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Sample records for look-ahead driver feedback

  1. Look-ahead Driver Feedback and Powertrain Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Look-ahead Driver Feedback and Powertrain Management Look-ahead Driver Feedback and Powertrain Management 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting vss087_tang_2012_o.pdf (488.01 KB) More Documents & Publications Look-Ahead Driver Feedback and Powertrain Management Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Look-Ahead Driver Feedback and Powertrain Management Legacy Fleet Improvements

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Look-Ahead Driver Feedback and Powertrain Management

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Eaton at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about look-ahead driver feedback and...

  3. Look-ahead driver feedback and powertrain management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Rajeev

    2014-12-31

    Commercial medium and heavy vehicles, though only a small portion of total vehicle population, play a significant role in energy consumption. In 2012, these vehicles accounted for about 5775.5 trillion btu of energy consumption and 408.8 million tons of CO2 emissions annually, which is a quarter of the total energy burden of highway transportation in the United States [1]. This number is expected to surpass passenger car fuel use within the next few decades. In the meantime, most commercial vehicle fleets are running at a very low profit margin. It is a well known fact that fuel economy can vary significantly between drivers, even when they operate the same vehicle on the same route. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Natural Resource Canada (NRCan), there is up to 35% fuel economy difference between drivers within the same commercial fleet [2] [3], [4]. Similar results were obtained from a Field Operation Test conducted by Eaton Corporation [5]. During this test as much as 30% fuel economy difference was observed among pick-up-and-delivery drivers and 11% difference was observed among line-haul drivers. The driver variability can be attributed to the fact that different drivers react differently to driving conditions such as road grade, traffic, speed limits, etc. For instance, analysis of over 600k miles of naturalistic heavy duty truck driving data [5] indicates that an experienced driver anticipates a downhill and eases up on the throttle to save fuel while an inexperienced driver lacks this judgment.

  4. Look-Ahead Driver Feedback and Powertrain Management

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  5. Look-ahead Dynamic Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-10-20

    Look-ahead dynamic simulation software system incorporates the high performance parallel computing technologies, significantly reduces the solution time for each transient simulation case, and brings the dynamic simulation analysis into on-line applications to enable more transparency for better reliability and asset utilization. It takes the snapshot of the current power grid status, functions in parallel computing the system dynamic simulation, and outputs the transient response of the power system in real time.

  6. Better Plants 2015 Look Ahead Webinar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    2009 Looking Ahead to 2015 2015 Expanding the Program * New or Expanded Value to Partners * Supply Chain Pilot (engage your suppliers) * Water Savings Pilot (track your water ...

  7. A look-ahead variant of TFQMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freund, R.W.; Nachtigal, N.M.

    1994-12-31

    Recently, Freund proposed a Krylov subspace iteration, the transpose-free quasi-minimal residual method (TFQMR), for solving general nonsingular non-Hermitian linear systems. The algorithm relies on a version of the squared Lanczos process to generate the basis vectors for the underlying Krylov subspace. It then constructs iterates defined by a quasi-minimization property, which leads to a smooth and nearly monotone convergence behavior. The authors investigate a variant of TFQMR that uses look-ahead to avoid some of the problems associated with breakdowns in the underlying squared Lanczos procedure. They also present some numerical examples that illustrate the properties of the new method, as compared to the original TFQMR algorithm.

  8. Looking Ahead: The Best Is Yet to Come

    Energy Savers

    8, 2015 Portland, Oregon U.S. Department of Energy LOOKING AHEAD: The Best Is Yet to Come 2 LED Efficacy: What America Stands to Gain 3 Beyond the Halfway Mark 4 Beyond the Halfway...

  9. Better Plants Look Ahead Webinar: Presentation Slides | Department...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    hosted by Better Plants on Jan. 22, 2015. The webinar covered accomplishments to date and detailed new initiatives to save partners energy and water. Better Plants 2015 Look Ahead ...

  10. Fukushima: Looking Back, Looking Ahead | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fukushima: Looking Back, Looking Ahead Fukushima: Looking Back, Looking Ahead March 11, 2016 - 3:47pm Addthis John Kotek John Kotek Acting Assistant Secretary for the Office of Nuclear Energy On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck Japan. It was one of the most powerful earthquakes on record, unleashing a tsunami that ravaged 430 miles of coastline, destroying communities, and killing nearly 16,000 people. The combined effects of the earthquake and tsunami overwhelmed on and offsite

  11. Use of look-ahead modeling in pipeline operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wray, B.; O`Leary, C.

    1995-12-31

    Amoco Canada Petroleum Company, Ltd. operates the Cochin pipeline system. Cochin pumps batched liquid ethane, propane, ethylene, butane, and NGL. Operating and scheduling this pipeline is very complex. There are safety considerations, especially for ethylene, which cannot be allowed to drop below vapor pressure. Amoco Canada needs to know where batches are in the line, what pressure profiles will look like into the future, and when batches arrive at various locations along the line. In addition to traditional instrumentation and SCADA, Amoco Canada uses modeling software to help monitor and operate the Cochin pipeline. Two important components of the modeling system are the Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) and Predictive Model (PM) modules. These modules perform look ahead modeling to assist in operating the Cochin pipeline. The modeling software was first installed for the Cochin system in February of 1994, and was commissioned on August 1, 1994. This paper will discuss how the look ahead modules are used for the Cochin pipeline.

  12. Looking Ahead with a Look Back at the 2nd Annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Summit | Department of Energy Looking Ahead with a Look Back at the 2nd Annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit Looking Ahead with a Look Back at the 2nd Annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit March 3, 2011 - 10:01am Addthis Andy Oare Andy Oare Former New Media Strategist, Office of Public Affairs Yesterday, we wrapped up 2nd Annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit, an event that featured some of today's most cutting-edge clean energy technologies. Over the past three days, the Summit hosted

  13. BPA Turns 75: A Look Back and a Look Ahead | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    BPA Turns 75: A Look Back and a Look Ahead BPA Turns 75: A Look Back and a Look Ahead September 28, 2012 - 11:59am Addthis To commemorate what BPA considers a 75-year partnership with the Columbia River, which is the cornerstone of BPA's relationship with the people and utilities of the Northwest, BPA releases the first video of a series detailing its history. Teresa Waugh Public Affairs Specialist, Bonneville Power Administration What is BPA? BPA markets wholesale electrical power from 31

  14. Oak Ridge Looks Ahead to Vision 2020 After K-27 Demolition | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Oak Ridge Looks Ahead to Vision 2020 After K-27 Demolition Oak Ridge Looks Ahead to Vision 2020 After K-27 Demolition September 13, 2016 - 12:10pm Addthis A 3-D rendering of the ETTP end-state goal by 2020. A 3-D rendering of the ETTP end-state goal by 2020. The Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator is scheduled for demolition before EM transfers the site in 2020. During its years of operations, it incinerated 35 million pounds of waste. The Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator

  15. Energy Education: A Glance Back and a Look Ahead | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Education: A Glance Back and a Look Ahead Energy Education: A Glance Back and a Look Ahead January 28, 2015 - 2:11pm Addthis "A Guide to the Energy of the Earth" is an animated TED-Ed video featuring the seven energy literacy principles in action. Use the associated lesson in your classroom or create your own questions for the videos to flip the lesson. The video is applicable to all ages and can be tailored to your lessons on earth&#39;s energy systems. Watch it <a

  16. Analyzing Vehicle Fuel Saving Opportunities through Intelligent Driver Feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.; Earleywine, M.; Sparks, W.

    2012-06-01

    Driving style changes, e.g., improving driver efficiency and motivating driver behavior changes, could deliver significant petroleum savings. This project examines eliminating stop-and-go driving and unnecessary idling, and also adjusting acceleration rates and cruising speeds to ideal levels to quantify fuel savings. Such extreme adjustments can result in dramatic fuel savings of over 30%, but would in reality only be achievable through automated control of vehicles and traffic flow. In real-world driving, efficient driving behaviors could reduce fuel use by 20% on aggressively driven cycles and by 5-10% on more moderately driven trips. A literature survey was conducted of driver behavior influences, and pertinent factors from on-road experiments with different driving styles were observed. This effort highlighted important driver influences such as surrounding vehicle behavior, anxiety over trying to get somewhere quickly, and the power/torque available from the vehicle. Existing feedback approaches often deliver efficiency information and instruction. Three recommendations for maximizing fuel savings from potential drive cycle improvement are: (1) leveraging applications with enhanced incentives, (2) using an approach that is easy and widely deployable to motivate drivers, and (3) utilizing connected vehicle and automation technologies to achieve large and widespread efficiency improvements.

  17. Final Report on the Fuel Saving Effectiveness of Various Driver Feedback Approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.; Earleywine, M.; Sparks, W.

    2011-03-01

    This final report quantifies the fuel-savings opportunities from specific driving behavior changes, identifies factors that influence drivers' receptiveness to adopting fuel-saving behaviors, and assesses various driver feedback approaches.

  18. Fermilab | Tevatron | Looking Ahead

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Accelerator Research Center The new Illinois Accelerator Research Center, a state-of-the-art research facility to be constructed at the CDF site, will feature a modern office...

  19. Better Plants Look Ahead Webinar: Text Version

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Better Plants Program hosted a webinar on January 22, 2015 to review accomplishments to date and detail new initiatives to save partners energy and water. Question and answer session is included. Download presentation slides.

  20. Letter Report: Looking Ahead at Nuclear Fuel Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Stephen Herring

    2013-09-01

    The future of nuclear energy and its ability to fulfill part of the world’s energy needs for centuries to come depend on a reliable input of nuclear fuel, either thorium or uranium. Obviously, the present nuclear fuel cycle is completely dependent on uranium. Future thorium cycles will also depend on 235U or fissile isotopes separated from used fuel to breed 232Th into fissile 233U. This letter report discusses several emerging areas of scientific understanding and technology development that will clarify and enable assured supplies of uranium and thorium well into the future. At the most fundamental level, the nuclear energy community needs to appreciate the origins of uranium and thorium and the processes of planetary accretion by which those materials have coalesced to form the earth and other planets. Secondly, the studies of geophysics and geochemistry are increasing understanding of the processes by which uranium and thorium are concentrated in various locations in the earth’s crust. Thirdly, the study of neutrinos and particularly geoneutrinos (neutrinos emitted by radioactive materials within the earth) has given an indication of the overall global inventories of uranium and thorium, though little indication for those materials’ locations. Crustal temperature measurements have also given hints of the vertical distribution of radioactive heat sources, primarily 238U and 232Th, within the continental crust. Finally, the evolving technologies for laser isotope separation are indicating methods for reducing the energy input to uranium enrichment but also for tailoring the isotopic vectors of fuels, burnable poisons and structural materials, thereby adding another tool for dealing with long-term waste management.

  1. Better Buildings, Better Plants Overview and Look Ahead

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Better Buildings, Better Plants Program will host a webinar presentation on some exciting new initiatives and notable energy-saving accomplishments.

  2. Better Plants Look Ahead Webinar: Text Version | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... A big one was primary metals, but food, paper, and electronics were also represented. We also added 6 new ... This covers the four years that we've been collecting data. So that's ...

  3. A Look Ahead at Demand Response in New England

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, Robert B.; Henderson, Michael I.; Widergren, Steven E.

    2008-08-01

    The paper describes the demand response programs developed and in operation in New England, and the revised designs for participation in the forward capacity market. This description will include how energy efficiency, demand-side resources, and distributed generation are eligible to participate in this new forward capacity market. The paper will also discuss various methods that can be used to configure and communicate with demand response resources and important concerns in specifying interfaces that accommodate multiple technologies and allow technology choice and evolution.

  4. Breakout Session: A Look Ahead: PV Manufacturing in 10 Years

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The global PV manufacturing landscape has undergone significant changes in the past decade, from geographic and economic changes in the supply chain to a significant increase in PV module...

  5. Better Buildings, Better Plants Look Ahead - January 22, 2015...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Water and wastewater sector outreach - DOE is expanding the Better Plants Program to partner with water and wastewater treatment plants, which face unique challenges in managing ...

  6. BG/Q Drivers Status | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Blue Gene/Q Versus Blue Gene/P BG/Q Drivers Status Machine Overview Machine Partitions Torus Network Data Storage & File Systems Compiling & Linking Queueing & Running Jobs Data Transfer Debugging & Profiling Performance Tools & APIs Software & Libraries IBM References Cooley Policies Documentation Feedback Please provide feedback to help guide us as we continue to build documentation for our new computing resource. [Feedback Form] BG/Q Drivers Status The status of

  7. LANL GPIB Driver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-04-15

    This driver code adds a GPIB infrastructure and API features to 2.6 series Linux kernels. Currently supported hardware is National Instruments PCI-GPIB cards built on either the TNT4882 controller chip, or the TNT5004 controller chip. This driver is an improvement over previous GPIB drivers in Linux because it has all the features of the GPL, high performance DMA, supports Linux 2.6 and the new driver model, and has a cleaner API than the previous drivers.more » GPIB is the "general purpose interface bus", commonly used to control oscilloscopes, digital multimeters, function generators, and other electronic test equipment.« less

  8. Arbitrary waveform generator to improve laser diode driver performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulkerson, Jr, Edward Steven

    2015-11-03

    An arbitrary waveform generator modifies the input signal to a laser diode driver circuit in order to reduce the overshoot/undershoot and provide a "flat-top" signal to the laser diode driver circuit. The input signal is modified based on the original received signal and the feedback from the laser diode by measuring the actual current flowing in the laser diode after the original signal is applied to the laser diode.

  9. Analyzing Fuel Saving Opportunities through Driver Feedback Mechanisms...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Analysis of maximizing the Synergy between PHEVsEVs and PV Defining Real World Drive Cycles to Support APRF Technology Evaluations Real-World PHEV ...

  10. Analyzing Fuel Saving Opportunities through Driver Feedback Mechanisms

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  11. Feedback | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Feedback Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titlePrueba2&oldid313186" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating Reference...

  12. Materials from 2014 SunShot Summit Breakout Session: Looking Ahead: PV Manufacturing in 10 Years

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This was a breakout session at the 2014 SunShot Grand Challenge Summit and Peer Review. The global PV manufacturing landscape has undergone significant changes in the past decade, from geographic and economic changes in the supply chain to a significant increase in PV module production by fewer manufacturers. The lessons learned over the last decade will guide the future of this growing industry. This session explored the future of PV manufacturing over the next 5 to 10 years, both domestic and abroad. Expert panelists provided their insights and perspectives across three thematic areas: a vision of PV manufacturing, including the level of integration and the factory of the future; value-adding attributes of PV products; and the geographic concentration of PV manufacturing.

  13. Looking Ahead - Biofuels, H2, & Vehicles: 21st Industry Growth Forum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, D.

    2008-10-28

    This presentation on the future of biofuels, hydrogen, and hybrid vehicles was presented at NREL's 21st Industry Growth Forum in Denver, Colorado, on October 28, 2008.

  14. Drivers and Historians - VOLTTRON 2016

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Drivers and Historians CHANDRIKA SIVARAMAKRISHNAN August 11, 2016 1 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory VOLTTRON TM 2016 PNNL-SA-119802 Introduction Two essential VOLTTRON(tm) services ■ Data collection - Driver framework ■ Data storage - Historian framework ■ Both frameworks are easily extensible August 11, 2016 2 Topics Covered ► Driver framework ■ Configuration for existing driver types ■ Interacting with the device (read & write) ■ Demonstration of a BACnet device setup

  15. Drivers, Trends and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanco, Arthur S.; Gerlagh, Reyer; Suh, Sangwon; Barrett, John A.; de Coninck, Heleen; Diaz Morejon, Cristobal Felix; Mathur, Ritu; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Ahenkorah, Alfred Ofosu; Pan, Jiahua; Pathak, Himanshu; Rice, Jake; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Stern, David; Toth, Ferenc L.; Zhou, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Chapter 5 analyzes the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends until the present and the main drivers that explain those trends. The chapter uses different perspectives to analyze past GHG-emissions trends, including aggregate emissions flows and per capita emissions, cumulative emissions, sectoral emissions, and territory-based vs. consumption-based emissions. In all cases, global and regional trends are analyzed. Where appropriate, the emission trends are contextualized with long-term historic developments in GHG emissions extending back to 1750.

  16. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Driver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Driver is built on top of the RIK-A and implements a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-D is used to orchestrate hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a single cognitive behavior kernel that provides intrinsic intelligence for a wide variety of unmanned ground vehicle systems.

  17. Feedback | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Public Access Feedback Feedback If you have a question or comment about DOE Data Explorer, check to see if it is on our list of frequently asked questions. If your question isn't ...

  18. Web Feedback & Questions - Hanford Site

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Web Feedback & Questions Web Feedback & Questions Web Feedback & Questions Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size Please let us know if you ...

  19. Sandia Material Model Driver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-09-28

    The Sandia Material Model Driver (MMD) software package allows users to run material models from a variety of different Finite Element Model (FEM) codes in a standalone fashion, independent of the host codes. The MMD software is designed to be run on a variety of different operating system platforms as a console application. Initial development efforts have resulted in a package that has been shown to be fast, convenient, and easy to use, with substantialmore » growth potential.« less

  20. ECOdriving - Widespread Implementation for Learner Drivers and...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    programs for licensed drivers in 13 European countries. ECOWILL also promotes the education of eco-driving for learner drivers. This website provides information about...

  1. Proton driver power supply system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jach and D. Wolff

    2002-06-03

    This paper describes magnet power supply system for a proposed Proton Driver at Fermilab. The magnet power supply system consists of resonant dipole/quadrupole power supply system, quadrupole tracking, dipole correction (horizontal and vertical) and sextupole power supply systems. This paper also describes preliminary design of the power distribution system supplying 13.8 kV power to all proton Driver electrical systems.

  2. Global Feedback Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-10-29

    GFS is a simulation engine that is used for the characterization of Accelerator performance parameters based on the machine layout, configuration and noise sources. It combines extensively tested Feedback models with a longitudinal phase space tracking simulator along with the interaction between the two via beam-based feedback using a computationally efficient simulation engine. The models include beam instrumentation, considerations on loop delays for in both the R and beam-based feedback loops, as well as themore » ability to inject noise (both correlated and uncorrelated) at different points of the machine including a full characterization of the electron gun performance parameters.« less

  3. Global Feedback Simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlos Serrano, Lawrence Doolittle

    2015-10-29

    GFS is a simulation engine that is used for the characterization of Accelerator performance parameters based on the machine layout, configuration and noise sources. It combines extensively tested Feedback models with a longitudinal phase space tracking simulator along with the interaction between the two via beam-based feedback using a computationally efficient simulation engine. The models include beam instrumentation, considerations on loop delays for in both the R and beam-based feedback loops, as well as the ability to inject noise (both correlated and uncorrelated) at different points of the machine including a full characterization of the electron gun performance parameters.

  4. Track 10: Feedback and Improvement

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    ISM Workshop Presentations Knoxville Convention Center, Knoxville, TN August 2009 Track 10: Feedback and Improvement

  5. Global climate feedbacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manowitz, B.

    1990-10-01

    The important physical, chemical, and biological events that affect global climate change occur on a mesoscale -- requiring high spatial resolution for their analysis. The Department of Energy has formulated two major initiatives under the US Global Change Program: ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements), and CHAMMP (Computer Hardware Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics). ARM is designed to use ground and air-craft based observations to document profiles of atmospheric composition, clouds, and radiative fluxes. With research and models of important physical processes, ARM will delineate the relationships between trace gases, aerosol and cloud structure, and radiative transfer in the atmosphere, and will improve the parameterization of global circulation models. The present GCMs do not model important feedbacks, including those from clouds, oceans, and land processes. The purpose of this workshop is to identify such potential feedbacks, to evaluate the uncertainties in the feedback processes (and, if possible, to parameterize the feedback processes so that they can be treated in a GCM), and to recommend research programs that will reduce the uncertainties in important feedback processes. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  6. UWB dual burst transmit driver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Zumstein, James M.; Vigars, Mark L.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2012-04-17

    A dual burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a pair of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. An input trigger pulse produces two oscillator trigger pulses, an initial pulse and a delayed pulse, in a dual trigger generator. The two oscillator trigger pulses drive a gated RF burst (power output) oscillator. A bias driver circuit gates the RF output oscillator on and off and sets the RF burst packet width. The bias driver also level shifts the drive signal to the level that is required for the RF output device.

  7. STABILIZED FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fishbine, H.L.; Sewell, C. Jr.

    1957-08-01

    Negative feedback amplifiers, and particularly a negative feedback circuit which is economical on amode power consumption, are described. Basically, the disclosed circuit comprises two tetrode tubes where the output of the first tube is capacitamce coupled to the grid of the second tube, which in turn has its plate coupled to the cathode of the first tube to form a degenerative feedback circuit. Operating potential for screen of the second tube is supplied by connecting the cathode resistor of the first tube to the screen, while the screen is by-passed to the cathode of its tube for the amplified frequencies. Also, the amplifier incorporates a circuit to stabilize the transconductance of the tubes by making the grid potential of each tube interdependent on anode currents of both lubes by voltage divider circuitry.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Feedback

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    News Releases Publications Media Contacts & Resources Events Video Image Gallery Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS News Feedback For more information, please contact us. * Items are Required First Name * Last Name * Email Address * Phone Company Name Subject * Message * Send

  9. Polarization feedback laser stabilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Esherick, Peter; Owyoung, Adelbert

    1988-01-01

    A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other.

  10. A look ahead: Status of the SNS external antenna ion source and the new RFQ test stand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welton, R. F. Aleksandrov, A.; Han, B. X.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Piller, M.; Kang, Y.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M. P.; Dudnikov, V. G.

    2015-04-08

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now operates with ∼1 MW of beam power to target with the near-term goal of delivering 1.4 MW. Plans are being considered to incorporate a second target station into the facility which will require ∼2.8 MW of beam power. Presently, H{sup −} beam pulses (∼1 ms, 60 Hz) are produced by an RF-driven, Cs-enhanced, multi-cusp ion source which injects beam into an RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole) accelerator that, in turn, feeds the SNS Linac. Currently the source/RFQ system delivers ∼35 mA of pulsed current to the linac which is mostly sufficient for 1.4 MW operations while ∼50 mA are needed for the second target station upgrade. This paper provides a look forward for the SNS by providing (i) the present and future SNS source/RFQ beam requirements and our plans to achieve these, (ii) a description and status of the external antenna ion source being developed for the replacement of the current internal antenna ion source, and (iii) a description and status of the newly constructed RFQ test facility.

  11. Eaton AF5000+Genesis Communication Driver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-05-25

    Communication driver allows the Genesis Control Series software to interact with Eaton AF5000+ frequency drives via RS-232 communications. All Eaton AF5000+ parameters that support communications are supported by the Genesis driver. Multidrop addressing to multiple units is available with the Genesis communication driver.

  12. OpenEI Community - feedback

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Geothermal Stakeholder Feedback on the GRR http:en.openei.orgcommunitybloggeothermal-stakeholder-feedback-grr

    As we head into the holiday season, we thought we'd share with...

  13. Beryllium Program Feedback - Hanford Site

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Hanford CBDPP Committee Beryllium FAQs Beryllium Related Links Hanford Beryllium Awareness Group (BAG) Program Performance Assessments Beryllium Program Feedback Beryllium...

  14. Visualization drivers for Geant4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beretvas, Andy; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    This document is on Geant4 visualization tools (drivers), evaluating pros and cons of each option, including recommendations on which tools to support at Fermilab for different applications. Four visualization drivers are evaluated. They are OpenGL, HepRep, DAWN and VRML. They all have good features, OpenGL provides graphic output without an intermediate file. HepRep provides menus to assist the user. DAWN provides high quality plots and even for large files produces output quickly. VRML uses the smallest disk space for intermediate files. Large experiments at Fermilab will want to write their own display. They should proceed to make this display graphics independent. Medium experiment will probably want to use HepRep because of it's menu support. Smaller scale experiments will want to use OpenGL in the spirit of having immediate response, good quality output and keeping things simple.

  15. DISTRIBUTED AMPLIFIER INCORPORATING FEEDBACK

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, P.R. Jr.

    1958-10-21

    An improved distributed amplifier system employing feedback for stabilization is presented. In accordance with the disclosed invention, a signal to be amplified is applled to one end of a suitable terminated grid transmission line. At intervals along the transmission line, the signal is fed to stable, resistance-capacitance coupled amplifiers incorporating feedback loops therein. The output current from each amplifier is passed through an additional tube to minimize the electrostatic capacitance between the tube elements of the last stage of the amplifier, and fed to appropriate points on an output transmission line, similar to the grid line, but terminated at the opposite (input) end. The output taken from the unterminated end of the plate transmission line is proportional to the input voltage impressed upon the grid line.

  16. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  17. Polarization feedback laser stabilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Esherick, P.; Owyoung, A.

    1987-09-28

    A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other. 4 figs.

  18. Next Generation Environmentally Friendly Driving Feedback Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Environmentally Friendly Driving Feedback Systems Research and Development Next Generation Environmentally Friendly Driving Feedback Systems Research and Development 2012 DOE ...

  19. Market Drivers for Biofuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Market Drivers for Biofuels Market Drivers for Biofuels This presentation, entitled "Market Drivers for Biofuels," was given at the Third Annual MSW to Biofuels Summit in February, 2013, by Brian Duff. duff_msw_to_biofuels_summit.pdf (2.42 MB) More Documents & Publications Office of the Biomass Program Educational Opportunities in Bioenergy Intro Webinar Webinar: Using the New Bioenergy KDF for Data Discovery and Research Sustainability for the Global Biofuels Industry: Minimizing

  20. Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Workforce/ Business Partners Peer Exchange Call Series: Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, April 24, 2014.

  1. Physics at an upgraded Fermilab proton driver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    In 2004 the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future, primarily motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics. Over the last few months a physics study has developed the physics case for the Fermilab Proton Driver. The potential physics opportunities are discussed.

  2. Drivers of Future Energy Demand

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 3,405 3,901 4,133 4,041 2000's 8,829 8,050 10,938 10,551 7,292 7,223 15,647 16,102 46,437 43,953 2010's 44,470 44,836 46,069 53,679 64,072 67,144

    Drivers of Future Energy Demand in China Asian Energy Demand Outlook 2014 EIA Energy Conference July 14, 2014 Valerie J. Karplus MIT Sloan School of Management 2 www.china.org.cn www.flickr.com www.wikimedia.org globalchange.mit.edu Global Climate Change Human

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Techniques for Drivers to Conserve Fuel

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Techniques for Drivers to Conserve Fuel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Techniques for Drivers to Conserve Fuel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Techniques for Drivers to Conserve Fuel on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Techniques for Drivers to Conserve Fuel on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Techniques for Drivers to Conserve Fuel on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Techniques for Drivers to Conserve

  4. V-217: Microsoft Windows NAT Driver ICMP Packet Handling Denial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    7: Microsoft Windows NAT Driver ICMP Packet Handling Denial of Service Vulnerability V-217: Microsoft Windows NAT Driver ICMP Packet Handling Denial of Service Vulnerability August...

  5. Renewable Energy Technology Costs and Drivers | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Technology Costs and Drivers Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Renewable Energy Technology Costs and Drivers AgencyCompany Organization: National...

  6. Drivers and Barriers in the Current Concentrated Solar Power...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Drivers and Barriers in the Current Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Market (Webinar) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Drivers and Barriers in the Current...

  7. Documentation Feedback | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Documentation Feedback We appreciate your feedback on our user documentation. Your comments and suggestions will help us to better serve your needs as we continue to build user...

  8. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Feedback Form

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Ask a Question Feedback U.S. DOENNSA - Nevada Field Office Ask a Question Feedback Your suggestions and comments pertaining to this website are greatly appreciated. Please use ...

  9. Version pressure feedback mechanisms for speculative versioning...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Version pressure feedback mechanisms for speculative versioning caches Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Version pressure feedback mechanisms for speculative versioning ...

  10. OMEGA Laser Drivers - Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Drivers - Laboratory for Laser Energetics Laboratory for Laser Energetics Logo Search Home Around the Lab Past Issues Past Quick Shots About Office of the Director Map to LLE LLE ...

  11. Driver circuit for solid state light sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Palmer, Fred; Denvir, Kerry; Allen, Steven

    2016-02-16

    A driver circuit for a light source including one or more solid state light sources, a luminaire including the same, and a method of so driving the solid state light sources are provided. The driver circuit includes a rectifier circuit that receives an alternating current (AC) input voltage and provides a rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a switching converter circuit coupled to the light source. The switching converter circuit provides a direct current (DC) output to the light source in response to the rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a mixing circuit, coupled to the light source, to switch current through at least one solid state light source of the light source in response to each of a plurality of consecutive half-waves of the rectified AC voltage.

  12. Physics at a new Fermilab proton driver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2006-04-01

    In 2004, motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics, the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future. At the end of 2004 the APS ''Study on the Physics of Neutrinos'' concluded that the future US neutrino program should have, as one of its components, ''A proton driver in the megawatt class or above and neutrino superbeam with an appropriate very large detector capable of observing Cp violation and measuring the neutrino mass-squared differences and mixing parameters with high precision''. The presently proposed Fermilab Proton Driver is designed to accomplish these goals, and is based on, and would help develop, Linear Collider technology. In this paper the Proton Driver parameters are summarized, and the potential physics program is described.

  13. Give Us Your Feedback | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Give Us Your Feedback Give Us Your Feedback We're working to improve internal communications at the Energy Department. Please send us your ideas. Topic * Employee Feedback Contractor Feedback At which Energy Department facility or lab do you work? * Message * Email address (Optional) CAPTCHA This question is for testing whether you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. Submit

  14. Parallel multiplex laser feedback interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Song; Tan, Yidong; Zhang, Shulian

    2013-12-15

    We present a parallel multiplex laser feedback interferometer based on spatial multiplexing which avoids the signal crosstalk in the former feedback interferometer. The interferometer outputs two close parallel laser beams, whose frequencies are shifted by two acousto-optic modulators by 2Ω simultaneously. A static reference mirror is inserted into one of the optical paths as the reference optical path. The other beam impinges on the target as the measurement optical path. Phase variations of the two feedback laser beams are simultaneously measured through heterodyne demodulation with two different detectors. Their subtraction accurately reflects the target displacement. Under typical room conditions, experimental results show a resolution of 1.6 nm and accuracy of 7.8 nm within the range of 100 μm.

  15. Linear transformer driver for pulse generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Alexander A; Mazarakis, Michael G; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A; Volkov, Sergey N; Kondratiev, Sergey S; Alexeenko, Vitaly M; Bayol, Frederic; Demol, Gauthier; Stygar, William A

    2015-04-07

    A linear transformer driver includes at least one ferrite ring positioned to accept a load. The linear transformer driver also includes a first power delivery module that includes a first charge storage devices and a first switch. The first power delivery module sends a first energy in the form of a first pulse to the load. The linear transformer driver also includes a second power delivery module including a second charge storage device and a second switch. The second power delivery module sends a second energy in the form of a second pulse to the load. The second pulse has a frequency that is approximately three times the frequency of the first pulse. The at least one ferrite ring is positioned to force the first pulse and the second pulse to the load by temporarily isolating the first pulse and the second pulse from an electrical ground.

  16. TMACS Test Procedure TP009: Acromag Driver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washburn, S.J.

    1994-05-31

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project`s acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure tests the TMACS Acromag Software Driver (Bridge Code).

  17. Data, Feedback, and Awareness Lead to Big Energy Savings | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Data, Feedback, and Awareness Lead to Big Energy Savings Data, Feedback, and Awareness Lead to Big Energy Savings Data, Feedback, and Awareness Lead to Big Energy Savings Fact ...

  18. Drivers of Success in the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program --

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Statistical Process Evaluation Volume 3 | Department of Energy Drivers of Success in the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program -- Statistical Process Evaluation Volume 3 Drivers of Success in the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program -- Statistical Process Evaluation Volume 3 Final Report: Drivers of Success in the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program - Statistical Process Evaluation Final Evaluation Volume 3, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, June 2015. Drivers of Success in

  19. Rf Feedback free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A.; Swenson, Donald A.; Boyd, Jr., Thomas J.

    1981-01-01

    A free electron laser system and electron beam system for a free electron laser which use rf feedback to enhance efficiency. Rf energy is extracted from an electron beam by decelerating cavities and returned to accelerating cavities using rf returns such as rf waveguides, rf feedthroughs, etc. This rf energy is added to rf klystron energy to lower the required input energy and thereby enhance energy efficiency of the system.

  20. Rf feedback free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, C.A.; Swenson, D.A.; Boyd, T.J. Jr.

    1979-11-02

    A free electron laser system and electron beam system for a free electron laser are provided which use rf feedback to enhance efficiency. Rf energy is extracted from an electron beam by decelerating cavities and returned to accelerating cavities using rf returns such as rf waveguides, rf feedthroughs, etc. This rf energy is added to rf klystron energy to lower the required input energy and thereby enhance energy efficiency of the system.

  1. Tank monitor and control system (TMACS) software project Westronics Driver acceptance test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glasscock, J.A.

    1998-08-18

    The acceptance test for the Westronics driver. This driver connects the Westronics Smart Multiplexer with the TMACS monitoring system.

  2. Feedback enhanced plasma spray tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gevelber, Michael Alan; Wroblewski, Donald Edward; Fincke, James Russell; Swank, William David; Haggard, Delon C.; Bewley, Randy Lee

    2005-11-22

    An improved automatic feedback control scheme enhances plasma spraying of powdered material through reduction of process variability and providing better ability to engineer coating structure. The present inventors discovered that controlling centroid position of the spatial distribution along with other output parameters, such as particle temperature, particle velocity, and molten mass flux rate, vastly increases control over the sprayed coating structure, including vertical and horizontal cracks, voids, and porosity. It also allows improved control over graded layers or compositionally varying layers of material, reduces variations, including variation in coating thickness, and allows increasing deposition rate. Various measurement and system control schemes are provided.

  3. RF power recovery feedback circulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharamentov, Sergey I.

    2011-03-29

    A device and method for improving the efficiency of RF systems having a Reflective Load. In the preferred embodiment, Reflected Energy from a superconducting resonator of a particle accelerator is reintroduced to the resonator after the phase of the Reflected Energy is aligned with the phase of the Supply Energy from a RF Energy Source. In one embodiment, a Circulator is used to transfer Reflected Energy from the Reflective Load into a Phase Adjuster which aligns the phase of the Reflected Energy with that of the Supply Energy. The phase-aligned energy is then combined with the Supply Energy, and reintroduced into the Reflective Load. In systems having a constant phase shift, the Phase Adjuster may be designed to shift the phase of the Reflected Energy by a constant amount using a Phase Shifter. In systems having a variety (variable) phase shifts, a Phase Shifter controlled by a phase feedback loop comprising a Phase Detector and a Feedback Controller to account for the various phase shifts is preferable.

  4. Combining Feedback Absorption Spectroscopy, Amplified Resonance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Automotive Emissions Combining Feedback Absorption Spectroscopy, Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling for the Measurement of Nitrogen-Containing Compounds in Automotive ...

  5. CRAD, Feedback and Continuous Improvement - DOE Headquarters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Feedback and Continuous Improvement Inspection Criteria and Approach - DOE ... Department of Energy Oversight Policy; DOE Order 226. 1A, Implementation of Department of Energy ...

  6. UWB communication receiver feedback loop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spiridon, Alex; Benzel, Dave; Dowla, Farid U.; Nekoogar, Faranak; Rosenbury, Erwin T.

    2007-12-04

    A novel technique and structure that maximizes the extraction of information from reference pulses for UWB-TR receivers is introduced. The scheme efficiently processes an incoming signal to suppress different types of UWB as well as non-UWB interference prior to signal detection. Such a method and system adds a feedback loop mechanism to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of reference pulses in a conventional TR receiver. Moreover, sampling the second order statistical function such as, for example, the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the received signal and matching it to the ACF samples of the original pulses for each transmitted bit provides a more robust UWB communications method and system in the presence of channel distortions.

  7. A material model driver for DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallquist, J.O.; Whirley, R.G.

    1990-02-22

    This report describes a material model driver which has recently been implemented in the DYNA3D code. The material model driver allows plotting of the constitutive response predicted by a material model under a given load path. This capability is particularly useful when fitting complex material models to experimental data. The plotting capability of the material model driver facilitates comparison of the simulated material stress-strain behavior with actual material test results. 1 ref., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Alternative Fuel Vehicles: What Do the Drivers Say?

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    What Do the Drivers Say? For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., Nov. 19, 1997 -- What do the people who drive them really think about alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs)? That was the question on the table when the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) launched a nationwide survey of federal fleet managers and AFV drivers in 1996. The answers are in Perspectives on AFVs: 1996 Federal Fleet Driver Survey. Two hundred and fifty drivers were surveyed during each quarter of 1996.

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Gate Driver Optimizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Gate Driver Optimization for WBG Applications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review ... Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells ...

  10. Microsoft Word - ContractManagementPlanningDRIVERS.doc | Department...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ContractManagementPlanningDRIVERS.doc More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - ARRAAttachment2.doc Microsoft Word - ARRAModelWAS.doc Microsoft Word - ARRAMOModelMod.doc...

  11. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    D.C. PDF icon ape003tolbert2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Wide Bandgap Materials Smart ...

  12. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ape03marlino.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Smart Integrated Power Module ...

  13. OLED Luminaire with Panel Integrated Drivers and Advanced Controls...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DC current drivers integrated with each panel, and a base station that interfaces with ... More Documents & Publications High-Performance OLED Panel and Luminaire Luminaires for ...

  14. Brazil's Biofuels Scenario: What are the Main Drivers Which will...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in Bioenergy Brazil's Biofuels Scenario: What are the Main Drivers Which will Shape Investments in the Long Term? Artur Milanez, Manager of Biofuels Department, Brazilian ...

  15. Drivers of Success in the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Neighborhood Program -- Statistical Process Evaluation Volume 3 Drivers of Success in the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program -- Statistical Process Evaluation Volume 3 ...

  16. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. ); Bangerter, R.O. ); Bock, R. ); Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D. )

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  17. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bock, R.; Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D.

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF? (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration? (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues? (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral? (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF? The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  18. Optical feedback structures and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snee, Preston T; Chan, Yin Thai; Nocera, Daniel G; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2014-11-18

    An optical resonator can include an optical feedback structure disposed on a substrate, and a composite including a matrix including a chromophore. The composite disposed on the substrate and in optical communication with the optical feedback structure. The chromophore can be a semiconductor nanocrystal. The resonator can provide laser emission when excited.

  19. Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Rating and Feedback Systems Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems Better Buildings Residential Workforce Business Partners Peer Exchange Call Series: Contractor Rating and ...

  20. Carbon Credit Capital and Feedback Ventures JV | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Capital and Feedback Ventures JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Credit Capital and Feedback Ventures JV Place: India Sector: Carbon Product: String representation "Carbon...

  1. Positive low cloud and dust feedbacks amplify tropical North...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    amplify tropical North Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation: CLOUD AND DUST FEEDBACK AND AMO Title: Positive low cloud and dust feedbacks amplify tropical North Atlantic ...

  2. Feedback and Continuous Improvement Inspection Criteria and Approach...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... lessons learned processes, and other feedback mechanisms (e.g., worker feedback). DOE Headquarters line management lnust also evaluate field element processes for communicating ...

  3. Post-Review Feedback Questionnaire for Evaluating the Peer Review...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Post-Review Feedback Questionnaire for Evaluating the Peer Review Process Post-Review Feedback Questionnaire for Evaluating the Peer Review Process EERE is committed to continuous ...

  4. Fact #922: April 25, 2016 Share of Older Population Holding Driver's

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Licenses is Up and Share of Younger Population Holding Driver's Licenses is Down | Department of Energy 2: April 25, 2016 Share of Older Population Holding Driver's Licenses is Up and Share of Younger Population Holding Driver's Licenses is Down Fact #922: April 25, 2016 Share of Older Population Holding Driver's Licenses is Up and Share of Younger Population Holding Driver's Licenses is Down SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week Examining the share of population holding driver's licenses in

  5. Cirrus feedback on interannual climate fluctuations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, C.; Dessler, A. E.; Zelinka, M. D.; Yang, P.; Wang, T.

    2014-12-28

    Cirrus clouds are not only important in determining the current climate, but also play an important role in climate change and variability. Analysis of satellite observations shows that the amount and altitude of cirrus clouds (optical depth <3.6, cloud top pressure <440 hPa) increase in response to inter-annual surface warming. Thus, cirrus clouds are likely to act as a positive feedback on short-term climate fluctuations, by reducing the planet’s ability to radiate longwave radiation to space in response to planetary surface warming. Using cirrus cloud radiative kernels, the magnitude of cirrus feedback is estimated to be 0.20±0.21W/m2/°C, which is comparable to the surface albedo feedback. Most of the cirrus feedback comes from increasing cloud amount in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and subtropical upper troposphere.

  6. Science Drivers of Particle Physics | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) [DOE]

    Science Drivers of Particle Physics High Energy Physics (HEP) HEP Home About Research Science Drivers of Particle Physics Energy Frontier Intensity Frontier Cosmic Frontier ...

  7. Driver performance data acquisition system for ergonomics research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, R.J.; Goodman, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    A portable ergonomics data acquisition system consisting of state-of-the-art hardware being designed is described here. It will be employed to record driver, vehicle, and environment parameter data from a wide range of vehicles and trucks. The system will be unobtrusive to the driver and inconspicuous to the outside world. It will have three modes of data gathering and provide for extended periods of data collection. Modularity, flexibility, and cost will be key drivers in the development effort. The ergonomics data acquisition system project is being conducted in two phases--a feasibility study and a development, construction, and validation phase.

  8. Greening of the Earth and its drivers

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Zhu, Zaichun; Piao, Shilong; Myneni, Ranga B.; Huang, Mengtian; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe; Sitch, Stephen; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Arneth, Almut; et al

    2016-04-25

    Global environmental change is rapidly altering the dynamics of terrestrial vegetation, with consequences for the functioning of the Earth system and provision of ecosystem services1, 2. Yet how global vegetation is responding to the changing environment is not well established. Here we use three long-term satellite leaf area index (LAI) records and ten global ecosystem models to investigate four key drivers of LAI trends during 1982 2009. We show a persistent and widespread increase of growing season integrated LAI (greening) over 25% to 50% of the global vegetated area, whereas less than 4% of the globe shows decreasing LAI (browning).more » Factorial simulations with multiple global ecosystem models suggest that CO2 fertilization effects explain 70% of the observed greening trend, followed by nitrogen deposition (9%), climate change (8%) and land cover change (LCC) (4%). CO2 fertilization effects explain most of the greening trends in the tropics, whereas climate change resulted in greening of the high latitudes and the Tibetan Plateau. LCC contributed most to the regional greening observed in southeast China and the eastern United States. In conclusion, the regional effects of unexplained factors suggest that the next generation of ecosystem models will need to explore the impacts of forest demography, differences in regional management intensities for cropland and pastures, and other emerging productivity constraints such as phosphorus availability.« less

  9. FFAG ACCELERATOR PROTON DRIVER FOR NEUTRINO FACTORY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RUGGIERO, A.

    2005-06-21

    This paper is the summary of a conceptual study of a Proton Driver for Neutrino Factory based on the use of a Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) Accelerator. The required proton energy range for an optimum neutrino production is 5 to 12 GeV. This can be accomplished with a group of three concentric rings each with 807 m circumference [1]. FFAG Accelerators [2] have the capability to accelerate charged particles over a large momentum range ({+-}30-50%) and the feature of constant bending and focusing fields. Particles can be accelerated very fast at the rate given by the accelerating field of RF cavities placed in proper locations between magnets. The performance of FFAG accelerators is to be placed between that of Super-Conducting Linear Accelerators (SCL), with which they share the fast acceleration rate, and Rapid-Cycling Synchrotrons (RCS), as they allow the beam to re-circulate over fewer revolutions. Brookhaven National Laboratory is involved in the study of feasibility of FFAG Accelerators to accelerate intense beams of protons in the GeV energy range for a variety of applications the most important of which is the Upgrade of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) with a new FFAG injector [3] accelerating from 400 MeV to 1.5 GeV. The ring would be housed in the AGS tunnel and has henceforth a circumference of 807 m.

  10. DOE Emergency Exercise Feedback Form | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Emergency Exercise Feedback Form DOE Emergency Exercise Feedback Form Emergency Exercise Feedback Form DOE Emergency Exercise Feedback Form (21.01 KB) More Documents & Publications Independent Oversight Review, DOE Headquarters Facilities - March 2002 Employee Assistance Self-ID Form Independent Oversight Review, National Energy Technology Laboratory - May 2014

  11. Is transverse feedback necessary for the SSC emittance preservation? (Vibration noise analysis and feedback parameters optimization)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkhomchuk, V.V.; Shiltsev, V.D.

    1993-06-01

    The paper considers the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) site ground motion measurements as well as data from accelerators worldwide about noises that worsen beam performance. Unacceptably fast emittance growth due to these noises is predicted for the SSC. A transverse feedback system was found to be the only satisfactory alternative to prevent emittance decay. Optimization of the primary feedback parameters was done.

  12. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK WORKS BOTH WAYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinn, P.-C.; Middelberg, E.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Norris, R. P.

    2013-09-01

    Simulations of galaxy growth need to invoke strong negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to suppress the formation of stars and thus prevent the over-production of very massive systems. While some observations provide evidence for such negative feedback, other studies find either no feedback or even positive feedback, with increased star formation associated with higher AGN luminosities. Here we report an analysis of several hundred AGNs and their host galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South using X-ray and radio data for sample selection. Combined with archival far-infrared data as a reliable tracer of star formation activity in the AGN host galaxies, we find that AGNs with pronounced radio jets exhibit a much higher star formation rate (SFR) than the purely X-ray-selected ones, even at the same X-ray luminosities. This difference implies that positive AGN feedback plays an important role, too, and therefore has to be accounted for in all future simulation work. We interpret this to indicate that the enhanced SFR of radio-selected AGNs arises because of jet-induced star formation, as is suggested by the different jet powers among our AGN samples, while the suppressed SFR of X-ray selected AGN is caused by heating and photo-dissociation of molecular gas by the hot AGN accretion disk.

  13. Science Drivers and Technical Challenges for Advanced Magnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Karl T.; Pruski, Marek; Washton, Nancy M.; Lipton, Andrew S.

    2013-03-07

    This report recaps the "Science Drivers and Technical Challenges for Advanced Magnetic Resonance" workshop, held in late 2011. This exploratory workshop's goal was to discuss and address challenges for the next generation of magnetic resonance experimentation. During the workshop, participants from throughout the world outlined the science drivers and instrumentation demands for high-field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and associated magnetic resonance techniques, discussed barriers to their advancement, and deliberated the path forward for significant and impactful advances in the field.

  14. X- And y-axis driver for rotating microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinstein, Berthold W.

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus for precise control of the motion and position of microspheres for examination of their interior and/or exterior. The apparatus includes an x- and y-axis driver mechanism controlled, for example, by a minicomputer for selectively rotating microspheres retained between a pair of manipulator arms having flat, smooth end surfaces. The driver mechanism includes an apertured plate and ball arrangement which provided for coupled equal and opposite movement of the manipulator arms in two perpendicular directions.

  15. Drivers of Success in the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Final Report Drivers of Success in the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program - Statistical Process Evaluation Final Evaluation Volume 3 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 June 2015 DOE/EE-1204 DOE/EE-1204 Final Report Drivers of Success in the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program - Statistical Process Evaluation Final Evaluation Volume 3 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 June 2015 Funded By: Prepared By: Research Into Action, Inc. Prepared For: U.S. Department of

  16. Van Allen probes pinpoint driver of speeding electrons

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Van Allen probes pinpoint driver of speeding electrons Van Allen probes pinpoint driver of speeding electrons Los Alamos researchers believe they have solved a lingering mystery about how electrons within Earth's radiation belt can suddenly become energetic enough to kill orbiting satellites. July 25, 2013 Artist's rendering of mechanism within Van Allen radiation belts An artist's rendering of a mechanism within the Van Allen radiation belts that can accelerate electrons to satellite-killing

  17. OLED Luminaire with Panel Integrated Drivers and Advanced Controls |

    Energy Savers

    Department of Energy OLED Luminaire with Panel Integrated Drivers and Advanced Controls OLED Luminaire with Panel Integrated Drivers and Advanced Controls Lead Performer: Acuity Brands Lighting - Berkeley, CA Partner: OLEDWorks - Rochester, NY DOE Total Funding: $337,505 Cost Share: $112,502 Project Term: July 1, 2015 - October 30, 2016 Funding Opportunity: SSL R&D Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) (DE-FOA-0001171) Project Objective This project plans to develop an OLED luminaire

  18. High Speed, High Current Pulsed LED Driver - Energy Innovation Portal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search High Speed, High Current Pulsed LED Driver Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (386 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Sandia's LED Pulser drives high-power LEDs to generate light pulses with shorter duration, higher repetition frequency, and higher intensity than is possible with commercially available LED drivers. This technology utilizes specially

  19. PEP-II Transverse Feedback Electronics Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, J.M.; Chin, M.J.; Doolittle, L.R.; Akre, R.; /SLAC

    2006-03-13

    The PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires an upgrade of the transverse feedback system electronics. The new electronics require 12-bit resolution and a minimum sampling rate of 238 Msps. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to implement the feedback algorithm. The FPGA also contains an embedded PowerPC 405 (PPC-405) processor to run control system interface software for data retrieval, diagnostics, and system monitoring. The design of this system is based on the Xilinx{reg_sign} ML300 Development Platform, a circuit board set containing an FPGA with an embedded processor, a large memory bank, and other peripherals. This paper discusses the design of a digital feedback system based on an FPGA with an embedded processor. Discussion will include specifications, component selection, and integration with the ML300 design.

  20. PEP-II Transverse Feedback Electronics Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, J.; Chin, M.; Doolittle, L.; Akre, R.

    2005-05-09

    The PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires an upgrade of the transverse feedback system electronics. The new electronics require 12-bit resolution and a minimum sampling rate of 238 Msps. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to implement the feedback algorithm. The FPGA also contains an embedded PowerPC 405 (PPC-405) processor to run control system interface software for data retrieval, diagnostics, and system monitoring. The design of this system is based on the Xilinx(R) ML300 Development Platform, a circuit board set containing an FPGA with an embedded processor, a large memory bank, and other peripherals. This paper discusses the design of a digital feedback system based on an FPGA with an embedded processor. Discussion will include specifications, component selection, and integration with the ML300 design.

  1. Fact #574: June 8, 2009 Vehicles per Licensed Driver Rising | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy 4: June 8, 2009 Vehicles per Licensed Driver Rising Fact #574: June 8, 2009 Vehicles per Licensed Driver Rising The number of vehicles in operation per licensed driver has risen steadily since 1950. In 1985, for the first time, there was one vehicle for every licensed driver. Since 1985, the number of vehicles in operation has exceeded the number of licensed drivers reaching a level of 1.21 vehicles per licensed driver in 2007. Vehicles per Licensed Driver, 1950-2007 Line graph

  2. Plans for a proton driver at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kephart, R.D.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    , and will certainly have important implications for our understanding of cosmology and the evolution of the early Universe. The current Fermilab Program is an important part of the world-wide accelerator based effort to explore and understand the physics of neutrino oscillations. By early 2005, with both MINOS and MiniBooNE taking data, Fermilab will be able to answer some of the most pressing first-round questions raised by the discovery that neutrinos have mass. Fermilab's high-intensity neutrino beams are derived from 8- and 120-GeV proton beams. MiniBooNE is currently taking data using 8 GeV Protons from the Booster. The 120 GeV NuMI beam will start to operate in early 2005 using a 0.25 MW proton beam power from the Main Injector. Future neutrino programs will build on these existing facilities. New short and long baseline experiments have been proposed. There are proposals to increase the available number of protons at 8 and 120 GeV with the goal of addressing the full range of questions presented by neutrino oscillations. Key to that vision is a new intense proton source that usually is referred to as the Proton Driver.

  3. Reduced-Order Model Based Feedback Control For Modified Hasegawa...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reduced-Order Model Based Feedback Control For Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reduced-Order Model Based Feedback Control For Modified ...

  4. BEAM SIMULATIONS USING VIRTUAL DIAGNOSTICS FOR THE DRIVER LINAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. C. York; X. Wu; Q. Zhao

    2011-12-21

    End-to-end beam simulations for the driver linac have shown that the design meets the necessary performance requirements including having adequate transverse and longitudinal acceptances. However, to achieve reliable operational performance, the development of appropriate beam diagnostic systems and control room procedures are crucial. With limited R&D funding, beam simulations provide a cost effective tool to evaluate candidate beam diagnostic systems and to provide a critical basis for developing early commissioning and later operational activities. We propose to perform beam dynamic studies and engineering analyses to define the requisite diagnostic systems of the driver linac and through simulation to develop and test commissioning and operational procedures.

  5. THE INTERSTELLAR BUBBLES OF G38.9-0.4 AND THE IMPACT OF STELLAR FEEDBACK ON STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander, Michael J.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Kerton, Charles R.; Arvidsson, Kim E-mail: chipk@uwyo.edu E-mail: karvidsson@adlerplanetarium.org

    2013-06-10

    We present a study of the star formation (SF) region G38.9-0.4 using publicly available multiwavelength Galactic plane surveys from ground- and space-based observatories. This region is composed of four bright mid-IR bubbles and numerous infrared dark clouds. Two bubbles, N 74 and N 75, each host a star cluster anchored by a single O9.5V star. We identified 162 young stellar objects (YSOs) and classify 54 as stage I, 7 as stage II, 6 as stage III, and 32 as ambiguous. We do not detect the classical signposts of triggered SF, i.e., star-forming pillars or YSOs embedded within bubble rims. We conclude that feedback-triggered SF has not occurred in G38.9-0.4. The YSOs are preferentially coincident with infrared dark clouds. This leads to a strong correlation between areal YSO mass surface density and gas mass surface density with a power law slope near 1.3, which closely matches the Schmidt-Kennicutt Law. The correlation is similar inside and outside the bubbles and may mean that the SF efficiency is neither enhanced nor suppressed in regions potentially influenced by stellar feedback. This suggests that gas density, regardless of how it is collected, is a more important driver of SF than stellar feedback. Larger studies should be able to quantify the fraction of all SF that is feedback-triggered by determining the fraction SF, feedback-compressed gas surrounding H II regions relative to that already present in molecular clouds.

  6. Frequency-feedback cavity enhanced spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hovde, David Christian; Gomez, Anthony

    2015-08-18

    A spectrometer comprising an optical cavity, a light source capable of producing light at one or more wavelengths transmitted by the cavity and with the light directed at the cavity, a detector and optics positioned to collect light transmitted by the cavity, feedback electronics causing oscillation of amplitude of the optical signal on the detector at a frequency that depends on cavity losses, and a sensor measuring the oscillation frequency to determine the cavity losses.

  7. PROJECT MANGEMENT PLAN EXAMPLES Feedback Examples

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Feedback Examples Example 74 8.2.3 Quality Improvement The focus of the quality improvement process is to reduce the variability of work processes that influence the quality of the products and services. Under the corrective action program, organizations have the authority to identify quality problems and to initiate, recommend, or provide solutions through designated channels. Management systems (e.g., root cause analysis, lessons learned) will be used to plan, implement, and evaluate

  8. BLACK HOLE FORAGING: FEEDBACK DRIVES FEEDING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehnen, Walter; King, Andrew, E-mail: wd11@leicester.ac.uk, E-mail: ark@astro.le.ac.uk [Theoretical Astrophysics Group, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)] [Theoretical Astrophysics Group, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-10

    We suggest a new picture of supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth in galaxy centers. Momentum-driven feedback from an accreting hole gives significant orbital energy, but little angular momentum to the surrounding gas. Once central accretion drops, the feedback weakens and swept-up gas falls back toward the SMBH on near-parabolic orbits. These intersect near the black hole with partially opposed specific angular momenta, causing further infall and ultimately the formation of a small-scale accretion disk. The feeding rates into the disk typically exceed Eddington by factors of a few, growing the hole on the Salpeter timescale and stimulating further feedback. Natural consequences of this picture include (1) the formation and maintenance of a roughly toroidal distribution of obscuring matter near the hole; (2) random orientations of successive accretion disk episodes; (3) the possibility of rapid SMBH growth; (4) tidal disruption of stars and close binaries formed from infalling gas, resulting in visible flares and ejection of hypervelocity stars; (5) super-solar abundances of the matter accreting on to the SMBH; and (6) a lower central dark-matter density, and hence annihilation signal, than adiabatic SMBH growth implies. We also suggest a simple subgrid recipe for implementing this process in numerical simulations.

  9. Residential Feedback Devices and Programs. Opportunities for Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, R.; Tondro, M.

    2012-12-01

    Behavior-based approaches have been a growing interest in the energy efficiency field over recent years and the use of residential energy feedback has garnered particular interest. By providing an increased level of detail, feedback can greatly increase a consumer’s understanding of how energy is used in their home. This project reviewed the existing body of research on electricity feedback to identify parallel lessons for gas, discussed the benefits and challenges of different types of feedback, and identifying three feedback options that show strong potential for natural gas savings.

  10. Residential Feedback Devices and Programs: Opportunities for Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, R.; Tondro, M.

    2012-12-01

    Behavior-based approaches have been a growing interest in the energy efficiency field over recent years and the use of residential energy feedback has garnered particular interest. By providing an increased level of detail, feedback can greatly increase a consumer's understanding of how energy is used in their home. This project reviewed the existing body of research on electricity feedback to identify parallel lessons for gas, discussed the benefits and challenges of different types of feedback, and identifying three feedback options that show strong potential for natural gas savings.

  11. TMACS test procedure TP009: Acromag driver. Revision 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, R.B.; Washburn, S.J.

    1994-09-01

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project`s acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure addresses the testing of the functionality of the TMACS Acromag driver software in conjunction with a new bridge for the Panalarm Annunciator system.

  12. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 10 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. ape003_tolbert_2010_p.pdf (757.36 KB) More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Wide Bandgap Materials Smart Integrated Power Module

  13. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 09 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. ape_03_marlino.pdf (846.17 KB) More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Smart Integrated Power Module Wide Bandgap Materials

  14. Next Generation Environmentally-Friendly Driving Feedback Systems Research and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, Matthew; Boriboonsomsin, Kanok

    2014-12-31

    The objective of this project is to design, develop, and demonstrate a next-generation, federal safety- and emission-complaint driving feedback system that can be deployed across the existing vehicle fleet and improve fleet average fuel efficiency by at least 2%. The project objective was achieved with the driving feedback system that encourages fuel-efficient vehicle travel and operation through: 1) Eco-Routing Navigation module that suggests the most fuel-efficient route from one stop to the next, 2) Eco-Driving Feedback module that provides sensible information, recommendation, and warning regarding fuel-efficient vehicle operation, and 3) Eco-Score and Eco-Rank module that provides a means for driving performance tracking, self-evaluation, and peer comparison. The system also collects and stores vehicle travel and operation data, which are used by Algorithm Updating module to customize the other modules for specific vehicles and adapts them to specific drivers over time. The driving feedback system was designed and developed as an aftermarket technology that can be retrofitted to vehicles in the existing fleet. It consists of a mobile application for smart devices running Android operating system, a vehicle on-board diagnostics connector, and a data server. While the system receives and utilizes real-time vehicle and engine data from the vehicle’s controller area network bus through the vehicle’s on-board diagnostic connector, it does not modify or interfere with the vehicle’s controller area network bus, and thus, is in compliance with federal safety and emission regulations. The driving feedback system was demonstrated and then installed on 45 vehicles from three different fleets for field operational test. These include 15 private vehicles of the general public, 15 pickup trucks of the California Department of Transportation that are assigned to individual employees for business use, and 15 shuttle buses of the Riverside Transit Agency that are used

  15. U-226: Linux Kernel SFC Driver TCP MSS Option Handling Denial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    6: Linux Kernel SFC Driver TCP MSS Option Handling Denial of Service Vulnerability U-226: Linux Kernel SFC Driver TCP MSS Option Handling Denial of Service Vulnerability August 2,...

  16. Fact #922: April 25, 2016 Share of Older Population Holding Driver...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    922: April 25, 2016 Share of Older Population Holding Driver's Licenses is Up and Share of Younger Population Holding Driver's Licenses is Down Fact 922: April 25, 2016 Share of ...

  17. Fact #761: January 7, 2013 Smaller Share of Teenagers Have a Driver's License in 2010

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the 1980's, more than half of all teenagers 15 to 19 years old had a driver's license. But that has changed. Since 1995, less than half of that age group has a driver's license. In 2010, the...

  18. Self-assessing target with automatic feedback

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larkin, Stephen W.; Kramer, Robert L.

    2004-03-02

    A self assessing target with four quadrants and a method of use thereof. Each quadrant containing possible causes for why shots are going into that particular quadrant rather than the center mass of the target. Each possible cause is followed by a solution intended to help the marksman correct the problem causing the marksman to shoot in that particular area. In addition, the self assessing target contains possible causes for general shooting errors and solutions to the causes of the general shooting error. The automatic feedback with instant suggestions and corrections enables the shooter to improve their marksmanship.

  19. Cloud feedback studies with a physics grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dipankar, Anurag; Stevens, Bjorn

    2013-02-07

    During this project the investigators implemented a fully parallel version of dual-grid approach in main frame code ICON, implemented a fully conservative first-order interpolation scheme for horizontal remapping, integrated UCLA-LES micro-scale model into ICON to run parallely in selected columns, and did cloud feedback studies on aqua-planet setup to evaluate the classical parameterization on a small domain. The micro-scale model may be run in parallel with the classical parameterization, or it may be run on a "physics grid" independent of the dynamics grid.

  20. Some Notes on Wideband Feedback Amplifiers

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Fitch, V.

    1949-03-16

    The extension of the passband of wideband amplifiers is a highly important problem to the designer of electronic circuits. Throughout the electronics industry and in many research programs in physics and allied fields where extensive use is made of video amplifiers, the foremost requirement is a passband of maximum width. This is necessary if it is desired to achieve a more faithful reproduction of transient wave forms, a better time resolution in physical measurements, or perhaps just a wider band gain-frequency response to sine wave signals. The art of electronics is continually faced with this omnipresent amplifier problem. In particular, the instrumentation techniques of nuclear physics require amplifiers with short rise times, a high degree of gain stability, and a linear response to high signal levels. While the distributed amplifier may solve the problems of those seeking only a wide passband, the requirements of stability and linearity necessitate using feedback circuits. This paper considers feedback amplifiers from the standpoint of high-frequency performance. The circuit conditions for optimum steady-state (sinusoidal) and transient response are derived and practical circuits (both interstage and output) are presented which fulfill these conditions. In general, the results obtained may be applied to the low-frequency end.

  1. Heavy ion induction linac drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, E.P.; Hovingh, J.

    1988-10-01

    Intense beams of high energy heavy ions (e.g., 10 GeV Hg) are an attractive option for an ICF driver because of their favorable energy deposition characteristics. The accelerator systems to produce the beams at the required power level are a development from existing technologies of the induction linac, rf linac/storage ring, and synchrotron. The high repetition rate of the accelerator systems, and the high efficiency which can be realized at high current make this approach especially suitable for commercial ICF. The present report gives a summary of the main features of the induction linac driver system, which is the approach now pursued in the USA. The main subsystems, consisting of injector, multiple beam accelerator at low and high energy, transport and pulse compression lines, and final focus are described. Scale relations are given for the current limits and other features of these subsystems. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. The relationship between interannual and long-term cloud feedbacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Chen; Zelinka, Mark D.; Dessler, Andrew E.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2015-12-11

    The analyses of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 simulations suggest that climate models with more positive cloud feedback in response to interannual climate fluctuations also have more positive cloud feedback in response to long-term global warming. Ensemble mean vertical profiles of cloud change in response to interannual and long-term surface warming are similar, and the ensemble mean cloud feedback is positive on both timescales. However, the average long-term cloud feedback is smaller than the interannual cloud feedback, likely due to differences in surface warming pattern on the two timescales. Low cloud cover (LCC) change in response to interannual and long-term global surface warming is found to be well correlated across models and explains over half of the covariance between interannual and long-term cloud feedback. In conclusion, the intermodel correlation of LCC across timescales likely results from model-specific sensitivities of LCC to sea surface warming.

  3. CRAD, Feedback and Continuous Improvement - December 4, 2012 | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy Feedback and Continuous Improvement - December 4, 2012 CRAD, Feedback and Continuous Improvement - December 4, 2012 December 4, 2012 Feedback and Continuous Improvement Inspection Criteria and Approach - DOE Field Element (HSS CRAD 45-21, Rev. 1) This Criteria Review and Approach Document (HSS CRAD 45-21) establishes review criteria and lines of inquiry used by the Office of Health, Safety and Security's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations to assess the

  4. Information and Feedback Institutional Change Principle | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Information and Feedback Institutional Change Principle Information and Feedback Institutional Change Principle Information alone, however, is unlikely to lead to action. Federal and commercial programs have demonstrated reductions in energy use from delivery of reports to customers. By providing actionable information and feedback that are tailored to specific workplace situations, federal agencies can help to spur and maintain behaviors that save energy and resources. Methods

  5. Next Generation Environmentally Friendly Driving Feedback Systems Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    and Development | Department of Energy Environmentally Friendly Driving Feedback Systems Research and Development Next Generation Environmentally Friendly Driving Feedback Systems Research and Development 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting vss086_barth_2012_o.pdf (1.48 MB) More Documents & Publications Next Generation Environmentally Friendly Driving Feedback Systems Research and Development Vehicle

  6. CRAD, Feedback and Continuous Improvement - DOE Headquarters - December 4,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    2007 | Department of Energy Feedback and Continuous Improvement - DOE Headquarters - December 4, 2007 CRAD, Feedback and Continuous Improvement - DOE Headquarters - December 4, 2007 December 4, 2007 Feedback and Continuous Improvement Inspection Criteria and Approach - DOE Headquarters (HSS CRAD 64-22) The Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters line management has established and implemented effective oversight processes that evaluate the adequacy and effectiveness of field element

  7. We Want Your Feedback! Please Take Our Survey

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    We will use your feedback to improve Energy Savers resources for you and the other Americans who use the site to save energy every day.

  8. Deterministic generation of remote entanglement with active quantum feedback

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Martin, Leigh; Motzoi, Felix; Li, Hanhan; Sarovar, Mohan; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2015-12-10

    We develop and study protocols for deterministic remote entanglement generation using quantum feedback, without relying on an entangling Hamiltonian. In order to formulate the most effective experimentally feasible protocol, we introduce the notion of average-sense locally optimal feedback protocols, which do not require real-time quantum state estimation, a difficult component of real-time quantum feedback control. We use this notion of optimality to construct two protocols that can deterministically create maximal entanglement: a semiclassical feedback protocol for low-efficiency measurements and a quantum feedback protocol for high-efficiency measurements. The latter reduces to direct feedback in the continuous-time limit, whose dynamics can bemore » modeled by a Wiseman-Milburn feedback master equation, which yields an analytic solution in the limit of unit measurement efficiency. Our formalism can smoothly interpolate between continuous-time and discrete-time descriptions of feedback dynamics and we exploit this feature to derive a superior hybrid protocol for arbitrary nonunit measurement efficiency that switches between quantum and semiclassical protocols. Lastly, we show using simulations incorporating experimental imperfections that deterministic entanglement of remote superconducting qubits may be achieved with current technology using the continuous-time feedback protocol alone.« less

  9. Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    North Africa from two climate models Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene North Africa from two ...

  10. Data, Feedback, & Awareness Lead to Big Energy Savings

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Data, Feedback, & Awareness Lead to Big Energy Savings The Navy Region Southwest Metro San Diego Area (NRSMSD) regional energy management team achieved signifcant energy savings at ...

  11. Fermilab | Fermilab at Work | Web Form | Feedback Form

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Feedback Form Use the form below to submit a suggestion to senior management. Required fields are marked with an asterisk (*). Suggestion: Name: Email Address: Submit Last modified...

  12. Deterministic generation of remote entanglement with active quantum feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Leigh; Motzoi, Felix; Li, Hanhan; Sarovar, Mohan; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2015-12-10

    We develop and study protocols for deterministic remote entanglement generation using quantum feedback, without relying on an entangling Hamiltonian. In order to formulate the most effective experimentally feasible protocol, we introduce the notion of average-sense locally optimal feedback protocols, which do not require real-time quantum state estimation, a difficult component of real-time quantum feedback control. We use this notion of optimality to construct two protocols that can deterministically create maximal entanglement: a semiclassical feedback protocol for low-efficiency measurements and a quantum feedback protocol for high-efficiency measurements. The latter reduces to direct feedback in the continuous-time limit, whose dynamics can be modeled by a Wiseman-Milburn feedback master equation, which yields an analytic solution in the limit of unit measurement efficiency. Our formalism can smoothly interpolate between continuous-time and discrete-time descriptions of feedback dynamics and we exploit this feature to derive a superior hybrid protocol for arbitrary nonunit measurement efficiency that switches between quantum and semiclassical protocols. Lastly, we show using simulations incorporating experimental imperfections that deterministic entanglement of remote superconducting qubits may be achieved with current technology using the continuous-time feedback protocol alone.

  13. WAP Memorandum 014: Feedback on Draft Multifamily and Rental WPNs

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE is requesting feedback on the draft Multifamily WPNs and FAQs as well as the draft Rental WPNs and FAQs by Dec. 11, 2015.

  14. Self-Sustained Micromechanical Oscillator with Linear Feedback...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: Self-Sustained Micromechanical Oscillator with Linear Feedback This content will become publicly available on July 1, 2017 Prev Next Title: ...

  15. Dwarf Galaxies with Ionizing Radiation Feedback II: Spatially...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Star Formation Relation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dwarf Galaxies with Ionizing Radiation Feedback II: Spatially-resolved Star Formation Relation Authors: Kim, ...

  16. Microscale Heat Conduction Models and Doppler Feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawari, Ayman I.; Ougouag, Abderrafi

    2015-01-22

    The objective of this project is to establish an approach for providing the fundamental input that is needed to estimate the magnitude and time-dependence of the Doppler feedback mechanism in Very High Temperature reactors. This mechanism is the foremost contributor to the passive safety of gas-cooled, graphite-moderated high temperature reactors that use fuel based on Tristructural-Isotropic (TRISO) coated particles. Therefore, its correct prediction is essential to the conduct of safety analyses for these reactors. Since the effect is directly dependent on the actual temperature reached by the fuel during transients, the underlying phenomena of heat deposition, heat transfer and temperature rise must be correctly predicted. To achieve the above objective, this project will explore an approach that accounts for lattice effects as well as local temperature variations and the correct definition of temperature and related local effects.

  17. Combustion diagnostic for active engine feedback control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Green, Jr., Johney Boyd; Daw, Charles Stuart; Wagner, Robert Milton

    2007-10-02

    This invention detects the crank angle location where combustion switches from premixed to diffusion, referred to as the transition index, and uses that location to define integration limits that measure the portions of heat released during the combustion process that occur during the premixed and diffusion phases. Those integrated premixed and diffusion values are used to develop a metric referred to as the combustion index. The combustion index is defined as the integrated diffusion contribution divided by the integrated premixed contribution. As the EGR rate is increased enough to enter the low temperature combustion regime, PM emissions decrease because more of the combustion process is occurring over the premixed portion of the heat release rate profile and the diffusion portion has been significantly reduced. This information is used to detect when the engine is or is not operating in a low temperature combustion mode and provides that feedback to an engine control algorithm.

  18. Feedback mechanism for smart nozzles and nebulizers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montaser, Akbar [Potomac, MD; Jorabchi, Kaveh [Arlington, VA; Kahen, Kaveh [Kleinburg, CA

    2009-01-27

    Nozzles and nebulizers able to produce aerosol with optimum and reproducible quality based on feedback information obtained using laser imaging techniques. Two laser-based imaging techniques based on particle image velocimetry (PTV) and optical patternation map and contrast size and velocity distributions for indirect and direct pneumatic nebulizations in plasma spectrometry. Two pulses from thin laser sheet with known time difference illuminate droplets flow field. Charge coupled device (CCL)) captures scattering of laser light from droplets, providing two instantaneous particle images. Pointwise cross-correlation of corresponding images yields two-dimensional velocity map of aerosol velocity field. For droplet size distribution studies, solution is doped with fluorescent dye and both laser induced florescence (LIF) and Mie scattering images are captured simultaneously by two CCDs with the same field of view. Ratio of LIF/Mie images provides relative droplet size information, then scaled by point calibration method via phase Doppler particle analyzer.

  19. Direct laser additive fabrication system with image feedback control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, Michelle L.; Hofmeister, William H.; Knorovsky, Gerald A.; MacCallum, Danny O.; Schlienger, M. Eric; Smugeresky, John E.

    2002-01-01

    A closed-loop, feedback-controlled direct laser fabrication system is disclosed. The feedback refers to the actual growth conditions obtained by real-time analysis of thermal radiation images. The resulting system can fabricate components with severalfold improvement in dimensional tolerances and surface finish.

  20. Transition-edge sensor with enhanced electrothermal feedback for cryogenic particle detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nam, Sae Woo; Cabrera, Blas

    2001-01-01

    A superconducting transition-edge sensor with an electrothermal-feedback circuit, a heat sink thermally coupled thereto, a bias-feedback circuit electrically coupled with the electrothermal feedback circuit, and a current sensor electrically coupled with the bias-feedback circuit and inductively coupled with the electrothermal-feedback circuit.

  1. Projecting Fatalities in Crashes Involving Older Drivers, 2000-2025

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, P.S.

    2001-03-23

    As part of this research effort, we developed a new methodology for projecting elderly traffic crash fatalities. This methodology separates exposure to crashes from crash risk per se, and further divides exposure into two components, the number of miles driven and the likelihood of being a driver. This component structure permits conceptually different determinants of traffic fatalities to be projected separately and has thorough motivation in behavioral theory. It also permits finer targeting of particular aspects of projections that need improvement and closer linking of projections to possible policy instruments for influencing them.

  2. Oil and natural gas market outlook and drivers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    American Foundry Society May 18, 2016 | Washington, DC by Howard Gruenspecht, Deputy Administrator world supply and demand million barrels per day implied stock change million barrels per day AFS | Oil and natural gas market outlook and drivers, May 18, 2016 Global supply has consistently exceeded demand since the start of 2014; EIA forecasts a return to market balance in the second half of 2017 Source: EIA, Short-Term Energy Outlook, May 2016 2 Forecast -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 82 84 86 88 90 92

  3. What Use Patterns Were Observed for PEV Drivers at Publicly Accessible AC Level 2 EVSE Sites?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francfort, James Edward

    2015-12-01

    The EV Project deployed over 4,000 ACL2 EVSE for drivers to charge their plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) when away-from-home. The vast majority of these EVSE stations were installed to be available to all PEV drivers at publicly accessible locations. Some were also deployed for use at workplaces and fleets. This paper examines only the use patterns of PEV drivers using the EVSE intended to be publicly accessible.

  4. Philips Light Sources & Electronics is Developing an Efficient, Smaller, Cost-Effective Family of LED Drivers

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, Philips Light Sources & Electronics is developing a new family of LED drivers that are more efficient and cost-effective as well as smaller in size than currently available drivers. The new drivers are switch-mode power supplies that are similar to today's drivers, but with an improved design. In addition, they have a different topology—boost plus LLC—for wattages of 40W and above, but they retain the commonly used flyback topology at lower wattages.

  5. Drivers` activities and information needs in an automated highway system. Working paper, August 1995-May 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitan, L.; Bloomfield, J.

    1996-10-01

    In most visions of the AHS--including that of the National Automated Highway System Consortium--it has been assumed that when a vehicle was under automated control, the driver would be allowed to engage in any of a variety of activities not related to driving (e.g, working, reading, sleeping). The objective of the first study reported here--one of the noncommuter studies--was to determine what drivers do when traveling under automated control, and whether the age of and/gender or the driver and/or the intrastring gap have an influence on those activities. One the objectives of the commuter experiment--of relevance for this report--was to determine whether what drivers do when traveling under automated control changes as a function of experience with the AHS (i.e., across trials). As conceptualization of the AHS proceeds, the details of the interface between the driver and the in-vehicle system will become more important. One part of that interface will be information supplied by the AHS to the driver, perhaps about such things as traffic conditions ahead predicted trip time to the driver`s selected exit, and so on. To maximize the utility of that information, it is important to determine what it is that drivers would like to know when traveling under automated control. The objective of the third study reported here--the second of the five noncommuter experiments--was to provide a first investigation of that issue.

  6. UWB multi-burst transmit driver for averaging receivers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dallum, Gregory E

    2012-11-20

    A multi-burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a sequence of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. There are two oscillators in the transmitter circuit, a gated burst rate oscillator and a gated RF burst or RF power output oscillator. The burst rate oscillator produces a relatively low frequency, i.e., MHz, square wave output for a selected transmit cycle, and drives the RF burst oscillator, which produces RF bursts of much higher frequency, i.e., GHz, during the transmit cycle. The frequency of the burst rate oscillator sets the spacing of the RF burst packets. The first oscillator output passes through a bias driver to the second oscillator. The bias driver conditions, e.g., level shifts, the signal from the first oscillator for input into the second oscillator, and also controls the length of each RF burst. A trigger pulse actuates a timing circuit, formed of a flip-flop and associated reset time delay circuit, that controls the operation of the first oscillator, i.e., how long it oscillates (which defines the transmit cycle).

  7. ADR Lunchtime Program: WHERE DO YOU STAND IN THE FEEDBACK LOOP? MAKE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    FEEDBACK WORK FOR YOU | Department of Energy WHERE DO YOU STAND IN THE FEEDBACK LOOP? MAKE FEEDBACK WORK FOR YOU ADR Lunchtime Program: WHERE DO YOU STAND IN THE FEEDBACK LOOP? MAKE FEEDBACK WORK FOR YOU This interactive session during Conflict Resolution Month will delve into the complex topic of giving and receiving feedback. The presenter - a preeminent trainer and coach - will discuss how to use our skills and knowledge to help people in organizations work together effectively on

  8. ARM - Field Campaign - Land - Atmosphere Feedback Experiment (LAFE)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsLand - Atmosphere Feedback Experiment (LAFE) Campaign Links Science Plan Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Land - Atmosphere Feedback Experiment (LAFE) 2017.08.01 - 2017.08.31 Lead Scientist : Volker Wulfmeyer Abstract The Land-Atmosphere Feedback Experiment (LAFE) will deploy several state-of-the-art scanning lidar and remote sensing systems to the ARM SGP site. These instruments will augment the ARM

  9. On-Line User Survey Form to provide feedback for the DOE Occupational...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    User Survey Form to provide feedback for the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report On-Line User Survey Form to provide feedback for the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure...

  10. CRAD, NNSA- Feedback and Improvement Programs (F&I)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    CRAD for Feedback and Improvement Programs (F&I). Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) that can be used to conduct a well-organized and thorough assessment of elements of safety and health programs.

  11. Feedback Control of Azimuthal Oscillations in ExB Devices --...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Feedback Control of Azimuthal Oscillations in ExB Devices --- Inventor(s) Martin E. Griswold, C. Leland Ellison, Yevgeny Raitses and Nathaniel J. Fisch Disclosed is a new device...

  12. Seeking Feedback on General Service Lamps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Seeking Feedback on General Service Lamps Seeking Feedback on General Service Lamps March 18, 2016 - 10:47am Addthis The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Office (BTO) Emerging Technologies Program is seeking information from the public regarding lamps in general illumination applications. The Emerging Technologies Program supports applied research and development (R&D) for technologies and systems that contribute to reductions in building energy

  13. Convection feedbacks in a super-parameterization GCM

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Convection feedbacks in a super-parameterization GCM Luo, Zhengzhao (Johnny) Colorado State University Stephens, Graeme Colorado State University Category: Modeling Both the Colorado State University (CSU) and Goddard super-parameterization GCM (SP-GCM) simulate a super-active Asian summer monsoon with unrealistically enhanced levels of precipitation. The underlying physical mechanism for this monsoon bias in the CSU SP-GCM is shown to involve enhanced convection-wind-evaporation feedbacks. The

  14. Energy Department Seeks Additional Feedback on Draft Guidance for the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Hydroelectric Production Incentive Program | Department of Energy Seeks Additional Feedback on Draft Guidance for the Hydroelectric Production Incentive Program Energy Department Seeks Additional Feedback on Draft Guidance for the Hydroelectric Production Incentive Program October 20, 2014 - 9:15am Addthis The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently inviting comments from the general public on revised guidance relating to the implementation of Section 242 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005,

  15. Picture of the Week: Climate feedbacks from a warming arctic

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Climate feedbacks from a warming arctic Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists work to understand the fate of this carbon using computer simulations such as this model of snowmelt draining from polygonal ground near Barrow, Alaska. April 26, 2015 Climate feedbacks from a warming arctic x Arctic soils currently store nearly 20 years worth of human emissions of carbon in frozen permafrost, but the Arctic is warming faster than most of the rest of the Earth, meaning that this carbon may soon

  16. Adaptive method with intercessory feedback control for an intelligent agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2004-06-22

    An adaptive architecture method with feedback control for an intelligent agent provides for adaptively integrating reflexive and deliberative responses to a stimulus according to a goal. An adaptive architecture method with feedback control for multiple intelligent agents provides for coordinating and adaptively integrating reflexive and deliberative responses to a stimulus according to a goal. Re-programming of the adaptive architecture is through a nexus which coordinates reflexive and deliberator components.

  17. EM program implements feedback from community | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    EM program implements feedback from community EM program implements feedback from community June 1, 2015 - 11:28am Addthis Roane County Mayor Ron Woody speaks to OREM leadership and workshop participants. Roane County Mayor Ron Woody speaks to OREM leadership and workshop participants. Oak Ridge, Tenn. - The Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OREM) hosted its annual community budget workshop on April 29. While last year's meeting focused primarily on building strategic community

  18. Point kinetics calculations with fully coupled thermal fluids reactivity feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, H.; Zou, L.; Andrs, D.; Zhao, H.; Martineau, R.

    2013-07-01

    The point kinetics model has been widely used in the analysis of the transient behavior of a nuclear reactor. In the traditional nuclear reactor system safety analysis codes such as RELAP5, the reactivity feedback effects are calculated in a loosely coupled fashion through operator splitting approach. This paper discusses the point kinetics calculations with the fully coupled thermal fluids and fuel temperature feedback implemented into the RELAP-7 code currently being developed with the MOOSE framework. (authors)

  19. Analysis of IFR driver fuel hot channel factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ku, J.Y.; Chang, L.K.; Mohr, D.

    1994-03-01

    Thermal-hydraulic uncertainty factors for Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) driver fuels have been determined based primarily on the database obtained from the predecessor fuels used in the IFR prototype, Experimental Breeder Reactor II. The uncertainty factors were applied to the channel factors (HCFs) analyses to obtain separate overall HCFs for fuel and cladding for steady-state analyses. A ``semistatistical horizontal method`` was used in the HCFs analyses. The uncertainty factor of the fuel thermal conductivity dominates the effects considered in the HCFs analysis; the uncertainty in fuel thermal conductivity will be reduced as more data are obtained to expand the currently limited database for the IFR ternary metal fuel (U-20Pu-10Zr). A set of uncertainty factors to be used for transient analyses has also been derived.

  20. Study of CSR Effects in the Jefferson Laboratory FEL Driver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, C. C.; Biedron, S.; Burleson, Theodore A.; Milton, Stephen V.; Morin, Auralee L.; Benson, Stephen V.; Douglas, David R.; Evtushenko, Pavel E.; Hannon, Fay E.; Li, Rui; Tennant, Christopher D.; Zhang, Shukui; Carlsten, Bruce E.; Lewellen, John W.

    2013-08-01

    In a recent experiment conducted on the Jefferson Laboratory IR FEL driver the effects of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) on beam quality were studied. The primary goal of this work was to explore CSR output and effect on the beam with variation of the bunch compression in the IR chicane. This experiment also provides a valuable opportunity to benchmark existing CSR models in a system that may not be fully represented by a 1-D CSR model. Here we present results from this experiment and compare to initial simulations of CSR in the magnetic compression chicane of the machine. Finally, we touch upon the possibility for CSR induced microbunching gain in the magnetic compression chicane, and show that parameters in the machine are such that it should be thoroughly damped.

  1. The relationship between interannual and long-term cloud feedbacks

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chen; Zelinka, Mark D.; Dessler, Andrew E.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2015-12-11

    The analyses of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 simulations suggest that climate models with more positive cloud feedback in response to interannual climate fluctuations also have more positive cloud feedback in response to long-term global warming. Ensemble mean vertical profiles of cloud change in response to interannual and long-term surface warming are similar, and the ensemble mean cloud feedback is positive on both timescales. However, the average long-term cloud feedback is smaller than the interannual cloud feedback, likely due to differences in surface warming pattern on the two timescales. Low cloud cover (LCC) change in response to interannual andmore » long-term global surface warming is found to be well correlated across models and explains over half of the covariance between interannual and long-term cloud feedback. In conclusion, the intermodel correlation of LCC across timescales likely results from model-specific sensitivities of LCC to sea surface warming.« less

  2. ULTRAFAST OUTFLOWS: GALAXY-SCALE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2013-01-20

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  3. Position feedback system for volume holographic storage media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hays, Nathan J.; Henson, James A.; Carpenter, Christopher M.; Akin, Jr.. William R.; Ehrlich, Richard M.; Beazley, Lance D.

    1998-07-07

    A method of holographic recording in a photorefractive medium wherein stored holograms may be retrieved with maximum signal-to noise ratio (SNR) is disclosed. A plurality of servo blocks containing position feedback information is recorded in the crystal and made non-erasable by heating the crystal. The servo blocks are recorded at specific increments, either angular or frequency, depending whether wavelength or angular multiplexing is applied, and each servo block is defined by one of five patterns. Data pages are then recorded at positions or wavelengths enabling each data page to be subsequently reconstructed with servo patterns which provide position feedback information. The method of recording data pages and servo blocks is consistent with conventional practices. In addition, the recording system also includes components (e.g. voice coil motor) which respond to position feedback information and adjust the angular position of the reference angle of a reference beam to maximize SNR by reducing crosstalk, thereby improving storage capacity.

  4. Numerical simulation of optical feedback on a quantum dot lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Khursan, Amin H.; Ghalib, Basim Abdullattif; Al-Obaidi, Sabri J.

    2012-02-15

    We use multi-population rate equations model to study feedback oscillations in the quantum dot laser. This model takes into account all peculiar characteristics in the quantum dots such as inhomogeneous broadening of the gain spectrum, the presence of the excited states on the quantum dot and the non-confined states due to the presence of wetting layer and the barrier. The contribution of quantum dot groups, which cannot follow by other models, is simulated. The results obtained from this model show the feedback oscillations, the periodic oscillations which evolves to chaos at higher injection current of higher feedback levels. The frequency fluctuation is attributed mainly to wetting layer with a considerable contribution from excited states. The simulation shows that is must be not using simple rate equation models to express quantum dots working at excited state transition.

  5. Sandia National Laboratories' 2002 Green Zia Program Feedback Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RICHARDSON, ANASTASIA DAWN

    2002-10-01

    The Green Zia Environmental Excellence Program is a voluntary program designed to support and assist New Mexico businesses to achieve environmental excellence through the development of an environmental management system (EMS). Since 2000, organizations within Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have participated in the program. SNL's Pollution Prevention (P2) program supports and assists SNL organizations by utilizing Green Zia tools to aid in the implementation of each organization's EMS. This report is based on a feedback session held in September 2002 with past SNL Green Zia Program participants. The goal of the feedback session and of this report is to enhance the services that the P2 Program provides to SNL organizations. This report summarizes the feedback received.

  6. Feedback techniques and SPS Ecloud instabilities - design estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox,J.D.; Mastorides, T.; Ndabashimiye, G.; Rivetta, C.; Van Winkle, D.; Byrd, J.; Vay, J-L.; Hofle, W.; Rumolo, G.; de Maria, R.

    2009-05-04

    The SPS at high intensities exhibits transverse single-bunch instabilities with signatures consistent with an Ecloud driven instability. While the SPS has a coupled-bunch transverse feedback system, control of Ecloud driven motion requires a much wider control bandwidth capable of sensing and controlling motion within each bunched beam. This paper draws beam dynamics data from the measurements and simulations of this SPS instability, and estimates system requirements for a feedback system with 2-4 GS/sec. sampling rates to damp Ecloud-driven transverse motion in the SPS at intensities desired for high-current LHC operation.

  7. Acuity Develops Oled Luminaire With Panel-Integrated Drivers and Advanced Controls

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A combination of factors – including the voltage limit on a UL Class 2 luminaire and the fact that OLED panel voltage is typically greater than LED voltage – limit the options for driver and panel...

  8. Drivers of U.S. Household Energy Consumption, 1980-2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Drivers of U.S. Household Energy Consumption, 1980-2009 February 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy ...

  9. Lumileds Develops High-Voltage LED Light Engine with Integrated Driver

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, Lumileds has developed a high-voltage LED light engine with an integrated driver, achieving an efficacy greater than 128 lm/W at a luminous flux greater than 4,100 lm...

  10. Science Driver Requirements for Seeded Soft X-ray Free Electron...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Driver Requirements for Seeded Soft X-ray Free Electron Lasers Wednesday, December 2, 2015 - 2:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Fulvio Parmigiani,...

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Gate Driver Optimization for WBG Applications

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about gate driver...

  12. Cavity-soliton laser with frequency-selective feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scroggie, A. J.; Firth, W. J.; Oppo, G.-L.

    2009-07-15

    We present a coupled-cavity model of a laser with frequency-selective feedback, and use it to analyze and explain the existence of stationary and dynamic spatial solitons in the device. Particular features of soliton addressing in this system are discussed. We demonstrate the advantages of our model with respect to the common Lang-Kobayashi approximation.

  13. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: From Science Drivers to Reference Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivezic, Z.; Axelrod, T.; Brandt, W.N.; Burke, D.L.; Claver, C.F.; Connolly, A.; Cook, K.H.; Gee, P.; Gilmore, D.K.; Jacoby, S.H.; Jones, R.L.; Kahn, S.M.; Kantor, J.P.; Krabbendam, V.; Lupton, R.H.; Monet, D.G.; Pinto, P.A.; Saha, A.; Schalk, T.L.; Schneider, D.P.; Strauss, Michael A.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /LSST Corp. /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /NOAO, Tucson /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Davis /Princeton U., Astrophys. Sci. Dept. /Naval Observ., Flagstaff /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /UC, Santa Cruz /Harvard U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Illinois U., Urbana

    2011-10-14

    LSST science drivers led to these choices of system parameters.

  14. EM-40 Feedback on FY 2012 QA Declaration | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    EM-40 Feedback on FY 2012 QA Declaration EM-40 Feedback on FY 2012 QA Declaration Attachment 3 - Explanation for Derivation of the site specific results for QAP Implementation as...

  15. RFI Seeks Feedback on Third-party Maintenance Strategy for AMO...

    Energy Savers

    RFI Seeks Feedback on Third-party Maintenance Strategy for AMO's Software Tools RFI Seeks Feedback on Third-party Maintenance Strategy for AMO's Software Tools July 28, 2014 - ...

  16. On-Line User Survey Form to provide feedback for the DOE Occupational

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Radiation Exposure Report | Department of Energy User Survey Form to provide feedback for the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report On-Line User Survey Form to provide feedback for the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report May 30, 2014 Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) User Feedback Survey. On-Line User Survey Form to provide feedback for the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report (172.74 KB) More Documents & Publications Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure

  17. Monolithic amplifier with stable, high resistance feedback element and method for fabricating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Connor, Paul

    1998-08-11

    A monolithic amplifier includes a stable, high resistance feedback circuit and a dynamic bias circuit. The dynamic bias circuit is formed with active elements matched to those in the amplifier and feedback circuit to compensate for variations in the operating and threshold voltages thereby maintaining a stable resistance in the feedback circuit.

  18. Monolithic amplifier with stable, high resistance feedback element and method for fabricating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O`Connor, P.

    1998-08-11

    A monolithic amplifier includes a stable, high resistance feedback circuit and a dynamic bias circuit. The dynamic bias circuit is formed with active elements matched to those in the amplifier and feedback circuit to compensate for variations in the operating and threshold voltages thereby maintaining a stable resistance in the feedback circuit. 11 figs.

  19. EFFECTS OF DUST FEEDBACK ON VORTICES IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Wen; Liang, Edison; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai; Lubow, Stephen

    2014-11-10

    We carried out two-dimensional, high-resolution simulations to study the effect of dust feedback on the evolution of vortices induced by massive planets in protoplanetary disks. Various initial dust to gas disk surface density ratios (0.001-0.01) and dust particle sizes (Stokes number 4 × 10{sup –4}-0.16) are considered. We found that while dust particles migrate inward, vortices are very effective at collecting them. When dust density becomes comparable to gas density within the vortex, a dynamical instability is excited and it alters the coherent vorticity pattern and destroys the vortex. This dust feedback effect is stronger with a higher initial dust/gas density ratio and larger dust grain. Consequently, we found that the disk vortex lifetime can be reduced up to a factor of 10. We discuss the implications of our findings on the survivability of vortices in protoplanetary disks and planet formation.

  20. Emergent Constraints for Cloud Feedbacks and Climate Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Stephen A.; Hall, Alex

    2015-10-26

    Emergent constraints are physically explainable empirical relationships between characteristics of the current climate and long-term climate prediction that emerge in collections of climate model simulations. With the prospect of constraining long-term climate prediction, scientists have recently uncovered several emergent constraints related to long-term cloud feedbacks. We review these proposed emergent constraints, many of which involve the behavior of low-level clouds, and discuss criteria to assess their credibility. With further research, some of the cases we review may eventually become confirmed emergent constraints, provided they are accompanied by credible physical explanations. Because confirmed emergent constraints identify a source of model error that projects onto climate predictions, they deserve extra attention from those developing climate models and climate observations. While a systematic bias cannot be ruled out, it is noteworthy that the promising emergent constraints suggest larger cloud feedback and hence climate sensitivity.

  1. Theory and calculations of synchrotron instabilities and feedback-mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meijssen, T.E.M.

    1981-08-12

    The properties of the phenomenon synchrotron radiation are given with general theory on the basic processes and betatron and synchrotron oscillations. A more extended theoretical view at transverse instabilities and the influence of a damping feedback system are discussed. The longitudinal case is covered. For the calculations on the longitudinal case with M equally spaced pointbunches, with N electrons each, in the storage ring, the parasitic modes of the radio-frequency cavity were measured. A description of this is given. The values of damping rates of the longitudinal feedback system found, are as expected, but too low to damp the longitudinal instabilities calculated. This might be caused by the input data. The calculated growth rates are very sensitive to changes in frequency and width of the parasitic modes, which were measured under conditions differing slightly from the operating conditions.

  2. Emergent Constraints for Cloud Feedbacks and Climate Sensitivity

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Klein, Stephen A.; Hall, Alex

    2015-10-26

    Emergent constraints are physically explainable empirical relationships between characteristics of the current climate and long-term climate prediction that emerge in collections of climate model simulations. With the prospect of constraining long-term climate prediction, scientists have recently uncovered several emergent constraints related to long-term cloud feedbacks. We review these proposed emergent constraints, many of which involve the behavior of low-level clouds, and discuss criteria to assess their credibility. With further research, some of the cases we review may eventually become confirmed emergent constraints, provided they are accompanied by credible physical explanations. Because confirmed emergent constraints identify a source of model errormore » that projects onto climate predictions, they deserve extra attention from those developing climate models and climate observations. While a systematic bias cannot be ruled out, it is noteworthy that the promising emergent constraints suggest larger cloud feedback and hence climate sensitivity.« less

  3. Lessons Learned from PEP-II LLRF and Longitudinal Feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, J.D.; Mastorides, T.; Rivetta, C.H.; Van Winkle, D.; Teytelman, D.; /Dimtel, Redwood City

    2010-08-26

    The PEP-II B-Factory collider ended the final phase of operation at nearly twice the design current and 4X the design luminosity. To highlight the evolution from the original conceptual design through to the 1.2E34 final machine we choose one example each from the broadband feedback and from the LLRF system. They illustrate the original design estimation missed some very significant details, and how in the course of PEP-II operation unexpected difficulties led to significant insights and new approaches which allowed higher machine performance. We present valuable 'lessons learned' which are of interest to designers of next generation feedback and impedance controlled LLRF systems.

  4. Feedback-Controlled LED Photobioreactor for Photophysiological Studies of Cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melnicki, Matthew R.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Hill, Eric A.; Kucek, Leo A.; Stolyar, Sergey; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2013-04-09

    A custom photobioreactor (PBR) was designed to enable automatic light adjustments using computerized feedback control. A black anodized aluminum enclosure, constructed to surround the borosilicate reactor vessel, prevents the transmission of ambient light and serves as a mount for arrays of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The high-output LEDs provide narrow-band light of either 630 or 680 nm for preferential excitation of the cyanobacterial light-harvesting pigments, phycobilin or chlorophyll a, respectively. Custom developed software BioLume provides automatic control of optical properties and a computer feedback loop can automatically adjust the incident irradiance as necessary to maintain a fixed transmitted light through the culture, based on user-determined set points. This feedback control serves to compensate for culture dynamics which have optical effects, (e.g., changing cell density, pigment adaptations) and thus can determine the appropriate light conditions for physiological comparisons or to cultivate light-sensitive strains, without prior analyses. The LED PBR may also be controlled as a turbidostat, using a feedback loop to continuously adjust the rate of media-dilution based on the transmitted light measurements, with a fast and precise response. This cultivation system gains further merit as a high-performance analytical device, using non-invasive tools (e.g., dissolved gas sensors, online mass spectrometry) to automate real-time measurements, thus permitting unsupervised experiments to search for optimal growth conditions, to monitor physiological responses to perturbations, as well as to quantitate photophysiological parameters using an in situ light-saturation response routine.

  5. Single electron beam rf feedback free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, C.A.; Stein, W.E.; Rockwood, S.D.

    1981-02-11

    A free electron laser system and electron beam system for a free electron laser which uses rf feedback to enhance efficiency are described. Rf energy is extracted from a single electron beam by decelerating cavities and energy is returned to accelerating cavities using rf returns, such as rf waveguides, rf feedthroughs, resonant feedthroughs, etc. This rf energy is added to rf klystron energy to reduce the required input energy and thereby enhance energy efficiency of the system.

  6. Effect of driver impedance on dense plasma focus Z-pinch neutron yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sears, Jason E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Link, Anthony E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Schmidt, Andrea E-mail: schmidt36@llnl.gov; Welch, Dale

    2014-12-15

    The Z-pinch phase of a dense plasma focus (DPF) heats the plasma by rapid compression and accelerates ions across its intense electric fields, producing neutrons through both thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. Driver characteristics have empirically been shown to affect performance, as measured by neutron yield per unit of stored energy. We are exploring the effect of driver characteristics on DPF performance using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of a kJ scale DPF. In this work, our PIC simulations are fluid for the run-down phase and transition to fully kinetic for the pinch phase, capturing kinetic instabilities, anomalous resistivity, and beam formation during the pinch. The anode-cathode boundary is driven by a circuit model of the capacitive driver, including system inductance, the load of the railgap switches, the guard resistors, and the coaxial transmission line parameters. It is known that the driver impedance plays an important role in the neutron yield: first, it sets the peak current achieved at pinch time; and second, it affects how much current continues to flow through the pinch when the pinch inductance and resistance suddenly increase. Here we show from fully kinetic simulations how total neutron yield depends on the impedance of the driver and the distributed parameters of the transmission circuit. Direct comparisons between the experiment and simulations enhance our understanding of these plasmas and provide predictive design capability for neutron source applications.

  7. Grid Parity for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; Denholm, P.; Clark, N.

    2012-08-01

    In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that electricity price rather than technical parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

  8. Fusion driver study. Final technical report, April 1, 1978-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, H.W.

    1980-04-01

    A conceptual design of a multi-megajoule, repetitively pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser system for Inertial Confinement Fusion is presented. System configurations consisting of 50 to 100 kJ modules operating at subatmospheric pressures with multiple pass optical extraction appear feasible with present or near term technology. Overall laser system efficiencies of greater than 10% at repetition rates in excess of 10 Hz are possible with the state-of-the-art pulsed power technology. The synthesis of all the laser subsystems into a specific configuration for a Laser Fusion Driver depends upon the reactor chamber(s) layout, subsystem reliability and restrictions on overall dimensions of the fusion driver. A design is presented which stacks power amplifier modules in series in a large torus with centrally located reactor chamber. Cost estimates of the overall Laser Fusion Driver are also presented.

  9. Summer gasoline price forecast slightly higher, but drivers still pay less than last year

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Summer gasoline price forecast slightly higher, but drivers still pay less than last year Rising crude oil prices are likely to be passed on to consumers at the pump, but U.S. drivers are still expected to pay the lowest summer gasoline prices since 2004, and for all of 2016 the average household will spend $900 less on gasoline than it did two years ago." In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the retail price for regular grade gasoline will average

  10. Plugged In: Understanding How and Where Plug-in Electric Vehicle Drivers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Charge Up | Department of Energy Plugged In: Understanding How and Where Plug-in Electric Vehicle Drivers Charge Up Plugged In: Understanding How and Where Plug-in Electric Vehicle Drivers Charge Up December 2, 2015 - 12:15pm Addthis A Chevrolet Volt charges in Rhode Island thanks to a ChargePoint station installed using funding from the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act. | Photo courtesy of NREL A Chevrolet Volt charges in Rhode Island thanks to a ChargePoint station installed using

  11. Search tool plug-in: imploements latent topic feedback

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-09-23

    IRIS is a search tool plug-in that is used to implement latent topic feedback for enhancing text navigation. It accepts a list of returned documents from an information retrieval wywtem that is generated from keyword search queries. Data is pulled directly from a topic information database and processed by IRIS to determine the most prominent and relevant topics, along with topic-ngrams, associated with the list of returned documents. User selected topics are then used tomore » expand the query and presumabley refine the search results.« less

  12. Feedback stabilization system for pulsed single longitudinal mode tunable lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Esherick, Peter; Raymond, Thomas D.

    1991-10-01

    A feedback stabilization system for pulse single longitudinal mode tunable lasers having an excited laser medium contained within an adjustable length cavity and producing a laser beam through the use of an internal dispersive element, including detection of angular deviation in the output laser beam resulting from detuning between the cavity mode frequency and the passband of the internal dispersive element, and generating an error signal based thereon. The error signal can be integrated and amplified and then applied as a correcting signal to a piezoelectric transducer mounted on a mirror of the laser cavity for controlling the cavity length.

  13. Ignition feedback regenerative free electron laser (FEL) amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Kwang-Je; Zholents, Alexander; Zolotorev, Max

    2001-01-01

    An ignition feedback regenerative amplifier consists of an injector, a linear accelerator with energy recovery, and a high-gain free electron laser amplifier. A fraction of the free electron laser output is coupled to the input to operate the free electron laser in the regenerative mode. A mode filter in this loop prevents run away instability. Another fraction of the output, after suitable frequency up conversion, is used to drive the photocathode. An external laser is provided to start up both the amplifier and the injector, thus igniting the system.

  14. Lumileds Develops High-Voltage LED Light Engine with Integrated Driver

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, Lumileds has developed a high-voltage LED light engine with an integrated driver, achieving an efficacy of 128 lm/W at a luminous flux greater than 4,100 lm, a CCT of...

  15. Evaluation of Negative-Ion-Beam Driver Concepts for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grisham, Larry R.

    2003-03-15

    The feasibility of producing and using atomically neutral heavy ion beams produced from negative ions as drivers for an inertial confinement fusion reactor is evaluated. Bromine and iodine appear to be the most attractive elements for the driver beams. Fluorine and chlorine appear to be the most appropriate feedstocks for initial tests of extractable negative-ion current densities. With regard to ion sources, photodetachment neutralizers, and vacuum requirements for accelerators and beam transport, this approach appears feasible within existing technology, and the vacuum requirements are essentially identical to those for positive-ion drivers except in the target chamber. The principal constraint is that this approach requires harder vacuums in the target chamber than do space-charge-neutralized positive-ion drivers. With realistic (but perhaps pessimistic) estimates of the total ionization cross section, limiting the ionization of a neutral beam to <5% while traversing a 3-m path would require a chamber pressure of no more than 1.3 x 10{sup -5} torr. However, it appears that substantial improvements in the beam spot size on target might be achieved at pressures a factor of 10 or more higher than this. Alternatively, even at still higher chamber pressures that would strongly ionize atomically neutral beams, the negative-ion approach may still have significant appeal, since it precludes the possibly challenging problem of electron contamination of a positive-ion beam during acceleration, drift compression, and focusing.

  16. Evaluation of Negative-Ion-Beam Driver Concepts for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry R. Grisham

    2002-01-14

    We evaluate the feasibility of producing and using atomically neutral heavy ion beams produced from negative ions as drivers for an inertial confinement fusion reactor. Bromine and iodine appear to be the most attractive elements for the driver beams. Fluorine and chlorine appear to be the most appropriate feedstocks for initial tests of extractable negative ion current densities. With regards to ion sources, photodetachment neutralizers, and vacuum requirements for accelerators and beam transport, this approach appears feasible within existing technology, and the vacuum requirements are essentially identical to those for positive ion drivers except in the target chamber. The principal constraint is that this approach requires harder vacuums in the target chamber than do space-charge-neutralized positive ion drivers. With realistic (but perhaps pessimistic) estimates of the total ionization cross section, limiting the ionization of a neutral beam to less than 5% while traversing a four -meter path would require a chamber pressure of no more than 5 x 10{sup -5} torr. Alternatively, even at chamber pressures that are too high to allow propagation of atomically neutral beams, the negative ion approach may still have appeal, since it precludes the possibly serious problem of electron contamination of a positive ion beam during acceleration, drift compression, and focusing.

  17. Refueling Behavior of Flexible Fuel Vehicle Drivers in the Federal Fleet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daley, R.; Nangle, J.; Boeckman, G.; Miller, M.

    2014-05-01

    Federal fleets are a frequent subject of legislative and executive efforts to lead a national transition to alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. Section 701 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires that all dual-fueled alternative fuel vehicles in the federal fleet be operated on alternative fuel 100% of the time when they have access to it. However, in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012, drivers of federal flex fuel vehicles (FFV) leased through the General Services Administration refueled with E85 24% of the time when it was available--falling well short of the mandate. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory completed a 2-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to identify the factors that influence the refueling behavior of federal FFV drivers. The project began with two primary hypotheses. First, information scarcity increases the tendency to miss opportunities to purchase E85. Second, even with perfect information, there are limits to how far drivers will go out of their way to purchase E85. This paper discusses the results of the project, which included a June 2012 survey of federal fleet drivers and an empirical analysis of actual refueling behavior from FY 2009 to 2012. This research will aid in the design and implementation of intervention programs aimed at increasing alternative fuel use and reducing petroleum consumption.

  18. Current status of the superconducting RF linac driver for the JAERI Free Electron Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minehara, E.J.; Sugimoto, M.; Sawamura, M.

    1995-12-31

    The commissioning of the superconducting rf linac driver for the JAERI free electron laser facility has been successfully performed at 10{approx}20 MeV before the end of the 1994 Japanese fiscal year. The performance obtained during the commissioning and current status of the JAERI FEL program at Tokai will be reported in detail.

  19. What kind of charging infrastructure do Chevrolet Volts Drivers in The EV Project use?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes key conclusions from analysis of data collected from Chevrolet Volts participating in The EV Project. Topics include how much Volt drivers charge at level 1 vs. level 2 rates and how much they charge at home vs. away from home.

  20. Cloud Feedbacks on Climate: A Challenging Scientific Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, Joel

    2010-05-10

    One reason it has been difficult to develop suitable social and economic policies to address global climate change is that projected global warming during the coming century has a large uncertainty range. The primary physical cause of this large uncertainty range is lack of understanding of the magnitude and even sign of cloud feedbacks on the climate system. If Earth's cloudiness responded to global warming by reflecting more solar radiation back to space or allowing more terrestrial radiation to be emitted to space, this would mitigate the warming produced by increased anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Contrastingly, a cloud response that reduced solar reflection or terrestrial emission would exacerbate anthropogenic greenhouse warming. It is likely that a mixture of responses will occur depending on cloud type and meteorological regime, and at present, we do not know what the net effect will be. This presentation will explain why cloud feedbacks have been a challenging scientific problem from the perspective of theory, modeling, and observations. Recent research results on observed multidecadal cloud-atmosphere-ocean variability over the Pacific Ocean will also be shown, along with suggestions for future research.

  1. Cloud Feedbacks on Climate: A Challenging Scientific Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, Joe

    2010-05-12

    One reason it has been difficult to develop suitable social and economic policies to address global climate change is that projected global warming during the coming century has a large uncertainty range. The primary physical cause of this large uncertainty range is lack of understanding of the magnitude and even sign of cloud feedbacks on the climate system. If Earth's cloudiness responded to global warming by reflecting more solar radiation back to space or allowing more terrestrial radiation to be emitted to space, this would mitigate the warming produced by increased anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Contrastingly, a cloud response that reduced solar reflection or terrestrial emission would exacerbate anthropogenic greenhouse warming. It is likely that a mixture of responses will occur depending on cloud type and meteorological regime, and at present, we do not know what the net effect will be. This presentation will explain why cloud feedbacks have been a challenging scientific problem from the perspective of theory, modeling, and observations. Recent research results on observed multidecadal cloud-atmosphere-ocean variability over the Pacific Ocean will also be shown, along with suggestions for future research.

  2. Cloud Feedbacks on Climate: A Challenging Scientific Problem

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Norris, Joe [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, California, USA

    2016-07-12

    One reason it has been difficult to develop suitable social and economic policies to address global climate change is that projected global warming during the coming century has a large uncertainty range. The primary physical cause of this large uncertainty range is lack of understanding of the magnitude and even sign of cloud feedbacks on the climate system. If Earth's cloudiness responded to global warming by reflecting more solar radiation back to space or allowing more terrestrial radiation to be emitted to space, this would mitigate the warming produced by increased anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Contrastingly, a cloud response that reduced solar reflection or terrestrial emission would exacerbate anthropogenic greenhouse warming. It is likely that a mixture of responses will occur depending on cloud type and meteorological regime, and at present, we do not know what the net effect will be. This presentation will explain why cloud feedbacks have been a challenging scientific problem from the perspective of theory, modeling, and observations. Recent research results on observed multidecadal cloud-atmosphere-ocean variability over the Pacific Ocean will also be shown, along with suggestions for future research.

  3. Temperature feedback control for long-term carrier-envelope phase locking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Zenghu; Yun, Chenxia; Chen, Shouyuan; Wang, He; Chini, Michael

    2012-07-24

    A feedback control module for stabilizing a carrier-envelope phase of an output of a laser oscillator system comprises a first photodetector, a second photodetector, a phase stabilizer, an optical modulator, and a thermal control element. The first photodetector may generate a first feedback signal corresponding to a first portion of a laser beam from an oscillator. The second photodetector may generate a second feedback signal corresponding to a second portion of the laser beam filtered by a low-pass filter. The phase stabilizer may divide the frequency of the first feedback signal by a factor and generate an error signal corresponding to the difference between the frequency-divided first feedback signal and the second feedback signal. The optical modulator may modulate the laser beam within the oscillator corresponding to the error signal. The thermal control unit may change the temperature of the oscillator corresponding to a signal operable to control the optical modulator.

  4. Advanced beam-dynamics simulation tools for the RIA driver linac,Part I: Low energy beam transport and radiofrequency quadrupole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wangler, Thomas P.; Crandall, Kenneth R.; Garnett, Robert W.; Gorelov, Dmitry; Ostroumov, Petr; Qiang, Ji; Ryne, Robert; York, Richard

    2003-08-26

    Advanced Beam-Dynamics Simulation Tools for the RIA Driver Linac; Low Energy Beam Transport and Radiofrequency Quadrupole.

  5. Post-Review Feedback Questionnaire for Evaluating the Peer Review Process |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Post-Review Feedback Questionnaire for Evaluating the Peer Review Process Post-Review Feedback Questionnaire for Evaluating the Peer Review Process EERE is committed to continuous improvement in its peer review progress. This questionnaire to evaluate the peer review process is designed to produce post-review information that can be applied to improve the effectiveness of future reviews. Post-Review Feedback Questionnaire (201.5 KB) More Documents & Publications EERE

  6. On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Laser Spectroscopy Combined with Amplified Resonance and Low Pressure Sampling On-Board Measurement of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Using Feedback Absorption Laser ...

  7. Real-time calibration of a feedback trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavrilov, Momčilo; Jun, Yonggun; Bechhoefer, John

    2014-09-15

    Feedback traps use closed-loop control to trap or manipulate small particles and molecules in solution. They have been applied to the measurement of physical and chemical properties of particles and to explore fundamental questions in the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of small systems. These applications have been hampered by drifts in the electric forces used to manipulate the particles. Although the drifts are small for measurements on the order of seconds, they dominate on time scales of minutes or slower. Here, we show that a recursive maximum likelihood (RML) algorithm can allow real-time measurement and control of electric and stochastic forces over time scales of hours. Simulations show that the RML algorithm recovers known parameters accurately. Experimental estimates of diffusion coefficients are also consistent with expected physical properties.

  8. Feedback regulated induction heater for a flowing fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Migliori, A.; Swift, G.W.

    1984-06-13

    A regulated induction heater for heating a stream of flowing fluid to a predetermined desired temperature. The heater includes a radiofrequency induction coil which surrounds a glass tube through which the fluid flows. A heating element consisting of a bundle of approximately 200 stainless steel capillary tubes located within the glass tube couples the output of the induction coil to the fluid. The temperature of the fluid downstream from the heating element is sensed with a platinum resistance thermometer, the output of which is applied to an adjustable porportional and integral feedback control circuit which regulates the power applied to the induction coil. The heater regulates the fluid temperature to within 0.005/sup 0/C at a flow rate of 50 cm/sup 3//sec with a response time of less than 0.1 second, and can accommodate changes in heat load up to 1500 watts.

  9. Feedback regulated induction heater for a flowing fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Migliori, Albert; Swift, Gregory W.

    1985-01-01

    A regulated induction heater for heating a stream of flowing fluid to a predetermined desired temperature. The heater includes a radiofrequency induction coil which surrounds a glass tube through which the fluid flows. A heating element consisting of a bundle of approximately 200 stainless steel capillary tubes located within the glass tube couples the output of the induction coil to the fluid. The temperature of the fluid downstream from the heating element is sensed with a platinum resistance thermometer, the output of which is applied to an adjustable proportional and integral feedback control circuit which regulates the power applied to the induction coil. The heater regulates the fluid temperature to within 0.005.degree. C. at a flow rate of 50 cm.sup.3 /second with a response time of less than 0.1 second, and can accommodate changes in heat load up to 1500 watts.

  10. Radiation feedback in ULIRGs: are photons movers and shakers?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Shane W.; Murray, Norman; Jiang, Yan-Fei; Stone, James M.

    2014-12-01

    We perform multidimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations to study the impact of radiation forces on atmospheres composed of dust and gas. Our setup closely follows that of Krumholz and Thompson, assuming that dust and gas are well-coupled and that the radiation field is characterized by blackbodies with temperatures ≳ 80 K, as might be found in ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). In agreement with previous work, we find that Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities develop in radiation supported atmospheres, leading to inhomogeneities that limit momentum exchange between radiation and dusty gas, and eventually providing a near balance of the radiation and gravitational forces. However, the evolution of the velocity and spatial distributions of the gas differs significantly from previous work, which utilized a less accurate flux-limited diffusion (FLD) method. Our variable Eddington tensor simulations show continuous net acceleration of the gas and never reach a steady state. In contrast, our FLD results show little net acceleration of the gas and settle into a quasi-steady, turbulent state with low velocity dispersion. The discrepancies result primarily from the inability of FLD to properly model the variation of the radiation field around structures that are less than a few optical depths across. We consider the effect of varying the optical depth and study the differences between two-dimensional and three-dimensional runs. We conclude that radiation feedback remains a plausible mechanism for driving high-Mach number turbulence in ULIRGs with sufficiently high optical depths. We discuss implications for observed systems and galactic-scale numerical simulations of feedback.

  11. Drivers and barriers to e-invoicing adoption in Greek large scale manufacturing industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinagi, Catherine E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com Trivellas, Panagiotis E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com Reklitis, Panagiotis E-mail: ptrivel@yahoo.com; Skourlas, Christos

    2015-02-09

    This paper attempts to investigate the drivers and barriers that large-scale Greek manufacturing industries experience in adopting electronic invoices (e-invoices), based on three case studies with organizations having international presence in many countries. The study focuses on the drivers that may affect the increase of the adoption and use of e-invoicing, including the customers demand for e-invoices, and sufficient know-how and adoption of e-invoicing in organizations. In addition, the study reveals important barriers that prevent the expansion of e-invoicing, such as suppliers’ reluctance to implement e-invoicing, and IT infrastructures incompatibilities. Other issues examined by this study include the observed benefits from e-invoicing implementation, and the financial priorities of the organizations assumed to be supported by e-invoicing.

  12. Accounting for the Variation of Driver Aggression in the Simulation of Conventional and Advanced Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.

    2013-03-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gases, as well as to offer a financial benefit to the driver. However, assessing these potential benefits is complicated by several factors, including the driving habits of the operator. We focus on driver aggression, i.e., the level of acceleration and velocity characteristic of travel, to (1) assess its variation within large, real-world drive datasets, (2) quantify its effect on both vehicle efficiency and economics for multiple vehicle types, (3) compare these results to those of standard drive cycles commonly used in the industry, and (4) create a representative drive cycle for future analyses where standard drive cycles are lacking.

  13. Accounting for the Variation of Driver Aggression in the Simulation of Conventional and Advanced Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gases, as well as to offer a financial benefit to the driver. However, assessing these potential benefits is complicated by several factors, including the driving habits of the operator. We focus on driver aggression, i.e., the level of acceleration and velocity characteristic of travel, to (1) assess its variation within large, real-world drive datasets, (2) quantify its effect on both vehicle efficiency and economics for multiple vehicle types, (3) compare these results to those of standard drive cycles commonly used in the industry, and (4) create a representative drive cycle for future analyses where standard drive cycles are lacking.

  14. Creating a Well-focused Laser-accelerated Proton Beam as a Driver for

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Fast Ignition | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Creating a Well-focused Laser-accelerated Proton Beam as a Driver for Proton Fast Ignition Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) FES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of FES Funding Opportunities Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Fusion Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-24/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301)

  15. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

    2012-10-01

    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  16. Design of a new main injector cavity for the Fermilab Proton Driver era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, V.; Chen, A.; Qian, Z.; Wildman, D.W.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    In the design report of the Fermilab Proton Driver [1], the Main Injector (MI) needs to be upgraded to a 2 MW machine. For the Main Injector radiofrequency (rf) upgrade, R&D efforts are launched to design and build a new rf system. This paper presents the new cavity design study for the rf system. The cavity is simulated with the design code Mafia [2].

  17. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Martin, Eric; Moyer, Neil

    2012-10-01

    This report is a revision of an earlier report titled: Measure Guideline: Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes. Revisions include: Information in the text box on page 1 was revised to reflect the most accurate information regarding classifications as referenced in the 2012 International Residential Code. “Measure Guideline” was dropped from the title of the report. An addition was made to the reference list.

  18. Session 4: "Short-Term Energy Prices - What Drivers Matter Most?"

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    4: "Short-Term Energy Prices - What Drivers Matter Most?" Speakers: Howard K. Gruenspecht, EIA David M. Arseneau, Federal Reserve Board Guy F. Caruso, Center for Strategic and International Studies Christopher Ellsworth, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Edward L. Morse, Credit Suisse Securities [Note: Recorders did not pick up introduction of panel (see biographies for details on the panelists) or introduction of session.] Howard: And this presentation could not be more timely,

  19. Reliable, high repetition rate thyratron grid driver used with a magnetic modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, J.V.; Ball, D.G.; Garrett, D.N.

    1991-06-14

    The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory uses a magnetic modulator switched by a high voltage thyratron to drive a gas discharge laser. The thyratron trigger source must provide an extremely reliable, low jitter, high- rep-rate grid pulse. This paper describes a thyratron grid driver which delivers a 1.2 kV, 80 ns rise time grid pulse into a 50 ohm load at up to 4.5 kHz repetition rate and has demonstrated approximately 10,000 hours MTBF. Since the thyratron is used with a magnetic compression circuit having a delay time of 1.4 ms this grid driver incorporates a jitter compensation circuit to adjust the trigger timing of the thyratron to provide overall modulator/laser jitter of less than {plus minus} 2 ns. The specific grid driver requirements will be discussed followed by a description of the circuit design and theory of operation. Construction comments will be followed by performance data (for a specific thyratron and magnetic compression circuit), including pulse shape, jitter, and lifetime. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  20. Survey of Laser Markets Relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy Drivers, information for National Research Council

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayramian, A J; Deri, R J; Erlandson, A C

    2011-02-24

    Development of a new technology for commercial application can be significantly accelerated by leveraging related technologies used in other markets. Synergies across multiple application domains attract research and development (R and D) talent - widening the innovation pipeline - and increases the market demand in common components and subsystems to provide performance improvements and cost reductions. For these reasons, driver development plans for inertial fusion energy (IFE) should consider the non-fusion technology base that can be lveraged for application to IFE. At this time, two laser driver technologies are being proposed for IFE: solid-state lasers (SSLs) and KrF gas (excimer) lasers. This document provides a brief survey of organizations actively engaged in these technologies. This is intended to facilitate comparison of the opportunities for leveraging the larger technical community for IFE laser driver development. They have included tables that summarize the commercial organizations selling solid-state and KrF lasers, and a brief summary of organizations actively engaged in R and D on these technologies.

  1. HESFIRE: a global fire model to explore the role of anthropogenic and weather drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Page, Yannick LB; Morton, Douglas; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Pereira, Jose M.; Hurtt, George C.

    2015-02-13

    Vegetation fires are a major driver of ecosystem dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions. Anticipating potential changes in fire activity and their impacts relies first on a realistic model of fire activity (e.g., fire incidence and interannual variability) and second on a model accounting for fire impacts (e.g., mortality and emissions). In this paper, we focus on our understanding of fire activity and describe a new fire model, HESFIRE (Human–Earth System FIRE), which integrates the influence of weather, vegetation characteristics, and human activities on fires in a stand-alone framework. It was developed with a particular emphasis on allowing fires to spread over consecutive days given their major contribution to burned areas in many ecosystems. A subset of the model parameters was calibrated through an optimization procedure using observation data to enhance our knowledge of regional drivers of fire activity and improve the performance of the model on a global scale. Modeled fire activity showed reasonable agreement with observations of burned area, fire seasonality, and interannual variability in many regions, including for spatial and temporal domains not included in the optimization procedure. Significant discrepancies are investigated, most notably regarding fires in boreal regions and in xeric ecosystems and also fire size distribution. The sensitivity of fire activity to model parameters is analyzed to explore the dominance of specific drivers across regions and ecosystems. The characteristics of HESFIRE and the outcome of its evaluation provide insights into the influence of anthropogenic activities and weather, and their interactions, on fire activity.

  2. Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.; Ong, S.; Roberts, B.

    2009-12-01

    Grid parity--or break-even cost--for photovoltaic (PV) technology is defined as the point where the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. Break-even cost is expressed in $/W of an installed system. Achieving break-even cost is a function of many variables. Consequently, break-even costs vary by location and time for a country, such as the United States, with a diverse set of resources, electricity prices, and other variables. In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that local incentives rather than ?technical? parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

  3. Accounting for the Variation of Driver Aggression in the Simulation of Conventional and Advanced Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation discusses a method of accounting for realistic levels of driver aggression to higher-level vehicle studies, including the impact of variation in real-world driving characteristics (acceleration and speed) on vehicle energy consumption and different powertrains (e.g., conventionally powered vehicles versus electrified drive vehicles [xEVs]). Aggression variation between drivers can increase fuel consumption by more than 50% or decrease it by more than 20% from average. The normalized fuel consumption deviation from average as a function of population percentile was found to be largely insensitive to powertrain. However, the traits of ideal driving behavior are a function of powertrain. In conventional vehicles, kinetic losses dominate rolling resistance and aerodynamic losses. In xEVs with regenerative braking, rolling resistance and aerodynamic losses dominate. The relation of fuel consumption predicted from real-world drive data to that predicted by the industry-standard HWFET, UDDS, LA92, and US06 drive cycles was not consistent across powertrains, and varied broadly from the mean, median, and mode of real-world driving. A drive cycle synthesized by NREL's DRIVE tool accurately and consistently reproduces average real-world for multiple powertrains within 1%, and can be used to calculate the fuel consumption effects of varying levels of driver aggression.

  4. Can we estimate plasma density in ICP driver through electrical parameters in RF circuit?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, M. Sudhir, Dass Chakraborty, A.

    2015-04-08

    To avoid regular maintenance, invasive plasma diagnostics with probes are not included in the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) based ITER Neutral Beam (NB) source design. Even non-invasive probes like optical emission spectroscopic diagnostics are also not included in the present ITER NB design due to overall system design and interface issues. As a result, negative ion beam current through the extraction system in the ITER NB negative ion source is the only measurement which indicates plasma condition inside the ion source. However, beam current not only depends on the plasma condition near the extraction region but also on the perveance condition of the ion extractor system and negative ion stripping. Nevertheless, inductively coupled plasma production region (RF driver region) is placed at distance (∼ 30cm) from the extraction region. Due to that, some uncertainties are expected to be involved if one tries to link beam current with plasma properties inside the RF driver. Plasma characterization in source RF driver region is utmost necessary to maintain the optimum condition for source operation. In this paper, a method of plasma density estimation is described, based on density dependent plasma load calculation.

  5. Pilot Evaluation of Energy Savings from Residential Energy Demand Feedback Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Danny S.; Hoak, David; Cummings, Jamie

    2008-01-01

    This report discusses instantaneous feedback on household electrical demand has shown promise to reduce energy consumption. This report reviews past research and describes a two year pilot evaluation of a low cost residential energy feedback system installed in twenty case study homes in FL.

  6. Controlling the vertical mode coupling instability with feedback in the ALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrd, J.; Barry, W.

    1997-01-01

    The authors present the results of experiments to control the mode coupling instability in the vertical direction using a feedback system. Presently, they can raise the instability threshold from {approximately} 20 mA to 35 mA. The maximum current threshold is reached when the feedback is operated in a resistive mode.

  7. Where do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Don Scoffield

    2014-03-01

    This paper invesigates where Nissan Leaf drivers in the EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work. Do they charge at work, home, or some other location?

  8. Where do Chevrolet Volt drivers in The EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Don Scoffield

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates where Chevy Volt drivers in the EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work. Do they charge at home, work, or some other location.

  9. The role of water vapor feedback in unperturbed climate variability and global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, A.; Manabe, Syukuro

    1999-08-01

    To understand the role of water vapor feedback in unperturbed surface temperature variability, a version of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory coupled ocean-atmosphere model is integrated for 1,000 yr in two configurations, one with water vapor feedback and one without. To understand the role of water vapor feedback in global warming, two 500-yr integrations were also performed in which CO{sub 2} was doubled in both model configurations. The final surface global warming in the model with water vapor feedback is 3.38 C, while in the one without it is only 1.05 C. However, the model`s water vapor feedback has a larger impact on surface warming in response to a doubling of CO{sub 2} than it does on internally generated, low-frequency, global-mean surface temperature anomalies. Water vapor feedback`s strength therefore depends on the type of temperature anomaly it affects. Finally, the authors compare the local and global-mean surface temperature time series from both unperturbed variability experiments to the observed record. The experiment without water vapor feedback does not have enough global-scale variability to reproduce the magnitude of the variability in the observed global-mean record, whether or not one removes the warming trend observed over the past century. In contrast, the amount of variability in the experiment with water vapor feedback is comparable to that of the global-mean record, provided the observed warming trend is removed. Thus, the authors are unable to simulate the observed levels of variability without water vapor feedback.

  10. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOWS AND RADIATIVE FEEDBACK FROM MASSIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuiper, Rolf; Yorke, Harold W.; Turner, Neal J. E-mail: Harold.W.Yorke@jpl.nasa.gov

    2015-02-20

    We carry out radiation hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of massive stars in the super-Eddington regime including both their radiative feedback and protostellar outflows. The calculations start from a prestellar core of dusty gas and continue until the star stops growing. The accretion ends when the remnants of the core are ejected, mostly by the force of the direct stellar radiation in the polar direction and elsewhere by the reradiated thermal infrared radiation. How long the accretion persists depends on whether the protostellar outflows are present. We set the mass outflow rate to 1% of the stellar sink particle's accretion rate. The outflows open a bipolar cavity extending to the core's outer edge, through which the thermal radiation readily escapes. The radiative flux is funneled into the polar directions while the core's collapse proceeds near the equator. The outflow thus extends the ''flashlight effect'', or anisotropic radiation field, found in previous studies from the few hundred AU scale of the circumstellar disk up to the 0.1 parsec scale of the core. The core's flashlight effect allows core gas to accrete on the disk for longer, in the same way that the disk's flashlight effect allows disk gas to accrete on the star for longer. Thus although the protostellar outflows remove material near the core's poles, causing slower stellar growth over the first few free-fall times, they also enable accretion to go on longer in our calculations. The outflows ultimately lead to stars of somewhat higher mass.

  11. Dakota Driver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-02-14

    This code connects the SANDIA’a C++-based DAKOTA optimization and analyis tool with NASA’s python-based openMDAO systems engineering framework. It allows DAKOTA to be used as an openMDAO “Driver”. DAKOTA contains a wide array of advanced sensitivity, uncertainty quantification, and optimization methods. These are now available in a “pluggable” way to any openMDAO based workflow.

  12. MHD computation of feedback of resistive-shell instabilities in the reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zita, E.J.; Prager, S.C.; Ho, Y.L.; Schnack, D.D

    1992-05-01

    MHD computation demonstrates that feedback can sustain reversal and reduce loop voltage in resistive-shell reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas. Edge feedback on {approximately}2R/a tearing modes resonant near axis is found to restore plasma parameters to nearly their levels with a close-fitting conducting shell. When original dynamo modes are stabilized, neighboring tearing modes grow to maintain the RFP dynamo more efficiently. This suggests that experimentally observed limits on RFP pulselengths to the order of the shell time can be overcome by applying feedback to a few helical modes.

  13. Switching between ground and excited states by optical feedback in a quantum dot laser diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virte, Martin; Breuer, Stefan; Sciamanna, Marc; Panajotov, Krassimir

    2014-09-22

    We demonstrate switching between ground state and excited state emission in a quantum-dot laser subject to optical feedback. Even though the solitary laser emits only from the excited state, we can trigger the emission of the ground state by optical feedback. We observe recurrent but incomplete switching between the two emission states by variation of the external cavity length in the sub-micrometer scale. We obtain a good qualitative agreement of experimental results with simulation results obtained by a rate equation that accounts for the variations of the feedback phase.

  14. Develop feedback system for intelligent dynamic resource allocation to improve application performance.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gentile, Ann C.; Brandt, James M.; Tucker, Thomas; Thompson, David

    2011-09-01

    This report provides documentation for the completion of the Sandia Level II milestone 'Develop feedback system for intelligent dynamic resource allocation to improve application performance'. This milestone demonstrates the use of a scalable data collection analysis and feedback system that enables insight into how an application is utilizing the hardware resources of a high performance computing (HPC) platform in a lightweight fashion. Further we demonstrate utilizing the same mechanisms used for transporting data for remote analysis and visualization to provide low latency run-time feedback to applications. The ultimate goal of this body of work is performance optimization in the face of the ever increasing size and complexity of HPC systems.

  15. HESFIRE: a global fire model to explore the role of anthropogenic and weather drivers

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Le Page, Yannick LB; Morton, Douglas; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Pereira, Jose M.; Hurtt, George C.

    2015-02-13

    Vegetation fires are a major driver of ecosystem dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions. Anticipating potential changes in fire activity and their impacts relies first on a realistic model of fire activity (e.g., fire incidence and interannual variability) and second on a model accounting for fire impacts (e.g., mortality and emissions). In this paper, we focus on our understanding of fire activity and describe a new fire model, HESFIRE (Human–Earth System FIRE), which integrates the influence of weather, vegetation characteristics, and human activities on fires in a stand-alone framework. It was developed with a particular emphasis on allowing fires to spreadmore » over consecutive days given their major contribution to burned areas in many ecosystems. A subset of the model parameters was calibrated through an optimization procedure using observation data to enhance our knowledge of regional drivers of fire activity and improve the performance of the model on a global scale. Modeled fire activity showed reasonable agreement with observations of burned area, fire seasonality, and interannual variability in many regions, including for spatial and temporal domains not included in the optimization procedure. Significant discrepancies are investigated, most notably regarding fires in boreal regions and in xeric ecosystems and also fire size distribution. The sensitivity of fire activity to model parameters is analyzed to explore the dominance of specific drivers across regions and ecosystems. The characteristics of HESFIRE and the outcome of its evaluation provide insights into the influence of anthropogenic activities and weather, and their interactions, on fire activity.« less

  16. Battery Electric Vehicles: Range Optimization and Diversification for the U.S. Drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhenhong

    2012-01-01

    Properly selecting the driving range is critical for accurately predicting the market acceptance and the resulting social benefits of BEVs. Analysis of transportation technology transition could be biased against battery electric vehicles (BEV) and mislead policy making, if BEVs are not represented with optimal ranges. This study proposes a coherent method to optimize the BEV driving range by minimizing the range-related cost, which is formulated as a function of range, battery cost, energy prices, charging frequency, access to backup vehicles, and the cost and refueling hassle of operating the backup vehicle. This method is implemented with a sample of 36,664 drivers, representing U.S. new car drivers, based on the 2009 National Household Travel Survey data. Key findings are: 1) Assuming the near term (2015) battery cost at $405/kWh, about 98% of the sampled drivers are predicted to prefer a range below 200 miles, and about 70% below 100 miles. The most popular 20-mile band of range is 57 to77 miles, unsurprisingly encompassing the Leaf s EPA-certified 73-mile range. With range limited to 4 or 7 discrete options, the majority are predicted to choose a range below 100 miles. 2) Found as a statistically robust rule of thumb, the BEV optimal range is approximately 0.6% of one s annual driving distance. 3) Reducing battery costs could motivate demand for larger range, but improving public charging may cause the opposite. 4) Using a single range to represent BEVs in analysis could significantly underestimate their competitiveness e.g. by $3226/vehicle if BEVs are represented with 73-mile range only or by $7404/BEV if with 150-mile range only. Range optimization and diversification into 4 or 7 range options reduce such analytical bias by 78% or 90%, respectively.

  17. French Atomic Energy Commission Decommissioning Programme and Feedback Experience - 12230

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guiberteau, Ph.; Nokhamzon, J.G.

    2012-07-01

    Since the French Atomic and Alternatives Energy Commission (CEA) was founded in 1945 to carry out research programmes on use of nuclear, and its application France has set up and run various types of installations: research or prototypes reactors, process study or examination laboratories, pilot installations, accelerators, nuclear power plants and processing facilities. Some of these are currently being dismantled or must be dismantled soon so that the DEN, the Nuclear Energy Division, can construct new equipment and thus have available a range of R and D facilities in line with the issues of the nuclear industry of the future. Since the 1960's and 1970's in all its centres, the CEA has acquired experience and know-how through dismantling various nuclear facilities. The dismantling techniques are nowadays operational, even if sometimes certain specific developments are necessary to reduce the cost of operations. Thanks to availability of techniques and guarantees of dismantling programme financing now from two dedicated funds, close to euro 15,000 M for the next thirty years, for current or projected dismantling operations, the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division has been able to develop, when necessary, its immediate dismantling strategy. Currently, nearly thirty facilities are being dismantled by the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division operational units with industrial partners. Thus the next decade will see completion of the dismantling and radioactive clean-up of the Grenoble site and of the facilities on the Fontenay-aux-Roses site. By 2016, the dismantling of the UP1 plant at Marcoule, the largest dismantling work in France, will be well advanced, with all the process equipment dismantled. After an overview of the French regulatory framework, the paper will describe the DD and R (Decontamination Decommissioning and Remediation) strategy, programme and feedback experience inside the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division. A special feature of dismantling operations at the CEA

  18. Low-jitter high-power thyristor array pulse driver and generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanks, Roy L. (Byron, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for generating low-jitter, high-voltage and high-current pulses for driving low impedance loads such as detonator fuses uses a MOSFET driver which, when triggered, discharges a high-voltage pre-charged capacitor into the primary of a toroidal current-multiplying transformer with multiple isolated secondary windings. The secondary outputs are suitable for driving an array of thyristors that discharge a precharged high-voltage capacitor and thus generating the required high-voltage and high-current pulse.

  19. Electrorefining Experience For Pyrochemical Reprocessing of Spent EBR-II Driver Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. X. Li; T. A. Johnson; B. R. Westphal; K. M. Goff; R. W. Benedict

    2005-10-01

    Pyrochemical processing has been implemented for the treatment of spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at Idaho National Laboratory since 1996. This report summarizes technical advancements made in electrorefining of spent EBR-II driver fuel in the Mk-IV electrorefiner since the pyrochemical processing was integrated into the AFCI program in 2002. The significant advancements include improving uranium dissolution and noble metal retention from chopped fuel segments, increasing cathode current efficiency, and achieving co-collection of zirconium along with uranium from the cadmium pool.

  20. Overview of proton drivers for neutrino super beams and neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, W.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    There has been a world-wide interest in Proton Drivers in the past decade. Numerous design proposals have been presented in Asia, Europe and North America, ranging from low energy rapid cycling synchrotrons, normal or superconducting linacs to high energy slow cycling synchrotrons and FFAGs. One thing in common is that all these machines provide MW beam power and are used primarily for neutrino experiments. This paper gives an overview of these activities. In the last section the author expresses his personal opinion on the future of this field.

  1. Linear beam raster magnet driver based on H-bridge technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinkine, Nikolai I.; Yan, Chen; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Dail, Jeffrey Glenn; Wojcik, Randolph Frank; Gunning, William

    2006-06-06

    An improved raster magnet driver for a linear particle beam is based on an H-bridge technique. Four branches of power HEXFETs form a two-by-two switch. Switching the HEXFETs in a predetermined order and at the right frequency produces a triangular current waveform. An H-bridge controller controls switching sequence and timing. The magnetic field of the coil follows the shape of the waveform and thus steers the beam using a triangular rather than a sinusoidal waveform. The system produces a raster pattern having a highly uniform raster density distribution, eliminates target heating from non-uniform raster density distributions, and produces higher levels of beam current.

  2. Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene North Africa from two climate models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yi; Notaro, Michael; Liu, Zhengyu; Gallimore, Robert; Levis, Samuel; Kutzbach, John E.

    2008-03-31

    Using two climate-vegetation model simulations from the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM) and the Community Climate System Model (CCSM, version 2), we investigate vegetation-precipitation feedbacks across North Africa during the mid-Holocene. From mid-Holocene snapshot runs of FOAM and CCSM2, we detect a negative feedback at the annual timescale with our statistical analysis. Using the Monte- Carlo bootstrap method, the annual negative feedback is further confirmed to be significant in both simulations. Additional analysis shows that this negative interaction is partially caused by the competition between evaporation and transpiration in North African grasslands. Furthermore, we find the feedbacks decrease with increasing timescales, and change signs from positive to negative at increasing timescales in FOAM. The proposed mechanism for this sign switch is associated with the different persistent timescales of upper and lower soil water contents, and their interactions with vegetation and atmospheric precipitation.

  3. Listening to Your Workforce: Lessons From Pilot Programs and Other Approaches For Workforce Feedback

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Workforce Peer Exchange and Green for All High Road Affinity Group “Listening to Your Workforce”: Lessons from Pilot Programs and Other Approaches for Workforce Feedback, call slides and discussion summary, October 6, 2011.

  4. EnergyPlus and OpenStudio Get New User Feedback Portals

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE and NREL, with help from Big Ladder Software, recently launched user feedback portals for EnergyPlus and OpenStudio, ensuring that the development team focuses on features and improvements that users want and need.

  5. Acoustic emission feedback control for control of boiling in a microwave oven

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Terry L.

    1991-01-01

    An acoustic emission based feedback system for controlling the boiling level of a liquid medium in a microwave oven is provided. The acoustic emissions from the medium correlated with surface boiling is used to generate a feedback control signal proportional to the level of boiling of the medium. This signal is applied to a power controller to automatically and continuoulsly vary the power applied to the oven to control the boiling at a selected level.

  6. Climate Feedbacks from Permafrost Charlie Koven Lawrence Berkeley Na?onal Lab

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding and Modeling of Climate Feedbacks from Permafrost Charlie Koven Lawrence Berkeley Na?onal Lab With many others: Bill Riley, Dave Lawrence, Jen Harden, Gustaf Hugelius, the CESM Land Model Working Group, and the Permafrost Carbon Network Thanks to DOE-BER support from Regional and Global Climate Modeling Program (BGC Feedbacks SFA), Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Program (NGEE Arc?c), and Earth System Modeling Program (IMPACTS SFA) IPCC-AR5 (Ciais et al., 2013) Figure 6.22 | The

  7. Reliability and Failure Modes of Solid-State Lighting Electrical Drivers Subjected to Accelerated Aging

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Lall, Pradeep; Sakalaukus, Peter; Davis, Lynn

    2015-02-19

    An investigation of an off-the-shelf solid-state lighting device with the primary focus on the accompanied light-emitting diode (LED) electrical driver (ED) has been conducted. A set of 10 EDs were exposed to temperature humidity life testing of 85% RH and 85 C (85/85) without an electrical bias per the JEDEC standard JESD22-A101C in order to accelerate the ingress of moisture into the aluminum electrolytic capacitor (AEC) and the EDs in order to assess the reliability of the LED drivers for harsh environment applications. The capacitance and equivalent series resistance for each AEC inside the ED were measured using a handheldmore » LCR meter as possible leading indications of failure. The photometric quantities of a single pristine light engine were monitored in order to investigate the interaction between the light engine and the EDs. These parameters were used in assessing the overall reliability of the EDs. In addition, a comparative analysis has been conducted between the 85/85 accelerated test data and a previously published high-temperature storage life accelerated test of 135°C. The results of the 85/85 acceleration test and the comparative analysis are presented in this paper.« less

  8. Reliability and Failure Modes of Solid-State Lighting Electrical Drivers Subjected to Accelerated Aging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lall, Pradeep; Sakalaukus, Peter; Davis, Lynn

    2015-02-19

    An investigation of an off-the-shelf solid-state lighting device with the primary focus on the accompanied light-emitting diode (LED) electrical driver (ED) has been conducted. A set of 10 EDs were exposed to temperature humidity life testing of 85% RH and 85 C (85/85) without an electrical bias per the JEDEC standard JESD22-A101C in order to accelerate the ingress of moisture into the aluminum electrolytic capacitor (AEC) and the EDs in order to assess the reliability of the LED drivers for harsh environment applications. The capacitance and equivalent series resistance for each AEC inside the ED were measured using a handheld LCR meter as possible leading indications of failure. The photometric quantities of a single pristine light engine were monitored in order to investigate the interaction between the light engine and the EDs. These parameters were used in assessing the overall reliability of the EDs. In addition, a comparative analysis has been conducted between the 85/85 accelerated test data and a previously published high-temperature storage life accelerated test of 135°C. The results of the 85/85 acceleration test and the comparative analysis are presented in this paper.

  9. Breakeven Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities (Report Summary) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.; Ong, S.; Roberts, B.

    2009-12-01

    "Break-even cost" for photovoltaic (PV) technology is defined as the point where the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. Break-even cost is expressed in $/W of an installed system. Achieving break-even cost is a function of many variables. Consequently, break-even costs vary by location and time for a country, such as the United States, with a diverse set of resources, electricity prices, and other variables. In this presentation, we introduce an analysis of PV break-even costs for residential customers in the United States, including an evaluation of some of the key drivers of PV breakeven both regionally and over time. This presentation includes our methodology and presents results for both near-term residential breakeven costs(2009) and future market sensitivities of break-even costs (2015). See also the the report "Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities". Presentation for NREL/TP-6A2-45991.

  10. Optimizing and Diversifying Electric Vehicle Driving Range for U.S. Drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhenhong

    2014-01-01

    Properly determining the driving range is critical for accurately predicting the sales and social benefits of battery electric vehicles (BEVs). This study proposes a framework for optimizing the driving range by minimizing the sum of battery price, electricity cost, and range limitation cost referred to as the range-related cost as a measurement of range anxiety. The objective function is linked to policy-relevant parameters, including battery cost and price markup, battery utilization, charging infrastructure availability, vehicle efficiency, electricity and gasoline prices, household vehicle ownership, daily driving patterns, discount rate, and perceived vehicle lifetime. Qualitative discussion of the framework and its empirical application to a sample (N=36,664) representing new car drivers in the United States is included. The quantitative results strongly suggest that ranges of less than 100 miles are likely to be more popular in the BEV market for a long period of time. The average optimal range among U.S. drivers is found to be largely inelastic. Still, battery cost reduction significantly drives BEV demand toward longer ranges, whereas improvement in the charging infrastructure is found to significantly drive BEV demand toward shorter ranges. The bias of a single-range assumption and the effects of range optimization and diversification in reducing such biases are both found to be significant.

  11. Optimizing and Diversifying Electric Vehicle Driving Range for U.S. Drivers

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhenhong

    2014-08-11

    Properly determining the driving range is critical for accurately predicting the sales and social benefits of battery electric vehicles (BEVs). This study proposes a framework for optimizing the driving range by minimizing the sum of battery price, electricity cost, and range limitation cost referred to as the "range-related cost" as a measurement of range anxiety. The objective function is linked to policy-relevant parameters, including battery cost and price markup, battery utilization, charging infrastructure availability, vehicle efficiency, electricity and gasoline prices, household vehicle ownership, daily driving patterns, discount rate, and perceived vehicle lifetime. Qualitative discussion of the framework and its empiricalmore » application to a sample (N=36664) representing new car drivers in the United States is included. The quantitative results strongly suggest that ranges of less than 100 miles are likely to be more popular in the BEV market for a long period of time. The average optimal range among U.S. drivers is found to be largely inelastic. Still, battery cost reduction significantly drives BEV demand toward longer ranges, whereas improvement in the charging infrastructure is found to significantly drive BEV demand toward shorter ranges. In conclusion, the bias of a single-range assumption and the effects of range optimization and diversification in reducing such biases are both found to be significant.« less

  12. Optimizing and Diversifying Electric Vehicle Driving Range for U.S. Drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhenhong

    2014-08-11

    Properly determining the driving range is critical for accurately predicting the sales and social benefits of battery electric vehicles (BEVs). This study proposes a framework for optimizing the driving range by minimizing the sum of battery price, electricity cost, and range limitation cost referred to as the "range-related cost" as a measurement of range anxiety. The objective function is linked to policy-relevant parameters, including battery cost and price markup, battery utilization, charging infrastructure availability, vehicle efficiency, electricity and gasoline prices, household vehicle ownership, daily driving patterns, discount rate, and perceived vehicle lifetime. Qualitative discussion of the framework and its empirical application to a sample (N=36664) representing new car drivers in the United States is included. The quantitative results strongly suggest that ranges of less than 100 miles are likely to be more popular in the BEV market for a long period of time. The average optimal range among U.S. drivers is found to be largely inelastic. Still, battery cost reduction significantly drives BEV demand toward longer ranges, whereas improvement in the charging infrastructure is found to significantly drive BEV demand toward shorter ranges. In conclusion, the bias of a single-range assumption and the effects of range optimization and diversification in reducing such biases are both found to be significant.

  13. Elise - the next step in development of induction heavy ion drivers for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, E.; Bangerter, R.O.; Celata, C.; Faltens, A.; Fessenden, T.; Peters, C.; Pickrell, J.; Reginato, L.; Seidl, P.; Yu, S.

    1994-11-01

    LBL, with the participation of LLNL and industry, proposes to build Elise, an electric-focused accelerator as the next logical step towards the eventual goal of a heavy-ion induction linac powerful enough to implode or {open_quotes}drive{close_quotes} inertial-confinement fusion targets. Elise will be at full driver scale in several important parameters-most notably line charge density (a function of beam size), which was not explored in earlier experiments. Elise will be capable of accelerating and electrostatically focusing four parallel, full-scale ion beams and will be designed to be extendible, by successive future construction projects, to meet the goal of the USA DOE Inertial Fusion Energy program (IFE). This goal is to address all remaining issues in heavy-ion IFE except target physics, which is currently the responsibility of DOE Defense Programs, and the target chamber. Thus Elise is the first step of a program that will provide a solid foundation of data for further progress toward a driver, as called for in the National Energy Strategy and National Energy Policy Act.

  14. Terrestrial biogeochemical feedbacks in the climate system: from past to future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arneth, A.; Harrison, S. P.; Zaehle, S.; Tsigaridis, K; Menon, S; Bartlein, P.J.; Feichter, J; Korhola, A; Kulmala, M; O'Donnell, D; Schurgers, G; Sorvari, S; Vesala, T

    2010-01-05

    The terrestrial biosphere plays a major role in the regulation of atmospheric composition, and hence climate, through multiple interlinked biogeochemical cycles (BGC). Ice-core and other palaeoenvironmental records show a fast response of vegetation cover and exchanges with the atmosphere to past climate change, although the phasing of these responses reflects spatial patterning and complex interactions between individual biospheric feedbacks. Modern observations show a similar responsiveness of terrestrial biogeochemical cycles to anthropogenically-forced climate changes and air pollution, with equally complex feedbacks. For future conditions, although carbon cycle-climate interactions have been a major focus, other BGC feedbacks could be as important in modulating climate changes. The additional radiative forcing from terrestrial BGC feedbacks other than those conventionally attributed to the carbon cycle is in the range of 0.6 to 1.6 Wm{sup -2}; all taken together we estimate a possible maximum of around 3 Wm{sup -2} towards the end of the 21st century. There are large uncertainties associated with these estimates but, given that the majority of BGC feedbacks result in a positive forcing because of the fundamental link between metabolic stimulation and increasing temperature, improved quantification of these feedbacks and their incorporation in earth system models is necessary in order to develop coherent plans to manage ecosystems for climate mitigation.

  15. Dynamic control of rotating stall in axial flow compressors using aeromechanical feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gysling, D.L.; Greitzer, E.M.

    1995-07-01

    Dynamic control of rotating stall in an axial flow compressor has been implemented using aeromechanical feedback. The control strategy developed used an array of wall jets, upstream of a single-stage compressor, which were regulated by locally reacting reed valves. These reed valves responded to the small-amplitude flow-field pressure perturbations that precede rotating stall. The valve design was such that the combined system, compressor plus reed valve controller, was stable under operating conditions that had been unstable without feedback. A 10 percent decrease in the stalling flow coefficient was obtained using the control strategy, and the extension of stall flow range was achieved with no measurable change in the steady-state performance of the compression system. The experiments demonstrate the first use of aeromechanical feedback to extend the stable operating range of an axial flow compressor, and the first use of local feedback and dynamic compensation techniques to suppress rotating stall. The design of the experiment was based on a two-dimensional stall inception model, which incorporated the effect of the aeromechanical feedback. The physical mechanism for rotating stall in axial flow compressors was examined with focus on the role of dynamic feedback in stabilizing compression system instability. As predicted and experimentally demonstrated, the effectiveness of the aeromechanical control strategy depends on a set of nondimensional control parameters that determine the interaction of the control strategy and the rotating stall dynamics.

  16. Global and Regional Ecosystem Modeling: Databases of Model Drivers and Validation Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, R.J.

    2002-03-19

    Understanding global-scale ecosystem responses to changing environmental conditions is important both as a scientific question and as the basis for making policy decisions. The confidence in regional models depends on how well the field data used to develop the model represent the region of interest, how well the environmental model driving variables (e.g., vegetation type, climate, and soils associated with a site used to parameterize ecosystem models) represent the region of interest, and how well regional model predictions agree with observed data for the region. To assess the accuracy of global model forecasts of terrestrial carbon cycling, two Ecosystem Model-Data Intercomparison (EMDI) workshops were held (December 1999 and April 2001). The workshops included 17 biogeochemical, satellite-driven, detailed process, and dynamic vegetation global model types. The approach was to run regional or global versions of the models for sites with net primary productivity (NPP) measurements (i.e., not fine-tuned for specific site conditions) and analyze the model-data differences. Extensive worldwide NPP data were assembled with model driver data, including vegetation, climate, and soils data, to perform the intercomparison. This report describes the compilation of NPP estimates for 2,523 sites and 5,164 0.5{sup o}-grid cells under the Global Primary Production Data Initiative (GPPDI) and the results of the EMDI review and outlier analysis that produced a refined set of NPP estimates and model driver data. The EMDI process resulted in 81 Class A sites, 933 Class B sites, and 3,855 Class C cells derived from the original synthesis of NPP measurements and associated driver data. Class A sites represent well-documented study sites that have complete aboveground and below ground NPP measurements. Class B sites represent more numerous ''extensive'' sites with less documentation and site-specific information available. Class C cells represent estimates of NPP for 0.5{sup o

  17. Rotating fiber array molecular driver and molecular momentum transfer device constructed therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milleron, Norman

    1983-01-01

    A rotating fiber array molecular driver is disclosed which includes a magnetically suspended and rotated central hub to which is attached a plurality of elongated fibers extending radially therefrom. The hub is rotated so as to straighten and axially extend the fibers and to provide the fibers with a tip speed which exceeds the average molecular velocity of fluid molecules entering between the fibers. Molecules colliding with the sides of the rotating fibers are accelerated to the tip speed of the fiber and given a momentum having a directional orientation within a relatively narrow distribution angle at a point radially outward of the hub, which is centered and peaks at the normal to the fiber sides in the direction of fiber rotation. The rotating fiber array may be used with other like fiber arrays or with other stationary structures to form molecular momentum transfer devices such as vacuum pumps, molecular separators, molecular coaters, or molecular reactors.

  18. HIGH-POWER FFAG-BASED HEAVY-ION AND PROTON DRIVERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RUGGIERO,A.

    2007-10-01

    Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerators are being proposed as an alternative to Super-conducting Linacs (SCL), Rapid-Cycling Synchrotrons (RCS) and Cyclotrons for the acceleration of very intense Heavy-Ion and Proton beams in the medium energy range. One application is the acceleration of ions of Uranium-238 to an energy of 400 MeV/u, and the average power of 400 kWatt, and the other a 1-GeV Proton Driver with an average beam power of 10 MWatt. One or two FFAG rings are needed for acceleration of both beams. They adopt a Non-Scaling Lattice (NSL) to reduce the size and the cost of the accelerator. The continuous wave (CW) mode of operation is achieved with the method of Harmonic Number Jump (HNJ).

  19. Laser-seeded modulation instability in a proton driver plasma wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siemon, Carl; Khudik, Vladimir; Austin Yi, S.; Shvets, Gennady; Pukhov, Alexander

    2013-10-15

    A new method for initiating the modulation instability (MI) of a proton beam in a proton driver plasma wakefield accelerator using a short laser pulse preceding the beam is presented. A diffracting laser pulse is used to produce a plasma wave that provides a seeding modulation of the proton bunch with the period equal to that of the plasma wave. Using the envelope description of the proton beam, this method of seeding the MI is analytically compared with the earlier suggested seeding technique that involves an abrupt truncation of the proton bunch. The full kinetic simulation of a realistic proton bunch is used to validate the analytic results. It is further used to demonstrate that a plasma density ramp placed in the early stages of the laser-seeded MI leads to its stabilization, resulting in sustained accelerating electric fields (of order several hundred MV/m) over long propagation distances (∼100–1000 m)

  20. COMMISSIONING OF THE DIGITAL TRANSVERSE BUNCH-BY-BUNCH FEEDBACK SYSTEM FOR THE TLS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HU, K.H.; KUO, C.H.; CHOU, P.J.; LEE, D.; HSU, S.Y.; CHEN, J.; WANG, C.J.; HSU, K.T.; KOBAYASHI, K.; NAKAMURA, T.; CHAO, A.W.; WENG, W.T.

    2006-06-26

    Multi-bunch instabilities degrade beam quality through increased beam emittance, energy spread and even beam loss. Feedback systems are used to suppress multi-bunch instabilities associated with the resistive wall of the beam ducts, cavity-like structures, and trapped ions. A new digital transverse bunch-by-bunch feedback system has recently been commissioned at the Taiwan Light Source, and has replaced the previous analog system. The new system has the advantages that it enlarges the tune acceptance and improves damping for transverse instability at high currents, such that top-up operation is achieved. After a coupled-bunch transverse instability was suppressed, more than 350 mA was successfully stored during preliminary commissioning. In this new system, a single feedback loop simultaneously suppresses both horizontal and vertical multi-bunch instabilities. Investigating the characteristics of the feedback loop and further improving the system performances are the next short-term goals. The feedback system employs the latest generation of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) processor to process bunch signals. Memory has been installed to capture up to 250 msec of bunch oscillation signal, considering system diagnostics suitable to support various beam physics studies.

  1. Endogenous field feedback promotes the detectability for exogenous electric signal in the hybrid coupled population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Xile; Zhang, Danhong; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao; Lu, Meili; Che, Yanqiu

    2015-01-15

    This paper presents the endogenous electric field in chemical or electrical synaptic coupled networks, aiming to study the role of endogenous field feedback in the signal propagation in neural systems. It shows that the feedback of endogenous fields to network activities can reduce the required energy of the noise and enhance the transmission of input signals in hybrid coupled populations. As a common and important nonsynaptic interactive method among neurons, particularly, the endogenous filed feedback can not only promote the detectability of exogenous weak signal in hybrid coupled neural population but also enhance the robustness of the detectability against noise. Furthermore, with the increasing of field coupling strengths, the endogenous field feedback is conductive to the stochastic resonance by facilitating the transition of cluster activities from the no spiking to spiking regions. Distinct from synaptic coupling, the endogenous field feedback can play a role as internal driving force to boost the population activities, which is similar to the noise. Thus, it can help to transmit exogenous weak signals within the network in the absence of noise drive via the stochastic-like resonance.

  2. Brazil’s Biofuels Scenario: What are the Main Drivers Which will Shape Investments in the Long Term?

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3C—Fostering Technology Adoption III: International Market Opportunities in Bioenergy Brazil’s Biofuels Scenario: What are the Main Drivers Which will Shape Investments in the Long Term? Artur Milanez, Manager of Biofuels Department, Brazilian Development Bank

  3. Geological characterization of permian submarine fan reservoirs of the driver waterflood unit, Spraberry Trend, Midland Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guevara, E.H.

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the geological characterization and assessment of the relationship between reservoir stratigraphy and oil recovery of the Driver waterflood unit of the Spraberry Trend, Midland Basin, West Texas. In this study , the author focuses on the Driver waterflood unit, which is located in Midland, Glasscock, Upton, and Reagan Counties and is part of the giant Spraberry Trend currently being studied by the Bureau. Gamma-ray logs and scout cards from more than 350 wells and slabbed cores from 2 wells, along with core analyses and production data, provided the main sources of information for the study. Fifteen log-defined genetic-stratigraphic operational units were delineated in the Spraberry Formation and were correlated throughout the study area to define the stratigraphic framework. The text presents net sandstone and siltstone maps, cross sections, depth plots of core analyses, and maps of production data. The author describes the depositional systems and hydrocarbon distribution in the Driver unit (currently operated by Standard Oil), details the influence of reservoir stratigraphy on oil recovery, and outlines opportunities for additional recovery. He notes that reservoir management strategies must take into account the stratigraphic heterogeneities of accumulations in the unit. He concludes that a program of selective recompletions and infill drilling based on knowledge of both reservoir stratigraphy and natural fractures is the key to improving oil recovery from the Driver unit in particular and from the Spraberry Trend in general.

  4. High-Gradient Tests of the Single-Cell SC Cavity with a Feedback Waveguide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovlev, V.; Solyak, N.; Wu, G.; Ge, M.; Gonin, I.; Khabiboulline, T.; Ozelis, J.; Rowe, A. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Avrakhov, P.; Kanareykin, A. [Euclid TechLabs, LLC, Solon, Ohio 44139 (United States); Rathke, J. [AES, Medford, NY 11763 (United States)

    2010-11-04

    Use of a superconducting (SC) traveling-wave accelerating (STWA) structure with a small phase advance per cell, rather than a standing-wave structure, may provide a significant increase in the accelerating gradient in the ILC linac [1]. For the same surface electric and magnetic fields, the STWA achieves an accelerating gradient 1.2 larger than TESLA-like standing-wave cavities. In addition, the STWA allows longer acceleration cavities, reducing the number of gaps between them. However, the STWA structure requires a SC feedback waveguide to return the few hundreds of MW of circulating RF power from the structure output to the structure input. A test single-cell cavity with feedback was designed and manufactured to demonstrate the possibility of proper processing to achieve a high accelerating gradient. The first results of high-gradient tests of a prototype 1.3 GHz single-cell cavity with feedback waveguide will be presented.

  5. High Precision Tune and Coupling Feedback and Beam Transfer Function Measurements in RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minty, M.; Curcio, A.; Dawson, C.; Degen, C.; Luo, Y.; Marr, G.; Martin, B.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Oddo, P.; Russo, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schroeder, R.; Schultheiss, C.; Wilinski, M.

    2010-05-23

    Precision measurement and control of the betatron tunes and betatron coupling in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are required for establishing and maintaining both good operating conditions and, particularly during the ramp to high beam energies, high proton beam polarization. While the proof-of-principle for simultaneous tune and coupling feedback was successfully demonstrated earlier, routine application of these systems has only become possible recently. Following numerous modifications for improved measurement resolution and feedback control, the time required to establish full-energy beams with the betatron tunes and coupling regulated by feedback was reduced from several weeks to a few hours. A summary of these improvements, select measurements benefitting from the improved resolution and a review of system performance are the subject of this report.

  6. Down sampled signal processing for a B Factory bunch-by-bunch feedback system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hindi, H.; Hosseini, W.; Briggs, D.; Fox, J.; Hutton, A.

    1992-03-01

    A bunch-by-bunch feedback scheme is studied for damping coupled bunch synchrotron oscillations in the proposed PEP II B Factory. The quasi-linear feedback systems design incorporates a phase detector to provide a quantized measure of bunch phase, digital signal processing to compute an error correction signal and a kicker system to correct the energy of the bunches. A farm of digital processors, operating in parallel, is proposed to compute correction signals for the 1658 bunches of the B Factory. This paper studies the use of down sampled processing to reduce the computational complexity of the feedback system. We present simulation results showing the effect of down sampling on beam dynamics. Results show that down sampled processing can reduce the scale of the processing task by a factor of 10.

  7. Global climate feedbacks: Conclusions and recommendations of the June 1990 BNL workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manowitz, B.

    1990-08-01

    The issue of global change initiated by increases in the concentrations of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases is a scientific issue with major policy implications. The best means to examine the response of the Earth's climate to prospective perturbations in radiative forcing caused by such changes, and to other industrial activities, is modeling, specifically by means of general circulation models (GCMs) of the Earth's atmosphere and of the coupled atmosphere-ocean system. The purpose of this workshop was to identify the feedbacks inherent in the Earth's climate that actually or potentially govern the system's response to perturbations, to identify gaps in knowledge that preclude the accurate representation of these feedbacks in models, and to identify research required to represent these feedbacks accurately in models.

  8. Feedback-based, muLti-dimensional Interface as a General Human-Computer Tech.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-05-13

    FLIGHT is a 3D human-computer interface and application development software that can be used by both end users and programmers. It is based on advanced feedback and a multi-dimensional nature that more closely resembles real life interactions. The software uses a craft metaphor and allows multimodal feedback for advanced tools and navigation techniques. Overall, FLIGHT is a software that is based on the principle that as the human-computer interface is strengthened through the use ofmore » more intuitive inputs and more effective feedback, the computer itself will be for more valuable. FLIGHT has been used to visualize scientific data sets in 3D graphics at Sandia National Laboratories.« less

  9. High precision tune and coupling measurements and tune/coupling feedback in RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minty, M.; Curcio, A.; Dawson, C.; Degen, C.; Luo, Y.; Marr, G.; Martin, B.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Oddo, P.; Russo, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schroeder, R.; Schulthiess, C.; Wilinski, M.

    2010-08-01

    Precision measurement and control of the betatron tunes and betatron coupling in RHIC are required for establishing and maintaining both good operating conditions and, particularly during the ramp to high beam energies, high proton beam polarization. While the proof-of-principle for simultaneous tune and coupling feedback was successfully demonstrated earlier, routine application of these systems has only become possible recently. Following numerous modifications for improved measurement resolution and feedback control, the time required to establish full-energy beams with the betatron tunes and coupling regulated by feedback was reduced from several weeks to a few hours. A summary of these improvements, select measurements benefitting from the improved resolution and a review of system performance are the subject of this report.

  10. BLOWIN' IN THE WIND: BOTH ''NEGATIVE'' AND ''POSITIVE'' FEEDBACK IN AN OBSCURED HIGH-z QUASAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cresci, G.; Mannucci, F.; Mainieri, V.; Brusa, M.; Perna, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Piconcelli, E.; Feruglio, C.; Fiore, F.; Bongiorno, A.; Maiolino, R.; Merloni, A; Schramm, M.; Silverman, J. D.; Civano, F.

    2015-01-20

    Quasar feedback in the form of powerful outflows is invoked as a key mechanism to quench star formation in galaxies, preventing massive galaxies to overgrow and producing the red colors of ellipticals. On the other hand, some models are also requiring ''positive'' active galactic nucleus feedback, inducing star formation in the host galaxy through enhanced gas pressure in the interstellar medium. However, finding observational evidence of the effects of both types of feedback is still one of the main challenges of extragalactic astronomy, as few observations of energetic and extended radiatively driven winds are available. Here we present SINFONI near infrared integral field spectroscopy of XID2028, an obscured, radio-quiet z = 1.59 QSO detected in the XMM-COSMOS survey, in which we clearly resolve a fast (1500 km s{sup –1}) and extended (up to 13 kpc from the black hole) outflow in the [O III] lines emitting gas, whose large velocity and outflow rate are not sustainable by star formation only. The narrow component of Hα emission and the rest frame U-band flux from Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging enable to map the current star formation in the host galaxy: both tracers independently show that the outflow position lies in the center of an empty cavity surrounded by star forming regions on its edge. The outflow is therefore removing the gas from the host galaxy (''negative feedback''), but also triggering star formation by outflow induced pressure at the edges (''positive feedback''). XID2028 represents the first example of a host galaxy showing both types of feedback simultaneously at work.

  11. Development of a transient three-dimensional neutron transport code with feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waddell, M.W. Jr.

    1994-07-19

    A new code is being developed at the Y-12 Plant for solving the time-dependent, three-dimensional Boltzmann transport model with feedback. The new code, PADK, uses the quasi-static method in its adiabatic form and is to be utilized to analyze hypothetical criticality accidents. A description of the code along with preliminary results without feedback are presented in this paper. The code is applied to 2 standard benchmark problems and the results are compared to another method. Also, the code is used to model the GODIVA reactor. Further work needed to be completed is described.

  12. Feedback" An Article for Smart Grid News The Smart Grid Transition-Getting Started

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Feedback Wanted: Help the Energy Department Go Mobile, Open Data! Feedback Wanted: Help the Energy Department Go Mobile, Open Data! August 13, 2012 - 4:35pm Addthis The Energy Department’s main site, Energy.gov and its contents, are now available on the go. This allows users to access the Energy Departments’ resources over a variety of mobile devices such as smart phones and tablets. The Energy Department's main site, Energy.gov and its contents, are now

  13. Statistics of resonance fluorescence of a pair of atoms in a feedback loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomilin, V. A. Il'ichev, L. V.

    2013-02-15

    The statistics of photoemission events of a pair of closely spaced two-level atoms is calculated in a classical light field whose phase is changed by {pi} after the detection of each spontaneous photon. This statistics is compared with the statistics in the case when the feedback is missing. In both cases, one can observe noticeable antibunching of photons in the range of parameters where no antibunching is observed in a single-atom system. The feedback substantially increases the antibunching. This effect manifests itself more strongly in relatively weak fields and for considerable frequency detunings.

  14. A new feedback controlled current stabilized power supply for gas laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    A feedback controlled current stabilized power supply for CO/sub 2/, wave guide lasers is reported. This current negative feedback control method involved connecting the control transistor to the DC output and of an AC bridge rectifier. Current is stabilized in the range of 2 to approximately 4 mW, the unstability of the current is less than 1% with respect to 20% fluctuation of network voltage. The principal circuit and the voltage-current wave forms of the power supply are shown.

  15. MEMS closed-loop control incorporating a memristor as feedback sensing

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    element (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES MEMS closed-loop control incorporating a memristor as feedback sensing element This content will become publicly available on December 1, 2016 Title: MEMS closed-loop control incorporating a memristor as feedback sensing element In this work the integration of a memristor with a MEMS parallel plate capacitor coupled by an amplification stage is simulated. It is shown that the MEMS upper plate position can be controlled up to 95% of the total gap. Due to

  16. Closed-loop torque feedback for a universal field-oriented controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Doncker, R.W.A.A.; King, R.D.; Sanza, P.C.; Haefner, K.B.

    1992-11-24

    A torque feedback system is employed in a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller to tune a torque-producing current command and a slip frequency command in order to achieve robust torque control of an induction machine even in the event of current regulator errors and during transitions between pulse width modulated (PWM) and square wave modes of operation. 1 figure.

  17. Closed-loop torque feedback for a universal field-oriented controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Doncker, Rik W. A. A.; King, Robert D.; Sanza, Peter C.; Haefner, Kenneth B.

    1992-01-01

    A torque feedback system is employed in a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller to tune a torque-producing current command and a slip frequency command in order to achieve robust torque control of an induction machine even in the event of current regulator errors and during transitions between pulse width modulated (PWM) and square wave modes of operation.

  18. Feedback oscillations of stimulated brillouin scattering in plasmas with supersonic flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumgaertel, K.; Sauer, K.

    1982-11-01

    Long-time stimulated Brillouin scattering oscillations may occur in subcritical plasmas with supersonic flow against the incident wave owing to a feedback of the scattered radiation. They are studied in the frame of both the parametric approximation and the mode-coupling theory.

  19. A model for improving microbial biofuel production using a synthetic feedback loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunlop, Mary; Keasling, Jay; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2011-07-14

    Cells use feedback to implement a diverse range of regulatory functions. Building synthetic feedback control systems may yield insight into the roles that feedback can play in regulation since it can be introduced independently of native regulation, and alternative control architectures can be compared. We propose a model for microbial biofuel production where a synthetic control system is used to increase cell viability and biofuel yields. Although microbes can be engineered to produce biofuels, the fuels are often toxic to cell growth, creating a negative feedback loop that limits biofuel production. These toxic effects may be mitigated by expressing efflux pumps that export biofuel from the cell. We developed a model for cell growth and biofuel production and used it to compare several genetic control strategies for their ability to improve biofuel yields. We show that controlling efflux pump expression directly with a biofuel-responsive promoter is a straight forward way of improving biofuel production. In addition, a feed forward loop controller is shown to be versatile at dealing with uncertainty in biofuel production rates.

  20. Forcing, feedbacks and climate sensitivity in CMIP5 coupled atmosphere-ocean climate models

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Andrews, Timothy; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Webb, Mark J.; Taylor, Karl E.

    2012-05-15

    We quantify forcing and feedbacks across available CMIP5 coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) by analysing simulations forced by an abrupt quadrupling of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. This is the first application of the linear forcing-feedback regression analysis of Gregory et al. (2004) to an ensemble of AOGCMs. The range of equilibrium climate sensitivity is 2.1–4.7 K. Differences in cloud feedbacks continue to be important contributors to this range. Some models show small deviations from a linear dependence of top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes on global surface temperature change. We show that this phenomenon largely arises from shortwave cloud radiative effects overmore » the ocean and is consistent with independent estimates of forcing using fixed sea-surface temperature methods. Moreover, we suggest that future research should focus more on understanding transient climate change, including any time-scale dependence of the forcing and/or feedback, rather than on the equilibrium response to large instantaneous forcing.« less

  1. Accuracy of the Quasistatic Method for Two-Dimensional Thermal Reactor Transients with Feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, H.L. Jr.

    2001-10-23

    An important aspect in the design and safe operation of a nuclear reactor is the behavior of a reactor in a transient, or nonsteady state, condition. This study shows that the quasistatic method is capable of producing highly accurate results, relative to the direct finite-difference method, for two-dimensional thermal reactor transients with feedback.

  2. Use of Multipass Recirculation and Energy Recovery In CW SRF X-FEL Driver Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, David; Akers, Walt; Benson, Stephen V.; Biallas, George; Blackburn, Keith; Boyce, James; Bullard, Donald; Coleman, James; Dickover, Cody; Ellingsworth, Forrest; Evtushenko, Pavel; Fisk, Sally; Gould, Christopher; Gubeli, Joseph; Hannon, Fay; Hardy, David; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Jordan, Kevin; Klopf, John; Kortze, J.; Legg, Robert; Li, Rui; Marchlik, Matthew; Moore, Steven W.; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Sexton, Daniel; Shin, Ilkyoung; Shinn, Michelle D.; Tennant, Christopher; Terzic, Balsa; Walker, Richard; Williams, Gwyn P.; Wilson, G.; Zhang, Shukui

    2010-08-01

    We discuss the use of multipass recirculation and energy recovery in CW SRF drivers for short wavelength FELs. Benefits include cost management (through reduced system footprint, required RF and SRF hardware, and associated infrastructure - including high power beam dumps and cryogenic systems), ease in radiation control (low drive beam exhaust energy), ability to accelerate and deliver multiple beams of differing energy to multiple FELs, and opportunity for seamless integration of multistage bunch length compression into the longitudinal matching scenario. Issues include all those associated with ERLs compounded by the challenge of generating and preserving the CW electron drive beam brightness required by short wavelength FELs. We thus consider the impact of space charge, BBU and other environmental wakes and impedances, ISR and CSR, potential for microbunching, intra-beam and beam-residual gas scattering, ion effects, RF transients, and halo, as well as the effect of traditional design, fabrication, installation and operational errors (lattice aberrations, alignment, powering, field quality). Context for the discussion is provided by JLAMP, the proposed VUV/X-ray upgrade to the existing Jefferson Lab FEL.

  3. Performance of the accelerator driver of Jefferson Laboratory's free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohn, C.L.; Benson, S.; Biallas, G.

    1999-04-01

    The driver of Jefferson Lab's kW-level infrared free-electron laser (FEL) is a superconducting, recirculating accelerator that recovers about 75% of the electron-beam power and converts it to radiofrequency power. In achieving first lasing, the accelerator operated straight-ahead to deliver 38 MeV, 1.1 mA cw current through the wiggler for lasing at wavelengths in the vicinity of 5 {mu}m. Just prior to first lasing, measured rms beam properties at the wiggler were 7.5{+-}1.5 mm-mr normalized transverse emittance, 26{+-}7 keV-deg longitudinal emittance, and 0.4{+-}0.1 ps bunch length which yielded a peak current of 60{+-}15A. The waste beam was then sent directly to a dump, bypassing the recirculation loop. Stable operation at up to 311 W cw was achieved in this mode. Commissioning the recirculation loop then proceeded. As of this Conference, the machine has recirculated cw average current up to 4 mA, and has lased cw with energy recover up to 710 W.

  4. Low impedance z-pinch drivers without post-hole convolute current adders.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savage, Mark Edward; Seidel, David Bruce; Mendel, Clifford Will, Jr.

    2009-09-01

    Present-day pulsed-power systems operating in the terawatt regime typically use post-hole convolute current adders to operate at sufficiently low impedance. These adders necessarily involve magnetic nulls that connect the positive and negative electrodes. The resultant loss of magnetic insulation results in electron losses in the vicinity of the nulls that can severely limit the efficiency of the delivery of the system's energy to a load. In this report, we describe an alternate transformer-based approach to obtaining low impedance. The transformer consists of coils whose windings are in parallel rather than in series, and does not suffer from the presence of magnetic nulls. By varying the pitch of the coils windings, the current multiplication ratio can be varied, leading to a more versatile driver. The coupling efficiency of the transformer, its behavior in the presence of electron flow, and its mechanical strength are issues that need to be addressed to evaluate the potential of transformer-based current multiplication as a viable alternative to conventional current adder technology.

  5. Studies Of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation And Longitudinal Space Charge In The Jefferson Lab FEL Driver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennant, Christopher D.; Douglas, David R.; Li, Rui; Tsai, C.-Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Jefferson Laboratory IR FEL Driver provides an ideal test bed for studying a variety of beam dynamical effects. Recent studies focused on characterizing the impact of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) with the goal of benchmarking measurements with simulation. Following measurements to characterize the beam, we quantitatively characterized energy extraction via CSR by measuring beam position at a dispersed location as a function of bunch compression. In addition to operating with the beam on the rising part of the linac RF waveform, measurements were also made while accelerating on the falling part. For each, the full compression point was moved along the backleg of the machine and the response of the beam (distribution, extracted energy) measured. Initial results of start-to-end simulations using a 1D CSR algorithm show remarkably good agreement with measurements. A subsequent experiment established lasing with the beam accelerated on the falling side of the RF waveform in conjunction with positive momentum compaction (R56) to compress the bunch. The success of this experiment motivated the design of a modified CEBAF-style arc with control of CSR and microbunching effects.

  6. Simple Limits on Achieving A Quasi-Linear Magnetic Compression for an FEL Driver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yipeng; /SLAC

    2012-02-16

    Free electron lasers (FEL) need a very bright electron beam in three dimensions and a high peak charge density. In order to compress an initially longer electron bunch generated from the photoinjector, magnetic bunch compression systems are widely employed. In this paper, first harmonic RF linearization and its associated requirements are reviewed. Meanwhile it is also briefly discussed what is the relation between a proper initial bunch length and main RF frequency, when a harmonic RF linearization is included. Then given a reasonable bunch compression ratio, a proper initial bunch length as a function of the main RF frequency and RF phase is estimated analytically by several approaches, assuming that no harmonic RF section is needed to linearize the energy modulation introduced during main RF acceleration, and at the same time still linearly compress the bunch length. Next the upper limit of the bunch compression ratio in a single stage is evaluated analytically. The analytical relations derived on choosing a proper initial bunch length as a function of main RF frequency are confirmed by numerical simulation. These simple limit provide rough estimations and may be beneficial for choosing bunch compression ratios in different stages of an FEL driver, especially in a first stage bunch compression where there is usually a harmonic RF linearization applied. It may also be useful in evaluating the possibility of low charge operation mode without any harmonic RF linearization, where a shorter initial bunch length can be achieved from the photoinjector.

  7. Design of the SRF Driver ERL for the Jefferson Lab UV FEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Douglas; Stephen Benson; George Biallas; Keith Blackburn; James Boyce; Donald Bullard; James Coleman; Cody Dickover; Forrest Ellingsworth; Pavel Evtushenko; Christopher Gould; Joseph Gubeli; Fay Hannon; David Hardy; Carlos Hernandez-Garcia; Kevin Jordan; Michael Klopf; James Kortze; Matthew Marchlik; Steven Moore; George Neil; Thomas Powers; Daniel Sexton; Michelle D. Shinn; Christopher Tennant; Richard Walker; Frederick Wilson; Shukui Zhang

    2011-03-01

    We describe the design of the SRF Energy-Recovering Linac (ERL) providing the CW electron drive beam at the Jefferson Lab UV FEL. Based on the same 135 MeV linear accelerator as – and sharing portions of the recirculator with – the Jefferson Lab 10 kW IR Upgrade FEL, the UV driver ERL uses a novel bypass geometry to provide transverse phase space control, bunch length compression, and nonlinear aberration compensation (including correction of RF curvature effects) without the use of magnetic chicanes or harmonic RF. Stringent phase space requirements at the wiggler, low beam energy, high beam current, and use of a pre-existing facility and legacy hardware subject the design to numerous constraints. These are imposed not only by the need for both transverse and longitudinal phase space management, but also by the potential impact of collective phenomena (space charge, wakefields, beam break-up (BBU), and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR)), and by interactions between the FEL and the accelerator RF system. This report addresses these issues and presents the accelerator design solution that is now in operation.

  8. Update to industrial drivers in the AEO2015 as a result of new input-output data

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Update to industrial drivers in the AEO2015 as a result of new input-output data Elizabeth Sendich May 4, 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Energy Information Administration Washington, DC 20585 This paper is released to encourage discussion and critical comment. The analysis and conclusions expressed here are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Energy Information Administration. WORKING PAPER SERIES April 2015 Elizabeth Sendich | U.S. Energy

  9. Assessing Energy Impact of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Significance of Daily Distance Variation over Time and Among Drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of the impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on petroleum and electricity consumption is a necessary step toward effective policies. Variations in daily vehicle miles traveled (VMT) over time and among drivers affect PHEV energy impact, but the significance is not well understood. This paper uses a graphical illustration, a mathematical derivation, and an empirical study to examine the cause and significance of such an effect. The first two methods reveal that ignoring daily variation in VMT always causes underestimation of petroleum consumption and overestimation of electricity consumption by PHEVs; both biases increase as the assumed PHEV charge-depleting (CD) range moves closer to the average daily VMT. The empirical analysis based on national travel survey data shows that the assumption of uniform daily VMT over time and among drivers causes nearly 68% underestimation of expected petroleum use and nearly 48% overestimation of expected electricity use by PHEVs with a 40-mi CD range (PHEV40s). Also for PHEV40s, consideration of daily variation in VMT over time but not among drivers similar to the way the utility factor curve is derived in SAE Standard SAE J2841 causes underestimation of expected petroleum use by more than 24% and overestimation of expected electricity use by about 17%. Underestimation of petroleum use and overestimation of electricity use increase with larger-battery PHEVs.

  10. Feasibility of developing a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research: Design specifications. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, R.J.; Barickman, F.S.

    1998-01-01

    A two-phase, multi-year research program entitled ``development of a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research was recently completed. The primary objective of the project was to develop a portable data acquisition system for crash avoidance research (DASCAR) that will allow driver performance data to be collected using a large variety of vehicle types and that would be capable of being installed on a given vehicle type within a relatively short-time frame. During Phase 1 a feasibility study for designing and fabricating DASCAR was conducted. In phase 2 of the research DASCAR was actually developed and validated. This technical memorandum documents the results from the feasibility study. It is subdivided into three volumes. Volume one addresses the last five items in the phase 1 research and the first issue in the second phase of the project. Volume 2 presents the related appendices. Volume three (this report) displays the design specifications developed for DASCAR during the ``develop design requirements and specifications for a portable driver performance data acquisition system`` task. Design specifications were assembled for each DASCAR element. The specifications were prepared in sufficient detail to allow a third party to use them to design, develop, procure, and subsequently construct the data acquisition system. This report also covers the background to the program.

  11. Energy for 500 Million Homes: Drivers and Outlook for Residential Energy Consumption in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; McNeil, Michael A.; Levine, Mark

    2009-06-01

    China's rapid economic expansion has propelled it to the rank of the largest energy consuming nation in the world, with energy demand growth continuing at a pace commensurate with its economic growth. The urban population is expected to grow by 20 million every year, accompanied by construction of 2 billion square meters of buildings every year through 2020. Thus residential energy use is very likely to continue its very rapid growth. Understanding the underlying drivers of this growth helps to identify the key areas to analyze energy efficiency potential, appropriate policies to reduce energy use, as well as to understand future energy in the building sector. This paper provides a detailed, bottom-up analysis of residential building energy consumption in China using data from a wide variety of sources and a modelling effort that relies on a very detailed characterization of China's energy demand. It assesses the current energy situation with consideration of end use, intensity, and efficiency etc, and forecast the future outlook for the critical period extending to 2020, based on assumptions of likely patterns of economic activity, availability of energy services, technology improvement and energy intensities. From this analysis, we can conclude that Chinese residential energy consumption will more than double by 2020, from 6.6 EJ in 2000 to 15.9 EJ in 2020. This increase will be driven primarily by urbanization, in combination with increases in living standards. In the urban and higher income Chinese households of the future, most major appliances will be common, and heated and cooled areas will grow on average. These shifts will offset the relatively modest efficiency gains expected according to current government plans and policies already in place. Therefore, levelling and reduction of growth in residential energy demand in China will require a new set of more aggressive efficiency policies.

  12. First Argon Gas Puff Experiments With 500 ns Implosion Time On Sphinx Driver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zucchini, F.; Calamy, H.; Lassalle, F.; Loyen, A.; Maury, P.; Grunenwald, J.; Georges, A.; Morell, A.; Bedoch, J.-P.; Ritter, S.; Combes, P.; Smaniotto, O.; Lample, R.; Coleman, P. L.; Krishnan, M.

    2009-01-21

    Experiments have been performed at the SPHINX driver to study potential of an Argon Gas Puff load designed by AASC. We present here the gas Puff hardware and results of the last shot series.The Argon Gas Puff load used is injected thanks to a 20 cm diameter nozzle. The nozzle has two annuli and a central jet. The pressure and gas type in each of the nozzle plena can be independently adjusted to tailor the initial gaz density distribution. This latter is selected as to obtain an increasing radial density from outer shell towards the pinch axis in order to mitigate the RT instabilities and to increase radiating mass on axis. A flashboard unit produces a high intensity UV source to pre-ionize the Argon gas. Typical dimensions of the load are 200 mm in diameter and 40 mm height. Pressures are adjusted to obtain an implosion time around 550 ns with a peak current of 3.5 MA.With the goal of improving k-shell yield a mass scan of the central jet was performed and implosion time, mainly given by outer and middle plena settings, was kept constant. Tests were also done to reduce the implosion time for two configurations of the central jet. Strong zippering of the radiation production was observed mainly due to the divergence of the central jet over the 40 mm of the load height. Due to that feature k-shell radiation is mainly obtained near cathode. Therefore tests were done to mitigate this effect first by adjusting local pressure of middle and central jet and second by shortening the pinch length.At the end of this series, best shot gave 5 kJ of Ar k-shell yield. PCD detectors showed that k-shell x-ray power was 670 GW with a FWHM of less than 10 ns.

  13. An insight into actual energy use and its drivers in high-performance buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Cheng; Hong, Tianzhen; Yan, Da

    2014-07-12

    Using portfolio analysis and individual detailed case studies, we studied the energy performance and drivers of energy use in 51 high-performance office buildings in the U.S., Europe, China, and other parts of Asia. Portfolio analyses revealed that actual site energy use intensity (EUI) of the study buildings varied by a factor of as much as 11, indicating significant variation in real energy use in HPBs worldwide. Nearly half of the buildings did not meet the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-2004 energy target, raising questions about whether a building’s certification as high performing accurately indicates that a building is energy efficient and suggesting that improvement in the design and operation of HPBs is needed to realize their energy-saving potential. We studied the influence of climate, building size, and building technologies on building energy performance and found that although all are important, none are decisive factors in building energy use. EUIs were widely scattered in all climate zones. There was a trend toward low energy use in small buildings, but the correlation was not absolute; some small HPBs exhibited high energy use, and some large HPBs exhibited low energy use. We were unable to identify a set of efficient technologies that correlated directly to low EUIs. In two case studies, we investigated the influence of occupant behavior as well as operation and maintenance on energy performance and found that both play significant roles in realizing energy savings. We conclude that no single factor determines the actual energy performance of HPBs, and adding multiple efficient technologies does not necessarily improve building energy performance; therefore, an integrated design approach that takes account of climate, technology, occupant behavior, and operations and maintenance practices should be implemented to maximize energy savings in HPBs. As a result, these findings are

  14. An insight into actual energy use and its drivers in high-performance buildings

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Li, Cheng; Hong, Tianzhen; Yan, Da

    2014-07-12

    Using portfolio analysis and individual detailed case studies, we studied the energy performance and drivers of energy use in 51 high-performance office buildings in the U.S., Europe, China, and other parts of Asia. Portfolio analyses revealed that actual site energy use intensity (EUI) of the study buildings varied by a factor of as much as 11, indicating significant variation in real energy use in HPBs worldwide. Nearly half of the buildings did not meet the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-2004 energy target, raising questions about whether a building’s certification as high performing accuratelymore » indicates that a building is energy efficient and suggesting that improvement in the design and operation of HPBs is needed to realize their energy-saving potential. We studied the influence of climate, building size, and building technologies on building energy performance and found that although all are important, none are decisive factors in building energy use. EUIs were widely scattered in all climate zones. There was a trend toward low energy use in small buildings, but the correlation was not absolute; some small HPBs exhibited high energy use, and some large HPBs exhibited low energy use. We were unable to identify a set of efficient technologies that correlated directly to low EUIs. In two case studies, we investigated the influence of occupant behavior as well as operation and maintenance on energy performance and found that both play significant roles in realizing energy savings. We conclude that no single factor determines the actual energy performance of HPBs, and adding multiple efficient technologies does not necessarily improve building energy performance; therefore, an integrated design approach that takes account of climate, technology, occupant behavior, and operations and maintenance practices should be implemented to maximize energy savings in HPBs. As a result, these

  15. Effect of a detailed radial core expansion reactivity feedback model on ATWS calculations using SASSYS/SAS4A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigeland, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The present emphasis on inherent safety and inherently safe designs for liquid-metal reactors has resulted in a need to represent the various reactivity feedback mechanisms as accurately as possible. In particular, the reactivity feedback from radial core expansion has been found to provide the dominant negative feedback contribution in postulated anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) events. Review of the existing modeling in the SASSYS/SAS4A computer code system revealed that while the modeling may be adequate for the early phases of various unprotected transients, the accuracy would be less than desirable for the extended transients which typically occur for inherently safe designs. The existing model for calculating the reactivity feedback from radial core expansion uses a feedback from radial core expansion uses a feedback coefficient in conjunction with changes in the temperatures of the grid support plate and the above-core load pad. The accuracy of this approach is determined partly by the conditions used in deriving the feedback coefficient, and their relevance to the transient being investigated. Accuracy is also affected by the need to include effects other than those that could be directly related to changes in the grid plate and above-core load pad temperatures, such as subassembly bowing and the potential for clearances to occur between subassemblies in the above-core load pad region. As a result, a detailed model was developed in an attempt to account for these and other effects in a more mechanistic form.

  16. Feedback following the Industry Engagement of the NNSA Unique Identifier and Global Monitoring 5 year plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White-Horton, Jessica L; Whitaker, J Michael; Durbin, Karyn R.

    2013-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration s project for developing a unique identifier and a concept for a global monitoring system for UF6 cylinders made significant progress on developing functional requirements and a concept of operation for such a system. The multi-laboratory team is working to define the functional requirements for both the unique identifier and the global monitoring system and to develop a preliminary concept of operations to discuss with key industry stakeholders. Team members began meeting with industry representatives in January 2013 to discuss the preliminary concept and solicit feedback and suggestions. The team has met with representatives from United States Enrichment Corporation, Cameco, URENCO, Honeywell/ConverDyn, and others. This paper presents an overview of the preliminary concept of operations and shares the feedback obtained from the industry engagement meetings.

  17. Method and apparatus for linear low-frequency feedback in monolithic low-noise charge amplifiers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2006-02-14

    A charge amplifier includes an amplifier, feedback circuit, and cancellation circuit. The feedback circuit includes a capacitor, inverter, and current mirror. The capacitor is coupled across the signal amplifier, the inverter is coupled to the output of the signal amplifier, and the current mirror is coupled to the input of the signal amplifier. The cancellation circuit is coupled to the output of the signal amplifier. A method of charge amplification includes providing a signal amplifier; coupling a first capacitor across the signal amplifier; coupling an inverter to the output of the signal amplifier; coupling a current mirror to the input of the signal amplifier; and coupling a cancellation circuit to the output of the signal amplifier. A front-end system for use with radiation sensors includes a charge amplifier and a current amplifier, shaping amplifier, baseline stabilizer, discriminator, peak detector, timing detector, and logic circuit coupled to the charge amplifier.

  18. Feedback control of a Darrieus wind turbine and optimization of the produced energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maurin, T.; Henry, B.; Devos, F.; De Saint Louvent, B.; Gosselin, J.

    1984-03-01

    This paper presents a microprocessor-driven control system, applied to the feedback control of a Darrieus wind turbine. The use of a dc machine as a generator to recover the energy and as a motor to start the engine, allows simplified power electronics. The architecture of the control unit is built to ensure four different functions: starting, optimization of the recoverable energy, regulation of the speed, and braking. An experimental study of the system in a wind tunnel allowed us to optimize the coefficients of the proportional and integral (pi) control algorithm. We found that the electrical energy recovery was much more efficient using our feedback system than without the control unit. This system allows a better characterization of the wind turbine and a regulation adapted to the wind statistics observed in one given geographical location.

  19. Nonlinear power flow feedback control for improved stability and performance of airfoil sections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2013-09-03

    A computer-implemented method of determining the pitch stability of an airfoil system, comprising using a computer to numerically integrate a differential equation of motion that includes terms describing PID controller action. In one model, the differential equation characterizes the time-dependent response of the airfoil's pitch angle, .alpha.. The computer model calculates limit-cycles of the model, which represent the stability boundaries of the airfoil system. Once the stability boundary is known, feedback control can be implemented, by using, for example, a PID controller to control a feedback actuator. The method allows the PID controller gain constants, K.sub.I, K.sub.p, and K.sub.d, to be optimized. This permits operation closer to the stability boundaries, while preventing the physical apparatus from unintentionally crossing the stability boundaries. Operating closer to the stability boundaries permits greater power efficiencies to be extracted from the airfoil system.

  20. Simulation Results of a Feedback Control System to Damp Electron Cloud Single-Bunch Transverse Instabilities In The Cern SPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Secondo, R.; Vay, J. L.; Venturini, M.; Fox, J. D.; Rivetta, C. H.; Hofle, W.

    2011-03-28

    Transverse Single-Bunch Instabilities due to the Electron Cloud effect are limiting the operation at high current of the SPS at CERN. Recently a high-bandwidth Feedback System has been proposed as a possible solution to stabilize the beam and is currently under study. We analyze the dynamics of the bunch actively damped with a simple model of the Feedback in the macro-particle code WARP, in order to investigate the limitations of the System such as the minimum amount of power required to maintain stability. We discuss the feedback model, report on simulation results and present our plans for further development of the numerical model.

  1. Meeting Summary for Diagnostic and Performance Feedback for Residential Space Conditioning System Equipment Expert Meeting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Final Report on the Expert Meeting for DIAGNOSTIC AND PERFORMANCE FEEDBACK FOR RESIDENTIAL SPACE CONDITIONING SYSTEM EQUIPMENT Building Science Corporation Industry Team 15 July 2010 Work Performed Under Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FC26-08NT00601 Submitted By: Building Science Corporation 30 Forest Street Somerville, MA 02143 Principal Investigators: Joseph W. Lstiburek, Ph.D., P.Eng. ASHRAE Fellow Betsy Pettit, FAIA Phone Number: 978-589-5100 Fax Number: 978-589-5103 E-Mail:

  2. Rapid In-Situ X-ray Position Stabilization via Extremum Seeking Feedback |

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Rapid In-Situ X-ray Position Stabilization via Extremum Seeking Feedback Authors Zohar, Sioan; Venugopalan, Nagarajan; Kissick, David; Becker, Michael; Xu, Shenglan; Makarov, Oleg; Stepanov, Sergey; Ogata, Craig; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Fischetti, Robert Division XSD Publication Year 2016 Publication Type Article DOI 10.1107/S1600577516000679 Supporting Data Citation Zohar, Sioan, Nagarajan Venugopalan, David Kissick, Michael Becker, Shenglan Xu, Oleg Makarov, Sergey

  3. Escape fraction of ionizing photons during reionization: Effects due to supernova feedback and runaway ob stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimm, Taysun; Cen, Renyue

    2014-06-20

    The fraction of hydrogen ionizing photons escaping from galaxies into the intergalactic medium is a critical ingredient in the theory of reionization. We use two zoomed-in, high-resolution (4 pc), cosmological radiation hydrodynamic simulations with adaptive mesh refinement to investigate the impact of two physical mechanisms (supernova, SN, feedback, and runaway OB stars) on the escape fraction (f {sub esc}) at the epoch of reionization (z ? 7). We implement a new, physically motivated SN feedback model that can approximate the Sedov solutions at all (from the free expansion to snowplow) stages. We find that there is a significant time delay of about ten million years between the peak of star formation and that of escape fraction, due to the time required for the build-up and subsequent destruction of the star-forming cloud by SN feedback. Consequently, the photon number-weighted mean escape fraction for dwarf galaxies in halos of mass 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10.5} M {sub ?} is found to be ?f{sub esc}??11%, although instantaneous values of f {sub esc} > 20% are common when star formation is strongly modulated by the SN explosions. We find that the inclusion of runaway OB stars increases the mean escape fraction by 22% to ?f{sub esc}??14%. As SNe resulting from runaway OB stars tend to occur in less dense environments, the feedback effect is enhanced and star formation is further suppressed in halos with M{sub vir}?10{sup 9} M{sub ?} in the simulation with runaway OB stars compared with the model without them. While both our models produce enough ionizing photons to maintain a fully ionized universe at z ? 7 as observed, a still higher amount of ionizing photons at z ? 9 appears necessary to accommodate the high observed electron optical depth inferred from cosmic microwave background observations.

  4. Weighted SVD algorithm for close-orbit correction and 10 Hz feedback in RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu C.; Hulsart, R.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Ptitsyn, V.

    2012-05-20

    Measurements of the beam position along an accelerator are typically treated equally using standard SVD-based orbit correction algorithms so distributing the residual errors, modulo the local beta function, equally at the measurement locations. However, sometimes a more stable orbit at select locations is desirable. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm for weighting the beam position measurements to achieve a more stable local orbit. The results of its application to close-orbit correction and 10 Hz orbit feedback are presented.

  5. Inferring Cloud Feedbacks from ARM Continuous Forcing, ISCCP, and ARSCL Data

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Inferring Cloud Feedbacks from ARM Continuous Forcing, ISCCP, and ARSCL Data A. D. Del Genio National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies New York, New York A. B. Wolf and M.-S. Yao SGT Inc., Institute for Space Studies New York, New York Introduction Single Column Model (SCM) versions of parent general circulation models (GCMs), accompanied by cloud-resolving models (CRMs) that crudely resolve cloud-scale dynamics, have increasingly been used to simulate

  6. Watershed response and land energy feedbacks under climate change depend upon groundwater.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, R M; Kollet, S J

    2008-06-10

    Human induced climate change will have a significant impact on the hydrologic cycle, creating changes in fresh water resources, land cover, and feedbacks that are difficult to characterize, which makes it an issue of global importance. Previous studies have not included subsurface storage in climate change simulations and feedbacks. A variably-saturated groundwater flow model with integrated overland flow and land surface model processes is used to examine the interplay between coupled water and energy processes under climate change conditions. A case study from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) USA, an important agricultural region that is susceptible to drought, is used as the basis for three scenarios simulations using a modified atmospheric forcing dataset to reflect predicted effects due to human-induced climate change. These scenarios include an increase in the atmospheric temperature and variations in rainfall amount and are compared to the present-day climate case. Changes in shallow soil saturation and groundwater levels are quantified as well as the corresponding energy fluxes at the land surface. Here we show that groundwater and subsurface lateral flow processes are critical in understanding hydrologic response and energy feedbacks to climate change and that certain regions are more susceptible to changes in temperature, while others to changes in precipitation. This groundwater control is critical for understanding recharge and drought processes, possible under future climate conditions.

  7. Feedback | Geothermal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Contact us by phone Phone Phone 865-241-6435 Contact us in writing Mail U.S. Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information P.O. Box 62 Oak Ridge,TN 37831

  8. SuperB Bunch-By-Bunch Feedback R&D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drago, A.; Beretta, M.; Bertsche, K.; Novokhatski, A.; Migliorati, M.; /Rome U.

    2011-08-12

    The SuperB project has the goal to build in Italy, in the Frascati or Tor Vergata area, an asymmetric e{sup +}/e{sup -} Super Flavor Factory to achieve a peak luminosity > 10**36 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The SuperB design is based on collisions with extremely low vertical emittance beams and high beam currents. A source of emittance growth comes from the bunch by bunch feedback systems producing high power correction signals to damp the beams. To limit any undesirable effect, a large R&D program is in progress, partially funded by the INFN Fifth National Scientific Committee through the SFEED (SuperB Feedback) project approved within the 2010 budget. The SuperB project [1] has the goal to build in Italy, in the Frascati or Tor Vergata area, an asymmetric e{sup +}/e{sup -} Super Flavor Factory to achieve a peak luminosity > 10**36 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. In the last and current years, the machine layout has been deeply modified, in particular the main rings are now shorter and an option with high currents has been foreseen. In the fig.1 the new SuperB layout is shown. From bunch-by-bunch feedback point of view, the simultaneous presence in the machine parameters, of very low emittance, of the order of 5-10 pm in the vertical plane, and very high currents, at level of 4 Ampere for the Low Energy Ring, asks for designing very carefully the bunch-by-bunch feedback systems. The parameter list is presented in Fig. 2. The bunch-by-bunch feedback design must take care of the risky and exciting challenges proposed in the SuperB specifications, but it should consider also some other important aspects: flexibility in terms of being able to cope to unexpected beam behaviours [2], [3] legacy of previous version experience [4], [5] and internal powerful diagnostics [6] as in the systems previously used in PEP-II and DAFNE [7].

  9. Agricultural green revolution as a driver of increasing atmospheric CO2 seasonal amplitude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Ning; Zhao, Fang; Collatz, George; Kalnay, Eugenia; Salawitch, Ross J.; West, Tristram O.; Guanter, Luis

    2014-11-20

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) record displays a prominent seasonal cycle that arises mainly from changes in vegetation growth and the corresponding CO2 uptake during the boreal spring and summer growing seasons and CO2 release during the autumn and winter seasons. The CO2 seasonal amplitude has increased over the past five decades, suggesting an increase in Northern Hemisphere biospheric activity. It has been proposed that vegetation growth may have been stimulated by higher concentrations of CO2 as well as by warming in recent decades, but such mechanisms have been unable to explain the full range and magnitude of the observed increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude. Here we suggest that the intensification of agriculture (the Green Revolution, in which much greater crop yield per unit area was achieved by hybridization, irrigation and fertilization) during the past five decades is a driver of changes in the seasonal characteristics of the global carbon cycle. Our analysis of CO2 data and atmospheric inversions shows a robust 15 per cent long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude from 1961 to 2010, punctuated by large decadal and interannual variations. Using a terrestrial carbon cycle model that takes into account high-yield cultivars, fertilizer use and irrigation, we find that the long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude arises from two major regions: the mid-latitude cropland between 256N and 606N and the high-latitude natural vegetation between 506N and 706 N. The long-term trend of seasonal amplitude increase is 0.311 ± 0.027 percent per year, of which sensitivity experiments attribute 45, 29 and 26 per cent to land-use change, climate variability and change, and increased productivity due to CO2 fertilization, respectively. Vegetation growth was earlier by one to two weeks, as measured by the mid-point of vegetation carbon uptake, and took up 0.5 petagrams more carbon in July, the height of the growing season, during 2001–2010 than in 1961–1970

  10. Simulation of e-cloud driven instability and its attenuation using a simulated feedback system in the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vay, J.-L.; Furman, M. A.

    2010-12-13

    Electron clouds have been shown to trigger fast growing instabilities on proton beams circulating in the SPS, and a feedback system to control the single-bunch instabilities is under active development. We present the latest improvements to the WARP-POSINST simulation framework and feedback model, and its application to the self-consistent simulations of two consecutive bunches interacting with an electron cloud in the SPS. Simulations using an idealized feedback system exhibit adequate mitigation of the instability providing that the cutoff of the feedback bandwidth is at or above 450 MHz. Artifacts from numerical noise of the injected distribution of electrons in the modeling of portions of bunch trains are discussed, and benchmarking of WARP against POSINST and HEADTAIL are presented.

  11. The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project – Part 2: Environmental driver data

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Wei, Yaxing; Liu, Shishi; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Michalak, Anna M.; Viovy, Nicolas; Post, Wilfred M.; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Schaeffer, Kevin; Jacobson, Andrew R.; Lu, Chaoqun; et al

    2014-12-05

    Ecosystems are important and dynamic components of the global carbon cycle, and terrestrial biospheric models (TBMs) are crucial tools in further understanding of how terrestrial carbon is stored and exchanged with the atmosphere across a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Improving TBM skills, and quantifying and reducing their estimation uncertainties, pose significant challenges. The Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal multi-scale and multi-model intercomparison effort set up to tackle these challenges. The MsTMIP protocol prescribes standardized environmental driver data that are shared among model teams to facilitate model model and model observation comparisons. Inmore » this article, we describe the global and North American environmental driver data sets prepared for the MsTMIP activity to both support their use in MsTMIP and make these data, along with the processes used in selecting/processing these data, accessible to a broader audience. Based on project needs and lessons learned from past model intercomparison activities, we compiled climate, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, nitrogen deposition, land use and land cover change (LULCC), C3 / C4 grasses fractions, major crops, phenology and soil data into a standard format for global (0.5⁰ x 0.5⁰ resolution) and regional (North American: 0.25⁰ x 0.25⁰ resolution) simulations. In order to meet the needs of MsTMIP, improvements were made to several of the original environmental data sets, by improving the quality, and/or changing their spatial and temporal coverage, and resolution. The resulting standardized model driver data sets are being used by over 20 different models participating in MsTMIP. Lastly, the data are archived at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC, http://daac.ornl.gov) to provide long-term data management and distribution.« less

  12. Key regulatory drivers affecting shipments of mixed transuranic waste from Los Alamos National Laboratory to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumann, P.B.; Bacigalupa, G.A.; Kosiewicz, S.T.; Sinkule, B.J.

    1997-02-01

    A number of key regulatory drivers affect the nature, scope, and timing of Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL`s) plans for mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which are planned to commence as soon as possible following WIPP`s currently anticipated November, 1997 opening date. This paper provides an overview of some of the key drivers at LANL, particularly emphasizing those associated with the hazardous waste component of LANL`s MTRU waste (MTRU, like any mixed waste, contains both a radioactive and a hazardous waste component). The key drivers discussed here derive from the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and its amendments, including the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAU), and from the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act (NMHWA). These statutory provisions are enforced through three major mechanisms: facility RCRA permits; the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, set forth in the New Mexico Administrative Code, Title 20, Chapter 4, Part 1: and compliance orders issued to enforce these requirements. General requirements in all three categories will apply to MTRU waste management and characterization activities at both WIPP and LANL. In addition, LANL is subject to facility-specific requirements in its RCRA hazardous waste facility permit, permit conditions as currently proposed in RCRA Part B permit applications presently being reviewed by the New Mexico Environment Department (NNED), and facility-specific compliance orders related to MTRU waste management. Likewise, permitting and compliance-related requirements specific to WIPP indirectly affect LANL`s characterization, packaging, record-keeping, and transportation requirements for MTRU waste. LANL must comply with this evolving set of regulatory requirements to begin shipments of MTRU waste to WIPP in a timely fashion.

  13. STAR FORMATION AND FEEDBACK IN SMOOTHED PARTICLE HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS. II. RESOLUTION EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, Charlotte R.; Quinn, Thomas; Bellovary, Jillian [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle WA 98195 (United States); Stinson, Gregory [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Wadsley, James, E-mail: christensen@astro.washington.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, ABB-241, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    We examine the effect of mass and force resolution on a specific star formation (SF) recipe using a set of N-body/smooth particle hydrodynamic simulations of isolated galaxies. Our simulations span halo masses from 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 13} M{sub sun}, more than 4 orders of magnitude in mass resolution, and 2 orders of magnitude in the gravitational softening length, {epsilon}, representing the force resolution. We examine the total global SF rate, the SF history, and the quantity of stellar feedback and compare the disk structure of the galaxies. Based on our analysis, we recommend using at least 10{sup 4} particles each for the dark matter (DM) and gas component and a force resolution of {epsilon} {approx} 10{sup -3} R{sub vir} when studying global SF and feedback. When the spatial distribution of stars is important, the number of gas and DM particles must be increased to at least 10{sup 5} of each. Low-mass resolution simulations with fixed softening lengths show particularly weak stellar disks due to two-body heating. While decreasing spatial resolution in low-mass resolution simulations limits two-body effects, density and potential gradients cannot be sustained. Regardless of the softening, low-mass resolution simulations contain fewer high density regions where SF may occur. Galaxies of approximately 10{sup 10} M{sub sun} display unique sensitivity to both mass and force resolution. This mass of galaxy has a shallow potential and is on the verge of forming a disk. The combination of these factors gives this galaxy the potential for strong gas outflows driven by supernova feedback and makes it particularly sensitive to any changes to the simulation parameters.

  14. Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

  15. A feedback control strategy for the airfoil system under non-Gaussian colored noise excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Yong E-mail: taogang@njust.edu.cn; Tao, Gang E-mail: taogang@njust.edu.cn

    2014-09-01

    The stability of a binary airfoil with feedback control under stochastic disturbances, a non-Gaussian colored noise, is studied in this paper. First, based on some approximated theories and methods the non-Gaussian colored noise is simplified to an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Furthermore, via the stochastic averaging method and the logarithmic polar transformation, one dimensional diffusion process can be obtained. At last by applying the boundary conditions, the largest Lyapunov exponent which can determine the almost-sure stability of the system and the effective region of control parameters is calculated.

  16. Nearly time-optimal feedback control of a magnetically levitated photolithography positioning system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redmond, J.

    1993-12-31

    This paper focuses on the development of an approximate time-optimal feedback strategy for conducting rest-to-rest maneuvers of a magnetically levitated table. Classical switching curves are modified to account for the complexities of magnetic actuation as well as the coupling of the rigid body modes through the control. A smooth blend of time-optimal and proportional-derivative controls is realized near the destination point to correct for inaccuracies produced by the approximate time-optimal strategy. Detailed computer simulations of the system indicate that this hybrid control strategy provides a significant reduction in settling time as compared to proportional-derivative control alone.

  17. Feedback cooling of cantilever motion using a quantum point contact transducer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montinaro, M.; Mehlin, A.; Solanki, H. S.; Peddibhotla, P.; Poggio, M.; Mack, S.; Awschalom, D. D.

    2012-09-24

    We use a quantum point contact (QPC) as a displacement transducer to measure and control the low-temperature thermal motion of a nearby micromechanical cantilever. The QPC is included in an active feedback loop designed to cool the cantilever's fundamental mechanical mode, achieving a squashing of the QPC noise at high gain. The minimum achieved effective mode temperature of 0.2 K and the displacement resolution of 10{sup -11} m/{radical}(Hz) are limited by the performance of the QPC as a one-dimensional conductor and by the cantilever-QPC capacitive coupling.

  18. Imaging of free carriers in semiconductors via optical feedback in terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezzapesa, F. P. Brambilla, M.; Dabbicco, M.; Scamarcio, G.; Columbo, L. L.; Vitiello, M. S.

    2014-01-27

    To monitor the density of photo-generated charge carriers on a semiconductor surface, we demonstrate a detectorless imaging system based on the analysis of the optical feedback in terahertz quantum cascade lasers. Photo-excited free electron carriers are created in high resistivity n-type silicon wafers via low power (?40 mW/cm{sup 2}) continuous wave pump laser in the near infrared spectral range. A spatial light modulator allows to directly reconfigure and control the photo-patterned intensity and the associated free-carrier density distribution. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical simulations.

  19. DWARF GALAXIES WITH IONIZING RADIATION FEEDBACK. I. ESCAPE OF IONIZING PHOTONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Krumholz, Mark R.; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Wise, John H.; Turk, Matthew J.; Abel, Tom

    2013-10-01

    We describe a new method for simulating ionizing radiation and supernova feedback in the analogs of low-redshift galactic disks. In this method, which we call star-forming molecular cloud (SFMC) particles, we use a ray-tracing technique to solve the radiative transfer equation for ultraviolet photons emitted by thousands of distinct particles on the fly. Joined with high numerical resolution of 3.8 pc, the realistic description of stellar feedback helps to self-regulate star formation. This new feedback scheme also enables us to study the escape of ionizing photons from star-forming clumps and from a galaxy, and to examine the evolving environment of star-forming gas clumps. By simulating a galactic disk in a halo of 2.3 10{sup 11} M{sub ?}, we find that the average escape fraction from all radiating sources on the spiral arms (excluding the central 2.5 kpc) fluctuates between 0.08% and 5.9% during a ?20 Myr period with a mean value of 1.1%. The flux of escaped photons from these sources is not strongly beamed, but manifests a large opening angle of more than 60 from the galactic pole. Further, we investigate the escape fraction per SFMC particle, f{sub esc}(i), and how it evolves as the particle ages. We discover that the average escape fraction f{sub esc} is dominated by a small number of SFMC particles with high f{sub esc}(i). On average, the escape fraction from an SFMC particle rises from 0.27% at its birth to 2.1% at the end of a particle lifetime, 6 Myr. This is because SFMC particles drift away from the dense gas clumps in which they were born, and because the gas around the star-forming clumps is dispersed by ionizing radiation and supernova feedback. The framework established in this study brings deeper insight into the physics of photon escape fraction from an individual star-forming clump and from a galactic disk.

  20. Target and orbit feedback simulations of a muSR beamline at BNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacKay, W. W.; Fischer, W.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Pile, P.

    2015-05-03

    Well-polarized positive surface muons are a tool to measure the magnetic properties of materials since the precession rate of the spin can be determined from the observation of the positron directions when the muons decay. The use of the AGS complex at BNL has been explored for a muSR facility previously. Here we report simulations of a beamline with a target inside a solenoidal field, and of an orbit feed-back system with single muon beam positioning monitors based on technology available today

  1. Collaborative Research. Quantifying Climate Feedbacks of the Terrestrial Biosphere under Thawing Permafrost Conditions in the Arctic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang, Qianlai; Schlosser, Courtney; Melillo, Jerry; Walter, Katey

    2015-09-15

    Our overall goal is to quantify the potential for threshold changes in natural emission rates of trace gases, particularly methane and carbon dioxide, from pan-arctic terrestrial systems under the spectrum of anthropogenically-forced climate warming, and the conditions under which these emissions provide a strong feedback mechanism to global climate warming. This goal is motivated under the premise that polar amplification of global climate warming will induce widespread thaw and degradation of the permafrost, and would thus cause substantial changes to the landscape of wetlands and lakes, especially thermokarst (thaw) lakes, across the Arctic. Through a suite of numerical experiments that encapsulate the fundamental processes governing methane emissions and carbon exchanges – as well as their coupling to the global climate system - we intend to test the following hypothesis in the proposed research: There exists a climate warming threshold beyond which permafrost degradation becomes widespread and stimulates large increases in methane emissions (via thermokarst lakes and poorly-drained wetland areas upon thawing permafrost along with microbial metabolic responses to higher temperatures) and increases in carbon dioxide emissions from well-drained areas. Besides changes in biogeochemistry, this threshold will also influence global energy dynamics through effects on surface albedo, evapotranspiration and water vapor. These changes would outweigh any increased uptake of carbon (e.g. from peatlands and higher plant photosynthesis) and would result in a strong, positive feedback to global climate warming.

  2. A transverse bunch by bunch feedback system for Pohang Light Source upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, E.-H.; Kim, D.-T.; Huang, J.-Y.; Shin, S.; Nakamura, T.; Kobayashi, K.

    2014-12-15

    The Pohang Light Source upgrade (PLS-II) project has successfully upgraded the Pohang Light Source (PLS). The main goals of the PLS-II project are to increase the beam energy to 3 GeV, increase the number of insertion devices by a factor of two (20 IDs), increase the beam current to 400 mA, and at the same time reduce the beam emittance to below 10 nm by using the existing PLS tunnel and injection system. Among 20 insertion devices, 10 narrow gap in-vacuum undulators are in operation now and two more in-vacuum undulators are to be installed later. Since these narrow gap in-vacuum undulators are most likely to produce coupled bunch instability by the resistive wall impedance and limit the stored beam current, a bunch by bunch feedback system is implemented to suppress coupled bunch instability in the PLS-II. This paper describes the scheme and performance of the PLS-II bunch by bunch feedback system.

  3. Quantifying Climate Feedbacks from Abrupt Changes in High-Latitude Trace-Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlosser, Courtney Adam; Walter-Anthony, Katey; Zhuang, Qianlai; Melillo, Jerry

    2013-04-26

    Our overall goal was to quantify the potential for threshold changes in natural emission rates of trace gases, particularly methane and carbon dioxide, from pan-arctic terrestrial systems under the spectrum of anthropogenically forced climate warming, and the extent to which these emissions provide a strong feedback mechanism to global climate warming. This goal is motivated under the premise that polar amplification of global climate warming will induce widespread thaw and degradation of the permafrost, and would thus cause substantial changes in the extent of wetlands and lakes, especially thermokarst (thaw) lakes, over the Arctic. Through a coordinated effort of field measurements, model development, and numerical experimentation with an integrated assessment model framework, we have investigated the following hypothesis: There exists a climate-warming threshold beyond which permafrost degradation becomes widespread and thus instigates strong and/or sharp increases in methane emissions (via thermokarst lakes and wetland expansion). These would outweigh any increased uptake of carbon (e.g. from peatlands) and would result in a strong, positive feedback to global climate warming.

  4. Self-organization of pulsing and bursting in a CO{sub 2} laser with opto-electronic feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freire, Joana G.; Meucci, Riccardo; Arecchi, Fortunato Tito; and others

    2015-09-15

    We report a detailed investigation of the stability of a CO{sub 2} laser with feedback as described by a six-dimensional rate-equations model which provides satisfactory agreement between numerical and experimental results. We focus on experimentally accessible parameters, like bias voltage, feedback gain, and the bandwidth of the feedback loop. The impact of decay rates and parameters controlling cavity losses are also investigated as well as control planes which imply changes of the laser physical medium. For several parameter combinations, we report stability diagrams detailing how laser spiking and bursting is organized over extended intervals. Laser pulsations are shown to emerge organized in several hitherto unseen regular and irregular phases and to exhibit a much richer and complex range of behaviors than described thus far. A significant observation is that qualitatively similar organization of laser spiking and bursting can be obtained by tuning rather distinct control parameters, suggesting the existence of unexpected symmetries in the laser control space.

  5. A Fuzzy Feed-Forward/Feedback Control System for a Three-Phase Oil Field Centrifuge.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkinson, W. J. ,; Smith, R. E.; Mortensen, F. N.; Wantuck, P. J.; Ross, Timothy J.; Jamshidi, Mohammad; Miller, N.

    2002-01-01

    A set of fuzzy controllers was designed and applied to a commercial three-phase oil field centrifuge. This centrifuge is essentially a one of a kind unit. It is used to recover oil from tank bottoms and oil field and/or refinery sludge. It is unique because it can separate oily emulsions into three separate phases, oil, water, and solids, in one operation. The centrifuge is a large but portable device. It is moved form site to site and is used to separate a large variety of waste emulsions. The centrifuge feedstock varies significantly from site to site and often varies significantly during the daily operation. In this application, fuzzy logic was used on a class of problems not easily solved by classical control techniques. The oil field centrifuge is a highly nonlinear system, with a time varying input. We have been unable to develop a physical-mathematical model of the portion of the centrifuge operation that actually separates the oil, water, and solids. For this portion of the operation we developed a fuzzy feedback control system that modeled a skilled operator's knowledge and actions as opposed to the physical model of the centrifuge itself. Because of the variable feed we had to develop a feed-forward controller that would sense and react to feed changes prior to the time that the actual change reached the centrifuge separation unit. This portion of the control system was also a fuzzy controller designed around the knowledge of a skilled operator. In addition to the combined feed-forward and feedback control systems, we developed a soft-sensor that was used to determine the value of variables needed for the feed-forward control system. These variables could not actually be measured but were calculated from the measurement of other variables. The soft-sensor was developed with a combination of a physical model of the feed system and a skilled operator's expert knowledge. Finally the entire control system is tied together with a fuzzy-SPC (Statistical Process

  6. Architecture and technology of 500 Msample/s feedback systems for control of coupled-bunch instabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teytelman, Dmitry

    2000-03-30

    Feedback control of coupled-bunch instabilities presents many challenges. Control bandwidths up to 250 MHz are required to damp all of the unstable coupled-bunch modes in recent accelerators. A digital parallel-processing array with 80 DSPs has been developed to control longitudinal instabilities in PEP-II/ALS/DA NE machines. Here the authors present a description of the architecture as well as the technologies used to implement 500 Msample/s real-time control system with 2,000 FIR filtering channels. Algorithms for feedback control, data acquisition, and analysis are described and measurements from ALS are presented.

  7. Local regulation of interchange turbulence in a dipole-confined plasma torus using current-collection feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, T. M. Mauel, M. E. Worstell, M. W.

    2015-05-15

    Turbulence in plasma confined by a magnetic dipole is dominated by interchange fluctuations with complex dynamics and short spatial coherence. We report the first use of local current-collection feedback to modify, amplify, and suppress these fluctuations. The spatial extent of turbulence regulation is limited to a correlation length near the collector. Changing the gain and phase of collection results in power either extracted from or injected into the turbulence. The measured plasma response shows some agreement with calculations of the linear response of global interchange-like MHD and entropy modes to current-collection feedback.

  8. Three-terminal graphene single-electron transistor fabricated using feedback-controlled electroburning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puczkarski, Paweł; Gehring, Pascal Lau, Chit S.; Liu, Junjie; Warner, Jamie H.; Briggs, G. Andrew D.; Mol, Jan A.; Ardavan, Arzhang

    2015-09-28

    We report room-temperature Coulomb blockade in a single layer graphene three-terminal single-electron transistor fabricated using feedback-controlled electroburning. The small separation between the side gate electrode and the graphene quantum dot results in a gate coupling up to 3 times larger compared to the value found for the back gate electrode. This allows for an effective tuning between the conductive and Coulomb blocked state using a small side gate voltage of about 1 V. The technique can potentially be used in the future to fabricate all-graphene based room temperature single-electron transistors or three terminal single molecule transistors with enhanced gate coupling.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Active Feedback Control of Turbulent Transport in a Magnetized Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilmore, Mark Allen

    2013-07-07

    A new and unique basic plasma science laboratory device - the HelCat device (HELicon-CAThode) - has been constructed and is operating at the University of New Mexico. HelCat is a 4 m long, 0.5 m diameter device, with magnetic field up to 2.2 kG, that has two independent plasmas sources - an RF helicon source, and a thermionic cathode. These two sources, which can operate independently or simultaneously, are capable of producing plasmas with a wide range of parameters and turbulence characteristics, well suited to a variety of basic plasma physics experiments. An extensive set of plasma diagnostics is also operating. Experiments investigating the active feedback control of turbulent transport of particles and heat via electrode biasing to affect plasma ExB flows are underway, and ongoing.

  10. Bistability, regular self-pulsing, and chaos in lasers with external feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, R.; Glas, P.

    1985-01-01

    Steady states and dynamic behavior of the light field in a lasing medium contained in the cavity of a Fabry--Perot (FP) resonator are investigated theoretically. The FP resonator is optically coupled to an external resonator (ER), which reflects light back into the laser within a small frequency interval. It is assumed that the lasing threshold cannot be exceeded without feedback from the ER. The losses of the compound-cavity system depend on the light frequency's giving rise to dispersive bistable effects. The static hysteresis cycle as well as transients between its branches has been calculated. Moreover, various types of regular and chaotic self-pulsing that are due to the oscillation of several modes of the compound-cavity sysem have been found, depending on the ratio of longitudinal relaxation time T/sub 1/ to the photon round-trip time T. Finally, phase modulation and frequency chirping have been determined.

  11. Modeling laser-induced periodic surface structures: Finite-difference time-domain feedback simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skolski, J. Z. P. Vincenc Obona, J.; Römer, G. R. B. E.; Huis in 't Veld, A. J.

    2014-03-14

    A model predicting the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) is presented. That is, the finite-difference time domain method is used to study the interaction of electromagnetic fields with rough surfaces. In this approach, the rough surface is modified by “ablation after each laser pulse,” according to the absorbed energy profile, in order to account for inter-pulse feedback mechanisms. LIPSSs with a periodicity significantly smaller than the laser wavelength are found to “grow” either parallel or orthogonal to the laser polarization. The change in orientation and periodicity follow from the model. LIPSSs with a periodicity larger than the wavelength of the laser radiation and complex superimposed LIPSS patterns are also predicted by the model.

  12. Laser interferometry force-feedback sensor for an interfacial force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Houston, Jack E.; Smith, William L.

    2004-04-13

    A scanning force microscope is provided with a force-feedback sensor to increase sensitivity and stability in determining interfacial forces between a probe and a sample. The sensor utilizes an interferometry technique that uses a collimated light beam directed onto a deflecting member, comprising a common plate suspended above capacitor electrodes situated on a substrate forming an interference cavity with a probe on the side of the common plate opposite the side suspended above capacitor electrodes. The probe interacts with the surface of the sample and the intensity of the reflected beam is measured and used to determine the change in displacement of the probe to the sample and to control the probe distance relative to the surface of the sample.

  13. Target and orbit feedback simulations of a muSR beam line at BNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacKay, W.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.; Pile, P.

    2015-07-28

    Well-polarized positive surface muons are a tool to measure the magnetic properties of materials since the precession rate of the spin can be determined from the observation of the positron directions when the muons decay. For a dc beam an ideal µSR flux for surface µ+ should be about 40 kHz/mm2. In this report we show how this flux could be achieved in a beam line using the AGS complex at BNL for a source of protons. We also determined that an orbit feedback system with a pair of thin silicon position monitors and kickers would miss the desired flux by at least an order of magnitude, even with perfect time resolution and no multiple scattering.

  14. Feedbacks from Focus Group Meeting on Training and Implementation of Building Energy Codes in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shui, Bin; Lin , Haiyan; Song, Bo; Halverson, Mark A.; Evans, Meredydd; Zhu, Xiaojiao

    2011-01-01

    A focus group meeting is a very effective quality research approach to collect information on a specific project. Through focus group meetings at both Changchun and Ningbo in August 2010, the project team gained a more complete understandings of key stakeholders (such as their education level), their training needs and expectations, key factors influencing their decision making, and incurred implementation difficulties. In addition, the meeting helped the project team (especially PNNL) improve its understanding of the implementation status of building energy codes in other regions (such as small cities and counties neighboring to urban areas, small townships and rural areas distant from urban areas). The collected feedbacks will serve as important input not only for better design of training materials and the development of an on-line training website, but also for development of follow-up projects to promote building energy codes in China.

  15. Improvements for operational baseband tune and coupling measurements and feedback at RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilinski, M.; Dawson, C.; Degen, C.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Minty, M.; Russo, T.

    2010-05-02

    Throughout RHIC Run-9 (polarized protons) and Run-10 (gold), numerous modifications to the Baseband Tune (BBQ) system were made. Hardware and software improvements resulted in improved resolution and control, allowing the system to overcome challenges from competing 60Hz mains harmonics, other spectral content, and other beam issues. Test points from the Analog Front End (AFE) were added and connected to diagnostics that allow us to view signals, such as frequency spectra on a Sr785 dynamic signal analyser (DSA), in real time. Also, additional data can now be logged using a National Instruments DAQ (NI-DAQ). Development time using tune feedback to obtain full-energy beams at RHIC has been significantly reduced from many ramps over a few weeks, to just a few ramps over several hours. For many years BBQ was an expert-only system, but the many improvements allowed BBQ to finally be handed over to the Operations Staff for routine control.

  16. Solid optical ring interferometer for high-throughput feedback-free spectral analysis and filtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrak, B.; Peiris, M.; Muller, A.

    2015-02-15

    We describe a simple and inexpensive optical ring interferometer for use in high-resolution spectral analysis and filtering. It consists of a solid cuboid, reflection-coated on two opposite sides, in which constructive interference occurs for waves in a rhombic trajectory. Due to its monolithic design, the interferometers resonance frequencies are insensitive to environmental disturbances over time. Additional advantages are its simplicity of alignment, high-throughput, and feedback-free operation. If desired, it can be stabilized with a secondary laser without disturbance of the primary signal. We illustrate the use of the interferometer for the measurement of the spectral Mollow triplet from a quantum dot and characterize its long-term stability for filtering applications.

  17. Calculating the spontaneous magnetization and defining the Curie temperature using a positive-feedback model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, R. G.

    2014-01-21

    A positive-feedback mean-field modification of the classical Brillouin magnetization theory provides an explanation of the apparent persistence of the spontaneous magnetization beyond the conventional Curie temperature—the little understood “tail” phenomenon that occurs in many ferromagnetic materials. The classical theory is unable to resolve this apparent anomaly. The modified theory incorporates the temperature-dependent quantum-scale hysteretic and mesoscopic domain-scale anhysteretic magnetization processes and includes the effects of demagnetizing and exchange fields. It is found that the thermal behavior of the reversible and irreversible segments of the hysteresis loops, as predicted by the theory, is a key to the presence or absence of the “tails.” The theory, which permits arbitrary values of the quantum spin number J, generally provides a quantitative agreement with the thermal variations of both the spontaneous magnetization and the shape of the hysteresis loop.

  18. A tale of two feedbacks: Star formation in the host galaxies of radio AGNs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Jeon, Yiseul; Kim, Ji Hoon; Trichas, Markos; Goto, Tomo; Malkan, Matt; Ruiz, Angel; Lee, Hyung Mok; Kim, Seong Jin; Oi, Nagisa; Matsuhara, Hideo; Takagi, Toshinobu; Murata, K.; Wada, Takehiko; Wada, Kensuke; Shim, Hyunjin; Hanami, Hitoshi; Serjeant, Stephen; White, Glenn J.; and others

    2014-04-01

    Several lines of argument support the existence of a link between activity at the nuclei of galaxies, in the form of an accreting supermassive black hole, and star formation activity in these galaxies. Radio jets have long been argued to be an ideal mechanism that allows active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to interact with their host galaxies and affect star formation. We use a sample of radio sources in the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) field to study the nature of this putative link, by means of spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. We employ the excellent spectral coverage of the AKARI infrared space telescope and the rich ancillary data available in the NEP to build SEDs extending from UV to far-IR wavelengths. We find a significant AGN component in our sample of relatively faint radio sources (feedback process in the same sample. We discuss the possible suppression of star formation, but not total quenching, in systems with strong radio jets, that supports the maintenance nature of feedback from radio AGN jets.

  19. Negative feedback regulation of Homer 1a on norepinephrine-dependent cardiac hypertrophy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiarello, Carmelina; Bortoloso, Elena; Carpi, Andrea; Furlan, Sandra; Volpe, Pompeo

    2013-07-15

    Homers are scaffolding proteins that modulate diverse cell functions being able to assemble signalling complexes. In this study, the presence, sub-cellular distribution and function of Homer 1 was investigated. Homer 1a and Homer 1b/c are constitutively expressed in cardiac muscle of both mouse and rat and in HL-1 cells, a cardiac cell line. As judged by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, Homer 1a displays sarcomeric and peri-nuclear localization. In cardiomyocytes and cultured HL-1 cells, the hypertrophic agonist norepinephrine (NE) induces α{sub 1}-adrenergic specific Homer 1a over-expression, with a two-to-three-fold increase within 1 h, and no up-regulation of Homer 1b/c, as judged by Western blot and qPCR. In HL-1 cells, plasmid-driven over-expression of Homer 1a partially antagonizes activation of ERK phosphorylation and ANF up-regulation, two well-established, early markers of hypertrophy. At the morphometric level, NE-induced increase of cell size is likewise and partially counteracted by exogenous Homer 1a. Under the same experimental conditions, Homer 1b/c does not have any effect on ANF up-regulation nor on cell hypertrophy. Thus, Homer 1a up-regulation is associated to early stages of cardiac hypertrophy and appears to play a negative feedback regulation on molecular transducers of hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • Homer 1a is constitutively expressed in cardiac tissue. • In HL-1 cells, norepinephrine activates signaling pathways leading to hypertrophy. • Homer 1a up-regulation is an early event of norepinephrine-induced hypertrophy. • Homer 1a plays a negative feedback regulation modulating pathological hypertrophy. • Over-expression of Homer 1a per se does not induce hypertrophy.

  20. Additional Better Plants Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Better Building, Better Plants Challenge to manage and save energy. Better Plants 2015: Look Ahead Energy Efficiency: ... Implementation Models - successful approaches to ...

  1. SunShot Grand Challenge Summit and Peer Review 2014 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Breakout Session Presentations The New Science of Soft Costs: Tutorials in Big Data, Social Physics, and Randomized Pilots Looking Forward: The Solar Market in 2040 A Look Ahead: ...

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Fleets Make Progress with...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    ... The national park just joined Maine Clean Communities in the summer of 2012 with the goal of furthering its commitment to sustainable transportation. Looking ahead, Main Clean ...

  3. Past Workshops and Events | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    controllable light sources, communication networks, sensors, and data exchange ... to today's SSL products, and look ahead to prepare for the next wave of innovation. ...

  4. Design of a 7-MV Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) for down-hole flash x-ray radiography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cordova, Steve Ray; Welch, Dale Robert; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Rose, David Vincent; Johnson, David Lee; Bruner, Nichelle Lee; Leckbee, Joshua J.

    2008-09-01

    Pulsed power driven flash x-ray radiography is a valuable diagnostic for subcritical experiments at the Nevada Test Site. The existing dual-axis Cygnus system produces images using a 2.25 MV electron beam diode to produce intense x-rays from a small source. Future hydrodynamic experiments will likely use objects with higher areal mass, requiring increased x-ray dose and higher voltages while maintaining small source spot size. A linear transformer driver (LTD) is a compact pulsed power technology with applications ranging from pulsed power flash x-ray radiography to high current Z-pinch accelerators. This report describes the design of a 7-MV dual-axis system that occupies the same lab space as the Cygnus accelerators. The work builds on a design proposed in a previous report [1]. This new design provides increased diode voltage from a lower impedance accelerator to improve coupling to low impedance diodes such as the self magnetic pinch (SMP) diode. The design also improves the predicted reliability by operating at a lower charge voltage and removing components that have proven vulnerable to failure. Simulations of the new design and experimental results of the 1-MV prototype are presented.

  5. Wire number dependence of the implosion dynamics, stagnation, and radiation output of tungsten wire arrays at Z driver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazarakis, Michael G.; Stygar, William A.; Sinars, Daniel B.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Nash, Thomas J.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Keith Matzen, M.; Porter, John L.; Struve, Kenneth W.; McDaniel, Dillon H.; Deeney, Christopher E.; Douglas, Melissa R.; Chittenden, Jerry

    2011-11-15

    We report results of the experimental campaign, which studied the initiation, implosion dynamics, and radiation yield of tungsten wire arrays as a function of the wire number. The wire array dimensions and mass were those of interest for the Z-pinch driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. An optimization study of the x-ray emitted peak power, rise time, and full width at half maximum was effectuated by varying the wire number while keeping the total array mass constant and equal to {approx}5.8 mg. The driver utilized was the {approx}20-MA Z accelerator before refurbishment in its usual short pulse mode of 100 ns. We studied single arrays of 20-mm diameter and 1-cm height. The smaller wire number studied was 30 and the largest 600. It appears that 600 is the highest achievable wire number with present day's technology. Radial and axial diagnostics were utilized including crystal monochromatic x-ray backlighter. An optimum wire number of {approx}375 was observed which was very close to the routinely utilized 300 for the ICF program in Sandia.

  6. Void reactivity feedback analysis for U-based and Th-based LWR incineration cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindley, B.A.; Parks, G.T.; Franceschini, F.

    2013-07-01

    In reduced-moderation LWRs, an external supply of transuranic (TRU) can be incinerated by mixing it with a fertile isotope ({sup 238}U or {sup 232}Th) and recycling all the actinides after each cycle. Performance is limited by coolant reactivity feedback - the moderator density coefficient (MDC) must be kept negative. The MDC is worse when more TRU is loaded, but TRU feed is also needed to maintain criticality. To assess the performance of this fuel cycle in different neutron spectra, three LWRs are considered: 'reference' PWRs and reduced-moderation PWRs and BWRs. The MDC of the equilibrium cycle is analysed by reactivity decomposition with perturbed coolant density by isotope and neutron energy. The results show that using {sup 232}Th as a fertile isotope yields superior performance to {sup 238}U. This is due essentially to the high resonance η of U bred from Th (U3), which increases the fissility of the U3-TRU isotope vector in the Th-fueled system relative to the U-fueled system, and also improves the MDC in a sufficiently hard spectrum. Spatial separation of TRU and U3 in the Th-fueled system renders further improvement by hardening the neutron spectrum in the TRU and softening it in the U3. This improves the TRU η and increases the negative MDC contribution from reduced thermal fission in U3. (authors)

  7. Natural equilibria in steady-state neutron diffusion with temperature feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pounders, J. M.; Ingram, R. [Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, P.O. Box 79, West Mifflin, PA 15122-0079 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The critical diffusion equation with feedback is investigated within the context of steady-state multiphysics. It is proposed that for critical configurations there is no need to include the multiplication factor k in the formulation of the diffusion equation. This is notable because exclusion of k from the coupled system of equations precludes the mathematically tenuous notion of a nonlinear eigenvalue problem. On the other hand, it is shown that if the factor k is retained in the diffusion equation, as is currently common practice, then the resulting problem is equivalent to the constrained minimization of a functional representing the critical equilibrium of neutron and temperature distributions. The unconstrained solution corresponding to k = 1 represents the natural equilibrium of a critical system at steady-state. Computational methods for solving the constrained problem (with k) are briefly reviewed from the literature and a method for the unconstrained problem (without k) is outlined. A numerical example is studied to examine the effects of the constraint in the nonlinear system. (authors)

  8. STRUCTURE AND FEEDBACK IN 30 DORADUS. II. STRUCTURE AND CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrini, E. W.; Baldwin, J. A.; Ferland, G. J.

    2011-09-01

    We use our new optical-imaging and spectrophotometric survey of key diagnostic emission lines in 30 Doradus, together with CLOUDY photoionization models, to study the physical conditions and ionization mechanisms along over 4000 individual lines of sight at points spread across the face of the extended nebula, out to a projected radius 75 pc from R136 at the center of the ionizing cluster NGC 2070. We focus on the physical conditions, geometry, and importance of radiation pressure on a point-by-point basis, with the aim of setting observational constraints on important feedback processes. We find that the dynamics and large-scale structure of 30 Dor are set by a confined system of X-ray bubbles in rough pressure equilibrium with each other and with the confining molecular gas. Although the warm (10,000 K) gas is photoionized by the massive young stars in NGC 2070, the radiation pressure does not currently play a major role in shaping the overall structure. The completeness of our survey also allows us to create a composite spectrum of 30 Doradus, simulating the observable spectrum of a spatially unresolved, distant giant extragalactic H II region. We find that the highly simplified models used in the 'strong line' abundance technique do in fact reproduce our observed line strengths and deduced chemical abundances, in spite of the more than one order of magnitude range in the ionization parameter and density of the actual gas in 30 Dor.

  9. MEMS closed-loop control incorporating a memristor as feedback sensing element

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Almeida, Sergio F.; Mireles, Jr., Jose; Zubia, David

    2015-12-01

    In this work the integration of a memristor with a MEMS parallel plate capacitor coupled by an amplification stage is simulated. It is shown that the MEMS upper plate position can be controlled up to 95% of the total gap. Due to its common operation principle, the change in the MEMS plate position can be interpreted by the change in the memristor resistance, or memristance. A memristance modulation of ~1 KΩ was observed. A polynomial expression representing the MEMS upper plate displacement as a function of the memristance is presented. Thereafter a simple design for a voltage closed-loop control is presented showing that the MEMS upper plate can be stabilized up to 95% of the total gap using the memristor as a feedback sensing element. As a result, the memristor can play important dual roles in overcoming the limited operation range of MEMS parallel plate capacitors and in simplifying read-out circuits of those devices by representing the motion of the upper plate in the form of resistance change instead of capacitance change.

  10. MEMS closed-loop control incorporating a memristor as feedback sensing element

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Almeida, Sergio F.; Mireles, Jr., Jose; Zubia, David

    2015-12-01

    In this work the integration of a memristor with a MEMS parallel plate capacitor coupled by an amplification stage is simulated. It is shown that the MEMS upper plate position can be controlled up to 95% of the total gap. Due to its common operation principle, the change in the MEMS plate position can be interpreted by the change in the memristor resistance, or memristance. A memristance modulation of ~1 KΩ was observed. A polynomial expression representing the MEMS upper plate displacement as a function of the memristance is presented. Thereafter a simple design for a voltage closed-loop control ismore » presented showing that the MEMS upper plate can be stabilized up to 95% of the total gap using the memristor as a feedback sensing element. As a result, the memristor can play important dual roles in overcoming the limited operation range of MEMS parallel plate capacitors and in simplifying read-out circuits of those devices by representing the motion of the upper plate in the form of resistance change instead of capacitance change.« less

  11. Conceptual design for a linear-transformer driver (LTD)-based refurbishment and upgrade of the Saturn accelerator pulse-power system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos; Struve, Kenneth William

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a conceptual design for the Saturn accelerator using the modular Liner-Transformer Driver (LTD) technology to identify risks and to focus development and research for this new technology. We present a reference design for a Saturn class driver based on a number of linear inductive voltage adders connected in parallel. This design is very similar to a design reported five years ago [1]. However, with the design reported here we use 1-MA, 100-kV LTD cavities as building blocks. These cavities have already been built and are currently in operation at the HCEI in Tomsk, Russia [2]. Therefore, this new design integrates already-proven individual components into a full system design.

  12. Comparison of electric and magnetic quadrupole focusing for the low energy end of an induction-linac-ICF (Inertial-Confinement-Fusion) driver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, C.H.

    1987-04-01

    This report compares two physics designs of the low energy end of an induction linac-ICF driver: one using electric quadrupole focusing of many parallel beams followed by transverse combining; the other using magnetic quadrupole focusing of fewer beams without beam combining. Because of larger head-to-tail velocity spread and a consequent rapid current amplification in a magnetic focusing channel, the overall accelerator size of the design using magnetic focusing is comparable to that using electric focusing.

  13. Galaxy Formation with Self-Consistently Modeled Stars and Massive Black Holes. I: Feedback-Regulated Star Formation and Black Hole Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Wise, John H.; Alvarez, Marcelo A.; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-11-04

    There is mounting evidence for the coevolution of galaxies and their embedded massive black holes (MBHs) in a hierarchical structure formation paradigm. To tackle the nonlinear processes of galaxy-MBH interaction, we describe a self-consistent numerical framework which incorporates both galaxies and MBHs. The high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code Enzo is modified to model the formation and feedback of molecular clouds at their characteristic scale of 15.2 pc and the accretion of gas onto an MBH. Two major channels of MBH feedback, radiative feedback (X-ray photons followed through full three-dimensional adaptive ray tracing) and mechanical feedback (bipolar jets resolved in high-resolution AMR), are employed. We investigate the coevolution of a 9.2 x 10{sup 11} M {circle_dot} galactic halo and its 10{sup 5} {circle_dot} M embedded MBH at redshift 3 in a cosmological CDM simulation. The MBH feedback heats the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) up to 10{sup 6} K through photoionization and Compton heating and locally suppresses star formation in the galactic inner core. The feedback considerably changes the stellar distribution there. This new channel of feedback from a slowly growing MBH is particularly interesting because it is only locally dominant and does not require the heating of gas globally on the disk. The MBH also self-regulates its growth by keeping the surrounding ISM hot for an extended period of time.

  14. Prospects for inertial fusion energy based on a diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) driver: Overview and development path

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orth, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    It is now known with certainty that the type of fusion known as inertial fusion will work with sufficient energy input, so inertial fusion is really beyond the ``scientific breakeven`` point in many respects. The most important question that remains for inertial fusion energy (IFE) is whether this type of fusion can operate with sufficiently low input energy to make it economically feasible for energy production. The constraint for low input energy demands operation near the inertial fusion ignition threshold, and such operation creates enormous challenges to discover a target design that will produce sufficient energy gain. There are also multiple issues relating to the scientific feasibility of using a laboratory-type ``driver`` to energize a target, such as those concerning bandwidth and beam smoothing for ``direct drive,`` and extension of hohlraum plasma physics to the IFE scale for ``indirect drive.`` One driver that appears as though it will be able to meet the IFE requirements, assuming modest development and sufficient target gain, is a diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL). We give an overview of this type of laser system, and explain what development remains for the economic production of electricity using this type of driver for IFE.

  15. Frequency stabilization of the zero-phonon line of a quantum dot via phonon-assisted active feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansom, Jack; Schulte, Carsten H. H.; Matthiesen, Clemens; Stanley, Megan J.; Atatre, Mete

    2014-10-27

    We report on the feedback stabilization of the zero-phonon emission frequency of a single InAs quantum dot. The spectral separation of the phonon-assisted component of the resonance fluorescence provides a probe of the detuning between the zero-phonon transition and the resonant driving laser. Using this probe in combination with active feedback, we stabilize the zero-phonon transition frequency against environmental fluctuations. This protocol reduces the zero-phonon fluorescence intensity noise by a factor of 22 by correcting for environmental noise with a bandwidth of 191?Hz, limited by the experimental collection efficiency. The associated sub-Hz fluctuations in the zero-phonon central frequency are reduced by a factor of 7. This technique provides a means of stabilizing the quantum dot emission frequency without requiring access to the zero-phonon emission.

  16. DRIVING OUTFLOWS WITH RELATIVISTIC JETS AND THE DEPENDENCE OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK EFFICIENCY ON INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM INHOMOGENEITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2012-10-01

    We examine the detailed physics of the feedback mechanism by relativistic active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets interacting with a two-phase fractal interstellar medium (ISM) in the kpc-scale core of galaxies using 29 three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations. The feedback efficiency, as measured by the amount of cloud dispersal generated by the jet-ISM interactions, is sensitive to the maximum size of clouds in the fractal cloud distribution but not to their volume filling factor. Feedback ceases to be efficient for Eddington ratios P{sub jet}/L{sub edd} {approx}< 10{sup -4}, although systems with large cloud complexes {approx}> 50 pc require jets of Eddington ratio in excess of 10{sup -2} to disperse the clouds appreciably. Based on measurements of the bubble expansion rates in our simulations, we argue that sub-grid AGN prescriptions resulting in negative feedback in cosmological simulations without a multi-phase treatment of the ISM are good approximations if the volume filling factor of warm-phase material is less than 0.1 and the cloud complexes are smaller than {approx}25 pc. We find that the acceleration of the dense embedded clouds is provided by the ram pressure of the high-velocity flow through the porous channels of the warm phase, flow that has fully entrained the shocked hot-phase gas it has swept up, and is additionally mass loaded by ablated cloud material. This mechanism transfers 10% to 40% of the jet energy to the cold and warm gas, accelerating it within a few 10 to 100 Myr to velocities that match those observed in a range of high- and low-redshift radio galaxies hosting powerful radio jets.

  17. Utility Integrated Resource Planning: An Emerging Driver of NewRenewable Generation in the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-09-25

    In the United States, markets for renewable generation--especially wind power--have grown substantially in recent years. This growth is typically attributed to technology improvements and resulting cost reductions, the availability of federal tax incentives, and aggressive state policy efforts. But another less widely recognized driver of new renewable generation is poised to play a major role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Common in the late-1980s to mid-1990s, but relegated to lesser importance as many states took steps to restructure their electricity markets in the late-1990s, IRP has re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions such as the western United States, where retail competition has failed to take root. As practiced in the United States, IRP is a formal process by which utilities analyze the costs, benefits, and risks of all resources available to them--both supply- and demand-side--with the ultimate goal of identifying a portfolio of resources that meets their future needs at lowest cost and/or risk. Though the content of any specific utility IRP is unique, all are built on a common basic framework: (1) development of peak demand and load forecasts; (2) assessment of how these forecasts compare to existing and committed generation resources; (3) identification and characterization of various resource portfolios as candidates to fill a projected resource deficiency; (4) analysis of these different ''candidate'' resource portfolios under base-case and alternative future scenarios; and finally, (5) selection of a preferred portfolio, and creation of a near-term action plan to begin to move towards that portfolio. Renewable resources were once rarely considered seriously in utility IRP. In the western United States, however, the most recent resource plans call for a significant amount of new wind power capacity. These planned additions appear to be motivated by the

  18. Surface-plasmon-enhanced lasing emission based on polymer distributed feedback laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Dingke E-mail: shijianchen@gmail.com; Chen, Shijian E-mail: shijianchen@gmail.com; Huang, Yingzhou; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Yanping; Ma, Dongge

    2015-01-14

    Optical losses associated with the metallic contacts necessary for charge injection are an obstacle to the development of electrically pumped organic lasers. In this work, we show that it is possible to overcome these losses by introducing surface plasmons (SPs) in a distributed feedback laser to enhance the lasing emission. We perform a detailed study of the SPs influence on the lasing emission. We experimentally show that enhanced lasing emission has been successfully achieved in the presence of a metal electrode. The laser emission is strongly dependent on the thickness of Ag layer. By optimizing the thickness of Ag layer, surface-plasmon-enhanced lasing emission has been achieved with much reduced thresholds and higher intensity. When the thickness of the Ag layer increases to 50 nm, the device exhibits ten-fold emission intensity and a fifth of excitation threshold comparing with Ag-free one. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) results show that large field intensity is built at the 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-i-propyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl) -4H-pyran:/poly(9-vinylcarbazole)Ag interface, which could lead to a strong coupling between lasing and SPs, and consequently a much enhanced laser emission at the photon energy of around 2.02 eV (615 nm). Our FDTD simulations gave an explanation of the effects of the SPs on lasing operation in the periodic structures. The use of SPs would lead to a new class of highly efficient solid-state laser sources and provide a new path to achieve electrically pumped organic lasers.

  19. Long-term soil warming and Carbon Cycle Feedbacks to the Climate System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melillo, Jerry M.

    2014-04-30

    The primary objective of the proposed research was to quantify and explain the effects of a sustained in situ 5oC soil temperature increase on net carbon (C) storage in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem. The research was done at an established soil warming experiment at the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts – Barre Woods site established in 2001. In the field, a series of plant and soil measurements were made to quantify changes in C storage in the ecosystem and to provide insights into the possible relationships between C-storage changes and nitrogen (N) cycling changes in the warmed plots. Field measurements included: 1) annual woody increment; 2) litterfall; 3) carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from the soil surface; 4) root biomass and respiration; 5) microbial biomass; and 6) net N mineralization and net nitrification rates. This research was designed to increase our understanding of how global warming will affect the capacity of temperate forest ecosystems to store C. The work explored how soil warming changes the interactions between the C and N cycles, and how these changes affect land-atmosphere feedbacks. This core research question framed the project – What are the effects of a sustained in situ 5oC soil temperature increase on net carbon (C) storage in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem? A second critical question was addressed in this research – What are the effects of a sustained in situ 5{degrees}C soil temperature increase on nitrogen (N) cycling in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem?

  20. Feasibility of developing a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research: Technical tasks. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, R.J.; Barickman, F.S.; Spelt, P.F.; Schmoyer, R.L.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    A two-phase, multi-year research program entitled ``development of a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research`` was recently completed. The primary objective of the project was to develop a portable data acquisition system for crash avoidance research (DASCAR) that will allow drive performance data to be collected using a large variety of vehicle types and that would be capable of being installed on a given vehicle type within a relatively short-time frame. During phase 1 a feasibility study for designing and fabricating DASCAR was conducted. In phase 2 of the research DASCAR was actually developed and validated. This technical memorandum documents the results from the feasibility study. It is subdivided into three volumes. Volume one (this report) addresses the last five items in the phase 1 research and the first issue in the second phase of the project. Volumes two and three present the related appendices, and the design specifications developed for DASCAR respectively. The six tasks were oriented toward: identifying parameters and measures; identifying analysis tools and methods; identifying measurement techniques and state-of-the-art hardware and software; developing design requirements and specifications; determining the cost of one or more copies of the proposed data acquisition system; and designing a development plan and constructing DASCAR. This report also covers: the background to the program; the requirements for the project; micro camera testing; heat load calculations for the DASCAR instrumentation package in automobile trunks; phase 2 of the research; the DASCAR hardware and software delivered to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; and crash avoidance problems that can be addressed by DASCAR.

  1. Operating experience feedback report: Reliability of safety-related steam turbine-driven standby pumps. Commercial power reactors, Volume 10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boardman, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    This report documents a detailed analysis of failure initiators, causes and design features for steam turbine assemblies (turbines with their related components, such as governors and valves) which are used as drivers for standby pumps in the auxiliary feedwater systems of US commercial pressurized water reactor plants, and in the high pressure coolant injection and reactor core isolation cooling systems of US commercial boiling water reactor plants. These standby pumps provide a redundant source of water to remove reactor core heat as specified in individual plant safety analysis reports. The period of review for this report was from January 1974 through December 1990 for licensee event reports (LERS) and January 1985 through December 1990 for Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) failure data. This study confirmed the continuing validity of conclusions of earlier studies by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and by the US nuclear industry that the most significant factors in failures of turbine-driven standby pumps have been the failures of the turbine-drivers and their controls. Inadequate maintenance and the use of inappropriate vendor technical information were identified as significant factors which caused recurring failures.

  2. Net Metering and Market Feedback Loops: Exploring the Impact of Retail Rate Design on Distributed PV Deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darghouth, Naïm R.; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Mills, Andrew

    2015-01-13

    The substantial increase in deployment of customer-sited solar photovoltaics (PV) in the United States has been driven by a combination of steeply declining costs, financing innovations, and supportive policies. Among those supportive policies is net metering, which in most states effectively allows customers to receive compensation for distributed PV generation at the full retail electricity price. The current design of retail electricity rates and the presence of net metering have elicited concerns that the possible under-recovery of fixed utility costs from PV system owners may lead to a feedback loop of increasing retail prices that accelerate PV adoption and further rate increases. However, a separate and opposing feedback loop could offset this effect: increased PV deployment may lead to a shift in the timing of peak-period electricity prices that could reduce the bill savings received under net metering where time-varying retail electricity rates are used, thereby dampening further PV adoption. In this paper, we examine the impacts of these two competing feedback dynamics on U.S. distributed PV deployment through 2050 for both residential and commercial customers, across states. Our results indicate that, at the aggregate national level, the two feedback effects nearly offset one another and therefore produce a modest net effect, although their magnitude and direction vary by customer segment and by state. We also model aggregate PV deployment trends under various rate designs and net-metering rules, accounting for feedback dynamics. Our results demonstrate that future adoption of distributed PV is highly sensitive to retail rate structures. Whereas flat, time-invariant rates with net metering lead to higher aggregate national deployment levels than the current mix of rate structures (+5% in 2050), rate structures with higher monthly fixed customer charges or PV compensation at levels lower than the full retail rate can dramatically erode aggregate customer

  3. Market Drivers for Biofuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Review BETO MYPP Lost Imported crude oil (75bbl) 8 | Bioenergy Technologies Office eere.energy.gov High Cost for Oil Imports All costs in US2011 Sources: IEA, ...

  4. A simplified, data-constrained approach to estimate the permafrost carbon–climate feedback

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Koven, C. D.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Schadel, C.; Bohn, T. J.; Burke, E. J.; Chen, G.; Chen, X.; Ciais, P.; Grosse, G.; Harden, J. W.; et al

    2015-10-05

    We present an approach to estimate the feedback from large-scale thawing of permafrost soils using a simplified, data-constrained model that combines three elements: soil carbon (C) maps and profiles to identify the distribution and type of C in permafrost soils; incubation experiments to quantify the rates of C lost after thaw; and models of soil thermal dynamics in response to climate warming. We call the approach the Permafrost Carbon Network Incubation–Panarctic Thermal scaling approach (PInc-PanTher). The approach assumes that C stocks do not decompose at all when frozen, but once thawed follow set decomposition trajectories as a function of soilmore » temperature. The trajectories are determined according to a three-pool decomposition model fitted to incubation data using parameters specific to soil horizon types. We calculate litterfall C inputs required to maintain steady-state C balance for the current climate, and hold those inputs constant. Soil temperatures are taken from the soil thermal modules of ecosystem model simulations forced by a common set of future climate change anomalies under two warming scenarios over the period 2010 to 2100. Under a medium warming scenario (RCP4.5), the approach projects permafrost soil C losses of 12.2–33.4 Pg C; under a high warming scenario (RCP8.5), the approach projects C losses of 27.9–112.6 Pg C. Projected C losses are roughly linearly proportional to global temperature changes across the two scenarios. These results indicate a global sensitivity of frozen soil C to climate change (γ sensitivity) of –14 to –19 Pg C °C–1 on a 100 year time scale. For CH4 emissions, our approach assumes a fixed saturated area and that increases in CH4 emissions are related to increased heterotrophic respiration in anoxic soil, yielding CH4 emission increases of 7% and 35% for the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively, which add an additional greenhouse gas forcing of approximately 10–18%. In conclusion, the

  5. Controls on terrestrial carbon feedbacks by productivity versus turnover in the CMIP5 Earth System Models

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Koven, C. D.; Chambers, J. Q.; Georgiou, K.; Knox, R.; Negron-Juarez, R.; Riley, W. J.; Arora, V. K.; Brovkin, V.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, C. D.

    2015-09-07

    To better understand sources of uncertainty in projections of terrestrial carbon cycle feedbacks, we present an approach to separate the controls on modeled carbon changes. We separate carbon changes into four categories using a linearized, equilibrium approach: those arising from changed inputs (productivity-driven changes), and outputs (turnover-driven changes), of both the live and dead carbon pools. Using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations for five models, we find that changes to the live pools are primarily explained by productivity-driven changes, with only one model showing large compensating changes to live carbon turnover times. For dead carbon pools, themore » situation is more complex as all models predict a large reduction in turnover times in response to increases in productivity. This response arises from the common representation of a broad spectrum of decomposition turnover times via a multi-pool approach, in which flux-weighted turnover times are faster than mass-weighted turnover times. This leads to a shift in the distribution of carbon among dead pools in response to changes in inputs, and therefore a transient but long-lived reduction in turnover times. Since this behavior, a reduction in inferred turnover times resulting from an increase in inputs, is superficially similar to priming processes, but occurring without the mechanisms responsible for priming, we call the phenomenon "false priming", and show that it masks much of the intrinsic changes to dead carbon turnover times as a result of changing climate. These patterns hold across the fully coupled, biogeochemically coupled, and radiatively coupled 1 % yr−1 increasing CO2 experiments. We disaggregate inter-model uncertainty in the globally integrated equilibrium carbon responses to initial turnover times, initial productivity, fractional changes in turnover, and fractional changes in productivity. For both the live and dead carbon pools, inter

  6. A simplified, data-constrained approach to estimate the permafrost carbon–climate feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koven, C. D.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Schadel, C.; Bohn, T. J.; Burke, E. J.; Chen, G.; Chen, X.; Ciais, P.; Grosse, G.; Harden, J. W.; Hayes, D. J.; Hugelius, G.; Jafarov, E. E.; Krinner, G.; Kuhry, P.; Lawrence, D. M.; MacDougall, A. H.; Marchenko, S. S.; McGuire, A. D.; Natali, S. M.; Nicolsky, D. J.; Olefeldt, D.; Peng, S.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Schaefer, K. M.; Strauss, J.; Treat, C. C.; Turetsky, M.

    2015-10-05

    We present an approach to estimate the feedback from large-scale thawing of permafrost soils using a simplified, data-constrained model that combines three elements: soil carbon (C) maps and profiles to identify the distribution and type of C in permafrost soils; incubation experiments to quantify the rates of C lost after thaw; and models of soil thermal dynamics in response to climate warming. We call the approach the Permafrost Carbon Network Incubation–Panarctic Thermal scaling approach (PInc-PanTher). The approach assumes that C stocks do not decompose at all when frozen, but once thawed follow set decomposition trajectories as a function of soil temperature. The trajectories are determined according to a three-pool decomposition model fitted to incubation data using parameters specific to soil horizon types. We calculate litterfall C inputs required to maintain steady-state C balance for the current climate, and hold those inputs constant. Soil temperatures are taken from the soil thermal modules of ecosystem model simulations forced by a common set of future climate change anomalies under two warming scenarios over the period 2010 to 2100. Under a medium warming scenario (RCP4.5), the approach projects permafrost soil C losses of 12.2–33.4 Pg C; under a high warming scenario (RCP8.5), the approach projects C losses of 27.9–112.6 Pg C. Projected C losses are roughly linearly proportional to global temperature changes across the two scenarios. These results indicate a global sensitivity of frozen soil C to climate change (γ sensitivity) of –14 to –19 Pg C °C–1 on a 100 year time scale. For CH4 emissions, our approach assumes a fixed saturated area and that increases in CH4 emissions are related to increased heterotrophic respiration in anoxic soil, yielding CH4 emission increases of 7% and 35% for the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively, which add an additional greenhouse gas forcing of approximately 10–18

  7. Controls on terrestrial carbon feedbacks by productivity vs. turnover in the CMIP5 Earth System Models

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Koven, C. D.; Chambers, J. Q.; Georgiou, K.; Knox, R.; Negron-Juarez, R.; Riley, W. J.; Arora, V. K.; Brovkin, V.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, C. D.

    2015-04-16

    To better understand sources of uncertainty in projections of terrestrial carbon cycle feedbacks, we present an approach to separate the controls on modeled carbon changes. We separate carbon changes into 4 categories using a linearized, equilibrium approach: those arising from changed inputs (productivity-driven changes), and outputs (turnover-driven changes), and apply the analysis separately to the live and dead carbon pools. Using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations for 5 models, we find that changes to the live pools are primarily explained by productivity-driven changes, with only one model showing large compensating changes to live carbon turnover times. Formore » dead carbon pools, the situation is more complex as all models predict a large reduction in turnover times in response to increases in productivity. This responses arises from the common representation of a broad spectrum of decomposition turnover times via a multi-pool approach, in which flux-weighted turnover times are faster than mass-weighted turnover times. This leads to a shift in the distribution of carbon among dead pools in response to changes in inputs, and therefore a transient but long-lived reduction in turnover times in response to increases in productivity. Since this behavior, a reduction in inferred turnover times resulting from an increase in inputs, is superficially similar to priming processes, but occurring without the mechanisms responsible for priming, we call the phenomenon "false priming", and show that it masks much of the intrinsic changes to dead carbon turnover times as a result of changing climate. These patterns hold across the fully-coupled, biogeochemically-coupled, and radiatively-coupled 1% yr−1 increasing CO2 experiments. We disaggregate inter-model uncertainty in the globally-integrated equilibrium carbon responses to initial turnover times, inital productivity, fractional changes in turnover, and fractional changes in

  8. Optimizing and Diversifying the Electric Range of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles for U.S. Drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhenhong

    2012-01-01

    To provide useful information for automakers to design successful plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) products and for energy and environmental analysts to understand the social impact of PHEVs, this paper addresses the question of how many of the U.S. consumers, if buying a PHEV, would prefer what electric ranges. The Market-oriented Optimal Range for PHEV (MOR-PHEV) model is developed to optimize the PHEV electric range for each of 36,664 sampled individuals representing U.S. new vehicle drivers. The optimization objective is the minimization of the sum of costs on battery, gasoline, electricity and refueling hassle. Assuming no battery subsidy, the empirical results suggest that: 1) the optimal PHEV electric range approximates two thirds of one s typical daily driving distance in the near term, defined as $450/kWh battery delivered price and $4/gallon gasoline price. 2) PHEVs are not ready to directly compete with HEVs at today s situation, defined by the $600/kWh battery delivered price and the $3-$4/gallon gasoline price, but can do so in the near term. 3) PHEV10s will be favored by the market over longer-range PHEVs in the near term, but longer-range PHEVs can dominate the PHEV market if gasoline prices reach as high as $5-$6 per gallon and/or battery delivered prices reach as low as $150-$300/kWh. 4) PHEVs can become much more attractive against HEVs in the near term if the electric range can be extended by only 10% with multiple charges per day, possible with improved charging infrastructure or adapted charging behavior. 5) the impact of a $100/kWh decrease in battery delivered prices on the competiveness of PHEVs against HEVs can be offset by about $1.25/gallon decrease in gasoline prices, or about 7/kWh increase in electricity prices. This also means that the impact of a $1/gallon decrease in gasoline prices can be offset by about 5/kWh decrease in electricity prices.

  9. The high current, fast, 100ns, Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) developmental project at Sandia Laboratories and HCEI.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Kevin S.; Long, Finis W.; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A. , Tomsk, Russia); Kim, Alexandre A. , Tomsk, Russia); Wakeland, Peter Eric; McKee, G. Randall; Woodworth, Joseph Ray; McDaniel, Dillon Heirman; Fowler, William E.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos; Porter, John Larry, Jr.; Struve, Kenneth William; Savage, Mark Edward; Stygar, William A.; LeChien, Keith R.; Matzen, Maurice Keith

    2010-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., USA, in collaboration with the High Current Electronic Institute (HCEI), Tomsk, Russia, is developing a new paradigm in pulsed power technology: the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology. This technological approach can provide very compact devices that can deliver very fast high current and high voltage pulses straight out of the cavity with out any complicated pulse forming and pulse compression network. Through multistage inductively insulated voltage adders, the output pulse, increased in voltage amplitude, can be applied directly to the load. The load may be a vacuum electron diode, a z-pinch wire array, a gas puff, a liner, an isentropic compression load (ICE) to study material behavior under very high magnetic fields, or a fusion energy (IFE) target. This is because the output pulse rise time and width can be easily tailored to the specific application needs. In this paper we briefly summarize the developmental work done in Sandia and HCEI during the last few years, and describe our new MYKONOS Sandia High Current LTD Laboratory. An extensive evaluation of the LTD technology is being performed at SNL and the High Current Electronic Institute (HCEI) in Tomsk Russia. Two types of High Current LTD cavities (LTD I-II, and 1-MA LTD) were constructed and tested individually and in a voltage adder configuration (1-MA cavity only). All cavities performed remarkably well and the experimental results are in full agreement with analytical and numerical calculation predictions. A two-cavity voltage adder is been assembled and currently undergoes evaluation. This is the first step towards the completion of the 10-cavity, 1-TW module. This MYKONOS voltage adder will be the first ever IVA built with a transmission line insulated with deionized water. The LTD II cavity renamed LTD III will serve as a test bed for evaluating a number of different types of switches, resistors, alternative capacitor configurations, cores

  10. SU-E-J-196: Implementation of An In-House Visual Feedback System for Motion Management During Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, V; James, J; Wang, B; Ellerbusch, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To describe an in-house video goggle feedback system for motion management during simulation and treatment of radiation therapy patients. Methods: This video goggle system works by splitting and amplifying the video output signal directly from the Varian Real-Time Position Management (RPM) workstation or TrueBeam imaging workstation into two signals using a Distribution Amplifier. The first signal S[1] gets reconnected back to the monitor. The second signal S[2] gets connected to the input of a Video Scaler. The S[2] signal can be scaled, cropped and panned in real time to display only the relevant information to the patient. The output signal from the Video Scaler gets connected to an HDMI Extender Transmitter via a DVI-D to HDMI converter cable. The S[2] signal can be transported from the HDMI Extender Transmitter to the HDMI Extender Receiver located inside the treatment room via a Cat5e/6 cable. Inside the treatment room, the HDMI Extender Receiver is permanently mounted on the wall near the conduit where the Cat5e/6 cable is located. An HDMI cable is used to connect from the output of the HDMI Receiver to the video goggles. Results: This video goggle feedback system is currently being used at two institutions. At one institution, the system was just recently implemented for simulation and treatments on two breath-hold gated patients with 8+ total fractions over a two month period. At the other institution, the system was used to treat 100+ breath-hold gated patients on three Varian TrueBeam linacs and has been operational for twelve months. The average time to prepare the video goggle system for treatment is less than 1 minute. Conclusion: The video goggle system provides an efficient and reliable method to set up a video feedback signal for radiotherapy patients with motion management.

  11. Interleukin 6 promotes endometrial cancer growth through an autocrine feedback loop involving ERKNF-?B signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Che, Qi; Liu, Bin-Ya; Wang, Fang-Yuan; He, Yin-Yan; Lu, Wen; Liao, Yun; Gu, Wei; Wan, Xiao-Ping

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: IL-6 could promote endometrial cancer cells proliferation. IL-6 promotes its own production through an autocrine feedback loop. ERK and NF-?B pathway inhibitors inhibit IL-6 production and tumor growth. IL-6 secretion relies on the activation of ERKNF-?B pathway axis. An orthotopic nude endometrial carcinoma model confirms the effect of IL-6. - Abstract: Interleukin (IL)-6 as an inflammation factor, has been proved to promote cancer proliferation in several human cancers. However, its role in endometrial cancer has not been studied clearly. Previously, we demonstrated that IL-6 promoted endometrial cancer progression through local estrogen biosynthesis. In this study, we proved that IL-6 could directly stimulate endometrial cancer cells proliferation and an autocrine feedback loop increased its production even after the withdrawal of IL-6 from the medium. Next, we analyzed the mechanism underlying IL-6 production in the feedback loop and found that its production and IL-6-stimulated cell proliferation were effectively blocked by pharmacologic inhibitors of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Importantly, activation of ERK was upstream of the NF-?B pathways, revealing the hierarchy of this event. Finally, we used an orthotopic nude endometrial carcinoma model to confirm the effects of IL-6 on the tumor progression. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-6 promotes endometrial carcinoma growth through an expanded autocrine regulatory loop and implicate the ERKNF-?B pathway as a critical mediator of IL-6 production, implying IL-6 to be an important therapeutic target in endometrial carcinoma.

  12. Quantitative understanding of Forbush decrease drivers based on shock-only and CME-only models using global signature of February 14, 1978 event

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raghav, Anil; Lotekar, Ajay; Bhaskar, Ankush; Vichare, Geeta; Yadav, Virendra E-mail: ankushbhaskar@gmail.com E-mail: vicharegeeta@gmail.com

    2014-10-01

    We have studied the Forbush decrease (FD) event that occurred on February 14, 1978 using 43 neutron monitor observatories to understand the global signature of FD. We have studied rigidity dependence of shock amplitude and total FD amplitude. We have found almost the same power law index for both shock phase amplitude and total FD amplitude. Local time variation of shock phase amplitude and maximum depression time of FD have been investigated which indicate possible effect of shock/CME orientation. We have analyzed rigidity dependence of time constants of two phase recovery. Time constants of slow component of recovery phase show rigidity dependence and imply possible effect of diffusion. Solar wind speed was observed to be well correlated with slow component of FD recovery phase. This indicates solar wind speed as possible driver of recovery phase. To investigate the contribution of interplanetary drivers, shock and CME in FD, we have used shock-only and CME-only models. We have applied these models separately to shock phase and main phase amplitudes respectively. This confirms presently accepted physical scenario that the first step of FD is due to propagating shock barrier and second step is due to flux rope of CME/magnetic cloud.

  13. DOE Final Report on Collaborative Research. Quantifying Climate Feedbacks of the Terrestrial Biosphere under Thawing Permafrost Conditions in the Arctic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang, Qianlai; Schlosser, C. Adam; Melillo, Jerry M.; Anthony, Katey Walter; Kicklighter, David; Gao, Xiang

    2015-11-03

    Our overall goal is to quantify the potential for threshold changes in natural emission rates of trace gases, particularly methane and carbon dioxide, from pan-arctic terrestrial systems under the spectrum of anthropogenically-forced climate warming, and the conditions under which these emissions provide a strong feedback mechanism to global climate warming. This goal is motivated under the premise that polar amplification of global climate warming will induce widespread thaw and degradation of the permafrost, and would thus cause substantial changes to the landscape of wetlands and lakes, especially thermokarst (thaw) lakes, across the Arctic. Through a suite of numerical experiments that encapsulate the fundamental processes governing methane emissions and carbon exchanges – as well as their coupling to the global climate system - we intend to test the following hypothesis in the proposed research: There exists a climate warming threshold beyond which permafrost degradation becomes widespread and stimulates large increases in methane emissions (via thermokarst lakes and poorly-drained wetland areas upon thawing permafrost along with microbial metabolic responses to higher temperatures) and increases in carbon dioxide emissions from well-drained areas. Besides changes in biogeochemistry, this threshold will also influence global energy dynamics through effects on surface albedo, evapotranspiration and water vapor. These changes would outweigh any increased uptake of carbon (e.g. from peatlands and higher plant photosynthesis) and would result in a strong, positive feedback to global climate warming.

  14. Basal-subtype and MEK-Pl3K feedback signaling determine susceptibility of breast cancer cells to MEK inhibition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirzoeva, Olga K.; Das, Debopriya; Heiser, Laura M.; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Siwak, Doris; Gendelman, Rina; Bayani, Nora; Wang, Nicholas J.; Neve, Richard M.; Knight, Zachary; Feiler, Heidi S.; Gascard, Philippe; Parvin, Bahram; Spellman, Paul T.; Shokat, Kevan M.; Wyrobek, Andrew J.; Bissell, Mina J.; McCormick, Frank; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Mills, Gordon B.; Gray, Joe W.; Korn, W. Michael

    2009-01-23

    Specific inhibitors of MEK have been developed that efficiently inhibit the oncogenic RAF-MEK-ERK pathway. We employed a systems-based approach to identify breast cancer subtypes particularly susceptible to MEK inhibitors and to understand molecular mechanisms conferring resistance to such compounds. Basal-type breast cancer cells were found to be particularly susceptible to growth-inhibition by small-molecule MEK inhibitors. Activation of the PI3 kinase pathway in response to MEK inhibition through a negative MEK-EGFR-PI3 kinase feedback loop was found to limit efficacy. Interruption of this feedback mechanism by targeting MEK and PI3 kinase produced synergistic effects, including induction of apoptosis and, in some cell lines, cell cycle arrest and protection from apoptosis induced by proapoptotic agents. These findings enhance our understanding of the interconnectivity of oncogenic signal transduction circuits and have implications for the design of future clinical trials of MEK inhibitors in breast cancer by guiding patient selection and suggesting rational combination therapies.

  15. The Y-located gonadoblastoma gene TSPY amplifies its own expression through a positive feedback loop in prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kido, Tatsuo; Lau, Yun-Fai Chris

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Y-encoded proto-oncoprotein TSPY amplifies its expression level via a positive feedback loop. • TSPY binds to the chromatin/DNA at exon 1 of TSPY gene. • TSPY enhances the gene expression in a TSPY exon 1 sequence dependent manner. • The conserved SET/NAP-domain is essential for TSPY transactivation. • Insights on probable mechanisms on TSPY exacerbation on cancer development in men. - Abstract: The testis-specific protein Y-encoded (TSPY) is a repetitive gene located on the gonadoblastoma region of the Y chromosome, and has been considered to be the putative gene for this oncogenic locus on the male-only chromosome. It is expressed in spermatogonial cells and spermatocytes in normal human testis, but abundantly in gonadoblastoma, testicular germ cell tumors and a variety of somatic cancers, including melanoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and prostate cancer. Various studies suggest that TSPY accelerates cell proliferation and growth, and promotes tumorigenesis. In this report, we show that TSPY could bind directly to the chromatin/DNA at exon 1 of its own gene, and greatly enhance the transcriptional activities of the endogenous gene in the LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Domain mapping analyses of TSPY have localized the critical and sufficient domain to the SET/NAP-domain. These results suggest that TSPY could efficiently amplify its expression and oncogenic functions through a positive feedback loop, and contribute to the overall tumorigenic processes when it is expressed in various human cancers.

  16. Effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, solar UV radiation, and climate change on biogeochemical cycling: interactions and feedbacks

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Erickson III, David J.; Sulzberger, Barbara; Zepp, Richard G.; Austin, Amy T.

    2014-11-07

    Climate change modulates the effects of solar UV radiation on biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, particularly for carbon cycling, resulting in UV-mediated positive or negative feedbacks on climate. Possible positive feedbacks discussed in this assessment include: (i) enhanced UV-induced mineralisation of above ground litter due to aridification; (ii) enhanced UV-induced mineralisation of photoreactive dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic ecosystems due to changes in continental runoff and ice melting; (iii) reduced efficiency of the biological pump due to UV-induced bleaching of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in stratified aquatic ecosystems, where CDOM protects phytoplankton from the damaging solarmore » UV-B radiation. Mineralisation of organic matter results in the production and release of CO2, whereas the biological pump is the main biological process for CO2 removal by aquatic ecosystems. This research also assesses the interactive effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on the biogeochemical cycling of aerosols and trace gases other than CO2, as well as of chemical and biological contaminants. Lastly,, interacting effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on biogeochemical cycles are particularly pronounced at terrestrial-aquatic interfaces.« less

  17. Effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, solar UV radiation, and climate change on biogeochemical cycling: interactions and feedbacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson III, David J.; Sulzberger, Barbara; Zepp, Richard G.; Austin, Amy T.

    2014-11-07

    Climate change modulates the effects of solar UV radiation on biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, particularly for carbon cycling, resulting in UV-mediated positive or negative feedbacks on climate. Possible positive feedbacks discussed in this assessment include: (i) enhanced UV-induced mineralisation of above ground litter due to aridification; (ii) enhanced UV-induced mineralisation of photoreactive dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic ecosystems due to changes in continental runoff and ice melting; (iii) reduced efficiency of the biological pump due to UV-induced bleaching of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in stratified aquatic ecosystems, where CDOM protects phytoplankton from the damaging solar UV-B radiation. Mineralisation of organic matter results in the production and release of CO2, whereas the biological pump is the main biological process for CO2 removal by aquatic ecosystems. This research also assesses the interactive effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on the biogeochemical cycling of aerosols and trace gases other than CO2, as well as of chemical and biological contaminants. Lastly,, interacting effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on biogeochemical cycles are particularly pronounced at terrestrial-aquatic interfaces.

  18. Recyclable transmission line (RTL) and linear transformer driver (LTD) development for Z-pinch inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) and high yield.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharpe, Robin Arthur; Kingsep, Alexander S. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Smith, David Lewis; Olson, Craig Lee; Ottinger, Paul F. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Schumer, Joseph Wade (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Welch, Dale Robert (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Kim, Alexander (High Currents Institute, Tomsk, Russia); Kulcinski, Gerald L. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Kammer, Daniel C. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Rose, David Vincent (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Nedoseev, Sergei L. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Pointon, Timothy David; Smirnov, Valentin P.; Turgeon, Matthew C.; Kalinin, Yuri G. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Bruner, Nichelle "Nicki" (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Barkey, Mark E. (University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL); Guthrie, Michael (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Thoma, Carsten (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Genoni, Tom C. (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Langston, William L.; Fowler, William E.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos

    2007-01-01

    Z-Pinch Inertial Fusion Energy (Z-IFE) complements and extends the single-shot z-pinch fusion program on Z to a repetitive, high-yield, power plant scenario that can be used for the production of electricity, transmutation of nuclear waste, and hydrogen production, all with no CO{sub 2} production and no long-lived radioactive nuclear waste. The Z-IFE concept uses a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) accelerator, and a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to connect the LTD driver to a high-yield fusion target inside a thick-liquid-wall power plant chamber. Results of RTL and LTD research are reported here, that include: (1) The key physics issues for RTLs involve the power flow at the high linear current densities that occur near the target (up to 5 MA/cm). These issues include surface heating, melting, ablation, plasma formation, electron flow, magnetic insulation, conductivity changes, magnetic field diffusion changes, possible ion flow, and RTL mass motion. These issues are studied theoretically, computationally (with the ALEGRA and LSP codes), and will work at 5 MA/cm or higher, with anode-cathode gaps as small as 2 mm. (2) An RTL misalignment sensitivity study has been performed using a 3D circuit model. Results show very small load current variations for significant RTL misalignments. (3) The key structural issues for RTLs involve optimizing the RTL strength (varying shape, ribs, etc.) while minimizing the RTL mass. Optimization studies show RTL mass reductions by factors of three or more. (4) Fabrication and pressure testing of Z-PoP (Proof-of-Principle) size RTLs are successfully reported here. (5) Modeling of the effect of initial RTL imperfections on the buckling pressure has been performed. Results show that the curved RTL offers a much greater buckling pressure as well as less sensitivity to imperfections than three other RTL designs. (6) Repetitive operation of a 0.5 MA, 100 kV, 100 ns, LTD cavity with gas purging between shots and automated operation is

  19. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY * SAVANNAH RIVER SITE * AIKEN * SC

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Haptic seat provides feedback to drivers for improved vehicle fuel economy Engineers at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are working on development of a new method for providing feedback to drivers of vehicles in order to maximize fuel efficiency through improved driving habits. Background Today's vehicles provide feedback to the driver on a wide variety of vehicle or driver characteristics. Some of the information provided includes speed, temperatures, tire pressure, radio, GPS, cell

  20. The role of plant-soil feedbacks and land-use legacies in restoration of a temperate steppe in northern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Lili; Han, Xingguo; Zhang, Guangming; Kardol, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Plant soil feedbacks affect plant performance and plant community dynamics; however, little is known about their role in ecological restoration. Here, we studied plant soil feedbacks in restoration of steppe vegetation after agricultural disturbance in northern China. First, we analyzed abiotic and biotic soil properties under mono-dominant plant patches in an old-field restoration site and in a target steppe site. Second, we tested plant soil feedbacks by growing plant species from these two sites on soils from con- and heterospecific origin. Soil properties generally did not differ between the old-field site and steppe site, but there were significant differences among mono-dominant plant patches within the sites. While soil species origin (i.e., the plant species beneath which the soil was collected) affected biomass of individual plant species in the feedback experiment, species-level plant soil feedbacks were neutral . Soil site origin (old-field, steppe) significantly affected biomass of old-field and steppe species. For example, old-field species had higher biomass in old-field soils than in steppe soils, indicating a positive land-use legacy. However, soil site origin effects depended on the plant species beneath which the soils were collected. The predictive value of abiotic and biotic soil properties in explaining plant biomass differed between and within groups of old-field and steppe species. We conclude that the occurrence of positive land-use legacies for old-field species may retard successional replacement of old-field species by steppe species. However, high levels of idiosyncrasy in responses of old-field and steppe plant species to con- and heterospecific soils indicate interspecific variation in the extent to which soil legacies and plant soil feedbacks control successional species replacements in Chinese steppe ecosystems.

  1. Fiber-fed time-resolved photoluminescence for reduced process feedback time on thin-film photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Repins, I. L.; Egaas, B.; Mansfield, L. M.; Contreras, M. A.; Beall, C.; Glynn, S.; Carapella, J.; Kuciauskas, D.; Muzzillo, C. P.

    2015-01-15

    Fiber-fed time-resolved photoluminescence is demonstrated as a tool for immediate process feedback after deposition of the absorber layer for CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Se{sub 2} and Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} photovoltaic devices. The technique uses a simplified configuration compared to typical laboratory time-resolved photoluminescence in the delivery of the exciting beam, signal collection, and electronic components. Correlation of instrument output with completed device efficiency is demonstrated over a large sample set. The extraction of the instrument figure of merit, depending on both the initial luminescence intensity and its time decay, is explained and justified. Limitations in the prediction of device efficiency by this method, including surface effect, are demonstrated and discussed.

  2. THERMAL AND RADIATIVE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK HAVE A LIMITED IMPACT ON STAR FORMATION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roos, Orianne; Juneau, Stéphanie; Bournaud, Frédéric; Gabor, Jared M.

    2015-02-10

    The effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on their host galaxies depend on the coupling between the injected energy and the interstellar medium (ISM). Here, we model and quantify the impact of long-range AGN ionizing radiation—in addition to the often considered small-scale energy deposition—on the physical state of the multi-phase ISM of the host galaxy and on its total star formation rate (SFR). We formulate an AGN spectral energy distribution matched with observations, which we use with the radiative transfer (RT) code Cloudy to compute AGN ionization in a simulated high-redshift disk galaxy. We use a high-resolution (∼6 pc) simulation including standard thermal AGN feedback and calculate RT in post-processing. Surprisingly, while these models produce significant AGN-driven outflows, we find that AGN ionizing radiation and heating reduce the SFR by a few percent at most for a quasar luminosity (L {sub bol} = 10{sup 46.5} erg s{sup –1}). Although the circumgalactic gaseous halo can be kept almost entirely ionized by the AGN, most star-forming clouds (n ≳ 10{sup 2} {sup –} {sup 3} cm{sup –3}) and even the reservoirs of cool atomic gas (n ∼ 0.3-10 cm{sup –3})—which are the sites of future star formation (SF; 100-200 Myr), are generally too dense to be significantly affected. Our analysis ignores any absorption from a putative torus, making our results upper limits on the effects of ionizing radiation. Therefore, while the AGN-driven outflows can remove substantial amounts of gas in the long term, the impact of AGN feedback on the SF efficiency in the interstellar gas in high-redshift galaxies is marginal, even when long-range radiative effects are accounted for.

  3. Land-use transition for bioenergy and climate stabilization: model comparison of drivers, impacts and interactions with other land use based mitigation options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popp, Alexander; Rose, Steven K.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Dietrich, Jan P.; Wise, Marshall A.; Stehfest, Eike; Humpenoder, Florian; Kyle, G. Page; Van Vliet, Jasper; Bauer, Nico; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Klein, David; Kriegler, Elmar

    2014-04-01

    This study is a model comparison assessing the drivers and impacts of bioenergy production on the global land system and the interaction with other land use based mitigation options in the context of the EMF 27 project. We compare and evaluate results from three integrated assessment models (GCAM, IMAGE, and ReMIND/MAgPIE). All three models project that dedicated bioenergy crops and biomass residues are a potentially important and cost-effective component of the energy system. But bioenergy deployment levels and feedstock composition vary notably across models as do the implications for land-use and greenhouse gas emissions and the interaction with other land use based mitigation measures. Despite numerous model differences, we identify a few that are likely contributing to differences in land-use and emissions attributable to energy crop deployment.

  4. Parametic Study of the current limit within a single driver-scaletransport beam line of an induction Linac for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prost, Lionel Robert

    2007-02-14

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program that explores heavy-ion beam as the driver option for fusion energy production in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plant. The HCX is a beam transport experiment at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linear accelerator driver. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density {approx}0.2 {micro}C/m) over long pulse durations (4 {micro}s) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K{sup +} ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor ({approx}80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss. We achieved good envelope control, and re-matching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  5. CGILS: Results from the First Phase of an International Project to Understand the Physical Mechanisms of Low Cloud Feedbacks in Single Column Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Minghua; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Blossey, Peter; Austin, Phillip A.; Bacmeister, J.; Bony, Sandrine; Brient, Florent; Cheedela, Suvarchal K.; Cheng, Anning; Del Genio, Anthony D.; De Roode, Stephan R.; Endo , Satoshi; Franklin, Charmaine N.; Golaz, Jean-Christophe; Hannay, Cecile; Heus, Thijs; Isotta, Francesco A.; Jean-Louis, Dufresne; Kang, In-Sik; Kawai, Hideaki; Koehler, M.; Larson, Vincent E.; Liu, Yangang; Lock, Adrian; Lohmann, U.; Khairoutdinov, Marat; Molod, Andrea M.; Neggers, Roel; Rasch, Philip J.; Sandu, Irina; Senkbeil, Ryan; Siebesma, A. P.; Siegenthaler-Le Drian, Colombe; Stevens, Bjorn; Suarez, Max; Xu, Kuan-Man; Von Salzen, Knut; Webb, Mark; Wolf, Audrey; Zhao, M.

    2013-12-26

    Large Eddy Models (LES) and Single Column Models (SCM) are used in a surrogate climate change 101 to investigate the physical mechanism of low cloud feedbacks in climate models. Enhanced surface-102 driven boundary layer turbulence and shallow convection in a warmer climate are found to be 103 dominant mechanisms in SCMs.

  6. SHOCKS AND CAVITIES FROM MULTIPLE OUTBURSTS IN THE GALAXY GROUP NGC 5813: A WINDOW TO ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall, S. W.; Forman, W. R.; Giacintucci, S.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Jones, C.; David, L. P.; Kraft, R.; Sun, M.; Churazov, E.; Donahue, M.; Blanton, E. L.; Simionescu, A.; Werner, N.

    2011-01-10

    We present results from new Chandra, GMRT, and SOAR observations of NGC 5813, the dominant central galaxy in a nearby galaxy group. The system shows three pairs of collinear cavities at 1 kpc, 8 kpc, and 20 kpc from the central source, from three distinct outbursts of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN), which occurred 3 x 10{sup 6}, 2 x 10{sup 7}, and 9 x 10{sup 7} yr ago. The H{alpha} and X-ray observations reveal filaments of cool gas that has been uplifted by the X-ray cavities. The inner two cavity pairs are filled with radio-emitting plasma, and each pair is associated with an elliptical surface brightness edge, which we unambiguously identify as shocks (with measured temperature jumps) with Mach numbers of M {approx} 1.7 and M {approx} 1.5 for the inner and outer shocks, respectively. Such clear signatures from three distinct AGN outbursts in an otherwise dynamically relaxed system provide a unique opportunity to study AGN feedback and outburst history. The mean power of the two most recent outbursts differs by a factor of six, from (1.5-10)x10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}, indicating that the mean jet power changes significantly over long ({approx}10{sup 7} yr) timescales. The total energy output of the most recent outburst is also more than an order of magnitude less than the total energy of the previous outburst (1.5 x 10{sup 56} erg versus 4 x 10{sup 57} erg), which may be a result of the lower mean power, or may indicate that the most recent outburst is ongoing. The outburst interval implied by both the shock and cavity ages ({approx}10{sup 7} yr) indicates that, in this system, shock heating alone is sufficient to balance radiative cooling close to the central AGN, which is the relevant region for regulating feedback between the intracluster medium and the central supermassive black hole.

  7. Permafrost carbon—climate feedback is sensitive to deep soil carbon decomposability but not deep soil nitrogen dynamics

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Koven, Charles D.; Lawrence, David M.; Riley, William J.

    2015-03-09

    Permafrost soils contain enormous amounts of organic carbon whose stability is contingent on remaining frozen. With future warming, these soils may release carbon to the atmosphere and act as a positive feedback to climate change. Significant uncertainty remains on the postthaw carbon dynamics of permafrost-affected ecosystems, in particular since most of the carbon resides at depth where decomposition dynamics may differ from surface soils, and since nitrogen mineralized by decomposition may enhance plant growth. Here we show, using a carbon–nitrogen model that includes permafrost processes forced in an unmitigated warming scenario, that the future carbon balance of the permafrost regionmore » is highly sensitive to the decomposability of deeper carbon, with the net balance ranging from 21 Pg C to 164 Pg C losses by 2300. Increased soil nitrogen mineralization reduces nutrient limitations, but the impact of deep nitrogen on the carbon budget is small due to enhanced nitrogen availability from warming surface soils and seasonal asynchrony between deeper nitrogen availability and plant nitrogen demands. The future carbon balance of this region is projected to hinge more on the rate and extent of permafrost thaw and soil decomposition than on enhanced nitrogen availability for vegetation growth resulting from permafrost thaw.« less

  8. Study of non-contact measurement of the thermal expansion coefficients of materials based on laser feedback interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Fasong; Tan, Yidong; Zhang, Shulian; Lin, Jing; Ding, Yingchun

    2015-04-15

    The noncooperative and ultrahigh sensitive length measurement approach is of great significance to the study of a high-precision thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) determination of materials at a wide temperature range. The novel approach is presented in this paper based on the Nd:YAG microchip laser feedback interferometry with 1064 nm wavelength, the beam frequency of which is shifted by a pair of acousto-optic modulators and then the heterodyne phase measurement technique is used. The sample is placed in a muffle furnace with two coaxial holes opened on the opposite furnace walls. The measurement beams are perpendicular and coaxial on each surface of the sample, the configuration which can not only achieve the length measurement of sample but also eliminate the influence of the distortion of the sample supporter. The reference beams inject on the reference mirrors which are put as possible as near the holes, respectively, to eliminate the air disturbances and the influence of thermal lens effect out of the furnace chamber. For validation, the thermal expansion coefficients of aluminum and steel 45 samples are measured from room temperature to 748 K, which proved measurement repeatability of TECs is better than 0.6 × 10{sup −6}(K{sup −1}) at the range of 298 K–598 K and the high-sensitive non-contact measurement of the low reflectivity surface induced by the oxidization of the samples at the range of 598 K–748 K.

  9. Evidence of extra-telomeric effects of hTERT and its regulation involving a feedback loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Serene R.; Cunningham, Amanda P.; Huynh, Vu Q.; Andrews, Lucy G.; Tollefsbol, Trygve O. . E-mail: trygve@uab.edu

    2007-01-15

    The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is the catalytic subunit of the enzyme telomerase which is responsible for telomeric maintenance and extension. Using RNA interference to knock down hTERT mRNA expression, we provide evidence that hTERT exerts extra-telomeric effects on the cell cycle and on its own regulatory proteins, specifically: p53 and p21. We tested our hypothesis that hTERT regulates its own expression through effects on upstream regulatory genes using transformed human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells, p53 and p16 {sup INK4a} null human ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells, and p53-null MDA-MB-157 human mammary cancer cells. In HEK 293 cells, hTERT knockdown resulted in elevated p53 and p21 transcription and a decrease in cellular proliferation. Similar results were observed in the MDA-MB-157 cell line where p21 was upregulated, correlating with cell growth inhibition. In contrast, we observed a decrease in expression of p21 in SKOV-3 cells with hTERT knockdown and cell growth appeared to be unaffected. These findings suggest that hTERT may be involved in a feedback loop system, thereby playing a role in its own regulation.

  10. Permafrost carbon—climate feedback is sensitive to deep soil carbon decomposability but not deep soil nitrogen dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koven, Charles D.; Lawrence, David M.; Riley, William J.

    2015-03-09

    Permafrost soils contain enormous amounts of organic carbon whose stability is contingent on remaining frozen. With future warming, these soils may release carbon to the atmosphere and act as a positive feedback to climate change. Significant uncertainty remains on the postthaw carbon dynamics of permafrost-affected ecosystems, in particular since most of the carbon resides at depth where decomposition dynamics may differ from surface soils, and since nitrogen mineralized by decomposition may enhance plant growth. Here we show, using a carbon–nitrogen model that includes permafrost processes forced in an unmitigated warming scenario, that the future carbon balance of the permafrost region is highly sensitive to the decomposability of deeper carbon, with the net balance ranging from 21 Pg C to 164 Pg C losses by 2300. Increased soil nitrogen mineralization reduces nutrient limitations, but the impact of deep nitrogen on the carbon budget is small due to enhanced nitrogen availability from warming surface soils and seasonal asynchrony between deeper nitrogen availability and plant nitrogen demands. The future carbon balance of this region is projected to hinge more on the rate and extent of permafrost thaw and soil decomposition than on enhanced nitrogen availability for vegetation growth resulting from permafrost thaw.

  11. Variations of operations and noise of semiconductor lasers subject to optical feedback with nonlinear gain and nonradiative recombination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdulrhmann, S.; Al-Hossain, A.

    2015-03-30

    Influence of the nonlinear gain (NLG) and nonradiative recombination life time ratio (NRRLTR) on the rout to chaos and noise characteristics of semiconductor lasers (SLs) subject to optical feedback (OFB) are investigated. The analyses are performed in terms of the temporal trajectory of the photon numbers, bifurcation diagrams and relative intensity noise (RIN). Variations of the fluctuations of the photon number are statistically analyzed. The corresponding frequency dependence of RIN is characterized. The simulation results show that, NLG and NRRLTR can cause significant changes in the rout to chaos of the SLs and probability distribution of the photon numbers. We found that the value of the OFB rate at which the transition from CW to periodic oscillation (PO) or chaos state occur increases, as the value of the NLG/ NRRLTR is increased/decreased. The RIN is found to be suppressed when the laser is operated in CW or PO region and at relatively higher/lower values of the NLG/NRRLTR. We believe that, the instability of the SLs can be reduced by operating it under OFB and by increasing/decreasing the values of the NLG/NRRLTR parameter.

  12. Thermal-chemical-mechanical feedback during fluid-rock interactions: Implications for chemical transport and scales of equilibria in the crust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutrow, Barbara

    2008-08-13

    Our research evaluates the hypothesis that feedback amongst thermal-chemical-mechanical processes operative in fluid-rock systems alters the fluid flow dynamics of the system which, in turn, affects chemical transport and temporal and spatial scales of equilibria, thus impacting the resultant mineral textural development of rocks. Our methods include computational experimentation and detailed analyses of fluid-infiltrated rocks from well-characterized terranes. This work focuses on metamorphic rocks and hydrothermal systems where minerals and their textures are utilized to evaluate pressure (P), temperature (T), and time (t) paths in the evolution of mountain belts and ore deposits, and to interpret tectonic events and the timing of these events. Our work on coupled processes also extends to other areas where subsurface flow and transport in porous media have consequences such as oil and gas movement, geothermal system development, transport of contaminants, nuclear waste disposal, and other systems rich in fluid-rock reactions. Fluid-rock systems are widespread in the geologic record. Correctly deciphering the products resulting from such systems is important to interpreting a number of geologic phenomena. These systems are characterized by complex interactions involving time-dependent, non-linear processes in heterogeneous materials. While many of these interactions have been studied in isolation, they are more appropriately analyzed in the context of a system with feedback. When one process impacts another process, time and space scales as well as the overall outcome of the interaction can be dramatically altered. Our goals to test this hypothesis are: to develop and incorporate algorithms into our 3D heat and mass transport code to allow the effects of feedback to be investigated numerically, to analyze fluid infiltrated rocks from a variety of terranes at differing P-T conditions, to identify subtle features of the infiltration of fluids and/or feedback, and

  13. Influence of microwave driver coupling design on plasma density at Testbench for Ion sources Plasma Studies, a 2.45 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mega-Macas, A.; Vizcano-de-Julin, A.; Cortzar, O. D.

    2014-03-15

    A comparative study of two microwave driver systems (preliminary and optimized) for a 2.45 GHz hydrogen Electron Cyclotron Resonance plasma generator has been conducted. The influence on plasma behavior and parameters of stationary electric field distribution in vacuum, i.e., just before breakdown, along all the microwave excitation system is analyzed. 3D simulations of resonant stationary electric field distributions, 2D simulations of external magnetic field mapping, experimental measurements of incoming and reflected power, and electron temperature and density along the plasma chamber axis have been carried out. By using these tools, an optimized set of plasma chamber and microwave coupler has been designed paying special attention to the optimization of stationary electric field value in the center of the plasma chamber. This system shows a strong stability on plasma behavior allowing a wider range of operational parameters and even sustaining low density plasma formation without external magnetic field. In addition, the optimized system shows the capability to produce values of plasma density four times higher than the preliminary as a consequence of a deeper penetration of the magnetic resonance surface in relative high electric field zone by keeping plasma stability. The increment of the amount of resonance surface embedded in the plasma under high electric field is suggested as a key factor.

  14. A real-time laser feedback control method for the three-wave laser source used in the polarimeter-interferometer diagnostic on Joint-TEXT tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, C. Y.; Chen, J. Li, Q.; Liu, Y.; Gao, L.

    2014-12-15

    A three-wave laser polarimeter-interferometer, equipped with three independent far-infrared laser sources, has been developed on Joint-TEXT (J-TEXT) tokamak. The diagnostic system is capable of high-resolution temporal and phase measurement of the Faraday angle and line-integrated density. However, for long-term operation (>10 min), the free-running lasers can lead to large drifts of the intermediate frequencies (∼100–∼500 kHz/10 min) and decay of laser power (∼10%–∼20%/10 min), which act to degrade diagnostic performance. In addition, these effects lead to increased maintenance cost and limit measurement applicability to long pulse/steady state experiments. To solve this problem, a real-time feedback control method of the laser source is proposed. By accurately controlling the length of each laser cavity, both the intermediate frequencies and laser power can be simultaneously controlled: the intermediate frequencies are controlled according to the pre-set values, while the laser powers are maintained at an optimal level. Based on this approach, a real-time feedback control system has been developed and applied on J-TEXT polarimeter-interferometer. Long-term (theoretically no time limit) feedback of intermediate frequencies (maximum change less than ±12 kHz) and laser powers (maximum relative power change less than ±7%) has been successfully achieved.

  15. THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM AND FEEDBACK IN THE PROGENITORS OF THE COMPACT PASSIVE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Christina C.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Lee, Bomee; Tundo, Elena; Mobasher, Bahram; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton; Grogin, Norman; Trump, Jonathan R.; Cassata, Paolo; Dekel, Avishai; Guo, Yicheng; Pentericci, Laura; Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Grazian, Andrea; Bell, Eric F.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; and others

    2015-02-10

    Quenched galaxies at z > 2 are nearly all very compact relative to z ∼ 0, suggesting a physical connection between high stellar density and efficient, rapid cessation of star-formation. We present rest-frame UV spectra of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at z ∼ 3 selected to be candidate progenitors of the quenched galaxies at z ∼ 2 based on their compact rest-frame-optical sizes and high Σ{sub SFR}. We compare their UV properties to those of more extended LBGs of similar mass and star-formation rate (non-candidates). We find that candidate progenitors have faster bulk interstellar medium (ISM) gas velocities and higher equivalent widths of interstellar absorption lines, implying larger velocity spread among absorbing clouds. Candidates deviate from the relationship between equivalent widths of Lyα and interstellar absorption lines in that their Lyα emission remains strong despite high interstellar absorption, possibly indicating that the neutral H I fraction is patchy, such that Lyα photons can escape. We detect stronger C IV P-Cygni features (emission and absorption) and He II emission in candidates, indicative of larger populations of metal-rich Wolf-Rayet stars compared to non-candidates. The faster bulk motions, broader spread of gas velocity, and Lyα properties of candidates are consistent with their ISM being subject to more energetic feedback than non-candidates. Together with their larger metallicity (implying more evolved star-formation activity) this leads us to propose, if speculatively, that they are likely to quench sooner than non-candidates, supporting the validity of selection criteria used to identify them as progenitors of z ∼ 2 passive galaxies. We propose that massive, compact galaxies undergo more rapid growth of their stellar mass content, perhaps because the gas accretion mechanisms are different, and quench sooner than normally sized LBGs at these (early) epochs.

  16. Evidence for active galactic nucleus feedback in the broad absorption lines and reddening of MRK 231 {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leighly, Karen M.; Baron, Eddie; Lucy, Adrian B. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Terndrup, Donald M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Dietrich, Matthias [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Clippinger Labs 251B, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Gallagher, Sarah C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2014-06-20

    We present the first J-band spectrum of Mrk 231, which reveals a large He I* ?10830 broad absorption line with a profile similar to that of the well-known Na I broad absorption line. Combining this spectrum with optical and UV spectra from the literature, we show that the unusual reddening noted by Veilleux et al. is explained by a reddening curve like those previously used to explain low values of total-to-selective extinction in Type Ia supernovae. The nuclear starburst may be the origin and location of the dust. Spatially resolved emission in the broad absorption line trough suggests nearly full coverage of the continuum emission region. The broad absorption lines reveal higher velocities in the He I* lines (produced in the quasar-photoionized H II region) compared with the Na I and Ca II lines (produced in the corresponding partially ionized zone). Cloudy simulations show that a density increase is required between the H II and partially ionized zones to produce ionic column densities consistent with the optical and IR absorption line measurements and limits, and that the absorber lies ?100 pc from the central engine. These results suggest that the He I* lines are produced in an ordinary quasar BAL wind that impacts upon, compresses, and accelerates the nuclear starburst's dusty effluent (feedback in action), and the Ca II and Na I lines are produced in this dusty accelerated gas. This unusual circumstance explains the rarity of Na I absorption lines; without the compression along our line of sight, Mrk 231 would appear as an ordinary iron low-ionization, broad absorption line quasar.

  17. CORE - Performance Feedback System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-10-02

    CORE is an architecture to bridge the gaps between disparate data integration and delivery of disparate information visualization. The CORE Technology Program includes a suite of tools and user-centered staff that can facilitate rapid delivery of a deployable integrated information to users.

  18. Position feedback control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Ensz, Mark T.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    Disclosed is a system and method for independently evaluating the spatial positional performance of a machine having a movable member, comprising an articulated coordinate measuring machine comprising: a first revolute joint; a probe arm, having a proximal end rigidly attached to the first joint, and having a distal end with a probe tip attached thereto, wherein the probe tip is pivotally mounted to the movable machine member; a second revolute joint; a first support arm serially connecting the first joint to the second joint; and coordinate processing means, operatively connected to the first and second revolute joints, for calculating the spatial coordinates of the probe tip; means for kinematically constraining the articulated coordinate measuring machine to a working surface; and comparator means, in operative association with the coordinate processing means and with the movable machine, for comparing the true position of the movable machine member, as measured by the true position of the probe tip, with the desired position of the movable machine member.

  19. Feedback | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Email Contact us by phone Phone Phone (865) 241-5275 Contact us in writing Mail U.S. Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information P.O. Box 62 Oak Ridge,TN ...

  20. Feedback | DOE Patents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Contact us by phone Phone Phone 865-241-6435 Contact us in writing Mail U.S. Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information P.O. Box 62 Oak Ridge,TN 37831

  1. Pharmacokinetic drivers of toxicity for basic molecules: Strategy to lower pKa results in decreased tissue exposure and toxicity for a small molecule Met inhibitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz, Dolores; Ford, Kevin A.; Hartley, Dylan P.; Harstad, Eric B.; Cain, Gary R.; Achilles-Poon, Kirsten; Nguyen, Trung; Peng, Jing; Zheng, Zhong; Merchant, Mark; Sutherlin, Daniel P.; Gaudino, John J.; Kaus, Robert; Lewin-Koh, Sock C.; Choo, Edna F.; Liederer, Bianca M.; Dambach, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Several toxicities are clearly driven by free drug concentrations in plasma, such as toxicities related to on-target exaggerated pharmacology or off-target pharmacological activity associated with receptors, enzymes or ion channels. However, there are examples in which organ toxicities appear to correlate better with total drug concentrations in the target tissues, rather than with free drug concentrations in plasma. Here we present a case study in which a small molecule Met inhibitor, GEN-203, with significant liver and bone marrow toxicity in preclinical species was modified with the intention of increasing the safety margin. GEN-203 is a lipophilic weak base as demonstrated by its physicochemical and structural properties: high LogD (distribution coefficient) (4.3) and high measured pKa (7.45) due to the basic amine (N-ethyl-3-fluoro-4-aminopiperidine). The physicochemical properties of GEN-203 were hypothesized to drive the high distribution of this compound to tissues as evidenced by a moderately-high volume of distribution (Vd > 3 l/kg) in mouse and subsequent toxicities of the compound. Specifically, the basicity of GEN-203 was decreased through addition of a second fluorine in the 3-position of the aminopiperidine to yield GEN-890 (N-ethyl-3,3-difluoro-4-aminopiperidine), which decreased the volume of distribution of the compound in mouse (Vd = 1.0 l/kg), decreased its tissue drug concentrations and led to decreased toxicity in mice. This strategy suggests that when toxicity is driven by tissue drug concentrations, optimization of the physicochemical parameters that drive tissue distribution can result in decreased drug concentrations in tissues, resulting in lower toxicity and improved safety margins. -- Highlights: ? Lower pKa for a small molecule: reduced tissue drug levels and toxicity. ? New analysis tools to assess electrostatic effects and ionization are presented. ? Chemical and PK drivers of toxicity can be leveraged to improve safety.

  2. Molecular gas heating mechanisms, and star formation feedback in merger/starbursts: NGC 6240 and Arp 193 as case studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Weiss, Axel; Van der Werf, Paul; Israel, F. P.; Greve, T. R.; Isaak, Kate G.; Gao, Y. E-mail: zyzhang@pmo.ac.cn E-mail: aweiss@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de E-mail: israel@strw.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: kisaak@rssd.esa.int

    2014-06-20

    We used the SPIRE/FTS instrument aboard the Herschel Space Observatory to obtain the Spectral Line Energy Distributions (SLEDs) of CO from J = 4-3 to J = 13-12 of Arp 193 and NGC 6240, two classical merger/starbursts selected from our molecular line survey of local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (L {sub IR} ≥ 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉}). The high-J CO SLEDs are then combined with ground-based low-J CO, {sup 13}CO, HCN, HCO{sup +}, CS line data and used to probe the thermal and dynamical states of their large molecular gas reservoirs. We find the two CO SLEDs strongly diverging from J = 4-3 onward, with NGC 6240 having a much higher CO line excitation than Arp 193, despite their similar low-J CO SLEDs and L {sub FIR}/L {sub CO,} {sub 1} {sub –0}, L {sub HCN}/L {sub CO} (J = 1-0) ratios (proxies of star formation efficiency and dense gas mass fraction). In Arp 193, one of the three most extreme starbursts in the local universe, the molecular SLEDs indicate a small amount (∼5%-15%) of dense gas (n ≥ 10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}) unlike NGC 6240 where most of the molecular gas (∼60%-70%) is dense (n ∼ (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5}) cm{sup –3}). Strong star-formation feedback can drive this disparity in their dense gas mass fractions, and also induce extreme thermal and dynamical states for the molecular gas. In NGC 6240, and to a lesser degree in Arp 193, we find large molecular gas masses whose thermal states cannot be maintained by FUV photons from Photon-Dominated Regions. We argue that this may happen often in metal-rich merger/starbursts, strongly altering the initial conditions of star formation. ALMA can now directly probe these conditions across cosmic epoch, and even probe their deeply dust-enshrouded outcome, the stellar initial mass function averaged over galactic evolution.

  3. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... By introducing heretofore- omitted feedbacks between natural and societal drivers, we can ... atmosphere and land, and was run under present-day greenhouse gas conditions for 20 years. ...

  4. Maintenance and operation procedure, and feedback controls of the J-PARC RF-driven H{sup −} ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, A. Ohkoshi, K.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A.; Yamazaki, S.; Oguri, H.

    2015-04-08

    In order to satisfy the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) second stage requirements of an H{sup −} ion beam of 60mA within normalized emittances of 1.5πmm•mrad both horizontally and vertically, a flat top beam duty factor of 1.25% (500μs×25Hz) and a life-time of longer than 1month, the J-PARC cesiated RF-driven H{sup −} ion source was developed by using an internal-antenna developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The maintenance and operation procedure to minimize the plasma chamber (PCH) replacement time on the beam line, which is very important to maximize the J-PARC beam time especially for an antenna failure, is presented in this paper. The PCH preserved by filling argon (Ar) gas inside after pre-conditioning including pre-cesiation to produce the required beam at a test-stand successfully produced the required beam on the beam line with slight addition of cesium (Cs). The methods of the feedback controls of a 2MHz-RF-matching, an H{sup −} ion beam intensity and the addition of Cs are also presented. The RF-matching feedback by using two vacuum variable capacitors (VVCs) and RF-frequency shift produced the almost perfect matching with negligibly small reflected RF-power. The H{sup −} ion beam intensity was controlled within errors of ±0.1mA by the RF-power feedback. The amount of Cs was also controlled by remotely opening a Cs-valve to keep the RF-power lower than a settled value.

  5. Deep Chandra , HST-COS, and megacam observations of the Phoenix cluster: Extreme star formation and AGN feedback on hundred kiloparsec scales

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    McDonald, Michael; McNamara, Brian R.; Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo; van Weeren, Reinout J.; Applegate, Douglas E.; Bayliss, Matthew; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA; Bautz, Marshall W.; Benson, Bradford A.; Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL; et al

    2015-09-28

    In this study, we present new ultraviolet, optical, and X-ray data on the Phoenix galaxy cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243). Deep optical imaging reveals previously undetected filaments of star formation, extending to radii of ~50–100 kpc in multiple directions. Combined UV-optical spectroscopy of the central galaxy reveals a massive (2 × 109 M⊙), young (~4.5 Myr) population of stars, consistent with a time-averaged star formation rate of 610 ± 50 M⊙ yr–1. We report a strong detection of O vi λλ1032,1038, which appears to originate primarily in shock-heated gas, but may contain a substantial contribution (>1000 M⊙ yr–1) from the cooling intracluster mediummore » (ICM). We confirm the presence of deep X-ray cavities in the inner ~10 kpc, which are among the most extreme examples of radio-mode feedback detected to date, implying jet powers of 2 – 7 × 1045 erg s–1. We provide evidence that the active galactic nucleus inflating these cavities may have only recently transitioned from "quasar-mode" to "radio-mode," and may currently be insufficient to completely offset cooling. A model-subtracted residual X-ray image reveals evidence for prior episodes of strong radio-mode feedback at radii of ~100 kpc, with extended "ghost" cavities indicating a prior epoch of feedback roughly 100 Myr ago. This residual image also exhibits significant asymmetry in the inner ~200 kpc (0.15R500), reminiscent of infalling cool clouds, either due to minor mergers or fragmentation of the cooling ICM. Taken together, these data reveal a rapidly evolving cool core which is rich with structure (both spatially and in temperature), is subject to a variety of highly energetic processes, and yet is cooling rapidly and forming stars along thin, narrow filaments.« less

  6. Regulatory Drivers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Custody and Long-Term Care of Uranium or Thorium Byproduct Materials Disposal Sites," 10 ... Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings," 40 CFR 192 "Uranium Mill ...

  7. National Needs Drivers for Nanotechnology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yonas, G.; Picraux, S.T.

    2000-10-09

    Societal needs related to demographics, resources, and human behavior will drive technological advances over the next 20 years. Nanotechnology is anticipated to be an important enabler of these advances, and thus maybe anticipated to have significant influence on new systems approaches to solving societal problems as well as on extending current science and technology-based applications. To examine the potential implications of nanotechnology a societal needs-driven approach is taken. Thus the methodology is to present the definition of the problem, and then examine system concepts, technology issues, and promising future directions. We approach the problem definition from a national and global security perspective and identify three key areas involving the condition of the planet, the human condition, and global security. In anticipating societal issues in the context of revolutionary technologies, such as maybe enabled by nanoscience, the importance of working on the entire life cycle of any technological solution is stressed.

  8. P5 Science Drivers: Theory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    means to extract SM parameters depending on non-perturbative dynamics of QCD Ab-initio calculation in discrete space-time with lattice spacings down to 0.06 fm in 144 3 ...

  9. WIPP Driver Makes History, Again

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    CARLSBAD, N.M. - A brand-new shipping package arrived at the Department of Energy’s Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during the early evening hours of August 25, but an all-too familiar face was behind the wheel of the vehicle carrying the package.

  10. Oil market outlook and drivers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Oil inventories in industrialized countries to reach record high at end of 2015 The amount of year-end oil inventories held in industrialized countries is expected to be the highest on record in 2015. In its monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said it expects commercial oil inventories in the United States and other industrialized countries to total 2.83 billion barrels at the end of this year almost 90 million barrels more than at the end of 2014. Global oil production

  11. Community Engagement as a Driver

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents the outreach approaches used by New Jersey's Clean Energy Program, as well as the lessons learned from various types of leads.

  12. Operating Experience Summary, 2013-04

    Energy Savers

    wear appropriate footwear; look ahead-not down-while walking; keep hands free; and stay on cleared and salted paths. Winter: No Walk in the Park During the past three winters,...

  13. January 2016 POSTINGS | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    January 28, 2016: More About Color-Tunable LED Luminaires (90.39 KB) January 19, 2016: SSL in America-Spotlight on Illumitex (141.43 KB) January 12, 2016: A Look Ahead to 2016 ...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: News: Publications: Lab News

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    properties. Looking ahead The researchers want the model to handle both forging and welding because in some ways the two pro-cesses work against one another. Forging steel gives...

  15. ALSNews Vol. 277

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Future light: A look ahead with Roger Falcone X-ray transparency Demolition makes way for ... is, isolated layers of graphite just one atomic layer thick-has largely been driven by ...

  16. How Much Are Your Appliances and Electronics Costing You? | Department...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the electricity consumption of your appliances in preparation for the EnergyFaceoff campaign in November. As we finish up EnergySaverSolar month, we're looking ahead to...

  17. 2013 Geothermal Technologies Office Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    For the Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO), 2013 was a year of major achievements and repositioning to introduce major initiatives. Read all about our progress and successes this year, and as we look ahead, our new opportunities and initiatives.

  18. Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Reference Case

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE A look ahead: future modeling updates 39 * Light-duty vehicle battery electric vehicles (HEVs, PHEVs, EVs) - BatPaC model developed by Argonne National Lab ...

  19. Monthly Performance Report

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Also: Performed an Audit at Nova Machine Products for WRPS in accordance with NQA-1-20082009a Part 1, Requirements 1-18, and Part II, Subpart 2.14. LOOK AHEAD None identified. ...

  20. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Release on March 30, 2005) Looking Ahead With the first day of spring 2005 now in the past (although for many in the United States, the weather is far from spring-like), people...

  1. High speed flux feedback for tuning a universal field oriented controller capable of operating in direct and indirect field orientation modes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Doncker, Rik W. A. A.

    1992-01-01

    The direct (d) and quadrature (q) components of flux, as sensed by flux sensors or determined from voltage and current measurements in a direct field orientation scheme, are processed rapidly and accurately to provide flux amplitude and angular position values for use by the vector rotator of a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller. Flux amplitude (linear or squared) is provided as feedback to tune the UFO controller for operation in direct and indirect field orientation modes and enables smooth transitions from one mode to the other.

  2. High speed flux feedback for tuning a universal field oriented controller capable of operating in direct and indirect field orientation modes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Doncker, R.W.A.A.

    1992-09-01

    The direct (d) and quadrature (q) components of flux, as sensed by flux sensors or determined from voltage and current measurements in a direct field orientation scheme, are processed rapidly and accurately to provide flux amplitude and angular position values for use by the vector rotator of a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller. Flux amplitude (linear or squared) is provided as feedback to tune the UFO controller for operation in direct and indirect field orientation modes and enables smooth transitions from one mode to the other. 3 figs.

  3. THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM OF MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 3: A TEST FOR STELLAR FEEDBACK, GALACTIC OUTFLOWS, AND COLD STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen Sijing; Madau, Piero; Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Guedes, Javiera [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Mayer, Lucio [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-9057 Zurich (Switzerland); Wadsley, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2013-03-10

    We present new results on the kinematics, thermal and ionization state, and spatial distribution of metal-enriched gas in the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of massive galaxies at redshift {approx}3, using the Eris suite of cosmological hydrodynamic ''zoom-in'' simulations. The reference run adopts a blastwave scheme for supernova feedback that produces large-scale galactic outflows, a star formation recipe based on a high gas density threshold, metal-dependent radiative cooling, and a model for the diffusion of metals and thermal energy. The effect of the local UV radiation field is added in post-processing. The CGM (defined as all gas at R > 0.2 R{sub vir} = 10 kpc, where R{sub vir} is the virial radius) contains multiple phases having a wide range of physical conditions, with more than half of its heavy elements locked in a warm-hot component at T > 10{sup 5} K. Synthetic spectra, generated by drawing sightlines through the CGM, produce interstellar absorption-line strengths of Ly{alpha}, C II, C IV, Si II, and Si IV as a function of the galactocentric impact parameter (scaled to the virial radius) that are in broad agreement with those observed at high redshift by Steidel et al. The covering factor of absorbing material declines less rapidly with impact parameter for Ly{alpha} and C IV compared to C II, Si IV, and Si II, with Ly{alpha} remaining strong (W{sub Ly{alpha}} > 300 mA) to {approx}> 5 R{sub vir} = 250 kpc. Only about one third of all the gas within R{sub vir} is outflowing. The fraction of sightlines within one virial radius that intercept optically thick, N{sub H{sub I}}>10{sup 17.2} cm{sup -2} material is 27%, in agreement with recent observations by Rudie et al. Such optically thick absorption is shown to trace inflowing ''cold'' streams that penetrate deep inside the virial radius. The streams, enriched to metallicities above 0.01 solar by previous episodes of star formation in the main host and in nearby dwarfs, are the origin of strong (N{sub C

  4. Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management Oak Ridge Looks Ahead to Vision 2020 After K-27 Demolition Oak Ridge Looks Ahead to Vision 2020 After K-27 Demolition After a decade of demolition, Oak Ridge became the world's first to remove all of its uranium enrichment processing buildings. Despite this monumental achievement, the celebration lasted only moments before workers started taking down another structure to bring them closer to the next big goal... Read more Federal Ingenuity Gives

  5. Avoidance of Tearing Mode Locking and Disruption with Electro-Magnetic Torque Introduced by Feedback-based Mode Rotation Control in DIII-D and RFX-mod

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okabayashi, M.; Zanca, P.; Strait, E. J.

    2014-09-01

    Disruptions caused by tearing modes (TMs) are considered to be one of the most critical roadblocks to achieving reliable, steady-state operation of tokamak fusion reactors. Here we have demonstrated a very promising scheme to avoid such disruptions by utilizing the electro-magnetic (EM) torque produced with 3D coils that are available in many tokamaks. In this scheme, the EM torque to the modes is created by a toroidal phase shift between the externally-applied field and the excited TM fields, compensating for the mode momentum loss due to the interaction with the resistive wall and uncorrected error fields. Fine control of torque balance is provided by a feedback scheme. We have explored this approach in two vastly different devices and plasma conditions: DIII-D and RFX-mod operated in tokamak mode. In DIII-D, the plasma target was high βN plasmas in a non-circular divertor tokamak. In RFX-mod, the plasma was ohmically-heated plasma with ultralow safety factor in a circular limiter discharge of active feedback coils outside the thick resistive shell. The DIII-D and RFX-mod experiments showed remarkable consistency with theoretical predictions of torque balance. The application to ignition-oriented devices such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) would expand the horizon of its operational regime. The internal 3D coil set currently under consideration for edge localized mode suppression in ITER would be well suited to this purpose.

  6. SU-D-BRF-06: A Brachytherapy Simulator with Realistic Haptic Force Feedback and Real-Time Ultrasounds Image Simulation for Training and Teaching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaulieu, L; Carette, A; Comtois, S; Lavigueur, M; Cardou, P; Laurendeau, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Surgical procedures require dexterity, expertise and repetition to reach optimal patient outcomes. However, efficient training opportunities are usually limited. This work presents a simulator system with realistic haptic force-feedback and full, real-time ultrasounds image simulation. Methods: The simulator is composed of a custom-made Linear-DELTA force-feedback robotic platform. The needle tip is mounted on a force gauge at the end effector of the robot, which responds to needle insertion by providing reaction forces. 3D geometry of the tissue is using a tetrahedral finite element mesh (FEM) mimicking tissue properties. As the needle is inserted/retracted, tissue deformation is computed using a mass-tensor nonlinear visco-elastic FEM. The real-time deformation is fed to the L-DELTA to take into account the force imparted to the needle, providing feedback to the end-user when crossing tissue boundaries or needle bending. Real-time 2D US image is also generated synchronously showing anatomy, needle insertion and tissue deformation. The simulator is running on an Intel I7 6- core CPU at 3.26 MHz. 3D tissue rendering and ultrasound display are performed on a Windows 7 computer; the FEM computation and L-DELTA control are executed on a similar PC using the Neutrino real-time OS. Both machines communicate through an Ethernet link. Results: The system runs at 500 Hz for a 8333-tetrahedron tissue mesh and a 100-node angular spring needle model. This frame rate ensures a relatively smooth displacement of the needle when pushed or retracted (±20 N in all directions at speeds of up to 2 m/s). Unlike commercially-available haptic platforms, the oblong workspace of the L-DELTA robot complies with that required for brachytherapy needle displacements of 0.1m by 0.1m by 0.25m. Conclusion: We have demonstrated a real-life, realistic brachytherapy simulator developed for prostate implants (LDR/HDR). The platform could be adapted to other sites or training for other

  7. Deep Chandra , HST-COS, and megacam observations of the Phoenix cluster: Extreme star formation and AGN feedback on hundred kiloparsec scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, Michael; McNamara, Brian R.; van Weeren, Reinout J.; Applegate, Douglas E.; Bayliss, Matthew; Bautz, Marshall W.; Benson, Bradford A.; Carlstrom, John E.; Bleem, Lindsey E.; Chatzikos, Marios; Edge, Alastair C.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, Julie; Jones-Forman, Christine; Mantz, Adam B.; Miller, Eric D.; Stalder, Brian; Veilleux, Sylvain; ZuHone, John A.

    2015-09-28

    In this study, we present new ultraviolet, optical, and X-ray data on the Phoenix galaxy cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243). Deep optical imaging reveals previously undetected filaments of star formation, extending to radii of ~50–100 kpc in multiple directions. Combined UV-optical spectroscopy of the central galaxy reveals a massive (2 × 109 M), young (~4.5 Myr) population of stars, consistent with a time-averaged star formation rate of 610 ± 50 M yr–1. We report a strong detection of O vi λλ1032,1038, which appears to originate primarily in shock-heated gas, but may contain a substantial contribution (>1000 M yr–1) from the cooling intracluster medium (ICM). We confirm the presence of deep X-ray cavities in the inner ~10 kpc, which are among the most extreme examples of radio-mode feedback detected to date, implying jet powers of 2 – 7 × 1045 erg s–1. We provide evidence that the active galactic nucleus inflating these cavities may have only recently transitioned from "quasar-mode" to "radio-mode," and may currently be insufficient to completely offset cooling. A model-subtracted residual X-ray image reveals evidence for prior episodes of strong radio-mode feedback at radii of ~100 kpc, with extended "ghost" cavities indicating a prior epoch of feedback roughly 100 Myr ago. This residual image also exhibits significant asymmetry in the inner ~200 kpc (0.15R500), reminiscent of infalling cool clouds, either due to minor mergers or fragmentation of the cooling ICM. Taken together, these data reveal a rapidly evolving cool core which is rich with structure (both spatially and in temperature), is subject to a variety of highly energetic processes, and yet is cooling rapidly and forming stars along thin, narrow filaments.

  8. Frequency locking and monitoring based on Bi-directional terahertz radiation of a 3rd-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    van Marrewijk, N.; Mirzaei, B.; Hayton, D.; Gao, J. R.; Kao, T. Y.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J. L.

    2015-10-07

    In this study, we have performed frequency locking of a dual, forward reverse emitting third-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (QCL) at 3.5 THz. By using both directions of THz emission in combination with two gas cells and two power detectors, we can for the first time perform frequency stabilization, while monitor the frequency locking quality independently. We also characterize how the use of a less sensitive pyroelectric detector can influence the quality of frequency locking, illustrating experimentally that the sensitivity of the detectors is crucial. Using both directions of terahertz (THz) radiation has a particular advantage for the applicationmore » of a QCL as a local oscillator, where radiation from one side can be used for frequency/phase stabilization, leaving the other side to be fully utilized as a local oscillator to pump a mixer.« less

  9. Frequency locking and monitoring based on Bi-directional terahertz radiation of a 3rd-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Marrewijk, N.; Mirzaei, B.; Hayton, D.; Gao, J. R.; Kao, T. Y.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J. L.

    2015-10-07

    In this study, we have performed frequency locking of a dual, forward reverse emitting third-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (QCL) at 3.5 THz. By using both directions of THz emission in combination with two gas cells and two power detectors, we can for the first time perform frequency stabilization, while monitor the frequency locking quality independently. We also characterize how the use of a less sensitive pyroelectric detector can influence the quality of frequency locking, illustrating experimentally that the sensitivity of the detectors is crucial. Using both directions of terahertz (THz) radiation has a particular advantage for the application of a QCL as a local oscillator, where radiation from one side can be used for frequency/phase stabilization, leaving the other side to be fully utilized as a local oscillator to pump a mixer.

  10. Control algorithm for the inverter fed induction motor drive with DC current feedback loop based on principles of the vector control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vuckovic, V.; Vukosavic, S. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper brings out a control algorithm for VSI fed induction motor drives based on the converter DC link current feedback. It is shown that the speed and flux can be controlled over the wide speed and load range quite satisfactorily for simpler drives. The base commands of both the inverter voltage and frequency are proportional to the reference speed, but each of them is further modified by the signals derived from the DC current sensor. The algorithm is based on the equations well known from the vector control theory, and is aimed to obtain the constant rotor flux and proportionality between the electrical torque, the slip frequency and the active component of the stator current. In this way, the problems of slip compensation, Ri compensation and correction of U/f characteristics are solved in the same time. Analytical considerations and computer simulations of the proposed control structure are in close agreement with the experimental results measured on a prototype drive.

  11. Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness: Opportunities and Potential for Near-term Cost Reductions. Proceedings of the Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop and Summary of Feedback Provided through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Recent progress with fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) has focused attention on hydrogen infrastructure as a critical commercialization barrier. With major automakers focused on 2015 as a target timeframe for global FCEV commercialization, the window of opportunity is short for establishing a sufficient network of hydrogen stations to support large-volume vehicle deployments. This report describes expert feedback on the market readiness of hydrogen infrastructure technology from two activities.

  12. Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness: Opportunities and Potential for Near-term Cost Reductions. Proceedings of the Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop and Summary of Feedback Provided through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Market Readiness: Opportunities and Potential for Near-term Cost Reductions Proceedings of the Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop and Summary of Feedback Provided through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator M.W. Melaina, D. Steward, and M. Penev National Renewable Energy Laboratory S. McQueen Energetics S. Jaffe and C. Talon IDC Energy Insights Technical Report NREL/BK-5600-55961 August 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of

  13. Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness: Opportunities and Potential for Near-term Cost Reductions. Proceedings of the Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop and Summary of Feedback Provided through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness: Opportunities and Potential for Near-term Cost Reductions Proceedings of the Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop and Summary of Feedback Provided through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator M.W. Melaina, D. Steward, and M. Penev National Renewable Energy Laboratory S. McQueen Energetics S. Jaffe and C. Talon IDC Energy Insights Technical Report NREL/BK-5600-55961 August 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy,

  14. Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness: Opportunities and Potential for Near-term Cost Reductions; Proceedings of the Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop and Summary of Feedback Provided through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M. W.; Steward, D.; Penev, M.; McQueen, S.; Jaffe, S.; Talon, C.

    2012-08-01

    Recent progress with fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) has focused attention on hydrogen infrastructure as a critical commercialization barrier. With major automakers focused on 2015 as a target timeframe for global FCEV commercialization, the window of opportunity is short for establishing a sufficient network of hydrogen stations to support large-volume vehicle deployments. This report describes expert feedback on the market readiness of hydrogen infrastructure technology from two activities.

  15. Toward a comprehensive model for feedback by active galactic nuclei: New insights from M87 observations by LOFAR, Fermi, and H.E.S.S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfrommer, Christoph

    2013-12-10

    Feedback by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) appears to be critical in balancing radiative cooling of the low-entropy gas at the centers of galaxy clusters and in mitigating the star formation of elliptical galaxies. New observations of M87 enable us to put forward a comprehensive model for the physical heating mechanism. Low-frequency radio observations by LOFAR revealed the absence of fossil cosmic-ray (CR) electrons in the radio halo surrounding M87. This puzzle can be resolved by accounting for the CR release from the radio lobes and the subsequent mixing of CRs with the dense ambient intracluster gas, which thermalizes the electrons on a timescale similar to the radio halo age of 40 Myr. Hadronic interactions of similarly injected CR protons with the ambient gas should produce an observable gamma-ray signal in accordance with the steady emission of the low state of M87 detected by Fermi and H.E.S.S. Hence, we normalize the CR population to the gamma-ray emission, which shows the same spectral slope as the CR injection spectrum probed by LOFAR, thereby supporting a common origin. We show that CRs, which stream at the Alfvn velocity with respect to the plasma rest frame, heat the surrounding thermal plasma at a rate that balances that of radiative cooling on average at each radius. However, the resulting global thermal equilibrium is locally unstable and allows for the formation of the observed cooling multi-phase medium through thermal instability. Provided that CR heating balances cooling during the emerging 'cooling flow', the collapse of the majority of the gas is halted around 1 keVin accordance with X-ray data. We show that both the existence of a temperature floor and the similar radial scaling of the heating and cooling rates are generic predictions of the CR heating model.

  16. DOE Emergency Exercise Feedback Form

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Were the stairways able to handle the flow effectively? Did persons with disabilities or special needs report to the nearest Area of Refuge, shelter area, or relocation area? Was...

  17. Keratinocyte-derived IL-24 plays a role in the positive feedback regulation of epidermal inflammation in response to environmental and endogenous toxic stressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Sun Hee; Choi, Dalwoong; Chun, Young-Jin; Noh, Minsoo

    2014-10-15

    Keratinocytes are the major cellular components of human epidermis and play a key role in the modulating cutaneous inflammation and toxic responses. In human chronic skin diseases, the common skin inflammatory phenotypes like skin barrier disruption and epidermal hyperplasia are manifested in epidermal keratinocytes by interactions with T helper (Th) cells. To find a common gene expression signature of human keratinocytes in chronic skin diseases, we performed a whole genome microarray analysis on normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHKs) treated with IFNγ, IL-4, IL-17A or IL-22, major cytokines from Th1, Th2, Th17 or Th22 cells, respectively. The microarray results showed that the four genes, IL-24, PDZK1IP1, H19 and filaggrin, had common expression profiles in NHKs exposed to Th cell cytokines. In addition, the acute phase pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα, also change the gene transcriptional profile of IL-24, PDZK1IP1, H19, and filaggrin in NHKs as those of Th cytokines. Therefore, the signature gene set, consisting of IL-24, PDZK1IP1, H19, and filaggrin, provides essential insights for understanding the process of cutaneous inflammation and toxic responses. We demonstrate that environmental toxic stressors, such as chemical irritants and ultraviolet irradiation stimulate the production of IL-24 in NHKs. IL-24 stimulates the JAK1-STAT3 and MAPK pathways in NHKs, and promotes the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators IL-8, PGE2, and MMP-1. These results suggest that keratinocyte-derived IL-24 participates in the positive feedback regulation of epidermal inflammation in response to both endogenous and environmental toxic stressors. - Highlights: • Cutaneous inflammatory gene signature consists of PDZK1IP1, IL-24, H19 and filaggrin. • Pro-inflammatory cytokines increase IL-24 production in human keratinocytes. • Environmental toxic stressors increase IL-24 production in human keratinocytes. • IL-24 stimulates human keratinocytes to

  18. MOLECULAR GAS, CO, AND STAR FORMATION IN GALAXIES: EMERGENT EMPIRICAL RELATIONS, FEEDBACK, AND THE EVOLUTION OF VERY GAS-RICH SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelupessy, Federico I. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Papadopoulos, Padelis P. [Argelander Institut fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2009-12-20

    We use time-varying models of the coupled evolution of the H I, H{sub 2} gas phases and stars in galaxy-sized numerical simulations to (1) test for the emergence of the Kennicutt-Schmidt (K-S) and the H{sub 2}-pressure relation, (2) explore a realistic H{sub 2}-regulated star formation recipe which brings forth a neglected and potentially significant SF-regulating factor, and (3) go beyond typical galactic environments (for which these galactic empirical relations are deduced) to explore the early evolution of very gas-rich galaxies. In this work, we model low-mass galaxies (M{sub baryon} <= 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}), while incorporating an independent treatment of CO formation and destruction, the most important tracer molecule of H{sub 2} in galaxies, along with that for the H{sub 2} gas itself. We find that both the K-S and the H{sub 2}-pressure empirical relations can robustly emerge in galaxies after a dynamic equilibrium sets in between the various interstellar medium (ISM) states, the stellar component and its feedback (T approx> 1 Gyr). The only significant dependence of these relations seems to be for the CO-derived (and thus directly observable) ones, which show a strong dependence on the ISM metallicity. The H{sub 2}-regulated star formation recipe successfully reproduces the morphological and quantitative aspects of previous numerical models while doing away with the star formation efficiency parameter. Most of the H I -> H{sub 2} mass exchange is found taking place under highly non-equilibrium conditions necessitating a time-dependent treatment even in typical ISM environments. Our dynamic models indicate that the CO molecule can be a poor, nonlinear, H{sub 2} gas tracer. Finally, for early evolutionary stages (T approx< 0.4 Gyr), we find significant and systematic deviations of the true star formation from that expected from the K-S relation, which are especially pronounced and prolonged for metal-poor systems. The largest such deviations occur for the

  19. Regulatory Drivers | netl.doe.gov

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    vehicles or motor vehicle engines "which in his judgment causes, or contributes to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare."7...

  20. Raman accumulator as a fusion laser driver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, E. Victor; Swingle, James C.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for simultaneous laser pulse amplification and compression, using multiple pass Raman scattering in one Raman cell and pulse switchout from the optical cavity through use of a dichroic device associated with the Raman cell.

  1. Raman accumulator as a fusion laser driver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, E.V.; Swingle, J.C.

    1982-03-31

    Apparatus for simultaneous laser pulse amplification and compression, using multiple pass Raman scattering in one Raman cell and pulse switchout from the optical cavity through use of a dichroic device associated with the Raman cell.

  2. The Jefferson lab FEL driver ERLs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, David R.; Tennant, Christopher D.

    2013-11-01

    Jefferson Lab has - for over a decade - been operating high power IR and UV FELs using CW energy recovering linacs based on DC photocathode electron sources and CEBAF SRF technology. These machines have unique combinations of beam quality, power, and operational flexibility, and thus offer significant opportunity for experiments that use low and medium energy (several tens - few hundreds of MeV) electron beams. We will describe the systems and detail their present and near-term (potential) performance. Recent internal-target analysis and validation testing will be discussed, and schemes for single- and two-pass fixed target operation described. An introduction to subsequent discussions of beam quality and upgrade paths to polarized operation/higher energy will be given.

  3. WBG Gate Drivers for Power Modules

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  4. Overload protection circuit for output driver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stewart, Roger G.

    1982-05-11

    A protection circuit for preventing excessive power dissipation in an output transistor whose conduction path is connected between a power terminal and an output terminal. The protection circuit includes means for sensing the application of a turn on signal to the output transistor and the voltage at the output terminal. When the turn on signal is maintained for a period of time greater than a given period without the voltage at the output terminal reaching a predetermined value, the protection circuit decreases the turn on signal to, and the current conduction through, the output transistor.

  5. Alternative Fuel Driver Training Companion Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    Training manual serves as a companion to alternative fuel training presentations on the fueling and use of vehicles that run on compressed natural gas, biodiesel, E85, and propane.

  6. Alternative Fuel Driver Training Companion Manual

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    ... It becomes gaseous when released from the tank, either via the fuel system or through unintend- ed leaks. Propane liquid is lighter than water, but propane vapor is heavier than ...

  7. Residential Prosumers: Drivers and Policy Options

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The rise of the solar photovoltaic "prosumers" has the potential to transform the 100-year-old centralized electric utility model into a more decentralized and interactive system. In some countries, it is now more cost-effective for households to produce their own power from PV than to purchase electricity from the grid. However, a prosumer "revolution" under which decentralized adoption of PV occurs on its own, in the absence of supportive policies or regulatory conditions, has not yet arrived. Self-consumption of solar PV is a growing trend globally, but its expansion remains within policy makers’ ability to control and develop.

  8. TEAM 1 Drivers License.doc

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Instrument Preparation Show how to check basic vacuum functionality and target pressures for valves Check gun operate "ON" and extraction voltage at 3700 Check ...

  9. Switched-capacitor isolated LED driver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, Seth R.; Kline, Mitchell

    2016-03-22

    A switched-capacitor voltage converter which is particularly well-suited for receiving a line voltage from which to drive current through a series of light emitting diodes (LEDs). Input voltage is rectified in a multi-level rectifier network having switched capacitors in an ascending-bank configuration for passing voltages in uniform steps between zero volts up to full received voltage V.sub.DC. A regulator section, operating on V.sub.DC, comprises switched-capacitor stages of H-bridge switching and flying capacitors. A current controlled oscillator drives the states of the switched-capacitor stages and changes its frequency to maintain a constant current to the load. Embodiments are described for isolating the load from the mains, utilizing an LC tank circuit or a multi-primary-winding transformer.

  10. Be a Safe and Efficient Winter Driver

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    We've been advising you on ways to make the home more energy smart, so let's talk about your car for a moment.

  11. Email Template

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    2, 2008 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT AND COMMUNICATION COMMITTEE MEETING April 2, 2008 Portland, OR Topics in this Meeting Summary Welcome and Introductions ............................................................................................................. 1 Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Agencies - Look Ahead, Look Back ................................................. 1 Committee Discussion on Fiscal Year 2009 (FY 2009) Budget Request Advice

  12. Microsoft Word - FINAL_PIC_Apr2007_summary.doc

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    4, 2007 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT AND COMMUNICATION COMMITTEE MEETING April 4, 2007 Clackamas, OR Topics in this Meeting Summary Welcome and Introductions ................................................................................................ 1 Tri-Party Agency Quarterly Update - Look Ahead, Look Back ........................................ 1 Budget Meetings

  13. Microsoft Word - FINAL_PIC_Jan2007_summary.doc

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    January 31, 2007 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT AND COMMUNICATION COMMITTEE MEETING January 31, 2007 Richland, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Welcome and Introductions............................................................................................................. 1 Tri-Party Agency Quarterly Update - Look Ahead, Look Back..................................................... 1 Budget

  14. Microsoft Word - FINAL_PIC_Sept2007_summary.doc

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    September 5, 2007 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT COMMITTEE MEETING September 5, 2007 Seattle, WA Topics in this Meeting Summary Welcome and Introductions ................................................................................................ 1 Tri-Party Agency Update - Look Ahead, Look Back ........................................................ 1 Debrief of Regional Budget Meetings

  15. Teresa Waugh | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Teresa Waugh About Us Teresa Waugh - Public Affairs Specialist, Bonneville Power Administration Most Recent Q&A: Plugging In with a Power Lineman October 18 BPA Turns 75: A Look Back and a Look Ahead September 28 Secrets of a Tribal Energy Auditor March 15

  16. Blue Gene/Q Versus Blue Gene/P | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    System Overview Blue Gene/Q Versus Blue Gene/P BG/Q Drivers Status Machine Overview Machine Partitions Torus Network Data Storage & File Systems Compiling & Linking Queueing & Running Jobs Data Transfer Debugging & Profiling Performance Tools & APIs Software & Libraries IBM References Cooley Policies Documentation Feedback Please provide feedback to help guide us as we continue to build documentation for our new computing resource. [Feedback Form] Blue Gene/Q Versus Blue

  17. System Overview | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    System Overview Blue Gene/Q Versus Blue Gene/P BG/Q Drivers Status Machine Overview Machine Partitions Torus Network Data Storage & File Systems Compiling & Linking Queueing & Running Jobs Data Transfer Debugging & Profiling Performance Tools & APIs Software & Libraries IBM References Cooley Policies Documentation Feedback Please provide feedback to help guide us as we continue to build documentation for our new computing resource. [Feedback Form] System Overview Machine

  18. Information and Feedback Institutional Change Principle | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Performance Plans Implementing Sustainability: The Institutional-Behavioral Dimension. ... Driving Operational Changes through an Energy Monitoring System: IBM utilized a number of ...

  19. Information and Feedback Institutional Change Principle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Information alone, however, is unlikely to lead to action. Federal and commercial programs have demonstrated reductions in energy use from delivery of reports to customers. By providing actionable...

  20. MAMA- User Feedback and Training Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, Reid B.; Ruggiero, Christy E.

    2014-05-21

    This document describes the current state of the MAMA (Morphological Analysis of Materials) software user identified bugs, issues, and requests for improvements. It also lists Current users and current training methods.

  1. High-Compression-Ratio; Atkinson-Cycle Engine Using Low-Pressure Direct Injection and Pneumatic-Electronic Valve Actuation Enabled by Ionization Current and Foward-Backward Mass Air Flow Sensor Feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung

    2007-12-31

    This report describes the work completed over a two and one half year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The goal was to demonstrate the technology needed to produce a highly efficient engine enabled by several technologies which were to be developed in the course of the work. The technologies included: (1) A low-pressure direct injection system; (2) A mass air flow sensor which would measure the net airflow into the engine on a per cycle basis; (3) A feedback control system enabled by measuring ionization current signals from the spark plug gap; and (4) An infinitely variable cam actuation system based on a pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation These developments were supplemented by the use of advanced large eddy simulations as well as evaluations of fuel air mixing using the KIVA and WAVE models. The simulations were accompanied by experimental verification when possible. In this effort a solid base has been established for continued development of the advanced engine concepts originally proposed. Due to problems with the valve actuation system a complete demonstration of the engine concept originally proposed was not possible. Some of the highlights that were accomplished during this effort are: (1) A forward-backward mass air flow sensor has been developed and a patent application for the device has been submitted. We are optimistic that this technology will have a particular application in variable valve timing direct injection systems for IC engines. (2) The biggest effort on this project has involved the development of the pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation system. This system was originally purchased from Cargine, a Swedish supplier and is in the development stage. To date we have not been able to use the actuators to control the exhaust valves, although the actuators have been successfully employed to control the intake valves. The reason for this is the additional complication associated with variable back pressure on the exhaust valves when

  2. High-Voltage LED Light Engine with Integrated Driver

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: Lumileds, LLC – San Jose, CADOE Total Funding: $1,499,346Cost Share: $499,783Project Term: 9/1/2014 - 2/29/2016Funding Opportunity: SSL R&D Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA...

  3. Unemployed Truck Driver Trains for New Career in Weatherization |

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Our latest geothermal technologies awards are for those who think outside of the box (and below the surface). Secretary of Energy Steven Chu announced $20 million towards the research and development of non-conventional geothermal energy technologies in three areas: low temperatures fluids, geothermal fluids recovered from oil and gas wells and highly pressurized geothermal fluids. As the Secretary said, these

  4. Fundamental Drivers of the Cost and Price of Operating Reserves

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Operating reserves impose a cost on the electric power system by forcing system operators to keep partially loaded spinning generators available to respond to system contingencies and random variation in demand. Demand response and energy storage, may provide these services at lower cost to conventional generators. However, to estimate the potential value of these services, the cost of reserve services under various grid conditions must first be established. This analysis used a commercial grid simulation tool to evaluate the cost and price of several operating reserve services. These reserve products were evaluated in a utility system in the western United States, considering different system characteristics, renewable energy penetration, and several other sensitivities.

  5. Geochemical drivers of organic matter decomposition in Arctic tundra soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Yang, Ziming; Graham, David E.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Gu, Baohua; Liang, Liyuan; Bargar, John; Janot, Noemie; Regier, Tom Z.

    2015-12-07

    Climate change is warming tundra ecosystems in the Arctic, resulting in the decomposition of previously-frozen soil organic matter (SOM) and release of carbon (C) to the atmosphere; however, the processes that control SOM decomposition and C emissions remain highly uncertain. In this study, we evaluate geochemical factors that influence anaerobic production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the active layers of four ice-wedge polygons. Surface and soil pore waters were collected during the annual thaw season over a two-year period in an area containing waterlogged, low-centered polygons and well-drained, high-centered polygons. We report spatial and seasonal patterns of dissolved gases in relation to the geochemical properties of Fe and organic C as determined using spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. Iron was present as Fe(II) in soil solution near the permafrost boundary but enriched as Fe(III) in the middle of the active layer, similar to dissolved aromatic-C and organic acids. Dissolved CH4 increased relative to dissolved CO2 with depth and varied with soil moisture in the middle of the active layer in patterns that were positively correlated with the proportion of dissolved Fe(III) in transitional and low-centered polygon soils but negatively correlated in the drier flat- and high-centered polygons. These results suggest that microbial-mediated Fe oxidation and reduction influence respiration/fermentation of SOM and production of substrates (e.g., low-molecular-weight organic acids) for methanogenesis. As a result, we infer that geochemical differences induced by water saturation dictate microbial products of SOM decomposition, and Fe geochemistry is an important factor regulating methanogenesis in anoxic tundra soils.

  6. Geochemical drivers of organic matter decomposition in Arctic tundra soils

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Herndon, Elizabeth M.; Yang, Ziming; Graham, David E.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Gu, Baohua; Liang, Liyuan; Bargar, John; Janot, Noemie; Regier, Tom Z.

    2015-12-07

    Climate change is warming tundra ecosystems in the Arctic, resulting in the decomposition of previously-frozen soil organic matter (SOM) and release of carbon (C) to the atmosphere; however, the processes that control SOM decomposition and C emissions remain highly uncertain. In this study, we evaluate geochemical factors that influence anaerobic production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the active layers of four ice-wedge polygons. Surface and soil pore waters were collected during the annual thaw season over a two-year period in an area containing waterlogged, low-centered polygons and well-drained, high-centered polygons. We report spatial and seasonal patterns ofmore » dissolved gases in relation to the geochemical properties of Fe and organic C as determined using spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. Iron was present as Fe(II) in soil solution near the permafrost boundary but enriched as Fe(III) in the middle of the active layer, similar to dissolved aromatic-C and organic acids. Dissolved CH4 increased relative to dissolved CO2 with depth and varied with soil moisture in the middle of the active layer in patterns that were positively correlated with the proportion of dissolved Fe(III) in transitional and low-centered polygon soils but negatively correlated in the drier flat- and high-centered polygons. These results suggest that microbial-mediated Fe oxidation and reduction influence respiration/fermentation of SOM and production of substrates (e.g., low-molecular-weight organic acids) for methanogenesis. As a result, we infer that geochemical differences induced by water saturation dictate microbial products of SOM decomposition, and Fe geochemistry is an important factor regulating methanogenesis in anoxic tundra soils.« less

  7. Enhanced Driver Requirements for WIPP Shipments - Fact Sheet

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    and pass these training requirements: Radiation worker Dosimetry Public affairsmedia Command and control First responder TRANSCOM Radio communications ...

  8. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  9. Webinar: Forecasting Wind Energy Costs and Cost Drivers | Department of

    Energy Savers

    | Department of Energy Assistance Program (WAP) Closeout Frequently Asked Questions Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) Closeout Frequently Asked Questions This document provides a list of frequently asked questions in regards to the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) Closeout procedures. wap_closeout_faqs.pdf (379.35 KB) More Documents & Publications WPN 12-3: Closeout Procedures for Recovery Act Grants Under the Weatherization Assistance Program CLOSEOUT PROCEDURES FOR

  10. Fundamental Drivers of the Cost and Price of Operating Reserves

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.govpublications. 6 (690 MW of combustion turbines and 760 MW of combined cycle ...

  11. Ferroelectric opening switches for large-scale pulsed power drivers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren; Pena, Gary Edward; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew; Glover, Steven Frank

    2009-11-01

    Fast electrical energy storage or Voltage-Driven Technology (VDT) has dominated fast, high-voltage pulsed power systems for the past six decades. Fast magnetic energy storage or Current-Driven Technology (CDT) is characterized by 10,000 X higher energy density than VDT and has a great number of other substantial advantages, but it has all but been neglected for all of these decades. The uniform explanation for neglect of CDT technology is invariably that the industry has never been able to make an effective opening switch, which is essential for the use of CDT. Most approaches to opening switches have involved plasma of one sort or another. On a large scale, gaseous plasmas have been used as a conductor to bridge the switch electrodes that provides an opening function when the current wave front propagates through to the output end of the plasma and fully magnetizes the plasma - this is called a Plasma Opening Switch (POS). Opening can be triggered in a POS using a magnetic field to push the plasma out of the A-K gap - this is called a Magnetically Controlled Plasma Opening Switch (MCPOS). On a small scale, depletion of electron plasmas in semiconductor devices is used to affect opening switch behavior, but these devices are relatively low voltage and low current compared to the hundreds of kilo-volts and tens of kilo-amperes of interest to pulsed power. This work is an investigation into an entirely new approach to opening switch technology that utilizes new materials in new ways. The new materials are Ferroelectrics and using them as an opening switch is a stark contrast to their traditional applications in optics and transducer applications. Emphasis is on use of high performance ferroelectrics with the objective of developing an opening switch that would be suitable for large scale pulsed power applications. Over the course of exploring this new ground, we have discovered new behaviors and properties of these materials that were here to fore unknown. Some of these unexpected discoveries have lead to new research directions to address challenges.

  12. Overview of Driver Technologies for Nanosecond Tem Kickers (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Krasnykh, A. ; SLAC Publication Date: 2016-02-18 OSTI Identifier: 1238569 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-16481 DOE Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515 Resource Type: Conference ...

  13. Be a Safe and Efficient Winter Driver | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Drew Bittner WriterEditor, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy As I write this post, the Midwest and northern states are in the grip of a deep freeze. Temperatures...

  14. NEVADA NATIONAL SECURITY SITE (NNSS) DRIVERS ROUTE/SHIPMENT INFORMATIO...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Reason for Stop (e.g., refueling, dinner, rest, etc.) Comments: WAS THE ROUTE TAKEN THE ... Reason for Stop (e.g., refueling, dinner, rest, etc.) - Print address andor highway name ...

  15. Refueling Behavior of Flexible Fuel Vehicle Drivers in the Federal...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    specific commercial product, process, or ... environmental sustainability. Section 701 of the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) 2005 ... at a variety of metrics: percent growth in ...

  16. EXTENDING SODIUM FAST REACTOR DRIVER FUEL USE TO HIGHER TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas L. Porter

    2011-02-01

    Calculations of potential sodium-cooled fast reactor fuel temperatures were performed to estimate the effects of increasing the outlet temperature of a given fast reactor design by increasing pin power, decreasing assembly flow, or increasing inlet temperature. Based upon experience in the U.S., both metal and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel types are discussed in terms of potential performance effects created by the increased operating temperatures. Assembly outlet temperatures of 600, 650 and 700 C were used as goal temperatures. Fuel/cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) and fuel melting, as well as challenges to the mechanical integrity of the cladding material, were identified as the limiting phenomena. For example, starting with a recent 1000 MWth fast reactor design, raising the outlet temperature to 650 C through pin power increase increased the MOX centerline temperature to more than 3300 C and the metal fuel peak cladding temperature to more than 700 C. These exceeded limitations to fuel performance; fuel melting was limiting for MOX and FCCI for metal fuel. Both could be alleviated by design fixes, such as using a barrier inside the cladding to minimize FCCI in the metal fuel, or using annular fuel in the case of MOX. Both would also require an advanced cladding material with improved stress rupture properties. While some of these are costly, the benefits of having a high-temperature reactor which can support hydrogen production, or other missions requiring high process heat may make the extra costs justified.

  17. Assessing the Drivers of Regional Trends in Solar Photovoltaic Manufacturing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Using a bottom-up model for wafer-based silicon PV, we examine both historical and future factory-location decisions from the perspective of a multinational corporation. Our model calculates the cost of PV manufacturing with process step resolution, while considering the impact of corporate financing and operations with a calculation of the minimum selling price that provides an adequate rate of return. We quantify the conditions of China's historical PV price advantage, examine if these conditions can be reproduced elsewhere, and evaluate the role of innovative technology in altering regional competitive advantage.

  18. DRIVER TO SUPPORT USE OF NUMERICAL SIMULATION TOOLS

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-02-13

    UNIPACK is a computer interface that simplifies and enhances the use of numerical simulation tools to design a primary geometry and/or a forming die for a powder compact and/or to design the pressing process used to shape a powder by compaction. More particularly, it is an interface that utilizes predefined generic geometric configurations to simplify the use of finite element method modeling software to simply and more efficiently design: (1) the shape and size amore » powder compact; (2) a forming die to shape a powder compact; and/or (3) the pressing process used to form a powder compact. UNIPACK is a user interface for a predictive model for powder compaction that incorporates unprecedented flexibility to design powder press tooling and powder pressing processes. UNIPACK works with the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Engineering Analysis Cide Access System (SEACAS) to generate a finite element (FE) mesh and automatically perform a FE analysis of powder compaction. UNIPACK was developed to allow a non-expert with minimal training to quickly and easily design/construct a variable dimension component or die in real time on a desktop or laptop personal computer.« less

  19. Stand-alone microprocessor controlled fast sweep Langmuir probe driver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheetham, A.D.; Davidson, L.; Jakobsen, J.; Lund, T.; Rayner, J.P.

    1997-09-01

    This article describes a power supply and data logger for a Langmuir probe interfaced to a personal computer. The system provides a voltage sweep range from {minus}125 to +100 V in 100 steps in a time {approximately}0.15 s. Restricted sweep ranges and single point operation are also possible. Probe current measurements are in the range from {minus}1.0 to +100 mA with a precision of 5 {mu}A on the most sensitive range, while the voltage may be set with a precision of 56 mV. Novel features of the system include: the use of integrate-and-dump techniques to implement the process of analog-to-digital conversion and to provide effective noise suppression; a solution to the problem of floating the power supply on top of the potential developed across the grounded current sensing resistor based on the power supply rejection ratio characteristics of a high voltage operational amplifier; and the development of an interface and control board employing the GPIB protocol to communicate with a host computer. Successful operation of the system has been demonstrated in the electrically noisy environment of a helicon plasma source. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Beam Loss Studies for Rare Isotope Driver Linacs Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wangler, T P; Kurennoy, S S; Billen, J H; Crandall, K R; Qiang, J; Ryne, R D; Mustapha, B; Ostroumov, P; Zhao, Q; York, and R. C.

    2008-03-26

    The Fortran 90 RIAPMTQ/IMPACT code package is a pair of linked beam-dynamics simulation codes that have been developed for end-to-end computer simulations of multiple-charge-state heavy-ion linacs for future exotic-beam facilities. These codes have multiple charge-state capability, and include space-charge forces. The simulations can extend from the low-energy beam-transport line after an ECR ion source to the end of the linac. The work has been performed by a collaboration including LANL, LBNL, ANL, and MSU. The code RIAPMTQ simulates the linac front-end beam dynamics including the LEBT, RFQ, and MEBT. The code IMPACT simulates the beam dynamics of the main superconducting linac. The codes have been benchmarked for rms beam properties against previously existing codes at ANL and MSU. The codes allow high-statistics runs on parallel supercomputing platforms, particularly at NERSC at LBNL, for studies of beam losses. The codes also run on desktop PC computers for low-statistics work. The code package is described in more detail in a recent publication [1] in the Proceedings of PAC07 (2007 US Particle Accelerator Conference). In this report we describe the main activities for the FY07 beam-loss studies project using this code package.