010-02-01

    DRAFT For Submittal to Journal of Solar Energy - Rev 10.1 ---SOL-08-1091 SOLAR Nantenna Electromagnetic Collectors Dale K. Kotter Idaho National Laboratory Steven D. Novack Idaho National Laboratory W. Dennis Slafer MicroContinuum, Inc. Patrick Pinhero University of Missouri ABSTRACT The research described in this paper explores a new and efficient approach for producing electricity from the abundant energy of the sun, using nanoantenna (nantenna) electromagnetic collectors (NECs). NEC devices target mid-infrared wavelengths, where conventional photovoltaic (PV) solar cells are inefficient and where there is an abundance of solar energy. The initial concept of designing NECs was based on scaling of radio frequency antenna theory to the infrared and visible regions. This approach initially proved unsuccessful because the optical behavior of materials in the terahertz (THz) region was overlooked and, in addition, economical nanofabrication methods were not previously available to produce the optical antenna elements. This paper demonstrates progress in addressing significant technological barriers, including: 1) development of frequency-dependent modeling of double-feedpoint square spiral nantenna elements; 2) selection of materials with proper THz properties; and 3) development of novel manufacturing methods that could potentially enable economical large-scale manufacturing. We have shown that nantennas can collect infrared energy and induce THz currents, and we have also developed cost-effective proof-of-concept fabrication techniques for the large-scale manufacture of simple square loop nantenna arrays. Future work is planned to embed rectifiers into the double-feedpoint antenna structures. This work represents an important first step toward the ultimate realization of a low-cost device that will collect as well as convert this radiation into electricity. This could lead to a broadband, high conversion efficiency low-cost solution to complement conventional PV

  14. Characterization of the proton beam from an IBA Cyclone 18/9 with radiochromic film EBT2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sansaloni, F.; Lagares, J. I.; Arce, P.; Llop, J.; Perez, J. M.

    2012-12-19

    The use of radiochromic films is widespread in different areas of medical physics like radiotherapy and hadrontherapy; however, radiochromic films have been scarcely used in the characterization of proton or deuteron beams generated in biomedical cyclotrons. In this paper the radiochromic film EBT2 was used to study the beam size and the proton beam energy of an IBA Cyclone 18/9 cyclotron. The results indicate that the beam size can be easily measured at a very low expense; however, an accurate determination of the beam energy might require the implementation of certain experimental improvements.

  15. To develop a dynamic model of a collector loop for purpose of improved control of solar heating and cooling. Final technical report. [TRNSYS code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herczfeld, P R; Fischl, R

    1980-01-01

    The program objectives were to (1) assess the feasibility of using the TRNSYS computer code for solar heating and cooling control studies and modify it wherever possible, and (2) develop a new dynamic model of the solar collector which reflects the performance of the collector under transient conditions. Also, the sensitivity of the performance of this model to the various system parameters such as collector time constants, flow rates, turn-on and turn-off temperature set points, solar insolation, etc., was studied. Results are presented and discussed. (WHK)

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of the Bonneville Project: Tailrace Spill Patterns for Low Flows and Corner Collector Smolt Egress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Serkowski, John A.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.

    2010-12-01

    In 2003, an extension of the existing ice and trash sluiceway was added at Bonneville Powerhouse 2 (B2). This extension started at the existing corner collector for the ice and trash sluiceway adjacent to Bonneville Powerhouse 2 and the new sluiceway was extended to the downstream end of Cascade Island. The sluiceway was designed to improve juvenile salmon survival by bypassing turbine passage at B2, and placing these smolt in downstream flowing water minimizing their exposure to fish and avian predators. In this study, a previously developed computational fluid dynamics model was modified and used to characterized tailrace hydraulics and sluiceway egress conditions for low total river flows and low levels of spillway flow. STAR-CD v4.10 was used for seven scenarios of low total river flow and low spill discharges. The simulation results were specifically examined to look at tailrace hydraulics at 5 ft below the tailwater elevation, and streamlines used to compare streamline pathways for streamlines originating in the corner collector outfall and adjacent to the outfall. These streamlines indicated that for all higher spill percentage cases (25% and greater) that streamlines from the corner collector did not approach the shoreline at the downstream end of Bradford Island. For the cases with much larger spill percentages, the streamlines from the corner collector were mid-channel or closer to the Washington shore as they moved downstream. Although at 25% spill at 75 kcfs total river, the total spill volume was sufficient to "cushion" the flow from the corner collector from the Bradford Island shore, areas of recirculation were modeled in the spillway tailrace. However, at the lowest flows and spill percentages, the streamlines from the B2 corner collector pass very close to the Bradford Island shore. In addition, the very flow velocity flows and large areas of recirculation greatly increase potential predator exposure of the spillway passed smolt. If there is

  17. Low No{sub x}/SO{sub x} burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Baseline test report: Issue A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

    1991-05-01

    The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative`s (SIPC`s) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC`s Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner`s SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

  18. Alternative energy sources. IV. Proceedings of the Fourth Miami International Conference, Miami Beach, FL, December 14-16, 1981. Volume 1 - Solar Collectors Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veziroglu, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    Aspects of solar measurements, solar collectors, selective coatings, thermal storage, phase change storage, and heat exchangers are discussed. The analysis and testing of flat-plate solar collectors are addressed. The development and uses of plastic collectors, a solar water heating system, solar energy collecting oil barrels, a glass collector panel, and a two-phase thermosyphon system are considered. Studies of stratification in thermal storage, of packed bed and fluidized bed systems, and of thermal storage in solar towers, in wall passive systems, and in reversible chemical reactions are reported. Phase change storage by direct contact processes and in residential solar space heating and cooling is examined, as are new materials and surface characteristics for solar heat storage. The use of R-11 and Freon-113 in heat exchange is discussed.

  19. Coefficient of the Extraction of the Target Isotope and Optimum Parameters of a Collector of Heated Ions in the Context of the ICR Method of Isotope Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karchevskii, A. I.; Potanin, E. P.

    2002-07-15

    The separation parameters of a collector of heated ions are estimated in the context of the ion cyclotron resonance method of isotope separation. The separation power dU, the coefficient {Gamma}{sub C} of the extraction of the target isotope, and the collector efficiency {eta} are calculated. These parameters are investigated as functions of the repulsive potential U of the collector plates, the half-height a of the front screen, and the distance b between the plates. It is shown that the dependence of the collector efficiency {eta} on the distance b between the plates has a pronounced maximum at b Almost-Equal-To 2r{sub L}{sup *}, where r{sub L}{sup *} is the mean ion gyroradius.

  20. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Polisolar Model POL solar collector with glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-05-01

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Polisolar Model POL solar collector, with glass reflector surfaces, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  1. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Toltec two-axis tracking solar collector with 3M acrylic polyester film reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-06-01

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Toltec solar collector, with acrylic film reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  2. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance of the Solar Kinetics T-700 solar collector with FEK 244 reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal performance predictions are presented for the Solar Kinetics T-700 solar collector, with FEK 244 reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  3. Operation of resonant-tunneling diodes with strong back injection from the collector at frequencies up to 1.46 THz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feiginov, Michael Kanaya, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Safumi; Asada, Masahiro

    2014-06-16

    In search for possibilities to increase the operating frequencies of resonant-tunneling diodes (RTDs), we are studying RTDs working in an unusual regime. The collector side of our diodes is so heavily doped that the collector depletion region is fully eliminated in our RTDs and the ground quantum-well subband stays immersed under (or stays close to) the collector quasi-Fermi level. The electron injection from the collector into the RTD quantum well is very strong in our diodes and stays comparable to that from the emitter in the whole range of RTD operating biases. Our RTDs exhibit well pronounced negative-differential-conductance region and peak-to-valley current ratio around 1.8. We demonstrate operation of our diodes in RTD oscillators up to 1.46 THz. We also observe a fine structure in the emission spectra of our RTD oscillators, when they are working in the regime close to the onset of oscillations.

  4. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data: solar kinetics T-600 solar collector with FEK 244 reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), is currently conducting a program to predict the performance and measure the characteristics of commercially available solar collectors that have the potential for use in industrial process heat and enhanced oil recovery applications. The thermal performance predictions for the Solar Kinetics T-600 solar line-focusing parabolic trough collector are presented for three output temperatures at five cities in the US. (WHK)

  5. Generation of a Parabolic Trough Collector Efficiency Curve from Separate Measurements of Outdoor Optical Efficiency and Indoor Receiver Heat Loss

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.; Burkholder, F.; Stynes, J. K.

    2012-02-01

    The thermal efficiency of a parabolic trough collector is a function of both the fraction of direct normal radiation absorbed by the receiver (the optical efficiency) and the heat lost to the environment when the receiver is at operating temperature. The thermal efficiency can be determined by testing the collector under actual operating conditions or by separately measuring these two components. This paper describes how outdoor measurement of the optical efficiency is combined with laboratory measurements of receiver heat loss to obtain the thermal efficiency curve. This paper describes this approach and also makes the case that there are advantages to plotting collector efficiency versus the difference between the operating temperature and the ambient temperature at which the receiver heat loss was measured divided by radiation to a fractional power (on the order of 1/3 but obtained via data regression) - as opposed to the difference between operating and ambient temperatures divided by the radiation. The results are shown to be robust over wide ranges of ambient temperature, sky temperature, and wind speed.

  6. Performance analysis of a latent heat storage system with phase change material for new designed solar collectors in greenhouse heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benli, Hueseyin; Durmus, Aydin

    2009-12-15

    The continuous increase in the level of greenhouse gas emissions and the rise in fuel prices are the main driving forces behind the efforts for more effectively utilize various sources of renewable energy. In many parts of the world, direct solar radiation is considered to be one of the most prospective sources of energy. In this study, the thermal performance of a phase change thermal storage unit is analyzed and discussed. The storage unit is a component of ten pieced solar air collectors heating system being developed for space heating of a greenhouse and charging of PCM. CaCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O was used as PCM in thermal energy storage with a melting temperature of 29 C. Hot air delivered by ten pieced solar air collector is passed through the PCM to charge the storage unit. The stored heat is utilized to heat ambient air before being admitted to a greenhouse. This study is based on experimental results of the PCM employed to analyze the transient thermal behavior of the storage unit during the charge and discharge periods. The proposed size of collectors integrated PCM provided about 18-23% of total daily thermal energy requirements of the greenhouse for 3-4 h, in comparison with the conventional heating device. (author)

  7. Solar energy collector including a weightless balloon with sun tracking means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Frederick F.

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy collector having a weightless balloon, the balloon including a transparent polyvinylfluoride hemisphere reinforced with a mesh of ropes secured to its outside surface, and a laminated reflector hemisphere, the inner layer being clear and aluminized on its outside surface and the outer layer being opaque, the balloon being inflated with lighter-than-air gas. A heat collection probe extends into the balloon along the focus of reflection of the reflective hemisphere for conducting coolant into and out of the balloon. The probe is mounted on apparatus for keeping the probe aligned with the sun's path, the apparatus being founded in the earth for withstanding wind pressure on the balloon. The balloon is lashed to the probe by ropes adhered to the outer surface of the balloon for withstanding wind pressures of 100 miles per hour. Preferably, the coolant is liquid sodium-potassium eutectic alloy which will not normally freeze at night in the temperate zones, and when heated to 4,000.degree. R exerts a pressure of only a few atmospheres.

  8. Tracking and stationary flat plate solar collectors: Yearly collectible energy correlations for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, J.M. ); Kreider, J.F.; Reeves, P. )

    1991-01-01

    For tracking and stationary flat plate (nonconcentrating) solar collectors, the authors develop easy-to-use, closed form, analytical formulae for yearly collectible energy as a function of radiation threshold. Primary applications include central-station photovoltaic systems. These correlations include the explicit dependence on: yearly average clearness index, latitude, and ground cover ratio (shading effects), and are in excellent agreement with data-based results for 26 US SOLMET stations. They also incorporate appropriate functional forms that ensure accurate results for photovoltaic system design and, in particular, for systems with buy-back thresholds. Both beam and diffuse shading are treated properly and diffuse shading is found to represent a 2%-6% loss that has systematically been ignored in past studies. Sample sensitivity studies illustrate evaluation of the energetic advantage of tracking vs. stationary deployment and its significant dependence on ground cover ratio. The impact of isotropic versus anisotropic modeling of diffuse radiation is quantified and shown to give rise to non-negligible differences (up to 10%) in yearly collectible energy. They also determine an optimal tracking strategy for two-axis trackers which, however, is found to yield a 0%-2% energetic advantage relative to conventional normal-incidence tracking.

  9. Experimental investigation and modeling of a direct-coupled PV/T air collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahsavar, A.; Ameri, M.

    2010-11-15

    Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems refer to the integration of photovoltaic and solar thermal technologies into one single system, in that both useful heat energy and electricity are produced. The impetus of this paper is to model a direct-coupled PV/T air collector which is designed, built, and tested at a geographic location of Kerman, Iran. In this system, a thin aluminum sheet suspended at the middle of air channel is used to increase the heat exchange surface and consequently improve heat extraction from PV panels. This PV/T system is tested in natural convection and forced convection (with two, four and eight fans operating) and its unsteady results are presented in with and without glass cover cases. A theoretical model is developed and validated against experimental data, where good agreement between the measured values and those calculated by the simulation model were achieved. Comparisons are made between electrical performance of the different modes of operation, and it is concluded that there is an optimum number of fans for achieving maximum electrical efficiency. Also, results show that setting glass cover on photovoltaic panels leads to an increase in thermal efficiency and decrease in electrical efficiency of the system. (author)

  10. Development of sheet molding compound solar collectors with molded-in silvered glass reflective surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Champion, R. L.; Allred, R. E.

    1980-12-01

    The reflecting concentrator of a parabolic trough solar collector system comprises approximately 40% of initial system cost. The parabolic concentrator structure is also the most influential component in determining overall system efficiency. Parabolic test moldings have been fabricated from a general purpose sheet molding compound with flat chemically strengthened glass, flat annealed glass, and thermally formed glass. The test panel configuration was a 1.22 m x 0.61 m, 45/sup 0/ rim angle (0.762 m focal length) parabola. Attempts to mold with annealed sheet glass (1 mm thick) and thermally formed glass (1.25 mm thick) were unsuccessful; only the chemically strengthened glass (1.25 mm thick) was strong enough to survive molding pressures. Because of the mismatch in thermal expansion between glass and sheet molding compound, the as-molded panels contained a sizeable residual stress. The results are given of dimensional changes taking place in the panels under accelerated thermal cycling and outdoor aging conditions; these results are compared to an analytical model of the laminate. In addition, the sheet molding compound has been examined for thermomechanical properties and flow behavior in the rib sections. Results indicated that lowering the thermal expansion coefficient of the sheet molding compound through material modifications would produce a more stable structure.

  11. Numerical study on coupled fluid flow and heat transfer process in parabolic trough solar collector tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Y.B.; He, Y.L.

    2010-10-15

    A unified two-dimensional numerical model was developed for the coupled heat transfer process in parabolic solar collector tube, which includes nature convection, forced convection, heat conduction and fluid-solid conjugate problem. The effects of Rayleigh number (Ra), tube diameter ratio and thermal conductivity of the tube wall on the heat transfer and fluid flow performance were numerically analyzed. The distributions of flow field, temperature field, local Nu and local temperature gradient were examined. The results show that when Ra is larger than 10{sup 5}, the effects of nature convection must be taken into account. With the increase of tube diameter ratio, the Nusselt number in inner tube (Nu{sub 1}) increases and the Nusselt number in annuli space (Nu{sub 2}) decreases. With the increase of tube wall thermal conductivity, Nu{sub 1} decreases and Nu{sub 2} increases. When thermal conductivity is larger than 200 W/(m K), it would have little effects on Nu and average temperatures. Due to the effect of the nature convection, along the circumferential direction (from top to down), the temperature in the cross-section decreases and the temperature gradient on inner tube surface increases at first. Then, the temperature and temperature gradients would present a converse variation at {theta} near {pi}. The local Nu on inner tube outer surface increases along circumferential direction until it reaches a maximum value then it decreases again. (author)

  12. Separation Of Uranium And Plutonium Isotopes For Measurement By Multi Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinelli, R E; Hamilton, T F; Williams, R W; Kehl, S R

    2009-03-29

    Uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) isotopes in coral soils, contaminated by nuclear weapons testing in the northern Marshall Islands, were isolated by ion-exchange chromatography and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The soil samples were spiked with {sup 233}U and {sup 242}Pu tracers, dissolved in minerals acids, and U and Pu isotopes isolated and purified on commercially available ion-exchange columns. The ion-exchange technique employed a TEVA{reg_sign} column coupled to a UTEVA{reg_sign} column. U and Pu isotope fractions were then further isolated using separate elution schemes, and the purified fractions containing U and Pu isotopes analyzed sequentially using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MCICP-MS). High precision measurements of {sup 234}U/{sup 235}U, {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U, {sup 236}U/{sup 235}U, and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu in soil samples were attained using the described methodology and instrumentation, and provide a basis for conducting more detailed assessments of the behavior and transfer of uranium and plutonium in the environment.

  13. Commercialization of BNL design solar collector in India: Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.; Mubayi, V.

    1985-09-01

    The present market for solar thermal energy technologies in India is almost completely restricted to solar hot water and, in a smaller number, hot air systems. A few projects utilizing concentrating systems for producing steam and/or thermally generated electric power have been carried out but these are restricted to the R and D stage. Similarly, a few projects employing solar space heating have also been done in remote, mountainous areas but these are also at the R and D level. Based on interviews with knowledgeable observers, including officials of DNES/STEC, state ''nodal'' agencies responsible for implementing solar energy projects in different states, and flat plate collector/hot water systems manufacturers, it has been roughly estimated that between 90 to 95% of the hot water systems installed or under installation have been funded by government programs. This includes systems funded under Central Government programs by DNES and systems installed under State Government projects. The remaining 5 to 10% of the installations are in the private sector and are believed to be mostly small, domestic systems (100 liters per day of hot water at 60/sup 0/C).

  14. The northern wintertime divergence extrema at 200 hPa and surface cyclones as simulated in the AMIP integration of the ECMWF general circulation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, J.S.

    1994-11-01

    Divergence and convergence centers at 200 hPa and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) cyclones were located every 6 hr for a 10-yr general circulation model (GCM) simulation with the ECMWF (Cycle 36) for the boreal winters from 1980 to 1988. The simulation used the observed monthly mean sea surface temperature (SST) for the decade. Analysis of the frequency, location, and strength of these centers and cyclones gives insight into the dynamical response of the model to the varying SST. The results indicate that (1) the model produces reasonable climatologies of upper-level divergence and MSLP cyclones; (2) the model distribution of anomalies of divergence and convergence centers and MSLP cyclones is consistent with observations for the 1982-83 and 1986-87 El Nifio events; (3) the tropical Indian Ocean is the region of greatest divergence activity and interannual variability in the model; (4) the variability of the divergence centers is greater than that of the convergence centers; (5) strong divergence centers occur chiefly over the ocean in the midlatitudes but are more land-based in the tropics, except in the Indian Ocean; and (6) locations of divergence and convergence centers can be a useful tool for the intercomparison of global atmospheric simulations.

  15. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    Cyclone furnaces operate with high excess air and at high temperature. The heat release during combustion is very high and as a result the boiler volume is much smaller than would be found in a conventional pc-fired system. The Marion Unit 1 boiler, at the level of the cyclone entry, has a small cross-section; about 5-feet in depth and about 20-feet in width. A boiler schematic showing the LNS Burner and relative location of the superheater region and overfire air ports is shown in Figure 1. The LNS Burner`s combustion process is fundamentally different from that of the cyclone, and the combustion products are also different. The LNS Burner products enter the boiler as hot, fuel-rich gases. Additional overfire air must be added to complete this combustion step with care taken to avoid the formation of thermal NO{sub x}. If done correctly, S0{sub 2} is controlled and significant NO{sub x} reductions are achieved. Because of the small boiler volume, flow modelling was found to be necessary to insure that adequate mixing of LNS Burner combustion products with air can be accomplished to achieve NO{sub x} emissions goals. Design requirements for the air injection system for the Marion boiler were developed using FLUENT, a commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. A series of runs were made to obtain a design for final air injection that met the process design goals as closely as possible.

  16. Graybox and adaptative dynamic neural network identification models to infer the steady state efficiency of solar thermal collectors starting from the transient condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberto, Baccoli; Ubaldo, Carlini; Stefano, Mariotti; Roberto, Innamorati; Elisa, Solinas; Paolo, Mura

    2010-06-15

    This paper deals with the development of methods for non steady state test of solar thermal collectors. Our goal is to infer performances in steady-state conditions in terms of the efficiency curve when measures in transient conditions are the only ones available. We take into consideration the method of identification of a system in dynamic conditions by applying a Graybox Identification Model and a Dynamic Adaptative Linear Neural Network (ALNN) model. The study targets the solar collector with evacuated pipes, such as Dewar pipes. The mathematical description that supervises the functioning of the solar collector in transient conditions is developed using the equation of the energy balance, with the aim of determining the order and architecture of the two models. The input and output vectors of the two models are constructed, considering the measures of 4 days of solar radiation, flow mass, environment and heat-transfer fluid temperature in the inlet and outlet from the thermal solar collector. The efficiency curves derived from the two models are detected in correspondence to the test and validation points. The two synthetic simulated efficiency curves are compared with the actual efficiency curve certified by the Swiss Institute Solartechnik Puffung Forschung which tested the solar collector performance in steady-state conditions according to the UNI-EN 12975 standard. An acquisition set of measurements of only 4 days in the transient condition was enough to trace through a Graybox State Space Model the efficiency curve of the tested solar thermal collector, with a relative error of synthetic values with respect to efficiency certified by SPF, lower than 0.5%, while with the ALNN model the error is lower than 2.2% with respect to certified one. (author)

  17. Generation of a Parabolic Trough Collector Efficiency Curve from Separate Measurements of Outdoor Optical Efficiency and Indoor Receiver Heat Loss: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.; Burkholder, F.; Stynes, K.

    2010-10-01

    The overall efficiency of a parabolic trough collector is a function of both the fraction of direct normal radiation absorbed by the receiver (the optical efficiency) and the heat lost to the environment when the receiver is at operating temperature. The overall efficiency can be determined by testing the collector under actual operating conditions or by separately measuring these two components. This paper describes how outdoor measurement of the optical efficiency is combined with laboratory measurements of receiver heat loss to obtain an overall efficiency curve. Further, it presents a new way to plot efficiency that is more robust over a range of receiver operating temperatures.

  18. Analysis of different tunneling mechanisms of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}As/AlGaAs tunnel junction light-emitting transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Cheng-Han; Wu, Chao-Hsin

    2014-10-27

    The electrical and optical characteristics of tunnel junction light-emitting transistors (TJLETs) with different indium mole fractions (x?=?5% and 2.5%) of the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}As base-collector tunnel junctions have been investigated. Two electron tunneling mechanisms (photon-assisted or direct tunneling) provide additional currents to electrical output and resupply holes back to the base region, resulting in the upward slope of I-V curves and enhanced optical output under forward-active operation. The larger direct tunneling probability and stronger Franz-Keldysh absorption for 5% TJLET lead to higher collector current slope and less optical intensity enhancement when base-collector junction is under reverse-biased.

  19. Application and Continued Development of Thin Faraday Collectors as a Lost Ion Diagnostic for Tokamak Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Ed Cecil

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes the accomplishment of sixteen years of work toward the development of thin foil Faraday collectors as a lost energetic ion diagnostic for high temperature magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Following initial, proof of principle accelerator based studies, devices have been tested on TFTR, NSTX, ALCATOR, DIII-D, and JET (KA-1 and KA-2). The reference numbers refer to the attached list of publications. The JET diagnostic KA-2 continues in operation and hopefully will provide valuable diagnostic information during a possible d-t campaign on JET in the coming years. A thin Faraday foil spectrometer, by virtue of its radiation hardness, may likewise provide a solution to the very challenging problem of lost alpha particle measurements on ITER and other future burning plasma machines.

  20. High concentration two-stage optics for parabolic trough solar collectors with tubular absorber and large rim angle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collares-Pereira, M. ); Gordon, J.M. ); Rabl, A. ); Winston, R. )

    1991-01-01

    A new two-stage optical design is proposed for parabolic trough solar collectors with tubular absorbers. It can boost the concentration ratio by a factor of 2.5 relative to the conventional design, while maintaining the large rim angles (i.e., low nominal f-numbers) that are desirable for practical and economical reasons. The second state involves asymmetric nonimaging concentrators of the CPC type, facing segments of the parabolic first stage. The second stage can be accommodated inside an evacuated receiver, allowing the use of first-surface silvered reflectors. The low heat loss of this design opens the possibility of producing steam at temperatures and pressures of conventional power plants, using only one-axis tracking. The improvement in conversion efficiency would be substantial.

  1. Energy and economic assessment of desiccant cooling systems coupled with single glazed air and hybrid PV/thermal solar collectors for applications in hot and humid climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beccali, Marco; Finocchiaro, Pietro; Nocke, Bettina

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the energy and economic performance of desiccant cooling systems (DEC) equipped with both single glazed standard air and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/t) collectors for applications in hot and humid climates. The use of 'solar cogeneration' by means of PV/t hybrid collectors enables the simultaneous production of electricity and heat, which can be directly used by desiccant air handling units, thereby making it possible to achieve very energy savings. The present work shows the results of detailed simulations conducted for a set of desiccant cooling systems operating without any heat storage. System performance was investigated through hourly simulations for different systems and load combinations. Three configurations of DEC systems were considered: standard DEC, DEC with an integrated heat pump and DEC with an enthalpy wheel. Two kinds of building occupations were considered: office and lecture room. Moreover, three configurations of solar-assisted air handling units (AHU) equipped with desiccant wheels were considered and compared with standard AHUs, focusing on achievable primary energy savings. The relationship between the solar collector's area and the specific primary energy consumption for different system configurations and building occupation patterns is described. For both occupation patterns, sensitivity analysis on system performance was performed for different solar collector areas. Also, this work presents an economic assessment of the systems. The cost of conserved energy and the payback time were calculated, with and without public incentives for solar cooling systems. It is worth noting that the use of photovoltaics, and thus the exploitation of related available incentives in many European countries, could positively influence the spread of solar air cooling technologies (SAC). An outcome of this work is that SAC systems equipped with PV/t collectors are shown to have better performance in terms of

  2. A steady state thermal duct model derived by fin-theory approach and applied on an unglazed solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stojanovic, B.; Hallberg, D.; Akander, J.

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents the thermal modelling of an unglazed solar collector (USC) flat panel, with the aim of producing a detailed yet swift thermal steady-state model. The model is analytical, one-dimensional (1D) and derived by a fin-theory approach. It represents the thermal performance of an arbitrary duct with applied boundary conditions equal to those of a flat panel collector. The derived model is meant to be used for efficient optimisation and design of USC flat panels (or similar applications), as well as detailed thermal analysis of temperature fields and heat transfer distributions/variations at steady-state conditions; without requiring a large amount of computational power and time. Detailed surface temperatures are necessary features for durability studies of the surface coating, hence the effect of coating degradation on USC and system performance. The model accuracy and proficiency has been benchmarked against a detailed three-dimensional Finite Difference Model (3D FDM) and two simpler 1D analytical models. Results from the benchmarking test show that the fin-theory model has excellent capabilities of calculating energy performances and fluid temperature profiles, as well as detailed material temperature fields and heat transfer distributions/variations (at steady-state conditions), while still being suitable for component analysis in junction to system simulations as the model is analytical. The accuracy of the model is high in comparison to the 3D FDM (the prime benchmark), as long as the fin-theory assumption prevails (no 'or negligible' temperature gradient in the fin perpendicularly to the fin length). Comparison with the other models also shows that when the USC duct material has a high thermal conductivity, the cross-sectional material temperature adopts an isothermal state (for the assessed USC duct geometry), which makes the 1D isothermal model valid. When the USC duct material has a low thermal conductivity, the heat transfer course of

  3. Demonstration of natural gas reburn for NO{sub x} emissions reduction at Ohio Edison Company`s cyclone-fired Niles Plant Unit Number 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borio, R.W.; Lewis, R.D.; Koucky, R.W.; Lookman, A.A.; Manos, M.G.; Corfman, D.W.; Waddingham, A.L.; Johnson, S.A.

    1996-04-01

    Electric utility power plants account for about one-third of the NO{sub x} and two-thirds of the SO{sub 2} emissions in the US cyclone-fired boilers, while representing about 9% of the US coal-fired generating capacity, emit about 14% of the NO{sub x} produced by coal-fired utility boilers. Given this background, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Gas Research Institute, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, and the Ohio Coal Development Office sponsored a program led by ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB-CE) to demonstrate reburning on a cyclone-fired boiler. Ohio Edison provided Unit No. 1 at their Niles Station for the reburn demonstration along with financial assistance. The Niles Unit No. 1 reburn system was started up in September 1990. This reburn program was the first full-scale reburn system demonstration in the US. This report describes work performed during the program. The work included a review of reburn technology, aerodynamic flow model testing of reburn system design concepts, design and construction of the reburn system, parametric performance testing, long-term load dispatch testing, and boiler tube wall thickness monitoring. The report also contains a description of the Niles No. 1 host unit, a discussion of conclusions and recommendations derived from the program, tabulation of data from parametric and long-term tests, and appendices which contain additional tabulated test results.

  4. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Alpha Solarco Model 104 solar collector with 0. 125-inch Schott low-iron glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-04-01

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Alpha Solarco Model 104 solar collector, with 0.125-inch Schott low-iron glass reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  5. Experimental study of the influence of collector height on the steady state performance of a passive solar air heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, D.; Burek, S.A.M.

    2010-09-15

    Passive solar air heaters, such as solar chimneys and Trombe Walls, rely on solar-induced buoyancy-driven (natural) convection to produce the flow of air. Although buoyancy-driven convection is well understood for a single vertical plate, buoyancy-driven convection in an asymmetrically-heated channel is more problematic, and in particular, the effects of the channel height on the flow rate and heat transfer. This paper reports on experiments on test rigs resembling lightweight passive solar air-heating collectors. The test rigs were of heights 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 m, with adjustable channel depths (20-150 mm) and heat inputs (up to 1000 W/m{sup 2}). Measurements were made of the air, plate and cover temperatures, and air velocities. Results are presented as dimensionless correlations of mass flow (as Reynolds number) and efficiency against heat input (as Rayleigh number), channel depth and height. Thermal efficiency is shown to be a function of the heat input and the system height, but not of the channel depth; mass flow is shown to be a dependent on all three parameters. (author)

  6. Pyrolysis with cyclone burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Green, Norman W.; Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Lumpkin, Robert E.

    1978-07-25

    In a continuous process for recovery of values contained in a solid carbonaceous material, the carbonaceous material is comminuted and then subjected to flash pyrolysis in the presence of a particulate heat source over an overflow weir to form a pyrolysis product stream containing a carbon containing solid residue and volatilized hydrocarbons. After the carbon containing solid residue is separated from the pyrolysis product stream, values are obtained by condensing volatilized hydrocarbons. The particulate source of heat is formed by oxidizing carbon in the solid residue and separating out the fines.

  7. LIQUID CYCLONE CONTACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whatley, M.E.; Woods, W.M.

    1962-09-01

    This invention relates to liquid-liquid extraction systems. The invention, an improved hydroclone system, comprises a series of serially connected, axially aligned hydroclones, each of which is provided with an axially aligned overflow chamber. The chambers are so arranged that rotational motion of a fluid being passed through the system is not lost in passing from chamber to chamber; consequently, this system is highly efficient in contacting and separating two immiscible liquids. (AEC)

  8. Harmonia: A Globally Coordinated Garbage Collector for Arrays of Solid-state Drives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Youngjae; Oral, H Sarp; Shipman, Galen M; Lee, Junghee; Dillow, David A; Wang, Feiyi

    2011-01-01

    Solid-State Drives (SSDs) offer significant performance improvements over hard disk drives (HDD) on a number of workloads. The frequency of garbage collection (GC) activity is directly correlated with the pattern, frequency, and volume of write requests, and scheduling of GC is controlled by logic internal to the SSD. SSDs can exhibit significant performance degradations when garbage collection (GC) conflicts with an ongoing I/O request stream. When using SSDs in a RAID array, the lack of coordination of the local GC processes amplifies these performance degradations. No RAID controller or SSD available today has the technology to overcome this limitation. This paper presents Harmonia, a Global Garbage Collection (GGC) mechanism to improve response times and reduce performance variability for a RAID array of SSDs. Our proposal includes a high-level design of SSD-aware RAID controller and GGC-capable SSD devices, as well as algorithms to coordinate the global GC cycles. Our simulations show that this design improves response time and reduces performance variability for a wide variety of enterprise workloads. For bursty, write dominant workloads response time was improved by 69% while performance variability was reduced by 71%.

  9. Technical evaluation of a solar heating system having conventional hydronic solar collectors and a radiant panel slab. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starr, R.J.

    1984-04-01

    A simple innovative solar heating design (Solar Option One) using conventional hydronic solar collectors and a radiant panel slab was constructed. An objective of hybrid solar design is to combine the relative advantages of active and passive design approaches while minimizing their respective disadvantages. A test house using the Solar Option One heating system was experimentally monitored to determine its energy based performance during the 1982-83 heating season. The test residence is located in Lyndonville, Vermont, an area which has a characteristically cold and cloudy climate. The two story residence has a floor area of about 1400 square feet and is constructed on a 720 square foot 5.5 inch thick floor slab. A 24 inch packed gravel bed is located beneath the slab and the slab-gravel bed is insulated by two inches of polystyrene insulation. The test building is of frame construction and uses insulation levels which have become commonplace throughout the country. The structure would not fall into the superinsulated category but was tightly constructed so as to have a low infiltration level. The building is sun-tempered in that windows were concentrated somewhat on the South side and all but avoided on the North. A solar greenhouse on the South side of the building was closed off from the structure permanently throughout the testing so as to better observe the solar heating invention without confounding variables. The monitoring equipment generated an internal gain of about 17,000 BTUs per day, roughly the equivalent of occupancy by two persons. A full description of the experimental testing program is given. System efficiency and performance are reported.

  10. Performance of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system. Final report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duff, W.S.; Loef, G.O.G.

    1981-03-01

    Operation of CSU Solar House I during the heating season of 1978-1979 and during the 1979 cooling season was based on the use of systems comprising an experimental evacuated tubular solar collector, a non-freezing aqueous collection medium, heat exchange to an insulated conventional vertical cylindrical storage tank and to a built-up rectangular insulated storage tank, heating of circulating air by solar heated water and by electric auxiliary in an off-peak heat storage unit, space cooling by lithium bromide absorption chiller, and service water heating by solar exchange and electric auxiliary. Automatic system control and automatic data acquisition and computation are provided. This system is compared with others evaluated in CSU Solar Houses I, II and III, and with computer predictions based on mathematical models. Of the 69,513 MJ total energy requirement for space heating and hot water during a record cold winter, solar provided 33,281 MJ equivalent to 48 percent. Thirty percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 29 percent was delivered and used for heating and hot water. Of 33,320 MJ required for cooling and hot water during the summer, 79 percent or 26,202 MJ were supplied by solar. Thirty-five percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 26 percent was used for hot water and cooling in the summer. Although not as efficient as the Corning evacuated tube collector previously used, the Philips experimental collector provides solar heating and cooling with minimum operational problems. Improved performance, particularly for cooling, resulted from the use of a very well-insulated heat storage tank. Day time (on-peak) electric auxiliary heating was completely avoided by use of off-peak electric heat storage. A well-designed and operated solar heating and cooling system provided 56 percent of the total energy requirements for heating, cooling, and hot water.

  11. Table 10.7 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Market Sector, End Use, and Type, 2001-2009 (Thousand Square Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Market Sector, End Use, and Type, 2001-2009 (Thousand Square Feet) Year and Type By Market Sector By End Use Total Residential Commercial 1 Industrial 2 Electric Power 3 Other 4 Pool Heating Water Heating Space Heating Space Cooling Combined Heating 5 Process Heating Electricity Generation Total Shipments 6<//td> 2001 Total 10,125 1,012 17 1 35 10,797 274 70 0 12 34 2 11,189 Low 7 9,885 987 12 0 34 10,782 42 61 0 0 34 0 10,919 Medium 8 240 24 5 0 1 16

  12. Solar collector roof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marossy, G.; Mueller, W.E.

    1983-07-19

    A solar roof is disclosed for providing air heated by solar energy to the interior of a prefabricated building of the type having a relatively low pitched roof structure formed by a plurality of interlocking ribbed roof panels. A solar radiation transmissive glazing is attached between the roof panel ribs or other support members to form air passageways. A duct-like inlet plenum communicates with the inlet of each passageway for selectively directing air from inside or outside of the building passageways. A duct-like exhaust plenum communicates with the outlet of each passageway for directing heated air to the building interior. The roof surface may be provided with a darkened coating to increase the absorptivity of the surface and increase the collecting efficiency. The glazing material may be thin flexible solar radiation transmissive sheets or relatively rigid panels of solar radiation transmissive material. The solar roof may be retrofitted to an existing roof structure to provide supplemental solar heating capability.

  13. Concentrating solar heat collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fattor, A.P.

    1980-09-23

    A heat storage unit is integrated with a collection unit providing a heat supply in off-sun times, and includes movable insulation means arranged to provide insulation during off-sun times for the heat storage unit.

  14. Biobriefcase electrostatic aerosol collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Perry M.; Christian, Allen T.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Willis, Ladona; Masquelier, Donald A.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2009-03-17

    A system for sampling air and collecting particles entrained in the air comprising a receiving surface, a liquid input that directs liquid to the receiving surface and produces a liquid surface, an air input that directs the air so that the air with particles entrained in the air impact the liquid surface, and an electrostatic contact connected to the liquid that imparts an electric charge to the liquid. The particles potentially including bioagents become captured in the liquid by the air with particles entrained in the air impacting the liquid surface. Collection efficiency is improved by the electrostatic contact electrically charging the liquid. The effects of impaction and adhesion due to electrically charging the liquid allows a unique combination in a particle capture medium that has a low fluid consumption rate while maintaining high efficiency.

  15. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, III, Charles H.

    1984-04-24

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  16. Biobriefcase aerosol collector heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Perry M.; Christian, Allen T.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Willis, Ladona; Masquelier, Donald A.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2009-03-17

    A system for sampling air and collecting particles potentially including bioagents entrained in the air for detection. The system comprises collecting a sample of the air with the particles entrained in the air, directing the sample to a receiving surface, directing a liquid to the receiving surface thereby producing a liquid surface, wherein the particles potentially including bioagents become captured in the liquid, and heating the liquid wherein the particles potentially including bioagents become heated to lysis the bioagents.

  17. Sea shell solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabl, Ari

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for the collection and concentration of solar radiant energy including a longitudinally extending structure having a wall for directing radiant energy. The wall is parabolic with its focus along a line parallel to an extreme ray of the sun at one solstice and with its axis along a line parallel to an extreme ray of the sun at the other solstice. An energy absorber is positioned to receive the solar energy thereby collected.

  18. Static solar heat collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brill-Edwards, K.O.

    1981-08-18

    A load-bearing building panel capable of forming an external wall cladding or roof component has a solar heat collecting capacity in the form of channels for heat exchange fluid incorporated in the fabric of the panel. The panel is made of a structural plastics material, such as GRP. Laminate, successive layers being moulded to simulate tiles. On the back or underside, longitudinal reinforcing beams are built in during laying up of the panel. Between the beams cores or formers defining a matrix or channels are encapsulated in layers of the GRP. Wax cores are melted or dissolved out after curing of the panel; metal formers remain embedded in the fabric of the panel. The matrix is connected by flow and return pipes to a heat exchange system within the building. Panels intended for roofing have ridge flanges and wall plates moulded into the substrate at the appropriate pitch angle, and a split capping tube embraces the ridge flanges. A pitched roof formed by oppositely sloping panels is self-supporting. An integral box girder can also be formed across the underside of the panel at the eaves to rest on the top of the external wall to be loaded with concrete in situ so as to anchor the roof on the walls.

  19. Radiant energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland

    1977-01-11

    An electromagnetic energy collection device is provided which does not require a solar tracking capability. It includes an energy receiver positioned between two side walls which reflect substantially all incident energy received over a predetermined included angle directly onto the energy receiver.

  20. Viscous sludge sample collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beitel, George A [Richland, WA

    1983-01-01

    A vertical core sample collection system for viscous sludge. A sample tube's upper end has a flange and is attached to a piston. The tube and piston are located in the upper end of a bore in a housing. The bore's lower end leads outside the housing and has an inwardly extending rim. Compressed gas, from a storage cylinder, is quickly introduced into the bore's upper end to rapidly accelerate the piston and tube down the bore. The lower end of the tube has a high sludge entering velocity to obtain a full-length sludge sample without disturbing strata detail. The tube's downward motion is stopped when its upper end flange impacts against the bore's lower end inwardly extending rim.

  1. A study of the utility of heat collectors in reducing the response time of automatic fire sprinklers located in production modules of Building 707

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanley, J.H. Jr.; Budnick, E.K. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Several of the ten production Modules in Building 707 at the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant recently underwent an alteration which can adversely affect the performance of the installed automatic fire sprinkler systems. The Modules have an approximate floor to ceiling height of 17.5 ft. The alterations involved removing the drop ceilings in the Modules which had been at a height of 12 ft above the floor. The sprinkler systems were originally installed with the sprinkler heads located below the drop ceiling in accordance with the nationally recognized NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Automatic Sprinkler Systems. The ceiling removal affects the sprinkler`s response time and also violates NFPA 13. The scope of this study included evaluation of the feasibility of utilizing heat collectors to reduce the delays in sprinkler response created by the removal of the drop ceilings. The study also includes evaluation of substituting quick response sprinklers for the standard sprinklers currently in place, in combination with a heat collector.

  2. Mechanical memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-08-15

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  3. Mechanical memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-05-16

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  4. Agreement Mechanisms

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Agreement Mechanisms Agreement Mechanisms World-class experts and capabilities countering all aspects of explosive threats, and aiming predominantly at enhanced detection capabilities. CRADA: Cooperative Research and Development Agreement What is it? Work performed in collaboration with a sponsor. What does it do? Enables Los Alamos staff to participate with industry, academia, and nonprofit entities on collaborative R&D activities of mutual benefit. When is it used? An organization's

  5. Computational mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goudreau, G.L.

    1993-03-01

    The Computational Mechanics thrust area sponsors research into the underlying solid, structural and fluid mechanics and heat transfer necessary for the development of state-of-the-art general purpose computational software. The scale of computational capability spans office workstations, departmental computer servers, and Cray-class supercomputers. The DYNA, NIKE, and TOPAZ codes have achieved world fame through our broad collaborators program, in addition to their strong support of on-going Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. Several technology transfer initiatives have been based on these established codes, teaming LLNL analysts and researchers with counterparts in industry, extending code capability to specific industrial interests of casting, metalforming, and automobile crash dynamics. The next-generation solid/structural mechanics code, ParaDyn, is targeted toward massively parallel computers, which will extend performance from gigaflop to teraflop power. Our work for FY-92 is described in the following eight articles: (1) Solution Strategies: New Approaches for Strongly Nonlinear Quasistatic Problems Using DYNA3D; (2) Enhanced Enforcement of Mechanical Contact: The Method of Augmented Lagrangians; (3) ParaDyn: New Generation Solid/Structural Mechanics Codes for Massively Parallel Processors; (4) Composite Damage Modeling; (5) HYDRA: A Parallel/Vector Flow Solver for Three-Dimensional, Transient, Incompressible Viscous How; (6) Development and Testing of the TRIM3D Radiation Heat Transfer Code; (7) A Methodology for Calculating the Seismic Response of Critical Structures; and (8) Reinforced Concrete Damage Modeling.

  6. Evaluation of Steelhead Kelt Passage into the Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse Corner Collector Prior to the Juvenile Migration Seasons, 2007 and 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Kim, Jina; Nagy, William T.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2009-09-01

    This report documents the results of a steelhead kelt passage study conducted by the PNNL for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at Bonneville Dam in early spring 2007 and 2008. At the Second Powerhouse, a surface flow outlet called the corner collector (B2CC) may be an effective non-turbine passage route for steelhead kelt moving downstream in early spring before the main juvenile emigration season. The goal of this project was to inform management decisions regarding B2CC operations by estimating the number of kelt using the B2CC for downstream passage at Bonneville Dam prior to the juvenile spring migration season. We performed a hydroacoustic study from March 2 to April 10, 2007 and from March 13 to April 15, 2008.

  7. Computational mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raboin, P J

    1998-01-01

    The Computational Mechanics thrust area is a vital and growing facet of the Mechanical Engineering Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This work supports the development of computational analysis tools in the areas of structural mechanics and heat transfer. Over 75 analysts depend on thrust area-supported software running on a variety of computing platforms to meet the demands of LLNL programs. Interactions with the Department of Defense (DOD) High Performance Computing and Modernization Program and the Defense Special Weapons Agency are of special importance as they support our ParaDyn project in its development of new parallel capabilities for DYNA3D. Working with DOD customers has been invaluable to driving this technology in directions mutually beneficial to the Department of Energy. Other projects associated with the Computational Mechanics thrust area include work with the Partnership for a New Generation Vehicle (PNGV) for ''Springback Predictability'' and with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the ''Development of Methodologies for Evaluating Containment and Mitigation of Uncontained Engine Debris.'' In this report for FY-97, there are five articles detailing three code development activities and two projects that synthesized new code capabilities with new analytic research in damage/failure and biomechanics. The article this year are: (1) Energy- and Momentum-Conserving Rigid-Body Contact for NIKE3D and DYNA3D; (2) Computational Modeling of Prosthetics: A New Approach to Implant Design; (3) Characterization of Laser-Induced Mechanical Failure Damage of Optical Components; (4) Parallel Algorithm Research for Solid Mechanics Applications Using Finite Element Analysis; and (5) An Accurate One-Step Elasto-Plasticity Algorithm for Shell Elements in DYNA3D.

  8. Fractofusion mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yasui, K. . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-11-01

    In this paper, the fractofusion mechanism of cold fusion is investigated theoretically. The conditions necessary for fractofusion during the absorption of deuterium atoms by palladium specimens (the condition of so-called cold fusion experiments) is clarified, including crack generation at grain boundaries, the high orientation angle of grains, rapid crack formation, the increase of electrical resistance around a crack, the large width of cracks, and the generation of many cracks. The origin and quantity of the electrical field inside cracks in the conductor are also clarified. By the fractofusion mechanism, the experimental facts that neutron emissions are observed in bursts, that sometimes they coincide with the deformation of a palladium specimen, and that in many experiments excess neutrons were not observed are qualitatively explained. The upper limit of the total fractofusion yields during the absorption of deuterium atoms by palladium specimens are estimated.

  9. ELEVATING MECHANISM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frederick, H.S.; Kinsella, M.A.

    1959-02-24

    An elevator is described, which is arranged for movement both in a horizontal and in a vertical direction so that the elevating mechanism may be employed for servicing equipment at separated points in a plant. In accordance with the present invention, the main elevator chassis is suspended from a monorail. The chassis, in turn supports a vertically moveable carriage, a sub- carriage vertically moveable on the carriage, and a turntable carried by the sub- carriage and moveable through an arc of 90 with the equipment attached thereto. In addition, the chassis supports all the means required to elevate or rotate the equipment.

  10. Performance evaluation of an active solar cooling system utilizing low cost plastic collectors and an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lof, G.O.G.; Westhoff, M.A.; Karaki, S.

    1984-02-01

    During the summer of 1982, air conditioning in Solar House III at Colorado State University was provided by an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. The single-effect lithium bromide chiller provided by Arkla Industries is an experimental three-ton unit from which heat is rejected by direct evaporative cooling of the condenser and absorber walls, thereby eliminating the need for a separate cooling tower. Domestic hot water was also provided by use of a double-walled heat exchanger and 300-l (80-gal) hot water tank. For solar heat supply to the cooling system, plastic thin film collectors developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory were installed on the roof of Solar House III. Failure to withstand stagnation temperatures forced replacement of solar energy with an electric heat source. Objectives of the project were: (1) evaluation of system performance over the course of one cooling season in Fort collins, Colorado; (2) optimization of system operation and control; (3) development of a TRNSYS compatible model of the chiller; and (4) determination of cooling system performance in several US climates by use of the model.

  11. Cyclone-cyclone Interactions through the Ocean Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Taraphdar, Sourav; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Foltz, Gregory R.; Knaff, John A.

    2014-10-16

    The intense SST (Sea Surface Temperature) cooling caused by hurricane-induced mixing is restored at timescales on the order of weeks(1) and thus may persist long enough to influence a later hurricane passing over it. Though many studies have evaluated the effects of SST cool-ing induced by a hurricane on its own intensification(2, 3), none has looked at its effect on later storms. Using an analysis of observations and numerical model simulations, we demonstrate that hurricanes may influence the intensity of later hurricanes that pass over their linger-ing wakes. On average, when hurricanes encounter cold wakes, they experience SSTs that are ~0.4oC lower than when they do not encounter wakes and consequently decay(intensify) at a rate that is nearly three times faster(slower). In the region of warm SSTs (* 26.5oC) where the most intense and damaging hurricanes tend to occur, the percentage of hurricanes that encounter lingering cold wakes increases with hurricane frequency and was found to be as high as 40%. Furthermore, we estimate that the cumulative power dissipated(4) by the most energetic hurricanes has been reduced by as much as ~7% in a season through this effect. As the debate on changes in Atlantic hurricane activity associated with global warming(5) continues, the negative feedback between hurricane frequency and intensity resulting from hurricane-hurricane interactions through the ocean pathway deserves attention.

  12. Mechanical Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shook, Richard; /Marquette U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    The particle beam of the SXR (soft x-ray) beam line in the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) has a high intensity in order to penetrate through samples at the atomic level. However, the intensity is so high that many experiments fail because of severe damage. To correct this issue, attenuators are put into the beam line to reduce this intensity to a level suitable for experimentation. Attenuation is defined as 'the gradual loss in intensity of any flux through a medium' by [1]. It is found that Beryllium and Boron Carbide can survive the intensity of the beam. At very thin films, both of these materials work very well as filters for reducing the beam intensity. Using a total of 12 filters, the first 9 being made of Beryllium and the rest made of Boron Carbide, the beam's energy range of photons can be attenuated between 800 eV and 9000 eV. The design of the filters allows attenuation for different beam intensities so that experiments can obtain different intensities from the beam if desired. The step of attenuation varies, but is relative to the thickness of the filter as a power function of 2. A relationship for this is f(n) = x{sub 0}2{sup n} where n is the step of attenuation desired and x{sub 0} is the initial thickness of the material. To allow for this desired variation, a mechanism must be designed within the test chamber. This is visualized using a 3D computer aided design modeling tool known as Solid Edge.

  13. Colloid deposition in granular porous media based on random sequential adsorption mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, P.R.; Elimelech, M.

    1995-12-01

    A theoretical model is presented for describing one-dimensional colloid transport in granular porous media. The model depicts irreversible, monolayer deposition of colloidal particles onto oppositely-charged collectors of spherical geometry. A dynamic blocking function based on random sequential adsorption (RSA) mechanics is implemented to account for the dynamic aspects of particle deposition. The RSA dynamic blocking function is modified to consider the excluded area effects arising from diffuse double-layer interactions of particles. The RSA blocking function exhibits a nonlinear power law dependence on surface coverage, in contrast to the linear Langmuirian blocking function utilized in previous dynamic deposition models for porous media. A comparison of theoretical model predictions based on RSA and Langmuirian blocking with experimental particle breakthrough curves demonstrates the superiority of RSA mechanics as a means of describing the transient nature of colloid deposition in granular porous media.

  14. Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic (One Mechanic Shop)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a challenging and rewarding career, while working, living, and playing in the Pacific Northwest. The Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic (One Mechanic...

  15. Results of combustion and emissions testing when co-firing blends of binder-enhanced densified refuse-derived fuel (b-dRDF) pellets and coal in a 440 MW{sub e} cyclone fired combustor. Volume 3: Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohlsson, O.

    1994-07-01

    This report contains the data resulting from the co-firing of b-dRDF pellets and coal in a 440-MW{sub e} cyclone-fired combustor. These tests were conducted under a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). The CRADA partners included the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Otter Tail Power Company, Green Isle Environmental, Inc., XL Recycling Corporation, and Marblehead Lime Company. The report is made up of three volumes. This volume contains other supporting information, along with quality assurance documentation and safety and test plans. With this multi-volume approach, readers can find information at the desired level of detail, depending on individual interest or need.

  16. Computational Structural Mechanics

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    load-2 TRACC RESEARCH Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Structural Mechanics Transportation Systems Modeling Computational Structural Mechanics Overview of CSM ...

  17. Viscous-sludge sample collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1979-01-01

    A vertical core sample collection system for viscous sludge is disclosed. A sample tube's upper end has a flange and is attached to a piston. The tube and piston are located in the upper end of a bore in a housing. The bore's lower end leads outside the housing and has an inwardly extending rim. Compressed gas, from a storage cylinder, is quickly introduced into the bore's upper end to rapidly accelerate the piston and tube down the bore. The lower end of the tube has a high sludge entering velocity to obtain a full-length sludge sample without disturbing strata detail. The tube's downward motion is stopped when its upper end flange impacts against the bore's lower end inwardly extending rim.

  18. Line-Focus Solar Collector

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar thermal electric technologies, such as this concentrating solar power parabolic trough, use highly reflective materials to capture the sun's energy and produce electricity. Shown is solar...

  19. Light collectors in cylindrical geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for collecting electromagnetic energy developed by an energy source of finite dimension and of finite distance from the collection device. It includes an energy absorber positioned between two side walls which reflects substantially all incident energy received from the energy source onto the energy absorber.

  20. Support for solar energy collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Corey; Ardell-Smith, Zachary; Ciasulli, John; Jensen, Soren

    2016-11-01

    A solar energy collection system can include support devices configured to accommodate misalignment of components during assembly. For example, the system can include piles fixed to the earth and an adjustable bearing assembly at the upper end of the pile. The adjustable bearing assembly can include at least one of a vertical adjustment device, a lateral adjustment device and an angular adjustment device. The solar energy collection system can also include a plurality of solar energy collection device pre-wired together and mounted to a support member so as to form modular units. The system can also include enhanced supports for wire trays extending between rows of solar energy collection devices.

  1. Reduced order modeling of mechanical degradation induced performance decay in lithium-ion battery porous electrodes

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Barai, Pallab; Smith, Kandler; Chen, Chien -Fan; Kim, Gi -Heon; Mukherjee, Partha P.

    2015-06-17

    In this paper, a one-dimensional computational framework is developed that can solve for the evolution of voltage and current in a lithium-ion battery electrode under different operating conditions. A reduced order model is specifically constructed to predict the growth of mechanical degradation within the active particles of the carbon anode as a function of particle size and C-rate. Using an effective diffusivity relation, the impact of microcracks on the diffusivity of the active particles has been captured. Reduction in capacity due to formation of microcracks within the negative electrode under different operating conditions (constant current discharge and constant current constantmore » voltage charge) has been investigated. At the beginning of constant current discharge, mechanical damage to electrode particles predominantly occurs near the separator. As the reaction front shifts, mechanical damage spreads across the thickness of the negative electrode and becomes relatively uniform under multiple discharge/charge cycles. Mechanical degradation under different drive cycle conditions has been explored. It is observed that electrodes with larger particle sizes are prone to capacity fade due to microcrack formation. Finally, under drive cycle conditions, small particles close to the separator and large particles close to the current collector can help in reducing the capacity fade due to mechanical degradation.« less

  2. Reduced order modeling of mechanical degradation induced performance decay in lithium-ion battery porous electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barai, Pallab; Smith, Kandler; Chen, Chien -Fan; Kim, Gi -Heon; Mukherjee, Partha P.

    2015-06-17

    In this paper, a one-dimensional computational framework is developed that can solve for the evolution of voltage and current in a lithium-ion battery electrode under different operating conditions. A reduced order model is specifically constructed to predict the growth of mechanical degradation within the active particles of the carbon anode as a function of particle size and C-rate. Using an effective diffusivity relation, the impact of microcracks on the diffusivity of the active particles has been captured. Reduction in capacity due to formation of microcracks within the negative electrode under different operating conditions (constant current discharge and constant current constant voltage charge) has been investigated. At the beginning of constant current discharge, mechanical damage to electrode particles predominantly occurs near the separator. As the reaction front shifts, mechanical damage spreads across the thickness of the negative electrode and becomes relatively uniform under multiple discharge/charge cycles. Mechanical degradation under different drive cycle conditions has been explored. It is observed that electrodes with larger particle sizes are prone to capacity fade due to microcrack formation. Finally, under drive cycle conditions, small particles close to the separator and large particles close to the current collector can help in reducing the capacity fade due to mechanical degradation.

  3. Internal pipe attachment mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bast, R.M.; Chesnut, D.A.; Henning, C.D.; Lennon, J.P.; Pastrnak, J.W.; Smith, J.A.

    1994-12-13

    An attachment mechanism is described for repairing or extending fluid carrying pipes, casings, conduits, etc. utilizing one-way motion of spring tempered fingers to provide a mechanical connection between the attachment mechanism and the pipe. The spring tempered fingers flex to permit insertion into a pipe to a desired insertion depth. The mechanical connection is accomplished by reversing the insertion motion and the mechanical leverage in the fingers forces them outwardly against the inner wall of the pipe. A seal is generated by crushing a sealing assembly by the action of setting the mechanical connection. 6 figures.

  4. Internal pipe attachment mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bast, Richard M.; Chesnut, Dwayne A.; Henning, Carl D.; Lennon, Joseph P.; Pastrnak, John W.; Smith, Joseph A.

    1994-01-01

    An attachment mechanism for repairing or extending fluid carrying pipes, casings, conduits, etc. utilizing one-way motion of spring tempered fingers to provide a mechanical connection between the attachment mechanism and the pipe. The spring tempered fingers flex to permit insertion into a pipe to a desired insertion depth. The mechanical connection is accomplished by reversing the insertion motion and the mechanical leverage in the fingers forces them outwardly against the inner wall of the pipe. A seal is generated by crushing a sealing assembly by the action of setting the mechanical connection.

  5. HYDRAULIC SERVO CONTROL MECHANISM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hussey, R.B.; Gottsche, M.J. Jr.

    1963-09-17

    A hydraulic servo control mechanism of compact construction and low fluid requirements is described. The mechanism consists of a main hydraulic piston, comprising the drive output, which is connected mechanically for feedback purposes to a servo control piston. A control sleeve having control slots for the system encloses the servo piston, which acts to cover or uncover the slots as a means of controlling the operation of the system. This operation permits only a small amount of fluid to regulate the operation of the mechanism, which, as a result, is compact and relatively light. This mechanism is particuiarly adaptable to the drive and control of control rods in nuclear reactors. (auth)

  6. Mechanical seal assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2001-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

  7. Mechanical seal assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2002-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transfering it to the mechanical diode.

  8. Explore: Mechanical Engineering

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Engineering Explore a Career: Mechanical Engineering The work of mechanical engineers can be seen in everything from the design and fabrication of space-based custom instrumentation, to the development of new, innovative solutions for the nation's nuclear security problems. Super Cam and Chem Cam photographed to scale. Super Cam and Chem Cam photographed to scale. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, there is no shortage of challenge and career excitement for our highly skilled

  9. Mechanical Systems Qualification Standard

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    June 2008 DOE STANDARD MECHANICAL SYSTEMS QUALIFICATION STANDARD DOE Defense Nuclear Facilities Technical Personnel U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 ...

  10. Monroe Thomas, Mechanical Technician

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    and endstation moves. Though he's training another mechanical technician to operate the crane, it's Monroe who is called upon for critical moves. He plays a key role in...

  11. Determination of Mechanical Properties

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Monofilament Laminates," paper 61-AV56 presented at American Society of Mechanical Engineers Aviation Conference, Los Angeles, California (March 1961). 21. G. S. Springer and s. ...

  12. Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a challenging and rewarding career, while working, living, and playing in the Pacific Northwest. The Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic (HMEM)...

  13. Mechanical code comparator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peter, Frank J.; Dalton, Larry J.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

  14. Effect of thermo-mechanical treatment on mechanical and elastic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of thermo-mechanical treatment on mechanical and elastic properties of Ti-36Nb-5Zr alloy Title: Effect of thermo-mechanical treatment on mechanical and elastic properties of ...

  15. Electronic door locking mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Gary Lin; Kirby, Patrick Gerald

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a motorized linkage for engaging a thumb piece in a door mechanism. The device has an exterior lock assembly with a small battery cell and combination lock. Proper entry by a user of a security code allows the battery to operate a small motor within the exterior lock assembly. The small motor manipulates a cam-plunger which moves an actuator pin into a thumb piece. The user applies a force on to the thumb piece. This force is transmitted by the thumb piece to a latch engagement mechanism by the actuator pin. The latch engagement mechanism operates the door latch.

  16. Electronic door locking mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, G.L.; Kirby, P.G.

    1997-10-21

    The invention is a motorized linkage for engaging a thumb piece in a door mechanism. The device has an exterior lock assembly with a small battery cell and combination lock. Proper entry by a user of a security code allows the battery to operate a small motor within the exterior lock assembly. The small motor manipulates a cam-plunger which moves an actuator pin into a thumb piece. The user applies a force on to the thumb piece. This force is transmitted by the thumb piece to a latch engagement mechanism by the actuator pin. The latch engagement mechanism operates the door latch. 6 figs.

  17. Rotary mechanical latch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Martinez, Michael A.; Marron, Lisa C.

    2012-11-13

    A rotary mechanical latch for positive latching and unlatching of a rotary device with a latchable rotating assembly having a latching gear that can be driven to latched and unlatched states by a drive mechanism such as an electric motor. A cam arm affixed to the latching gear interfaces with leading and trailing latch cams affixed to a flange within the drive mechanism. The interaction of the cam arm with leading and trailing latch cams prevents rotation of the rotating assembly by external forces such as those due to vibration or tampering.

  18. Failure mechanisms in MEMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen

    2003-07-01

    MEMS components by their very nature have different and unique failure mechanisms than their macroscopic counterparts. This paper discusses failure mechanisms observed in various MEMS components and technologies. MEMS devices fabricated using bulk and surface micromachining process technologies are emphasized. MEMS devices offer uniqueness in their application, fabrication, and functionality. Their uniqueness creates various failure mechanisms not typically found in their bulk or IC counterparts. In ICs, electrical precautions are taken to mitigate failure. In MEMS, both electrical and mechanical precautions must be enacted to reduce the risk of failure and increased reliability. Unlike ICs, many MEMS components are designed to interact with their environment, making the fabrication, testing, and packaging processes critical for the success of the device.

  19. ELECTROMAGNETIC RELEASE MECHANISM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Michelson, C.

    1960-09-13

    An electromagnetic release mechanism is offered that may be used, for example, for supporting a safety rod for a nuclear reactor. The release mechanism is designed to have a large excess holding force and a rapid, uniform, and dependable release. The fast release is accomplished by providing the electromagnet with slotttd polts separated by an insulating potting resin, and by constructing the poles with a ferro-nickel alloy. The combination of these two features materially reduces the eddy current power density whenever the magnetic field changes during a release operation. In addition to these features, the design of the armature is such as to provide ready entrance of fluid into any void that might tend to form during release of the armature. This also improves the release time for the mechanism. The large holding force for the mechanism is accomplished by providing a small, selected, uniform air gap between the inner pole piece and the armature.

  20. Renewable Auction Mechanism (RAM)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Renewable Auction Mechanism (RAM) was approved by the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) in December 2010 with a goal of installing 1,500 megawatts (MW) of new distributed generation...

  1. Phase Field Fracture Mechanics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Brett Anthony

    2015-11-01

    For this assignment, a newer technique of fracture mechanics using a phase field approach, will be examined and compared with experimental data for a bend test and a tension test. The software being used is Sierra Solid Mechanics, an implicit/explicit finite element code developed at Sandia National Labs in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The bend test experimental data was also obtained at Sandia Labs while the tension test data was found in a report online from Purdue University.

  2. REACTOR CONTROL MECHANISM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lane, J.A.; Engberg, R.E.; Welch, J.M.

    1959-05-12

    A quick-releasing mechanism is described which may be used to rapidiy drop a device supported from beneath during normal use, such as a safety rod in a nuclear reactor. In accordance with this invention an electrical control signal, such as may be provided by radiation detection or other alarm condition sensing devices, is delivered to an electromagnetic solenoid, the armature of which is coupled to an actuating mechanism. The solenoid is energized when the mechanism is in its upper or cocked position. In such position, the mechanism engages a plurality of retaining balls, forcing them outward into engagement with a shoulder or recess in a corresponding section of a tubular extension on the upheld device. When the control signal to the solenoid suddenly ceases, the armature drops out, allowing the actuating mechanism to move slightly but rapidly under the force of a compressed spring. The weight of the device will urge the balls inward against a beveled portion of the actuating mechanism and away from the engaging section on the tubular extension, thus allowing the upheld device to fall freely under the influence of gravity.

  3. New directions in mechanics

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Kassner, Michael E.; Nemat-Nasser, Sia; Suo, Zhigang; Bao, Gang; Barbour, J. Charles; Brinson, L. Catherine; Espinosa, Horacio; Gao, Huajian; Granick, Steve; Gumbsch, Peter; et al

    2004-09-15

    The Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering of the US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a workshop to identify cutting-edge research needs and opportunities, enabled by the application of theoretical and applied mechanics. The workshop also included input from biochemical, surface science, and computational disciplines, on approaching scientific issues at the nanoscale, and the linkage of atomistic-scale with nano-, meso-, and continuum-scale mechanics. This paper is a summary of the outcome of the workshop, consisting of three main sections, each put together by a team of workshop participants. Section 1 addresses research opportunities that can be realized by the applicationmore » of mechanics fundamentals to the general area of self-assembly, directed self-assembly, and fluidics. Section 2 examines the role of mechanics in biological, bioinspired, and biohybrid material systems, closely relating to and complementing the material covered in Section 1. In this manner, it was made clear that mechanics plays a fundamental role in understanding the biological functions at all scales, in seeking to utilize biology and biological techniques to develop new materials and devices, and in the general area of bionanotechnology. While direct observational investigations are an essential ingredient of new discoveries and will continue to open new exciting research doors, it is the basic need for controlled experimentation and fundamentally- based modeling and computational simulations that will be truly empowered by a systematic use of the fundamentals of mechanics. Section 3 brings into focus new challenging issues in inelastic deformation and fracturing of materials that have emerged as a result of the development of nanodevices, biopolymers, and hybrid bio–abio systems. As a result, each section begins with some introductory overview comments, and then provides illustrative examples that were presented at the workshop and which are believed to highlight the

  4. Cyclone Power Technologies Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Power Technologies Inc Place: Pompano Beach, Florida Zip: 33064 Product: Florida-based research and development company. The Company holds exclusive commercial rights to the...

  5. MID LATITUDE CYCLONE A CASE STUDY

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    MICKEY LELAND ENERGY FELLOWSHIP 2017 FLYLER MICKEY LELAND ENERGY FELLOWSHIP 2017 FLYLER 2017 MLEF Flyer.pdf (2.25 MB) More Documents & Publications Student Poster Competition flyer 2016 MEISPP Flyer 2016 Student Employment Brochure

    Small Ice Crystals In Arctic Cirrus Clouds Subhashree Mishra 1,2 , David Mitchell 1 , Daniel DeSlover 3 , Greg McFarquhar 4 1. Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV 2. University Of Nevada, Reno, NV 3. University of Wisconsin, WI 4. University of Illinois, IL

  6. Backlash compensator mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chrislock, Jerry L.

    1979-01-01

    Mechanism which compensates for backlash error in a lead screw position indicator by decoupling the indicator shaft from the lead screw when reversing rotation. The position indicator then displays correct information regardless of the direction of rotation of the lead screw.

  7. Wear-mechanism modelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashby, M.F. . Dept. of Engineering)

    1993-03-01

    Goals of the program are to calculate the surface temperatures in dry sliding, develop a soft wear tester for ceramics, survey the wear mechanisms in brittle solids, and couple the temperature calculations with models to give wear maps for brittle solids. (DLC)

  8. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, a.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  9. Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered Print Wednesday, 29 August 2007 00:00 The plant hormone auxin regulates many plant growth ...

  10. NUT SCREW MECHANISMS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, J.A.F.

    1958-07-01

    A reactor control mechanism is described wherein the control is achieved by the partial or total withdrawal of the fissile material which is in the form of a fuel rod. The fuel rod is designed to be raised and lowered from the reactor core area by means of two concentric ball nut and screw assemblies that may telescope one within the other. These screw mechanisms are connected through a magnetic clutch to a speed reduction gear and an accurately controllable prime motive source. With the clutch energized, the fuel rod may be moved into the reactor core area, and fine adjustments may be made through the reduction gearing. However, in the event of a power failure or an emergency signal, the magnetic clutch will become deenergized, and the fuel rod will drop out of the core area by the force of gravity, thus shutting down the operation of the reactor.

  11. Automation of mechanical testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heberling, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    This publication, Automation of Mechanical Testing, contains papers presented at the symposium of the same name, held in Pittsburgh, PA on 21 May 1992. The symposium was sponsored by ASTM Committee E-28 on Mechanical Testing. David T. Heberling, Armco Steel Co., L.P., Middletown Works Metallurgical Laboratory, Middletown, OH, presided as symposium chairman and is editor of the resulting publication. Hopefully, the initial flurry of activity has now subsided enough that the 90s can be a decade of maturing and standardization of automated test procedures. To help achieve this goal, the authors present in this STP nine technical papers on the automation of mechanical testing. The first five form a primer for those preparing to implement automated testing. These papers consist of information obtained the hard way--from experience with automation projects. Beginning with the fifth, which fits into both categories, the papers focus on specific technical issues and topics, many of which affect or need to be addressed by ASTM standards.

  12. Internal configuration of prismatic lithium-ion cells at the onset of mechanically induced short circuit

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Wang, Hsin; Simunovic, Srdjan; Maleki, Hosein; Howard, Jason N.; Hallmark, Jerald A.

    2016-01-01

    The response of Li-ion cells to mechanically induced internal electrical shorts is an important safety performance metric design. We assume that the battery internal configuration at the onset of electrical short influences the subsequent response and can be used to gauge the safety risk. We subjected a series of prismatic Li-ion cells to lateral pinching using 0.25", 0.5", 1", 2" and 3" diameter steel balls until the onset of internal short. The external aluminum enclosure froze the internal cell configuration at the onset of short and enabled us to cross-section the cells, and take the cross-section images. The images indicatemore » that an internal electric short is preceded by extensive strain partitioning in the cells, fracturing and tearing of the current collectors, and cracking and slipping of the electrode layers with multiple fault lines across multiple layers. These observations are at odds with a common notion of homogeneous deformation across the layers and strain hardening of electrodes that eventually punch through the separator and short the cell. The faults are akin to tectonic movements of multiple layers that are characteristic of granular materials and bonded aggregates. As a result, the short circuits occur after extensive internal faulting, which implies significant stretching and tearing of separators.« less

  13. Internal configuration of prismatic lithium-ion cells at the onset of mechanically induced short circuit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin; Simunovic, Srdjan; Maleki, Hosein; Howard, Jason N.; Hallmark, Jerald A.

    2016-01-01

    The response of Li-ion cells to mechanically induced internal electrical shorts is an important safety performance metric design. We assume that the battery internal configuration at the onset of electrical short influences the subsequent response and can be used to gauge the safety risk. We subjected a series of prismatic Li-ion cells to lateral pinching using 0.25", 0.5", 1", 2" and 3" diameter steel balls until the onset of internal short. The external aluminum enclosure froze the internal cell configuration at the onset of short and enabled us to cross-section the cells, and take the cross-section images. The images indicate that an internal electric short is preceded by extensive strain partitioning in the cells, fracturing and tearing of the current collectors, and cracking and slipping of the electrode layers with multiple fault lines across multiple layers. These observations are at odds with a common notion of homogeneous deformation across the layers and strain hardening of electrodes that eventually punch through the separator and short the cell. The faults are akin to tectonic movements of multiple layers that are characteristic of granular materials and bonded aggregates. As a result, the short circuits occur after extensive internal faulting, which implies significant stretching and tearing of separators.

  14. Results of combustion and emissions testing when co-firing blends of binder-enhanced densified refuse-derived fuel (b-dRDF) pellets and coal in a 440 MW{sub e} cyclone fired combustor. Volume 2: Field data and laboratory analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohlsson, O.

    1994-07-01

    This report contains the data resulting from the co-firing of b-dRDF pellets and coal in a 440-MW{sub e} cyclone-fired combustor. These tests were conducted under a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). The CRADA partners included the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Otter Tail Power Company, Green Isle Environmental, Inc., XL Recycling Corporation, and Marblehead Lime Company. The report is made up of three volumes. This volume contains the field data and laboratory analysis of each individual run. With this multi-volume approach, readers can find information at the desired level of detail, depending on individual interest or need.

  15. Drill drive mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dressel, Michael O.

    1979-01-01

    A drill drive mechanism is especially adapted to provide both rotational drive and axial feed for a drill of substantial diameter such as may be used for drilling holes for roof bolts in mine shafts. The drill shaft is made with a helical pattern of scroll-like projections on its surface for removal of cuttings. The drill drive mechanism includes a plurality of sprockets carrying two chains of drive links which are arranged to interlock around the drill shaft with each drive link having depressions which mate with the scroll-like projections. As the chain links move upwardly or downwardly the surfaces of the depressions in the links mate with the scroll projections to move the shaft axially. Tangs on the drive links mate with notch surfaces between scroll projections to provide a means for rotating the shaft. Projections on the drive links mate together at the center to hold the drive links tightly around the drill shaft. The entire chain drive mechanism is rotated around the drill shaft axis by means of a hydraulic motor and gear drive to cause rotation of the drill shaft. This gear drive also connects with a differential gearset which is interconnected with a second gear. A second motor is connected to the spider shaft of the differential gearset to produce differential movement (speeds) at the output gears of the differential gearset. This differential in speed is utilized to drive said second gear at a speed different from the speed of said gear drive, this speed differential being utilized to drive said sprockets for axial movement of said drill shaft.

  16. Fracture mechanics: 26. volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuter, W.G.; Underwood, J.H.; Newman, J.C. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    The original objective of these symposia was to promote technical interchange between researchers from the US and worldwide in the field of fracture. This objective was recently expanded to promote technical interchange between researchers in the field of fatigue and fracture. The symposium began with the Swedlow Memorial Lecture entitled ``Patterns and Perspectives in Applied Fracture Mechanics.`` The remaining 42 papers are divided into the following topical sections: Constraint crack initiation; Constraint crack growth; Weldments; Engineered materials; Subcritical crack growth; Dynamic loading; and Applications. Papers within the scope of the Energy Data Base have been processed separately.

  17. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, Alea; Hoeschele, Marc

    2014-12-01

    Residential air conditioning (AC) represents a challenging load for many electric utilities with poor load factors. Mechanical precooling improves the load factor by shifting cooling operation from on-peak to off-peak hours. This provides benefits to utilities and the electricity grid, as well as to occupants who can take advantage of time-of-use (TOU) electricity rates. Performance benefits stem from reduced compressor cycling, and shifting condensing unit operation to earlier periods of the day when outdoor temperatures are more favorable to operational efficiency. Finding solutions that save energy and reduce demand on the electricity grid is an important national objective and supports key Building America goals. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical AC precooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling was used to evaluate two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes. A successful off-peak AC strategy offers the potential for increased efficiency and improved occupant comfort, and promotes a more reliable and robust electricity grid. Demand response capabilities and further integration with photovoltaic TOU generation patterns provide additional opportunities to flatten loads and optimize grid impacts.

  18. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Lithium Ion Cells to Electrochemical-Thermal Models for Battery Crush; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, Ahmad; Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbiki, Tom

    2015-06-15

    Propagation of failure in lithium-ion batteries during field events or under abuse is a strong function of the mechanical response of the different components in the battery. Whereas thermal and electrochemical models that capture the abuse response of batteries have been developed and matured over the years, the interaction between the mechanical behavior and the thermal response of these batteries is not very well understood. With support from the Department of Energy, NREL has made progress in coupling mechanical, thermal, and electrochemical lithium-ion models to predict the initiation and propagation of short circuits under external crush in a cell. The challenge with a cell crush simulation is to estimate the magnitude and location of the short. To address this, the model includes an explicit representation of each individual component such as the active material, current collector, separator, etc., and predicts their mechanical deformation under different crush scenarios. Initial results show reasonable agreement with experiments. In this presentation, the versatility of the approach for use with different design factors, cell formats and chemistries is explored using examples.

  19. Fundamental Study of the Mechanical Strength Degradation Mechanisms of PFSA

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Membranes and MEAs | Department of Energy Fundamental Study of the Mechanical Strength Degradation Mechanisms of PFSA Membranes and MEAs Fundamental Study of the Mechanical Strength Degradation Mechanisms of PFSA Membranes and MEAs Presentation at the 2008 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held June 9, 2008, in Washington, DC huang_htmwg_2008.pdf (2.27 MB) More Documents & Publications Membrane Durability in PEM Fuel Cells: Chemical Degradation Automotive Perspective on PEM

  20. Rotary drive mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenderdine, E.W.

    1991-10-08

    This patent describes a rotary drive mechanism which includes a rotary solenoid having a stator and multi-poled rotor. A moving member rotates with the rotor and is biased by a biasing device. The biasing device causes a further rotational movement after rotation by the rotary solenoid. Thus, energization of the rotary solenoid moves the member in one direction to one position and biases the biasing device against the member. Subsequently, de- energization of the rotary solenoid causes the biasing device to move the member in the same direction to another position from where the moving member is again movable by energization and de-energization of the rotary solenoid. Preferably, the moving member is a multi-lobed cam having the same number of lobes as the rotor has poles. An anti- overdrive device is also preferably provided for preventing overdrive in the forward direction or a reverse rotation of the moving member and for precisely aligning the moving member.

  1. PEBBLES Mechanics Simulation Speedup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshua J. Cogliati; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2010-05-01

    Pebble bed reactors contain large numbers of spherical fuel elements arranged randomly. Determining the motion and location of these fuel elements is required for calculating certain parameters of pebble bed reactor operation. These simulations involve hundreds of thousands of pebbles and involve determining the entire core motion as pebbles are recirculated. Single processor algorithms for this are insufficient since they would take decades to centuries of wall-clock time. This paper describes the process of parallelizing and speeding up the PEBBLES pebble mechanics simulation code. Both shared memory programming with the Open Multi-Processing API and distributed memory programming with the Message Passing Interface API are used in simultaneously in this process. A new shared memory lock-less linear time collision detection algorithm is described. This method allows faster detection of pebbles in contact than generic methods. These combine to make full recirculations on AVR sized reactors possible in months of wall clock time.

  2. Altitude release mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulhanek, Frank C.

    1977-01-01

    An altitude release mechanism for releasing a radiosonde or other measuring instrument from a balloon carrying it up into the atmosphere includes a bottle partially filled with water, a tube sealed into the bottle having one end submerged in the water in the bottle and the free end extending above the top of the bottle and a strip of water-disintegrable paper held within the free end of the tube linking the balloon to the remainder of the package. As the balloon ascends, the lowered atmospheric air pressure causes the air in the bottle to expand, forcing the water in the bottle up the tubing to wet and disintegrate the paper, releasing the package from the balloon.

  3. Mechanically expandable annular seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1983-01-01

    A mechanically expandable annular reusable seal assembly to form an annular hermetic barrier between two stationary, parallel, and planar containment surfaces. A rotatable ring, attached to the first surface, has ring wedges resembling the saw-tooth array of a hole saw. Matching seal wedges are slidably attached to the ring wedges and have their motion restricted to be perpendicular to the second surface. Each seal wedge has a face parallel to the second surface. An annular elastomer seal has a central annular region attached to the seal wedges' parallel faces and has its inner and outer circumferences attached to the first surface. A rotation of the ring extends the elastomer seal's central region perpendicularly towards the second surface to create the fluidtight barrier. A counterrotation removes the barrier.

  4. Mechanically expandable annular seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, R.F.

    1983-07-19

    A mechanically expandable annular reusable seal assembly to form an annular hermetic barrier between two stationary, parallel, and planar containment surfaces is described. A rotatable ring, attached to the first surface, has ring wedges resembling the saw-tooth array of a hole saw. Matching seal wedges are slidably attached to the ring wedges and have their motion restricted to be perpendicular to the second surface. Each seal wedge has a face parallel to the second surface. An annular elastomer seal has a central annular region attached to the seal wedges' parallel faces and has its inner and outer circumferences attached to the first surface. A rotation of the ring extends the elastomer seal's central region perpendicularly towards the second surface to create the fluid tight barrier. A counter rotation removes the barrier. 6 figs.

  5. Microfabricated therapeutic actuator mechanisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, M.A.; Ciarlo, D.R.; Lee, A.P.; Krulevitch, P.A.

    1997-07-08

    Electromechanical microstructures (microgrippers), either integrated circuit (IC) silicon-based or precision machined, to extend and improve the application of catheter-based interventional therapies for the repair of aneurysms in the brain or other interventional clinical therapies. These micromechanisms can be specifically applied to release platinum coils or other materials into bulging portions of the blood vessels also known as aneurysms. The ``micro`` size of the release mechanism is necessary since the brain vessels are the smallest in the body. Through a catheter more than one meter long, the micromechanism located at one end of the catheter can be manipulated from the other end thereof. The microgripper (micromechanism) of the invention will also find applications in non-medical areas where a remotely actuated microgripper or similar actuator would be useful or where micro-assembling is needed. 22 figs.

  6. Microfabricated therapeutic actuator mechanisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, Milton A.; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Lee, Abraham P.; Krulevitch, Peter A.

    1997-01-01

    Electromechanical microstructures (microgrippers), either integrated circuit (IC) silicon-based or precision machined, to extend and improve the application of catheter-based interventional therapies for the repair of aneurysms in the brain or other interventional clinical therapies. These micromechanisms can be specifically applied to release platinum coils or other materials into bulging portions of the blood vessels also known as aneurysms. The "micro" size of the release mechanism is necessary since the brain vessels are the smallest in the body. Through a catheter more than one meter long, the micromechanism located at one end of the catheter can be manipulated from the other end thereof. The microgripper (micromechanism) of the invention will also find applications in non-medical areas where a remotely actuated microgripper or similar actuator would be useful or where micro-assembling is needed.

  7. Rotary drive mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kenderdine, Eugene W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A rotary drive mechanism includes a rotary solenoid having a stator and multi-poled rotor. A moving member rotates with the rotor and is biased by a biasing device. The biasing device causes a further rotational movement after rotation by the rotary solenoid. Thus, energization of the rotary solenoid moves the member in one direction to one position and biases the biasing device against the member. Subsequently, de-energization of the rotary solenoid causes the biasing device to move the member in the same direction to another position from where the moving member is again movable by energization and de-energization of the rotary solenoid. Preferably, the moving member is a multi-lobed cam having the same number of lobes as the rotor has poles. An anti-overdrive device is also preferably provided for preventing overdrive in the forward direction or a reverse rotation of the moving member and for precisely aligning the moving member.

  8. Utilities as tax collectors. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This report looks at taxation of the investor owned electric utility industry. We provide basic data and analysis addressing the question: ''How much of the consumer's electricity bill goes to taxes.'' We further analyze what relationship there might be between state and local taxation and state utility regulation. Although it is very difficult to link basic economic data with taxes by industry, some inferences can be drawn.

  9. Solar collector having a solid transmission medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schertz, William W.; Zwerdling, Solomon

    1977-06-14

    There is provided a radiant energy transmission device capable of operation in a concentrative mode in which energy incident on an entrance area is directed toward and concentrated on an exit area of smaller area than the entrance area. The device includes a solid radiant energy transmission medium having surfaces coincident with the entrance and exit areas and particularly contoured reflective side walls. The surface coinciding with the entrance area is coupled to a cover plate formed of a radiant energy transmissive material. An energy transducer is coupled to the surface of the medium coinciding with the exit area.

  10. Fabrication of trough-shaped solar collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schertz, William W.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a radiant energy concentration and collection device formed of a one-piece thin-walled plastic substrate including a plurality of nonimaging troughs with certain metallized surfaces of the substrate serving as reflective side walls for each trough. The one-piece plastic substrate is provided with a seating surface at the bottom of each trough which conforms to the shape of an energy receiver to be seated therein.

  11. Project Profile: Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    costs, resulting in a savings of 30m2. Publications, Patents, and Awards Final Report Learn about other DOE competitive awards for concentrating solar power research that ...

  12. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities - Energy Information...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Solar Thermal Manufacturing Activities Release Date: December 2010 | Next Release Date: ... Year: (PDF) 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 1993 Go Overview Total shipments26 of solar ...

  13. Method of making static solar heat collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brill-Edwards, K.O.P.

    1983-09-20

    A load-bearing building panel capable of forming an external wall cladding or roof component has a solar heat collecting capacity in the form of channels for heat exchange fluid incorporated in the fabric of the panel. The panel is made of a structural plastics material, such as G.R.P. laminate, successive layers being moulded to simulate tiles. On the back or underside, longitudinal reinforcing beams are built in during laying up of the panel. Between the beams cores or formers defining a matrix or channels are encapsulated in layers of the G.R.P. Wax cores are melted or dissolved out after curing of the panel; metal formers remain embedded in the fabric of the panel. The matrix is connected by flow and return pipes to a heat exchange system within the building. Panels intended for roofing have ridge flanges and wall plates moulded into the substrate at the appropriate pitch angle, and a split capping tube embraces the ridge flanges. A pitched roof formed by oppositely sloping panels is self-supporting. An integral box girder can also be formed across the underside of the panel at the eaves to rest on the top of the external wall to be loaded with concrete in situ so as to anchor the roof on the walls.

  14. Tilted panel linear echelon solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appeldorn, R.H.; Vanderwerf, D.F.

    1989-01-31

    A solar concentrator is described for directing incident solar radiation to a linear focus, comprising: a planar base surface being positioned at an angle phi, which is greater than 0/sup 0/ but less than 90/sup 0/, with respect to a direction which is normal to the incident solar radiation; a plurality of planar reflective elements set along the planar base surface each of which is positioned at an angle ..cap alpha..' with respect to the planar base surface and which varies for each of the planar reflective elements to reflect the incident solar radiation to the linear focus, the plurality of planar reflective elements being separated from each other by substantially planar riser elements, the riser elements being substantially normal to the planar base surface, each of the planar reflective elements making an angle ..cap alpha.. with respect to the direction which is normal to the incident solar radiation.

  15. Final Report - Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Solar Thermal Electric (STE) power generation is facing significant challenges from other sources of renewable energy; their advances have made it more and more difficult for solar ...

  16. Integrated current collector and catalyst support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bregoli, L.J.

    1984-10-17

    An integrated current collecting electrode for a molten carbonate fuel cell includes a corrugated metal conductive strip positioned in contact with a catalyst layer. The corrugations of the metal strip form a plurality of gas channels immediately adjacent the surface of the catalyst through which a reactant gas flows. Each channel is filled with a particulate material to maintain separation between the metal strip and the catalyst in ensuring gas channel integrity. The catalyst may be in the form of a compacted, particulate material provided the particle size of the material within the gas channels is larger than that of the catalyst particles to prevent catalyst migration to the metal conductor and provide reactant gas access to the catalyst layer. The gas channels formed by the corrugations of the metal strip are arranged in an offset pattern along the direction of gas flow for improved reactant gas distribution to the catalyst layer. The particulate material positioned within the gas flow channels may be a ceramic conductor such as a perovskite or a spinel for enhanced current collection.

  17. Integrated current collector and catalyst support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bregoli, Lawrence J.

    1985-10-22

    An integrated current collecting electrode for a molten carbonate fuel cell includes a corrugated metal conductive strip positioned in contact with a catalyst layer. The corrugations of the metal strip form a plurality of gas channels immediately adjacent the surface of the catalyst through which a reactant gas flows. Each channel is filled with a particulate material to maintain separation between the metal strip and the catalyst in ensuring gas channel integrity. The catalyst may be in the form of a compacted, particulate material provided the particle size of the material within the gas channels is larger than that of the catalyst particles to prevent catalyst migration to the metal conductor and provide reactant gas access to the catalyst layer. The gas channels formed by the corrugations of the metal strip are arranged in an offset pattern along the direction of gas flow for improved reactant gas distribution to the catalyst layer. The particulate material positioned within the gas flow channels may be a ceramic conductor such as a perovskite or a spinel for enhanced current collection.

  18. SkyTrough Parabolic Solar Collector

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This photograph features a collaboration between the solar industry and national laboratories that resulted in a ground-breaking, low-cost system for utility-scale power generation: the SkyTrough ...

  19. Biomass Producer or Collector Tax Credit

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oregon Department of Energy (ODOE) has issued final rules regarding an increase in the application fee for this tax credit. The new fee is $100 plus 3.8 percent of the tax credit amount ...

  20. MECHANICAL SYSTEMS - MULTIFAMILY: Venting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    MECHANICAL SYSTEMS - MULTIFAMILY: Venting MECHANICAL SYSTEMS - MULTIFAMILY: Venting 5_venting.zip (2.87 MB) More Documents & Publications MECHANICAL SYSTEMS - MULTIFAMILY: Combustion MECHANICAL SYSTEMS - MULTIFAMILY: Building as a System MECHANICAL SYSTEMS - MULTIFAMILY: Steam System Piping

  1. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    12.3.2 to investigate the small-scale mechanics of indium nanostructures. Scanning x-ray microdiffraction (SXRD) studies revealed that the indium microstructure is typical...

  2. INL '@work' heavy equipment mechanic

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Christensen, Cad

    2013-05-28

    INL's Cad Christensen is a heavy equipment mechanic. For more information about INL careers, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  3. INL '@work' heavy equipment mechanic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, Cad

    2008-01-01

    INL's Cad Christensen is a heavy equipment mechanic. For more information about INL careers, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  4. Fluid Dynamics and Solid Mechanics

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ADTSC T T-3 Fluid Dynamics and Solid Mechanics Basic and applied research in theoretical continuum dynamics, modern hydrodynamic theory, materials modeling, global climate ...

  5. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended...

  6. Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered Print The plant hormone auxin regulates many plant growth and development processes, including shoot growth, root branching, fruit ...

  7. QUANTUM MECHANICS WITHOUT STATISTICAL POSTULATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. GEIGER; ET AL

    2000-11-01

    The Bohmian formulation of quantum mechanics describes the measurement process in an intuitive way without a reduction postulate. Due to the chaotic motion of the hidden classical particle all statistical features of quantum mechanics during a sequence of repeated measurements can be derived in the framework of a deterministic single system theory.

  8. MECHANICAL SYSTEMS - MULTIFAMILY: Combustion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Combustion MECHANICAL SYSTEMS - MULTIFAMILY: Combustion 4_combustion.zip (14.52 MB) More Documents & Publications MECHANICAL SYSTEMS - MULTIFAMILY: Venting MECHANICAL SYSTEMS - MULTIFAMILY: Building as a System

  9. Mechanical Solutions Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Mechanical Solutions Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mechanical Solutions Inc Place: New York Product: New York-based contractor. References: Mechanical Solutions Inc1 This...

  10. Statistical mechanics based on fractional classical and quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korichi, Z.; Meftah, M. T.

    2014-03-15

    The purpose of this work is to study some problems in statistical mechanics based on the fractional classical and quantum mechanics. At first stage we have presented the thermodynamical properties of the classical ideal gas and the system of N classical oscillators. In both cases, the Hamiltonian contains fractional exponents of the phase space (position and momentum). At the second stage, in the context of the fractional quantum mechanics, we have calculated the thermodynamical properties for the black body radiation, studied the Bose-Einstein statistics with the related problem of the condensation and the Fermi-Dirac statistics.

  11. Phase space quantum mechanics - Direct

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasiri, S.; Sobouti, Y.; Taati, F.

    2006-09-15

    Conventional approach to quantum mechanics in phase space (q,p), is to take the operator based quantum mechanics of Schroedinger, or an equivalent, and assign a c-number function in phase space to it. We propose to begin with a higher level of abstraction, in which the independence and the symmetric role of q and p is maintained throughout, and at once arrive at phase space state functions. Upon reduction to the q- or p-space the proposed formalism gives the conventional quantum mechanics, however, with a definite rule for ordering of factors of noncommuting observables. Further conceptual and practical merits of the formalism are demonstrated throughout the text.

  12. Thermoelectric Mechanical Reliability | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Transport Properties, Thermal Response, and Mechanical Reliability of Thermoelectric Materials and Devices for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Mechanical Reliability

  13. Mechanically balanced tapered plug valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anaya, Jose R.

    1985-01-01

    The invention is a novel hermetic tapered plug valve having a spring-like resilient mechanism for providing axial balance to the plug and thereby prevent valve lock up.

  14. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Publication about this research: G. Lee, J.Y. Kim, A.S. Budiman, N. Tamura, M. Kunz, K. Chen, M.J. Burek, J.R. Greer, and T.Y. Tsui, "Fabrication, structure and mechanical...

  15. Mechanical drive for blood pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bifano, N.J.; Pouchot, W.D.

    1975-07-29

    This patent relates to a highly efficient blood pump to be used as a replacement for a ventricle of the human heart to restore people disabled by heart disease. The mechanical drive of the present invention is designed to operate in conjunction with a thermoelectric converter power source. The mechanical drive system essentially converts the output of a rotary power into pulsatile motion so that the power demand from the thermoelectric converter remains essentially constant while the blood pump output is pulsed. (auth)

  16. Mechanical Response of Thermoelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Case, Eldon D.

    2015-05-01

    A sufficient mechanical response of thermoelectric materials (TEMats) to structural loadings is a prerequisite to the exploitation of any candidate TEMat's thermoelectric efficiency. If a TEMat is mechanically damaged or cracks from service-induced stresses, then its thermal and electrical functions can be compromised or even cease. Semiconductor TEMats tend to be quite brittle and have a high coefficient of thermal expansion; therefore, they can be quite susceptible to mechanical failure when subjected to operational thermal gradients. Because of this, sufficient mechanical response (vis-a-vis, mechanical properties) of any candidate TEMat must be achieved and sustained in the context of the service-induced stress state to which it is subjected. This report provides an overview of the mechanical responses of state-of-the-art TEMats; discusses the relevant properties that are associated with those responses and their measurement; and describes important, nonequilibrium phenomena that further complicate their use in thermoelectric devices. For reference purposes, the report also includes several appendixes that list published data on elastic properties and strengths of a variety of TEMats.

  17. Mechanics

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In BriefPlayers must connect buildings together by allocating resources in a resource chain across the map. They must reach and resolve their Objective within a given number of turns to succeed.To...

  18. Majorana Electroformed Copper Mechanical Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overman, Nicole R.; Overman, Cory T.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Edwards, Danny J.; Hoppe, Eric W.

    2012-04-30

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize ultra high purity electroformed copper for a variety of detector components and shielding. A preliminary mechanical evaluation was performed on the Majorana prototype electroformed copper material. Several samples were removed from a variety of positions on the mandrel. Tensile testing, optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and hardness testing were conducted to evaluate mechanical response. Analyses carried out on the Majorana prototype copper to this point show consistent mechanical response from a variety of test locations. Evaluation shows the copper meets or exceeds the design specifications.

  19. MULTIPLE DIFFERENTIAL ROTARY MECHANICAL DRIVE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smits, R.G.

    1964-01-28

    This patent relates to a mechanism suitable for such applications as driving two spaced-apart spools which carry a roll film strip under conditions where the film movement must be rapidly started, stopped, and reversed while maintaining a constant tension on the film. The basic drive is provided by a variable speed, reversible rnotor coupled to both spools through a first differential mechanism and driving both spools in the same direction. A second motor, providing a constant torque, is connected to the two spools through a second differential mechanism and is coupled to impart torque to one spool in a first direction anid to the other spool in the reverse direction thus applying a constant tension to the film passing over the two spools irrespective of the speed or direction of rotation thereof. (AEC)

  20. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacal, M.; Wada, M.

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  1. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    and stored using mechanical pumps or fans to circulate heat-laden fluids or air between solar collectors and the building. Examples include the use of solar collectors for water...

  2. Multiple mechanisms of PCB neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, D.O.; Stoner, C.T.; Lawrence, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in cancer, but many of the symptoms in humans exposed to PCBs are related to the nervous system and behavior. We demonstrated three different direct mechanisms whereby PCBs are neurotoxic in rats. By using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that the orthosubstituted PCB congener 2,4,4{prime}, but neither TCDD nor the coplanar PCB congener 3,4,5,3{prime},4{prime}, causes rapid death of cerebellar granule cells. The ortho-substituted congener 2,4,4{prime} reduced long-term potentiation, an indicator of cognitive potential, in hippocampal brain slices, but a similar effect was observed for the coplanar congener 3,4,3{prime},4{prime}, indicating that this effect may be caused by both ortho- and coplanar congeners by mechanisms presumably not mediated via the Ah receptor. It was previously shown that some ortho-substituted PCB congeners cause a reduction in levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and we present in vitro and in vivo evidence that this is due to reduction of synthesis of dopamine via inhibition of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. Thus, PCBs have a variety of mechanisms of primary neurotoxicity, and neurotoxicity is a characteristic of ortho-substituted, non-dioxin-like congeners as well as some coplanar congeners. The relative contribution of each of these mechanisms to the loss of cognitive function in humans exposed to PCBs remains to be determined. 42 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ching, Larry K. W.

    2000-02-15

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  4. Mechanical scriber for semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, P.T.

    1985-03-05

    A mechanical scriber using a scribing tip, such as a diamond, provides controlled scriber forces with a spring-loaded compound lever arrangement. The scribing force and range of scribing depth are adjusted by a pair of adjustable micrometer heads. A semiconductor device, such as a multilayer solar cell, can be formed into scribed strips at each layer. 5 figs.

  5. Mechanical scriber for semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Peter T.

    1985-01-01

    A mechanical scriber using a scribing tip, such as a diamond, provides controlled scriber forces with a spring-loaded compound lever arrangement. The scribing force and range of scribing depth are adjusted by a pair of adjustable micrometer heads. A semiconductor device, such as a multilayer solar cell, can be formed into scribed strips at each layer.

  6. Mechanical effects in cookoff modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, R.J.; Baer, M.R.; Hobbs, M.L.

    1994-07-01

    Complete cookoff modeling of energetic material in confined geometries must couple thermal, chemical and mechanical effects. In the past, modeling has focused on the prediction of the onset of combustion behavior based only on thermal-chemistry effects with little or no regard to the mechanical behavior of the energetic material. In this paper, an analysis tool is outlined which couples thermal, chemical, and mechanical behavior for one-dimensional Geometries comprised of multi-materials. A reactive heat flow code, XCHEM, and a quasistatic mechanics code, SANTOS, have been completely coupled using, a reactive, elastic-plastic constitutive model describing pressurization of the energetic material. This new Thermally Reactive Elastic-plastic explosive code, TREX, was developed to assess the coupling, of mechanics with thermal chemistry making multidimensional cookoff analysis possible. In this study, TREX is applied to confined and unconfined systems. The confined systems simulate One-Dimensional Time to explosion (ODTX) experiments in both spherical and cylindrical configurations. The spherical ODTX system is a 1.27 cm diameter sphere of TATB confined by aluminum exposed to a constant external temperature. The cylindrical ODTX system is an aluminum tube filled with HMX, NC, and inert exposed to a constant temperature bath. Finally. an unconfined system consisting of a hollow steel cylinder filled with a propellant composed of Al, RMX, and NC, representative of a rocket motor, is considered. This model system is subjected to transient internal and external radiative/convective boundary conditions representative of 5 minutes exposure to a fire. The confined systems show significant pressure prior to ignition, and the unconfined system shows extrusion of the propellent suggesting that the energetic material becomes more shock sensitive.

  7. Universal mechanism of thermo-mechanical deformation in metallic glasses

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Dmowski, W.; Tong, Y.; Iwashita, T.; Egami, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Y.

    2015-02-11

    Here we investigated the atomistic structure of metallic glasses subjected to thermo-mechanical creep deformation using high energy x-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics simulation. The experiments were performed in-situ, at high temperatures as a time dependent deformation in the elastic regime, and ex-situ on samples quenched under stress. We show that all the anisotropic structure functions of the samples undergone thermo-mechanical creep can be scaled into a single curve, regardless of the magnitude of anelastic strain, stress level and the sign of the stress, demonstrating universal behavior and pointing to unique atomistic unit of anelastic deformation. The structural changes due tomore » creep are strongly localized within the second nearest neighbors, involving only a small group of atoms.« less

  8. Career Map: Mechanical Engineer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Mechanical Engineer Career Map: Mechanical Engineer A mechanical engineer works with a large yellow robotic arm. Mechanical Engineer Position Title Mechanical Engineer Alternate Title(s) Project Engineer, Quality Engineer, Research Engineer, Design Engineer, Sales Engineer Education & Training Level Advanced, Bachelor's degree required, prefer graduate degree Education & Training Level Description Mechanical engineers need a bachelor's degree. A graduate degree is typically needed for

  9. Shaoxing Jinggong Mechanical and Electrical Research Institute...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Shaoxing Jinggong Mechanical and Electrical Research Institute Company SJMERI Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shaoxing Jinggong Mechanical and Electrical Research Institute...

  10. Mechanical control of electroresistive switching (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Mechanical control of electroresistive switching Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanical control of electroresistive ...

  11. Degradation Mechanisms and Development of Protective Coatings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Mechanisms and Development of Protective Coatings for TES and HTF Containment Materials Degradation Mechanisms and Development of Protective Coatings for TES and HTF Containment ...

  12. Excitation Energy Sorting Mechanisms in Fission (Conference)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Excitation Energy Sorting Mechanisms in Fission Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Excitation Energy Sorting Mechanisms in Fission You are accessing a document from the ...

  13. NREL: Technology Transfer - Popular Mechanics: Scientists Break...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Popular Mechanics: Scientists Break This Virtual Power Grid to Save the Real One July 27, 2015 Popular Mechanics describes how NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF)...

  14. Version pressure feedback mechanisms for speculative versioning...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Version pressure feedback mechanisms for speculative versioning caches Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Version pressure feedback mechanisms for speculative versioning ...

  15. CONTROL OF MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED POLYMERSOME FUSION: FACTORS...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Journal Article: CONTROL OF MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED POLYMERSOME FUSION: FACTORS AFFECTING FUSION. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CONTROL OF MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED...

  16. Thermoelectric Mechanical Reliability | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0wereszczak.pdf (1.52 MB) More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Mechanical Reliability Thermoelectric Mechanical Reliability Thermoelectrics Theory and Structure

  17. Degradation Mechanisms of Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Technology Degradation Mechanisms of Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology Deactivation Mechanisms of Base MetalZeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials

  18. Mechanical properties and energy absorption characteristics of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mechanical properties and energy absorption characteristics of a polyurethane foam Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanical properties and energy absorption ...

  19. Microstructural evolution and mechanical behavior of metastable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and mechanical behavior of metastable -type Ti-30Nb-1Mo-4Sn alloy with low modulus and high strength Title: Microstructural evolution and mechanical behavior of metastable ...

  20. Mechanical R&D | The Ames Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    assembles mechanical components. In our efforts we utilize Autodesk Inventor and ESPRIT CADCAM Software by DP Technology Corp., among others. Our Mechanical Design staff also...

  1. Collapse Mechanisms Of Masonry Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuccaro, G.; Rauci, M.

    2008-07-08

    The paper outlines a possible approach to typology recognition, safety check analyses and/or damage measuring taking advantage by a multimedia tool (MEDEA), tracing a guided procedure useful for seismic safety check evaluation and post event macroseismic assessment. A list of the possible collapse mechanisms observed in the post event surveys on masonry structures and a complete abacus of the damages are provided in MEDEA. In this tool a possible combination between a set of damage typologies and each collapse mechanism is supplied in order to improve the homogeneity of the damages interpretation. On the other hand recent researches of one of the author have selected a number of possible typological vulnerability factors of masonry buildings, these are listed in the paper and combined with potential collapse mechanisms to be activated under seismic excitation. The procedure takes place from simple structural behavior models, derived from the Umbria-Marche earthquake observations, and tested after the San Giuliano di Puglia event; it provides the basis either for safety check analyses of the existing buildings or for post-event structural safety assessment and economic damage evaluation. In the paper taking advantage of MEDEA mechanisms analysis, mainly developed for the post event safety check surveyors training, a simple logic path is traced in order to approach the evaluation of the masonry building safety check. The procedure starts from the identification of the typological vulnerability factors to derive the potential collapse mechanisms and their collapse multipliers and finally addresses the simplest and cheapest strengthening techniques to reduce the original vulnerability. The procedure has been introduced in the Guide Lines of the Regione Campania for the professionals in charge of the safety check analyses and the buildings strengthening in application of the national mitigation campaign introduced by the Ordinance of the Central Government n. 3362

  2. Micro electro-mechanical heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oh, Yunje; Asif, Syed Amanulla Syed; Cyrankowski, Edward; Warren, Oden Lee

    2016-04-19

    A sub-micron scale property testing apparatus including a test subject holder and heating assembly. The assembly includes a holder base configured to couple with a sub-micron mechanical testing instrument and electro-mechanical transducer assembly. The assembly further includes a test subject stage coupled with the holder base. The test subject stage is thermally isolated from the holder base. The test subject stage includes a stage subject surface configured to receive a test subject, and a stage plate bracing the stage subject surface. The stage plate is under the stage subject surface. The test subject stage further includes a heating element adjacent to the stage subject surface, the heating element is configured to generate heat at the stage subject surface.

  3. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R.

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  4. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R.

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  5. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-11-24

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  6. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-06-23

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  7. Locking mechanism for indexing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindemeyer, Carl W. (Aurora, IL)

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a locking mechanism for an indexing spindle. A conventional r gear having outwardly extending teeth is affixed to the spindle. Also included is a rotatably mounted camshaft whose axis is arranged in skewed relationship with the axis of the spindle. A disk-like wedge having opposing camming surfaces is eccentrically mounted on the camshaft. As the camshaft is rotated, the camming surfaces of the disc-like member are interposed between adjacent gear teeth with a wiping action that wedges the disc-like member between the gear teeth. A zero backlash engagement between disc-like member and gear results, with the engagement having a high mechanical advantage so as to effectively lock the spindle against bidirectional rotation.

  8. Mechanical Properties of Niobium Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Matalevich, Joseph R.; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2015-09-01

    The mechanical stability of bulk Nb cavity is an important aspect to be considered in relation to cavity material, geometry and treatments. Mechanical properties of Nb are typically obtained from uniaxial tensile tests of small samples. In this contribution we report the results of measurements of the resonant frequency and local strain along the contour of single-cell cavities made of ingot and fine-grain Nb of different purity subjected to increasing uniform differential pressure, up to 6 atm. Measurements have been done on cavities subjected to different heat treatments. Good agreement between finite element analysis simulations and experimental data in the elastic regime was obtained with a single set of values of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The experimental results indicate that the yield strength of medium-purity ingot Nb cavities is higher than that of fine-grain, high-purity Nb.

  9. Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, R.B.; Denney, R.M.

    1981-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Review is published to inform readers of various technical activities within the Department, promote exchange of ideas, and give credit to personnel who are achieving the results. The report is presented in two parts: technical achievements and publication abstracts. The first is divided into seven sections, each of which reports on an engineering division and its specific activities related to nuclear tests, nuclear explosives, weapons, energy systems, engineering sciences, magnetic fusion, and materials fabrication.

  10. Mechanical engineering department technical review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, R.B. Denney, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Review is published to: (1) inform the readers of various technical activities within the department, (2) promote exchange of ideas, and (3) give credit to the personnel who are achieving the results. The report is formatted into two parts: technical acievements and publication abstracts. The first is divided into eight sections, one for each division in the department providing the reader with the names of the personnel and the division accomplishing the work.

  11. GUI for Structural Mechanics Codes

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Development of GUI for Structural Mechanics Codes The TRACC Cluster gives its users a lot of flexibility when it comes to requesting software version of LS-DYNA and computational resources for submitted jobs. To fully utilize that flexibility, users need to get familiar with on-line documentation of all the installed releases of different software and modules on the cluster. As on other LINUX based HPC systems, the submission and controlling of LS-DYNA is done through text commands. Especially

  12. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  13. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  14. Electric drive mechanism for vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bader, C.

    1983-06-21

    An electric drive mechanism is disclosed for vehicles, especially buses with overhead trolley routes, which routes are provided with relatively short interruptions in the overhead trolley. The drive mechanism includes a flywheel two externally excited electric motors which are adapted to be switched over from prime mover operation to generator operation, and which motors are effective as a ward-leonard drive during flywheel operation. The first electric motor is constructed for half of a maximum drive power and the second electric motor is likewise constructed for half or for square root 2/2 times the maximum drive power. Both electric motors are connected electrically in parallel during operation from the main electrical supply. The first and second motors are electrically connected in parallel during operation of the vehicle from the main electrical supply when a change-speed transmission is provided for connecting a drive shaft of one of the motors with driven vehicle wheels. A planetary gear transmission and a further transmission are provided for mechanically connecting the drive shaft of one of the motors with the second motor and with the flywheel.

  15. Mechanism of instantaneous coal outbursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, P.; Wang, H.Y.; Zhang, Y.X.

    2009-10-15

    Thousands of mine workers die every year from mining accidents, and instantaneous coal outbursts in underground coal mines are one of the major killers. Various models for these outbursts have been proposed, but the precise mechanism is still unknown. We hypothesize that the mechanism of coal outbursts is similar to magma fragmentation during explosive volcanic eruptions; i.e., it is caused by high gas pressure inside coal but low ambient pressure on it, breaking coal into pieces and releasing the high-pressure gas in a shock wave. Hence, coal outbursts may be regarded as another type of gas-driven eruption, in addition to explosive volcanic, lake, and possible ocean eruptions. We verify the hypothesis by experiments using a shock-tube apparatus. Knowing the mechanism of coal outbursts is the first step in developing prediction and mitigation measures. The new concept of gas-driven solid eruption is also important to a better understanding of salt-gas outbursts, rock-gas outbursts, and mud volcano eruptions.

  16. Piezoelectrically enhanced ferroelectric polymers via nanoscale mechanical

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    annealing | Argonne National Laboratory Vertical piezoresponse hysteresis loops in pristine and mechanically annealed regions. Vertical piezoresponse hysteresis loops in pristine and mechanically annealed regions. Piezoelectrically enhanced ferroelectric polymers via nanoscale mechanical annealing May 13, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint Scientific Achievement We developed a nanoscale mechanical annealing process of polymer ferroelectric thin films, which can control nanoscale material properties and

  17. Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage | Department of Energy Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage The Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New

  18. DOE fundamentals handbook: Mechanical science. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Mechanical Science Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mechanical components and mechanical science. The handbook includes information diesel engines, heat exchangers, pumps, valves, and miscellaneous mechanical components. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the construction and operation of mechanical components that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations and maintenance.

  19. How reclamation tests mechanical governors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agee, J.C.; Girgis, G.K.; Cline, R.

    1996-08-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation has developed its own equipment for testing mechanical-hydraulic governors for hydroelectric generators. The device, called a Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) Simulator, generates a three-phase voltage that will drive the governor ballhead motor at variable speed. Utilizing this equipment, most traditional governor tests can be completed with the generating unit dewatered. In addition, frequency response testing and other detailed analytical tests can be performed to validate governor models. This article describes the development and design of the equipment, and it also discusses its usage in a case study of events at Glen Canyon Dam.

  20. Tank waste concentration mechanism study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, L.C.; Johnson, L.J.

    1994-09-01

    This study determines whether the existing 242-A Evaporator should continue to be used to concentrate the Hanford Site radioactive liquid tank wastes or be replaced by an alternative waste concentration process. Using the same philosophy, the study also determines what the waste concentration mechanism should be for the future TWRS program. Excess water from liquid DST waste should be removed to reduce the volume of waste feed for pretreatment, immobilization, and to free up storage capacity in existing tanks to support interim stabilization of SSTS, terminal cleanout of excess facilities, and other site remediation activities.

  1. Controlled Thermo-Mechanical Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2005-09-01

    The CTMP technology has the potential for widespread application in all major sectors of the domestic tube and pipe industry; two of the largest sectors are seamless mechanical tubing and seamless oil country tubular goods. It has been proven for the spheroidized annealing heat cycle for through-hardened steels and has led to the development of a recipe for automotive gear steels. Potential applications also exist in the smaller sectors of seamless line pipe, pressure tubing, and stainless tubing. The technology could also apply to non-ferrous metal industries, such as titanium.

  2. Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Bellcrank mechanisms for Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senft, J.R.; Senft, V.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a family of linkage drive systems for Stirling engines containing several new members. These mechanisms are adaptable to all three configurations of Stirling engine, impose minimal side loads on pistons and displacer rods, and include compact forms suitable for pressurized high performance engines. This group of drive systems is generated by a simple common scheme. Near sinusoidal motion is taken from a crankshaft carrying a single crankpin by two connecting rods each driving a bellcrank. The stationary pivots of the bellcranks are located so that their oscillatory motion has the phase angle separation required between the piston and displacer. The bellcranks are further configured to bring the third pin motion to a location suitable for coupling with the piston or displacer of the engine in a way which minimizes side loading. The paper presents a number of new linkage drives from the dual bellcrank family and indicates how they are embodied in beta and alpha type Stirling engines. The paper includes a design for a small multipurpose engine incorporating one of the subject mechanisms.

  4. Assessment of HYGAS mechanical equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albrecht, P.R.; Kramberger, F.E.; Recupero, R.M.; Verden, M.L.; Rees, K.

    1980-10-01

    The HYGAS process, which converts coal to substitute natural gas, is being developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) using an 80 ton per day pilot plant located in Chicago, Illinois. Plant design started in 1967 and testing began in October 1971. Since then, 18,000 tons of both Eastern and Western coal have been gasified. Assessment of the mechanical equipment was made by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) in collaboration with a DOE on-site representative and a representative from IGT, the operating contractor. Data for the assessment were obtained by reviewing all available maintenance records, by interviewing key personnel from maintenance and operations, and by observing repairs and maintenance procedures where possible. While operating the plant, a variety of equipment problems were addressed, many of which are generic to HYGAS as well as other coal conversion processes. Some problems were solved completely while others were solved to suit the limited needs of the pilot plant. Accordingly, the emphasis of this study is on the degree of success in dealing with equipment failures, the unresolved problems and the implication to future coal conversion plants.

  5. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-06-01

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selectionmore » and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.« less

  6. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broesius, J.Y.

    1991-03-01

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.

  7. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-06-01

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selection and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.

  8. Miniature mechanical transfer optical coupler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abel, Philip; Watterson, Carl

    2011-02-15

    A miniature mechanical transfer (MT) optical coupler ("MMTOC") for optically connecting a first plurality of optical fibers with at least one other plurality of optical fibers. The MMTOC may comprise a beam splitting element, a plurality of collimating lenses, and a plurality of alignment elements. The MMTOC may optically couple a first plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a first MT connector with a second plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a second MT connector and a third plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a third MT connector. The beam splitting element may allow a portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to pass through to the second plurality of fibers and simultaneously reflect another portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to the third plurality of fibers.

  9. Eight plane IPND mechanical testing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, A.; Guarino, V.; Wood, K.; Nephew, T.; Ayres, D.; Lee, A.; High Energy Physics; FNAL

    2008-03-18

    A mechanical test of an 8 plane IPND mechanical prototype, which was constructed using extrusions from the testing/tryout of the 16 cell prototype extrusion die in Argonne National Laboratory, was conducted. There were 4 vertical and 4 horizontal planes in this 8 plane IPND prototype. Each vertical plane had four 16 cell extrusions, while each horizontal plane had six 16 cell extrusions. Each plane was glued together using the formulation of Devcon adhesive, Devcon 60. The vertical extrusions used in the vertical planes shares the same dimensions as the horizontal extrusions in the horizontal planes with the average web thickness of 2.1 mm and the average wall thickness of 3.1 mm. This mechanical prototype was constructed with end-seals on the both ends of the vertical extrusions. The gaps were filled with epoxy between extrusions and end-seals. The overall dimension of IPND is 154.8 by 103.1 by 21.7 inches with the weight of approximately 1200 kg, as shown in a figure. Two similar mechanical tests of 3 layer and 11 layer prototypes have been done in order to evaluate the strength of the adhesive joint between extrusions in the NOvA detector. The test showed that the IPND prototype was able to sustain under the loading of weight of itself and scintillator. Two FEA models were built to verify the measurement data from the test. The prediction from FEA slice model seems correlated reasonably well to the test result, even under a 'rough' estimated condition for the wall thickness (from an untuned die) and an unknown property of 'garage type' extrusion. A full size of FEA 3-D model also agrees very well with the test data from strain gage readings. It is worthy to point out that the stress distribution of the structure is predominantly determined by the internal pressure, while the buckling stability relies more on the loading weight from the extrusions themselves and scintillate. Results of conducted internal pressure tests, including 3- cell, 11-cell and the IPND

  10. Fundamental mechanisms of micromachine reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; SNIEGOWSKI,JEFFRY J.; KNAPP,JAMES A.; REDMOND,JAMES M.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.; MAYER,THOMAS K.

    2000-01-01

    Due to extreme surface to volume ratios, adhesion and friction are critical properties for reliability of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), but are not well understood. In this LDRD the authors established test structures, metrology and numerical modeling to conduct studies on adhesion and friction in MEMS. They then concentrated on measuring the effect of environment on MEMS adhesion. Polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) is the primary material of interest in MEMS because of its integrated circuit process compatibility, low stress, high strength and conformal deposition nature. A plethora of useful micromachined device concepts have been demonstrated using Sandia National Laboratories' sophisticated in-house capabilities. One drawback to polysilicon is that in air the surface oxidizes, is high energy and is hydrophilic (i.e., it wets easily). This can lead to catastrophic failure because surface forces can cause MEMS parts that are brought into contact to adhere rather than perform their intended function. A fundamental concern is how environmental constituents such as water will affect adhesion energies in MEMS. The authors first demonstrated an accurate method to measure adhesion as reported in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 through 5, they then studied the effect of water on adhesion depending on the surface condition (hydrophilic or hydrophobic). As described in Chapter 2, they find that adhesion energy of hydrophilic MEMS surfaces is high and increases exponentially with relative humidity (RH). Surface roughness is the controlling mechanism for this relationship. Adhesion can be reduced by several orders of magnitude by silane coupling agents applied via solution processing. They decrease the surface energy and render the surface hydrophobic (i.e. does not wet easily). However, only a molecular monolayer coats the surface. In Chapters 3-5 the authors map out the extent to which the monolayer reduces adhesion versus RH. They find that adhesion is independent of

  11. Creep damage mechanisms in composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nutt, S.R.

    1994-10-17

    During the past year, research has focused on processing and characterization of intermetallic composites synthesized by plasma spray deposition. This versatile process allows rapid synthesis of a variety of different composite systems with potential applications for coatings, functionally gradient materials, rapid proto-typing and 3d printing, as well as near-net-shape processing of complex shapes. We have been pursuing an experimental program of research aimed at a fundamental understanding of the microstructural processes involved in the synthesis of intermetallic composites, including diffusion, heat transfer, grain boundary migration, and the dependence of these phenomena on deposition parameters. The work has been motivated by issues arising from composite materials manufacturing technologies. Recent progress is described in section B on the following topics: (1) Reactive atomization and deposition of intermetallic composites (Ni3Al); (2) Reactive synthesis of MoSi2-SiC composites; (3) Mechanical alloying of nanocrystalline alloys; (4) Tensile creep deformation of BMAS glass-ceramic composites.

  12. Apparatus and method for generating mechanical waves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allensworth, D.L.; Chen, P.J.

    1982-10-25

    Mechanical waves are generated in a medium by subjecting an electromechanical element to an alternating electric field having a frequency which induces mechanical resonance therein and is below any electrical resonance frequency thereof.

  13. Apparatus and method for generating mechanical waves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allensworth, Dwight L.; Chen, Peter J.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanical waves are generated in a medium by subjecting an electromechanical element to an alternating electric field having a frequency which induces mechanical resonance therein and is below any electrical resonance frequency thereof.

  14. Mechanical properties and tribological behavior of contaminate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nanoparticles on micromachined surfaces. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanical properties and tribological behavior of contaminate nanoparticles on ...

  15. Mechanical Characterization of Fuel Injector Piezoactuators and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Characterization of Fuel Injector Piezoactuators and their Piezoceramics Mechanical Characterization of Fuel Injector Piezoactuators and their Piezoceramics 2007 Diesel ...

  16. Training: Mechanical Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Mechanical Insulation Training: Mechanical Insulation April 16, 2014 - 6:34pm Addthis Learn about the diverse training sessions offered. The courses are taught by highly qualified instructors who have met rigorous standards. View additional plant-wide resources. Mechanical Insulation Education and Awareness E-Learning Series Availability: Online self-paced workshop. The Mechanical Insulation Education & Awareness Campaign, or MIC, is an eLearning series offered by the U.S. Department of

  17. Durability Improvements Through Degradation Mechanism Studies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Modeling * Fundamental degradation mechanisms (LBNL) * Individual degradation models - kineticrate based (ANL) * Integrated comprehensive model (ANL) Characterization Methods to ...

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: Careers: Mechanical Engineering

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Engineering Engineering photo Sandia mechanical engineers design and develop advanced components and systems for national-defense programs, homeland security, and other applications. Mechanical engineers at Sandia work on design, analysis, manufacturing, and test activities in many areas, including nuclear weapons and power, renewable energy, intelligent machines, robotics, pulsed power, missile defense, remote sensing, advanced manufacturing, and micro- and nanosystems. Sandia

  19. Understanding Mechanisms of Radiological Contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rick Demmer; John Drake; Ryan James, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, the study of radiological contamination and decontamination has expanded significantly. This paper addresses the mechanisms of radiological contamination that have been reported and then discusses which methods have recently been used during performance testing of several different decontamination technologies. About twenty years ago the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL began a search for decontamination processes which could minimize secondary waste. In order to test the effectiveness of these decontamination technologies, a new simulated contamination, termed SIMCON, was developed. SIMCON was designed to replicate the types of contamination found on stainless steel, spent fuel processing equipment. Ten years later, the INL began research into methods for simulating urban contamination resulting from a radiological dispersal device (RDD). This work was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and included the initial development an aqueous application of contaminant to substrate. Since 2007, research sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has advanced that effort and led to the development of a contamination method that simulates particulate fallout from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND). The IND method diverges from previous efforts to create tenacious contamination by simulating a reproducible “loose” contamination. Examining these different types of contamination (and subsequent decontamination processes), which have included several different radionuclides and substrates, sheds light on contamination processes that occur throughout the nuclear industry and in the urban environment.

  20. (Fracture mechanics of inhomogeneous materials)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, B.R.

    1990-10-01

    Discussions were held with Japanese researchers concerning (1) the Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics in Inhomogeneous Materials and Structures (EPI) Program, and (2) ongoing large-scale pressurized- thermal-shock (PTS) experiments in Japan. In the EPI Program, major activities in the current fiscal year include round-robin analyses of measured data from inhomogeneous base metal/weld metal compact- tension (CT) specimens fabricated from welded plates of A533 grade B class 1 steel. The round-robin task involves participants from nine research organizations in Japan and is scheduled for completion by the end of 1990. Additional experiments will be performed on crack growth in inhomogeneous CT specimens and three-point bend (3PB) specimens 10 mm thick. The data will be compared with that generated previously from 19-mm-thick-specimens. A new type of inhomogeneous surface-cracked specimen will be tested this year, with ratio of crack depth to surface length (a/c) satisfying 0.2 {le} (a/c) {le} 0. 8 and using a 3PB type of applied load. Plans are under way to fabricate a new welded plate of A533 grade B class 1 steel (from a different heat than that currently being tested) in order to provide an expanded fracture-toughness data base. Other topics concerning fracture-prevention issues in reactor pressure vessels were discussed with each of the host organizations, including an overview of ongoing work in the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program.