National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for law forbids ordinances

  1. Wind Energy Ordinance Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    F. Oteri

    2010-09-01

    Due to increasing energy demands in the United States and more installed wind projects, rural communities and local governments with limited or no experience with wind energy now have the opportunity to become involved in this industry. Communities with good wind resources may be approached by entities with plans to develop the resource. Although these opportunities can create new revenue in the form of construction jobs and land lease payments, they also create a new responsibility on the part of local governments to create ordinances to regulate wind turbine installations. Ordinances are laws, often found within municipal codes that provide various degrees of control to local governments. These laws cover issues such as zoning, traffic, consumer protection, and building codes. Wind energy ordinances reflect local needs and wants regarding wind turbines within county or city lines and aid the development of safe facilities that will be embraced by the community. Since 2008 when the National Renewable Energy Laboratory released a report on existing wind energy ordinances, many more ordinances have been established throughout the United States, and this trend is likely to continue in the near future as the wind energy industry grows. This fact sheet provides an overview of elements found in typical wind energy ordinances to educate state and local government officials, as well as policy makers.

  2. Wind Energy Ordinances (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Due to increasing energy demands in the United States and more installed wind projects, rural communities and local governments with limited or no experience with wind energy now have the opportunity to become involved in this industry. Communities with good wind resources may be approached by entities with plans to develop the resource. Although these opportunities can create new revenue in the form of construction jobs and land lease payments, they also create a new responsibility on the part of local governments to create ordinances to regulate wind turbine installations. Ordinances are laws, often found within municipal codes that provide various degrees of control to local governments. These laws cover issues such as zoning, traffic, consumer protection, and building codes. Wind energy ordinances reflect local needs and wants regarding wind turbines within county or city lines and aid the development of safe facilities that will be embraced by the community. Since 2008 when the National Renewable Energy Laboratory released a report on existing wind energy ordinances, many more ordinances have been established throughout the United States, and this trend is likely to continue in the near future as the wind energy industry grows. This fact sheet provides an overview of elements found in typical wind energy ordinances to educate state and local government officials, as well as policy makers.

  3. Distributed Wind Ordinances: Slides

    WindExchange

    an introduction to distributed wind projects and a brief overview of topics to consider when developing a distributed wind energy ordinance. Distributed Wind Ordinances Photo from Byers and Renier Construction, NREL 18820 Distributed Wind Ordinances The U.S. Department of Energy defines distributed wind projects as: (a) The use of wind turbines, on- or off-grid, at homes, farms and ranches, businesses, public and industrial facilities, or other sites to offset all or a portion of the local

  4. WINDExchange: Wind Energy Ordinances

    WindExchange

    Wind Energy Ordinances Federal, state, and local regulations govern many aspects of wind energy development. The nature of the project and its location will largely drive the levels of regulation required. Wind energy ordinances adopted by counties, towns, and other types of municipalities are one of the best ways for local governments to identify conditions and priorities for all types of wind development. These ordinances regulate aspects of wind projects such as their location, permitting

  5. Model Wind Ordinance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In July, 2008 the North Carolina Wind Working Group, a coalition of state government, non-profit and wind industry organizations, published a model wind ordinance to provide guidance for...

  6. County Wind Ordinance Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Assembly Bill 45 of 2009 authorized counties to adopt ordinances to provide for the installation of small wind systems (50 kW or smaller) outside urbanized areas but within the county's...

  7. Santa Clara County- Zoning Ordinance

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Santa Clara County's Zoning Ordinance includes standards for wind and solar structures for residential, agricultural, and commercial uses.

  8. Renewable Energy Rights

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vermont law forbids ordinances, bylaws, deed restrictions, covenants, declarations, or similar binding agreements from prohibiting (or having the effect of prohibiting) the use of solar collectors,...

  9. Rockingham County- Small Wind Ordinance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Although net metering is not required, the ordinance complements the state's net-metering regulations and requires compliance with the Uniform Statewide Building Code, FAA Regulations, National...

  10. Maricopa County- Renewable Energy Systems Zoning Ordinance

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Maricopa County Zoning Ordinance contains provisions for siting renewable energy systems. The ordinance defines renewable energy as "energy derived primarily from sources other than fossil...

  11. Model Wind Energy Facility Ordinance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Note: This model ordinance was designed to provide guidance to local governments that wish to develop their own siting rules for wind turbines. While it was developed as part of a cooperative...

  12. Model As-of Right Zoning Ordinance or Bylaw: Allowing Use of Wind Energy Facilities

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2007, the Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources (DOER) and the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs (EOEA) issued a model ordinance or by-law that may be modified and...

  13. Currituck County- Wind Energy Systems Ordinance

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In January 2008, Currituck County adopted an ordinance to regulate the use of wind-energy systems. The ordinance directs any individual or organization wishing to install a wind-energy system to...

  14. Tyrrell County- Wind Energy Facility Ordinance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Tyrrell County, located in northeastern North Carolina, adopted a wind ordinance in 2009 to regulate the use of wind energy facilities in the unincorporated areas of the county. The ordinance is...

  15. SNAP:SN (Discrete Ordinates) Application Proxy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Application Proxy SNAP serves as a proxy application to model the performance of a modern discrete ordinates neutral particle transport application. June 29, 2013 software SNAP...

  16. Wind Energy Ordinances | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Wind Energy Ordinances Jump to: navigation, search Stetson Wind Farm in Maine. Photo from...

  17. Carteret County- Wind Energy System Ordinance

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Carteret County passed an ordinance to specify the permitting process and establish siting requirements for wind energy systems. There are different rules and a different permitting process...

  18. Madison County- Wind Energy Systems Ordinance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Madison County adopted a new land use ordinance in May 2010, which includes provisions for permitting wind turbines within the county.

  19. Overview of Existing Wind Energy Ordinances

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The purpose of this report is to educate and engage state and local governments, as well as policymakers, about existing large wind energy ordinances.

  20. Model Wind Ordinance for Local Governments

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 2006, Pennsylvania developed a model local ordinance for wind energy facilities through a collaborative effort involving several state departments and stakeholder groups. The purpose of the...

  1. Alaska Local Ordinances Governing Nonpoint Source Pollution ...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Not Provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Alaska Local Ordinances Governing Nonpoint Source Pollution Citation Alaska...

  2. Watauga County- Wind Energy System Ordinance

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2006, Watauga County adopted a wind ordinance to regulate the use of wind-energy systems in the county and to describe the conditions by which a permit for installing such a system may be...

  3. City of Berkeley- Energy Conservation Ordinance

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Berkeley has an ordinance requiring certain energy conservation measures to be installed in residential and commercial properties upon the sale of the building or major renovations over...

  4. Pitt County- Wind Energy Systems Ordinance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Pitt County Board of Commissioners adopted amendments to the county zoning ordinance in March 2010 which classify wind energy systems as an accessory use and establish siting and permitting...

  5. Overview of Existing Wind Energy Ordinances

    SciTech Connect

    Oteri, F.

    2008-12-01

    Due to increased energy demand in the United States, rural communities with limited or no experience with wind energy now have the opportunity to become involved in this industry. Communities with good wind resources may be approached by entities with plans to develop the resource. Although these opportunities can create new revenue in the form of construction jobs and land lease payments, they also create a new responsibility on the part of local governments to ensure that ordinances will be established to aid the development of safe facilities that will be embraced by the community. The purpose of this report is to educate and engage state and local governments, as well as policymakers, about existing large wind energy ordinances. These groups will have a collection of examples to utilize when they attempt to draft a new large wind energy ordinance in a town or county without existing ordinances.

  6. Sacramento Ordinance to Waive Solar PV Fees

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This is an ordinance by the city of Sacramento to suspend for the calendar years 2007-2009 all fees related to installation of photovoltaic systems on existing residences.

  7. Camden County- Wind Energy Systems Ordinance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In September 2007, Camden County adopted a wind ordinance to regulate the use of wind-energy systems in the county and to describe the conditions by which a permit for installing such a system may...

  8. Ashe County- Wind Energy System Ordinance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 2007 Ashe County adopted a wind ordinance to regulate the use of wind-energy systems in unincorporated areas of the county and to describe the conditions by which a permit for installing such a...

  9. Hyde County- Wind Energy Facility Ordinance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Hyde County, located in eastern North Carolina, adopted a wind ordinance in 2008 to regulate the use of wind energy facilities throughout the county, including waters within the boundaries of Hyde...

  10. Town of Kill Devil Hills- Wind Energy Systems Ordinance

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In October 2007, the town of Kill Devil Hills adopted an ordinance to regulate the use of wind-energy systems. The ordinance directs any individual or organization wishing to install a wind-energy...

  11. Model county ordinance for wind projects

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, D.A.

    1997-12-31

    Permitting is a crucial step in the development cycle of a wind project and permits affect the timing, cost, location, feasibility, layout, and impacts of wind projects. Counties often have the lead responsibility for permitting yet few have appropriate siting regulations for wind projects. A model ordinance allows a county to quickly adopt appropriate permitting procedures. The model county wind ordinance developed for use by northwest states is generally applicable across the country and counties seeking to adopt siting or zoning regulations for wind will find it a good starting place. The model includes permitting procedures for wind measurement devices and two types of wind systems. Both discretionary and nondiscretionary standards apply to wind systems and a conditional use permit would be issued. The standards, criteria, conditions for approval, and process procedures are defined for each. Adaptation examples for the four northwest states are provided along with a model Wind Resource Overlay Zone.

  12. Sacramento Ordinance to Waive Fees for Solar Hot Water

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    An ordinance suspending for the calendar years 2007-2009 all fees related to installations of solar water heaters on existing residences.

  13. Standards for Municipal Small Wind Regulations and Model Ordinance

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In July 2008, New Hampshire enacted legislation designed to prevent municipalities from adopting ordinances or regulations that place unreasonable limits on or hinder the performance of wind energy...

  14. Model Ordinance for Siting of Wind-Energy Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    With respect to small wind turbines, the model ordinance addresses setbacks, access, lighting, noise, appearance, code compliance, utility notification, abandonment, and the permitting process....

  15. Energy-pointwise discrete ordinates transport methods

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.L.; Asgari, M.; Tashakorri, R.

    1997-06-01

    A very brief description is given of a one-dimensional code, CENTRM, which computes a detailed, space-dependent flux spectrum in a pointwise-energy representation within the resolved resonance range. The code will become a component in the SCALE system to improve computation of self-shielded cross sections, thereby enhancing the accuracy of codes such as KENO. CENTRM uses discrete-ordinates transport theory with an arbitrary angular quadrature order and a Legendre expansion of scattering anisotropy for moderator materials and heavy nuclides. The CENTRM program provides capability to deterministically compute full energy range, space-dependent angular flux spectra, rigorously accounting for resonance fine-structure and scattering anisotropy effects.

  16. Solar Easements & Rights Laws

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Massachusetts also prohibits restrictions on solar devices, voiding "any provision in an instrument relative to the ownership or use of real property which purports to forbid or unreasonably rest...

  17. Multidimensional electron-photon transport with standard discrete ordinates codes

    SciTech Connect

    Drumm, C.R.

    1995-12-31

    A method is described for generating electron cross sections that are compatible with standard discrete ordinates codes without modification. There are many advantages of using an established discrete ordinates solver, e.g. immediately available adjoint capability. Coupled electron-photon transport capability is needed for many applications, including the modeling of the response of electronics components to space and man-made radiation environments. The cross sections have been successfully used in the DORT, TWODANT and TORT discrete ordinates codes. The cross sections are shown to provide accurate and efficient solutions to certain multidimensional electronphoton transport problems.

  18. Small Wind Innovation Zone Program and Model Ordinance

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under this program, small wind is considered to be any turbine with a rated capacity of 100 kilowatts (kW) or less. The model ordinance requirements include, but are not limited to:

  19. Town of Chapel Hill- Land-Use Management Ordinance

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2003, the Town of Chapel Hill adopted a land-use management ordinance that includes prohibitions against neighborhood or homeowners association covenants or other conditions of sale that...

  20. Three-dimensional discrete ordinates reactor assembly calculations on GPUs

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Thomas M; Joubert, Wayne; Hamilton, Steven P; Johnson, Seth R; Turner, John A; Davidson, Gregory G; Pandya, Tara M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe and demonstrate a discrete ordinates sweep algorithm on GPUs. This sweep algorithm is nested within a multilevel comunication-based decomposition based on energy. We demonstrated the effectiveness of this algorithm on detailed three-dimensional critical experiments and PWR lattice problems. For these problems we show improvement factors of 4 6 over conventional communication-based, CPU-only sweeps. These sweep kernel speedups resulted in a factor of 2 total time-to-solution improvement.

  1. First collision source method for coupling Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates for localized source problems

    SciTech Connect

    Alcouffe, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    A difficult class of problems for the discrete-ordinates neutral particle transport method is to accurately compute the flux due to a spatially localized source. Because the transport equation is solved for discrete directions, the so-called ray effect causes the flux at space points far from the source to be inaccurate. Thus, in general, discrete ordinates would not be the method of choice to solve such problems. It is better suited for calculating problems with significant scattering. The Monte Carlo method is suited to localized source problems, particularly if the amount of collisional interactions in minimal. However, if there are many scattering collisions and the flux at all space points is desired, then the Monte Carlo method becomes expensive. To take advantage of the attributes of both approaches, we have devised a first collision source method to combine the Monte Carlo and discrete-ordinates solutions. That is, particles are tracked from the source to their first scattering collision and tallied to produce a source for the discrete-ordinates calculation. A scattered flux is then computed by discrete ordinates, and the total flux is the sum of the Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates calculated fluxes. In this paper, we present calculational results using the MCNP and TWODANT codes for selected two-dimensional problems that show the effectiveness of this method.

  2. DOGS: a collection of graphics for support of discrete ordinates codes

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, D.T.; Slater, C.O.

    1980-03-01

    A collection of computer codes called DOGS (Discrete Ordinates Graphics Support) has been developed to assist in the display and presentation of data generated by commonly used discrete ordinates transport codes. The DOGS codes include: EGAD for plotting two-dimensional geometries, ISOPLOT4 for plotting 2-D fluxes in a contour line fashion, FORM for plotting 2-D fluxes in a 3-D surface fashion, ACTUAL for calculating 2-D activities, TOOTH for calculating and plotting space-energy contributon fluxes, and ASPECT for plotting energy spectra. All of the codes use FIDO input formats and DISSPLA graphics software including the DISSPOP post processors.

  3. Obeying Environmental Laws

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Stewardship Environmental Protection Obeying Environmental Laws Obeying Environmental Laws LANL complies with more than 30 state and federal regulations and policies to...

  4. Deterministic absorbed dose estimation in computed tomography using a discrete ordinates method

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Edward T.; Liu, Xin; Hsieh, Jiang

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Organ dose estimation for a patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scanning is very important. Although Monte Carlo methods are considered gold-standard in patient dose estimation, the computation time required is formidable for routine clinical calculations. Here, the authors instigate a deterministic method for estimating an absorbed dose more efficiently. Methods: Compared with current Monte Carlo methods, a more efficient approach to estimating the absorbed dose is to solve the linear Boltzmann equation numerically. In this study, an axial CT scan was modeled with a software package, Denovo, which solved the linear Boltzmann equation using the discrete ordinates method. The CT scanning configuration included 16 x-ray source positions, beam collimators, flat filters, and bowtie filters. The phantom was the standard 32 cm CT dose index (CTDI) phantom. Four different Denovo simulations were performed with different simulation parameters, including the number of quadrature sets and the order of Legendre polynomial expansions. A Monte Carlo simulation was also performed for benchmarking the Denovo simulations. A quantitative comparison was made of the simulation results obtained by the Denovo and the Monte Carlo methods. Results: The difference in the simulation results of the discrete ordinates method and those of the Monte Carlo methods was found to be small, with a root-mean-square difference of around 2.4%. It was found that the discrete ordinates method, with a higher order of Legendre polynomial expansions, underestimated the absorbed dose near the center of the phantom (i.e., low dose region). Simulations of the quadrature set 8 and the first order of the Legendre polynomial expansions proved to be the most efficient computation method in the authors’ study. The single-thread computation time of the deterministic simulation of the quadrature set 8 and the first order of the Legendre polynomial expansions was 21 min on a personal computer

  5. Generalized perturbation theory using two-dimensional, discrete ordinates transport theory

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    Perturbation theory for changes in linear and bilinear functionals of the forward and adjoint fluxes in a critical reactor has been implemented using two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport theory. The computer program DOT IV was modified to calculate the generalized functions GAMMA and GAMMA*. Demonstration calculations were performed for changes in a reaction-rate ratio and a reactivity worth caused by system perturbations. The perturbation theory predictions agreed with direct calculations to within about 2%. A method has been developed for calculating higher lambda eigenvalues and eigenfunctions using techniques similar to those developed for generalized functions. Demonstration calculations have been performed to obtain these eigenfunctions.

  6. Evaluation of Boulder, CO, SmartRegs Ordinance and Better Buildings Program

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, L.; Vijayakumar, G.

    2012-04-01

    Under the SmartRegs ordinance in the city of Boulder, Colorado, all rental properties in the city must achieve an energy efficiency level comparable to a HERS Index of approximately 120 points or lower by the year 2019. The City of Boulder received a $12 million grant from the DOE's Better Buildings initiative to create and incentivize their EnergySmart Program. In this report, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) describes its work with the program, including energy audits of rental properties, developing training programs for insulators and inspectors, and conducting interviews with property owners.

  7. Evaluation of Boulder, CO,SmartRegs Ordinance and Better Buildings Program

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, L.; Vijayakumar, G.

    2012-04-01

    Under the SmartRegs ordinance in the city of Boulder, Colorado, all rental properties in the city must achieve an energy efficiency level comparable to a HERS Index of approximately 120 points or lower by the year 2019. The City of Boulder received a $12 million grant from the DOE’s Better Buildings initiative to create and incentivize their EnergySmart Program. In this report, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) describes its work with the program, including energy audits of rental properties, developing training programs for insulators and inspectors, and conducting interviews with property owners.

  8. Water, law, science

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  9. GIS insulation co-ordination: On-site tests and dielectric diagnostic techniques, a utility point of view

    SciTech Connect

    Sabot, A.; Petit, A.; Taillebois, J.P.

    1996-07-01

    This paper summarizes the Electricite de France experience with insulation co-ordination of GIS. After a review of the insulation co-ordination practice mainly dealing with fast front overvoltage and the one minute AC test, some results of the on-site test procedure applied since 30 years are presented and related to the insulation co-ordination practice. The in-service return of experience dealing with dielectric failures is analyzed then the dielectric diagnostic techniques now available are briefly presented with their possibilities and limitations. According to this survey, the expectations of EDF from these diagnostic techniques as well as the new on-site test and on-line monitoring tendencies at EDF are presented.

  10. International resources law

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Historical origins of civil code legal systems; Modern civil law practice for mineral lawyers; Treaties and agreements for protection of international investments; Europe 1992-toward a single energy market; Dispute resolution in international agreements; Assessment of political risk; Reducing political risk; Protecting mineral investments from upheaval in developing countries; Typical world petroleum arrangements; government take in the Pacific Rim - Papua New Guinea; Mineral base of the USSR and prospects of investment; International taxation for the mining practitioner; Tax considerations - branch versus subsidiary; Doing business in the host country - nontax considerations; Impact of host-country laws on operations and profits; Mineral development and native rights - New Zealand; Designing the investment vehicle: mining; International oil and gas joint ventures; Selected U.S. laws with extraterritorial effect; U.S. tax and securities laws applied to foreign joint venturers; and Extraterritorial effect of U.S. laws.

  11. Anomalous law of cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  12. Public Law 104-134

    Energy Saver

    Public Law 104-134 Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-134) Updated April 30, 1999 The President has signed into law historic legislation having a major impact ...

  13. Time lagged ordinal partition networks for capturing dynamics of continuous dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, Michael; Iu, Herbert Ho-Ching; Small, Michael; Stemler, Thomas

    2015-05-15

    We investigate a generalised version of the recently proposed ordinal partition time series to network transformation algorithm. First, we introduce a fixed time lag for the elements of each partition that is selected using techniques from traditional time delay embedding. The resulting partitions define regions in the embedding phase space that are mapped to nodes in the network space. Edges are allocated between nodes based on temporal succession thus creating a Markov chain representation of the time series. We then apply this new transformation algorithm to time series generated by the Rssler system and find that periodic dynamics translate to ring structures whereas chaotic time series translate to band or tube-like structuresthereby indicating that our algorithm generates networks whose structure is sensitive to system dynamics. Furthermore, we demonstrate that simple network measures including the mean out degree and variance of out degrees can track changes in the dynamical behaviour in a manner comparable to the largest Lyapunov exponent. We also apply the same analysis to experimental time series generated by a diode resonator circuit and show that the network size, mean shortest path length, and network diameter are highly sensitive to the interior crisis captured in this particular data set.

  14. Reduced computational cost, totally symmetric angular quadrature sets for discrete ordinates radiation transport. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Oder, J.M.

    1997-12-01

    Several new quadrature sets for use in the discrete ordinates method of solving the Boltzmann neutral particle transport equation are derived. These symmetric quadratures extend the traditional symmetric quadratures by allowing ordinates perpendicular to one or two of the coordinate axes. Comparable accuracy with fewer required ordinates is obtained. Quadratures up to seventh order are presented. The validity and efficiency of the quadratures is then tested and compared with the Sn level symmetric quadratures relative to a Monte Carlo benchmark solution. The criteria for comparison include current through the surface, scalar flux at the surface, volume average scalar flux, and time required for convergence. Appreciable computational cost was saved when used in an unstructured tetrahedral cell code using highly accurate characteristic methods. However, no appreciable savings in computation time was found using the new quadratures compared with traditional Sn methods on a regular Cartesian mesh using the standard diamond difference method. These quadratures are recommended for use in three-dimensional calculations on an unstructured mesh.

  15. Technetium Retention During LAW Vitrification

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    (1% I) for LAWE7H (AN-102, high organics) * 18% Tc (22% I) for LAWE3 (AP-101, high K) * Sugar most effective organic reductant for Tc and I retention * 15-20% absolute increase...

  16. CEPXS/ONELD Version 2. 0: A discrete ordinates code package for general one-dimensional coupled electron-photon transport

    SciTech Connect

    Lorence, L.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    CEPXS/ONELD is the only discrete ordinates code capable of modelling the fully-coupled electron-photon cascade at high energies. Quantities that are related to the particle flux such as dose and charge deposition can readily be obtained. This deterministic code is much faster than comparable Monte Carlo codes. The unique adjoint transport capability of CEPXS/ONELD also enables response functions to be readily calculated. Version 2.0 of the CEPXS/ONELD code package has been designed to allow users who are not expert in discrete ordinates methods to fully exploit the code's capabilities. 14 refs., 15 figs.

  17. 40th Indian Law Conference

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Bar Association is hosting the 40th Annual Indian Law Conference. This two-day conference focuses on the significant changes that have occurred in the relationship between Tribal Nations and the United States in the last four decades. The conference will cover several topics, including climate change, Indian Law, tribal courts, and more.

  18. Exponential characteristic spatial quadrature for discrete ordinates neutral particle transport in two-dimensional cartesian coordinates. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Minor, B.M.

    1993-09-01

    The exponential characteristic spatial quadrature for discrete ordinates neutral particle transport with rectangular cells is developed. Numerical problems arising in the derivation required the development of exponential moment functions. These functions are used to remove indeterminant forms which can cause catastrophic cancellations. The EC method is positive and nonlinear. It conserves particles and satisfies first moment balance. Comparisons of the EC method's performance to other methods in optically thin and thick spatial cells were performed. For optically thin cells, the EC method was shown to converge to the correct answer, with third order truncation error in the thin cell limit. In deep penetration problems, the EC method attained its highest computational efficiencies compared to the other methods. For all the deep penetration problems examined, the number of spatial cells required by the EC method to attain a desired accuracy was less than the other methods.... Mathematics functions, Nuclear radiation, Nuclear engineering, Radiation attenuation, Radiation shielding, Transport theory, Radiation transport.

  19. Renewable Energy Easements & Rights Laws

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Florida law also allows for the creation of easements for the purpose of maintaining exposure of a solar energy system to sunlight. Easements must be created in writing, and recorded and indexed ...

  20. Wind Access and Permitting Law

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The law also defines a limited set of reasonable restrictions that governments and associations are permitted to use in regulating residential wind energy systems. Any limitations put in place may...

  1. Law Enforcement & Emergency Management Liaison | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Law Enforcement & Emergency Management Liaison Mission Statement The Office of Secure Transportation (OST) liaison program communicates with law enforcement and public safety ...

  2. Securities Law Issues Relating to Community Solar Projects

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The law firm Stoel Rives has analyzed the issues related to Securities Law and Community Solar both in the context of Washington state law and federal law.

  3. Exponential-characteristic spatial quadrature for discrete-ordinates neutral-particle transport in slab geometry. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoden, G.E.

    1992-03-01

    A new discrete ordinates spatial quadrature scheme is presented for solving neutral particle transport problems. This new scheme, called the exponential characteristic method, is developed here in slab geometry with isotropic scattering. This method uses a characteristic integration of the Boltzmann transport equation with an exponential function as the assumed from of the source distribution, continuous across each spatial cell. The exponential source function is constructed to globally conserve zeroth and first spatial source moments and is non-negative. Characteristic integration ensures non-negative fluxes and flux moments. Numerical testing indicates that convergence of the exponential characteristic scheme is fourth order in the limit of vanishingly thin cells. Highly accurate solutions to optically thick problems can result using this scheme with very coarse meshes. Comparing accuracy and computational cost with existing spatial quadrature schemes (diamond difference, linear discontinuous, linear characteristic, linear adaptive, etc.), the exponential characteristic scheme typically performed best. This scheme is expected to be expandable to two dimensions in a straight forward manner. Due to the high accuracies achievable using coarse meshes, this scheme may allow researchers to obtain solutions to transport problems once thought too large or too difficult to be adequately solved conventional computer systems.

  4. Modeling Treated LAW Feed Evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    DANIEL, WE

    2004-07-08

    This task examines the potential of the treated waste feed blends to form sodium-aluminum silicate precipitates when evaporated using the zeolite database. To investigate the behavior of the blended pretreated waste feed, an OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI ESP) model of the treated low activity waste (LAW) evaporator was built. A range of waste feed compositions representative of Envelope A, B, and C were then fed into the OLI model to predict various physical and chemical properties of the evaporator concentrates. Additional runs with treated LAW evaporator were performed to compare chemical and physical property model predictions and experimental results for small-scale radioactive tests of the treated feed evaporation process.

  5. Law of Conservation of Muons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Feinberg, G.; Weinberg, S.

    1961-02-01

    A multiplicative selection rule for mu meson-electron transitions is proposed. A "muon parity" = -1 is considered for the muon and its neutrino, while the "muon parity" for all other particles is +1. The selection rule then states that (-1) exp(no. of initial (-1) parity particles) = (-1) exp(no. of final (-1) parity particles). Several reactions that are forbidden by an additive law but allowed by the multiplicative law are suggested; these reactions include mu{sup +} .> e{sup +} + nu{sub mu} + {ovr nu}{sub e}, e{sup -} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + mu{sup -}, and muonium .> antimuonium (mu{sup +} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + e{sup +}). An intermediate-boson hypothesis is suggested. (T.F.H.)

  6. General Counsel Law Library | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION... Contact us with any questions: Law Librarian (202) 586-4849 Law.Library@hq.doe.gov Legislative History Librarian 202-586-2886 Careers & Internships Sign Up...

  7. The Law of Water | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Law of Water Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Secondary Legal SourceSecondary Legal Source: The Law of WaterLegal Abstract Basic...

  8. NAC 484 - Traffic Laws | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    RegulationRegulation: NAC 484 - Traffic LawsLegal Abstract These regulations set forth the traffic laws in the State of Nevada. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2014...

  9. Labor Standards/Wage and Hour Laws

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Labor Standards and Wage/Hour laws establish minimum wage, overtime pay, recordkeeping, and minimum leave requirements:

  10. Environmental Laws and Regulations | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Record Files Natural Resource Damage Assessments Environmental Laws and Regulations More Documents & Publications Paducah Public Involvement Plan Portsmouth Removal Actions...

  11. Health and Safety Laws | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Health and Safety Laws Health and Safety Laws Health and safety laws require working conditions that do not pose a risk of serious harm: Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 Additional information can be obtained by visiting the following links: Office of Environment, Health, Safety & Security Office of Enterprise Assessments

  12. Working with SRNL - Our Facilities - Law Enforcement Support...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Law Enforcement Support Center - Southeast Region Working with SRNL Our Facilities - Law Enforcement Support Center - Southeast Region The Law Enforcement Support Center at SRNL ...

  13. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  14. Laws DOE Administers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Click here to learn more about Adobe Reader. Laws Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellowship Act of 1994 Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellowship Act of 1994 in ...

  15. Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    long term. We help community groups, advise NGOs, and train government officials in international negotiations. Research on international law, policy and national practice...

  16. The Snell law for quaternionic potentials

    SciTech Connect

    De Leo, Stefano; Ducati, Gisele C.

    2013-12-15

    By using the analogy between optics and quantum mechanics, we obtain the Snell law for the planar motion of quantum particles in the presence of quaternionic potentials.

  17. Federal Highway Admininstration - Law Enforcement Escort - Best...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Admininstration - Law Enforcement Escort - Best Practices Guidelines Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Guide...

  18. Laws & Legal Resources | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Library Books | Credit: GC Photographer Daniel Zazueta Library Books | Credit: GC Photographer Daniel Zazueta Looking for... Online Legal Resources Laws DOE Administers Guidance &...

  19. Solar Easements & Local Option Solar Rights Laws

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Utah's solar easement provision is similar to easement provisions in many other states. Parties may voluntarily enter into written solar easement contracts that are enforceable by law. An...

  20. Tribal Energy and Environmental Information Clearinghouse - Laws...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Tribal Energy and Environmental Information Clearinghouse - Laws and Regulations Applicable to Geothermal Energy...

  1. City of Los Angeles- Green Building Retrofit Requirement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In April 2009, Los Angeles enacted Ordinance 180636, known as the Green Building Retrofit Ordinance. This ordinance was later amended by Ordinance 182259. The law requires all city-owned buildings...

  2. Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights Law |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights Law Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights Law < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government Agricultural Institutional Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Solar Pool Heating

  3. More Data, More Science ... Moore's Law

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    David Skinner More Data, More Science ... Moore's Law February 4, 2014 David Skinner. NERSC Downloads Data-Skinner-NUG2014.pdf | Adobe Acrobat PDF file More Data, More Science and... Moore's Law - David Skinner, NERSC Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:34:38

  4. Power law inflation with electromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Xianghui; Isenberg, James

    2013-07-15

    We generalize Ringström’s global future causal stability results (Ringström 2009) [11] for certain expanding cosmological solutions of the Einstein-scalar field equations to solutions of the Einstein–Maxwell-scalar field system. In particular, after noting that the power law inflationary spacetimes (M{sup n+1},g{sup -hat}, ϕ{sup -hat}) considered by Ringström (2009) in [11] are solutions of the Einstein–Maxwell-scalar field system (with exponential potential) as well as of the Einstein-scalar field system (with the same exponential potential), we consider (nonlinear) perturbations of initial data sets of these spacetimes which include electromagnetic perturbations as well as gravitational and scalar perturbations. We show that if (as in Ringström (2009) [11]) we focus on pairs of relatively scaled open sets U{sub R{sub 0}}⊂U{sub 4R{sub 0}} on an initial slice of (M{sup n+1},g{sup -hat}), and if we choose a set of perturbed data which on U{sub 4R{sub 0}} is sufficiently close to that of (M{sup n+1},g{sup -hat},ϕ{sup -hat}, A{sup -hat} = 0), then in the maximal globally hyperbolic spacetime development (M{sup n+1},g,ϕ,A) of this data via the Einstein–Maxwell-scalar field equations, all causal geodesics emanating from U{sub R{sub 0}} are future complete (just as in (M{sup n+1},g{sup -hat})). We also verify that, in a certain sense, the future asymptotic behavior of the fields in the spacetime developments of the perturbed data sets does not differ significantly from the future asymptotic behavior of (M{sup n+1},g{sup -hat}, ϕ{sup -hat}, A{sup -hat} = 0). -- Highlights: •We prove stability of expanding solutions of the Einstein–Maxwell-scalar field equations. •All nearby solutions are geodesically complete. •The topology of the initial slice is irrelevant to our stability results.

  5. A law intern's proving ground | Y-12 National Security Complex

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    A law intern's proving ... A law intern's proving ground Posted: May 7, 2014 - 5:31pm | Y-12 Report | Volume 10, Issue 2 | 2014 Eliza Scott almost didn't apply for the Y-12UT Law ...

  6. Public Law 102-392 for Printing | Department of Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    2-392 for Printing Public Law 102-392 for Printing Public Law 102-392 for Printing Public Law 102-392 for Printing (118.61 KB) More Documents & Publications Minutes from the Print ...

  7. Framework Topic Briefing: Direct Feed LAW

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    February 13, 2014 Framework Topic Briefing: Direct Feed LAW Next steps: Put Dick's handouts on SharePoint * Continue Framework topic briefing series Page 1 System Plan 7 Next ...

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Center: Federal Laws and Incentives to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data

  9. Corporate Board By-Laws | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    by-laws of the EM QA Corporate Board. PDF icon By-Laws Office of Environmental Management Quality Assurance Corporate Board More Documents & Publications NNMCAB Bylaws ORSSAB...

  10. Comments of the Southern Environmental Law Center and the American...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    : The Southern Environmental Law Center ("SELC") submits these comments on behalf of ... Comments of the Southern Environmental Law Center and the American Lung Association in ...

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: About the Laws and Incentives...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    in the database after legislation is signed into law or when agencies issue final rules. ... or federal authority that the specific law or incentive is still applicable before ...

  12. NGL Downlight Demonstration Project: Alston & Bird, LLP, Law...

    Energy Saver

    NGL Downlight Demonstration Project: Alston & Bird, LLP, Law Offices NGL Downlight Demonstration Project: Alston & Bird, LLP, Law Offices As of 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy ...

  13. AARP, National Consumer Law Center, and Public Citizen Comments...

    Energy Saver

    AARP, National Consumer Law Center, and Public Citizen Comments to:DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges AARP, National Consumer Law ...

  14. General Counsel Law Student Intern Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Law Student Intern Program General Counsel Law Student Intern Program The Department of Energy's Office of the General Counsel is accepting applications on a rolling basis for its ...

  15. Office of the Assistant General Counsel for General Law | Department...

    Energy Saver

    Services Environment and Compliance Office of the Assistant General Counsel for General Law Office of the Assistant General Counsel for General Law The Office of the ...

  16. Equal Employment Opportunity is THE LAW Private Employers...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Equal Employment Opportunity is THE LAW Private Employers, State and Local Governments, ... organizations are protected under Federal law from discrimination on the following bases: ...

  17. Oregon Federal and State Historic Preservation Laws Webpage ...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Laws Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Oregon Federal and State Historic Preservation Laws Webpage Abstract Provides...

  18. Solar, Wind, and Energy Efficiency Easements and Rights Laws...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Solar, Wind, and Energy Efficiency Easements and Rights Laws Solar, Wind, and Energy Efficiency Easements and Rights Laws < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Solar -...

  19. Nevada Lawyer Magazine: Overview of Water Law in Nevada | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Nevada Internet. Nevada. cited 20141111. Available from: http:nvbar.orgarticlescontentoverview-water-law-nevada Related Files NevLawyer Sept 2009 Water Law...

  20. Renewable Energy Terms of Reference: Laws, Policies and Regulations...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Laws, Policies and Regulations Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Renewable Energy Terms of Reference: Laws, Policies and Regulations AgencyCompany...

  1. June 24 Webinar Will Discuss How Environmental Laws and Regulations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Will Discuss How Environmental Laws and Regulations Affect Tribal Energy Projects June 24 Webinar Will Discuss How Environmental Laws and Regulations Affect Tribal Energy...

  2. TEEIC Laws and Regulations Applicable to Energy Transmission...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    TEEIC Laws and Regulations Applicable to Energy Transmission Development Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: TEEIC Laws and...

  3. POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #07 Current Appropriations Law and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM 07 Current Appropriations Law and Compensation of Foreign ... POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM 07 Current Appropriations Law and Compensation of Foreign ...

  4. UNEP Handbook for Drafting Laws on Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Handbook for Drafting Laws on Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UNEP Handbook for Drafting Laws on Energy...

  5. Montana Streamside Management Zone Law Webpage | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Zone Law Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Streamside Management Zone Law Webpage Abstract Provides information on...

  6. AARP, National Consumer Law Center, and Public Citizen Comments...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    AARP, National Consumer Law Center, and Public Citizen Comments to:DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges AARP, National Consumer Law...

  7. Scaling Law of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in a Rectangular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Scaling Law of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in a Rectangular Chamber Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Scaling Law of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in...

  8. Environmental Law and Policy Center | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Law and Policy Center Jump to: navigation, search Name: Environmental Law and Policy Center Place: Chicago, Illinois Zip: 60601 Product: Public interest environmental advocacy...

  9. American law of mining. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The new American Law of Mining, Second Edition, provides full coverage of mining law and related topics in all of the following subject areas: federal lands and minerals; federal mineral leases; mining claims; state and Indian mineral interests; Alaska lands and mineral interests; mineral title examination; federal coal regulations; hard mineral royalties; ancillary use rights; water rights; organizational considerations; financing; private mineral leases and other mineral acquisition considerations; joint exploration and operating agreements; income taxation; environmental regulation; administrative practice; mining and milling operations; and Canadian mining law. Health and safety regulation, acquisition of ancillary use rights, and administrative practice are entirely new topics, not covered in the First Edition. Coverage of mineral development in Alaska and Canada and mineral title examination has been greatly expanded for this edition.

  10. Two-dimensional DORT discrete ordinates X-Y geometry neutron flux calculations for the Halden Heavy Boiling Water Reactor core configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, C.O.

    1990-07-01

    Results are reported for two-dimensional discrete ordinates, X-Y geometry calculations performed for seven Halden Heavy Boiling Water Reactor core configurations. The calculations were performed in support of an effort to reassess the neutron fluence received by the reactor vessel. Nickel foil measurement data indicated considerable underprediction of fluences by the previously used multigroup removal- diffusion method. Therefore, calculations by a more accurate method were deemed appropriate. For each core configuration, data are presented for (1) integral fluxes in the core and near the vessel wall, (2) neutron spectra at selected locations, (3) isoflux contours superimposed on the geometry models, (4) plots of the geometry models, and (5) input for the calculations. The initial calculations were performed with several mesh sizes. Comparisons of the results from these calculations indicated that the uncertainty in the calculated fluxes should be less than 10%. However, three-dimensional effects (such as axial asymmetry in the fuel loading) could contribute to much greater uncertainty in the calculated neutron fluxes. 7 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Biodiesel

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Biodiesel Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Biodiesel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Biodiesel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Biodiesel on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Biodiesel on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and

  12. Federal Energy Management Laws and Requirements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Laws and Requirements Federal Energy Management Laws and Requirements Federal Energy Management Laws and Requirements To help agencies comply with federal laws and requirements, the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) analyzes energy management mandates from legal authorities and publishes notices and rules related to federal energy management. FEMP also provides tools to help agencies report annual facility and fleet progress toward federal laws and requirements. Get Started Start meeting

  13. QER- Comment of Western Environmental Law Center

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    To whom it may concern, I provided the following comments at the public meeting in Santa Fe, NM on 8/11/14: My name is Thomas Singer, and I am a Senior Policy Advisor at the Western Environmental Law Center.

  14. Occupational safety and health law handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Sarvadi, D.G.; Keller; Heckman

    1999-09-01

    This book reviews the regulations and standards governing the protection of employees in the workplace and provides insight into dealing with pertinent regulations and regulatory authorities. Written for safety professionals, industrial hygienists, human resource professionals, attorneys, and students, this companion to Government Institutes' best-selling ``Environmental Law Handbook'' offers the legal fundamentals behind occupational safety and health laws in one concise and authoritative volume. In 19 chapters, the authoring law firm of Keller and Heckman cover the OSHAct and its development; OSHA, NIOSH, and OSHRC; the roles played by other regulatory agencies; the OSHA rulemaking process; OSHA Standards and the General Duty Clause; record keeping and reporting; employers' and employees' rights; inspections; violations, penalties, and how to contest them; criminal prosecutions; state plans; industry-specific issues; OSHA reform; and international regulations and standards. This book references approximately 400 seminal OSHA legal decisions from the approximately 1,300 cases on record and includes coverage of Canadian and European Community regulations, making it the first comprehensive global overview of occupational safety and health law.

  15. Diffusion Processes Satisfying a Conservation Law Constraint

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Bakosi, J.; Ristorcelli, J. R.

    2014-03-04

    We investigate coupled stochastic differential equations governing N non-negative continuous random variables that satisfy a conservation principle. In various fields a conservation law requires that a set of fluctuating variables be non-negative and (if appropriately normalized) sum to one. As a result, any stochastic differential equation model to be realizable must not produce events outside of the allowed sample space. We develop a set of constraints on the drift and diffusion terms of such stochastic models to ensure that both the non-negativity and the unit-sum conservation law constraint are satisfied as the variables evolve in time. We investigate the consequencesmore » of the developed constraints on the Fokker-Planck equation, the associated system of stochastic differential equations, and the evolution equations of the first four moments of the probability density function. We show that random variables, satisfying a conservation law constraint, represented by stochastic diffusion processes, must have diffusion terms that are coupled and nonlinear. The set of constraints developed enables the development of statistical representations of fluctuating variables satisfying a conservation law. We exemplify the results with the bivariate beta process and the multivariate Wright-Fisher, Dirichlet, and Lochner’s generalized Dirichlet processes.« less

  16. Diffusion Processes Satisfying a Conservation Law Constraint

    SciTech Connect

    Bakosi, J.; Ristorcelli, J. R.

    2014-03-04

    We investigate coupled stochastic differential equations governing N non-negative continuous random variables that satisfy a conservation principle. In various fields a conservation law requires that a set of fluctuating variables be non-negative and (if appropriately normalized) sum to one. As a result, any stochastic differential equation model to be realizable must not produce events outside of the allowed sample space. We develop a set of constraints on the drift and diffusion terms of such stochastic models to ensure that both the non-negativity and the unit-sum conservation law constraint are satisfied as the variables evolve in time. We investigate the consequences of the developed constraints on the Fokker-Planck equation, the associated system of stochastic differential equations, and the evolution equations of the first four moments of the probability density function. We show that random variables, satisfying a conservation law constraint, represented by stochastic diffusion processes, must have diffusion terms that are coupled and nonlinear. The set of constraints developed enables the development of statistical representations of fluctuating variables satisfying a conservation law. We exemplify the results with the bivariate beta process and the multivariate Wright-Fisher, Dirichlet, and Lochner’s generalized Dirichlet processes.

  17. Forensic imaging tools for law enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    SMITHPETER,COLIN L.; SANDISON,DAVID R.; VARGO,TIMOTHY D.

    2000-01-01

    Conventional methods of gathering forensic evidence at crime scenes are encumbered by difficulties that limit local law enforcement efforts to apprehend offenders and bring them to justice. Working with a local law-enforcement agency, Sandia National Laboratories has developed a prototype multispectral imaging system that can speed up the investigative search task and provide additional and more accurate evidence. The system, called the Criminalistics Light-imaging Unit (CLU), has demonstrated the capabilities of locating fluorescing evidence at crime scenes under normal lighting conditions and of imaging other types of evidence, such as untreated fingerprints, by direct white-light reflectance. CLU employs state of the art technology that provides for viewing and recording of the entire search process on videotape. This report describes the work performed by Sandia to design, build, evaluate, and commercialize CLU.

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Powers Law Enforcement in...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    CNG Powers Law Enforcement in Arkansas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Powers Law Enforcement in Arkansas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels ...

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    ... This allowance does not impact state highway funding eligibility. (Reference Public Law ... Program website. (Reference Public Law 112-141, 23 U.S. Code 149, and 23 U.S. Code ...

  20. Summary - WTP Analytical Lab, BOF and LAW Waste Vitrification...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    T es including an ces of Facilities y Waste (LAW assessment w ology elements es (LAB, BOF, ... F was to identify t s (CTEs) in the and LAW) and re to be incorpo normally requir 6. he ...

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal and State Laws and Incentives

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Use an advanced or keyword search to find a specific federal or state law or incentive. ... Additions by Regulation Type Incentive and Law Additions by FuelTechnology Type Incentive ...

  2. What Started the Motion Described By Newton's Third Law? | GE...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Started the Motion Described By Newton's Third Law? Click to email this to a friend (Opens ... What Started the Motion Described By Newton's Third Law? 2012.02.24 Chief Scientist Jim ...

  3. This report is mandatory under Public Law 93 275

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other sanctions as provided by law. ...

  4. File:CaveProtectionLaw.pdf | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    CaveProtectionLaw.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:CaveProtectionLaw.pdf Size of this preview: 463 599 pixels. Other resolution: 464 ...

  5. Montana Air Quality Program Laws & Rules Webpage | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Air Quality Program Laws & Rules Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Air Quality Program Laws & Rules Webpage Abstract...

  6. An Introduction to Washington Water Law | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Introduction to Washington Water Law Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: An Introduction to Washington Water LawLegal...

  7. Montana Understanding the Basics of Water Law In Montana Webpage...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Understanding the Basics of Water Law In Montana Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Understanding the Basics of Water Law...

  8. ITER Generic Diagnostic Upper Port Plug Nuclear Heating and Personnel Dose Rate Assesment Neutronics Analysis using the ATTILA Discrete Ordinates Code

    SciTech Connect

    Russell Feder and Mahmoud Z. Yousef

    2009-05-29

    Neutronics analysis to find nuclear heating rates and personnel dose rates were conducted in support of the integration of diagnostics in to the ITER Upper Port Plugs. Simplified shielding models of the Visible-Infrared diagnostic and of the ECH heating system were incorporated in to the ITER global CAD model. Results for these systems are representative of typical designs with maximum shielding and a small aperture (Vis-IR) and minimal shielding with a large aperture (ECH). The neutronics discrete-ordinates code ATTILA and SEVERIAN (the ATTILA parallel processing version) was used. Material properties and the 500 MW D-T volume source were taken from the ITER Brand Model MCNP benchmark model. A biased quadrature set equivelant to Sn=32 and a scattering degree of Pn=3 were used along with a 46-neutron and 21-gamma FENDL energy subgrouping. Total nuclear heating (neutron plug gamma heating) in the upper port plugs ranged between 380 and 350 kW for the Vis-IR and ECH cases. The ECH or Large Aperture model exhibited lower total heating but much higher peak volumetric heating on the upper port plug structure. Personnel dose rates are calculated in a three step process involving a neutron-only transport calculation, the generation of activation volume sources at pre-defined time steps and finally gamma transport analyses are run for selected time steps. ANSI-ANS 6.1.1 1977 Flux-to-Dose conversion factors were used. Dose rates were evaluated for 1 full year of 500 MW DT operation which is comprised of 3000 1800-second pulses. After one year the machine is shut down for maintenance and personnel are permitted to access the diagnostic interspace after 2-weeks if dose rates are below 100 ?Sv/hr. Dose rates in the Visible-IR diagnostic model after one day of shutdown were 130 ?Sv/hr but fell below the limit to 90 ?Sv/hr 2-weeks later. The Large Aperture or ECH style shielding model exhibited higher and more persistent dose rates. After 1-day the dose rate was 230 ?Sv

  9. EEO is the Law Poster Supplement

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    EEO Intake Form EEO Intake Form Download and fill out this form to start the process for Equal Employment Opportunity complaints at the Department of Energy. For more information about the EEO process, visit this site. To get in touch with our Office of Civil Rights, call (202) 586-2218. DOE EEO Intake Form 2016 (395.3 KB) More Documents & Publications Equal Employment Opportunity Intake Process DOE F 1600.2 DOE F 1600.1

    EEO is the Law" Poster Supplement Employers Holding Federal

  10. Fractional power-law spatial dispersion in electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, Vasily E.; Trujillo, Juan J.

    2013-07-15

    Electric fields in non-local media with power-law spatial dispersion are discussed. Equations involving a fractional Laplacian in the Riesz form that describe the electric fields in such non-local media are studied. The generalizations of Coulomb’s law and Debye’s screening for power-law non-local media are characterized. We consider simple models with anomalous behavior of plasma-like media with power-law spatial dispersions. The suggested fractional differential models for these plasma-like media are discussed to describe non-local properties of power-law type. -- Highlights: •Plasma-like non-local media with power-law spatial dispersion. •Fractional differential equations for electric fields in the media. •The generalizations of Coulomb’s law and Debye’s screening for the media.

  11. Filament velocity scaling laws for warm ions

    SciTech Connect

    Manz, P.; Max-Planck-Institut fr Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Assoziation, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching ; Carralero, D.; Birkenmeier, G.; Mller, H. W.; Scott, B. D.; Mller, S. H.; Fuchert, G.; Stroth, U.; Physik-Department E28, Technische Universitt Mnchen, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching

    2013-10-15

    The dynamics of filaments or blobs in the scrape-off layer of magnetic fusion devices are studied by magnitude estimates of a comprehensive drift-interchange-Alfvn fluid model. The standard blob models are reproduced in the cold ion case. Even though usually neglected, in the scrape-off layer, the ion temperature can exceed the electron temperature by an order of magnitude. The ion pressure affects the dynamics of filaments amongst others by adding up to the interchange drive and the polarisation current. It is shown how both effects modify the scaling laws for filament velocity in dependence of its size. Simplifications for experimentally relevant limit regimes are given. These are the sheath dissipation, collisional, and electromagnetic regime.

  12. Power-law spatial dispersion from fractional Liouville equation

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2013-10-15

    A microscopic model in the framework of fractional kinetics to describe spatial dispersion of power-law type is suggested. The Liouville equation with the Caputo fractional derivatives is used to obtain the power-law dependence of the absolute permittivity on the wave vector. The fractional differential equations for electrostatic potential in the media with power-law spatial dispersion are derived. The particular solutions of these equations for the electric potential of point charge in this media are considered.

  13. Solar Easements & Rights Laws | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government Agricultural Institutional Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics Program Info Sector Name State State Washington Program Type Solar/Wind Access Policy Summary Washington's solar easement laws are similar to those in many other states. The law does not create an automatic right to sunlight. Rather, the law

  14. Equal Employment Opportunity/Workforce Restructuring Laws | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Opportunity/Workforce Restructuring Laws Equal Employment Opportunity/Workforce Restructuring Laws Equal Employment Opportunity laws prohibit discrimination against individuals on the basis of various protected categories including race, sex, age, disability, and veteran status: Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 Executive Order 11246 of September 24, 1965 (Equal Employment Opportunity Act)

  15. Formation of Hard Power Laws in the Energetic Particle Spectra...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Formation of Hard Power Laws in the Energetic Particle Spectra Resulting from Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Formation of Hard Power ...

  16. Environmental Law Institute Webinar to Promote Superior Energy...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Superior Energy Performance(tm) (SEP), the U.S. certification program for driving continuous improvement in energy efficiency, will be discussed during the Environmental Law ...

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Laws and Incentives

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Biodiesel Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Laws and Incentives to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data ...

  18. ACHP - Relationship of Section 106 to Other Laws | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act and other laws. Author Advisory Council on Historic Preservation Published Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, Date...

  19. International Maritime Law Institute (IMLI) | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    agency of the United Nations. The Institute is an international centre for the training of specialists in maritime law. It also contributes to the development and...

  20. Violation of the Wiedemann-Franz Law in Hydrodynamic Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Violation of the Wiedemann-Franz Law in Hydrodynamic Electron Liquids This content will become publicly available on July 30, 2016 Prev Next Title: Violation of the ...

  1. Violation of the Wiedemann-Franz Law in Hydrodynamic Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Violation of the Wiedemann-Franz Law in Hydrodynamic Electron Liquids Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on July 30, ...

  2. A NEW REDDENING LAW FOR M4

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, Benjamin; VandenBerg, Don A.; Stetson, Peter B.; Dall'Ora, Massimo

    2012-07-15

    We have used a combination of broadband near-infrared and optical Johnson-Cousins photometry to study the dust properties in the line of sight to the Galactic globular cluster M4. We have investigated the reddening effects in terms of absolute strength and variation across the cluster field, as well as the shape of the reddening law defined by the type of dust. All three aspects had been poorly defined for this system and, consequently, there has been controversy about the absolute distance to this globular cluster, which is closest to the Sun. Here, we determine the ratio of absolute to selective extinction (R{sub V} ) in the line of sight toward M4, which is known to be a useful indicator for the type of dust and therefore characterizes the applicable reddening law. Our method is independent of age assumptions and appears to be significantly more precise and accurate than previous approaches. We obtain A{sub V} /E(B - V) = 3.76 {+-} 0.07 (random error) for the dust in the line of sight to M4 for our set of filters. That corresponds to a dust-type parameter R{sub V} = 3.62 {+-} 0.07 in the Cardelli et al. reddening law. With this value, the distance to M4 is found to be 1.80 {+-} 0.05 kpc, corresponding to a true distance modulus of (m - M){sub 0} = 11.28 {+-} 0.06 (random error). A reddening map for M4 has been created, which reveals a spatial differential reddening of {delta}E(B - V) {>=} 0.2 mag across the field within 10' around the cluster center; this is about 50% of the total mean reddening, which we have determined to be E(B - V) = 0.37 {+-} 0.01. In order to provide accurate zero points for the extinction coefficients of our photometric filters, we investigated the impact of stellar parameters such as temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity on the extinction properties and the necessary corrections in different bandpasses. Using both synthetic ATLAS9 spectra and observed spectral energy distributions, we found similarly sized effects for the range

  3. Memorandum, Protective Force Law Enforcement Authority- May 1, 2009

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Investigation allegations that contractor procetive force personnel at a DOE site exceeded their legistative ,regulatory, and policy-based authority by providing on-duty, armed off-site assistance to local law enforcement authorites during other than recapture/recovery operations, and by accessing the local law enforcement database for background checks during the course of on-site administrative traffic stops.

  4. New Guatemala law tries to attract new explorers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    With only 6,280 bopd of production and reserves of only 13 million barrels, Guatemala's 25,200 bpd thirst has forced the country to rewrite its petroleum law. Among pluses in the new law are full-cost recovery and prices based on world levels. However, the stiff royalty and no provision for neutral arbitration are significant minuses.

  5. Resurrecting power law inflation in the light of Planck results

    SciTech Connect

    Unnikrishnan, Sanil; Sahni, Varun E-mail: varun@iucaa.ernet.in

    2013-10-01

    It is well known that a canonical scalar field with an exponential potential can drive power law inflation (PLI). However, the tensor-to-scalar ratio in such models turns out to be larger than the stringent limit set by recent Planck results. We propose a new model of power law inflation for which the scalar spectra index, the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the non-gaussianity parameter f{sub N{sub L}{sup equil}} are in excellent agreement with Planck results. Inflation, in this model, is driven by a non-canonical scalar field with an inverse power law potential. The Lagrangian for our model is structurally similar to that of a canonical scalar field and has a power law form for the kinetic term. A simple extension of our model resolves the graceful exit problem which usually afflicts models of power law inflation.

  6. Power-law connections: From Zipf to Heaps and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2013-05-15

    In this paper we explore the asymptotic statistics of a general model of rank distributions in the large-ensemble limit; the construction of the general model is motivated by recent empirical studies of rank distributions. Applying Lorenzian, oligarchic, and Heapsian asymptotic analyses we establish a comprehensive set of closed-form results linking together rank distributions, probability distributions, oligarchy sizes, and innovation rates. In particular, the general results reveal the fundamental underlying connections between Zipfs law, Paretos law, and Heaps lawthree elemental empirical power-laws that are ubiquitously observed in the sciences. -- Highlights: ? The large-ensemble asymptotic statistics of rank distributions are explored. ? Lorenzian, oligarchic, and Heapsian asymptotic analyses are applied. ? Associated oligarchy sizes and induced innovation rates are analyzed. ? General elemental statistical connections are established. ? The underlying connections between Zipfs, Paretos and Heaps laws are unveiled.

  7. Relevance of the Second Law of Thermodynamics to energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Use of the Second (2nd) Law of Thermodynamic concepts in energy system analysis is assessed. The basic advantage of using the 2nd law and availability concepts is that, while the First Law of Thermodynamics considers all energy quantities with equal weight, the 2nd law (and the entropy concept) distinguishes a grade or quality of the energy being considered as well as quantity. From this distinction flow two important considerations: (1) the losses at each point in a system can be assessed and measured in units that are directly proportional to input or purchased fuel energy; and (2) the minimum energy required to perform a given function or process is ascertainable as well as the maximum energy available from a given source. These considerations represent valuable analysis tools and compel consideration of the 2nd law in the analysis of energy systems. The use of 2nd law concepts is certainly not new or neglected. Practitioners in the energy field make implicit use of these ideas in the design and operation of most contemporary energy systems. The question is addressed here of whether explicit use of these ideas can provide any new or overlooked benefits in the design, operation, and reporting of energy using systems. To address the explicit use of 2nd law concepts, three areas of concern were chosen: energy monitoring; process and system design and modification; and component design and modification.

  8. PUBLIC LAW 111-5„FEB

    Energy Saver

    329-SEPT. 30, 2008 CONSOLIDATED SECURITY, DISASTER ASSISTANCE, AND CONTINUING APPROPRIATIONS ACT, 2009 VerDate Aug 31 2005 12:35 Oct 28, 2008 Jkt 079139 PO 00329 Frm 00001 Fmt 6579 Sfmt 6579 E:\PUBLAW\PUBL329.110 APPS10 PsN: PUBL329 dkrause on GSDDPC44 with PUBLIC LAWS 122 STAT. 3574 PUBLIC LAW 110-329-SEPT. 30, 2008 Public Law 110-329 110th Congress An Act Making appropriations for the Department of Homeland Security for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2008, and for other purposes. Be it

  9. Scaling laws in magnetized plasma turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Boldyrev, Stanislav

    2015-06-28

    Interactions of plasma motion with magnetic fields occur in nature and in the laboratory in an impressively broad range of scales, from megaparsecs in astrophysical systems to centimeters in fusion devices. The fact that such an enormous array of phenomena can be effectively studied lies in the existence of fundamental scaling laws in plasma turbulence, which allow one to scale the results of analytic and numerical modeling to the sized of galaxies, velocities of supernovae explosions, or magnetic fields in fusion devices. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) provides the simplest framework for describing magnetic plasma turbulence. Recently, a number of new features of MHD turbulence have been discovered and an impressive array of thought-provoking phenomenological theories have been put forward. However, these theories have conflicting predictions, and the currently available numerical simulations are not able to resolve the contradictions. MHD turbulence exhibits a variety of regimes unusual in regular hydrodynamic turbulence. Depending on the strength of the guide magnetic field it can be dominated by weakly interacting Alfv\\'en waves or strongly interacting wave packets. At small scales such turbulence is locally anisotropic and imbalanced (cross-helical). In a stark contrast with hydrodynamic turbulence, which tends to ``forget'' global constrains and become uniform and isotropic at small scales, MHD turbulence becomes progressively more anisotropic and unbalanced at small scales. Magnetic field plays a fundamental role in turbulent dynamics. Even when such a field is not imposed by external sources, it is self-consistently generated by the magnetic dynamo action. This project aims at a comprehensive study of universal regimes of magnetic plasma turbulence, combining the modern analytic approaches with the state of the art numerical simulations. The proposed study focuses on the three topics: weak MHD turbulence, which is relevant for laboratory devices, the solar

  10. Public Law 104-134, the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Public Law 104-134, the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996 Public Law 104-13, the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996 Public Law 104-134, the Debt Collection Improvement ...

  11. FOLEY & LARDNER LLP ATTORNEYS AT LAW WASHINGTON HARBOUR 3000...

    Energy Saver

    :FOLEY FOLEY & LARDNER LLP ATTORNEYS AT LAW WASHINGTON HARBOUR 3000 K STREET, N.W. SUITE 600 WASHINGTON, D.C. 20007-5109 202.672.5300 TEL 202.672.5399 FAX foley.com WRITER'S DIRECT ...

  12. Solar and Wind Easements & Local Option Rights Laws

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Minnesota law also allows local zoning boards to restrict development for the purpose of protecting access to sunlight. In addition, zoning bodies may create variances in zoning rules in...

  13. Office of the Assistant General Counsel for General Law

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of the Assistant General Counsel for General Law (GC-56) provides legal support for non-programmatic issues other than those involving procurement and intellectual property.  The office...

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Laws and Incentives

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Laws and Incentives to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data ...

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative ...

  16. Montana Guide to the Streamside Management Zone Law & Rules Webpage...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Guide to the Streamside Management Zone Law & Rules Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Guide to the Streamside Management...

  17. Relevance of the second law of thermodynamics to energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the potential relevance of the use of analytical tools based on the Second Law of thermodynamics to existing federal programs for energy conservation in the industrial, transportation, buildings, and utility sectors in the US. (LCL)

  18. This report is mandatory under Public Law 93 275

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other sanctions as provided by law. Title 18 USC 1001 makes it a criminal offense for any person knowingly and ...

  19. Water Law and Management in Oklahoma | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: Water Law and Management in OklahomaPermittingRegulatory GuidanceGuideHandbook Abstract...

  20. Title 1 General Provisions Chapter 5 Common Law; General Rights...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    General Provisions Chapter 5 Common Law; General Rights 3 V.S.A. Section 2809 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute:...

  1. Key energy efficiency measures signed into law by President Obama...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Key energy efficiency measures signed into law by President Obama Home > Groups > OpenEI Community Central Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(2017) Super contributor 2...

  2. Montana Public Water Supply Law and Rules Webpage | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Public Water Supply Law and Rules Webpage Abstract Provides overview of statutes and...

  3. Title 19 Chapter 1 State Highway Law | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    1 State Highway LawLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 1985 Legal Citation 19 V.S.A. 1-43 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online...

  4. Solar Easements & Rights Laws | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Construction Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential State Government Federal Government Agricultural Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Photovoltaics Solar Pool Heating Program Info Sector Name State State Maryland Program Type Solar/Wind Access Policy Summary Maryland has a long-standing law protecting the rights of solar energy system owners. The original law prohibited restrictive land use covenants that imposed unreasonable limitations on the

  5. Empirical Math Model: Ideal Gas Law | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Empirical Math Model: Ideal Gas Law Empirical Math Model: Ideal Gas Law January 29, 2013 - 9:54am Addthis What are the key facts? Empirical models are generally most useful in describing conditions close to the experiments used to develop or calibrate them. Predictive tools are essential to understanding phenomena that can not be described experimentally, like used fuel behavior over thousands of years in a repository. Predictability is measured by understanding errors where they are introduced

  6. Fifth Anniversary of Radiological Alarm Response Training for Local Law

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Enforcement and First Responders Across the Country | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Fifth Anniversary of Radiological Alarm Response Training for Local Law Enforcement and First Responders Across the Country Wednesday, February 12, 2014 - 3:00pm This week marks the fifth anniversary of NNSA's Alarm Response Training (ART) program for local law enforcement and other critical first responders around the country. In the five years of providing this course, NNSA has trained

  7. AARP, National Consumer Law Center, and Public Citizen Comments

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    to:DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges | Department of Energy AARP, National Consumer Law Center, and Public Citizen Comments to:DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges AARP, National Consumer Law Center, and Public Citizen Comments to:DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges AARP submits the following comments on consumers and smart grid issues in response to the

  8. NGL Downlight Demonstration Project: Alston & Bird, LLP, Law Offices |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy NGL Downlight Demonstration Project: Alston & Bird, LLP, Law Offices NGL Downlight Demonstration Project: Alston & Bird, LLP, Law Offices As of 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates 700 million downlight luminaires were installed in residential and commercial buildings; light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires represent less than 1% of this installed base. Downlight luminaires using conventional incandescent, halogen, and compact fluorescent lamps have

  9. Analysis of self-similar solutions of multidimensional conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Keyfitz, Barbara

    2014-02-15

    This project focused on analysis of multidimensional conservation laws, specifically on extensions to the study of self-siminar solutions, a project initiated by the PI. In addition, progress was made on an approach to studying conservation laws of very low regularity; in this research, the context was a novel problem in chromatography. Two graduate students in mathematics were supported during the grant period, and have almost completed their thesis research.

  10. Fifth Anniversary of Radiological Alarm Response Training for Local Law

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Enforcement and First Responders across the Country | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Fifth Anniversary of Radiological Alarm Response Training for Local Law Enforcement and First Responders across the Country February 10, 2014 This week marks the fifth anniversary of the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Alarm Response Training (ART) program for local law enforcement and other critical first responders around the country. In the five

  11. A New Polyethylene Scattering Law Determined Using Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Lavelle, Christopher M [ORNL; Liu, C [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Stone, Matthew B [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Monte Carlo neutron transport codes such as MCNP rely on accurate data for nuclear physics cross-sections to produce accurate results. At low energy, this takes the form of scattering laws based on the dynamic structure factor, S (Q, E). High density polyethylene (HDPE) is frequently employed as a neutron moderator at both high and low temperatures, however the only cross-sections available are for T =300 K, and the evaluation has not been updated in quite some time. In this paper we describe inelastic neutron scattering measurements on HDPE at 5 and 300 K which are used to improve the scattering law for HDPE. We describe the experimental methods, review some of the past HDPE scattering laws, and compare computations using these models to the measured S (Q, E). The total cross-section is compared to available data, and the treatment of the carbon secondary scatterer as a free gas is assessed. We also discuss the use of the measurement itself as a scattering law via the 1 phonon approximation. We show that a scattering law computed using a more detailed model for the Generalized Density of States (GDOS) compares more favorably to this experiment, suggesting that inelastic neutron scattering can play an important role in both the development and validation of new scattering laws for Monte Carlo work.

  12. Criticality Calculations Using the Isopiestic Density Law of Actinide Nitrates

    SciTech Connect

    Leclaire, Nicolas P.; Anno, Jacques A.; Courtois, Gerard; Dannus, Pascal; Poullot, Gilles; Rouyer, Veronique

    2003-12-15

    Up to now, criticality safety experts used density laws fitted on experimental data and applied them outside the measurement range. Depending on the case, such an approach could be wrong for nitrate solutions. Seven components are concerned: UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, U(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}, Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}, Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}, Am(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, and HNO{sub 3}. To obviate this problem, a new methodology based on the thermodynamic concept of mixtures of binary electrolytes solutions (one electrolyte + water) at constant water activity, a so-called 'isopiestic' solution, has been developed by the Institute de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) to calculate the nitrate solutions density. This paper presents its qualification by using criticality experiments. The theory and the implementation are also given.Qualification results of the uranyl and plutonium nitrate solutions show that the new density law (also called the isopiestic law) is in good agreement with the benchmarks. Thus, no bias is put into evidence for the uranium solutions, and a small negative bias equal to 0.2% is found for the plutonium solutions.Moreover, the isopiestic law corrects the observed 1% overestimation of k{sub eff} due to the empirical IRSN Leroy and Jouan density law for uranium solutions and the observed 3.4% underestimation of k{sub eff} due to the ARH-600 density law for plutonium solutions.The isopiestic density law has been implemented in CIGALES V2.0, the graphical user interface of the French criticality safety package CRISTAL that calculates the atom densities of nuclides (and writes the input file for CRISTAL computations)

  13. Distortion of power law blinking with binning and thresholding

    SciTech Connect

    Amecke, Nicole; Heber, André; Cichos, Frank

    2014-03-21

    Fluorescence intermittency is a random switching between emitting (on) and non-emitting (off) periods found for many single chromophores such as semiconductor quantum dots and organic molecules. The statistics of the duration of on- and off-periods are commonly determined by thresholding the emission time trace of a single chromophore and appear to be power law distributed. Here we test with the help of simulations if the experimentally determined power law distributions can actually reflect the underlying statistics. We find that with the experimentally limited time resolution real power law statistics with exponents α{sub on/off} ≳ 1.6, especially if α{sub on} ≠ α{sub off} would not be observed as such in the experimental data after binning and thresholding. Instead, a power law appearance could simply be obtained from the continuous distribution of intermediate intensity levels. This challenges much of the obtained data and the models describing the so-called power law blinking.

  14. U. S. oil spill law to cause growing tanker problem

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.B.

    1991-09-30

    This paper reports on tanker owners which face a growing dilemma on the issue of oil spill liability. The U.S. Oil Pollution Act, passed last year in the wake of the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, was intended to reduce risk of and damage from such accidents. However, in addition to phasing in double hulls on most tankers operating in U.S. waters, the law substantially increases shipowner's liability for spills. And the federal law does not preempt state liability laws, which in most cases amount to unlimited liability for spill cleanup. Rather than face potentially unlimited liability in the event of a spill, tanker owners worldwide are exercising a number of options to shield themselves. Some of those options could increase the potential for oil spills, industry officials warn. The act also threatens to shatter the international alliance among shippers. A report by Drewry Shipping Consultants Ltd., London, says the law could have a devastating effect on operating practices. Tanker owners and operators have voiced the most opposition to the new spill law and the shackles it places on them. Now the industry that insures tankers has spoken up about is increased liability, and it too may launch a boycott.

  15. Letter Report: LAW Simulant Development for Cast Stone Screening Test

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Swanberg, David J.; Eibling, Russell E.; Cozzi, Alex; Lindberg, Michael J.; Josephson, Gary B.; Rinehart, Donald E.

    2013-03-27

    More than 56 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste are stored in 177 underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the wastes and immobilize them in a glass waste form. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) containing most of the radioactivity and a larger volume of low-activity waste (LAW) containing most of the nonradioactive chemicals. The HLW will be converted to glass in the HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal at an offsite federal repository. At least a portion (~35%) of the LAW will be converted to glass in the LAW vitrification facility and will be disposed of onsite at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment and HLW vitrification facilities will have the capacity to treat and immobilize the wastes destined for each facility. However, a second facility will be needed for the expected volume of additional LAW requiring immobilization. A cementitious waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide the required additional LAW immobilization capacity. The Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. The Cast Stone waste form and immobilization process must be tested to demonstrate that the final Cast Stone waste form can comply with waste acceptance criteria for the IDF disposal facility and that the immobilization processes can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. Further, the waste form must be tested to provide the technical basis for understanding the long term performance of the waste form in the IDF disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support risk assessment and performance assessment (PA) analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the waste disposal in the IDF. A

  16. Immunities from the antitrust laws for regulated entities

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.B.

    1985-05-30

    Just as regulation is an ever-present and crucial factor in most of the day-to-day operating decisions of regulated natural gas transmission and distribution companies, it is also an important factor to consider in assessing the application of the antitrust laws to the conduct of these regulated entities. The legal guidelines are far from clear and are evolving. However, as regulated entities find themselves in an ever more competitive environment, it becomes necessary for their legal counsel to monitor closely the developments in the law concerning immunities from the antitrust laws by virtue of regulation imposed by government. The author hopes that this article will provide a useful starting point for that analysis.

  17. Deviation from the Knudsen law on quantum gases

    SciTech Connect

    Babac, Gulru

    2014-12-09

    Gas flow in micro/nano scale systems has been generally studied for the Maxwell gases. In the limits of very low temperature and very confined domains, the Maxwellian approximation can break down and the quantum character of the gases becomes important. In these cases, Knudsen law, which is one of the important equations to analyze rarefied gas flows is invalid and should be reanalyzed for quantum gases. In this work, the availability of quantum gas conditions in the high Knudsen number cases is discussed and Knudsen law is analyzed for quantum gases.

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Law Enforcement Vehicles Fill up With

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Propane Texas Law Enforcement Vehicles Fill up With Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Law Enforcement Vehicles Fill up With Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Law Enforcement Vehicles Fill up With Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Law Enforcement Vehicles Fill up With Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Law Enforcement Vehicles Fill up With Propane on Delicious

  19. Law Seminar International Tribal Economic Development and Sovereignty

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Law Seminars International is hosting a two-day conference to give an overview of the current legislative developments, Supreme Court cases, and new opportunities for tribal advancement. Attendees will hear about tribal resource development in the Arctic and tribal energy challenges.

  20. Violation of Laws, Losses, and Incidents of Security Concerns

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1992-09-15

    To set forth Department of Energy (DOE) procedures to assure timely and effective action relating to violations of criminal, laws, loses, and incidents of security concern to DOE. Cancels DOE O 5631.5. Canceled by DOE O 470.1 of 9-28-1995.

  1. Clock ambiguity and the emergence of physical laws

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Andreas; Iglesias, Alberto

    2008-03-15

    The process of identifying a time variable in time-reparameterization invariant theories results in great ambiguities about the actual laws of physics described by a given theory. A theory set up to describe one set of physical laws can equally well be interpreted as describing any other laws of physics by making a different choice of time variable or clock. In this article we demonstrate how this 'clock ambiguity' arises and then discuss how one might still hope to extract specific predictions about the laws of physics even when the clock ambiguity is present. We argue that a requirement of quasiseparability should play a critical role in such an analysis. As a step in this direction, we compare the Hamiltonian of a local quantum field theory with a completely random Hamiltonian. We find that any random Hamiltonian (constructed in a sufficiently large space) can yield a 'good enough' approximation to a local field theory. Based on this result we argue that theories that suffer from the clock ambiguity may in the end provide a viable fundamental framework for physics in which locality can be seen as a strongly favored (or predicted) emergent behavior. We also speculate on how other key aspects of known physics such as gauge symmetries and Poincare invariance might be predicted to emerge in this framework.

  2. Exports and the antitrust laws: problems and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Almstedt, K.W.

    1981-11-01

    Currently pending in Congress is the Export Trading Company Act of 1981 that would clarify precisely when American businesses operating overseas are subject to American antitrust laws. The Act encourages business cooperation to increase exports. The mining industry, coal in particular, is on the verge of an export boom and can be a primary beneficiary. 26 refs.

  3. Extended Leach Testing of Simulated LAW Cast Stone Monoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.; Williams, Benjamin D.; Jung, H. B.; Wang, Guohui

    2015-07-09

    This report describes the results from long-term laboratory leach tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the release of key constituents from monoliths of Cast Stone prepared with four simulated low-activity waste (LAW) liquid waste streams. Specific objectives of the Cast Stone long-term leach tests described in this report focused on four activities: 1. Extending the leaching times for selected ongoing EPA-1315 tests on monoliths made with LAW simulants beyond the conventional 63-day time period up to 609 days reported herein (with some tests continuing that will be documented later) in an effort to evaluate long-term leaching properties of Cast Stone to support future performance assessment activities. 2. Starting new EPA-1315 leach tests on archived Cast Stone monoliths made with four LAW simulants using two leachants (deionized water [DIW] and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water [VZP]). 3. Evaluating the impacts of varying the iodide loading (starting iodide concentrations) in one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) Average) by manufacturing new Cast Stone monoliths and repeating the EPA-1315 leach tests using DIW and the VZP leachants. 4. Evaluating the impacts of using a non-pertechnetate form of Tc that is present in some Hanford tanks. In this activity one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na HTWOS Average) was spiked with a Tc(I)-tricarbonyl gluconate species and then solidified into Cast Stone monoliths. Cured monoliths were leached using the EPA-1315 leach protocol with DIW and VZP. The leach results for the Tc-Gluconate Cast Stone monoliths were compared to Cast Stone monoliths pertechnetate.

  4. Osage oil: Mineral law, murder, mayhem, and manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, R.

    1995-12-31

    The greatest of the 20th century Osage chiefs, Fred Lookout, feared what the rich oil bonanza under tribal lands would do to his people. He forsaw that oil wealth could turn into a curse as well as a blessing, and it was both. The story of Osage oil is a case history in the failure of law, the failure of Indian policy and the struggle for survival of the indomitable spirit of a great Native people force to deal with both the curse and the blessing of black gold. This article examines law and policy as seen in Osage oil regulation, outlining the legal controls of the land and mineral regulatory system and briefly exploring the breakdowns of the system.

  5. 2014 Enhanced LAW Glass Property-Composition Models, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Isabelle; Pegg, Ian L.; Joseph, Innocent; Gilbo, Konstantin

    2015-10-28

    This report describes the results of testing specified by the Enhanced LAW Glass Property-Composition Models, VSL-13T3050-1, Rev. 0 Test Plan. The work was performed in compliance with the quality assurance requirements specified in the Test Plan. Results required by the Test Plan are reported. The te4st results and this report have been reviewed for correctness, technical adequacy, completeness, and accuracy.

  6. Generalised relativistic Ohm's laws, extended gauge transformations, and magnetic linking

    SciTech Connect

    Pegoraro, F.

    2015-11-15

    Generalisations of the relativistic ideal Ohm's law are presented that include specific dynamical features of the current carrying particles in a plasma. Cases of interest for space and laboratory plasmas are identified where these generalisations allow for the definition of generalised electromagnetic fields that transform under a Lorentz boost in the same way as the real electromagnetic fields and that obey the same set of homogeneous Maxwell's equations.

  7. DOE Awards Hanford Site Law Enforcement Contract to Benton County

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, WASH. – The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded a contract to the Benton County Sheriff’s Office in Kennewick, Wash., to provide law enforcement services at the DOE Hanford Site. The contract has a five-year period of performance, consisting of a one-year base period, with four one-year option periods and an approximate total value of $5 million.

  8. Power-law cosmology, SN Ia, and BAO

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, Aleksander; Halenka, Vitali; Tkachev, Igor E-mail: vithal@umich.edu

    2014-10-01

    We revise observational constraints on the class of models of modified gravity which at low redshifts lead to a power-law cosmology. To this end we use available public data on Supernova Ia and on baryon acoustic oscillations. We show that the expansion regime a(t)?t{sup ?} with ? close to 3/2 in a spatially flat universe is a good fit to these data.

  9. Daniel Cohen Assistant General Counsel for Legislation and Regulatory Law

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    2, 2014 Daniel Cohen Assistant General Counsel for Legislation and Regulatory Law Office of the General Counsel Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585-0121 Re: Ex Parte Communication following meeting between DOE and the National Marine Manufacturers Association At 2 p.m. ET on Wednesday, May 7 2014 the National Marine Manufacturers Association (NMMA) along with representatives from three of its member organizations met with Jeremy Dommu of the Department of

  10. Daniel Cohen Assistant General Counsel for Legislation and Regulatory Law

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Daniel Cohen Assistant General Counsel for Legislation and Regulatory Law Office of the General Counsel Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585-0121 Re: Ex Parte Memorandum Dear Mr. Cohen: On Tuesday, May 4, 2010, Kit Kennedy and Kate Houren of the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) initiated a telephone call with Daniel Cohen and Bryan Miller of the Department of Energy's Office of the General Council. During the call, NRDC advocated for the adoption of the

  11. Argonne researchers posit way to locally circumvent Second Law of

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermodynamics | Argonne National Laboratory You may also like Integrated Imaging Institute helps innovators envision success October 21, 2016 Argonne researchers posit way to locally circumvent Second Law of Thermodynamics October 19, 2016 Building a room clean enough to make sensors to find light from the birth of the universe October 17, 2016 Argonne and Kyma Technologies win spot in second cohort of Technologist In Residence Program October 6, 2016 A novel way to power greener homes

  12. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    SciTech Connect

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  13. Robust regression on noisy data for fusion scaling laws

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoolaege, Geert

    2014-11-15

    We introduce the method of geodesic least squares (GLS) regression for estimating fusion scaling laws. Based on straightforward principles, the method is easily implemented, yet it clearly outperforms established regression techniques, particularly in cases of significant uncertainty on both the response and predictor variables. We apply GLS for estimating the scaling of the L-H power threshold, resulting in estimates for ITER that are somewhat higher than predicted earlier.

  14. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Nebraska governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitiled ''Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities--Volume One: An Overview.'' This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  15. FIA-13-0074 - In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    74 - In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group, LLC FIA-13-0074 - In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group, LLC On December 16, 2013, the Department of Energy's (DOE) ...

  16. NEPA at 19: A Primer on an "Old" Law with Solutions to New Problems...

    Energy Saver

    at 19: A Primer on an "Old" Law with Solutions to New Problems (CEQ, 1989) NEPA at 19: A Primer on an "Old" Law with Solutions to New Problems (CEQ, 1989) In this article, the ...

  17. FIA-13-0027 - In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    27 - In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group, LLC FIA-13-0027 - In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group, LLC On June 10, 2013, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office ...

  18. FIA-12-0056 - In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    56 - In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group, LLC FIA-12-0056 - In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group, LLC On October 19, 2012, the Department of Energy's (DOE) ...

  19. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER...

  20. Getting into hot water: the law of geothermal resources in Colorado...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Getting into hot water: the law of geothermal resources in Colorado Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Periodical: Getting into hot water: the law...

  1. Public Law 109-364, dated OCT 17, 2006 | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Public Law 109-364, dated OCT 17, 2006, Subtitle D-United States Defense Industrial Base Provisions Public Law 109-364, dated OCT 17, 2006 More Documents & Publications Special...

  2. 1 V.S.A. Chapter 5 Common Law; General Rights | Open Energy Informatio...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    V.S.A. Chapter 5 Common Law; General Rights Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: 1 V.S.A. Chapter 5 Common Law;...

  3. Long-Range Validity of Threshold Laws in Inner-Shell Photodetachment

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Wednesday, 29 March 2006 00:00 A threshold law describes the dependence of a reaction ... threshold behavior with a threshold law or a departure from it can be a sensitive ...

  4. City of Santa Cruz- Solar Access Ordinance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Before a development plan can be approved in the City of Santa Cruz, it must be found that the orientation and location of buildings, structures, open spaces and other features of the site plan...

  5. Model Ordinance for Renewable Energy Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Oregon Department of Energy issued guidance to local governments to address wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, and co-generation project planning needs at the city and county level in July 2005...

  6. City of Ashland- Solar Rights Ordinance

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Property owners can apply for a Solar Access Permit for protection of shading by vegetation only. Shading by buildings is protected by the solar setback provision.

  7. Compendium of ordinances for groundwater protection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    Groundwater is an extremely important resource in the Tennessee Valley. Nearly two-thirds of the Tennessee Valley's residents rely, at least in part, on groundwater supplies for drinking water. In rural areas, approximately ninety-five percent of residents rely on groundwater for domestic supplies. Population growth and economic development increase the volume and kinds of wastes requiring disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal problems associated with increases in conventional wastewater and solid waste, technological advancements in recent decades have resulted in new chemicals and increased usage in agriculture, industry, and the home. Unfortunately, there has not been comparable progress in identifying the potential long-term effects of these chemicals, in managing them to prevent contamination of groundwater, or in developing treatment technologies for removing them from water once contamination has occurred. The challenge facing residence of the Tennessee Valley is to manage growth and economic and technological development in ways that will avoid polluting the groundwater resource. Once groundwater has been contaminated, cleanup is almost always very costly and is sometimes impractical or technically infeasible. Therefore, prevention of contamination -- not remedial treatment--is the key to continued availability of usable groundwater. This document discusses regulations to aid in this prevention.

  8. Guidance for Local Wind Energy Ordinances

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New York State Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) has created a wind energy toolkit to provide information on various aspects of wind energy development and to help communities that...

  9. Recent tax law changes create new opportunities for leasing wind energy property

    SciTech Connect

    Schutzer, George J.

    2010-01-15

    Recent changes in tax law make leveraged lease transactions far more attractive on paper than they were before the changes. However, changes in the economy and the financial industry and other changes in law counterbalance the favorable tax law changes and make it uncertain whether lease transactions will be used to finance new wind facilities. (author)

  10. Proceedings of the Eastern Mineral Law Foundation's 1983 fourth annual institute

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on mineral law. Topics considered include oil and gas leases, the environmental regulation of coal mining, breach of coal supply contracts, coal bankruptcies, natural gas pricing regulation, landowner's royalties, recent developments in oil and gas law, and recent cases affecting coal law practice.

  11. A weak zero-one law for sequences of random distance graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukovskii, Maksim E

    2012-07-31

    We study zero-one laws for properties of random distance graphs. Properties written in a first-order language are considered. For p(N) such that pN{sup {alpha}}{yields}{infinity} as N{yields}{infinity}, and (1-p)N{sup {alpha}} {yields} {infinity} as N {yields} {infinity} for any {alpha}>0, we succeed in refuting the law. In this connection, we consider a weak zero-one j-law. For this law, we obtain results for random distance graphs which are similar to the assertions concerning the classical zero-one law for random graphs. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  12. Controlling weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-08-08

    Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the improvement in international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. The emphasis in the phrase ``Cold War`` was on the word ``cold,`` and relations with the former Communist regimes are now ``warm`` by comparison. It is equally valid to consider what has happened to the word ``was` in this highly descriptive phrase. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of the last fifty years, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. Out of these military postures a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to controlling weapons,of mass destruction through the ``rule of law.`` Rawls wrote that ``legal system is a coercive order of public rules addressed to rational persons for the purpose of regulating their conduct and providing the framework for social cooperation. The regular and impartial administration of public rules, becomes the rule of law when applied to the legal system.`` Inparticular, Rawls identifies as part of this system of public rules those laws that aim to prevent free riders on the economic system and those that aim to correct such externalities as environmental pollution.``

  13. Inflation in the generalized inverse power law scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zhun

    2013-11-01

    We propose a single field inflationary model by generalizing the inverse power law potential from the intermediate model. We study the implication of our model on the primordial anisotropy of cosmological microwave background radiation. Specifically, we apply the slow-roll approximation to calculate the scalar spectral tilt n{sub s} and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r. The results are compared with the recent data measured by the Planck satellite. We find that by choosing proper values for the parameters, our model can well describe the Planck data.

  14. Summary - WTP Analytical Lab, BOF and LAW Waste Vitrification Facilities

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Wa Schem DOE is Immob site's t facilitie Balanc Activity of this techno facilitie are su WTP d Readin The as along w Level ( * Tw 1. 2. The Ele Site: H roject: W Report Date: M ited States aste Trea Labo Why DOE matic of Laser Ab s constructing bilization Plant tank wastes. T es including an ces of Facilities y Waste (LAW assessment w ology elements es (LAB, BOF, fficiently matur design, which n ness Level of 6 What th ssessment team with each elem (TRL) for the L wo LAB system . Autosamplin

  15. Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications

    SciTech Connect

    Barshick, S.-A.; Griest, W.H.; Vass, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic `fingerprint` pattern representative of the vapor- phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The results to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

  16. Large Deformation Constitutive Laws for Isotropic Thermoelastic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Plohr, Bradley J.; Plohr, Jeeyeon N.

    2012-07-25

    We examine the approximations made in using Hooke's law as a constitutive relation for an isotropic thermoelastic material subjected to large deformation by calculating the stress evolution equation from the free energy. For a general thermoelastic material, we employ the volume-preserving part of the deformation gradient to facilitate volumetric/shear strain decompositions of the free energy, its first derivatives (the Cauchy stress and entropy), and its second derivatives (the specific heat, Grueneisen tensor, and elasticity tensor). Specializing to isotropic materials, we calculate these constitutive quantities more explicitly. For deformations with limited shear strain, but possibly large changes in volume, we show that the differential equations for the stress components involve new terms in addition to the traditional Hooke's law terms. These new terms are of the same order in the shear strain as the objective derivative terms needed for frame indifference; unless the latter terms are negligible, the former cannot be neglected. We also demonstrate that accounting for the new terms requires that the deformation gradient be included as a field variable

  17. Effects of collisions on conservation laws in gyrokinetic field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, H.; Nunami, M.; Watanabe, T.-H.

    2015-08-15

    Effects of collisions on conservation laws for toroidal plasmas are investigated based on the gyrokinetic field theory. Associating the collisional system with a corresponding collisionless system at a given time such that the two systems have the same distribution functions and electromagnetic fields instantaneously, it is shown how the collisionless conservation laws derived from Noether's theorem are modified by the collision term. Effects of the external source term added into the gyrokinetic equation can be formulated similarly with the collisional effects. Particle, energy, and toroidal momentum balance equations including collisional and turbulent transport fluxes are systematically derived using a novel gyrokinetic collision operator, by which the collisional change rates of energy and canonical toroidal angular momentum per unit volume in the gyrocenter space can be given in the conservative forms. The ensemble-averaged transport equations of particles, energy, and toroidal momentum given in the present work are shown to include classical, neoclassical, and turbulent transport fluxes which agree with those derived from conventional recursive formulations.

  18. LiveWall Operational Evaluation: Seattle Law Enforcement Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Burtner, Edwin R.; Stein, Steven L.

    2013-10-01

    The LiveWall concept envisioned as an outgrowth of the Precision Information Environment (PIE) project allows communications between separate groups using interactive video, audio, and a shared desktop environment; this allows everyone to participate and collaborate in real time, regardless of location. The LiveWall concept provides a virtual window to other locations, where all parties can interact and collaboratively work with each other. This functionality is intended to improve multi-site coordination amongst emergency operations centers (EOC), field operations sites and across organizations and jurisdictions to accommodate communications during routine and emergency events. For the initial LiveWall operational evaluation PNNL partnered with the Seattle Police Department (SPD). This partnership allowed for the creation of an excellent LiveWall test bed specific to law enforcement. This partnership made it possible to test the LiveWall concept with scenarios involving the many facets of the law enforcement work done by SPD. PNNL and SPD agreed that integrating the systems into operations for a real event would be the best test of the technology and give SPD staff greater visibility into the functionality and benefits offered by the LiveWall concept.

  19. Pathways of Barotrauma in Juvenile Salmonids Exposed to Simulated Hydroturbine Passage: Boyle’s Law vs. Henry’s Law

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Brauner, Colin J.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Seaburg, Adam

    2012-06-01

    On their seaward migration, juvenile salmonids commonly pass hydroelectric dams. Fish passing by the turbine blade may experience rapid decompression, the severity of which can be highly variable and may result in a number of barotraumas. The mechanisms of these injuries can be due to expansion of existing bubbles or gases coming out of solution; governed by Boyle’s Law and Henry’s Law, respectively. This paper combines re-analysis of published data with new experiments to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury and mortality for fish experiencing rapid decompression associated with hydroturbine passage. From these data it appears that the majority of decompression related injuries are due to the expansion of existing bubbles in the fish, particularly the expansion and rupture of the swim bladder. This information is particularly useful for fisheries managers and turbine manufacturers, demonstrating that reducing the rate of swim bladder ruptures by reducing the frequency of occurrence and severity of rapid decompression during hydroturbine passage could reduce the rates of injury and mortality for hydroturbine passed juvenile salmonids.

  20. Improved Engine Design Concepts Using the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-30

    This project was aimed at developing and using numerical tools which incorporate the second law of thermodynamics to better understand engine operation and particularly the combustion process. A major activity of this project was the continual enhancement and use of an existing engine cycle simulation to investigate a wide range of engine parameters and concepts. The major motivation of these investigations was to improve engine efficiency. These improvements were examined from both the first law and second law perspective. One of the most important aspects of this work was the identification of the combustion irreversibilities as functions of engine design and operating parameters. The combustion irreversibility may be quantified in a number of ways but one especially useful way is by determining the destruction of exergy (availability) during the combustion process. This destruction is the penalty due to converting the fuel exergy to thermal energy for producing work. The engine cycle simulation was used to examine the performance of an automotive (5.7 liter), V-8 spark-ignition engine. A base case was defined for operation at 1400 rpm, stoichiometric, MBT spark timing with a bmep of 325 kPa. For this condition, the destruction of exergy during the combustion process was 21.0%. Variations of many engine parameters (including speed, load, and spark timing) did not alter the level of destruction very much (with these variations, the exergy destruction was within the range of 20.5-21.5%). Also, the use of turbocharging or the use of an over-expanded engine design did not significantly change the exergy destruction. The exergy destruction during combustion was most affected by increased inlet oxygen concentration (which reduced the destruction due to the higher combustion temperatures) and by the use of cooled EGR (which increased the destruction). This work has demonstrated that, in general, the exergy destruction for conventional engines is fairly constant ({approx

  1. Power-law and exponential rank distributions: A panoramic Gibbsian perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-04-15

    Rank distributions are collections of positive sizes ordered either increasingly or decreasingly. Many decreasing rank distributions, formed by the collective collaboration of human actions, follow an inverse power-law relation between ranks and sizes. This remarkable empirical fact is termed Zipf’s law, and one of its quintessential manifestations is the demography of human settlements — which exhibits a harmonic relation between ranks and sizes. In this paper we present a comprehensive statistical-physics analysis of rank distributions, establish that power-law and exponential rank distributions stand out as optimal in various entropy-based senses, and unveil the special role of the harmonic relation between ranks and sizes. Our results extend the contemporary entropy-maximization view of Zipf’s law to a broader, panoramic, Gibbsian perspective of increasing and decreasing power-law and exponential rank distributions — of which Zipf’s law is one out of four pillars.

  2. Ubiquity of Benford's law and emergence of the reciprocal distribution

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Friar, James Lewis; Goldman, Terrance J.; Pérez-Mercader, J.

    2016-04-07

    In this paper, we apply the Law of Total Probability to the construction of scale-invariant probability distribution functions (pdf's), and require that probability measures be dimensionless and unitless under a continuous change of scales. If the scale-change distribution function is scale invariant then the constructed distribution will also be scale invariant. Repeated application of this construction on an arbitrary set of (normalizable) pdf's results again in scale-invariant distributions. The invariant function of this procedure is given uniquely by the reciprocal distribution, suggesting a kind of universality. Finally, we separately demonstrate that the reciprocal distribution results uniquely from requiring maximum entropymore » for size-class distributions with uniform bin sizes.« less

  3. Cosmological Ohm's law and dynamics of non-minimal electromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenstein, Lukas; Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Urban, Federico R. E-mail: jain@cp3.dias.sdu.dk

    2013-01-01

    The origin of large-scale magnetic fields in cosmic structures and the intergalactic medium is still poorly understood. We explore the effects of non-minimal couplings of electromagnetism on the cosmological evolution of currents and magnetic fields. In this context, we revisit the mildly non-linear plasma dynamics around recombination that are known to generate weak magnetic fields. We use the covariant approach to obtain a fully general and non-linear evolution equation for the plasma currents and derive a generalised Ohm law valid on large scales as well as in the presence of non-minimal couplings to cosmological (pseudo-)scalar fields. Due to the sizeable conductivity of the plasma and the stringent observational bounds on such couplings, we conclude that modifications of the standard (adiabatic) evolution of magnetic fields are severely limited in these scenarios. Even at scales well beyond a Mpc, any departure from flux freezing behaviour is inhibited.

  4. Parallel, adaptive finite element methods for conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, R.; Devine, K.D.; Flaherty, J.E. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY )

    1994-01-01

    We construct parallel finite element methods for the solution of hyperbolic conservation laws in one and two dimensions. Spatial discretization is performed by a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method using a basis of piecewise Legendre polynomials. Temporal discretization utilizes a Runge-Kutta method. Dissipative fluxes and projection limiting prevent oscillations near solution discontinuities. A posteriori estimates of spatial errors are obtained by a p-refinement technique using superconvergence at Radau points. The resulting method is of high order and may be parallelized efficiently on MIMD computers. We compare results using different limiting schemes and demonstrate parallel efficiency through computations on an NCUBE/2 hypercube. We also present results using adaptive h- and p-refinement to reduce the computational cost of the method.

  5. On the Applicability of Fick's Law to Diffusion in Inhomogeneous Systems

    SciTech Connect

    van Milligen, B. Ph.; Bons, P. D.; Carreras, Benjamin A; Sanchez, Raul

    2005-09-01

    Two alternative expressions exist for the diffusive flux in inhomogeneous systems: Fick's law and the Fokker-Planck law. Here we re-examine the origin of these expressions and perform numerical and physical experiments to shed light on this duality. We conclude that in general the Fokker-Planck expression should be conceded preference, in spite of the fact that Fick's law seems to be more popular.

  6. ADR LUNCHTIME PROGRAM: "Crisis Negotiation: Apply the Skills Used By Law

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Enforcement In Resolving Conflict Situations" | Department of Energy LUNCHTIME PROGRAM: "Crisis Negotiation: Apply the Skills Used By Law Enforcement In Resolving Conflict Situations" ADR LUNCHTIME PROGRAM: "Crisis Negotiation: Apply the Skills Used By Law Enforcement In Resolving Conflict Situations" Law enforcement, crisis/hostage negotiators, and other police personnel use highly effective communication and de-escalation techniques to help calm people in

  7. Acquisition Guide Chapter 25, Compliance with U.S. Export Control Laws,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Regulations, and Policies | Department of Energy 25, Compliance with U.S. Export Control Laws, Regulations, and Policies Acquisition Guide Chapter 25, Compliance with U.S. Export Control Laws, Regulations, and Policies DATE: June 06, 2016 TO: Procurement Directors/Contracting Officers FROM: Office of Acquisition Management SUBJECT: Acquisition Guide Chapter 25, Compliance with U.S. Export Control Laws, Regulations, and Policies SUMMARY: The subject guide chapter has been revised to change

  8. Environmental Law Institute Webinar to Promote Superior Energy Performance™ on July 22, 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Superior Energy Performance™ (SEP), the U.S. certification program for driving continuous improvement in energy efficiency, will be discussed during the Environmental Law Institute (ELI) seminar on...

  9. Acid mine drainage: Common law, SMCRA, and the Clean Water Act

    SciTech Connect

    Henrich, C.

    1995-12-31

    Acid mine drainage is a major problem related to coal mining which, if unabated, can severely damage the aquatic environment. Damage resulting from acid mine drainage was first addressed by common law and riparian principles. As societal laws changed, common law principles alone could not effectively control this problem. Preventing and controlling pollution including acid mine drainage are important goals of the Surface Mining Control Reclamation Act (SMCRA) and the Clean Water Act (CWA). This article examines how common law, SMCRA, and the CWA address the acid mine drainage issue independently, and how improvements in the control of acid mine drainage can be achieved.

  10. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED...

    Energy Saver

    development of combined heat and power ("CHP") facilities, as well as to determine ... THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIES CHP: ...

  11. National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 [Public Law (PL)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    104-113] | Department of Energy Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 [Public Law (PL) 104-113] National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 [Public Law (PL) 104-113] On March 7, 1996, President Clinton signed into law "The National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995." The new law, referred to as PL 104-113, serves to continue the policy changes initiated in the 1980s under Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-119 (OMB A-119), Federal

  12. WTP Calculation Sheet: Determining the LAW Glass Former Constituents and Amounts for G2 and Acm Models. 24590-LAW-M4C-LFP-00002, Rev. B

    SciTech Connect

    Gimpel, Rodney F.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2013-12-16

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the LAW glass former recipe and additives with their respective amounts. The methodology and equations contained herein are to be used in the G2 and ACM models until better information is supplied by R&T efforts. This revision includes calculations that determines the mass and volume of the bulk chemicals/minerals needed per batch. Plus, it contains calculations (for the G2 model) to help prevent overflow in LAW Feed Preparation Vessel.

  13. Public Law 108-458-Dec. 17, 2004; Intelligence Reform and Terrorism...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    6579 E:PUBLAWPUBL458.108 APPS06 PsN: PUBL458 118 STAT. 3638 PUBLIC LAW 108-458-DEC. 17, 2004 Public Law 108-458 108th Congress An Act To reform the intelligence community and ...

  14. POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #07 Current Appropriations Law and Compensation of Foreign Nationals

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Due to recent changes in appropriations law, the Department no longer has the authority to compensate a noncitizen, unless the noncitizen is lawfully admitted for permanent residence, or falls within one of a few very narrow exceptions based on the individuals profession.

  15. PUBLIC LAW 102-486-OCT. 24, 1992, 106 STAT. 2951 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    102-486-OCT. 24, 1992, 106 STAT. 2951 PUBLIC LAW 102-486-OCT. 24, 1992, 106 STAT. 2951 P.L.102-486 106stat2951.pdf (138.46 KB) More Documents & Publications Federal Regulations for Natural Gas Imports and Exports Patent and copyright cases PUBLIC LAW 97-415-JAN. 4, 1983, 96 STAT. 2078

  16. PUBLIC LAW 97-415-JAN. 4, 1983, 96 STAT. 2078 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    97-415-JAN. 4, 1983, 96 STAT. 2078 PUBLIC LAW 97-415-JAN. 4, 1983, 96 STAT. 2078 P.L.97-415 96stat2078.pdf (233.89 KB) More Documents & Publications PUBLIC LAW 102-486-OCT. 24, 1992, 106 STAT. 2951 Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970 Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy.

  17. Generalized second law of thermodynamics in f(T) gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Karami, K.; Abdolmaleki, A. E-mail: AAbdolmaleki@uok.ac.ir

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the validity of the generalized second law (GSL) of gravitational thermodynamics in the framework of f(T) modified teleparallel gravity. We consider a spatially flat FRW universe containing only the pressureless matter. The boundary of the universe is assumed to be enclosed by the Hubble horizon. For two viable f(T) models containing f(T) = T+?{sub 1}((?T)){sup n} and f(T) = T??{sub 2}T(1?e{sup ?T{sub 0}/T}), we first calculate the effective equation of state and deceleration parameters. Then, (we investigate the null and strong energy conditions and conclude that a sudden future singularity appears in both models. Furthermore, using a cosmographic analysis we check the viability of two models. Finally, we examine the validity of the GSL and find that for both models it) is satisfied from the early times to the present epoch. But in the future, the GSL is violated for the special ranges of the torsion scalar T.

  18. Environment and NAFTA: Understanding and implementing the new continental law

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.M.; Beaulieu, A.

    1995-12-01

    Two internationally-known experts discuss both law and policy as they examine the environmental implications of the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the related North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC). The authors consider the context in which those implications were brought to the negotiating table, the legal mechanism established to address them, and the original trilateral institution set up to maintain a continent-wide level of environmental cooperation. The authors explain how NAFTA and its interaction with NAAEC might take place and how that will affect trade policy and practices, environmental protection efforts, and the relationships between Canada, Mexico, and the United States. In addition, they consider the environmental features of NAFTA as part of the `social agenda` of trade--the environmental, labor, and broad human rights issues that are coming to play an increasing role in the development of international agreements. The manner in which NAFTA parties have confronted that challenge provides valuable insight into the future of regional and international cooperation. Also included in the volume are appendices that provide the complete text of the NAAEC along with selected provisions of NAFTA that relate to the environment.

  19. ON THE STAR FORMATION LAW FOR SPIRAL AND IRREGULAR GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2015-12-01

    A dynamical model for star formation on a galactic scale is proposed in which the interstellar medium is constantly condensing to star-forming clouds on the dynamical time of the average midplane density, and the clouds are constantly being disrupted on the dynamical timescale appropriate for their higher density. In this model, the areal star formation rate scales with the 1.5 power of the total gas column density throughout the main regions of spiral galaxies, and with a steeper power, 2, in the far outer regions and in dwarf irregular galaxies because of the flaring disks. At the same time, there is a molecular star formation law that is linear in the main and outer parts of disks and in dIrrs because the duration of individual structures in the molecular phase is also the dynamical timescale, canceling the additional 0.5 power of surface density. The total gas consumption time scales directly with the midplane dynamical time, quenching star formation in the inner regions if there is no accretion, and sustaining star formation for ∼100 Gyr or more in the outer regions with no qualitative change in gas stability or molecular cloud properties. The ULIRG track follows from high densities in galaxy collisions.

  20. Constitutive Law and Flow Mechanism in Diamond Deformation

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Yu, Xiaohui; Raterron, Paul; Zhang, Jianzhong; Lin, Zhijun; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Yusheng

    2012-11-19

    Constitutive laws and crystal plasticity in diamond deformation have been the subjects of substantial interest since synthetic diamond was made in 1950's. To date, however, little is known quantitatively regarding its brittle-ductile properties and yield strength at high temperatures. In this paper, we report, for the first time, the strain-stress constitutive relations and experimental demonstration of deformation mechanisms under confined high pressure. The deformation at room temperature is essentially brittle, cataclastic, and mostly accommodated by fracturing on {111} plane with no plastic yielding at uniaxial strains up to 15%. At elevated temperatures of 1000°C and 1200°C diamond crystals exhibit significantmore » ductile flow with corresponding yield strength of 7.9 and 6.3 GPa, indicating that diamond starts to weaken when temperature is over 1000°C. Finally, at high temperature the plastic deformation and ductile flow is meditated by the <110>{111} dislocation glide and a very active {111} micro-twinning.« less

  1. Quantum Hooke's Law to classify pulse laser induced ultrafast melting

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Hu, Hao; Ding, Hepeng; Liu, Feng

    2015-02-03

    Ultrafast crystal-to-liquid phase transition induced by femtosecond pulse laser excitation is an interesting material's behavior manifesting the complexity of light-matter interaction. There exist two types of such phase transitions: one occurs at a time scale shorter than a picosecond via a nonthermal process mediated by electron-hole plasma formation; the other at a longer time scale via a thermal melting process mediated by electron-phonon interaction. However, it remains unclear what material would undergo which process and why? Here, by exploiting the property of quantum electronic stress (QES) governed by quantum Hooke's law, we classify the transitions by two distinct classes ofmore » materials: the faster nonthermal process can only occur in materials like ice having an anomalous phase diagram characterized with dTm/dP < 0, where Tm is the melting temperature and P is pressure, above a high threshold laser fluence; while the slower thermal process may occur in all materials. Especially, the nonthermal transition is shown to be induced by the QES, acting like a negative internal pressure, which drives the crystal into a “super pressing” state to spontaneously transform into a higher-density liquid phase. Our findings significantly advance fundamental understanding of ultrafast crystal-to-liquid phase transitions, enabling quantitative a priori predictions.« less

  2. Quantum Hooke's Law to classify pulse laser induced ultrafast melting

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Hao; Ding, Hepeng; Liu, Feng

    2015-02-03

    Ultrafast crystal-to-liquid phase transition induced by femtosecond pulse laser excitation is an interesting material's behavior manifesting the complexity of light-matter interaction. There exist two types of such phase transitions: one occurs at a time scale shorter than a picosecond via a nonthermal process mediated by electron-hole plasma formation; the other at a longer time scale via a thermal melting process mediated by electron-phonon interaction. However, it remains unclear what material would undergo which process and why? Here, by exploiting the property of quantum electronic stress (QES) governed by quantum Hooke's law, we classify the transitions by two distinct classes of materials: the faster nonthermal process can only occur in materials like ice having an anomalous phase diagram characterized with dTm/dP < 0, where Tm is the melting temperature and P is pressure, above a high threshold laser fluence; while the slower thermal process may occur in all materials. Especially, the nonthermal transition is shown to be induced by the QES, acting like a negative internal pressure, which drives the crystal into a super pressing state to spontaneously transform into a higher-density liquid phase. Our findings significantly advance fundamental understanding of ultrafast crystal-to-liquid phase transitions, enabling quantitative a priori predictions.

  3. International energy program and United States antitrust law

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Congress granted participating US oil companies a limited antitrust defense, through Section 252 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, for certain actions taken in carrying out the International Energy Agency's (IEA) emergency oil allocation and information systems. These limits (1) apply only to actions taken in accordance with approved voluntary plans, (2) are not applicable if the purpose is to injure competition, and (3) apply only to voluntary plans or agreements concerning allocation and information provisions of the International Energy Program. These limitations are augmented by other antitrust safeguards incorporated in the Voluntary Agreement. Actions by oil companies outside antitrust defense do not necessarily violate the antitrust laws. A May 1981 revised draft of Plan of Action was issued by DOE. Comments raised are concerns for independent transactions and whether the limited antitrust defense should be extended to some reallocation activities independent of IEA requests. Risks (such as collusion) arising from participation in meetings with government and joint action by competitors are outlined. 15 references.

  4. Parallel partitioning strategies for the adaptive solution of conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, K.D.; Flaherty, J.E.; Loy, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    We describe and examine the performance of adaptive methods for Solving hyperbolic systems of conservation laws on massively parallel computers. The differential system is approximated by a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method with a hierarchical Legendre piecewise polynomial basis for the spatial discretization. Fluxes at element boundaries are computed by solving an approximate Riemann problem; a projection limiter is applied to keep the average solution monotone; time discretization is performed by Runge-Kutta integration; and a p-refinement-based error estimate is used as an enrichment indicator. Adaptive order (p-) and mesh (h-) refinement algorithms are presented and demonstrated. Using an element-based dynamic load balancing algorithm called tiling and adaptive p-refinement, parallel efficiencies of over 60% are achieved on a 1024-processor nCUBE/2 hypercube. We also demonstrate a fast, tree-based parallel partitioning strategy for three-dimensional octree-structured meshes. This method produces partition quality comparable to recursive spectral bisection at a greatly reduced cost.

  5. Illinois SB 1987: the Clean Coal Portfolio Standard Law

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-15

    On January 12, 2009, Governor Rod Blagojevich signed SB 1987, the Clean Coal Portfolio Standard Law. The legislation establishes emission standards for new coal-fueled power plants power plants that use coal as their primary feedstock. From 2009-2015, new coal-fueled power plants must capture and store 50 percent of the carbon emissions that the facility would otherwise emit; from 2016-2017, 70 percent must be captured and stored; and after 2017, 90 percent must be captured and stored. SB 1987 also establishes a goal of having 25 percent of electricity used in the state to come from cost-effective coal-fueled power plants that capture and store carbon emissions by 2025. Illinois is the first state to establish a goal for producing electricity from coal-fueled power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS). To support the commercial development of CCS technology, the legislation guarantees purchase agreements for the first Illinois coal facility with CCS technology, the Taylorville Energy Center (TEC); Illinois utilities are required to purchase at least 5 percent of their electricity supply from the TEC, provided that customer rates experience only modest increases. The TEC is expected to be completed in 2014 with the ability to capture and store at least 50 percent of its carbon emissions.

  6. CONSISTENT SCALING LAWS IN ANELASTIC SPHERICAL SHELL DYNAMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Rakesh K.; Gastine, Thomas; Christensen, Ulrich R.; Duarte, Lucia D. V.

    2013-09-01

    Numerical dynamo models always employ parameter values that differ by orders of magnitude from the values expected in natural objects. However, such models have been successful in qualitatively reproducing properties of planetary and stellar dynamos. This qualitative agreement fuels the idea that both numerical models and astrophysical objects may operate in the same asymptotic regime of dynamics. This can be tested by exploring the scaling behavior of the models. For convection-driven incompressible spherical shell dynamos with constant material properties, scaling laws had been established previously that relate flow velocity and magnetic field strength to the available power. Here we analyze 273 direct numerical simulations using the anelastic approximation, involving also cases with radius-dependent magnetic, thermal, and viscous diffusivities. These better represent conditions in gas giant planets and low-mass stars compared to Boussinesq models. Our study provides strong support for the hypothesis that both mean velocity and mean magnetic field strength scale as a function of the power generated by buoyancy forces in the same way for a wide range of conditions.

  7. Radioactivity in the ocean: laws and biological effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the literature on US laws and international agreements, experimental and monitoring data, and ongoing studies to provide background information for environmental assessment and regulatory compliance activities for ocean dumping of low-level radioactive waste. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act is the major US legislation governing ocean disposal of radioactive waste. The major international agreement on ocean dumping is the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter. The United States ended its ocean dumping of radioactive wastes in 1970, but other countries have continued ocean dumping under international supervision in the northeast Atlantic. Monitoring of former US disposal sites has neither revealed significant effects on marine biota nor indicated a hazard to human health. Also, no effects on marine organisms have been found that could be attributed to routine discharges into the Irish Sea from the Windscale reprocessing plant. We must improve our ability to predict the oceanic carrying capacity and the fate and effects of ionizing radiation in the marine environment.

  8. Cosmology with hybrid expansion law: scalar field reconstruction of cosmic history and observational constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Akarsu, Özgür; Kumar, Suresh; Myrzakulov, R.; Sami, M.; Xu, Lixin E-mail: sukuyd@gmail.com E-mail: samijamia@gmail.com

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a simple form of expansion history of Universe referred to as the hybrid expansion law - a product of power-law and exponential type of functions. The ansatz by construction mimics the power-law and de Sitter cosmologies as special cases but also provides an elegant description of the transition from deceleration to cosmic acceleration. We point out the Brans-Dicke realization of the cosmic history under consideration. We construct potentials for quintessence, phantom and tachyon fields, which can give rise to the hybrid expansion law in general relativity. We investigate observational constraints on the model with hybrid expansion law applied to late time acceleration as well as to early Universe a la nucleosynthesis.

  9. THE MID-INFRARED EXTINCTION LAW IN THE OPHIUCHUS, PERSEUS, AND SERPENS MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Nicholas L.; Mundy, Lee G.; Lai, Shih-Ping; Evans, Neal J. II

    2009-01-01

    We compute the mid-IR extinction law from 3.6 to 24 {mu}m in three molecular clouds-Ophiuchus, Perseus, and Serpens-by combining data from the 'Cores to Disks' Spitzer Legacy Science program with deep JHK{sub s} imaging. Using a new technique, we are able to calculate the line-of-sight (LOS) extinction law toward each background star in our fields. With these LOS measurements, we create, for the first time, maps of the {chi}{sup 2} deviation of the data from two extinction law models. Because our {chi}{sup 2} maps have the same spatial resolution as our extinction maps, we can directly observe the changing extinction law as a function of the total column density. In the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands, 3.6-8 {mu}m, we see evidence for grain growth. Below A{sub K{sub s}}= 0.5, our extinction law is well fitted by the Weingartner and Draine R{sub V} = 3.1 diffuse interstellar-medium dust model. As the extinction increases, our law gradually flattens, and for A{sub K{sub s}}{>=}1, the data are more consistent with the Weingartner and Draine R{sub V} = 5.5 model that uses larger maximum dust grain sizes. At 24 {mu}m, our extinction law is 2-4 times higher than the values predicted by theoretical dust models, but is more consistent with the observational results of Flaherty et al. Finally, from our {chi}{sup 2} maps we identify a region in Perseus where the IRAC extinction law is anomalously high considering its column density. A steeper near-IR extinction law than the one we have assumed may partially explain the IRAC extinction law in this region.

  10. Hanford immobilized LAW product acceptance: Initial Tanks Focus Area testing data package

    SciTech Connect

    JD Vienna; A Jiricka; BP McGrail; BM Jorgensen; DE Smith; BR Allen; JC Marra; DK Peeler; KG Brown; IA Reamer; WL Ebert

    2000-03-08

    The Hanford Site's mission has been to produce nuclear materials for the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors. A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste, largely generated during plutonium production, exists in 177 underground single- and double-shell tanks. These wastes are to be retrieved and separated into low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) fractions. The total volume of LAW requiring immobilization will include the LAW separated from the tank waste, as well as new wastes generated by the retrieval, pretreatment, and immobilization processes. Per the Tri-Party Agreement (1994), both the LAW and HLW will be vitrified. It has been estimated that vitrification of the LAW waste will result in over 500,000 metric tons or 200,000 m{sup 3} of immobilized LAW (ILAW) glass. The ILAW glass is to be disposed of onsite in a near-surface burial facility. It must be demonstrated that the disposal system will adequately retain the radionuclides and prevent contamination of the surrounding environment. This report describes a study of the impacts of systematic glass-composition variation on the responses from accelerated laboratory corrosion tests of representative LAW glasses. A combination of two tests, the product consistency test and vapor-hydration test, is being used to give indictations of the relative rate at which a glass could be expected to corrode in the burial scenario.

  11. Transport coefficients in Lorentz plasmas with the power-law kappa-distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Jiulin, Du

    2013-09-15

    Transport coefficients in Lorentz plasma with the power-law κ-distribution are studied by means of using the transport equation and macroscopic laws of Lorentz plasma without magnetic field. Expressions of electric conductivity, thermoelectric coefficient, and thermal conductivity for the power-law κ-distribution are accurately derived. It is shown that these transport coefficients are significantly modified by the κ-parameter, and in the limit of the parameter κ→∞ they are reduced to the standard forms for a Maxwellian distribution.

  12. A test of star formation laws in disk galaxies. II. Dependence on dynamical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Suwannajak, Chutipong; Tan, Jonathan C.; Leroy, Adam K.

    2014-05-20

    We use the observed radial profiles of the mass surface densities of total, Σ {sub g}, and molecular, Σ{sub H2}, gas, rotation velocity, and star formation rate (SFR) surface density, Σ{sub sfr}, of the molecular-rich (Σ{sub H2} ≥ Σ{sub HI}/2) regions of 16 nearby disk galaxies to test several star formation (SF) laws: a 'Kennicutt-Schmidt (K-S)' law, Σ{sub sfr}=A{sub g}Σ{sub g,2}{sup 1.5}; a 'Constant Molecular' law, Σ{sub sfr} = A {sub H2}Σ{sub H2,2}; the turbulence-regulated laws of Krumholz and McKee (KM05) and Krumholz, McKee, and Tumlinson (KMT09); a 'Gas-Ω' law, Σ{sub sfr}=B{sub Ω}Σ{sub g}Ω; and a shear-driven 'giant molecular cloud (GMC) Collision' law, Σ{sub sfr} = B {sub CC}Σ {sub g}Ω(1-0.7β), where β ≡ d ln v {sub circ}/d ln r. If allowed one free normalization parameter for each galaxy, these laws predict the SFR with rms errors of factors of 1.4-1.8. If a single normalization parameter is used by each law for the entire galaxy sample, then rms errors range from factors of 1.5-2.1. Although the Constant Molecular law gives the smallest rms errors, the improvement over the KMT, K-S, and GMC Collision laws is not especially significant, particularly given the different observational inputs that the laws utilize and the scope of included physics, which ranges from empirical relations to detailed treatment of interstellar medium processes. We next search for systematic variation of SF law parameters with local and global galactic dynamical properties of disk shear rate (related to β), rotation speed, and presence of a bar. We demonstrate with high significance that higher shear rates enhance SF efficiency per local orbital time. Such a trend is expected if GMC collisions play an important role in SF, while an opposite trend would be expected if the development of disk gravitational instabilities is the controlling physics.

  13. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    AND POWER FACILITIE | Department of Energy STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIE Section 1308 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 ("EISA 2007") directed the Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the States, to undertake a study of the laws affecting the siting of privately-owned distribution wires on or across public

  14. Contact for the Assistant General Counsel for General Law (GC-56) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Contact for the Assistant General Counsel for General Law (GC-56) Contact for the Assistant General Counsel for General Law (GC-56) All comments and requests for assistance should be directed to our office phone at 202-586-1522. Susan Beard, Assistant General Counsel for General Law 202-586-1522 susan.beard@hq.doe.gov Christina (Tina) Hymer, Deputy Assistant General Counsel for Standards of Conduct 202-586-1522 christina.hymer@hq.doe.gov William (Will) Grant II, Deputy

  15. THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    FACILITIES | Department of Energy THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIES THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIES Section 1308 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 ("EISA 2007") directed the Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the States, to undertake a study of the laws affecting the siting of privately-owned distribution wires on or across public rights of way and to

  16. Statewide Renewable Energy Setback Standards

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Illinois Institute for Rural Affairs offers a database of county ordinances and zoning laws related to wind.

  17. AEGIS: A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF SPITZER POWER-LAW GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. Q.; Barmby, P.; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Fazio, G. G.; Georgakakis, A.; Ivison, R. J.; Konidaris, N. P.; Rosario, D. J.; Nandra, K.

    2010-07-10

    This paper analyzes a sample of 489 Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) sources in the Extended Groth Strip (EGS), whose spectral energy distributions fit a red power law (PL) from 3.6 to 8.0 {mu}m. The median redshift for sources with known redshifts is (z) = 1.6. Though all or nearly all of the sample galaxies are likely to be active galactic nuclei (AGNs), only 33% were detected in the EGS X-ray survey (AEGIS-X) using 200 ks Chandra observations. The detected sources are X-ray luminous with L {sub X}>10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} and moderately to heavily obscured with N {sub H}>10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}. Stacking the X-ray-undetected sample members yields a statistically significant X-ray signal, suggesting that they are on average more distant or more obscured than sources with X-ray detections. The ratio of X-ray to mid-infrared fluxes suggests that a substantial fraction of the sources undetected in X-rays are obscured at the Compton-thick level, in contrast to the X-ray-detected sources, all of which appear to be Compton thin. For the X-ray-detected PL sources with redshifts, an X-ray luminosity L {sub X} {approx} 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} marks a transition between low-luminosity, blue sources dominated by the host galaxy to high-luminosity, red PL sources dominated by nuclear activity. X-ray-to-optical ratios, infrared variability, and 24 {mu}m properties of the sample are consistent with the identification of infrared PL sources as active nuclei, but a rough estimate is that only 22% of AGNs are selected by the PL criteria. Comparison of the PL selection technique and various IRAC color criteria for identifying AGNs confirms that high-redshift samples selected via simple IRAC colors may be heavily contaminated by starlight-dominated objects.

  18. FIA-13-0004- In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group, LLC

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    On February 25, 2013, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) denied a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Appeal filed by the Torres Consulting & Law Group, LLC, ...

  19. FIA-14-0070- In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group, LLC

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    On November 20, 2014, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) denied a Freedom of Information Act Appeal (FOIA) filed by Torres Consulting and Law Group, LLC ...

  20. Tunable power law in the desynchronization events of coupled chaotic electronic circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Gilson F. de Lorenzo, Orlando di; Chevrollier, Martine; Passerat de Silans, Thierry; Oriá, Marcos; Souza Cavalcante, Hugo L. D. de

    2014-03-15

    We study the statistics of the amplitude of the synchronization error in chaotic electronic circuits coupled through linear feedback. Depending on the coupling strength, our system exhibits three qualitatively different regimes of synchronization: weak coupling yields independent oscillations; moderate to strong coupling produces a regime of intermittent synchronization known as attractor bubbling; and stronger coupling produces complete synchronization. In the regime of moderate coupling, the probability distribution for the sizes of desynchronization events follows a power law, with an exponent that can be adjusted by changing the coupling strength. Such power-law distributions are interesting, as they appear in many complex systems. However, most of the systems with such a behavior have a fixed value for the exponent of the power law, while here we present an example of a system where the exponent of the power law is easily tuned in real time.

  1. FIA-14-0032- In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group, LLC

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    On June 16, 2014, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) denied a Freedom of Information Act Appeal (FOIA) filed by Torres Consulting & Law Group, LLC, (Appellant...

  2. "Glass Formulation and Testing with TWRS LAW Simulants," Final Report to Duratek Inc. and BNFL Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Isabelle S.; Pegg, Ian L.; Gan, Hao; Buechele, Andrew C.; Kim, C.; Lai, Shan-Tao T.; Del Rosario, G.; Yan, Q.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2015-06-22

    This report presents the results of glass formulation development with TWRS LAW simulants that was conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic University of America during TWRS Phase I.

  3. FAST Code Verification of Scaling Laws for DeepCwind Floating Wind System Tests: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, A.; Robertson, A. N.; Jonkman, J. M.; Goupee, A. J.; Kimball, R. W.; Swift, A. H. P.

    2012-04-01

    This paper investigates scaling laws that were adopted for the DeepCwind project for testing three different floating wind systems at 1/50 scale in a wave tank under combined wind and wave loading.

  4. Title 1 Chapter 3 Common Law; General Rights | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Law; General RightsLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 1975 Legal Citation 1 V.S.A. 2171-339 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online...

  5. Melting Hanford LAW into Iron-Phosphate Glass in a CCIM (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Melting Hanford LAW into Iron-Phosphate Glass in a CCIM A vitrification test has been conducted using the cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test system at the Idaho ...

  6. Comments of the Southern Environmental Law Center and the American Lung

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Association in response to the Department of Energy's Emergency Order to Resume Operations at the Potomac River Generating Station in Alexandria, VA | Department of Energy the Southern Environmental Law Center and the American Lung Association in response to the Department of Energy's Emergency Order to Resume Operations at the Potomac River Generating Station in Alexandria, VA Comments of the Southern Environmental Law Center and the American Lung Association in response to the Department

  7. Testing of Large-Scale ICV Glasses with Hanford LAW Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Matyas, Josef; Smith, Donald E.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Yeager, John D.

    2005-03-01

    Preliminary glass compositions for immobilizing Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) by the in-container vitrification (ICV) process were initially fabricated at crucible- and engineering-scale, including simulants and actual (radioactive) LAW. Glasses were characterized for vapor hydration test (VHT) and product consistency test (PCT) responses and crystallinity (both quenched and slow-cooled samples). Selected glasses were tested for toxicity characteristic leach procedure (TCLP) responses, viscosity, and electrical conductivity. This testing showed that glasses with LAW loading of 20 mass% can be made readily and meet all product constraints by a far margin. Glasses with over 22 mass% Na2O can be made to meet all other product quality and process constraints. Large-scale testing was performed at the AMEC, Geomelt Division facility in Richland. Three tests were conducted using simulated LAW with increasing loadings of 12, 17, and 20 mass% Na2O. Glass samples were taken from the test products in a manner to represent the full expected range of product performance. These samples were characterized for composition, density, crystalline and non-crystalline phase assemblage, and durability using the VHT, PCT, and TCLP tests. The results, presented in this report, show that the AMEC ICV product with meets all waste form requirements with a large margin. These results provide strong evidence that the Hanford LAW can be successfully vitrified by the ICV technology and can meet all the constraints related to product quality. The economic feasibility of the ICV technology can be further enhanced by subsequent optimization.

  8. Constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio for non-power-law models

    SciTech Connect

    Vázquez, J. Alberto; Bridges, M.; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Hobson, M.P. E-mail: mb435@mrao.cam.ac.uk E-mail: mph@mrao.cam.ac.uk

    2013-08-01

    Recent cosmological observations hint at a deviation from the simple power-law form of the primordial spectrum of curvature perturbations. In this paper we show that in the presence of a tensor component, a turn-over in the initial spectrum is preferred by current observations, and hence non-power-law models ought to be considered. For instance, for a power-law parameterisation with both a tensor component and running parameter, current data show a preference for a negative running at more than 2.5σ C.L. As a consequence of this deviation from a power-law, constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r are slightly broader. We also present constraints on the inflationary parameters for a model-independent reconstruction and the Lasenby and Doran (LD) model. In particular, the constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio from the LD model are: r{sub LD} = 0.11±0.024. In addition to current data, we show expected constraints from Planck-like and CMB-Pol sensitivity experiments by using Markov-Chain-Monte-Carlo sampling chains. For all the models, we have included the Bayesian Evidence to perform a model selection analysis. The Bayes factor, using current observations, shows a strong preference for the LD model over the standard power-law parameterisation, and provides an insight into the accuracy of differentiating models through future surveys.

  9. Preliminary ILAW Formulation Algorithm Description, 24590 LAW RPT-RT-04-0003, Rev. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.

    2013-12-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), has contracted with Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) to design, construct, and commission the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site (DOE 2000). This plant is designed to operate for 40 years and treat roughly 50 million gallons of mixed hazardous high-level waste (HLW) stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The process involves separating the hight-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions through filtration, leaching, Cs ion exchange, and precipitation. Each fraction will be separately vitrified into borosilicate waste glass. This report documents the initial algorithm for use by Hanford WTP in batching LAW and glass-forming chemicals (GFCs) in the LAW melter feed preparation vessel (MFPV). Algorithm inputs include the chemical analyses of the pretreated LAW in the concentrate receipt vessel (CRV), the volume of the MFPV heel, and the compositions of individual GFCs. In addition to these inputs, uncertainties in the LAW composition and processing parameters are included in the algorithm.

  10. UNIVERSALITY OF THE NEAR-INFRARED EXTINCTION LAW BASED ON THE APOGEE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shu; Jiang, B. W. E-mail: bjiang@bnu.edu.cn

    2014-06-10

    Whether the near-infrared (NIR) extinction law is universal has long been a debated topic. Based on the APOGEE H-band spectroscopic survey, a key project of SDSS-III, the intrinsic colors of a large number of giant stars are accurately determined from the stellar effective temperature. Taking advantage of this and using a sample of 5942 K-type giants, the NIR extinction law is carefully revisited. The color excess ratio E(J – H)/E(J – K {sub S}), representative of the NIR extinction law, shows no dependence on the color excess when E(J – K {sub S}) changes from ∼0.3 to ∼4.0, which implies a universal NIR extinction law from diffuse to dense regions. The constant value of E(J – H)/E(J – K {sub S}), 0.64, corresponds to a power law index of 1.95. The other two ratios, E(H – K {sub S})/E(J – K {sub S}) and E(J – H)/E(H – K {sub S}), are 0.36 and 1.78, respectively. The results are consistent with the MRN dust size distribution.

  11. The generalized second law of thermodynamics in Ho?ava-Lifshitz cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Jamil, Mubasher; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Setare, M.R. E-mail: msaridak@phys.uoa.gr

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics in a universe governed by Ho?ava-Lifshitz gravity. Under the equilibrium assumption, that is in the late-time cosmological regime, we calculate separately the entropy time-variation for the matter fluid and, using the modified entropy relation, that of the apparent horizon itself. We find that under detailed balance the generalized second law is generally valid for flat and closed geometry and it is conditionally valid for an open universe, while beyond detailed balance it is only conditionally valid for all curvatures. Furthermore, we also follow the effective approach showing that it can lead to misleading results. The non-complete validity of the generalized second law could either provide a suggestion for its different application, or act as an additional problematic feature of Ho?ava-Lifshitz gravity.

  12. Phase diagram of power law and Lennard-Jones systems: Crystal phases

    SciTech Connect

    Travesset, Alex

    2014-10-28

    An extensive characterization of the low temperature phase diagram of particles interacting with power law or Lennard-Jones potentials is provided from Lattice Dynamical Theory. For power law systems, only two lattice structures are stable for certain values of the exponent (or softness) (A15, body centered cube (bcc)) and two more (face centered cubic (fcc), hexagonal close packed (hcp)) are always stable. Among them, only the fcc and bcc are equilibrium states. For Lennard-Jones systems, the equilibrium states are either hcp or fcc, with a coexistence curve in pressure and temperature that shows reentrant behavior. The hcp solid never coexists with the liquid. In all cases analyzed, for both power law and Lennard-Jones potentials, the fcc crystal has higher entropy than the hcp. The role of anharmonic terms is thoroughly analyzed and a general thermodynamic integration to account for them is proposed.

  13. Pathways to Identity: Aiding Law Enforcement in Identification Tasks With Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, Joseph R.; Scholtz, Jean; Hodges, Duncan; Emanuel, Lia; Stanton-Fraser, Danae; Creese, Sadie; Love, Oriana J.

    2014-09-18

    The nature of identity has changed dramatically in recent years, and has grown in complexity. Identities are defined in multiple domains: biological and psychological elements strongly contribute, but also biographical and cyber elements are necessary to complete the picture. Law enforcement is beginning to adjust to these changes, recognizing its importance in criminal justice. The SuperIdentity project seeks to aid law enforcement officials in their identification tasks through research of techniques for discovering identity traits, generation of statistical models of identity and analysis of identity traits through visualization. We present use cases compiled through user interviews in multiple fields, including law enforcement, as well as the modeling and visualization tools design to aid in those use cases.

  14. A cohesive law for interfaces in graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chenxi; Lou, Jun; Song, Jizhou

    2014-04-14

    Graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) heterostructure has showed great potential to improve the performance of graphene device. We have established the cohesive law for interfaces between graphene and monolayer or multi-layer h-BN based on the van der Waals force. The cohesive energy and cohesive strength are given in terms of area density of atoms on corresponding layers, number of layers, and parameters in the van der Waals force. It is found that the cohesive law in the graphene/multi-layer h-BN is dominated by the three h-BN layers which are closest to the graphene. The approximate solution is also obtained to simplify the expression of cohesive law. These results are very useful to study the deformation of graphene/h-BN heterostructure, which may have significant impacts on the performance and reliability of the graphene devices especially in the areas of emerging applications such as stretchable electronics.

  15. Pathways to Identity. Using Visualization to Aid Law Enforcement in Identification Tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, Joseph R.; Scholtz, Jean; Hodges, Duncan; Emanuel, Lia; Stanton Fraser, Danae; Creese, Sadie; Love, Oriana J.

    2014-09-18

    The nature of identity has changed dramatically in recent years and has grown in complexity. Identities are defined in multiple domains: biological and psychological elements strongly contribute, but biographical and cyber elements also are necessary to complete the picture. Law enforcement is beginning to adjust to these changes, recognizing identity’s importance in criminal justice. The SuperIdentity project seeks to aid law enforcement officials in their identification tasks through research of techniques for discovering identity traits, generation of statistical models of identity and analysis of identity traits through visualization. We present use cases compiled through user interviews in multiple fields, including law enforcement, and describe the modeling and visualization tools design to aid in those use cases.

  16. The momentum of an electromagnetic wave inside a dielectric derived from the Snell refraction law

    SciTech Connect

    Torchigin, V.P. Torchigin, A.V.

    2014-12-15

    Author of the paper [M. Testa, Ann. Physics 336 (2013) 1] has derived a conclusion that there is a connection between the Snell refraction law and the Abraham form of the momentum of light in matter. In other words, author derived the Snell law on assumption that the momentum of light in matter decreases by n times as compared with that in free space. The conclusion is derived under assumption that the forces exerted on an optical medium by an electromagnetic field do not distinguish between polarization and free charges. We show that, on the contrary, the Minkowski form of the momentum of light in matter directly follows from the Snell law. No previous assumption is required for this purpose.

  17. Technical Review of Law Enforcement Standards and Guides Relative to Incident Management

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, Robert D.; Salter, R.; Stanton, J. R.; Fisher, D.

    2009-03-24

    In an effort to locate potential law enforcement-related standards that support incident management, a team from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contacted representatives from the National Institute of Standards-Office of Law Enforcement Standards (NIST-OLES), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Secret Service, ASTM International committees that have a law enforcement focus, and a variety of individuals from local and regional law enforcement organizations. Discussions were held with various state and local law enforcement organizations. The NIJ has published several specific equipment-related law enforcement standards that were included in the review, but it appears that law enforcement program and process-type standards are developed principally by organizations that operate at the state and local level. Input is provided from state regulations and codes and from external non-government organizations (NGOs) that provide national standards. The standards that are adopted from external organizations or developed independently by state authorities are available for use by local law enforcement agencies on a voluntary basis. The extent to which they are used depends on the respective jurisdictions involved. In some instances, use of state and local disseminated standards is mandatory, but in most cases, use is voluntary. Usually, the extent to which these standards are used appears to depend on whether or not jurisdictions receive certification from a “governing” entity due to their use and compliance with the standards. In some cases, these certification-based standards are used in principal but without certification or other compliance monitoring. In general, these standards appear to be routinely used for qualification, selection for employment, and training. In these standards, the term “Peace Officer” is frequently used to refer to law enforcement personnel. This technical review of national law

  18. Entanglement Area Law in Disordered Free Fermion Anderson Model in One, Two, and Three Dimensions

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Pouranvari, Mohammad; Zhang, Yuhui; Yang, Kun

    2015-01-01

    We calculate numerically the entanglement entropy of free fermion ground states in one-, two-, and three-dimensional Anderson models and find that it obeys the area law as long as the linear size of the subsystem is sufficiently larger than the mean free path. This result holds in the metallic phase of the three-dimensional Anderson model, where the mean free path is finite although the localization length is infinite. Relation between the present results and earlier ones on area law violation in special one-dimensional models that support metallic phases is discussed.

  19. The extent of power-law energy spectra in collisionless relativistic magnetic reconnection in pair plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, G. R.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Cerutti, B.; Nalewajko, K.; Begelman, M. C.

    2015-12-30

    Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we characterize the energy spectra of particles accelerated by relativistic magnetic reconnection (without guide field) in collisionless electron–positron plasmas, for a wide range of upstream magnetizations σ and system sizes L. The particle spectra are well-represented by a power law ${\\gamma }^{-\\alpha }$, with a combination of exponential and super-exponential high-energy cutoffs, proportional to σ and L, respectively. As a result, for large L and σ, the power-law index α approaches about 1.2.

  20. In the Weeds: Idaho’s Invasive Species Laws and Biofuel Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, April Lea

    2015-05-01

    Federal laws, policies, and programs that incentivize and mandate the development of biofuels have local effects on both Idaho’s environment and on research supporting biofuels. The passage of a new energy crop rule in Idaho, effective as of March 20, 2014, follows an increased interest in growing, possessing, and transporting energy crops comprised of invasive plant species that are regulated under Idaho’s Invasive Species Act. Idaho’s new energy crop rule is an example of how a state can take measures to protect against unintended consequences of federal laws, policies, and programs while also taking advantage of the benefits of such policies and programs.

  1. FREQUENCY DEPENDENCE OF THE POWER-LAW INDEX OF SOLAR RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Song Qiwu; Huang Guangli; Tan Baolin E-mail: glhuang@pmo.ac.cn

    2012-05-10

    We process solar flare observations of Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters with an improved maximum likelihood method developed recently by Clauset et al. The method accurately extracts power-law behaviors of the peak fluxes in 486 radio bursts at six frequencies (1-35 GHz) and shows an excellent performance in this study. The power-law indices on 1-35 GHz given by this study vary around 1.74-1.87, which is consistent with earlier statistics in different solar cycles and very close to the simulations of the avalanche model by Lu.

  2. COLLOQUIUM: Estimating the Age of Life Using Moore's Law | Princeton Plasma

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Lab October 12, 2016, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium, PPPL (284 cap.) COLLOQUIUM: Estimating the Age of Life Using Moore's Law Dr. Alexei Sharov National Institutes of Health Moore's law is an empirical observation that the complexity of computer chips measured by the number of transistors doubles every 18-24 months. Because there is similarity between the evolution of human technology and living organisms, it is intriguing if an exponential increase in complexity can be

  3. Acquisition Guide Chapter 3.3- Compliance with U.S. Export Control Laws, Regulations, and Policies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The subject guide chapter provides introductory information on compliance with applicable U.S. export control laws, regulations and policies when exporting.

  4. GAUAGHER AND GALLAGHER ATTORmYS AT LAW, P.C. Ot4ECONWRJTIONPUtA

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    j ; ij 7 iir I,::? ir s1: 141 TL-2 tj .> Ii el)sTorl GAUAGHER AND GALLAGHER ATTORmYS AT LAW, P.C. Ot4ECONWRJTIONPUtA BOSTON. MASS. 02129 March 7, 1990 (617) 241.8aoo ?AX. (617) ...

  5. Area law for fixed points of rapidly mixing dissipative quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Cubitt, Toby S.; Lucia, Angelo; Michalakis, Spyridon; Perez-Garcia, David

    2015-10-15

    We prove an area law with a logarithmic correction for the mutual information for fixed points of local dissipative quantum system satisfying a rapid mixing condition, under either of the following assumptions: the fixed point is pure or the system is frustration free.

  6. Scaling law for direct current field emission-driven microscale gas breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Venkattraman, A.; Alexeenko, A. A.

    2012-12-15

    The effects of field emission on direct current breakdown in microscale gaps filled with an ambient neutral gas are studied numerically and analytically. Fundamental numerical experiments using the particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collisions method are used to systematically quantify microscale ionization and space-charge enhancement of field emission. The numerical experiments are then used to validate a scaling law for the modified Paschen curve that bridges field emission-driven breakdown with the macroscale Paschen law. Analytical expressions are derived for the increase in cathode electric field, total steady state current density, and the ion-enhancement coefficient including a new breakdown criterion. It also includes the effect of all key parameters such as pressure, operating gas, and field-enhancement factor providing a better predictive capability than existing microscale breakdown models. The field-enhancement factor is shown to be the most sensitive parameter with its increase leading to a significant drop in the threshold breakdown electric field and also to a gradual merging with the Paschen law. The proposed scaling law is also shown to agree well with two independent sets of experimental data for microscale breakdown in air. The ability to accurately describe not just the breakdown voltage but the entire pre-breakdown process for given operating conditions makes the proposed model a suitable candidate for the design and analysis of electrostatic microscale devices.

  7. Podolsky electromagnetism at finite temperature: Implications on the Stefan-Boltzmann law

    SciTech Connect

    Bonin, C. A.; Bufalo, R.; Pimentel, B. M.; Zambrano, G. E. R.

    2010-01-15

    In this work we study Podolsky electromagnetism in thermodynamic equilibrium. We show that a Podolsky mass-dependent modification to the Stefan-Boltzmann law is induced and we use experimental data to limit the possible values for this free parameter.

  8. A Downtown Denver Law Firm Leverages Tenant Improvement Funds to Cut Operating Expenses

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Bryan Cave HRO (formerly Holme Roberts & Owen LLP, headquartered in Denver, Colorado), an international law firm, partnered with the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce annual energy consumption by at least 30% versus pre-retrofit energy use as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  9. AN-107 (C) Simulant Bench-Scale LAW Evaporation with Organic Regulatory Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, H.H.

    2001-05-15

    The overall objective of this work is to develop preliminary operating data including expected concentration endpoints using a C waste envelope simulant. The data is to be used for the preliminary Hanford RPP flow sheet development and LAW Melter Feed Evaporator design.

  10. C.R.S. 37-92-102 - Basic Tenets of Colorado Water Law | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    C.R.S. 37-92-102 - Basic Tenets of Colorado Water Law Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: C.R.S. 37-92-102 - Basic...

  11. Report for Treating Hanford LAW and WTP SW Simulants: Pilot Plant Mineralizing Flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Arlin Olson

    2012-02-28

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for managing the disposal of radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in Washington State. The Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant (WPT) will separate the waste into a small volume of high level waste (HLW), containing most of the radioactive constituents, and a larger volume of low activity waste (LAW), containing most of the non-radioactive chemical and hazardous constituents. The HLW and LAW will be converted into immobilized waste forms for disposal. Currently there is inadequate LAW vitrification capacity planned at the WTP to complete the mission within the required timeframe. Therefore additional LAW capacity is required. One candidate supplemental treatment technology is the fluidized bed steam reformer process (FBSR). This report describes the demonstration testing of the FBSR process using a mineralizing flowsheet for treating simulated Hanford LAW and secondary waste from the WTP (WTP SW). The FBSR testing project produced leach-resistant solid products and environmentally compliant gaseous effluents. The solid products incorporated normally soluble ions into an alkali alumino-silicate (NaS) mineral matrix. Gaseous emissions were found to be within regulatory limits. Cesium and rhenium were captured in the mineralized products with system removal efficiencies of 99.999% and 99.998 respectively. The durability and leach performance of the FBSR granular solid were superior to the low activity reference material (LMR) glass standards. Normalized product consistency test (PCT) release rates for constituents of concern were approximately 2 orders of magnitude less than that of sodium in the Hanford glass [standard].

  12. State environmental law and carbon emissions: Do public utility commissions use environmental statutes to fight global warming?

    SciTech Connect

    Sautter, John A.

    2010-10-15

    In many states environmental statutes provide the authority for public utility commissioners to make decisions to reduce greenhouse gases from electricity generation. This article looks at six such laws and how the presence of these laws affected CO{sub 2} emissions during a nine-year period from 1997 to 2005. (author)

  13. Making solar laws work. A study of state solar energy incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Roessner, J.D.

    1980-11-01

    The results of a research investigation of solar financial and research, demonstration, and development R D and D) incentive programs in 18 states are summarized. The investigation focuses upon implementation - the organization and administrative processes required to convert a law into a viable program. Eleven financial and 12 RD and D programs were investigated. Results indicate that four conditions are common to successful implementation of both types of incentive programs: the opportunity to use solar energy as a heating source; characteristics of the agency selected to complement the law; involvement of outside groups in program implementation; and the specificity of guidance given to those responsible for implementation. Other conditions specific to the implementation of each type of program are discussed as well as the implications of these findings for state and federal policy makers.

  14. Making solar laws work: a study of state solar energy incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Roessner, J.D.

    1980-11-01

    The results of a research investigation of solar financial and research, demonstration, and development (RD and D) incentive programs in 18 states are summarized. The investigation focuses upon implementation - the organization and administrative processes required to convert a law into a viable program. Eleven financial and 12 RD and D programs were investigated. Results indicate that four conditions are common to successful implementation of both types of incentive programs: the opportunity to use solar energy as a heating source; characteristics of the agency selected to complement the law; involvement of outside groups in program implementation; and the specificity of guidance given to those responsible for implementation. Other conditions specific to the implementation of each type of program are discussed as well as the implications of these findings for state and federal policy makers.

  15. Communication: Classical threshold law for ion-neutral-neutral three-body recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H.

    2015-07-28

    A very recently method for classical trajectory calculations for three-body collision [Pérez-Ríos et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 044307 (2014)] has been applied to describe ion-neutral-neutral ternary processes for low energy collisions: 0.1 mK–10 mK. As a result, a threshold law for the three-body recombination cross section is obtained and corroborated numerically. The derived threshold law predicts the formation of weakly bound dimers, with binding energies comparable to the collision energy of the collisional partners. In this low energy range, this analysis predicts that molecular ions should dominate over molecular neutrals as the most products formed.

  16. In the Weeds: Idaho’s Invasive Species Laws and Biofuel Research and Development

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Pope, April Lea

    2015-05-01

    Federal laws, policies, and programs that incentivize and mandate the development of biofuels have local effects on both Idaho’s environment and on research supporting biofuels. The passage of a new energy crop rule in Idaho, effective as of March 20, 2014, follows an increased interest in growing, possessing, and transporting energy crops comprised of invasive plant species that are regulated under Idaho’s Invasive Species Act. Idaho’s new energy crop rule is an example of how a state can take measures to protect against unintended consequences of federal laws, policies, and programs while also taking advantage of the benefits of suchmore » policies and programs.« less

  17. Thirty-first annual institute on oil and gas law and taxation

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    This volume contains discussions of important legal and tax problems of the oil and gas industry. Lecture titles are: crude oil pricing - current regulations and the shift to decontrol; current issues concerning DOE regulation of natural gas liquids, development and trends in DOE enforcement; ethical considerations in the energy law practice producer regulation under the natural gas policy act; operators liability for overcharges in the sale of production; the modern oil and gas lease; oil and gas royalty problems; is there a new implied covenant of explorvelopment; the OCS Land Act Ammendments of 1978-1980 and beyond; recent developments in the nonregulatory oil and gas law, current developments in oil and gas taxation; income taxation and solid minerals; organizing and terminating the oil and gas partnership; crude oil Windfall Profit Tax Act of 1980; and income realization in mineral sharing transactions - the pool of capital doctrine. (DMC)

  18. Violation of the first law of black hole thermodynamics in f(T) gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Rong-Xin; Li, Miao; Miao, Yan-Gang E-mail: mli@itp.ac.cn

    2011-11-01

    We prove that, in general, the first law of black hole thermodynamics, ?Q = T?S, is violated in f(T) gravity. As a result, it is possible that there exists entropy production, which implies that the black hole thermodynamics can be in non-equilibrium even in the static spacetime. This feature is very different from that of f(R) or that of other higher derivative gravity theories. We find that the violation of first law results from the lack of local Lorentz invariance in f(T) gravity. By investigating two examples, we note that f''(0) should be negative in order to avoid the naked singularities and superluminal motion of light. When f''(T) is small, the entropy of black holes in f(T) gravity is approximatively equal to f'(T)/4 A.

  19. Flux-vector splitting algorithm for chain-rule conservation-law form

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, T.I.-P.; Nguyen, H.L.; Willis, E.A.; Steinthorsson, E.; Li, Z. NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH )

    1991-07-01

    A flux-vector splitting algorithm with Newton-Raphson iteration was developed for the 'full compressible' Navier-Stokes equations cast in chain-rule conservation-law form. The algorithm is intended for problems with deforming spatial domains and for problems whose governing equations cannot be cast in strong conservation-law form. The usefulness of the algorithm for such problems was demonstrated by applying it to analyze the unsteady, two- and three-dimensional flows inside one combustion chamber of a Wankel engine under nonfiring conditions. Solutions were obtained to examine the algorithm in terms of conservation error, robustness, and ability to handle complex flows on time-dependent grid systems. 16 refs.

  20. An analogue of Weyl’s law for quantized irreducible generalized flag manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Matassa, Marco E-mail: mmatassa@math.uio.no

    2015-09-15

    We prove an analogue of Weyl’s law for quantized irreducible generalized flag manifolds. This is formulated in terms of a zeta function which, similarly to the classical setting, satisfies the following two properties: as a functional on the quantized algebra it is proportional to the Haar state and its first singularity coincides with the classical dimension. The relevant formulas are given for the more general case of compact quantum groups.

  1. A NEW METHOD FOR OBTAINING THE STAR FORMATION LAW IN GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Heiner, Jonathan S.; Allen, Ronald J.; Van der Kruit, Pieter C.

    2010-08-20

    We present a new observational method to evaluate the exponent of the star formation law as initially formulated by Schmidt, i.e., the power-law expression assumed to relate the rate of star formation in a volume of space to the local total gas volume density present there. Total volume densities in the gas clouds surrounding an OB association are determined with a simple model which considers the atomic hydrogen as a photodissociation product on the cloud surfaces. The photodissociating photon flux incident on the cloud is computed from the far-UV luminosity of the OB association and the geometry. As an example, we have applied this 'PDR Method' to a sample of star-forming regions in M33 using Very Large Array (VLA) 21 cm data for the H I and Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) imagery in the far-UV. With these two observables, our approach provides an estimate of the total volume density of hydrogen (atomic + molecular) in the gas clouds surrounding the young star cluster. A graph in logarithmic coordinates of the cluster UV luminosity versus the total density in the surrounding gas provides a direct measure of the exponent of the star formation law. However, we show that this plot is severely affected by observational selection, which renders large areas of the diagram inaccessible to the data. An ordinary least-squares regression fit to a straight line, therefore, gives a strongly biased result. In the present case, the slope of such a fit primarily reflects the boundary defined when the 21 cm line becomes optically thick and is no longer a reliable measure of the H I column density. We use a maximum likelihood statistical approach which can deal with truncated and skewed data, and also takes account of the large uncertainties in the total gas densities which we derive. The exponent we obtain for the Schmidt law in M33 is 1.4 {+-} 0.2.

  2. An anomalous extinction law in the Cep OB3b young cluster: Evidence for dust processing during gas dispersal

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Thomas S.; Prchlik, Jakub J.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Pipher, Judith L.; Naylor, Tim; Jeffries, R. D.

    2014-05-10

    We determine the extinction law through Cep OB3b, a young cluster of 3000 stars undergoing gas dispersal. The extinction is measured toward 76 background K giants identified with MMT/Hectospec spectra. Color excess ratios were determined toward each of the giants using V and R photometry from the literature, g, r, i, and z photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and J, H, and K{sub s} photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. These color excess ratios were then used to construct the extinction law through the dusty material associated with Cep OB3b. The extinction law through Cep OB3b is intermediate between the R{sub V} = 3.1 and R{sub V} = 5 laws commonly used for the diffuse atomic interstellar medium and dense molecular clouds, respectively. The dependence of the extinction law on line-of-sight A{sub V} is investigated and we find the extinction law becomes shallower for regions with A{sub V} > 2.5 mag. We speculate that the intermediate dust law results from dust processing during the dispersal of the molecular cloud by the cluster.

  3. Conservation Laws for Coupled Hydro-mechanical Processes in Unsaturated Porous Media: Theory and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Borja, R I; White, J A

    2010-02-19

    We develop conservation laws for coupled hydro-mechanical processes in unsaturated porous media using three-phase continuum mixture theory. From the first law of thermodynamics, we identify energy-conjugate variables for constitutive modeling at macroscopic scale. Energy conjugate expressions identified relate a certain measure of effective stress to the deformation of the solid matrix, the degree of saturation to the matrix suction, the pressure in each constituent phase to the corresponding intrinsic volume change of this phase, and the seepage forces to the corresponding pressure gradients. We then develop strong and weak forms of boundary-value problems relevant for 3D finite element modeling of coupled hydro-mechanical processes in unsaturated porous media. The paper highlights a 3D numerical example illustrating the advances in the solution of large-scale coupled finite element systems, as well as the challenges in developing more predictive tools satisfying the basic conservation laws and the observed constitutive responses for unsaturated porous materials.

  4. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-three. Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Massachusetts governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  5. Steady-state heat transport: Ballistic-to-diffusive with Fourier's law

    SciTech Connect

    Maassen, Jesse Lundstrom, Mark

    2015-01-21

    It is generally understood that Fourier's law does not describe ballistic phonon transport, which is important when the length of a material is similar to the phonon mean-free-path. Using an approach adapted from electron transport, we demonstrate that Fourier's law and the heat equation do capture ballistic effects, including temperature jumps at ideal contacts, and are thus applicable on all length scales. Local thermal equilibrium is not assumed, because allowing the phonon distribution to be out-of-equilibrium is important for ballistic and quasi-ballistic transport. The key to including the non-equilibrium nature of the phonon population is to apply the proper boundary conditions to the heat equation. Simple analytical solutions are derived, showing that (i) the magnitude of the temperature jumps is simply related to the material properties and (ii) the observation of reduced apparent thermal conductivity physically stems from a reduction in the temperature gradient and not from a reduction in actual thermal conductivity. We demonstrate how our approach, equivalent to Fourier's law, easily reproduces results of the Boltzmann transport equation, in all transport regimes, even when using a full phonon dispersion and mean-free-path distribution.

  6. Deviations from the Gutenberg–Richter law on account of a random distribution of block sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Sibiryakov, B. P.

    2015-10-27

    This paper studies properties of a continuum with structure. The characteristic size of the structure governs the fact that difference relations are nonautomatically transformed into differential ones. It is impossible to consider an infinitesimal volume of a body, to which the major conservation laws could be applied, because the minimum representative volume of the body must contain at least a few elementary microstructures. The corresponding equations of motion are equations of infinite order, solutions of which include, along with usual sound waves, unusual waves with abnormally low velocities without a lower limit. It is shown that in such media weak perturbations can increase or decrease outside the limits. The number of complex roots of the corresponding dispersion equation, which can be interpreted as the number of unstable solutions, depends on the specific surface of cracks and is an almost linear dependence on a logarithmic scale, as in the seismological Gutenberg–Richter law. If the distance between one pore (crack) to another one is a random value with some distribution, we must write another dispersion equation and examine different scenarios depending on the statistical characteristics of the random distribution. In this case, there are sufficient deviations from the Gutenberg–Richter law and this theoretical result corresponds to some field and laboratory observations.

  7. Local equilibrium and the second law of thermodynamics for irreversible systems with thermodynamic inertia

    SciTech Connect

    Glavatskiy, K. S.

    2015-10-28

    Validity of local equilibrium has been questioned for non-equilibrium systems which are characterized by delayed response. In particular, for systems with non-zero thermodynamic inertia, the assumption of local equilibrium leads to negative values of the entropy production, which is in contradiction with the second law of thermodynamics. In this paper, we address this question by suggesting a variational formulation of irreversible evolution of a system with non-zero thermodynamic inertia. We introduce the Lagrangian, which depends on the properties of the normal and the so-called “mirror-image” systems. We show that the standard evolution equations, in particular, the Maxwell-Cattaneo-Vernotte equation, can be derived from the variational procedure without going beyond the assumption of local equilibrium. We also argue that the second law of thermodynamics in non-equilibrium should be understood as a consequence of the variational procedure and the property of local equilibrium. For systems with instantaneous response this leads to the standard requirement of the local instantaneous entropy production being always positive. However, if a system is characterized by delayed response, the formulation of the second law of thermodynamics should be altered. In particular, the quantity, which is always positive, is not the instantaneous entropy production, but the entropy production averaged over a proper time interval.

  8. Second law analysis of water flow through smooth microtubes under adiabatic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Parlak, Nezaket; Guer, Mesut; Ari, Vedat; Kuecuek, Hasan; Engin, Tahsin [The University of Sakarya, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Esentepe Campus, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    In the study, a second law analysis for a steady-laminar flow of water in adiabatic microtubes has been conducted. Smooth microtubes with the diameters between 50 and 150 {mu}m made of fused silica were used in the experiments. Considerable temperature rises due to viscous dissipation and relatively high pressure losses of flow were observed in experiments. To identify irreversibility of flow, rate of entropy generation from the experiments have been determined in the laminar flow range of Re = 20-2200. The second law of thermodynamics was applied to predict the entropy generation. The results of model taken from the literature, proposed to predict the temperature rise caused by viscous heating, correspond well with the experimental data. The second law analysis results showed that the flow characteristics in the smooth microtubes distinguish substantially from the conventional theory for flow in the larger tubes with respect to viscous heating/dissipation (temperature rise of flow) total entropy generation rate and lost work. (author)

  9. Quantitative law describing market dynamics before and after interest-rate change

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Wang Fengzhong; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2010-06-15

    We study the behavior of U.S. markets both before and after U.S. Federal Open Market Commission meetings and show that the announcement of a U.S. Federal Reserve rate change causes a financial shock, where the dynamics after the announcement is described by an analog of the Omori earthquake law. We quantify the rate n(t) of aftershocks following an interest-rate change at time T and find power-law decay which scales as n(t-T)approx(t-T){sup -O}MEGA, with OMEGA positive. Surprisingly, we find that the same law describes the rate n{sup '}(|t-T|) of 'preshocks' before the interest-rate change at time T. This study quantitatively relates the size of the market response to the news which caused the shock and uncovers the presence of quantifiable preshocks. We demonstrate that the news associated with interest-rate change is responsible for causing both the anticipation before the announcement and the surprise after the announcement. We estimate the magnitude of financial news using the relative difference between the U.S. Treasury Bill and the Federal Funds effective rate. Our results are consistent with the 'sign effect', in which 'bad news' has a larger impact than 'good news'. Furthermore, we observe significant volatility aftershocks, confirming a 'market under-reaction' that lasts at least one trading day.

  10. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Seven. California

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of California governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  11. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty-one. Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Wisconsin governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  12. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Nineteen. Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Kentucky governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  13. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-two. New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New Jersey governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  14. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities. Volume thirty-four. New York

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New York governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  15. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-nine. Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Washington governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  16. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-seven. Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Missouri governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  17. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-five. Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Minnesota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  18. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty. Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Nevada governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  19. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Eight. Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Colorado governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  20. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-seven. Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Ohio governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  1. Irreversible thermodynamics of open chemical networks. I. Emergent cycles and broken conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Polettini, Matteo Esposito, Massimiliano

    2014-07-14

    In this paper and Paper II, we outline a general framework for the thermodynamic description of open chemical reaction networks, with special regard to metabolic networks regulating cellular physiology and biochemical functions. We first introduce closed networks “in a box”, whose thermodynamics is subjected to strict physical constraints: the mass-action law, elementarity of processes, and detailed balance. We further digress on the role of solvents and on the seemingly unacknowledged property of network independence of free energy landscapes. We then open the system by assuming that the concentrations of certain substrate species (the chemostats) are fixed, whether because promptly regulated by the environment via contact with reservoirs, or because nearly constant in a time window. As a result, the system is driven out of equilibrium. A rich algebraic and topological structure ensues in the network of internal species: Emergent irreversible cycles are associated with nonvanishing affinities, whose symmetries are dictated by the breakage of conservation laws. These central results are resumed in the relation a + b = s{sup Y} between the number of fundamental affinities a, that of broken conservation laws b and the number of chemostats s{sup Y}. We decompose the steady state entropy production rate in terms of fundamental fluxes and affinities in the spirit of Schnakenberg's theory of network thermodynamics, paving the way for the forthcoming treatment of the linear regime, of efficiency and tight coupling, of free energy transduction, and of thermodynamic constraints for network reconstruction.

  2. Dust-acoustic waves and stability in the permeating dusty plasma. II. Power-law distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Jingyu; Du Jiulin; Liu Zhipeng

    2012-08-15

    The dust-acoustic waves and the stability theory for the permeating dusty plasma with power-law distributions are studied by using nonextensive q-statistics. In two limiting physical cases, when the thermal velocity of the flowing dusty plasma is much larger than, and much smaller than the phase velocity of the waves, we derived the dust-acoustic wave frequency, the instability growth rate, and the instability critical flowing velocity. As compared with the formulae obtained in part I [Gong et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 043704 (2012)], all formulae of the present cases and the resulting plasma characteristics are q-dependent, and the power-law distribution of each plasma component of the permeating dusty plasma has a different q-parameter and thus has a different nonextensive effect. Further, we make numerical analyses of an example that a cometary plasma tail is passing through the interplanetary space dusty plasma and we show that these power-law distributions have significant effects on the plasma characteristics of this kind of plasma environment.

  3. City of Boulder - Solar Access Ordinance | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Construction Local Government Residential Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Photovoltaics Program Info Sector Name...

  4. Wind Siting Rules and Model Small Wind Ordinance

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In September 2009, the Governor of Wisconsin signed S.B. 185 (Act 40) directing the Wisconsin Public Service Commission (PSC) to establish statewide wind energy siting rules. PSC Docket 1-AC-231...

  5. Guidelines for Solar and Wind Local Ordinances | Department of...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Wind (Small) Program Info Sector Name State State Virginia Program Type SolarWind Permitting Standards Summary In March 2011, the Virginia...

  6. An Overview of Existing Wind Energy Ordinances | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Finance and Implement Projects Resource Type Templates Availability Publicly available--Free Publication Date 20081201 Website http:www.nrel.govdocsfy09o Locality Communities...

  7. Application of a unified deformation-rate law to stress relaxation of AISI Type 316 stainless steel. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    DiMelfi, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A unified deformation rate law is presented and its use at describing stress-relaxation in cladding material is examined. An equation is derived based on the classical theory of rate processes for type 316 stainless steel (the reference fuel-cladding material). In this framework, a strain-rate law is evolved from the concept that plastic deformation is controlled by the rate at which dislocations move past obstacles by thermal activation.

  8. LAW ENFORCEMENT TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP: LESSONS TO DATE FROM THE NORTHWEST TECHNOLOGY DESK AND THE NORTHWEST FADE PILOTS

    SciTech Connect

    West, Curtis L.; Kreyling, Sean J.

    2011-04-01

    The goal of this report is to provide insight into the information technology needs of law enforcement based on first hand observations as an embedded and active participant over the course of two plus years. This report is intended as a preliminary roadmap for technology and project investment that will benefit the entire law enforcement community nationwide. Some recommendations are immediate and have more of an engineering flavor, while others are longer term and will require research and development to solve.

  9. Characterizing ultraviolet and infrared observational properties for galaxies. II. Features of attenuation law

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Ye-Wei; Kong, Xu; Lin, Lin E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn

    2014-07-01

    Variations in the attenuation law have a significant impact on observed spectral energy distributions for galaxies. As one important observational property for galaxies at ultraviolet and infrared wavelength bands, the correlation between infrared-to-ultraviolet luminosity ratio and ultraviolet color index (or ultraviolet spectral slope), i.e., the IRX-UV relation (or IRX-β relation), offered a widely used formula for correcting dust attenuation in galaxies, but the usability appears to be in doubt now because of considerable dispersion in this relation found by many studies. In this paper, on the basis of spectral synthesis modeling and spatially resolved measurements of four nearby spiral galaxies, we provide an interpretation of the deviation in the IRX-UV relation with variations in the attenuation law. From both theoretical and observational viewpoints, two components in the attenuation curve, the linear background and the 2175 Å bump, are suggested to be the parameters in addition to the stellar population age (addressed in the first paper of this series) in the IRX-UV function; different features in the attenuation curve are diagnosed for the galaxies in our sample. Nevertheless, it is often difficult to ascertain the attenuation law for galaxies in actual observations. Possible reasons for preventing the successful detection of the parameters in the attenuation curve are also discussed in this paper, including the degeneracy of the linear background and the 2175 Å bump in observational channels, the requirement for young and dust-rich systems to study, and the difficulty in accurate estimates of dust attenuations at different wavelength bands.

  10. THE DUST ATTENUATION LAW IN DISTANT GALAXIES: EVIDENCE FOR VARIATION WITH SPECTRAL TYPE

    SciTech Connect

    Kriek, Mariska; Conroy, Charlie

    2013-09-20

    This Letter utilizes composite spectral energy distributions (SEDs) constructed from NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey photometry to constrain the dust attenuation curve in 0.5 < z < 2.0 galaxies. Based on similarities between the full SED shapes (0.3-8 μm), we have divided galaxies in 32 different spectral classes and stacked their photometry. As each class contains galaxies over a range in redshift, the resulting rest-frame SEDs are well sampled in wavelength and show various spectral features including Hα and the UV dust bump at 2175 Å. We fit all composite SEDs with flexible stellar population synthesis models, while exploring attenuation curves with varying slopes and UV bump strengths. The Milky Way and Calzetti law provide poor fits at UV wavelengths for nearly all SEDs. Consistent with previous studies, we find that the best-fit attenuation law varies with spectral type. There is a strong correlation between the best-fit dust slope and UV bump strength, with steeper laws having stronger bumps. Moreover, the attenuation curve correlates with specific star formation rate (SFR), with more active galaxies having shallower dust curves and weaker bumps. There is also a weak correlation with inclination. The observed trends can be explained by differences in the dust-to-star geometry, a varying grain size distribution, or a combination of both. Our results have several implications for galaxy evolution studies. First, the assumption of a universal dust model leads to biases in derived galaxy properties. Second, the presence of a dust bump may result in underestimated values for the UV slope, used to correct SFRs of distant galaxies.

  11. Fundamental Flaws In The Derivation Of Stevens' Law For Taste Within Norwich's Entropy Theory of Perception

    SciTech Connect

    Nizami, Lance

    2010-03-01

    Norwich's Entropy Theory of Perception (1975-present) is a general theory of perception, based on Shannon's Information Theory. Among many bold claims, the Entropy Theory presents a truly astounding result: that Stevens' Law with an Index of 1, an empirical power relation of direct proportionality between perceived taste intensity and stimulus concentration, arises from theory alone. Norwich's theorizing starts with several extraordinary hypotheses. First, 'multiple, parallel receptor-neuron units' without collaterals 'carry essentially the same message to the brain', i.e. the rate-level curves are identical. Second, sensation is proportional to firing rate. Third, firing rate is proportional to the taste receptor's 'resolvable uncertainty'. Fourth, the 'resolvable uncertainty' is obtained from Shannon's Information Theory. Finally, 'resolvable uncertainty' also depends upon the microscopic thermodynamic density fluctuation of the tasted solute. Norwich proves that density fluctuation is density variance, which is proportional to solute concentration, all based on the theory of fluctuations in fluid composition from Tolman's classic physics text, 'The Principles of Statistical Mechanics'. Altogether, according to Norwich, perceived taste intensity is theoretically proportional to solute concentration. Such a universal rule for taste, one that is independent of solute identity, personal physiological differences, and psychophysical task, is truly remarkable and is well-deserving of scrutiny. Norwich's crucial step was the derivation of density variance. That step was meticulously reconstructed here. It transpires that the appropriate fluctuation is Tolman's mean-square fractional density fluctuation, not density variance as used by Norwich. Tolman's algebra yields a 'Stevens Index' of -1 rather than 1. As 'Stevens Index' empirically always exceeds zero, the Index of -1 suggests that it is risky to infer psychophysical laws of sensory response from information theory

  12. The extent of power-law energy spectra in collisionless relativistic magnetic reconnection in pair plasma

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Werner, G. R.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Cerutti, B.; Nalewajko, K.; Begelman, M. C.

    2015-12-30

    Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we characterize the energy spectra of particles accelerated by relativistic magnetic reconnection (without guide field) in collisionless electron–positron plasmas, for a wide range of upstream magnetizations σ and system sizes L. The particle spectra are well-represented by a power lawmore » $${\\gamma }^{-\\alpha }$$, with a combination of exponential and super-exponential high-energy cutoffs, proportional to σ and L, respectively. As a result, for large L and σ, the power-law index α approaches about 1.2.« less

  13. Final Report. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing, VSL-03R3460-1, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Isabelle S.; Pegg, Ian L.; Gan, Hao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Bazemore, Gina; Cecil, Richard; Hight, Kenneth; Mooers, Cavin; Lai, Shan-Tao T.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2015-06-18

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  14. Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency: Public Law 109-431: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Alliance to Save Energy; ICF Incorporated; ERG Incorporated; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Brown, Richard E; Brown, Richard; Masanet, Eric; Nordman, Bruce; Tschudi, Bill; Shehabi, Arman; Stanley, John; Koomey, Jonathan; Sartor, Dale; Chan, Peter; Loper, Joe; Capana, Steve; Hedman, Bruce; Duff, Rebecca; Haines, Evan; Sass, Danielle; Fanara, Andrew

    2007-08-02

    This report is the appendices to a companion report, prepared in response to the request from Congress stated in Public Law 109-431 (H.R. 5646),"An Act to Study and Promote the Use of Energy Efficient Computer Servers in the United States." This report assesses current trends in energy use and energy costs of data centers and servers in the U.S. (especially Federal government facilities) and outlines existing and emerging opportunities for improved energy efficiency. It also makes recommendations for pursuing these energy-efficiency opportunities broadly across the country through the use of information and incentive-based programs.

  15. ROGER L. COPPLE ATTORNEY AT LAW FIRST NORTHERN PLAZA* P. O.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ROGER L. COPPLE ATTORNEY AT LAW FIRST NORTHERN PLAZA* P. O. Box 40 SANTA FE, NEW MEXICO 87501 (505) 982-4004 September 10, 1982 Professional Land Surveying 1404 Second Street Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 ATTN: Gary Dawson Re: Bechtel National, Inc./United States Department of Energy - Contract No. DE-AC05-810R20722-FUSRAP Dear Mr. Dawson: As required by the terms of Purchase Contract No. 14501-01/04- PC-19 which involves the captioned contract I have prepared and en- close the following items:

  16. Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency: Public Law 109-431

    SciTech Connect

    Alliance to Save Energy; ICF Incorporated; ERG Incorporated; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Brown, Richard E; Brown, Richard; Masanet, Eric; Nordman, Bruce; Tschudi, Bill; Shehabi, Arman; Stanley, John; Koomey, Jonathan; Sartor, Dale; Chan, Peter; Loper, Joe; Capana, Steve; Hedman, Bruce; Duff, Rebecca; Haines, Evan; Sass, Danielle; Fanara, Andrew

    2007-08-02

    This report was prepared in response to the request from Congress stated in Public Law 109-431 (H.R. 5646),"An Act to Study and Promote the Use of Energy Efficient Computer Servers in the United States." This report assesses current trends in energy use and energy costs of data centers and servers in the U.S. (especially Federal government facilities) and outlines existing and emerging opportunities for improved energy efficiency. It also makes recommendations for pursuing these energy-efficiency opportunities broadly across the country through the use of information and incentive-based programs.

  17. Crossover of two power laws in the anomalous diffusion of a two lipid membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Bakalis, Evangelos E-mail: francesco.zerbetto@unibo.it; Höfinger, Siegfried; Zerbetto, Francesco E-mail: francesco.zerbetto@unibo.it; Venturini, Alessandro

    2015-06-07

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a bi-layer membrane made by the same number of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine and palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylserine lipids reveal sub-diffusional motion, which presents a crossover between two different power laws. Fractional Brownian motion is the stochastic mechanism that governs the motion in both regimes. The location of the crossover point is justified with simple geometrical arguments and is due to the activation of the mechanism of circumrotation of lipids about each other.

  18. Generation, deregulation, and market power? Will antitrust laws fill the void?

    SciTech Connect

    Teichler, S.L.

    1996-10-15

    Monopoly rents? Not in the short run. The real enemy is a price war, fueled by indifference to stranded costs. And when that happens, antitrust laws won`t offer much help. The electric industry displays attributes that encourage predatory pricing. Competition has formally begun in the electric service industry. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has issued Order 888, giving generators access to wholesale loads throughout the nation. California`s investor-owned utilities have filed applications with the FERC to establish an independent system operator and a Power Exchange, through which generators will receive market-based prices for their dispatched generation.

  19. Melting Hanford LAW into Iron-Phosphate Glass in a CCIM

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Sharna Rossberg

    2011-09-01

    A vitrification test has been conducted using the cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test system at the Idaho National Laboratory. The test was conducted to demonstrate the vitrification of a Hanford low activity waste (LAW) that contains relatively large amounts of sulfate and sodium, compared to other radioactive Hanford waste streams. The high sulfate content limits the potential loading of this waste stream in conventional borosilicate glass, so this test demonstrated how this waste stream could be vitrified in an iron-phosphate glass that can tolerate higher levels of sulfate.

  20. Canada is putting teeth into its price fixing and rigging laws

    SciTech Connect

    McWilliams, H.

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports that attendees at the 24th annual Transportation Symposium sponsored by the Propane Gas Association of Canada (PGAC) and held in Calgary, Alberta Oct. 23-24 heard some straight talk about renewed interest in enforcing Canada's Competition Act. Three years ago, a senior official of the Bureau of Competition Policy called certain price-related offenses under the Competition Act the most serious of economic crimes and declared that their enforcement is the cornerstone of Canada's competition laws. With this in mind, the Bureau intends to deal firmly with both business and individuals who engage in such practices.

  1. High-order finite-volume methods for hyperbolic conservation laws on mapped multiblock grids

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    McCorquodale, P. W.; Colella, P.; Dorr, M. R.; Hittinger, J. A. F.

    2015-01-13

    We present an approach to solving hyperbolic conservation laws by finite-volume methods on mapped multiblock grids, extending the approach of Colella, Dorr, Hittinger, and Martin (2011) [10] for grids with a single mapping. We consider mapped multiblock domains for mappings that are conforming at inter-block boundaries. By using a smooth continuation of the mapping into ghost cells surrounding a block, we reduce the inter-block communication problem to finding an accurate, robust interpolation into these ghost cells from neighboring blocks. Lastly, we demonstrate fourth-order accuracy for the advection equation for multiblock coordinate systems in two and three dimensions.

  2. An unconstrained Lagrangian formulation and conservation laws for the Schrödinger map system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Paul

    2014-05-15

    We consider energy-critical Schrödinger maps from R{sup 2} into S{sup 2} and H{sup 2}. Viewing such maps with respect to orthonormal frames on the pullback bundle provides a gauge field formulation of the evolution. We show that this gauge field system is the set of Euler-Lagrange equations corresponding to an action that includes a Chern-Simons term. We also introduce the stress-energy tensor and derive conservation laws. In conclusion we offer comparisons between Schrödinger maps and the closely related Chern-Simons-Schrödinger system.

  3. Influence of the Density Law on Various Fissile Single Unit and Array Storage Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S T

    2011-03-02

    The advancement of computational technology has resulted in the wide-spread availability of powerful radiation transport Monte Carlo codes. Prevailing practices today rely heavily on Monte Carlo codes to provide the basis for assessing the reactivity of various fissile systems for nuclear criticality safety (NCS). In 1958, Weinberg and Wigner expressed their concerns on a 'deplorable trend in reactor design - the tendency to substitute a code for a theory'. Unfortunately, their concerns have largely become a reality in many modern NCS practices. lacking the time or information to understand the underlying neutron physics of the fissile system under consideration is indeed a deplorable trend. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that many features of criticality hand calculation methods are indeed based upon the fundamentals of the density law and that many correlations of important physics parameters can be more easily understood from such a perspective. Historically, the density law was recognized by many pioneers in the field, including during the Manhattan Project. However, it was by and large an 'oral tradition' in that bits and pieces of great physical insights of the pioneers were scattered in many earlier publications. This paper attempts to bring together some of the 'jewels' of the pioneers which might have been lost or forgotten.

  4. Environmental Impact Assessment Law in China's courts: A study of 107 judicial decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Zining, Jin

    2015-11-15

    The article explores the practices of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Law in China's courts by examining 107 judicial decisions. Each of the 107 judicial decisions has been analyzed to determine the time/location of the decision, what type of EIA document was referred to, what specific claim was made by the plaintiffs, and what the court's ruling was on the case. The results indicate that: unlike in Germany or Japan, all kinds of EIA decisions made by environment protect bureaus (EPBs) in China were widely taken as justiciable, and China's courts generally allowed local residents to have standing and thus challenge the EPBs' decisions made during the EIA process. On the other hand, the research also shows the EPBs overwhelmingly prevailed in those EIA lawsuits. It is also found that China's reviewing judges were highly self-restrained, giving obvious deference to the technocrat with the substantial contents of EIA documents. Also, the concept of “flaw” was created when it came to procedural issues. These two factors, among others, were both helping the EPBs' prevailing successes. - Highlights: • 107 judicial decisions referring to China's EIA law are examined. • The justiciability of EPB's EIA decisions were taken for granted. • The defenders overwhelmingly prevailed in those EIA lawsuits. • The reviewing judges were highly self-restrained, defering to the technocrat with the EIA documents. • A functional concept, “flaw”, was created by reviewing judges when it came to procedural issues.

  5. Scaling laws and deformation mechanisms of nanoporous copper under adiabatic uniaxial strain compression

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Fuping Wu, Xiaolei

    2014-12-15

    A series of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the scaling laws and the related atomistic deformation mechanisms of Cu monocrystal samples containing randomly placed nanovoids under adiabatic uniaxial strain compression. At onset of yielding, plastic deformation is accommodated by dislocations emitted from void surfaces as shear loops. The collapse of voids are observed by continuous emissions of dislocations from void surfaces and their interactions with further plastic deformation. The simulation results also suggest that the effect modulus, the yield stress and the energy aborption density of samples under uniaxial strain are linearly proportional to the relative density ?. Moreover, the yield stress, the average flow stress and the energy aborption density of samples with the same relative density show a strong dependence on the void diameter d, expressed by exponential relations with decay coefficients much higher than -1/2. The corresponding atomistic mechanisms for scaling laws of the relative density and the void diameter were also presented. The present results should provide insights for understanding deformation mechanisms of nanoporous metals under extreme conditions.

  6. A Fourier transform method for Vsin i estimations under nonlinear Limb-Darkening laws

    SciTech Connect

    Levenhagen, R. S.

    2014-12-10

    Star rotation offers us a large horizon for the study of many important physical issues pertaining to stellar evolution. Currently, four methods are widely used to infer rotation velocities, namely those related to line width calibrations, on the fitting of synthetic spectra, interferometry, and on Fourier transforms (FTs) of line profiles. Almost all of the estimations of stellar projected rotation velocities using the Fourier method in the literature have been addressed with the use of linear limb-darkening (LD) approximations during the evaluation of rotation profiles and their cosine FTs, which in certain cases, lead to discrepant velocity estimates. In this work, we introduce new mathematical expressions of rotation profiles and their Fourier cosine transforms assuming three nonlinear LD laws—quadratic, square-root, and logarithmic—and study their applications with and without gravity-darkening (GD) and geometrical flattening (GF) effects. Through an analysis of He I models in the visible range accounting for both limb and GD, we find out that, for classical models without rotationally driven effects, all the Vsin i values are too close to each other. On the other hand, taking into account GD and GF, the Vsin i obtained with the linear law result in Vsin i values that are systematically smaller than those obtained with the other laws. As a rule of thumb, we apply these expressions to the FT method to evaluate the projected rotation velocity of the emission B-type star Achernar (α Eri).

  7. The roles of antitrust law and regulatory oversight in the restructured electricity industry

    SciTech Connect

    Glazer, C.A.; Little, M.B.

    1999-05-01

    The introduction of retail wheeling is changing the roles of regulators and the courts. When states unbundle the vertically integrated investor-owned utility (IOU) into generation companies, transmission companies, and distribution companies, antitrust enforcement and policy setting by the state public utility/service commissions (PUCs) will be paramount. As was seen in the deregulation of the airline industry, vigorous enforcement of antitrust laws by the courts and proper policy setting by the regulators are the keys to a successful competitive market. Many of the problems raised in the airline deregulation movement came about due to laxity in correcting clear antitrust violations and anti-competitive conditions before they caused damage to the market. As retail wheeling rolls out, it is critical for state PUCs to become attuned to these issues and, most of all, to have staff trained in these disciplines. The advent of retail wheeling changes the application of the State Action Doctrine and, in turn, may dramatically alter the role of the state PUC--meaning antitrust law and regulatory oversight must step in to protect competitors and consumers from monopolistic abuse.

  8. Ruling out the power-law form of the scalar primordial spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Smoot, George F.; Starobinsky, Alexei A. E-mail: arman@apctp.org E-mail: alstar@landau.ac.ru

    2014-06-01

    Combining Planck CMB temperature [1] and BICEP2 B-mode polarization data [2,3] we show qualitatively that, assuming inflationary consistency relation, the power-law form of the scalar primordial spectrum is ruled out at more than 3σ CL. This is an important finding, since the power-law form of the scalar primordial spectrum is one of the main assumptions of concordance model of cosmology and also a direct prediction of many inflationary scenarios. We show that a break or step in the form of the primordial scalar perturbation spectrum, similar to what we studied recently analyzing Planck data [4], can address both Planck and BICEP2 results simultaneously. Our findings also indicate that the data may require more flexibilities than what running of scalar spectral index can provide. Finally we show that an inflaton potential, originally appeared in [5], can generate both the step and the break model of scalar primordial spectrum in two different limits. The discussed potential is found to be favored by Planck data but marginally disfavored by BICEP2 results as it produces slightly lower amplitude of tensor primordial spectrum. Hence, if the tensor-to-scalar ratio (r) quoted by BICEP2 persists, it is of importance that we generate inflationary models with large r and at the same time provide suppression in scalar primordial spectrum at large scales.

  9. Conservation laws and stress-energy-momentum tensors for systems with background fields

    SciTech Connect

    Gratus, Jonathan; Obukhov, Yuri N.; Tucker, Robin W.

    2012-10-15

    This article attempts to delineate the roles played by non-dynamical background structures and Killing symmetries in the construction of stress-energy-momentum tensors generated from a diffeomorphism invariant action density. An intrinsic coordinate independent approach puts into perspective a number of spurious arguments that have historically lead to the main contenders, viz the Belinfante-Rosenfeld stress-energy-momentum tensor derived from a Noether current and the Einstein-Hilbert stress-energy-momentum tensor derived in the context of Einstein's theory of general relativity. Emphasis is placed on the role played by non-dynamical background (phenomenological) structures that discriminate between properties of these tensors particularly in the context of electrodynamics in media. These tensors are used to construct conservation laws in the presence of Killing Lie-symmetric background fields. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The role of background fields in diffeomorphism invariant actions is demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interrelations between different stress-energy-momentum tensors are emphasised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Abraham and Minkowski electromagnetic tensors are discussed in this context. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation laws in the presence of nondynamic background fields are formulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The discussion is facilitated by the development of a new variational calculus.

  10. THE PECULIAR EXTINCTION LAW OF SN 2014J MEASURED WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Amanullah, R.; Goobar, A.; Johansson, J.; Petrushevska, T.; Banerjee, D. P. K.; Venkataraman, V.; Joshi, V.; Ashok, N. M.; Cao, Y.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Nugent, P. E.; Stanishev, V.

    2014-06-20

    The wavelength dependence of the extinction of Type Ia SN 2014J in the nearby galaxy M82 has been measured using UV to near-IR photometry obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, the Nordic Optical Telescope, and the Mount Abu Infrared Telescope. This is the first time that the reddening of an SN Ia is characterized over the full wavelength range of 0.2-2 μm. A total-to-selective extinction, R{sub V} ≥ 3.1, is ruled out with high significance. The best fit at maximum using a Galactic type extinction law yields R{sub V} = 1.4 ± 0.1. The observed reddening of SN 2014J is also compatible with a power-law extinction, A {sub λ}/A{sub V} = (λ/λ {sub V}) {sup p} as expected from multiple scattering of light, with p = –2.1 ± 0.1. After correcting for differences in reddening, SN 2014J appears to be very similar to SN 2011fe over the 14 broadband filter light curves used in our study.

  11. Utilization of Local Law Enforcement Aerial Resources in Consequence Management (CM) Response

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotr T.; Malchow, Russell L.

    2013-03-12

    During the past decade the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was instrumental in enhancing the nation’s ability to detect and prevent a radiological or nuclear attack in the highest risk cities. Under the DHS Securing the Cities initiative, nearly 13,000 personnel in the New York City region have been trained in preventive radiological and nuclear detection operations, and nearly 8,500 pieces of radiological detection equipment have been funded. As part of the preventive radiological/nuclear detection (PRND) mission, several cities have received funding to purchase commercial aerial radiation detection systems. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Aerial Measuring System (AMS) program started providing Mobile Aerial Radiological Surveillance (MARS) training to such assets, resulting in over 150 HAZMAT teams’ officers and pilots from 10 law enforcement organizations and fire departments being trained in the aerial radiation detection. From the beginning, the MARS training course covered both the PRND and consequence management (CM) missions. Even if the law enforcement main focus is PRND, their aerial assets can be utilized in the collection of initial radiation data for post-event radiological CM response. Based on over 50 years of AMS operational experience and information collected during MARS training, this presentation will focus on the concepts of CM response using aerial assets as well as utilizing law enforcement/fire department aerial assets in CM. Also discussed will be the need for establishing closer relationships between local jurisdictions’ aerial radiation detection capabilities and state and local radiation control program directors, radiological health department managers, etc. During radiological events these individuals may become primary experts/advisers to Incident Commanders for radiological emergency response, especially in the early stages of a response. The knowledge of the existence

  12. Moore's law and the impact on trusted and radiation-hardened microelectronics.

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Kwok Kee

    2011-12-01

    In 1965 Gordon Moore wrote an article claiming that integrated circuit density would scale exponentially. His prediction has remained valid for more than four decades. Integrated circuits have changed all aspects of everyday life. They are also the 'heart and soul' of modern systems for defense, national infrastructure, and intelligence applications. The United States government needs an assured and trusted microelectronics supply for military systems. However, migration of microelectronics design and manufacturing from the United States to other countries in recent years has placed the supply of trusted microelectronics in jeopardy. Prevailing wisdom dictates that it is necessary to use microelectronics fabricated in a state-of-the-art technology for highest performance and military system superiority. Close examination of silicon microelectronics technology evolution and Moore's Law reveals that this prevailing wisdom is not necessarily true. This presents the US government the possibility of a totally new approach to acquire trusted microelectronics.

  13. An atomistic vision of the Mass Action Law: Prediction of carbon/oxygen defects in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Brenet, G.; Timerkaeva, D.; Caliste, D.; Pochet, P.; Sgourou, E. N.; Londos, C. A.

    2015-09-28

    We introduce an atomistic description of the kinetic Mass Action Law to predict concentrations of defects and complexes. We demonstrate in this paper that this approach accurately predicts carbon/oxygen related defect concentrations in silicon upon annealing. The model requires binding and migration energies of the impurities and complexes, here obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Vacancy-oxygen complex kinetics are studied as a model system during both isochronal and isothermal annealing. Results are in good agreement with experimental data, confirming the success of the methodology. More importantly, it gives access to the sequence of chain reactions by which oxygen and carbon related complexes are created in silicon. Beside the case of silicon, the understanding of such intricate reactions is a key to develop point defect engineering strategies to control defects and thus semiconductors properties.

  14. Lagrangian formulation of irreversible thermodynamics and the second law of thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Glavatskiy, K. S.

    2015-05-28

    We show that the equations which describe irreversible evolution of a system can be derived from a variational principle. We suggest a Lagrangian, which depends on the properties of the normal and the so-called “mirror-image” system. The Lagrangian is symmetric in time and therefore compatible with microscopic reversibility. The evolution equations in the normal and mirror-imaged systems are decoupled and describe therefore independent irreversible evolution of each of the systems. The second law of thermodynamics follows from a symmetry of the Lagrangian. Entropy increase in the normal system is balanced by the entropy decrease in the mirror-image system, such that there exists an “integral of evolution” which is a constant. The derivation relies on the property of local equilibrium, which states that the local relations between the thermodynamic quantities in non-equilibrium are the same as in equilibrium.

  15. Collision-dependent power law scalings in two dimensional gyrokinetic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Cerri, S. S. Ban Navarro, A.; Told, D.; Jenko, F.

    2014-08-15

    Nonlinear gyrokinetics provides a suitable framework to describe short-wavelength turbulence in magnetized laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. In the electrostatic limit, this system is known to exhibit a free energy cascade towards small scales in (perpendicular) real and/or velocity space. The dissipation of free energy is always due to collisions (no matter how weak the collisionality), but may be spread out across a wide range of scales. Here, we focus on freely decaying two dimensional electrostatic turbulence on sub-ion-gyroradius scales. An existing scaling theory for the turbulent cascade in the weakly collisional limit is generalized to the moderately collisional regime. In this context, non-universal power law scalings due to multiscale dissipation are predicted, and this prediction is confirmed by means of direct numerical simulations.

  16. Bioethical Biobanks: Three Concerns in Designing and Using Law Enforcement DNA Identification Databases

    SciTech Connect

    D.H. Kaye

    2006-10-19

    Federal and state law enforcement authorities have amassed large collections of DNA samples and the identifying profiles derived from them. These databases help to identify the guilty and to exonerate the innocent, but as the databanks grow, so do fears about civil liberties. The research reported here discusses three legal and social policy issues that have been raised in regard to these biobanks—the choice of loci to type for identifying individuals, the indefinite retention of DNA samples, and the use of the DNA samples or the identifying profiles for research purposes. It also considers the possible value of the databases for research into the genetics of human behavior and the ethics of using them for this purpose. It rejects the broad claim that such research is inherently unethical but proposes procedures for ensuring that the value of the proposed research justifies any psychosocial or other risks to the subjects of the research.

  17. Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, with Index (Public Law 96-501).

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act was enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America. It was enacted to assist the electrical consumers of the Pacific Northwest through use of the Federal columbia River Power System to achieve cost-effective energy conservation, to encourage the development of renewable energy resources, to establish a representative regional power planning process, to assure the region of an efficient and adequate power supply, and for other purposes. Contents of the Act are: short title and table of contents; purposes; definitions; regional planning and participation; sale of power; conservation and resource acquisition; rates; amendments to existing law; administrative provisions; savings provisions; effective date; and severability.

  18. On a regularization of a scalar conservation law with discontinuous coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Chun

    2014-03-15

    This paper is devoted to a scalar conservation law with a linear flux function involving discontinuous coefficients. It is clear that the delta standing wave should be introduced into the Riemann solution in some nonclassical situation. In order to study the formation of delta standing wave, we consider a regularization of the discontinuous coefficient with the Helmholtz mollifier and then obtain a regularized system which depends on a regularization parameter ε > 0. The regularization mechanism is a nonlinear bending of characteristic curves that prevents their finite-time intersection. It is proved rigorously that the solutions of regularized system converge to the delta standing wave solution in the ε → 0 limit. Compared with the classical method of vanishing viscosity, here it is clear to see how the delta standing wave forms naturally along the characteristics.

  19. Exploring parameter constraints on quintessential dark energy: The inverse power law model

    SciTech Connect

    Yashar, Mark; Bozek, Brandon; Abrahamse, Augusta; Albrecht, Andreas; Barnard, Michael

    2009-05-15

    We report on the results of a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of an inverse power law (IPL) quintessence model using the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) simulated data sets as a representation of future dark energy experiments. We generate simulated data sets for a {lambda}CDM background cosmology as well as a case where the dark energy is provided by a specific IPL fiducial model, and present our results in the form of likelihood contours generated by these two background cosmologies. We find that the relative constraining power of the various DETF data sets on the IPL model parameters is broadly equivalent to the DETF results for the w{sub 0}-w{sub a} parametrization of dark energy. Finally, we gauge the power of DETF 'stage 4' data by demonstrating a specific IPL model which, if realized in the universe, would allow stage 4 data to exclude a cosmological constant at better than the 3{sigma} level.

  20. Laws of convective vortex formation behind a flame front during its propagation in a tube

    SciTech Connect

    Abrukov, S.A.; Samsonov, V.P.

    1986-05-01

    This paper examines laws and conditions of convective vortex formation in combustion products during the propagation of a slow, stable flame in a vertical, half-open tube. The main element of the experimental unit was the reaction tube and weightless conditions were created in a freely falling container holding the reaction tube. Propane-air and CO-air mixtures were used. The structure of the flow behind the flame front was studied by the interferometric method. Frames are show from an interference film illustrating the typical pattern of vortex formation behind the flame front when the flame propagates upward at a velocity of 7 cm/sec. Analyses of the interferograms shows that the flame is stable before the vortices appear and that the flow of combustion products is laminar.

  1. International and United States documents on oceans law and policy. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Volume 3 of the five-volume compilation contains major international documents relating to ocean issues. It groups the documents under 11 major headings: Polar Policy (Arctic and Antarctic); Marine scientific research and development; Non-living resources under national jurisdiction; Exclusive economic zone; Deep seabed mining; Maritime boundaries; Dispute prevention and settlement; Special regimes (including canals, straits, etc.); Communication (undersea cables and broadcasting); and Arms control and the law of naval warfare. The title page for each document includes full citations. While most are presented in their entirety, a few have been edited to save space. A separate abstract on Deep seabed mining was prepared for the Energy Data Base and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis.

  2. Development and Validation of Temperature Dependent Thermal Neutron Scattering Laws for Applications and Safety Implications in Generation IV Reactor Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Ayman Hawari

    2008-06-20

    The overall obljectives of this project are to critically review the currently used thermal neutron scattering laws for various moderators as a function of temperature, select as well documented and representative set of experimental data sensitive to the neutron spectra to generate a data base of benchmarks, update models and models parameters by introducing new developments in thermalization theory and condensed matter physics into various computational approaches in establishing the scattering laws, benchmark the results against the experimentatl set. In the case of graphite, a validation experiment is performed by observing nutron slowing down as a function of temperatures equal to or greater than room temperature.

  3. Henry's law constants for paint solvents and their implications on volatile organic compound emissions from automotive painting

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.R.; Kalis, E.M.; DeWulf, T.; Andrews, K.M.

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes experimental results of equilibrium partitioning of several significant paint solvents and formaldehyde between air and water to quantify the potential for capturing and retaining the constituents in spraybooth scrubber water during automotive painting. The compounds studied are toluene, n-butanol, methyl ethyl ketone methyl propyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, methyl amyl ketone, butyl cellosolve, butyl cellosolve acetate, butyl carbitol, and n-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone. A set of field data collected at a Ford Motor Company assembly plant was also analyzed to determine whether data were consistent with the equilibrium phenomenon. The primary findings include: (a) There were more than six orders of magnitude difference in the Henry's law constants among the solvents studied. A solvent with a smaller constant is less easily stripped from water. The Henry's law constants decrease in the following order: toluene and xylenes > methyl ethyl ketone > n-butanol > butyl cellosolve acetate > butyl cellosolve > formaldehyde > butyl carbitol > n-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone. (b) Field data showed accumulation of n-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and stable concentrations of butyl carbitol, butyl cellosolve, and n-butanol in the paint-sludge pit water during a 2-month period. Stable concentrations indicate a continuous, balanced capture and stripping of the solvents. Data were consistent with measured Henry's law constants. (c) The low Henry's law constant for formaldehyde is the result of the fact that it is hydrated when dissolved in water.

  4. Conservation Service Reform Act of 1986: Public Law 99-412, Ninety-Ninth Congress, August 28, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Public Law 99-412 amends the National Energy Conservation Policy Act to continue the effort to control energy demand growth. The bill changes some plan requirements affecting utilities, eligibility, exemptions and waivers, alternative state plans, and reporting. Title II repeals Title VII of the NECPA dealing with commercial and multifamily buildings and demonstration projects.

  5. Fourier heat conduction as a phenomenon described within the scope of the second law

    SciTech Connect

    Jesudason, Christopher G.

    2014-12-10

    The historical development of the Carnot cycle necessitated the construction of isothermal and adiabatic pathways within the cycle that were also mechanically 'reversible' which lead eventually to the Kelvin-Clausius development of the entropy function S where for any reversible closed path C, ∮{sub C} dS = 0 based on an infinite number of concatenated Carnot engines that approximated the said path and where for each engine ΔQ{sub 1}/T{sub 1}+ΔQ{sub 2}/T{sub 2} = 0 where the Q's and T's are the heat absorption increments and temperature respectively with the subscripts indicating the isothermal paths (1;2) where for the Carnot engine, the heat absorption is for the diathermal (isothermal) paths of the cycle only. Since 'heat' has been defined as that form of energy that is transferred as a result of a temperature difference and a corollary of the Clausius statement of the Second law is that it is impossible for heat to be transferred from a cold to a hot reservoir with no other effect on the environment, these statements suggested that the local mode of transfer of 'heat' in the isothermal segments of the pathway does imply a Fourier heat conduction mechanism (to conform to the definition of 'heat') albeit of a 'reversible' kind, but on the other hand, the Fourier mechanism is apparently irreversible, leading to an increase in entropy of the combined reservoirs at either end of the material involved in the conveyance of the heat energy. These and several other considerations lead Benofy and Quay (BQ) to postulate the Fourier heat conduction phenomenon to be an ancillary principle in thermodynamics, with this principle being strictly local in nature, where the global Second law statements could not be applied to this local process. Here we present equations that model heat conduction as a thermodynamically reversible but mechanically irreversible process where due to the belief in mechanical time reversible symmetry, thermodynamical reversibility has been

  6. COLLISIONS BETWEEN GRAVITY-DOMINATED BODIES. I. OUTCOME REGIMES AND SCALING LAWS

    SciTech Connect

    Leinhardt, Zoee M.; Stewart, Sarah T. E-mail: sstewart@eps.harvard.edu

    2012-01-20

    Collisions are the core agent of planet formation. In this work, we derive an analytic description of the dynamical outcome for any collision between gravity-dominated bodies. We conduct high-resolution simulations of collisions between planetesimals; the results are used to isolate the effects of different impact parameters on collision outcome. During growth from planetesimals to planets, collision outcomes span multiple regimes: cratering, merging, disruption, super-catastrophic disruption, and hit-and-run events. We derive equations (scaling laws) to demarcate the transition between collision regimes and to describe the size and velocity distributions of the post-collision bodies. The scaling laws are used to calculate maps of collision outcomes as a function of mass ratio, impact angle, and impact velocity, and we discuss the implications of the probability of each collision regime during planet formation. Collision outcomes are described in terms of the impact conditions and the catastrophic disruption criteria, Q*{sub RD}-the specific energy required to disperse half the total colliding mass. All planet formation and collisional evolution studies have assumed that catastrophic disruption follows pure energy scaling; however, we find that catastrophic disruption follows nearly pure momentum scaling. As a result, Q*{sub RD} is strongly dependent on the impact velocity and projectile-to-target mass ratio in addition to the total mass and impact angle. To account for the impact angle, we derive the interacting mass fraction of the projectile; the outcome of a collision is dependent on the kinetic energy of the interacting mass rather than the kinetic energy of the total mass. We also introduce a new material parameter, c*, that defines the catastrophic disruption criteria between equal-mass bodies in units of the specific gravitational binding energy. For a diverse range of planetesimal compositions and internal structures, c* has a value of 5 {+-} 2; whereas

  7. THE MID-INFRARED EXTINCTION LAW AND ITS VARIATION IN THE COALSACK NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shu; Gao Jian; Jiang, B. W.; Chen Yang; Li Aigen E-mail: jiangao@bnu.edu.cn E-mail: cheny@bnu.edu.cn

    2013-08-10

    In recent years, the wavelength dependence of interstellar extinction from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near- and mid-infrared (IR) has been studied extensively. Although it is well established that the UV/optical extinction law varies significantly among the different lines of sight, it is not clear how IR extinction varies among various environments. In this work, using the color-excess method and taking red giants as the extinction tracer, we determine interstellar extinction A{sub {lambda}} in the four Spitzer/IRAC bands in [3.6], [4.5], [5.8], [8.0] {mu}m (relative to A{sub K{sub s}}, extinction in the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) K{sub s} band at 2.16 {mu}m) of the Coalsack nebula, a nearby starless dark cloud, based on the data obtained from the 2MASS and Spitzer/GLIMPSE surveys. We select five individual regions across the nebula that span a wide variety of physical conditions ranging from diffuse and translucent to dense environments, as traced by the visual extinction, the Spitzer/MIPS 24 {mu}m emission, and CO emission. We find that A{sub {lambda}}/A{sub K{sub s}}, mid-IR extinction relative to A{sub K{sub s}}, decreases from diffuse to dense environments, which may be explained in terms of ineffective dust growth in dense regions. The mean extinction (relative to A{sub K{sub s}}) is calculated for the four IRAC bands as well and exhibits a flat mid-IR extinction law consistent with previous determinations for other regions. Extinction in the IRAC 4.5 {mu}m band is anomalously high, much higher than that of the other three IRAC bands, and cannot be explained in terms of CO and CO{sub 2} ice. Mid-IR extinction in the four IRAC bands has also been derived for four representative regions in the Coalsack Globule 2, which respectively exhibit strong ice absorption, moderate or weak ice absorption, and very weak or no ice absorption. The derived mid-IR extinction curves are all flat, with A{sub {lambda}}/A{sub K{sub s}} increasing with the decrease of the

  8. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of Hanford LAW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Arlin L.; Nicholas R Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented, in 2002, a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years. A key element of the plan was acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization.'' The plan identified steam reforming technology as a candidate for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was completed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel. The pilot scale facility was equipped with a highly efficient cyclone separator and heated sintered metal filters for particulate removal, a thermal oxidizer for reduced gas species and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for residual volatile species capture. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, but located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Pilot scale testing was performed August 25, 2004. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Science Application International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, personnel performed actual pilot scale operation. The pilot scale test achieved a total of 68.7 hrs of cumulative/continuous processing operation before termination in response to a bed de-fluidization condition. 178 kg of LAW surrogate were processed that resulted in 148 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 17%. The process

  9. Halide, Chromate, and Phosphate Impacts on LAW Glass for Dynamic Flowsheet 24590-WTP-MCR-PET-09-0037, Rev. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gimpel, Rodney F.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2013-12-16

    Revision 1 of this Model Change Request changed Equation 6 in Attachment Al only. Melter studies have shown that halide, chromium, and phosphates can cause precipitation of solids that can interfer the melting process. Pilot melter data now shows what concentrations LAW glass can tolerate. These limits shall be incorporated into the existing LAW glass algorithm per Attachment Al.

  10. Conventional empirical law reverses in the phase transitions of 122-type iron-based superconductors

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Yu, Zhenhai; Wang, Lin; Wang, Luhong; Liu, Haozhe; Zhao, Jinggeng; Li, Chunyu; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Wu, Wei; Luo, Jianlin; Wang, Nanlin; et al

    2014-11-24

    Phase transition of solid-state materials is a fundamental research topic in condensed matter physics, materials science and geophysics. It has been well accepted and widely proven that isostructural compounds containing different cations undergo same pressure-induced phase transitions but at progressively lower pressures as the cation radii increases. However, we discovered that this conventional law reverses in the structural transitions in 122-type iron-based superconductors. In this report, a combined low temperature and high pressure X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement has identified the phase transition curves among the tetragonal (T), orthorhombic (O) and the collapsed-tetragonal (cT) phases in the structural phase diagram ofmore » the iron-based superconductor AFe2As2 (A = Ca, Sr, Eu, and Ba). As a result, the cation radii dependence of the phase transition pressure (T → cT) shows an opposite trend in which the compounds with larger ambient radii cations have a higher transition pressure.« less

  11. An adaptive mesh-moving and refinement procedure for one-dimensional conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, R.; Flaherty, J.E.; Arney, D.C. Rensselaer Polytech. Inst., Troy, NY Military Acad., West Point, NY )

    1993-01-01

    We examine the performance of an adaptive mesh-moving and /or local mesh refinement procedure for the finite difference solution of one-dimensional hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. Adaptive motion of a base mesh is designed to isolate spatially distinct phenomena, and recursive local refinement of the time step and cells of the stationary or moving base mesh is performed in regions where a refinement indicator exceeds a prescribed tolerance. These adaptive procedures are incorporated into a computer code that includes a MacCormack finite difference scheme wih Davis' artificial viscosity model and a discretization error estimate based on Richardson's extrapolation. Experiments are conducted on three problems in order to qualify the advantages of adaptive techniques relative to uniform mesh computations and the relative benefits of mesh moving and refinement. Key results indicate that local mesh refinement, with and without mesh moving, can provide reliable solutions at much lower computational cost than possible on uniform meshes; that mesh motion can be used to improve the results of uniform mesh solutions for a modest computational effort; that the cost of managing the tree data structure associated with refinement is small; and that a combination of mesh motion and refinement reliably produces solutions for the least cost per unit accuracy.

  12. Cosmic histories of star formation and reionization: an analysis with a power-law approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yun-Wei; Cheng, K.S.; Chu, M.C.; Yeung, S. E-mail: hrspksc@hku.hk E-mail: terryys@gmail.com

    2012-07-01

    With a simple power-law approximation of high-redshift (?>3.5) star formation history, i.e., ?-dot {sub *}(z)?[(1+z)/4.5]{sup ??}, we investigate the reionization of intergalactic medium (IGM) and the consequent Thomson scattering optical depth for cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons. A constraint on the evolution index ? is derived from the CMB optical depth measured by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) experiment, which reads ? ? 2.18 lg N{sub ?}?3.89, where the free parameter N{sub ?} is the number of the escaped ionizing ultraviolet photons per baryon. At the same time, the redshift z{sub f} at which the IGM is fully ionized can also be expressed as a function of ? as well as N{sub ?}. By further taking into account the implication of the Gunn-Peterson trough observations to quasars for the full reionization redshift, i.e., 6?

  13. A classical and a relativistic law of motion for spherical supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Zaninetti, Lorenzo

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we derive some first order differential equations which model the classical and the relativistic thin layer approximations. The circumstellar medium is assumed to follow a density profile of the Plummer type, the Lane-Emden (n = 5) type, or a power law. The first order differential equations are solved analytically, numerically, by a series expansion, or by recursion. The initial conditions are chosen in order to model the temporal evolution of SN 1993J over 10 yr and a smaller chi-squared is obtained for the Plummer case with η = 6. The stellar mass ejected by the SN progenitor prior to the explosion, expressed in solar mass, is identified with the total mass associated with the selected density profile and varies from 0.217 to 0.402 when the central number density is 10{sup 7} particles per cubic centimeter. The FWHM of the three density profiles, which can be identified with the size of the pre-SN 1993J envelope, varies from 0.0071 pc to 0.0092 pc.

  14. Characterization and Leaching Tests of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Form for LAW Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Brown, Christopher F.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-10-01

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) have been evaluated. One such immobilization technology is the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) granular product. The FBSR granular product is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial and laboratory scale. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was involved in an extensive characterization campaign. This goal of this campaign was study the durability of the FBSR mineral product and the mineral product encapsulated in a monolith to meet compressive strength requirements. This paper gives an overview of results obtained using the ASTM C 1285 Product Consistency Test (PCT), the EPA Test Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the ASTMC 1662 Single-Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) test. Along with these durability tests an overview of the characteristics of the waste form has been collected using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), microwave digestions for chemical composition, and surface area from Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) theory.

  15. Hybrid Multidimensional Relational and Link Analytical Knowledge Discovery for Law Enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Gillen, David S.; Burke, John S.; Critchlow, Terence J.; Damante, Matt; Fernandes, Robert

    2008-08-01

    The challenges facing the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) require not only multi-dimensional, but also multi-scale data analysis. In particular, the ability to seamlessly move from summary information, such as trends, into detailed analysis of individual entities, while critical for law enforcement, typically requires manually transferring information among multiple tools. Such time-consuming and error prone processes significantly hamper the analysts' ability to quickly explore data and identify threats. As part of a DHS Science and Technology effort, we have been developing and deploying for Immigration and Customs Enforcement the CubeLink system integrating information between relational data cubes and link analytical semantic graphs. In this paper we describe CubeLink in terms of the underlying components, their integration, and the formal mapping from multidimensional data analysis into link analysis. In so doing, we provide a formal basis for one particular form of automatic schema-ontology mapping from OLAP data cubes to semantic graphs databases, and point the way towards future ``intelligent'' OLAP data cubes equipped with meta-data about their dimensional typing.

  16. Conventional empirical law reverses in the phase transitions of 122-type iron-based superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zhenhai; Wang, Lin; Wang, Luhong; Liu, Haozhe; Zhao, Jinggeng; Li, Chunyu; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Wu, Wei; Luo, Jianlin; Wang, Nanlin; Yang, Ke; Zhao, Yusheng; Mao, Ho -kwang

    2014-11-24

    Phase transition of solid-state materials is a fundamental research topic in condensed matter physics, materials science and geophysics. It has been well accepted and widely proven that isostructural compounds containing different cations undergo same pressure-induced phase transitions but at progressively lower pressures as the cation radii increases. However, we discovered that this conventional law reverses in the structural transitions in 122-type iron-based superconductors. In this report, a combined low temperature and high pressure X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement has identified the phase transition curves among the tetragonal (T), orthorhombic (O) and the collapsed-tetragonal (cT) phases in the structural phase diagram of the iron-based superconductor AFe2As2 (A = Ca, Sr, Eu, and Ba). As a result, the cation radii dependence of the phase transition pressure (T → cT) shows an opposite trend in which the compounds with larger ambient radii cations have a higher transition pressure.

  17. Intergranular fracture in UO2: derivation of traction-separation law from atomistic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Yongfeng Zhang; Paul C Millett; Michael R Tonks; Xian-Ming Bai; S Bulent Biner

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the intergranular fracture behavior of UO2 was studied by molecular dynamics simulations using the Basak potential. In addition, the constitutive traction-separation law was derived from atomistic data using the cohesive-zone model. In the simulations a bicrystal model with the (100) symmetric tilt E5 grain boundaries was utilized. Uniaxial tension along the grain boundary normal was applied to simulate Mode-I fracture. The fracture was observed to propagate along the grain boundary by micro-pore nucleation and coalescence, giving an overall intergranular fracture behavior. Phase transformations from the Fluorite to the Rutile and Scrutinyite phases were identified at the propagating crack tips. These new phases are metastable and they transformed back to the Fluorite phase at the wake of crack tips as the local stress concentration was relieved by complete cracking. Such transient behavior observed at atomistic scale was found to substantially increase the energy release rate for fracture. Insertion of Xe gas into the initial notch showed minor effect on the overall fracture behavior.

  18. Smart repeater system for communications interoperability during multi-agency law enforcement operations

    SciTech Connect

    Crutcher, R.I.; Jones, R.W.; Moore, M.R.; Smith, S.F.; Tolley, A.L.; Rochelle, R.W.

    1996-12-31

    A prototype smart repeater that provides interoperability capabilities for radio communication systems in multi-agency and multi-user scenarios is being developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The smart repeater functions as a deployable communications platform that can be dynamically reconfigured to cross-link the radios of participating federal, state, and local government agencies. This interconnection capability improves the coordination and execution of multi-agency operations, including coordinated law enforcement activities and general emergency or disaster response scenarios. The repeater provides multiple channels of operation in the 30--50, 118--136, 138--174, and 403--512 MHz land mobile communications and aircraft bands while providing the ability to cross-connect among multiple frequencies, bands, modulation types, and encryption formats. Additionally, two telephone interconnects provide links to the fixed and cellular telephone networks. The 800- and 900-MHz bands are not supported by the prototype, but the modular design of the system accommodates future retrofits to extend frequency capabilities with minimal impact to the system. Configuration of the repeater is through a portable personal computer with a Windows-based graphical interface control screen that provides dynamic reconfiguration of network interconnections and formats.

  19. Procedural vs. substantive in the NEPA law: Cutting the Gordian knot

    SciTech Connect

    Boggs, J.P. . Dept. of Anthropology)

    1993-01-01

    The debate whether the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is procedural or substantive has become central both to agency implementation of the act and to court review of agency compliance. While NEPA mandates both procedural and substantive reform as a means to improve environmental quality, NEPA also focuses on cognitive reform--the improved utilization of knowledge in public affairs. Choices about what knowledge to base public decisions on, and how that knowledge will be used, build the social realities that shape lives. Thus, NEPA's mandates for the creation and use of public knowledge activate fundamentally conflicting values and visions of social order. However, debate about the procedural and substantive provisions of NEPA cannot resolve the conflict about values that actually motivates the debate, and this constrictive debate impoverishes public discussion about NEPA implementation and judicial review. This paper links the present debate with the values issues that underlie it, suggesting a more direct language for characterizing NEPA and a broader framework of legal theory for debating the issues it raises. This paper also finds that environmental and social science practitioners are strategically positioned to contribute materially to the issues raised by a NEPA properly understood as law that mandates knowledge utilization.

  20. US DOE Initiated Performance Enhancements to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low-activity Waste Vitrification (LAW) System

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, William F.; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Holton, Langdon K.; Pegg, Ian L.; Bowen, Brad W.

    2006-03-03

    The U.S Department of Energy Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) is constructing a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) for the treatment and vitrification of underground tank wastes stored at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The WTP comprises four major facilities: a pretreatment facility to separate the tank waste into high level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) process streams, a HLW vitrification facility to immobilize the HLW fraction; a LAW vitrification facility to immobilize the LAW fraction, and an analytical laboratory to support the operations of all four treatment facilities. DOE has established strategic objectives to optimize the performance of the WTP facilities and the LAW and HLW waste forms to reduce the overall schedule and cost for treatment and vitrification of the Hanford tank wastes. This strategy has been implemented by establishing performance expectations in the WTP contract for the facilities and waste forms. In addition, DOE, as owner-operator of the WTP facilities, continues to evaluate 1) the design, to determine the potential for performance above the requirements specified in the WTP contract; and 2) improvements in production of the LAW and HLW waste forms. This paper reports recent progress directed at improving production of the LAW waste form. DOEs initial assessment, which is based on the work reported in this paper, is that the capacity of the WTP LAW vitrification facility can be increased by a factor of 2 to 4 with a combination of revised glass formulations, modest increases in melter glass operating temperatures, and a second-generation LAW melter with a larger surface area. Implementing these improvements in the LAW waste immobilization capability can benefit the LAW treatment mission by reducing both processing time and cost.

  1. A comparison of mechanical properties and scaling law relationships for silica aerogels and their organic counterparts

    SciTech Connect

    Pekala, R.W.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Tillotson, T.M.; Alviso, C.T.; Poco, J.F.; LeMay, J.D.

    1990-08-01

    Aerogels are a special class of open-cell foams derived from the supercritical extraction of highly crosslinked, inorganic or organic gels. The resultant materials have ultrafine cell/pore sizes (< 100 nm), high surface areas (350--1000m{sup 2}/g), and a microstructure composed of interconnected colloidal-like particles or polymeric chains with characteristic diameters of 10 nm. TEM and SAXS show that this microstructure is sensitive to variations in processing conditions that influence crosslinking chemistry and growth processes prior to gelation. Traditional silica aerogels are prepared via the hydrolysis and condensation of tetramethoxy silane (TMOS) or tetraethoxy silane (TEOS). Factors such as pH and the (H{sub 2}O)/(TMOS) ratio affect the microstructure of the dried aerogel. It is generally accepted that polymeric' silica aerogels result from acid catalysis while colloidal'silica aerogels result from base catalysis. Recently, Hrubesh and Tillotson developed a new condensed silica' procedure for obtaining silica aerogels with densities as low as 0.004g/cc, i.e. only 3{times} the density of air. Organic aerogels are formed from the aqueous, polycondensation of (1) resorcinol/formaldehyde or (2) melamine/formaldehyde. The microstructure of the resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels is dictated by the amount of base catalyst used in the sol-gel polymerization. In addition, these materials can be pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to form vitreous carbon aerogels. Melamine- formaldehyde (MF) aerogels that are both colorless and transparent are only formed under acidic conditions (i.e. pH = 1--2). In this paper, the microstructural dependence and scaling law relationships for the compressive modulus of silica, carbon, RF, and MF aerogels will be discussed in detail. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Robustness analysis of an air heating plant and control law by using polynomial chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Colón, Diego; Ferreira, Murillo A. S.; Bueno, Átila M.; Balthazar, José M.; Rosa, Suélia S. R. F. de

    2014-12-10

    This paper presents a robustness analysis of an air heating plant with a multivariable closed-loop control law by using the polynomial chaos methodology (MPC). The plant consists of a PVC tube with a fan in the air input (that forces the air through the tube) and a mass flux sensor in the output. A heating resistance warms the air as it flows inside the tube, and a thermo-couple sensor measures the air temperature. The plant has thus two inputs (the fan's rotation intensity and heat generated by the resistance, both measured in percent of the maximum value) and two outputs (air temperature and air mass flux, also in percent of the maximal value). The mathematical model is obtained by System Identification techniques. The mass flux sensor, which is nonlinear, is linearized and the delays in the transfer functions are properly approximated by non-minimum phase transfer functions. The resulting model is transformed to a state-space model, which is used for control design purposes. The multivariable robust control design techniques used is the LQG/LTR, and the controllers are validated in simulation software and in the real plant. Finally, the MPC is applied by considering some of the system's parameters as random variables (one at a time, and the system's stochastic differential equations are solved by expanding the solution (a stochastic process) in an orthogonal basis of polynomial functions of the basic random variables. This method transforms the stochastic equations in a set of deterministic differential equations, which can be solved by traditional numerical methods (That is the MPC). Statistical data for the system (like expected values and variances) are then calculated. The effects of randomness in the parameters are evaluated in the open-loop and closed-loop pole's positions.

  3. A MODEL FOR THE NON-UNIVERSAL POWER LAW OF THE SOLAR WIND SUB-ION-SCALE MAGNETIC SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L. E-mail: sulem@oca.eu

    2015-10-20

    A phenomenological turbulence model for kinetic Alfvén waves in a magnetized collisionless plasma that is able to reproduce the non-universal power-law spectra observed at the sub-ion scales in the solar wind and the terrestrial magnetosphere is presented. The process of temperature homogenization along distorted magnetic field lines, induced by Landau damping, affects the turbulence transfer time and results in a steepening of the sub-ion power-law spectrum of critically balanced turbulence, whose exponent is sensitive to the ratio between the Alfvén wave period and the nonlinear timescale. Transition from large-scale weak turbulence to smaller scale strong turbulence is captured and nonlocal interactions, relevant in the case of steep spectra, are accounted for.

  4. Mapping power-law rheology of living cells using multi-frequency force modulation atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Okajima, Takaharu

    2015-10-26

    We present multi-frequency force modulation atomic force microscopy (AFM) for mapping the complex shear modulus G* of living cells as a function of frequency over the range of 50–500 Hz in the same measurement time as the single-frequency force modulation measurement. The AFM technique enables us to reconstruct image maps of rheological parameters, which exhibit a frequency-dependent power-law behavior with respect to G{sup *}. These quantitative rheological measurements reveal a large spatial variation in G* in this frequency range for single cells. Moreover, we find that the reconstructed images of the power-law rheological parameters are much different from those obtained in force-curve or single-frequency force modulation measurements. This indicates that the former provide information about intracellular mechanical structures of the cells that are usually not resolved with the conventional force measurement methods.

  5. Formulation and experimental evaluation of closed-form control laws for the rapid maneuvering of reactor neutronic power

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, J.A. . Nuclear Reactor Lab.)

    1989-09-01

    This report describes both the theoretical development and the experimental evaluation of a novel, robust methodology for the time-optimal adjustment of a reactor's neutronic power under conditions of closed-loop digital control. Central to the approach are the MIT-SNL Period-Generated Minimum Time Control Laws' which determine the rate at which reactivity should be changed in order to cause a reactor's neutronic power to conform to a specified trajectory. Using these laws, reactor power can be safely raised by five to seven orders of magnitude in a few seconds. The MIT-SNL laws were developed to facilitate rapid increases of neutronic power on spacecraft reactors operating in an SDI environment. However, these laws are generic and have other applications including the rapid recovery of research and test reactors subsequent to an unanticipated shutdown, power increases following the achievement of criticality on commercial reactors, power adjustments on commercial reactors so as to minimize thermal stress, and automated startups. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under contract to the Sandia National Laboratories. Support was also provided by the US Department of Energy's Division of University and Industry Programs. The work described in this report is significant in that a novel solution to the problem of time-optimal control of neutronic power was identified, in that a rigorous description of a reactor's dynamics was derived in that the rate of change of reactivity was recognized as the proper control signal, and in that extensive experimental trials were conducted of these newly developed concepts on actual nuclear reactors. 43 refs., 118 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. The interstellar medium and star formation in local galaxies: Variations of the star formation law in simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Becerra, Fernando; Escala, Andrés

    2014-05-01

    We use the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo to model the interstellar medium (ISM) in isolated local disk galaxies. The simulation includes a treatment for star formation and stellar feedback. We get a highly supersonic turbulent disk, which is fragmented at multiple scales and characterized by a multi-phase ISM. We show that a Kennicutt-Schmidt relation only holds when averaging over large scales. However, values of star formation rates and gas surface densities lie close in the plot for any averaging size. This suggests an intrinsic relation between stars and gas at cell-size scales, which dominates over the global dynamical evolution. To investigate this effect, we develop a method to simulate the creation of stars based on the density field from the snapshots, without running the code again. We also investigate how the star formation law is affected by the characteristic star formation timescale, the density threshold, and the efficiency considered in the recipe. We find that the slope of the law varies from ∼1.4 for a free-fall timescale, to ∼1.0 for a constant depletion timescale. We further demonstrate that a power law is recovered just by assuming that the mass of the new stars is a fraction of the mass of the cell m {sub *} = ερ{sub gas}Δx {sup 3}, with no other physical criteria required. We show that both efficiency and density threshold do not affect the slope, but the right combination of them can adjust the normalization of the relation, which in turn could explain a possible bi-modality in the law.

  7. Development, implementation and assessment of specific, two-fluid closure laws for inverted-annular film-boiling

    SciTech Connect

    Cachard, F. de

    1995-09-01

    Inverted-Annular Film-Boiling (IAFB) is one of the post-burnout heat transfer modes taking place during the reflooding phase of the loss-of-coolant accident, when the liquid at the quench front is subcooled. Under IAFB conditions, a continuous, liquid core is separated from the wall by a superheated vapour film. the heat transfer rate in IAFB is influenced by the flooding rate, liquid subcooling, pressure, and the wall geometry and temperature. These influences can be accounted by a two-fluid model with physically sound closure laws for mass, momentum and heat transfers between the wall, the vapour film, the vapour-liquid interface, and the liquid core. Such closure laws have been developed and adjusted using IAFB-relevant experimental results, including heat flux, wall temperature and void fraction data. The model is extensively assessed against data from three independent sources. A total of 46 experiments have been analyzed. The overall predictions are good. The IAFB-specific closure laws proposed have also intrinsic value, and may be used in other two-fluid models. They should allow to improve the description of post-dryout, low quality heat transfer by the safety codes.

  8. Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs: Federal Law Constraints and Possible Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hempling, S.; Elefant, C.; Cory, K.; Porter, K.

    2010-01-01

    State legislatures and state utility commissions trying to attract renewable energy projects are considering feed-in tariffs, which obligate retail utilities to purchase electricity from renewable producers under standard arrangements specifying prices, terms, and conditions. The use of feed-in tariffs simplifies the purchase process, provides revenue certainty to generators, and reduces the cost of financing generating projects. However, some argue that federal law--including the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) and the Federal Power Act of 1935 (FPA)--constrain state-level feed-in tariffs. This report seeks to reduce the legal uncertainties for states contemplating feed-in tariffs by explaining the constraints imposed by federal statutes. It describes the federal constraints, identifies transaction categories that are free of those constraints, and offers ways for state and federal policymakers to interpret or modify existing law to remove or reduce these constraints. This report proposes ways to revise these federal statutes. It creates a broad working definition of a state-level feed-in tariff. Given this definition, this report concludes there are paths to non-preempted, state-level feed-in tariffs under current federal law.

  9. THE MID-INFRARED EXTINCTION LAW IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Jian; Jiang, B. W.; Xue, M. Y.; Li, Aigen E-mail: bjiang@bnu.edu.cn

    2013-10-10

    Based on photometric data from the Spitzer/SAGE survey, using red giants as extinction tracers, the mid-infrared (MIR) extinction laws in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) are derived for the first time in the form of A{sub λ}/A{sub K{sub S}}. This quantity refers to the extinction in the four Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands (i.e., [3.6], [4.5], [5.8], and [8.0] μm) relative to the Two Micron All Sky Survey K{sub S} band at 2.16 μm. We obtain the near-infrared extinction coefficient to be E(J – H)/E(H – K{sub S} ) ≈ 1.29 ± 0.04 and E(J – K{sub S} )/E(H – K{sub S} ) ≈ 1.94 ± 0.04. The wavelength dependence of the MIR extinction A{sub λ}/A{sub K{sub S}} in the LMC varies from one sightline to another. The overall mean MIR extinction is A{sub [3.6]}/A{sub K{sub S}}∼0.72±0.03, A{sub [4.5]}/A{sub K{sub S}}∼0.94±0.03, A{sub [5.8]}/A{sub K{sub S}}∼0.58±0.04, and A{sub [8.0]}/A{sub K{sub S}}∼0.62±0.05. Except for the extinction in the IRAC [4.5] μm band, which may be contaminated by the 4.6 μm CO gas absorption of red giants used to trace LMC extinction, the extinction in the other three IRAC bands show a flat curve, close to the Milky Way R{sub V} = 5.5 model extinction curve, where R{sub V} is the optical total-to-selective extinction ratio. The possible systematic bias caused by the correlated uncertainties of K{sub S} – λ and J – K{sub S} is explored in terms of Monte Carlo simulations. We find that this bias could lead to an overestimation of A{sub λ}/A{sub K{sub S}} in the MIR.

  10. Final Report - Crystal Settling, Redox, and High Temperature Properties of ORP HLW and LAW Glasses, VSL-09R1510-1, Rev. 0, dated 6/18/09

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Wang, C.; Gan, H.; Pegg, I. L.; Chaudhuri, M.; Kot, W.; Feng, Z.; Viragh, C.; McKeown, D. A.; Joseph, I.; Muller, I. S.; Cecil, R.; Zhao, W.

    2013-11-13

    The radioactive tank waste treatment programs at the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) have featured joule heated ceramic melter technology for the vitrification of high level waste (HLW). The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) employs this same basic technology not only for the vitrification of HLW streams but also for the vitrification of Low Activity Waste (LAW) streams. Because of the much greater throughput rates required of the WTP as compared to the vitrification facilities at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) or the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the WTP employs advanced joule heated melters with forced mixing of the glass pool (bubblers) to improve heat and mass transport and increase melting rates. However, for both HLW and LAW treatment, the ability to increase waste loadings offers the potential to significantly reduce the amount of glass that must be produced and disposed and, therefore, the overall project costs. This report presents the results from a study to investigate several glass property issues related to WTP HLW and LAW vitrification: crystal formation and settling in selected HLW glasses; redox behavior of vanadium and chromium in selected LAW glasses; and key high temperature thermal properties of representative HLW and LAW glasses. The work was conducted according to Test Plans that were prepared for the HLW and LAW scope, respectively. One part of this work thus addresses some of the possible detrimental effects due to considerably higher crystal content in waste glass melts and, in particular, the impact of high crystal contents on the flow property of the glass melt and the settling rate of representative crystalline phases in an environment similar to that of an idling glass melter. Characterization of vanadium redox shifts in representative WTP LAW glasses is the second focal point of this work. The third part of this work focused on key high temperature thermal properties of

  11. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support Enhanced Hanford Waste Glass Models. Results for the Augusta and October 2014 LAW Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. B.; Best, D. R.

    2015-07-07

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for several simulated low activity waste (LAW) glasses (designated as the August and October 2014 LAW glasses) fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions.

  12. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support enhanced Hanford waste glass models: Results for the January, March, and April 2015 LAW glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. B.; Riley, W. T.; Best, D. R.

    2015-09-03

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for several simulated low activity waste (LAW) glasses (designated as the January, March, and April 2015 LAW glasses) fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions.

  13. A numerical method for the quasi-incompressible Cahn–Hilliard–Navier–Stokes equations for variable density flows with a discrete energy law

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Z.; Lin, P.; Lowengrub, J.S.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate numerically a diffuse interface model for the Navier–Stokes equation with fluid–fluid interface when the fluids have different densities [48]. Under minor reformulation of the system, we show that there is a continuous energy law underlying the system, assuming that all variables have reasonable regularities. It is shown in the literature that an energy law preserving method will perform better for multiphase problems. Thus for the reformulated system, we design a C{sup 0} finite element method and a special temporal scheme where the energy law is preserved at the discrete level. Such a discrete energy law (almost the same as the continuous energy law) for this variable density two-phase flow model has never been established before with C{sup 0} finite element. A Newton method is introduced to linearise the highly non-linear system of our discretization scheme. Some numerical experiments are carried out using the adaptive mesh to investigate the scenario of coalescing and rising drops with differing density ratio. The snapshots for the evolution of the interface together with the adaptive mesh at different times are presented to show that the evolution, including the break-up/pinch-off of the drop, can be handled smoothly by our numerical scheme. The discrete energy functional for the system is examined to show that the energy law at the discrete level is preserved by our scheme.

  14. Final Report. LAW Glass Formulation to Support AP-101 Actual Waste Testing, VSL-03R3470-2, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, I. S.; Pegg, I. L.; Rielley, Elizabeth; Carranza, Isidro; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan-Tao T.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Cecil, Richard; Kruger, Albert A.

    2015-06-22

    The main objective of the work was to develop and select a glass formulation for vitrification testing of the actual waste sample of LAW AP-101 at Battelle - Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD). Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses to demonstrate compliance with contract and processing requirements, evaluation of the ability to achieve waste loading requirements, testing to demonstrate compatibility of the glass melts with melter materials of construction, comparison of the properties of simulant and actual waste glasses, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  15. TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF CANDIDATE ION EXCHANGE MEDIA FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE (SCIX) APPLICATIONS IN SUPPORT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LAW PRETREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    RAMSEY AA; THORSON MR

    2010-12-28

    At-tank supplemental pretreatment including both filtration and small column ion exchange is currently under evaluation to facilitate salt waste retrieval and processing in the Hanford tank farms. Spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) resin is the baseline ion exchange resin for use in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). This document provides background and technical rationale to assist in determining whether spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) is also the appropriate ion exchange resin for supplemental LAW pretreatment processes and compares sRF with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as potential supplemental pretreatment ion exchange media.

  16. Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985: public law 99-58. Ninety-Ninth Congress, July 2, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Public Law 99-58 extends Titles I and II of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act to June 30, 1989 by adding section 171 to Part C-Expiration of Title I. Other amendments pertain to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program, specifically to require a test drawdown, and terminate certain emergency authorities. Title II amendments mandate a review of coal imports that will cover quantity, quality, and source as well as identifying domestic coal production and consumption by state to determine if there are any significant trends.

  17. Whitehead Policy Symposium. The Human Genome Project: Science, law, and social change in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, E.K.

    2000-02-17

    Advances in the biomedical sciences, especially in human genomics, will dramatically influence law, medicine, public health, and many other sectors of our society in the decades ahead. The public already senses the revolutionary nature of genomic knowledge. In the US and Europe, we have seen widespread discussions about genetic discrimination in health insurance; privacy issues raised by the proliferation of DNA data banks; the challenge of interpreting new DNA diagnostic tests; changing definitions of what it means to be healthy; and the science and ethics of cloning animals and human beings. The primary goal of the Whitehead/ASLME Policy Symposium was to provide a bridge between the research community and professionals, who were just beginning to grasp the potential impact of new genetic technologies on their fields. The ''Human Genome Project: Science, Law, and Social Change in the 21st Century'' initially was designed as a forum for 300-500 physicians, lawyers, consumers, ethicists, and scientists to explore the impact of new genetic technologies and prepare for the challenges ahead.

  18. Comment on 'Power loss in open cavity diodes and a modified Child-Langmuir law' [Phys. Plasmas 12, 093102 (2005)

    SciTech Connect

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Ottinger, P. F.

    2007-09-15

    In this Comment, it is shown that no modification of the Child-Langmuir law [Phys. Rev.32, 492 (1911); Phys. Rev. 2, 450 (1913)] is necessary to treat the space-charge-limited flow from a diode with an open boundary as reported in Phys. Plasmas 12, 093102 (2005). The open boundary condition in their simulations can be represented by a voltage source and a resistor whose value is the vacuum-wave impedance of the opening. The diode can be represented as a variable resistor whose value depends on the voltage drop across the diode (as measured by the line integral of E across the diode gap). This is a simple voltage-divider circuit whose analysis shows that the real diode voltage drops as the vacuum-wave impedance increases. Furthermore, it is shown that in equilibrium, the voltage drop between the anode and cathode is independent of the path chosen for the line integral of the electric field so that E=-{nabla}{phi} is valid. In this case, the equations of electrostatics are applicable. This clearly demonstrates that the electric field is electrostatic and static fields DO NOT RADIATE. It is shown that the diode voltage drops as the vacuum wave impedance increases and the current drops according to the Child-Langmuir law. Therefore, the observed drop in circuit current can be explained by a real drop in voltage across the diode and not an effective drop as claimed by the authors.

  19. Final Report - Enhanced LAW Glass Formulation Testing, VSL-07R1130-1, Rev. 0, dated 10/05/07

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Matlack, K. S.; Joseph, I.; Muller, I. S.; Gong, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of this work was to extend the glass formulation methodology developed in the earlier work [2, 5, 6] for Envelope A, B and C waste compositions for development of compliant glass compositions targeting five high sodium-sulfur waste loading regions. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests, and tests on the DM10 melter system. The DM10 was used for several previous tests on LAW compositions to determine the maximum feed sulfur concentrations that can be processed without forming secondary sulfate phases on the surface of the melt pool. This melter is the most efficient melter platform for screening glass compositions over a wide range of sulfate concentrations and therefore was selected for the present tests. The tests were conducted to provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including sulfur incorporation and partitioning. As described above, the main objective was to identify the limits of waste loading in compliant glass formulations spanning the range of expected Na{sub 2}O and SO{sub 3} concentrations in the LAW glasses.

  20. FINAL REPORT TESTING OF IRON PHOSPHATE LAW GLASS (VSL-11R2340-1) 04/25/2011 REV 0 06/10/2011

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; GAN H ET AL; JOSEPH I; BEUCHELE AC; FENG Z; WANG C; VIRAGHC; PEGG IL

    2011-08-31

    About 50 million gallons of high-level mixed waste is currently stored in underground tanks at The United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford site in the State of Washington. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will provide DOE's Office of River Protection (ORP) with a means of treating this waste by vitrification for subsequent disposal. The tank waste will be separated into low- and high-activity waste fractions, which will then be vitrified respectively into Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) and Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) products. The ILAW product will be disposed in an engineered facility on the Hanford site while the IHLW product will likely be directed to a national deep geological disposal facility for high-level nuclear waste. The ILA W and IHLW products must meet a variety of requirements with respect to protection of the environment before they can be accepted for disposal. The objectives of the work reported herein were to assess the corrosion of Inconel 690 and 693 in the FeP glass developed by MS&T and to measure key high temperature properties of the LAW iron phosphate glass. Specific objectives of these tests were the following: (1) Determination of the extent of corrosion of Inconel 690 and 693 in LAW FeP glass at 1050, 1l00, and 1150 C; (2) Determination of the extent of corrosion of Inconel 690 and 693 in LAW FeP glass in the presence of an electric field; (3) Measurement of the high temperature specific heat of the LAW FeP glass; (4) Measurement of the high temperature density of the LAW FeP glass; (5) Measurement of the high temperature thermal diffusivity of the LAW FeP glass; and (6) Calculation of the high temperature thermal conductivity of the LAW FeP glass from the above three measured properties.

  1. Letter Report. Proposed Approach for Development of LAW Glass Formulation Correlation, VSL-04L4460-1, Rev. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Isabelle S.; Diener, Glenn; Joseph, Innocent; Pegg, Ian L.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2015-06-18

    The main objective of the work is to develop a correlation that employs waste composition information to determine the appropriate waste loading, glass composition, and amounts and types of glass formers. In addressing this objective emphasis has been placed on those compositions that have been validated in DM100 and LAW Pilot Melter testing. This is particularly important in view of the essential role that potential for sulfate phase separation in the melter plays in glass formulation selection. A further objective of this work is to select and test glass compositions in order to augment the existing data set and to test the predictions from the correlation. It should be noted that the intent of the correlation is to provide practical, robust glass formulations that exceed all of the contract and processability requirements; it is not intended to provide the "maximum achievable" waste loading such that at least one of those properties is at its respective limit.

  2. The analog of Blanc`s law for drift velocities of electrons in gas mixtures in weakly ionized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chiflikian, R.V.

    1995-10-01

    The analog of Blanc`s law for drift velocities of electrons in multicomponent gas mixtures in weakly ionized spatially homogeneous low-temperature plasma is derived. The obtained approximate-analytical expressions are valid for average electron energy in the 1--5 eV range typical for plasma conditions of low-pressure direct current (DC) discharges. The accuracy of these formulas is {plus_minus}5%. The analytical criterion of the negative differential conductivity (NDC) of electrons in binary mixtures of gases is obtained. NDC of electrons is predicted in He:Kr and He:Xe rare gas mixtures. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  3. Bounds imposed on the sheath velocity of a dense plasma focus by conservation laws and ionization stability condition

    SciTech Connect

    Auluck, S. K. H. E-mail: skauluck@barc.gov.in

    2014-09-15

    Experimental data compiled over five decades of dense plasma focus research are consistent with the snowplow model of sheath propagation, based on the hypothetical balance between magnetic pressure driving the plasma into neutral gas ahead and “wind pressure” resisting its motion. The resulting sheath velocity, or the numerically proportional “drive parameter,” is known to be approximately constant for devices optimized for neutron production over 8 decades of capacitor bank energy. This paper shows that the validity of the snowplow hypothesis, with some correction, as well as the non-dependence of sheath velocity on device parameters, have their roots in local conservation laws for mass, momentum, and energy coupled with the ionization stability condition. Both upper and lower bounds on sheath velocity are shown to be related to material constants of the working gas and independent of the device geometry and capacitor bank impedance.

  4. Cyclic voltammetry on sputter-deposited films of electrochromic Ni oxide: Power-law decay of the charge density exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Rui-Tao Granqvist, Claes G.; Niklasson, Gunnar A.

    2014-10-20

    Ni-oxide-based thin films were produced by reactive direct-current magnetron sputtering and were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Intercalation of Li{sup +} ions was accomplished by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in an electrolyte of LiClO{sub 4} in propylene carbonate, and electrochromism was documented by spectrophotometry. The charge density exchange, and hence the optical modulation span, decayed gradually upon repeated cycling. This phenomenon was accurately described by an empirical power law, which was valid for at least 10{sup 4} cycles when the applied voltage was limited to 4.1 V vs Li/Li{sup +}. Our results allow lifetime assessments for one of the essential components in an electrochromic device such as a “smart window” for energy-efficient buildings.

  5. Conservation laws and multiplicity evolution of spectra at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Chajecki, Zbigniew; Lisa, Mike

    2009-03-15

    Transverse momentum distributions in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions carry considerable information about the dynamics of the hot system produced. Direct comparison with the same spectra from p+p collisions has proved invaluable in identifying novel features associated with the larger system, in particular, the 'jet quenching' at high momentum and the apparently much stronger collective flow dominating the spectral shape at low momentum. We point out possible hazards of ignoring conservation laws in the comparison of high- and low-multiplicity final states. We argue that the effects of energy and momentum conservation actually dominate many of the observed systematics, and that p+p collisions may be much more similar to heavy ion collisions than generally thought.

  6. Effect of pressure anisotropy and flow velocity on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of anisotropic magnetized plasma using generalized polytrope laws

    SciTech Connect

    Prajapati, R. P.; Chhajlani, R. K.

    2010-11-15

    The effect of pressure anisotropy and flow velocity on the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability of two magnetized anisotropic pressure plasmas flowing relative to each other is investigated using generalized polytrope laws. The anisotropic pressure with the generalized polytrope laws is considered with three-dimensional perturbations in the description of plasma using relevant magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) set of equations. The magnetic field is assumed in the x-direction and parallel to the direction of the flow of plasma streams. A complete polytrope model is given for the considered system in terms of pressure components, magnetic field, and density of the fluids to discuss the condition of KH instability, stability, and overstability. The problem is solved using the normal mode analysis and the general dispersion relation is obtained by applying the appropriate boundary conditions. The case of nonvanishing wavenumber transverse to the direction of the stream is obtained, which represents the stationery configuration without excitation of KH instability. The longitudinal mode of propagation is discussed with conditions of KH instability, stability, and overstability for collisionless (anisotropic) double-adiabatic Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) and collisional (isotropic) MHD media, depending on various values of polytrope indices. The effects of pressure anisotropy, different flow velocities, and magnetic field are also discussed on the growth rate of KH instability. We observe that the presence of flow velocity and pressure anisotropy of the plasmas has a destabilizing influence on the growth rate of the system. The growth rate is found larger for MHD set of equations in comparison to the CGL set of equations. The presence of magnetic field has a stabilizing role on the growth rate of the considered system.

  7. MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE SPATIO-TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF SOLAR FLARES WITH AIA/SDO. II. HYDRODYNAMIC SCALING LAWS AND THERMAL ENERGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Shimizu, Toshifumi E-mail: shimizu.toshifumi@isas.jaxa.jp

    2013-10-20

    In this study we measure physical parameters of the same set of 155 M- and X-class solar flares observed with AIA/SDO as analyzed in Paper I, by performing a differential emission measure analysis to determine the flare peak emission measure EM{sub p} , peak temperature T{sub p} , electron density n{sub p} , and thermal energy E{sub th}, in addition to the spatial scales L, areas A, and volumes V measured in Paper I. The parameter ranges for M- and X-class flares are log (EM{sub p}) = 47.0-50.5, T{sub p} = 5.0-17.8 MK, n{sub p} = 4 × 10{sup 9}-9 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup –3}, and thermal energies of E{sub th} = 1.6 × 10{sup 28}-1.1 × 10{sup 32} erg. We find that these parameters obey the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana (RTV) scaling law T{sub p}{sup 2}∝n{sub p} L and H∝T {sup 7/2} L {sup –2} during the peak time t{sub p} of the flare density n{sub p} , when energy balance between the heating rate H and the conductive and radiative loss rates is achieved for a short instant and thus enables the applicability of the RTV scaling law. The application of the RTV scaling law predicts power-law distributions for all physical parameters, which we demonstrate with numerical Monte Carlo simulations as well as with analytical calculations. A consequence of the RTV law is also that we can retrieve the size distribution of heating rates, for which we find N(H)∝H {sup –1.8}, which is consistent with the magnetic flux distribution N(Φ)∝Φ{sup –1.85} observed by Parnell et al. and the heating flux scaling law F{sub H} ∝HL∝B/L of Schrijver et al.. The fractal-diffusive self-organized criticality model in conjunction with the RTV scaling law reproduces the observed power-law distributions and their slopes for all geometrical and physical parameters and can be used to predict the size distributions for other flare data sets, instruments, and detection algorithms.

  8. Techniques for analyzing the impacts of certain electric-utility ratemaking and regulatory-policy concepts. Regulatory laws and policies. [State by state

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    This report is a legal study prepared to provide a review of the substantive and procedural laws of each regulatory jurisdiction that may affect implementation of the PURPA standards, and to summarize the current state of consideration and implementation of policies and rate designs similar or identical to the PURPA standards by state regulatory agencies and nonregulated utilities. This report is divided into three sections. The first section, the Introduction, summarizes the standards promulgated by PURPA and the results of the legal study. The second section, State Regulatory Law and Procedure, summarizes for each state or other ratemaking jurisdiction: (1) general constitutional and statutory provisions affecting utility rates and conditions of service; (2) specific laws or decisions affecting policy or rate design issues covered by PURPA standards; and (3) statutes and decisions governing administrative procedures, including judicial review. A chart showing actions taken on the policy and rate design issues addressed by PURPA is also included for each jurisdiction, and citations to relevant authorities are presented for each standard. State statutes or decisions that specifically define a state standard similar or identical to a PURPA standard, or that refer to one of the three PURPA objectives, are noted. The third section, Nonregulated Electric Utilities, summarizes information available on nonregulated utilities, i.e., publicly or cooperatively owned utilities which are specifically exempted from state regulation by state law.

  9. Generalized magnetofluid connections in pair plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Asenjo, Felipe A.; Comisso, Luca; Mahajan, Swadesh M.

    2015-12-15

    We extend the magnetic connection theorem of ideal magnetohydrodynamics to nonideal relativistic pair plasmas. Adopting a generalized Ohm's law, we prove the existence of generalized magnetofluid connections that are preserved by the plasma dynamics. We show that these connections are related to a general antisymmetric tensor that unifies the electromagnetic and fluid fields. The generalized magnetofluid connections set important constraints on the plasma dynamics by forbidding transitions between configurations with different magnetofluid connectivity. An approximated solution is explicitly shown where the corrections due to current inertial effects are found.

  10. Killing of targets by effector CD8 T cells in the mouse spleen follows the law of mass action

    SciTech Connect

    Ganusov, Vitaly V

    2009-01-01

    In contrast with antibody-based vaccines, it has been difficult to measure the efficacy of T cell-based vaccines and to correlate the efficacy of CD8 T cell responses with protection again viral infections. In part, this difficulty is due to poor understanding of the in vivo efficacy of CD8 T cells produced by vaccination. Using a: recently developed experimental method of in vivo cytotoxicity we have investigated quantitative aspects of killing of peptide-pulsed targets by effector and memory CD8 T cells, specific to three epitopes of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), in the mouse spleen. By analyzing data on killing of targets with varying number of epitope-specific effector and memory CD8 T cells, we find that killing of targets by effectors follows the law of mass-action, that is the death rate of peptide-pulsed targets is proportional to the frequency of CTLs in the spleen. In contrast, killing of targets by memory CD8 T cells does not follow the mass action law because the death rate of targets saturates at high frequencies of memory CD8 T cells. For both effector and memory cells, we also find little support for the killing term that includes the decrease of the death rate of targets with target cell density. Interestingly, our analysis suggests that at low CD8 T cell frequencies, memory CD8 T cells on the per capita basis are more efficient at killing peptide-pulsed targets than effectors, but at high frequencies, effectors are more efficient killers than memory T cells. Comparison of the estimated killing efficacy of effector T cells with the value that is predicted from theoretical physics and based on motility of T cells in lymphoid tissues, suggests that limiting step in the killing of peptide-pulsed targets is delivering the lethal hit and not finding the target. Our results thus form a basis for quantitative understanding of the process of killing of virus-infected cells by T cell responses in tissues and can be used to correlate the

  11. QUASI-PERIODIC PULSATIONS IN SOLAR AND STELLAR FLARES: RE-EVALUATING THEIR NATURE IN THE CONTEXT OF POWER-LAW FLARE FOURIER SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Inglis, A. R.; Ireland, J.; Dominique, M.

    2015-01-10

    The nature of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in solar and stellar flares remains debated. Recent work has shown that power-law-like Fourier power spectra are an intrinsic property of solar and stellar flare signals, a property that many previous studies of this phenomenon have not accounted for. Hence a re-evaluation of the existing interpretations and assumptions regarding QPPs is needed. We adopt a Bayesian method for investigating this phenomenon, fully considering the Fourier power-law properties of flare signals. Using data from the PROBA2/Large Yield Radiometer, Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, Nobeyama Radioheliograph, and Yohkoh/HXT instruments, we study a selection of flares from the literature identified as QPP events. Additionally, we examine optical data from a recent stellar flare that appears to exhibit oscillatory properties. We find that, for all but one event tested, an explicit oscillation is not required to explain the observations. Instead, the flare signals are adequately described as a manifestation of a power law in the Fourier power spectrum. However, for the flare of 1998 May 8, strong evidence for an explicit oscillation with P ≈ 14-16 s is found in the 17 GHz radio data and the 13-23 keV Yohkoh/HXT data. We conclude that, most likely, many previously analyzed events in the literature may be similarly described by power laws in the flare Fourier power spectrum, without invoking a narrowband, oscillatory component. Hence the prevalence of oscillatory signatures in solar and stellar flares may be less than previously believed. The physical mechanism behind the appearance of the observed power laws is discussed.

  12. Purity analyses of high-purity organic compounds with nitroxyl radicals based on the Curie–Weiss law

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Nobuhiro Shimosaka, Takuya

    2015-05-07

    This work reports an attempt to quantify the purities of powders of high-purity organic compounds with stable nitroxyl radicals (namely, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO), 1-oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-hydroxypiperidine (TEMPOL), and 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl benzoate (4-hydroxy-TEMPO benzoate)) in terms of mass fractions by using our “effective magnetic moment method,” which is based on both the Curie–Weiss law and a fundamental equation of electron paramagnetic resonance (ESR). The temperature dependence of the magnetic moment resulting from the radicals was measured with a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. The g value for each compound was measured with an X-band ESR spectrometer. The results of the purities were (0.998 ± 0.064) kg kg{sup −1} for TEMPO, (1.019 ± 0.040) kg kg{sup −1} for TEMPOL, and (1.001 ± 0.048) kg kg{sup −1} for 4-hydroxy-TEMPO benzoate. These results demonstrate that this analytical method as a future candidate of potential primary direct method can measure the purities with expanded uncertainties of approximately 5%.

  13. Spherically symmetric solutions, Newton's Law, and the infrared limit {lambda}{yields}1 in covariant Horava-Lifshitz gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandre, Jean; Pasipoularides, Pavlos

    2011-10-15

    In this note we examine whether spherically symmetric solutions in covariant Horava-Lifshitz gravity can reproduce Newton's Law in the IR limit {lambda}{yields}1. We adopt the position that the auxiliary field A is independent of the space-time metric [J. Alexandre and P. Pasipoularides, Phys. Rev. D 83, 084030 (2011).][J. Greenwald, V. H. Satheeshkumar, and A. Wang, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 12 (2010) 007.], and we assume, as in [A. M. da Silva, Classical Quantum Gravity 28, 055011 (2011).], that {lambda} is a running coupling constant. We show that under these assumptions, spherically symmetric solutions fail to restore the standard Newtonian physics in the IR limit {lambda}{yields}1, unless {lambda} does not run, and has the fixed value {lambda}=1. Finally, we comment on the Horava and Melby-Thompson approach [P. Horava and C. M. Melby-Thompson, Phys. Rev. D 82, 064027 (2010).] in which A is assumed as a part of the space-time metric in the IR.

  14. SYNCHROTRON POLARIZATION AND SYNCHROTRON SELF-ABSORPTION SPECTRA FOR A POWER-LAW PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION WITH FINITE ENERGY RANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Fouka, M.; Ouichaoui, S. E-mail: souichaoui@usthb.dz

    2011-12-10

    We have derived asymptotic forms for the degree of polarization of the optically thin synchrotron and for synchrotron self-absorption (SSA) spectra assuming a power-law particle distribution of the form N({gamma}) {approx} {gamma}{sup -p} with {gamma}{sub 1} < {gamma} < {gamma}{sub 2}, especially for a finite high-energy limit, {gamma}{sub 2}, in the case of an arbitrary pitch angle. The new results inferred concern more especially the high-frequency range x >> {eta}{sup 2} with parameter {eta} = {gamma}{sub 2}/{gamma}{sub 1}. The calculated SSA spectra concern instantaneous photon emission where cooling effects are not considered. They have been obtained by also ignoring likely effects such as Comptonization, pair creation and annihilation, as well as magnetic photon splitting. To that aim, in addition to the two usual absorption frequencies, a third possible one has been derived and expressed in terms of the Lambert W function based on the analytical asymptotic form of the absorption coefficient, {alpha}{sub {nu}}, for the high-frequency range {nu} >> {nu}{sub 2} (with {nu}{sub 2} the synchrotron frequency corresponding to {gamma}{sub 2}). We have shown that the latter frequency may not have realistic applications in astrophysics, except in the case of an adequate set of parameters allowing one to neglect Comptonization effects. More detailed calculations and discussions are presented.

  15. Solar Rights Law

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Although the wording of the legislation refers generally to "solar energy", the title of the bill references only photovoltaic (PV) systems as eligible for these protections. Only single-family...

  16. Solar Permitting Law

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This legislation also addressed permitting fees for solar systems.  Counties and cities may not charge permit fees for solar permit applications specifically, but they can charge building permit ...

  17. Alternative Energy Law (AEL)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    As of the end of 2013, Iowa had more than 5,100 MW of wind capacity installed and led the U.S. with 27% of the state’s electricity generation coming from wind.

  18. Solar Easements & Rights Laws

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Solar Recordation Act describes the procedures for filing a solar right through the County Clerk's Office. The property owner seeking the solar right must give advanced notice to the adjacent...

  19. Natural resources law handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers legal topics ranging from ownership-related issues (including disposition, use and management of privately and publicly-owned lands, resources, minerals and waters) to the protection and maintenance of our nation's natural resources. It contains chapters on oil and gas resources, coal resources, and minerals and mining.

  20. Obeying Environmental Laws

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    June 27, 2012 Pyramid showing compliance at the base, and sustainability at the top ... program's foundation, on which our overall goal of environmental sustainability is built. ...

  1. Henry`s law solubilities and Setchenow coefficients for biogenic reduced sulfur species obtained from gas-liquid uptake measurements

    SciTech Connect

    De Bruyn, W.J.; Swartz, E.; Hu, J.H. [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)] [and others] [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States); and others

    1995-04-20

    Biogenically produced reduced sulfur compounds, including dimethylsulfide (DMS, CH{sub 3}SCH{sub 3}), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), methyl mercaptan (CH{sub 3}SH), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS), are a major source of sulfur in the marine atmosphere. This source is estimated to contribute 25-40% of global sulfur emissions. These species and their oxidation products, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dimethyl sulfone (DMSO{sub 2}), and methane sulfonic acid (MSA), dominate the production of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the clean marine atmosphere. The multiphase chemical processes for these species must be understood in order to study the evolving role of combustion-produced sulfur oxides over the oceans. Using a newly developed bubble column apparatus, a series of aqueous phase uptake studies have been completed for the reduced sulfur species DMS, H{sub 2}S, CS{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}SH, and OCS. Aqueous phase uptake has been studied as a function of temperature (278-298 K), pH (1-14), H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration (0-1 M), NaCl concentration (0-5 M), and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration (0-4 M). The Henry`s law coefficients for CH{sub 3}SH and CS{sub 2} were determined for the first time, as were the Setchenow coefficients for all the species studied. 33 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Final Report - Glass Formulation Development and DM10 Melter Testing with ORP LAW Glasses, VSL-09R1510-2, Rev. 0, dated 6/12/09

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Matlack, K. S.; Joseph, I.; Muller, I. S.; Gong, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of the work described in this Final Report is to extend the glass formulation methodology developed in the earlier work by development of acceptable glass compositions for four LAW compositions specified by ORP that cover the range of sulfate to sodium and potassium to sodium ratios expected in Hanford LAW. The glass formulations were designed to exclude titanium and iron as glass former additives, while tin and vanadium as glass former additives were evaluated for beneficial effects in increasing waste loading in the glasses. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests and tests on the DM10 melter system. This melter is the most efficient melter platform for screening glass compositions over a wide range of sulfate concentrations and therefore was selected for the present tests. The current tests provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including sulfur incorporation and partitioning.

  3. Final Report - DuraMelter 100 Tests to Support LAW Glass Formulation Correlation Development, VSL-06R6480-1, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Muller, I. S.; Gong, W.; Pegg, I. L.; Matlack, K. S.

    2013-12-03

    This report describes the results of work and testing specified by Test Specifications 24590-LAW-TSP-RT-04-004, Rev. 0, Test Plans VSL-05T5480-1, Rev. 0 and Text Exceptions 24590-LAW-TEF-RT-05-00002. The work and any associated testing followed established quality assurance requirements and was conducted as authorized. The descriptions provided in this test report are an accurate account of both the conduct of the work and the data collected. Results required by the Test Plan are reported. Also reported are any unusual or anomalous occurences that are different from the starting hypotheses. The test results and this report have been reviewed and verified.

  4. FOIA Update: The Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. sect. 552, As Amended By Public Law No. 104-

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    and Privacy Act Freedom of Information Act (link) FOIA Update: The Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. sect. 552, As Amended By Public Law No. 104- 231, 110 Stat. 3048 | OIP | Department of Justice DOE Savannah River Operations Office To make an Electronic FOIA (E-FOIA) request, please provide the information below. Failure to enter accurate and complete information may render your FOIA request impossible to fulfill. Requests submitted under the Privacy Act must be signed and, therefore, cannot

  5. Norman Ailberry, Co-ordinator of Ebztra-I.&oratory Activities

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    e Mnxwellien distribution end that actually observed for C type neutrons was observed. ... The stebilieed high voltage set was nearly completed and work we8 pushed ahead on the thin ...

  6. Generation co-ordination and energy trading systems in an open market

    SciTech Connect

    Eichler, R.

    1998-07-01

    The power industry in many parts of the world is currently undergoing dramatic changes: deregulation, privatization, competition and 3rd party access are the keywords. The major trends are summarized at the beginning of the paper to provide the basis for the evolving consequences for the power generation industry. In the restructured environment of the Open Market power generation companies frequently are organizationally separated from transmission, distribution, and supply and now have to sell their product directly to customers. This necessitates the introduction of energy trading support functions for both bilateral trading and power exchange trading. On the other hand, there is a close relationship between energy trading and the technical process of energy production. The paper discusses design principles for software systems supporting maximum economic benefits. First practical application experience is also presented. The energy trading process requires the break up of proprietary databases and proprietary data structures as this process has a major need to communicate with external partners who normally use different systems. This directly leads to 3rd party products for the database, standardized data structures and standardized communication protocols. The Open Market environment calls for new and modified planning functions: in some cases measured value information necessary for updating load forecasts cannot be directly achieved. This leads to the need for an estimator of the actual load situation, a completely new function. Power scheduling has to take care of the generation company's balance but it need not always be forced to 0. Regulating services from the grid companies can be used instead. This gives the scheduling functions additional freedom for determining more economic overall solutions considering both purchase and services and sales of energy.

  7. Co-ordination of the International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators

    SciTech Connect

    Ricard-McCutchan, E.; Dimitriou, P.; Nichols, A. L.

    2015-08-01

    The 21st meeting of the International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators was convened at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, from 20 to 24 April 2015 under the auspices of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. This meeting was attended by 36 scientists from 15 Member States, plus IAEA staff, concerned with the compilation, evaluation and dissemination of nuclear structure and decay data. A summary of the meeting, data centre reports, various proposals considered, and actions agreed by the participants, as well as recommendations/conclusions are presented within this document.

  8. ARM - Field Campaign - Co-ordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    the Tropics) was a research project funded by the UK's Natural Environment Research Council with the aim of collaborating with NASA in exploiting the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft. ...

  9. Analytical Tests for Ray Effect Errors in Discrete Ordinate Methods for Solving the Neutron Transport Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, B

    2004-03-22

    This paper contains three analytical solutions of transport problems which can be used to test ray-effect errors in the numerical solutions of the Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE). We derived the first two solutions and the third was shown to us by M. Prasad. Since this paper is intended to be an internal LLNL report, no attempt was made to find the original derivations of the solutions in the literature in order to cite the authors for their work.

  10. WASTE LOADING ENHANCEMENTS FOR HANFORD LAW GLASSES VLS-10R1790-1 FINAL REPORT REV 0 12/1/2010

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MULLER IS; JOSEPH I; MATLACK KS; GAN H; PEGG IL

    2010-12-28

    About 50 million gallons of high-level mixed waste is currently stored in underground tanks at The United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford site in the State of Washington. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will provide DOE's Office of River Protection (ORP) with a means of treating this waste by vitrification for subsequent disposal. The tank waste will be separated into low- and high-activity waste fractions, which will then be vitrified respectively into Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) and Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) products. The ILAW product will be disposed in an engineered facility on the Hanford site while the IHLW product will likely be directed to a national deep geological disposal facility for high-level nuclear waste. The ILAW and IHLW products must meet a variety of requirements with respect to protection of the environment before they can be accepted for disposal. The Office of River Protection is currently examining options to optimize the Low Activity Waste (LAW) Facility and LAW glass waste form. One option under evaluation is to enhance the waste processing rate of the vitrification plant currently under construction. It is likely that the capacity of the LAW vitrification plant can be increased incrementally by implementation of a variety of low-risk, high-probability changes, either separately or in combination. These changes include: (1) Operating at the higher processing rates demonstrated at the LAW pilot melter; (2) Increasing the glass pool surface area within the existing external melter envelope; (3) Increasing the glass waste loading; and (4) Operating the melter at a slightly higher temperature. The Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of The Catholic University of America (CUA) and Energy Solutions, Inc. have evaluated several of these potential incremental improvements for ORP in support of its evaluation of WTP LAW facility optimization. Some of these incremental improvements have

  11. The breaks and the hidden components in the power-law spectra of synchrotron radiation of the self-consistent current structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kocharovsky, V. V.; Kocharovsky, VI. V.; Tarasov, S. V.; Martyanov, V. Ju.

    2015-08-15

    Widespread use of a broken-power-law description of the spectra of synchrotron emission of various plasma objects requires an analysis of origin and a proper interpretation of spectral components. We show that, for a self-consistent magnetic configuration in a collisionless plasma, these components may be angle-dependent according to an anisotropic particle momentum distribution and may have no counterparts in a particle energy distribution. That has never been studied analytically and is in contrast to a usual model of synchrotron radiation, assuming an external magnetic field and a particle ensemble with isotropic momentum distribution. We demonstrate that for the wide intervals of observation angle the power-law spectra and, in particular, the positions and number of spectral breaks may be essentially different for the cases of the self-consistent and not-self-consistent magnetic fields in current structures responsible for the synchrotron radiation of the ensembles of relativistic particles with the multi-power-law energy distributions.

  12. THE KILOPARSEC-SCALE STAR FORMATION LAW AT REDSHIFT 4: WIDESPREAD, HIGHLY EFFICIENT STAR FORMATION IN THE DUST-OBSCURED STARBURST GALAXY GN20

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, J. A.; Riechers, D.; Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Carilli, C. L.; Daddi, E.

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution observations of the 880?m (rest-frame FIR) continuum emission in the z=4.05 submillimeter galaxy GN20 from the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). These data resolve the obscured star formation (SF) in this unlensed galaxy on scales of 0.''3נ0.''2 (?2.1נ1.3kpc). The observations reveal a bright (16 1mJy) dusty starburst centered on the cold molecular gas reservoir and showing a bar-like extension along the major axis. The striking anti-correlation with the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging suggests that the copious dust surrounding the starburst heavily obscures the rest-frame UV/optical emission. A comparison with 1.2mm PdBI continuum data reveals no evidence for variations in the dust properties across the source within the uncertainties, consistent with extended SF, and the peak star formation rate surface density (119 8 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1}kpc{sup 2}) implies that the SF in GN20 remains sub-Eddington on scales down to 3kpc{sup 2}. We find that the SF efficiency (SFE) is highest in the central regions of GN20, leading to a resolved SF law with a power-law slope of ?{sub SFR}??{sub H{sub 2}{sup 2.11.0}}, and that GN20 lies above the sequence of normal star-forming disks, implying that the dispersion in the SF law is not due solely to morphology or choice of conversion factor. These data extend previous evidence for a fixed SFE per free-fall time to include the star-forming medium on ?kiloparsec scales in a galaxy 12Gyr ago.

  13. Pseudopotential approach for dust acoustic solitary waves in dusty plasmas with kappa-distributed ions and electrons and dust grains having power law size distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Gadadhar; Maitra, Sarit

    2015-04-15

    Sagdeev's pseudopotential method is used to study small as well as arbitrary amplitude dust acoustic solitons in a dusty plasma with kappa distributed electrons and ions with dust grains having power law size distribution. The existence of potential well solitons has been shown for suitable parametric region. The criterion for existence of soliton is derived in terms of upper and lower limit for Mach numbers. The numerical results show that the size distribution can affect the existence as well as the propagation characteristics of the dust acoustic solitons. The effect of kappa distribution is also highlighted.

  14. Ionic radius of (CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 3}C{sup {minus}} and applicability of Stokes law to its propylene carbonate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ue, Makoto

    1996-11-01

    The ionic radius of (Cf{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 3}C{+-}{sup {minus}} was calculated to be 0.375 nm from its van der Waals volume, which was obtained by molecular mechanics calculations with the aid of its crystallographic data. This radius was correlated with its single ion limiting molar conductivity in propylene carbonate at 25 C, and it was proven that this anion also nearly followed the behavior of perfect slip in Stokes law, as is observed for other popular anions for lithium battery applications.

  15. EPA's law enforcement authority. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session, December 19, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Criminal investigators from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its field offices testified at a hearing on whether EPA has sufficient authority to investigate criminal violations, particularly in the area of illegal disposal of hazardous materials. They reported on the agency's progress in staffing a unit with authority comparable to that of Customs and the FBI. The Justice Department opposed deputizing EPA investigators, but the committee found that investigators in the 22 states surveyed operate with law-enforcement powers. Material submitted for the record by EPA, the Justice Department, and others follows the testimony of 10 witnesses.

  16. A TWO-COMPONENT POWER LAW COVERING NEARLY FOUR ORDERS OF MAGNITUDE IN THE POWER SPECTRUM OF SPITZER FAR-INFRARED EMISSION FROM THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Block, David L.; Puerari, Ivanio; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Bournaud, Frederic

    2010-07-20

    Power spectra of Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) emission at 24, 70, and 160 {mu}m observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope have a two-component power-law structure with a shallow slope of -1.6 at low wavenumber, k, and a steep slope of -2.9 at high k. The break occurs at k {sup -1} {approx} 100-200 pc, which is interpreted as the line-of-sight thickness of the LMC disk. The slopes are slightly steeper for longer wavelengths, suggesting the cooler dust emission is smoother than the hot emission. The power spectrum (PS) covers {approx}3.5 orders of magnitude, and the break in the slope is in the middle of this range on a logarithmic scale. Large-scale driving from galactic and extragalactic processes, including disk self-gravity, spiral waves, and bars, presumably causes the low-k structure in what is effectively a two-dimensional geometry. Small-scale driving from stellar processes and shocks causes the high-k structure in a three-dimensional geometry. This transition in dimensionality corresponds to the observed change in PS slope. A companion paper models the observed power law with a self-gravitating hydrodynamics simulation of a galaxy like the LMC.

  17. Severe constraints on the loop-quantum-gravity energy-momentum dispersion relation from the black-hole area-entropy law

    SciTech Connect

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Procaccini, Andrea; Arzano, Michele

    2004-11-15

    We explore a possible connection between two aspects of loop quantum gravity which have been extensively studied in the recent literature: the black-hole area-entropy law and the energy-momentum dispersion relation. We observe that the original Bekenstein argument for the area-entropy law implicitly requires information on the energy-momentum dispersion relation and on the position-momentum uncertainty relation. Recent results show that in first approximation black-hole entropy in loop quantum gravity depends linearly on the area, with small correction terms which have logarithmic or inverse-power dependence on the area. And it has been argued that in loop quantum gravity the dispersion relation should include terms that depend linearly on the Planck length, while no evidence of modification of the position-momentum uncertainty relation has been found. We observe that this scenario with Planck-length-linear modification of the dispersion relation and unmodified position-momentum uncertainty relation is incompatible with the black-hole-entropy results, since it would give rise to a term in the entropy formula going like the square root of the area.

  18. Axial magnetic field and toroidally streaming fast ions in the dense plasma focus are natural consequences of conservation laws in the curved axisymmetric geometry of the current sheath

    SciTech Connect

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2014-10-15

    Direct measurement of axial magnetic field in the PF-1000 dense plasma focus (DPF), and its reported correlation with neutron emission, call for a fresh look at previous reports of existence of axial magnetic field component in the DPF from other laboratories, and associated data suggesting toroidal directionality of fast ions participating in fusion reactions, with a view to understand the underlying physics. In this context, recent work dealing with application of the hyperbolic conservation law formalism to the DPF is extended in this paper to a curvilinear coordinate system, which reflects the shape of the DPF current sheath. Locally unidirectional shock propagation in this coordinate system enables construction of a system of 7 one-dimensional hyperbolic conservation law equations with geometric source terms, taking into account all the components of magnetic field and flow velocity. Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions for this system lead to expressions for the axial magnetic field and three components of fluid velocity having high ion kinetic energy.

  19. Temperature dependence of magnetization and anisotropy in uniaxial NiFe₂O₄ nanomagnets: Deviation from the Callen-Callen power law

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Biplab K.; Ghosh, C. K.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2014-10-21

    The thermal variation of magnetic anisotropy (K) and saturation magnetization (M{sub S}) for uniaxial nickel ferrite (NiFe₂O₄) nanomagnets are investigated. Major magnetic hysteresis loops are measured for the sample at temperatures over the range 5–280 K using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The high-field regimes of the hysteresis loops are modeled using the law of approach to saturation, based on the assumption that at sufficiently high field only direct rotation of spin-moment take place, with an additional forced magnetization term that is linear with applied field. The uniaxial anisotropy constant K is calculated from the fitting of the data to the theoretical equation. As temperature increases from 5 K to 280 K, a 49% reduction of K, accompanied by an 85% diminution of M{sub S} is observed. Remarkably, K is linearly proportional to M{sub S}₂.₆ in the whole temperature range violating the existing theoretical model by Callen and Callen. The unusual power-law behavior for the NiFe₂O₄ uniaxial nanomagnets is ascribed to the non-negligible contributions from inter-sublattice pair interactions, Neel surface anisotropy, and higher order anisotropies. A complete realization of the unusual anisotropy-magnetization scaling behavior for nanoscale two-sublattice magnetic materials require a major modification of the existing theory by considering the exact mechanism of each contributions to the effective anisotropy.

  20. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    SciTech Connect

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F.

    2015-04-29

    The nature of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) projects are: long duration (10-15 years for new build), high capital investment, reasonable risks and highly regulated industries to meet national and international requirement on Safety, Security, Safeguards (3S) and Liabilities. It requires long term planning and commitment from siting to final disposal of waste/spent fuel. Potential financial and regulatory risks are common in massive NPP projects and will be magnified in the case of using unproven technology. If the risks are not properly managed, it can lead to high project and operation costs, and, fail to fulfil its objectives to provide compatible electricity prices and. energy security. To ensure successful, the government and investors need to ensure that the NPP project is bankable with low cost of project and funding, have fair treatment and proper risk mitigation, and able to complete on time with no cost overrun. One of the requirements as prerequisite for the development of NPP as stipulated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the establishment of a Legal and Regulatory Framework. The main objective of nuclear law is to ensure that the activities and projects carried-out in the country are legal and compliant to national and international requirements. The law should also be able to provide fair treatment of risks on its activities that is acceptable to investors. The challenge for a newcomer country is to develop a balanced and comprehensive national nuclear law that meet these objectives while taking into consideration various stakeholders’ interest without compromising on safety, security, safeguard, liability requirements and other international obligations. This paper highlights the nature of NPP projects, its potential and associated financial and regulatory risks, and its major concerns and challenges. It proposes possible risks treatment and mitigation through the formulation of a balanced and comprehensive legislation by clear

  1. SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2011-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the

  2. Final Report - Enhanced LAW Glass Property - Composition Models - Phase 1 VSL-13R2940-1, Rev. 0, dated 9/27/2013

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Muller, I.; Gilbo, K.; Joseph, I.; Pegg, I. L.

    2013-11-13

    The objectives of this work are aimed at the development of enhanced LAW propertycomposition models that expand the composition region covered by the models. The models of interest include PCT, VHT, viscosity and electrical conductivity. This is planned as a multi-year effort that will be performed in phases with the objectives listed below for the current phase.  Incorporate property- composition data from the new glasses into the database.  Assess the database and identify composition spaces in the database that need augmentation.  Develop statistically-designed composition matrices to cover the composition regions identified in the above analysis.  Prepare crucible melts of glass compositions from the statistically-designed composition matrix and measure the properties of interest.  Incorporate the above property-composition data into the database.  Assess existing models against the complete dataset and, as necessary, start development of new models.

  3. TECHNETIUM RETENTION IN WTP LAW GLASS WITH RECYCLE FLOW-SHEET DM10 MELTER TESTING VSL-12R2640-1 REV 0

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowitz, Howard; Brandys, Marek; Cecil, Richard; D'Angelo, Nicholas; Matlack, Keith S.; Muller, Isabelle S.; Pegg, Ian L.; Callow, Richard A.; Joseph, Innocent

    2012-12-11

    Melter tests were conducted to determine the retention of technetium and other volatiles in glass while processing simulated Low Activity Waste (LAW) streams through a DM10 melter equipped with a prototypical off-gas system that concentrates and recycles fluid effiuents back to the melter feed. To support these tests, an existing DM10 system installed at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was modified to add the required recycle loop. Based on the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) LAW off-gas system design, suitably scaled versions of the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS), Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP), and TLP vacuum evaporator were designed, built, and installed into the DM10 system. Process modeling was used to support this design effort and to ensure that issues associated with the short half life of the {sup 99m}Tc radioisotope that was used in this work were properly addressed and that the system would be capable of meeting the test objectives. In particular, this required that the overall time constant for the system was sufficiently short that a reasonable approach to steady state could be achieved before the {sup 99m}Tc activity dropped below the analytical limits of detection. The conceptual design, detailed design, flow sheet development, process model development, Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) development, control system design, software design and development, system fabrication, installation, procedure development, operator training, and Test Plan development for the new system were all conducted during this project. The new system was commissioned and subjected to a series of shake-down tests before embarking on the planned test program. Various system performance issues that arose during testing were addressed through a series of modifications in order to improve the performance and reliability of the system. The resulting system provided a robust and reliable platform to address the test objectives.

  4. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remedial actions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: A compendium of environmental laws and guidance. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.; Eaton, L.A.

    1992-03-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances found at sites placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. To date, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has not been on the NPL. Although DOE and EPA have entered into an Administrative Consent Order (ACO), the prime regulatory authority for cleanup at PGDP will be the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at PGDP in the event that the plant becomes included on the NPL or the ACO is modified to include CERCLA cleanup. A description of the terms ``applicable`` and ``relevant and appropriate`` is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Kentucky are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of RCRA, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and other acts, as they apply to hazardous and radioactive waste cleanup, are discussed.

  5. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remedial actions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: A compendium of environmental laws and guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.; Eaton, L.A. )

    1992-03-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances found at sites placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. To date, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has not been on the NPL. Although DOE and EPA have entered into an Administrative Consent Order (ACO), the prime regulatory authority for cleanup at PGDP will be the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at PGDP in the event that the plant becomes included on the NPL or the ACO is modified to include CERCLA cleanup. A description of the terms applicable'' and relevant and appropriate'' is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Kentucky are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of RCRA, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and other acts, as they apply to hazardous and radioactive waste cleanup, are discussed.

  6. Fracture size and transmissivity correlations: Implications for transport simulations in sparse three-dimensional discrete fracture networks following a truncated power law distribution of fracture size

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Hyman, Jeffrey De'Haven; Aldrich, Garrett Allen; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Makedonska, Nataliia; Karra, Satish

    2016-08-25

    We characterize how different fracture size-transmissivity relationships influence flow and transport simulations through sparse three-dimensional discrete fracture networks. Although it is generally accepted that there is a positive correlation between a fracture's size and its transmissivity/aperture, the functional form of that relationship remains a matter of debate. Relationships that assume perfect correlation, semicorrelation, and noncorrelation between the two have been proposed. To study the impact that adopting one of these relationships has on transport properties, we generate multiple sparse fracture networks composed of circular fractures whose radii follow a truncated power law distribution. The distribution of transmissivities are selected somore » that the mean transmissivity of the fracture networks are the same and the distributions of aperture and transmissivity in models that include a stochastic term are also the same. We observe that adopting a correlation between a fracture size and its transmissivity leads to earlier breakthrough times and higher effective permeability when compared to networks where no correlation is used. While fracture network geometry plays the principal role in determining where transport occurs within the network, the relationship between size and transmissivity controls the flow speed. Lastly, these observations indicate DFN modelers should be aware that breakthrough times and effective permeabilities can be strongly influenced by such a relationship in addition to fracture and network statistics.« less

  7. Conservation laws, bilinear forms and solitons for a fifth-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the attosecond pulses in an optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, Jun; Tian, Bo Zhen, Hui-Ling; Sun, Wen-Rong

    2015-08-15

    Under investigation in this paper is a fifth-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which describes the propagation of attosecond pulses in an optical fiber. Based on the Lax pair, infinitely-many conservation laws are derived. With the aid of auxiliary functions, bilinear forms, one-, two- and three-soliton solutions in analytic forms are generated via the Hirota method and symbolic computation. Soliton velocity varies linearly with the coefficients of the high-order terms. Head-on interaction between the bidirectional two solitons and overtaking interaction between the unidirectional two solitons as well as the bound state are depicted. For the interactions among the three solitons, two head-on and one overtaking interactions, three overtaking interactions, an interaction between a bound state and a single soliton and the bound state are displayed. Graphical analysis shows that the interactions between the two solitons are elastic, and interactions among the three solitons are pairwise elastic. Stability analysis yields the modulation instability condition for the soliton solutions.

  8. Wiedemann-Franz law and nonvanishing temperature scale across the field-tuned quantum critical point of YbRh2Si2

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, J.-Ph.; Tanatar, Makariy; Daou, R.; Hu, Rongwei; Petrovic, C.; Taillefer, Louis

    2014-01-23

    The in-plane thermal conductivity kappa and electrical resistivity rho of the heavy-fermion metal YbRh2Si2 were measured down to 50 mK for magnetic fields H parallel and perpendicular to the tetragonal c axis, through the field-tuned quantum critical point H-c, at which antiferromagnetic order ends. The thermal and electrical resistivities, w L0T/kappa and rho, show a linear temperature dependence below 1 K, typical of the non-Fermi-liquid behavior found near antiferromagnetic quantum critical points, but this dependence does not persist down to T = 0. Below a characteristic temperature T-star similar or equal to 0.35 K, which depends weakly on H, w(T) and rho(T) both deviate downward and converge as T -> 0. We propose that T-star marks the onset of short-range magnetic correlations, persisting beyond H-c. By comparing samples of different purity, we conclude that the Wiedemann-Franz law holds in YbRh2Si2, even at H-c, implying that no fundamental breakdown of quasiparticle behavior occurs in this material. The overall phenomenology of heat and charge transport in YbRh2Si2 is similar to that observed in the heavy-fermion metal CeCoIn5, near its own field-tuned quantum critical point.

  9. Copyright Laws for the Web

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Before you can use copyrighted material on an Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) website or for other digital media, you need to obtain permission from the owner.

  10. EEHG Performance and Scaling Laws

    SciTech Connect

    Penn, Gregory

    2013-10-09

    This note will calculate the idealized performance of echo-enabled harmonic generation performance (EEHG), explore the parameter settings, and look at constraints determined by incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR) and intrabeam scattering (IBS). Another important effect, time-of-flight variations related to transverse emittance, is included here but without detailed explanation because it has been described previously. The importance of ISR and IBS is that they lead to random energy shifts that lead to temporal shifts after the various beam manipulations required by the EEHG scheme. These effects give competing constraints on the beamline. For chicane magnets which are too compact for a given R56, the magnetic fields will be sufficiently strong that ISR will blur out the complex phase space structure of the echo scheme to the point where the bunching is strongly suppressed. The effect of IBS is more omnipresent, and requires an overall compact beamline. It is particularly challenging for the second pulse in a two-color attosecond beamline, due to the long delay between the first energy modulation and the modulator for the second pulse.

  11. Conservation Laws in Weak Interactions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Lee, T. D.

    1957-03-01

    Notes are presented on four lectures given at Harvard University in March 1957 on elementary particle physics, the theta-tau problem, validity of parity conservation, tests for invariance under P, C, and T, and the two-component theory of the neutrino. (W.D.M.)

  12. GP-8 LAWS AND REGULATIONS

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    40-DOP (5-2011) Supersedes (7-2010) issue DECLARATION of OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE PROVIDER GENERAL INFORMATION PURPOSE All Contractors and their lower-tier subcontractors must comply with the Department of Energy's Worker Safety and Health Program regulation, 10 CFR 851, "Worker Safety and Health Program (WSHP). The WSHP enforces worker safety and health requirements including, but not limited to, standards of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), American National

  13. Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) for Remedial Action at the Oak Ridge Reservation: A compendium of major environmental laws. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.; McDonald, E.P.; Houlberg, L.M.

    1993-07-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARS) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was placed on the National Priorities List by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on November 21, 1989, effective December 21, 1989. As a result of this listing, DOE, EPA, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation have signed a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the environmental restoration of the ORR. Section XXI(F) of the FFA calls for the preparation of a draft listing of all ARARs as mandated by CERCLA {section}121. This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at the ORR. A description of the terms ``applicable`` and ``relevant and appropriate`` is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Tennessee are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air and other acts, as they apply to hazardous waste cleanup, are discussed. In the absence of ARARS, CERCLA {section}121 provides for the use of nonpromulgated federal criteria, guidelines, and advisories in evaluating the human risk associated with remedial action alternatives. Such nonpromulgated standards are classified as ``to-be-considered`` (TBC) guidance. A ion of available guidance is given; summary tables fist the available federal standards and guidance information. In addition, the substantive contents of the DOE orders as they apply to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites are discussed as TBC guidance.

  14. Comment on ''Interacting holographic dark energy model and generalized second law of thermodynamics in a non-flat universe{sup ,} by M.R. Setare (JCAP 01 (2007) 023)

    SciTech Connect

    Karami, K.

    2010-01-01

    Author of ref. 1, M.R. Setare (JCAP 01 (2007) 023), by redefining the event horizon measured from the sphere of the horizon as the system's IR cut-off for an interacting holographic dark energy model in a non-flat universe, showed that the generalized second law of thermodynamics is satisfied for the special range of the deceleration parameter. His paper includes an erroneous calculation of the entropy of the cold dark matter. Also there are some missing terms and some misprints in the equations of his paper. Here we present that his conclusion is not true and the generalized second law is violated for the present time independently of the deceleration parameter.

  15. Model As-of Right Zoning Ordinance or Bylaw: Allowing Use of Large-Scale Solar Energy Facilities

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    As part of the Green Communities Act (passed in 2008), the Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources (DOER) and the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs (EOEA) developed an ...

  16. Development of a discrete ordinates code system for unstructured meshes of tetrahedral cells, with serial and parallel implementations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.

    1998-11-01

    A numerically stable, accurate, and robust form of the exponential characteristic (EC) method, used to solve the time-independent linearized Boltzmann Transport Equation, is derived using direct affine coordinate transformations on unstructured meshes of tetrahedra. This quadrature, as well as the linear characteristic (LC) spatial quadrature, is implemented in the transport code, called TETRAN. This code solves multi-group neutral particle transport problems with anisotropic scattering and was parallelized using High Performance Fortran and angular domain decomposition. A new, parallel algorithm for updating the scattering source is introduced. The EC source and inflow flux coefficients are efficiently evaluated using Broyden`s rootsolver, started with special approximations developed here. TETRAN showed robustness, stability and accuracy on a variety of challenging test problems. Parallel speed-up was observed as the number of processors was increased using an IBM SP computer system.

  17. The Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) was established in Fiscal Year 1979 pursuant to Section 641 Title V1, Part 3 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (Public Law 95-619), dated November 9, 1978

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Minority Economic Impact (MI) was established in Fiscal Year 1979 pursuant to Section 641 Title V1, Part 3 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (Public Law 95- 619), dated November 9, 1978. The following is MI's legislative mandate. PART 3 - - MINORITY ECONOMIC IMPACT SEC. 641. MINORITY ECONOMIC IMPACT. "(a) Establishment of Office of Minority Economic Impact -- Title II of the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7131 - - 7139) is amended by adding at the end thereof

  18. Gaussian-type light bullet solutions of the (3+1)-dimensional Schrödinger equation with cubic and power-law nonlinearities in PT-symmetric potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Hai-Ping; Dai, Chao-Qing

    2014-12-15

    Two kinds of Gaussian-type light bullet (LB) solutions of the (3+1)-dimensional Schrödinger equation with cubic and power-law nonlinearities in PT-symmetric potentials are analytically obtained. The phase switches, powers and transverse power-flow densities of these solutions in homogeneous media are studied. The linear stability analysis of these LB solutions and the direct numerical simulation indicate that LB solutions are stable below some thresholds for the imaginary part of PT-symmetric potentials in the defocusing cubic and focusing power-law nonlinear medium, while they are always unstable for all parameters in other media. Moreover, the broadened and compressed behaviors of LBs in the exponential periodic amplification system and diffraction decreasing system are discussed. Results indicate that LB is more stable for the sign-changing nonlinearity in the exponential periodic amplification system than for the non-sign-changing nonlinearity in the diffraction decreasing system at the same propagation distances.

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Currituck County- Wind Energy Systems Ordinance In January 2008, Currituck County adopted an ordinance to regulate the use of wind-energy systems. The ordinance directs any...

  20. CERT tribal internship program. Final intern report: Melinda Jacquez, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of the intern project was to write a comprehensive booklet on all state legislation proposed in 1995 on Native American issues. A second purpose was to contact tribal governments and request an ordinance, law or resolution on hazardous and nuclear waste transportation. This intern report contains a summary of bills proposed in 37 state legislatures pertaining to Native American issues. Time ran out before the second project objective could be met.

  1. UNCLASSIFIED Institute for Materials Science Sponsored Seminar

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Dr. Sergii L. Dudarev Programme Grant Modelling Co-ordinator & Visiting Professor Oxford University Materials United Kingdom "Magnetic" Molecular Dynamics and Other Models for Fusion Reactor Materials Tuesday, September 15, 2015 2:00 - 3:00pm MSL Auditorium (TA-03 - Bldg 1698 - Room A103) Abstract - Multiscale models for fusion reactor materials address both the initial stages of production of radiation defects, where the recently discovered power law statistics of defect

  2. FINAL REPORT REGULATORY OFF GAS EMISSIONS TESTING ON THE DM1200 MELTER SYSTEM USING HLW AND LAW SIMULANTS VSL-05R5830-1 REV 0 10/31/05

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29

    The operational requirements for the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) and High Level Waste (HLW) melter systems, together with the feed constituents, impose a number of challenges to the off-gas treatment system. The system must be robust from the standpoints of operational reliability and minimization of maintenance. The system must effectively control and remove a wide range of solid particulate matter, acid mists and gases, and organic constituents (including those arising from products of incomplete combustion of sugar and organics in the feed) to concentration levels below those imposed by regulatory requirements. The baseline design for the RPP-WTP LAW primary off-gas system includes a submerged bed scrubber (SBS), a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP), and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed (AC-S), a thermal catalytic oxidizer (TCO), a single-stage selective catalytic reduction NOx treatment system (SCR), and a packed-bed caustic scrubber (PBS). The baseline design for the RPP-WTP HLW primary off-gas system includes an SBS, a WESP, a high efficiency mist eliminator (HEME), and a HEPA filter. The HLW secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed, a silver mordenite bed, a TCO, and a single-stage SCR. The one-third scale HLW DM1200 Pilot Melter installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was equipped with a prototypical off-gas train to meet the needs for testing and confirmation of the performance of the baseline off-gas system design. Various modifications have been made to the DM1200 system as the details of the WTP design have evolved, including the installation of a silver mordenite column and an AC-S column for testing on a slipstream of the off-gas flow; the installation of a full-flow AC-S bed for the present tests was completed prior to initiation of testing. The DM1200

  3. Summary of expenditures of rebates from the low-level radioactive waste surcharge escrow account for calendar year 1989: Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This response is submitted in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (the Act), Public Law 99-240. The report summarizes expenditures made during the calendar year 1989 of surcharge rebates from the July 1, 1986, milestones. Title I of the Act requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to administer a Surcharge Escrow Account. This account consists of a portion of the surcharge fees paid by generators of low-level radioactive waste in nonsited compacts (regional compacts currently without operating disposal sites) and nonmember States (States without disposal sites that are not members of compacts) to the three States with operating disposal facilities (Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington) (sited States) for using their disposal facilities. In administering the Surcharge Escrow Account, the Act requires DOE to: invest the funds in interest-bearing United States Government securities; determine eligibility of rebates of the funds by evaluating State and compact progress toward developing new disposal sites against milestones set forth in the Act; disburse the collected rebates and interest; assess compliance of rebate expenditures with the limitations prescribed in the Act; and submit a report annually to Congress summarizing rebate expenditures by States and regions. 5 tabs.

  4. Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Solar and wind systems are also protected from siting restrictions that would "significantly decrease the efficiency or performance of the system and not allow for the use of an alternative system...

  5. Lex Helius: The Law of Solar Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This 85-page document covers a variety of solar legal issues including solar access, power purchase agreements, solar development contracts, regulations, permitting, solar financing contracts, and renewable energy credits. Note that this document is not legal advice or a legal opinion on specific facts or circumstances.

  6. NEPA and Other Laws | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... November 17, 1980 Applying Section 404(r) of the Clean Water Act to Federal Projects Which ... of the U.S., Including Wetlands (CEQ, 1980) This Council on Environmental Quality ...

  7. Solar Easements & Rights Laws | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process...

  8. ByLaws_changes_Nov15

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    By the Numbers: 2015 at the Department of Energy By the Numbers: 2015 at the Department of Energy Addthis The Energy Department was hard at work in 2015, and we've got the numbers to prove it. This year we were involved in two major international agreements: the historic nuclear deal that blocks Iran's four pathways to a nuclear bomb, and the COP21 agreement -- a major milestone in the fight against climate change. Our carbon capture and storage projects removed their 10 millionth metric ton of

  9. Solar Easements & Rights Laws | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Program Type SolarWind Access Policy Summary In Missouri, the right to utilize solar energy is a property right, but eminent domain may not be used to obtain such a property...

  10. Competition law and British natural gas regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Black, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    British Gas (BG) is a seriously successful monopolist which, since its 1986 privatisation, is acing increased regulation by the Office of Gas Supply (OFGAS). OFGAS is the first public body specifically created to regulate a European gas industry. It employs a rate-capping formula instead of the more labour intensive rate-of-retum method favoured in North America. Despite initial criticisms, OFGAS has surprised industry observers with efficacious results. This article succinctly discusses the process of natural gas industry privatisation in the United Kingdom (U.K.) and the development of a British type of [open quotes]open access.[close quotes] Contemporary British gas regulation is a distinct paradigm involving the privatisation of a vertically integrated pipeline system coupled with an altemative regulatory method. These regulatory results include lower prices for core customers and the promotion of third party direct sales within the U.K. Since Britain leads the European Community (E.C.) in common carriage provisions, the regulatory r6gime here provides a benchmark for the other Member States.

  11. Micropower radar systems for law enforcement technology

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, S.G.; Mast, J.; Brase, J.

    1994-11-15

    LLNL researchers have pioneered a unique compact low-power and inexpensive radar technology (microradar) that has enormous potential in various industries. Some licenses are currently in place for motion sensors and stud finders. The ultra-wideband characteristics of the microradar (4 to 10 GHz) make it difficult to detect, yet provide potential range resolution of 1 cm at ranges of greater than 20 meters. Real and synthetic apertures arrays of radar elements can address imaging applications behind walls at those distances. Personnel detection applications are currently being tested.

  12. Solar Easements & Local Option Solar Rights Laws

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New York General City, Town, and Village codes also allow local zoning districts to make regulations regarding solar access that provide for "the accommodation of solar energy systems and...

  13. LAW OFFICES OF SUSAN ELIZABETH DRUMMOND, PLLC

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    (206) 682-0767 Kirkland, Washington 98033 susan@susandrummond.com kiCFJVEJ) B RIA lOLA OFFICE THIS DATE: November 26, 2012 DUE DATE: LOC Bonneville Power Administration Christina...

  14. Co-ordination of the International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators; Summary Report of an IAEA Technical Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Abriola, D.; Tuli, J.

    2009-03-23

    The IAEA Nuclear Data Section convened the 18th meeting of the International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, 23 to 27 March 2009. This meeting was attended by 22 scientists from 14 Member States, plus IAEA staff, concerned with the compilation, evaluation and dissemination of nuclear structure and decay data. A summary of the meeting, recommendations/conclusions, data centre reports, and various proposals considered, modified and agreed by the participants are contained within this document. The International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) Evaluators holds biennial meetings under the auspices of the IAEA, and consists of evaluation groups and data service centres in several countries. This network has the objective of providing up-to-date nuclear structure and decay data for all known nuclides by evaluating all existing experimental data. Data resulting from this international evaluation collaboration is included in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) and published in the journals Nuclear Physics A and Nuclear Data Sheets (NDS).

  15. S. 3047: A Bill to amend the antitrust laws in order to preserve and promote wholesale and retail competition in the retail gasoline market. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, September 13, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This bill would amend the antitrust laws in order to preserve and promote wholesale and retail competition in the retail gasoline market. The bill defines limits on the purchases required of a retailer from the producer or refiner and defines the exceptions under which any large integrated refiner can operate any motor fuel service station in the US. The Federal Trade Commission is charged with the enforcement.

  16. SMALL-SCALE MELTER TESTING WITH LAW SIMULANTS TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF HIGHER TEMPERATURE MELTER OPERATIONS - Final Report, VSL-04R49801-1, Rev. 0, 2/13/03, Vitreous State Laboratory, The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C.

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS

    2012-02-07

    About 50 million gallons of high-level mixed waste is currently in storage in underground tanks at The United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford site in the State of Washington. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will provide DOE's Office of River Protection (ORP) with a means of treating this waste by vitrification for subsequent disposal. The tank waste will be separated into low- and high-activity fractions, which will then be vitrified respectively into Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) and Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) products. The ILAW product will be disposed of in an engineered facility on the Hanford site while the IHL W product will be directed to the national deep geological disposal facility for high-level nuclear waste. The ILAW and IHLW products must meet a variety of requirements with respect to protection of the environment before they can be accepted for disposal. The Office of River Protection is currently examining options to optimize the Low Activity Waste (LAW) facility and the LAW glass waste form. One option under evaluation is to enhance the waste processing rate of the vitrification plant currently under construction. It is likely that the capacity of the LAW vitrification plant can be increased incrementally by implementation of a variety of low-risk, high-probability changes, either separately or in combination. These changes include: (1) Operating at the higher processing rates demonstrated at the LAW Pilot Melter; (2) Increasing the glass pool surface area within the existing external melter envelope; (3) Increasing plant availability; (4) Increasing the glass waste loading; (5) Removing sulfate from the LAW stream; (6) Operating the melter at slightly higher temperature; (7) Installing the third LAW melter into the WTP plant; and (8) Other smaller impact changes. The tests describes in this report utilized blended feed (glass formers plus waste simulant) prepared by Optima Chemicals

  17. National Nuclear Security Administration

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    will non-concur on any such exemptions that are proposed. This would make the intention clear, and forbid the deliberate use of the process to circumvent a directive. The...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Hyde County- Wind Energy Facility Ordinance Hyde County, located in eastern North Carolina, adopted a wind ordinance in 2008 to regulate the use of wind energy facilities...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Tyrrell County- Wind Energy Facility Ordinance Tyrrell County, located in northeastern North Carolina, adopted a wind ordinance in 2009 to regulate the use of wind energy...

  20. King County- Green Building Initiative

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 2013 Ordinance establishes criteria for energy use, emissions, stormwater management, and construction and demolition materials diversion. The 2010 Ordinance 16769 previously stipulated effic...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Rockingham County- Small Wind Ordinance Although net metering is not required, the ordinance complements the state's net-metering regulations and requires compliance with the...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Heat, Solar Space Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Solar Pool Heating Rockingham County- Small Wind Ordinance Although net metering is not required, the ordinance complements the...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Standards for Municipal Small Wind Regulations and Model Ordinance In July 2008, New Hampshire enacted legislation designed to prevent municipalities from adopting ordinances or...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    City of Berkeley- Energy Conservation Ordinance The City of Berkeley has an ordinance requiring certain energy conservation measures to be installed in residential and commercial...

  5. New Guide Helps Clarify Complex Clean Air Laws

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), has released A Guide to the Emissions ... In response to these findings, the EPA issued an addendum to the legislation that once ...

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    ... fuel is also determined under the rules for the ethanol or biodiesel tax credits. ... fuel blends containing a minimum of 20% biodiesel installed between January 1, 2015, and ...

  7. EXTENDED SCHMIDT LAW: ROLE OF EXISTING STARS IN CURRENT STAR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; DENSITY; GALACTIC EVOLUTION; MASS; STARS; SURFACES EVOLUTION; PHYSICAL ...

  8. PUBLIC LAW 111-5„FEB

    Energy Saver

    DAYS - WE NEED A CHANGE OF PERSONNELFW: more expoxsure to the general public needs to take place - not less | Department of Energy PUBLIC COMMENT ON FEDERAL REGISTER - DOE IS BUSH CHENEY SCUM COUNTRY THESE DAYS - WE NEED A CHANGE OF PERSONNELFW: more expoxsure to the general public needs to take place - not less PUBLIC COMMENT ON FEDERAL REGISTER - DOE IS BUSH CHENEY SCUM COUNTRY THESE DAYS - WE NEED A CHANGE OF PERSONNELFW: more expoxsure to the general public needs to take place - not less

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Laws and Incentives

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Select a State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Dist. of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky ...

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Laws and Incentives

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Select a State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Dist. of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky ...

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Laws and Incentives

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Select a State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Dist. of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky ...

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Laws and Incentives

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Select a State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Dist. of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky ...

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Laws and Incentives

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    California (79) Colorado (34) Connecticut (24) Delaware (14) District of Columbia (7) Florida (23) Georgia (14) Hawaii (18) Idaho (12) Illinois (34) Indiana (30) Iowa (18) Kansas ...

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Laws and Incentives

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Select a State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Dist. of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky ...

  15. SCALING LAW OF RELATIVISTIC SWEET-PARKER-TYPE MAGNETIC RECONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Kudoh, Takahiro; Masada, Youhei; Matsumoto, Jin

    2011-10-01

    Relativistic Sweet-Parker-type magnetic reconnection is investigated by relativistic resistive magnetohydrodynamic (RRMHD) simulations. As an initial setting, we assume anti-parallel magnetic fields and a spatially uniform resistivity. A perturbation imposed on the magnetic fields triggers magnetic reconnection around a current sheet, and the plasma inflows into the reconnection region. The inflows are then heated due to ohmic dissipation in the diffusion region and finally become relativistically hot outflows. The outflows are not accelerated to ultrarelativistic speeds (i.e., Lorentz factor {approx_equal} 1), even when the magnetic energy dominates the thermal and rest mass energies in the inflow region. Most of the magnetic energy in the inflow region is converted into the thermal energy of the outflow during the reconnection process. The energy conversion from magnetic to thermal energy in the diffusion region results in an increase in the plasma inertia. This prevents the outflows from being accelerated to ultrarelativistic speeds. We find that the reconnection rate R obeys the scaling relation R{approx_equal}S{sup -0.5}, where S is the Lundquist number. This feature is the same as that of non-relativistic reconnection. Our results are consistent with the theoretical predictions of Lyubarsky for Sweet-Parker-type magnetic reconnection.

  16. 2008 Redistricting Data Prototype (Public Law 94-171) Summary...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... The Census Bureau delineated BGs only where a local or tribal government declined to participate and a regional organization or State Data Center was not available to participate. ...

  17. The inverse-square law and quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, M.M.; Goldman, T.; Hughes, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses a modification to central potential of gravity when antimatter is involved and the possible existence of quantum gravity and a fifth force of nature. 1 ref. (LSP)

  18. Scaling law of coherent synchrotron radiation in a rectangular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI Identifier: 1180843 GrantContract Number: AC02-76SF00515 Type: Published Article Journal Name: Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams Additional Journal ...

  19. Deputy General Counsel for General Law and Litigation

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is a semi-autonomous agency of the Department of Energy (DOE). We manage highly visible U.S National Security Programs, enhance U.S. national...

  20. The lawful uses of knowledge from the Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect

    Grad, F.P.

    1994-04-15

    Part I of this study deals with the right to know or not to know personal genetic information, and examines available legal protections of the right of privacy and the adverse effect of the disclosure of genetic information both on employment and insurance interests and on self esteem and protection of personal integrity. The study examines the rationale for the legal protection of privacy as the protection of a public interest. It examines the very limited protections currently available for privacy interests, including genetic privacy interests, and concludes that there is a need for broader, more far-reaching legal protections. The second part of the study is based on the assumption that as major a project as the Human Genome Project, spending billions of dollars on science which is health related, will indeed be applied for preventive and therapeutic public health purposes, as it has been in the past. It also addresses the recurring fear that public health initiatives in the genetic area must evolve a new eugenic agenda, that we must not repeat the miserable discriminatory experiences of the past.