National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for law 93-275 failure

  1. This report is mandatory under Public Law 93 275

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other sanctions as provided by law. ...

  2. This report is mandatory under Public Law 93 275

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other sanctions as provided by law. Title 18 USC 1001 makes it a criminal offense for any person knowingly and ...

  3. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY U.S. ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION

    Annual Energy Outlook

    under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other sanctions as provided by law. ...

  4. RESPONDENT INFORMATION

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    This report is mandatory under Public Law 93-275. Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other sanctions as provided by law. For the sanctions and the ...

  5. This form may be submitted to the EIA by mail, fax, e-mail, or...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other sanctions as provided by law. ...

  6. OMB No. 1905-0174

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other sanctions as provided by law. ...

  7. Version No.: 2002.001

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other sanctions as provided by law. ...

  8. EIA-877 WINTER HEATING FUELS TELEPHONE SURVEY

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other sanctions as provided by law. ...

  9. This form may be submitted to the EIA by mail, fax, e-mail, or...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    "REPORT YEAR 2011" "This report is mandatory under Public Law 93-275. Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other sanctions as provided by law. ...

  10. EIA-176 Form

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    This report is mandatory under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other ...

  11. First Name: Last Name: Title: Telephone: Fax: Email: First Name...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    NOTICE: This report is mandatory under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other ...

  12. Form Approval: OMB No. 1905-0129

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    NOTICE: This report is mandatory under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other ...

  13. eia-857.xls

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    This report is mandatory under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other ...

  14. EIA-816

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    This report is mandatory under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other ...

  15. EIA-800

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    This report is mandatory under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other ...

  16. U

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    NOTICE: This report is mandatory under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other ...

  17. EIA-814

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    This report is mandatory under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other ...

  18. EIA-819

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    This report is mandatory under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other ...

  19. Company Name: Preparer Name: Company Address: Preparer Title...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    This report is mandatory under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other ...

  20. Report Period: EIA ID NUMBER: Appendix A: Mailing Address: Appendix...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    This report is mandatory under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other ...

  1. Form EIA-851Q

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    This report is mandatory under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other ...

  2. Heating Oil and Propane Update

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Administration Act of 1974 (FEAA) (Public Law 93-275), as amended and codified at 15 ... of the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (FEAA) (Public Law 93-275), as amended. ...

  3. EIA895_update.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Email address: This report is voluntary under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). For the provisions concerning the confidentiality of information ...

  4. This report is mandatory under the Federal Energy Administration...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    63A (2010) ANNUAL SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORREFLECTOR SHIPMENTS REPORT For Reporting Year ( ... is mandatory under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). ...

  5. U.S. Dry Developmental Wells Drilled (Number of Elements)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY U.S. ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION Washington, DC 20585 OMB No. 1905-0174 Form Expires: 09/30/2017 Version No. : 2015.01 FORM EIA-821 ANNUAL FUEL OIL AND KEROSENE SALES REPORT REFERENCE YEAR 2014 This report is mandatory under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other sanctions as provided by law. Title 18 USC 1001 makes it a criminal offense for any person knowingly

  6. Annual Coal Report 2014

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other ... in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. ...

  7. INTERVIEWER:

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    authorized under Section 52 of the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. The purpose of this survey is to collect information about vehicles...

  8. > FAQs for Survey Form EIA-888

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Fax - fax price(s) to a secure, toll-free fax number, 1-877-359-6637 Telephone ... of the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (FEAA) (Public Law 93-275), as amended. ...

  9. FAQs for Survey Form EIA-878

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Fax - fax prices to a secure, toll-free fax number, 1-877-359-6637 Telephone ... of the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (FEAA) (Public Law 93-275), as amended. ...

  10. Obeying Environmental Laws

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Stewardship Environmental Protection Obeying Environmental Laws Obeying Environmental Laws LANL complies with more than 30 state and federal regulations and policies to...

  11. Characterization and Failure Analysis

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & ... The more we can learn from any system failure, the better our data can assist ...

  12. Failure mechanisms in MEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen

    2003-07-01

    MEMS components by their very nature have different and unique failure mechanisms than their macroscopic counterparts. This paper discusses failure mechanisms observed in various MEMS components and technologies. MEMS devices fabricated using bulk and surface micromachining process technologies are emphasized. MEMS devices offer uniqueness in their application, fabrication, and functionality. Their uniqueness creates various failure mechanisms not typically found in their bulk or IC counterparts. In ICs, electrical precautions are taken to mitigate failure. In MEMS, both electrical and mechanical precautions must be enacted to reduce the risk of failure and increased reliability. Unlike ICs, many MEMS components are designed to interact with their environment, making the fabrication, testing, and packaging processes critical for the success of the device.

  13. Water, law, science

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  14. Damage mechanics - failure modes

    SciTech Connect

    Krajcinovic, D.; Vujosevic, M.

    1996-12-31

    The present study summarizes the results of the DOE sponsored research program focused on the brittle failure of solids with disordered microstructure. The failure is related to the stochastic processes on the microstructural scale; namely, the nucleation and growth of microcracks. The intrinsic failure modes, such as the percolation, localization and creep rupture, are studied by emphasizing the effect of the micro-structural disorder. A rich spectrum of physical phenomena and new concepts that emerges from this research demonstrates the reasons behind the limitations of traditional, deterministic, and local continuum models.

  15. International resources law

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Historical origins of civil code legal systems; Modern civil law practice for mineral lawyers; Treaties and agreements for protection of international investments; Europe 1992-toward a single energy market; Dispute resolution in international agreements; Assessment of political risk; Reducing political risk; Protecting mineral investments from upheaval in developing countries; Typical world petroleum arrangements; government take in the Pacific Rim - Papua New Guinea; Mineral base of the USSR and prospects of investment; International taxation for the mining practitioner; Tax considerations - branch versus subsidiary; Doing business in the host country - nontax considerations; Impact of host-country laws on operations and profits; Mineral development and native rights - New Zealand; Designing the investment vehicle: mining; International oil and gas joint ventures; Selected U.S. laws with extraterritorial effect; U.S. tax and securities laws applied to foreign joint venturers; and Extraterritorial effect of U.S. laws.

  16. Anomalous law of cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  17. Weld failure detection

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.; Sutton, Jr., Harry G.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for detecting failure in a welded connection, particrly applicable to not readily accessible welds such as those joining components within the reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor system. A preselected tag gas is sealed within a chamber which extends through selected portions of the base metal and weld deposit. In the event of a failure, such as development of a crack extending from the chamber to an outer surface, the tag gas is released. The environment about the welded area is directed to an analyzer which, in the event of presence of the tag gas, evidences the failure. A trigger gas can be included with the tag gas to actuate the analyzer.

  18. BIOASSAY VESSEL FAILURE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-22

    Two high-pressure bioassay vessels failed at the Savannah River Site during a microwave heating process for biosample testing. Improper installation of the thermal shield in the first failure caused the vessel to burst during microwave heating. The second vessel failure is attributed to overpressurization during a test run. Vessel failure appeared to initiate in the mold parting line, the thinnest cross-section of the octagonal vessel. No material flaws were found in the vessel that would impair its structural performance. Content weight should be minimized to reduce operating temperature and pressure. Outer vessel life is dependent on actual temperature exposure. Since thermal aging of the vessels can be detrimental to their performance, it was recommended that the vessels be used for a limited number of cycles to be determined by additional testing.

  19. Public Law 104-134

    Energy Saver

    Public Law 104-134 Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-134) Updated April 30, 1999 The President has signed into law historic legislation having a major impact ...

  20. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  1. Technetium Retention During LAW Vitrification

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    (1% I) for LAWE7H (AN-102, high organics) * 18% Tc (22% I) for LAWE3 (AP-101, high K) * Sugar most effective organic reductant for Tc and I retention * 15-20% absolute increase...

  2. Brittle failure kinetics model for concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Silling, S.A.

    1997-03-01

    A new constitutive model is proposed for the modeling of penetration and large stress waves in concrete. Rate effects are incorporated explicitly into the damage evolution law, hence the term brittle failure kinetics. The damage variable parameterizes a family of Mohr-Coulomb strength curves. The model, which has been implemented in the CTH code, has been shown to reproduce some distinctive phenomena that occur in penetration of concrete targets. Among these are the sharp spike in deceleration of a rigid penetrator immediately after impact. Another is the size scale effect, which leads to a nonlinear scaling of penetration depth with penetrator size. This paper discusses the theory of the model and some results of an extensive validation effort.

  3. Osage oil: Mineral law, murder, mayhem, and manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, R.

    1995-12-31

    The greatest of the 20th century Osage chiefs, Fred Lookout, feared what the rich oil bonanza under tribal lands would do to his people. He forsaw that oil wealth could turn into a curse as well as a blessing, and it was both. The story of Osage oil is a case history in the failure of law, the failure of Indian policy and the struggle for survival of the indomitable spirit of a great Native people force to deal with both the curse and the blessing of black gold. This article examines law and policy as seen in Osage oil regulation, outlining the legal controls of the land and mineral regulatory system and briefly exploring the breakdowns of the system.

  4. Component failure data handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Gentillon, C.D.

    1991-04-01

    This report presents generic component failure rates that are used in reliability and risk studies of commercial nuclear power plants. The rates are computed using plant-specific data from published probabilistic risk assessments supplemented by selected other sources. Each data source is described. For rates with four or more separate estimates among the sources, plots show the data that are combined. The method for combining data from different sources is presented. The resulting aggregated rates are listed with upper bounds that reflect the variability observed in each rate across the nuclear power plant industry. Thus, the rates are generic. Both per hour and per demand rates are included. They may be used for screening in risk assessments or for forming distributions to be updated with plant-specific data.

  5. The unifying role of dissipative action in the dynamic failure of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, Dennis

    2015-05-19

    Dissipative action, the product of dissipation energy and transport time, is fundamental to the dynamic failure of solids. Invariance of the dissipative action underlies the fourth-power nature of structured shock waves observed in selected solid metals and compounds. Dynamic failure through shock compaction, tensile spall and adiabatic shear are also governed by a constancy of the dissipative action. This commonality underlying the various modes of dynamic failure is described and leads to deeper insights into failure of solids in the intense shock wave event. These insights are in turn leading to a better understanding of the shock deformation processes underlying the fourth-power law. Experimental result and material models encompassing the dynamic failure of solids are explored for the purpose of demonstrating commonalities leading to invariance of the dissipation action. As a result, calculations are extended to aluminum and uranium metals with the intent of predicting micro-scale energetics and spatial scales in the structured shock wave.

  6. 40th Indian Law Conference

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Bar Association is hosting the 40th Annual Indian Law Conference. This two-day conference focuses on the significant changes that have occurred in the relationship between Tribal Nations and the United States in the last four decades. The conference will cover several topics, including climate change, Indian Law, tribal courts, and more.

  7. An Estimator of Propagation of Cascading Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, Ian; Wierzbicki, Kevin; Carreras, Benjamin A; Lynch, Vickie E; Newman, David E

    2006-01-01

    The authors suggest a statistical estimator to measure the extent to which failures propagate in cascading failures such as large blackouts.

  8. Failure analysis issues in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Failure analysis issues in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Failure analysis and device characterization of MEMS components are critical steps in understanding the ...

  9. Integrated Circuit Failure Analysis Expert System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    1995-10-03

    The software assists a failure analyst performing failure anaysis on intergrated circuits. The software can also be used to train inexperienced failure analysts. The software also provides a method for storing information and making it easily available to experienced failure analysts.

  10. Integrated Circuit Failure Analysis Hypertext Help System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    1995-02-23

    This software assists a failure analyst performing failure analysis on integrated circuits. The software can also be used to train inexperienced failure analysts. The software also provides a method for storing information and making it easily available to experienced failure analysts.

  11. Renewable Energy Easements & Rights Laws

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Florida law also allows for the creation of easements for the purpose of maintaining exposure of a solar energy system to sunlight. Easements must be created in writing, and recorded and indexed ...

  12. Wind Access and Permitting Law

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The law also defines a limited set of reasonable restrictions that governments and associations are permitted to use in regulating residential wind energy systems. Any limitations put in place may...

  13. A simple approach to modeling ductile failure.

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Gerald William

    2012-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has the need to predict the behavior of structures after the occurrence of an initial failure. In some cases determining the extent of failure, beyond initiation, is required, while in a few cases the initial failure is a design feature used to tailor the subsequent load paths. In either case, the ability to numerically simulate the initiation and propagation of failures is a highly desired capability. This document describes one approach to the simulation of failure initiation and propagation.

  14. Law Enforcement & Emergency Management Liaison | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Law Enforcement & Emergency Management Liaison Mission Statement The Office of Secure Transportation (OST) liaison program communicates with law enforcement and public safety ...

  15. Securities Law Issues Relating to Community Solar Projects

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The law firm Stoel Rives has analyzed the issues related to Securities Law and Community Solar both in the context of Washington state law and federal law.

  16. Unifying role of dissipative action in the dynamic failure of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, Dennis E.

    2015-04-28

    A fourth-power law underlying the steady shock-wave structure and solid viscosity of condensed material has been observed for a wide range of metals and non-metals. The fourth-power law relates the steady-wave Hugoniot pressure to the fourth power of the strain rate during passage of the material through the structured shock wave. Preceding the fourth-power law was the observation in a shock transition that the product of the shock dissipation energy and the shock transition time is a constant independent of the shock pressure amplitude. Invariance of this energy-time product implies the fourth-power law. This property of the shock transition in solids was initially identified as a shock invariant. More recently, it has been referred to as the dissipative action, although no relationship to the accepted definitions of action in mechanics has been demonstrated. This same invariant property has application to a wider range of transient failure phenomena in solids. Invariance of this dissipation action has application to spall fracture, failure through adiabatic shear, shock compaction of granular media, and perhaps others. Through models of the failure processes, a clearer picture of the physics underlying the observed invariance is emerging. These insights in turn are leading to a better understanding of the shock deformation processes underlying the fourth-power law. Experimental result and material models encompassing the dynamic failure of solids are explored for the purpose of demonstrating commonalities leading to invariance of the dissipation action. Calculations are extended to aluminum and uranium metals with the intent of predicting micro-scale dynamics and spatial structure in the steady shock wave.

  17. SYNTHETIC SLING FAILURE - EVALUATIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY TC; HENDERSON CS

    2009-10-26

    The information and evaluations provided in this report were compiled to address the recurring problem of synthetic sling failure. As safety is the number one priority in all work aspects, a solution must be devised to prevent accidents from occurring. A total of thirteen cases regarding synthetic sling failure were evaluated in order to determine their causes, effects, and preventative measures. From the collected data, it was found that all cases in which the synthetic sling contacted the edge of its load resulted in sling failure. It is required that adequate synthetic sling protection devices be used to protect slings in any lift where the sling comes in direct contact with the edge or corner of its load. However, there are no consensus codes or standards stating the type, material, or purpose of the type of protective device used to protect the sling from being cut. Numerous industry standards and codes provide vague descriptions on how to protect synthetic slings. Without a clear, concise statement of how to protect synthetic slings, it is common for inadequate materials and sling protection devices to be used in an attempt to meet the intent of these requirements. The use of an inadequate sling protection device is the main cause of synthetic sling failure in all researched cases. Commercial sling protection devices come in many shapes and sizes, and have a variety of names, as well as advertised uses. 'Abrasion pads' and 'wear protectors' are two different names for products with the same intended purpose. There is no distinguishable way to determine the extent of sling protection which these devices will provide, or what specific scenarios they are made for. This creates room for error in a field where error is unacceptable. This report provides a recommended action for hoisting and rigging activities which require synthetic slings to contact a load, as well as recommended changes to industry standards which will benefit overall industry safety.

  18. Winning the fight against boiler tube failure

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.; Dooley, B.

    1986-12-01

    Eliminating boiler tube failures could be worth $5 billion a year to the electric power industry. The causes and cures for the great majority of these ubiquitous failures are now known, with implications for change ranging from senior management to the maintenance crew. Methods for preventing boiler tube failure are discussed.

  19. Synergistic failure of BWR internals

    SciTech Connect

    A. G. Ware; T. Y. Chang

    1999-10-25

    Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) core shrouds and other reactor internals important to safety are experiencing intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission has followed the problem, and as part of its investigations, contracted with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to conduct a risk assessment. The overall project objective is to assess the potential consequences and risks associated with the failure of IGSCC-susceptible BWR vessel internals, with specific consideration given to potential cascading and common mode effects. An initial phase has been completed in which background material was gathered and evaluated, and potential accident sequences were identified. A second phase is underway to perform a simplified, quantitative probabilistic risk assessment on a representative high-power BWR/4. Results of the initial study conducted on the jet pumps show that any cascading failures would not result in a significant increase in the core damage frequency. The methodology is currently being extended to other major reactor internals components.

  20. Synergistic Failure of BWR Internals

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, Arthur Gates; Chang, T-Y

    1999-10-01

    Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) core shrouds and other reactor internals important to safety are experiencing intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission has followed the problem, and as part of its investigations, contracted with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to conduct a risk assessment. The overall project objective is to assess the potential consequences and risks associated with the failure of IGSCC-susceptible BWR vessel internals, with specific consideration given to potential cascading and common mode effects. An initial phase has been completed in which background material was gathered and evaluated, and potential accident sequences were identified. A second phase is underway to perform a simplified, quantitative probabilistic risk assessment on a representative high-power BWR/4. Results of the initial study conducted on the jet pumps show that any cascading failures would not result in a significant increase in the core damage frequency. The methodology is currently being extended to other major reactor internals components.

  1. Modeling Treated LAW Feed Evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    DANIEL, WE

    2004-07-08

    This task examines the potential of the treated waste feed blends to form sodium-aluminum silicate precipitates when evaporated using the zeolite database. To investigate the behavior of the blended pretreated waste feed, an OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI ESP) model of the treated low activity waste (LAW) evaporator was built. A range of waste feed compositions representative of Envelope A, B, and C were then fed into the OLI model to predict various physical and chemical properties of the evaporator concentrates. Additional runs with treated LAW evaporator were performed to compare chemical and physical property model predictions and experimental results for small-scale radioactive tests of the treated feed evaporation process.

  2. Law of Conservation of Muons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Feinberg, G.; Weinberg, S.

    1961-02-01

    A multiplicative selection rule for mu meson-electron transitions is proposed. A "muon parity" = -1 is considered for the muon and its neutrino, while the "muon parity" for all other particles is +1. The selection rule then states that (-1) exp(no. of initial (-1) parity particles) = (-1) exp(no. of final (-1) parity particles). Several reactions that are forbidden by an additive law but allowed by the multiplicative law are suggested; these reactions include mu{sup +} .> e{sup +} + nu{sub mu} + {ovr nu}{sub e}, e{sup -} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + mu{sup -}, and muonium .> antimuonium (mu{sup +} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + e{sup +}). An intermediate-boson hypothesis is suggested. (T.F.H.)

  3. Complex systems analysis of series of blackouts: cascading failure, critical points, and self-organization

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, Ian [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Carreras, Benjamin A [ORNL; Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL; Newman, David E [University of Alaska

    2007-01-01

    We give an overview of a complex systems approach to large blackouts of electric power transmission systems caused by cascading failure. Instead of looking at the details of particular blackouts, we study the statistics and dynamics of series of blackouts with approximate global models. Blackout data from several countries suggest that the frequency of large blackouts is governed by a power law. The power law makes the risk of large blackouts consequential and is consistent with the power system being a complex system designed and operated near a critical point. Power system overall loading or stress relative to operating limits is a key factor affecting the risk of cascading failure. Power system blackout models and abstract models of cascading failure show critical points with power law behavior as load is increased. To explain why the power system is operated near these critical points and inspired by concepts from self-organized criticality, we suggest that power system operating margins evolve slowly to near a critical point and confirm this idea using a power system model. The slow evolution of the power system is driven by a steady increase in electric loading, economic pressures to maximize the use of the grid, and the engineering responses to blackouts that upgrade the system. Mitigation of blackout risk should account for dynamical effects in complex self-organized critical systems. For example, some methods of suppressing small blackouts could ultimately increase the risk of large blackouts.

  4. General Counsel Law Library | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION... Contact us with any questions: Law Librarian (202) 586-4849 Law.Library@hq.doe.gov Legislative History Librarian 202-586-2886 Careers & Internships Sign Up...

  5. The Law of Water | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Law of Water Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Secondary Legal SourceSecondary Legal Source: The Law of WaterLegal Abstract Basic...

  6. NAC 484 - Traffic Laws | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    RegulationRegulation: NAC 484 - Traffic LawsLegal Abstract These regulations set forth the traffic laws in the State of Nevada. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2014...

  7. Labor Standards/Wage and Hour Laws

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Labor Standards and Wage/Hour laws establish minimum wage, overtime pay, recordkeeping, and minimum leave requirements:

  8. Environmental Laws and Regulations | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Record Files Natural Resource Damage Assessments Environmental Laws and Regulations More Documents & Publications Paducah Public Involvement Plan Portsmouth Removal Actions...

  9. Health and Safety Laws | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Health and Safety Laws Health and Safety Laws Health and safety laws require working conditions that do not pose a risk of serious harm: Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 Additional information can be obtained by visiting the following links: Office of Environment, Health, Safety & Security Office of Enterprise Assessments

  10. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  11. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  12. Failure analysis issues in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

    SciTech Connect

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen

    2005-07-01

    Failure analysis and device characterization of MEMS components are critical steps in understanding the root causes of failure and improving device performance. At the wafer and die level these tasks can be performed with little or no sample preparation. Larger challenges occur after fabrication when the device is packaged, capped, sealed, or otherwise obstructed from view. The challenges and issues of MEMS failure analysis lie in identifying the root cause of failure for these packaged, capped, and sealed devices without perturbing the device or its immediate environment. Novel methods of gaining access to the device or preparing the device for analysis are crucial to accurately determining the root cause of failure. This paper will discuss issues identified in performing root cause failure analysis of packaged MEMS devices, as well as the methods employed to analyze them.

  13. A review of macroscopic ductile failure criteria.

    SciTech Connect

    Corona, Edmundo; Reedlunn, Benjamin

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to describe several of the ductile failure criteria com- monly used to solve practical problems. The following failure models were considered: equivalent plastic strain, equivalent plastic strain in tension, maximum shear, Mohr- Coulomb, Wellman's tearing parameter, Johnson-Cook and BCJ MEM. The document presents the main characteristics of each failure model as well as sample failure predic- tions for simple proportional loading stress histories in three dimensions and in plane stress. Plasticity calculations prior to failure were conducted with a simple, linear hardening, J2 plasticity model. The resulting failure envelopes were plotted in prin- cipal stress space and plastic strain space, where the dependence on stress triaxiality and Lode angle are clearly visible. This information may help analysts select a ductile fracture model for a practical problem and help interpret analysis results.

  14. Working with SRNL - Our Facilities - Law Enforcement Support...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Law Enforcement Support Center - Southeast Region Working with SRNL Our Facilities - Law Enforcement Support Center - Southeast Region The Law Enforcement Support Center at SRNL ...

  15. Failure modes in surface micromachined microelectromechanical actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.L.; Rodgers, M.S.; LaVigne, G.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Clews, P.; Tanner, D.M.; Peterson, K.A.

    1998-03-01

    In order for the rapidly emerging field of MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) to meet its extraordinary expectations regarding commercial impact, issues pertaining to how they fail must be understood. The authors identify failure modes common to a broad range of MEMS actuators, including adhesion (stiction) and friction induced failures caused by improper operational methods, mechanical instabilities, and electrical instabilities. Demonstrated methods to mitigate these failure modes include implementing optimized designs, model based operational methods, and chemical surface treatments.

  16. Argonne National Laboratory Investigates Premature Bearing Failures |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Investigates Premature Bearing Failures Argonne National Laboratory Investigates Premature Bearing Failures August 1, 2013 - 4:13pm Addthis This is an excerpt from the Second Quarter 2013 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are investigating a leading cause of premature bearing failures in wind turbine gearboxes that can occur within the first 2 years of a gearbox's intended design life (20 years). The bearing

  17. Service water system failures and degradations

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.; Leeds, E.

    1989-01-01

    The Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has completed a comprehensive review and evaluation of service water system failures and degradations observed in operating events in light water reactors from 1980 to 1987. The review and evaluation focused on the identification of causes of system failures and degradations, the adequacy of corrective actions implemented and planned, and the safety significance of the operating events. The results of this review and evaluation indicate that service water system failures and degradations have significant safety implications. These system failures and degradations are attributable to a great variety of causes and have adverse impact on a large number of safety-related systems and components that are required to mitigate reactor accidents. Specifically, the causes of failures and degradations include various fouling mechanisms (sediment deposition, biofouling, corrosion and erosion, pipe coating failure, calcium carbonate, foreign material and debris intrusion); single failures and other design deficiencies; flooding; multiple equipment failures; personnel and procedural errors; and seismic deficiencies. Systems and components adversely impacted by a service water system failure or degradation include the component cooling water system, emergency diesel generators, emergency core-cooling system pumps and heat exchangers, the residual heat removal system, containment spray and fan coolers, control room chillers, and reactor building cooling units.

  18. Quantifying effectiveness of failure prediction and response...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    These gains would come from prediction-directed process migration and resource servicing, intelligent resource allocation, and checkpointing driven by failure predictors rather ...

  19. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  20. Model the Deformation and Failure of Solids

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2001-10-19

    EMU models the deformation and failure of solids based on a reformulated theory of continuum mechanics known as the Peridynamic model. This approach allows dynamic fracture and other failure mechanisms to be simulated with a minimum of mesh effeces and without a need for supplementary kinetic relations for crack growth. Penetration by a rigid projectile is also included in the code.

  1. The unifying role of dissipative action in the dynamic failure of solids

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Grady, Dennis

    2015-05-19

    Dissipative action, the product of dissipation energy and transport time, is fundamental to the dynamic failure of solids. Invariance of the dissipative action underlies the fourth-power nature of structured shock waves observed in selected solid metals and compounds. Dynamic failure through shock compaction, tensile spall and adiabatic shear are also governed by a constancy of the dissipative action. This commonality underlying the various modes of dynamic failure is described and leads to deeper insights into failure of solids in the intense shock wave event. These insights are in turn leading to a better understanding of the shock deformation processes underlyingmore » the fourth-power law. Experimental result and material models encompassing the dynamic failure of solids are explored for the purpose of demonstrating commonalities leading to invariance of the dissipation action. As a result, calculations are extended to aluminum and uranium metals with the intent of predicting micro-scale energetics and spatial scales in the structured shock wave.« less

  2. Parameters affecting the resilience of scale-free networks to random failures.

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Hamilton E.; LaViolette, Randall A.; Lane, Terran; Saia, Jared

    2005-09-01

    It is commonly believed that scale-free networks are robust to massive numbers of random node deletions. For example, Cohen et al. in (1) study scale-free networks including some which approximate the measured degree distribution of the Internet. Their results suggest that if each node in this network failed independently with probability 0.99, most of the remaining nodes would still be connected in a giant component. In this paper, we show that a large and important subclass of scale-free networks are not robust to massive numbers of random node deletions. In particular, we study scale-free networks which have minimum node degree of 1 and a power-law degree distribution beginning with nodes of degree 1 (power-law networks). We show that, in a power-law network approximating the Internet's reported distribution, when the probability of deletion of each node is 0.5 only about 25% of the surviving nodes in the network remain connected in a giant component, and the giant component does not persist beyond a critical failure rate of 0.9. The new result is partially due to improved analytical accommodation of the large number of degree-0 nodes that result after node deletions. Our results apply to power-law networks with a wide range of power-law exponents, including Internet-like networks. We give both analytical and empirical evidence that such networks are not generally robust to massive random node deletions.

  3. Laws DOE Administers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Click here to learn more about Adobe Reader. Laws Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellowship Act of 1994 Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellowship Act of 1994 in ...

  4. Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    long term. We help community groups, advise NGOs, and train government officials in international negotiations. Research on international law, policy and national practice...

  5. The Snell law for quaternionic potentials

    SciTech Connect

    De Leo, Stefano; Ducati, Gisele C.

    2013-12-15

    By using the analogy between optics and quantum mechanics, we obtain the Snell law for the planar motion of quantum particles in the presence of quaternionic potentials.

  6. Federal Highway Admininstration - Law Enforcement Escort - Best...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Admininstration - Law Enforcement Escort - Best Practices Guidelines Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Guide...

  7. Laws & Legal Resources | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Library Books | Credit: GC Photographer Daniel Zazueta Library Books | Credit: GC Photographer Daniel Zazueta Looking for... Online Legal Resources Laws DOE Administers Guidance &...

  8. Solar Easements & Local Option Solar Rights Laws

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Utah's solar easement provision is similar to easement provisions in many other states. Parties may voluntarily enter into written solar easement contracts that are enforceable by law. An...

  9. Tribal Energy and Environmental Information Clearinghouse - Laws...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Tribal Energy and Environmental Information Clearinghouse - Laws and Regulations Applicable to Geothermal Energy...

  10. Valve system incorporating single failure protection logic

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, Rodger; Timmerman, Walter J. H.

    1980-01-01

    A valve system incorporating single failure protective logic. The system consists of a valve combination or composite valve which allows actuation or de-actuation of a device such as a hydraulic cylinder or other mechanism, integral with or separate from the valve assembly, by means of three independent input signals combined in a function commonly known as two-out-of-three logic. Using the input signals as independent and redundant actuation/de-actuation signals, a single signal failure, or failure of the corresponding valve or valve set, will neither prevent the desired action, nor cause the undesired action of the mechanism.

  11. Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights Law |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights Law Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights Law < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government Agricultural Institutional Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Solar Pool Heating

  12. Mechanical failure of cavities in poroelastic media

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkan, G.; Ortoleva, P.

    1998-12-31

    The stress-induced failure of cavities in poroelastic media is investigated using an analytical solution of the elastic matrix inclusion problem of Eshelby and a rock failure criterion. The elastic properties of the porous matrix surrounding the cavity are modeled using a self-consistent version of the theory of Berryman while the cavity collapse criterion is based on a failure condition calibrated as a function of matrix mineralogy, grain size and porosity. The influence of the latter textural variables as well as pore fluid pressure and cavity shape and orientation relative to the far-field stress are evaluated. The region of failure on the cavity surface is identified. These results are applied to the prediction of vug stability in a sedimentary basin in the context of vuggy reservoir exploration and production.

  13. NREL Test-to-Failure Protocol (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hacke, P.

    2012-03-01

    The presentation describes the test-to-failure protocol that was developed and piloted at NREL, stressing PV modules with multiple applications of damp heat (with bias) and thermal cycling until they fail.

  14. More Data, More Science ... Moore's Law

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    David Skinner More Data, More Science ... Moore's Law February 4, 2014 David Skinner. NERSC Downloads Data-Skinner-NUG2014.pdf | Adobe Acrobat PDF file More Data, More Science and... Moore's Law - David Skinner, NERSC Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:34:38

  15. Metallurgical failures in fossil fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    French, D.N.

    1993-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive catalog of the types of metallurgical failures common to boilers. The author uses actual case histories of boiler shutdowns, and documents the full range of causes of boiler tube failure. A blueprint is provided for cutting maintenance costs and upgrading the efficiency and reliability of any power plant operation. Individual chapters are processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  16. Substation distribution transformers failures and spares

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, V.I. Roeger, C.J.; Tipton, D.E.

    1996-11-01

    Electric utilities should have a sufficient number of spare transformers to backup substation distribution transformers to replace transformers that fail and require factory rebuild or replacement. To identify such a number, the statistical methodology was developed to analyze available failure data for different groups of transformer. That methodology enables the estimation of future numbers of failures with associated probabilities, recommends the proper number of spares, identifies the necessity and shows the means to shorten the transformer`s replacement time.

  17. Future challenges for MEMS failure analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen

    2003-07-01

    MEMS processes and components are rapidly changing in device design, processing, and, most importantly, application. This paper will discuss the future challenges faced by the MEMS failure analysis as the field of MEMS (fabrication, component design, and applications) grows. Specific areas of concern for the failure analyst will also be discussed. MEMS components are extremely diverse in their application and function. Failure analysts will have to be equally diverse and/or multidisciplinary in their analysis of these devices. Many tools and techniques developed from the IC industry have been used for MEMS FA, but more MEMS-specific FA toolsets have to be developed for diagnosis of these failure mechanisms. Many of the devices discussed in this paper have global issues associated with failure analysis. Many non destructive techniques must be developed to assess the failure mechanisms. Tools and techniques that can perform these functions on a larger scale will also be required. To achieve this, industry will have to work with academia and government institutions to create the knowledge base required for tool and technique development for global and local defect localization.

  18. A review of macroscopic ductile failure criteria. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: A review of macroscopic ductile failure criteria. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A review of macroscopic ductile failure criteria. The objective of ...

  19. Integrating Electricity Subsector Failure Scenarios into a Risk...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Integrating Electricity Subsector Failure Scenarios into a Risk Assessment Methodology (December 2013) Integrating Electricity Subsector Failure Scenarios into a Risk Assessment ...

  20. Toward Local Failure Local Recovery (LFLR) Resilience Model Using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Toward Local Failure Local Recovery (LFLR) Resilience Model Using MPI-ULFM. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Toward Local Failure Local Recovery (LFLR) Resilience Model ...

  1. Future challenges for MEMS failure analysis. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Future challenges for MEMS failure analysis. MEMS processes and components are ... Specific areas of concern for the failure analyst will also be discussed. MEMS components ...

  2. Electric Power monthly, November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  3. Electric power monthly, May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and Stage agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities in Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  4. Predicting the occurrence of mixed mode failure associated with hydraulic fracturing, part 2 water saturated tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Broome, Scott Thomas; Choens, Charles; Barrow, Perry Carl

    2015-09-14

    Seven water-saturated triaxial extension experiments were conducted on four sedimentary rocks. This experimental condition was hypothesized more representative of that existing for downhole hydrofracture and thus it may improve our understanding of the phenomena. In all tests the pore pressure was 10 MPa and confirming pressure was adjusted to achieve tensile and transitional failure mode conditions. Using previous work in this LDRD for comparison, the law of effective stress is demonstrated in extension using this sample geometry. In three of the four lithologies, no apparent chemo-mechanical effect of water is apparent, and in the fourth lithology test results indicate some chemo-mechanical effect of water.

  5. Power law inflation with electromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Xianghui; Isenberg, James

    2013-07-15

    We generalize Ringström’s global future causal stability results (Ringström 2009) [11] for certain expanding cosmological solutions of the Einstein-scalar field equations to solutions of the Einstein–Maxwell-scalar field system. In particular, after noting that the power law inflationary spacetimes (M{sup n+1},g{sup -hat}, ϕ{sup -hat}) considered by Ringström (2009) in [11] are solutions of the Einstein–Maxwell-scalar field system (with exponential potential) as well as of the Einstein-scalar field system (with the same exponential potential), we consider (nonlinear) perturbations of initial data sets of these spacetimes which include electromagnetic perturbations as well as gravitational and scalar perturbations. We show that if (as in Ringström (2009) [11]) we focus on pairs of relatively scaled open sets U{sub R{sub 0}}⊂U{sub 4R{sub 0}} on an initial slice of (M{sup n+1},g{sup -hat}), and if we choose a set of perturbed data which on U{sub 4R{sub 0}} is sufficiently close to that of (M{sup n+1},g{sup -hat},ϕ{sup -hat}, A{sup -hat} = 0), then in the maximal globally hyperbolic spacetime development (M{sup n+1},g,ϕ,A) of this data via the Einstein–Maxwell-scalar field equations, all causal geodesics emanating from U{sub R{sub 0}} are future complete (just as in (M{sup n+1},g{sup -hat})). We also verify that, in a certain sense, the future asymptotic behavior of the fields in the spacetime developments of the perturbed data sets does not differ significantly from the future asymptotic behavior of (M{sup n+1},g{sup -hat}, ϕ{sup -hat}, A{sup -hat} = 0). -- Highlights: •We prove stability of expanding solutions of the Einstein–Maxwell-scalar field equations. •All nearby solutions are geodesically complete. •The topology of the initial slice is irrelevant to our stability results.

  6. A law intern's proving ground | Y-12 National Security Complex

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    A law intern's proving ... A law intern's proving ground Posted: May 7, 2014 - 5:31pm | Y-12 Report | Volume 10, Issue 2 | 2014 Eliza Scott almost didn't apply for the Y-12UT Law ...

  7. Public Law 102-392 for Printing | Department of Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    2-392 for Printing Public Law 102-392 for Printing Public Law 102-392 for Printing Public Law 102-392 for Printing (118.61 KB) More Documents & Publications Minutes from the Print ...

  8. Framework Topic Briefing: Direct Feed LAW

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    February 13, 2014 Framework Topic Briefing: Direct Feed LAW Next steps: Put Dick's handouts on SharePoint * Continue Framework topic briefing series Page 1 System Plan 7 Next ...

  9. Failures in sour services of southwestern China

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B.; Xia, D.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Y.; Xian, A.; Shan, Y.

    1995-12-31

    There were several catastrophes that occurred because of material failures in sour services during the past decades, from the 1960s to the 1980s, in the Sichuan natural gas fields. The factors which induced these destructive accidents are summarized. The remedial measures and effects are reviewed. The work of anticorrosion and failure in sour service is a comprehensive study -- a systematic engineering. There are quite different failure mechanisms in sour service from the drilling, production, gathering, desulfurization, and transportation procedures. Therefore, the counter measures also should be diversified; i.e., the material and techniques selection, instruments, inhibitors, coating, the technique of construction, and the structure design, etc. All the above-listed factors could influence the anticorrosion ability of the equipment or apparatus. It is one of the major concerns for the exploitation of natural gas.

  10. Corrosion failures of austenitic stainless steel piping

    SciTech Connect

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1993-10-01

    The safe and efficient operation of many chemical/industrial systems requires the continued integrity of the process piping; this is achieved through a complex series of interactions influenced by design, fabrication, construction, operation, inspection and lay-up requirements. Potential material-enviroment interactions are frequently, if evaluated at all, relegated to secondary considerations. This tendency virtually assures corrosion induced degradation of the process piping systems. Pitting, crevice attack, stress cracking, microbiologically influenced corrosion, intergranular attack and corrosion fatigue have caused leaks, cracks, failures and shutdown of numerous process systems. This paper uses the lessons learned from failure analysis to emphasize the importance of an integrated material program to system success. The necessity of continuing evaluation if also emphasized through examples of failures which were associated with materials-environment interactions caused by slight alterations of processes and/or systems.

  11. Reassessment of the BWR scram failure probability

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    As part of the Severe Accident Policy Statement implementation, the probabilistic quantification of accident sequence frequencies that may lead to core damage is a key element in demonstrating a plant's safety status relative to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff goals. One of the key quantitative inputs in a boiling water reactor (BWR) probabilistic risk assessment is the probability of a failure to scram. The assessment of this failure probability has been the subject of a long and continuing debate over the adequacy of available data and analytic modeling. This report provides a summary of the status of this debate, including the latest data, and provides a revision to the characterization of the failure probability originally published in NUREG 0460 and the Utility Group on Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) Petition.

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Center: Federal Laws and Incentives to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data

  13. Corporate Board By-Laws | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    by-laws of the EM QA Corporate Board. PDF icon By-Laws Office of Environmental Management Quality Assurance Corporate Board More Documents & Publications NNMCAB Bylaws ORSSAB...

  14. Comments of the Southern Environmental Law Center and the American...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    : The Southern Environmental Law Center ("SELC") submits these comments on behalf of ... Comments of the Southern Environmental Law Center and the American Lung Association in ...

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: About the Laws and Incentives...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    in the database after legislation is signed into law or when agencies issue final rules. ... or federal authority that the specific law or incentive is still applicable before ...

  16. NGL Downlight Demonstration Project: Alston & Bird, LLP, Law...

    Energy Saver

    NGL Downlight Demonstration Project: Alston & Bird, LLP, Law Offices NGL Downlight Demonstration Project: Alston & Bird, LLP, Law Offices As of 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy ...

  17. AARP, National Consumer Law Center, and Public Citizen Comments...

    Energy Saver

    AARP, National Consumer Law Center, and Public Citizen Comments to:DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges AARP, National Consumer Law ...

  18. General Counsel Law Student Intern Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Law Student Intern Program General Counsel Law Student Intern Program The Department of Energy's Office of the General Counsel is accepting applications on a rolling basis for its ...

  19. Office of the Assistant General Counsel for General Law | Department...

    Energy Saver

    Services Environment and Compliance Office of the Assistant General Counsel for General Law Office of the Assistant General Counsel for General Law The Office of the ...

  20. Equal Employment Opportunity is THE LAW Private Employers...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Equal Employment Opportunity is THE LAW Private Employers, State and Local Governments, ... organizations are protected under Federal law from discrimination on the following bases: ...

  1. Oregon Federal and State Historic Preservation Laws Webpage ...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Laws Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Oregon Federal and State Historic Preservation Laws Webpage Abstract Provides...

  2. Solar, Wind, and Energy Efficiency Easements and Rights Laws...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Solar, Wind, and Energy Efficiency Easements and Rights Laws Solar, Wind, and Energy Efficiency Easements and Rights Laws < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Solar -...

  3. Nevada Lawyer Magazine: Overview of Water Law in Nevada | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Nevada Internet. Nevada. cited 20141111. Available from: http:nvbar.orgarticlescontentoverview-water-law-nevada Related Files NevLawyer Sept 2009 Water Law...

  4. Renewable Energy Terms of Reference: Laws, Policies and Regulations...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Laws, Policies and Regulations Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Renewable Energy Terms of Reference: Laws, Policies and Regulations AgencyCompany...

  5. June 24 Webinar Will Discuss How Environmental Laws and Regulations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Will Discuss How Environmental Laws and Regulations Affect Tribal Energy Projects June 24 Webinar Will Discuss How Environmental Laws and Regulations Affect Tribal Energy...

  6. TEEIC Laws and Regulations Applicable to Energy Transmission...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    TEEIC Laws and Regulations Applicable to Energy Transmission Development Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: TEEIC Laws and...

  7. POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #07 Current Appropriations Law and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM 07 Current Appropriations Law and Compensation of Foreign ... POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM 07 Current Appropriations Law and Compensation of Foreign ...

  8. UNEP Handbook for Drafting Laws on Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Handbook for Drafting Laws on Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UNEP Handbook for Drafting Laws on Energy...

  9. Montana Streamside Management Zone Law Webpage | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Zone Law Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Streamside Management Zone Law Webpage Abstract Provides information on...

  10. AARP, National Consumer Law Center, and Public Citizen Comments...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    AARP, National Consumer Law Center, and Public Citizen Comments to:DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges AARP, National Consumer Law...

  11. Scaling Law of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in a Rectangular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Scaling Law of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in a Rectangular Chamber Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Scaling Law of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in...

  12. Environmental Law and Policy Center | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Law and Policy Center Jump to: navigation, search Name: Environmental Law and Policy Center Place: Chicago, Illinois Zip: 60601 Product: Public interest environmental advocacy...

  13. Commutation failures in HVDC transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Thio, C.V.; Davies, J.B.; Kent, K.L.

    1996-04-01

    This paper provides a formulation for the initiation or onset mechanism of commutation failures in line-commutated thyristor converters, assuming infinite (zero impedance) ac systems. A theoretical development and a parametric analysis is given. Theory validation by simulation and comparison to actual field experience data is also given.

  14. Survey on Failure Modes and Failure Mechanisms in Digital Components and Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit; Korsah, Kofi; Muhlheim, Michael David

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a survey on the operating experience of a broad range of digital components and systems deployed in various industries. The primary objective of this survey is to identify principal modes and mechanisms of failure in field-deployed digital systems. Earlier works have sought to determine the failure rates of various classes of digital devices with the intent to integrate this information into the risk analysis calculations though still immature for such systems. Failure rates of individual components or systems are not taken into account in this evaluation; only failure modes and their respective probabilistic distribution are considered. Preliminary results from two data sources, SPIDR and FARADIP, are presented.

  15. American law of mining. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The new American Law of Mining, Second Edition, provides full coverage of mining law and related topics in all of the following subject areas: federal lands and minerals; federal mineral leases; mining claims; state and Indian mineral interests; Alaska lands and mineral interests; mineral title examination; federal coal regulations; hard mineral royalties; ancillary use rights; water rights; organizational considerations; financing; private mineral leases and other mineral acquisition considerations; joint exploration and operating agreements; income taxation; environmental regulation; administrative practice; mining and milling operations; and Canadian mining law. Health and safety regulation, acquisition of ancillary use rights, and administrative practice are entirely new topics, not covered in the First Edition. Coverage of mineral development in Alaska and Canada and mineral title examination has been greatly expanded for this edition.

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Biodiesel

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Biodiesel Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Biodiesel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Biodiesel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Biodiesel on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Biodiesel on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and

  17. Federal Energy Management Laws and Requirements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Laws and Requirements Federal Energy Management Laws and Requirements Federal Energy Management Laws and Requirements To help agencies comply with federal laws and requirements, the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) analyzes energy management mandates from legal authorities and publishes notices and rules related to federal energy management. FEMP also provides tools to help agencies report annual facility and fleet progress toward federal laws and requirements. Get Started Start meeting

  18. Failure modes for pipelines in landslide areas

    SciTech Connect

    Bruschi, R.; Spinazze, M.; Tomassini, D.; Cuscuna, S.; Venzi, S.

    1995-12-31

    In recent years a number of incidences of pipelines affected by slow soil movements have been reported in the relevant literature. Further related issues such as soil-pipe interaction have been studied both theoretically and through experimental surveys, along with the environmental conditions which are responsible for hazard to the pipeline integrity. A suitable design criteria under these circumstances has been discussed by several authors, in particular in relation to a limit state approach and hence a strain based criteria. The scope of this paper is to describe the failure mechanisms which may affect the pipeline in the presence of slow soil movements impacting on the pipeline, both in the longitudinal and transverse direction. Particular attention is paid to environmental, geometric and structural parameters which steer the process towards one or other failure mechanism. Criteria for deciding upon remedial measures required to guarantee the structural integrity of the pipeline, both in the short and in the long term, are discussed.

  19. FRACTURE FAILURE CRITERIA OF SOFC PEN STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Qu, Jianmin

    2007-04-30

    Thermal stresses and warpage of the PEN are unavoidable due to the temperature changes from the stress-free sintering temperature to room temperature and mismatch of the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of various layers in the PEN structures of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) during the PEN manufacturing process. In the meantime, additional mechanical stresses will also be created by mechanical flattening during the stack assembly process. The porous nature of anode and cathode in the PEN structures determines presence of the initial flaws and crack on the interfaces of anode/electrolyte/cathode and in the interior of the materials. The sintering/assembling induced stresses may cause the fracture failure of PEN structure. Therefore, fracture failure criteria for SOFC PEN structures is developed in order to ensure the structural integrity of the cell and stack of SOFC. In this paper, the fracture criteria based on the relationship between the critical energy release rate and critical curvature and maximum displacement of the warped cells caused by the temperature changes as well as mechanical flattening process is established so that possible failure of SOFC PEN structures may be predicted deterministically by the measurement of the curvature and displacement of the warped cells.

  20. Gearbox Typical Failure Modes, Detection, and Mitigation Methods (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, S.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation was given at the AWEA Operations & Maintenance and Safety Seminar and focused on what the typical gearbox failure modes are, how to detect them using detection techniques, and strategies that help mitigate these failures.

  1. Real-Time Quantitative Imaging of Failure Events in Materials...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Quantitative Imaging of Failure Events in Materials Under Load at Temperatures Above 1,600 C Real-Time Quantitative Imaging of Failure Events in Materials Under Load at ...

  2. QER- Comment of Western Environmental Law Center

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    To whom it may concern, I provided the following comments at the public meeting in Santa Fe, NM on 8/11/14: My name is Thomas Singer, and I am a Senior Policy Advisor at the Western Environmental Law Center.

  3. Occupational safety and health law handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Sarvadi, D.G.; Keller; Heckman

    1999-09-01

    This book reviews the regulations and standards governing the protection of employees in the workplace and provides insight into dealing with pertinent regulations and regulatory authorities. Written for safety professionals, industrial hygienists, human resource professionals, attorneys, and students, this companion to Government Institutes' best-selling ``Environmental Law Handbook'' offers the legal fundamentals behind occupational safety and health laws in one concise and authoritative volume. In 19 chapters, the authoring law firm of Keller and Heckman cover the OSHAct and its development; OSHA, NIOSH, and OSHRC; the roles played by other regulatory agencies; the OSHA rulemaking process; OSHA Standards and the General Duty Clause; record keeping and reporting; employers' and employees' rights; inspections; violations, penalties, and how to contest them; criminal prosecutions; state plans; industry-specific issues; OSHA reform; and international regulations and standards. This book references approximately 400 seminal OSHA legal decisions from the approximately 1,300 cases on record and includes coverage of Canadian and European Community regulations, making it the first comprehensive global overview of occupational safety and health law.

  4. Diffusion Processes Satisfying a Conservation Law Constraint

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Bakosi, J.; Ristorcelli, J. R.

    2014-03-04

    We investigate coupled stochastic differential equations governing N non-negative continuous random variables that satisfy a conservation principle. In various fields a conservation law requires that a set of fluctuating variables be non-negative and (if appropriately normalized) sum to one. As a result, any stochastic differential equation model to be realizable must not produce events outside of the allowed sample space. We develop a set of constraints on the drift and diffusion terms of such stochastic models to ensure that both the non-negativity and the unit-sum conservation law constraint are satisfied as the variables evolve in time. We investigate the consequencesmore » of the developed constraints on the Fokker-Planck equation, the associated system of stochastic differential equations, and the evolution equations of the first four moments of the probability density function. We show that random variables, satisfying a conservation law constraint, represented by stochastic diffusion processes, must have diffusion terms that are coupled and nonlinear. The set of constraints developed enables the development of statistical representations of fluctuating variables satisfying a conservation law. We exemplify the results with the bivariate beta process and the multivariate Wright-Fisher, Dirichlet, and Lochner’s generalized Dirichlet processes.« less

  5. Diffusion Processes Satisfying a Conservation Law Constraint

    SciTech Connect

    Bakosi, J.; Ristorcelli, J. R.

    2014-03-04

    We investigate coupled stochastic differential equations governing N non-negative continuous random variables that satisfy a conservation principle. In various fields a conservation law requires that a set of fluctuating variables be non-negative and (if appropriately normalized) sum to one. As a result, any stochastic differential equation model to be realizable must not produce events outside of the allowed sample space. We develop a set of constraints on the drift and diffusion terms of such stochastic models to ensure that both the non-negativity and the unit-sum conservation law constraint are satisfied as the variables evolve in time. We investigate the consequences of the developed constraints on the Fokker-Planck equation, the associated system of stochastic differential equations, and the evolution equations of the first four moments of the probability density function. We show that random variables, satisfying a conservation law constraint, represented by stochastic diffusion processes, must have diffusion terms that are coupled and nonlinear. The set of constraints developed enables the development of statistical representations of fluctuating variables satisfying a conservation law. We exemplify the results with the bivariate beta process and the multivariate Wright-Fisher, Dirichlet, and Lochner’s generalized Dirichlet processes.

  6. Estimating Failure Propagation in Models of Cascading Blackouts

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, Ian [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Carreras, Benjamin A [ORNL; Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL; Nkei, Bertrand [ORNL; Newman, David E [University of Alaska

    2005-09-01

    We compare and test statistical estimates of failure propagation in data from versions of a probabilistic model of loading-dependent cascading failure and a power systems blackout model of cascading transmission line overloads. The comparisons suggest mechanisms affecting failure propagation and are an initial step towards monitoring failure propagation from practical system data. Approximations to the probabilistic model describe the forms of probability distributions of cascade sizes.

  7. Toward Local Failure Local Recovery (LFLR) Resilience Model Using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Motivation for Local Failure-Local Recovery (LFLR) Architecture for LFLR Application Recovery Results Discussion Conclusions Sandia Motivation for ...

  8. BWR containment failure analysis during degraded-core accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, D.D.

    1982-06-06

    This paper presents a containment failure mode analysis during a spectrum of postulated degraded core accident sequences in a typical 1000-MW(e) boiling water reactor (BWR) with a Mark-I wetwell containment. Overtemperature failure of containment electric penetration assemblies (CEPAs) has been found to be the major failure mode during such accidents.

  9. Users May Now Clear Their Own Login Failures

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Users May Now Clear Their Own Login Failures Users May Now Clear Their Own Login Failures May 16, 2013 by Francesca Verdier Users may now clear their own login failures simply by logging in to the NIM website (https://nim.nersc.gov). No further steps are necessary; that is, the simple act of logging in to NIM will clear your login failures on all NERSC compute systems. NIM will then provide a display of the number of login failures that were cleared on each compute system that was affected at

  10. Forensic imaging tools for law enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    SMITHPETER,COLIN L.; SANDISON,DAVID R.; VARGO,TIMOTHY D.

    2000-01-01

    Conventional methods of gathering forensic evidence at crime scenes are encumbered by difficulties that limit local law enforcement efforts to apprehend offenders and bring them to justice. Working with a local law-enforcement agency, Sandia National Laboratories has developed a prototype multispectral imaging system that can speed up the investigative search task and provide additional and more accurate evidence. The system, called the Criminalistics Light-imaging Unit (CLU), has demonstrated the capabilities of locating fluorescing evidence at crime scenes under normal lighting conditions and of imaging other types of evidence, such as untreated fingerprints, by direct white-light reflectance. CLU employs state of the art technology that provides for viewing and recording of the entire search process on videotape. This report describes the work performed by Sandia to design, build, evaluate, and commercialize CLU.

  11. Automated analysis of failure event data

    SciTech Connect

    HENNESSY,COREY; FREERKS,FRED; CAMPBELL,JAMES E.; THOMPSON,BRUCE M.

    2000-03-27

    This paper focuses on fully automated analysis of failure event data in the concept and early development stage of a semiconductor-manufacturing tool. In addition to presenting a wide range of statistical and machine-specific performance information, algorithms have been developed to examine reliability growth and to identify major contributors to unreliability. These capabilities are being implemented in a new software package called Reliadigm. When coupled with additional input regarding repair times and parts availability, the analysis software also provides spare parts inventory optimization based on genetic optimization methods. The type of question to be answered is: If this tool were placed with a customer for beta testing, what would be the optimal spares kit to meet equipment reliability goals for the lowest cost? The new algorithms are implemented in Windows{reg_sign} software and are easy to apply. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of failure event data from three IDEA machines currently in development. The paper also includes an optimal spare parts kit analysis.

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Powers Law Enforcement in...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    CNG Powers Law Enforcement in Arkansas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Powers Law Enforcement in Arkansas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels ...

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    ... This allowance does not impact state highway funding eligibility. (Reference Public Law ... Program website. (Reference Public Law 112-141, 23 U.S. Code 149, and 23 U.S. Code ...

  14. Summary - WTP Analytical Lab, BOF and LAW Waste Vitrification...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    T es including an ces of Facilities y Waste (LAW assessment w ology elements es (LAB, BOF, ... F was to identify t s (CTEs) in the and LAW) and re to be incorpo normally requir 6. he ...

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal and State Laws and Incentives

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Use an advanced or keyword search to find a specific federal or state law or incentive. ... Additions by Regulation Type Incentive and Law Additions by FuelTechnology Type Incentive ...

  16. What Started the Motion Described By Newton's Third Law? | GE...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Started the Motion Described By Newton's Third Law? Click to email this to a friend (Opens ... What Started the Motion Described By Newton's Third Law? 2012.02.24 Chief Scientist Jim ...

  17. File:CaveProtectionLaw.pdf | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    CaveProtectionLaw.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:CaveProtectionLaw.pdf Size of this preview: 463 599 pixels. Other resolution: 464 ...

  18. Montana Air Quality Program Laws & Rules Webpage | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Air Quality Program Laws & Rules Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Air Quality Program Laws & Rules Webpage Abstract...

  19. An Introduction to Washington Water Law | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Introduction to Washington Water Law Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: An Introduction to Washington Water LawLegal...

  20. Montana Understanding the Basics of Water Law In Montana Webpage...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Understanding the Basics of Water Law In Montana Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Understanding the Basics of Water Law...

  1. Failure propagation in multi-cell lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Steele, Leigh Anna M.; Spangler, Scott W.

    2014-10-22

    Traditionally, safety and impact of failure concerns of lithium ion batteries have dealt with the field failure of single cells. However, large and complex battery systems require the consideration of how a single cell failure will impact the system as a whole. Initial failure that leads to the thermal runaway of other cells within the system creates a much more serious condition than the failure of a single cell. This work examines the behavior of small modules of cylindrical and stacked pouch cells after thermal runaway is induced in a single cell through nail penetration trigger [1] within the module.more » Cylindrical cells are observed to be less prone to propagate, if failure propagates at all, owing to the limited contact between neighboring cells. However, the electrical connectivity is found to be impactful as the 10S1P cylindrical cell module did not show failure propagation through the module, while the 1S10P module had an energetic thermal runaway consuming the module minutes after the initiation failure trigger. Modules built using pouch cells conversely showed the impact of strong heat transfer between cells. In this case, a large surface area of the cells was in direct contact with its neighbors, allowing failure to propagate through the entire battery within 60-80 seconds for all configurations (parallel or series) tested. This work demonstrates the increased severity possible when a point failure impacts the surrounding battery system.« less

  2. Failure propagation in multi-cell lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Steele, Leigh Anna M.; Spangler, Scott W.

    2014-10-22

    Traditionally, safety and impact of failure concerns of lithium ion batteries have dealt with the field failure of single cells. However, large and complex battery systems require the consideration of how a single cell failure will impact the system as a whole. Initial failure that leads to the thermal runaway of other cells within the system creates a much more serious condition than the failure of a single cell. This work examines the behavior of small modules of cylindrical and stacked pouch cells after thermal runaway is induced in a single cell through nail penetration trigger [1] within the module. Cylindrical cells are observed to be less prone to propagate, if failure propagates at all, owing to the limited contact between neighboring cells. However, the electrical connectivity is found to be impactful as the 10S1P cylindrical cell module did not show failure propagation through the module, while the 1S10P module had an energetic thermal runaway consuming the module minutes after the initiation failure trigger. Modules built using pouch cells conversely showed the impact of strong heat transfer between cells. In this case, a large surface area of the cells was in direct contact with its neighbors, allowing failure to propagate through the entire battery within 60-80 seconds for all configurations (parallel or series) tested. This work demonstrates the increased severity possible when a point failure impacts the surrounding battery system.

  3. Defense against common mode failures in protection system design

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, R.H.; Johnson, G.L.

    1997-08-27

    The introduction of digital instrumentation and control into reactor safety systems creates a heightened concern about common-mode failure. This paper discusses the concern and methods to cope with the concern. Common-mode failures have been a ``fact-of-life`` in existing systems. The informal introduction of defense-in-depth and diversity (D-in-D&D)-coupled with the fact that hardware common-mode failures are often distributed in time-has allowed systems to deal with past common-mode failures. However, identical software operating in identical redundant systems presents the potential for simultaneous failure. Consequently, the use of digital systems raises the concern about common-mode failure to a new level. A more methodical approach to mitigating common-mode failure is needed to address these concerns. Purposeful introduction of D-in-D&D has been used as a defense against common-mode failure in reactor protection systems. At least two diverse systems are provided to mitigate any potential initiating event. Additionally, diverse displays and controls are provided to allow the operator to monitor plant status and manually initiate engineered safety features. A special form of conimon-mode failure analysis called ``defense-in-depth and diversity analysis`` has been developed to identify possible conimon-mode failure vulnerabilities in digital systems. An overview of this analysis technique is provided.

  4. FOIA Update: The Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. sect. 552, As Amended By Public Law No. 104-

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    and Privacy Act Freedom of Information Act (link) FOIA Update: The Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. sect. 552, As Amended By Public Law No. 104- 231, 110 Stat. 3048 | OIP | Department of Justice DOE Savannah River Operations Office To make an Electronic FOIA (E-FOIA) request, please provide the information below. Failure to enter accurate and complete information may render your FOIA request impossible to fulfill. Requests submitted under the Privacy Act must be signed and, therefore, cannot

  5. Link failure detection in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Megerian, Mark G.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-11-09

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for link failure detection in a parallel computer including compute nodes connected in a rectangular mesh network, each pair of adjacent compute nodes in the rectangular mesh network connected together using a pair of links, that includes: assigning each compute node to either a first group or a second group such that adjacent compute nodes in the rectangular mesh network are assigned to different groups; sending, by each of the compute nodes assigned to the first group, a first test message to each adjacent compute node assigned to the second group; determining, by each of the compute nodes assigned to the second group, whether the first test message was received from each adjacent compute node assigned to the first group; and notifying a user, by each of the compute nodes assigned to the second group, whether the first test message was received.

  6. Dynamic failure in two-phase materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fensin, S. J.; Walker, E. K.; Cerreta, E. K.; Trujillo, C. P.; Martinez, D. T.; Gray, G. T.

    2015-12-21

    Previous experimental research has shown that microstructural features such as interfaces, inclusions, vacancies, and heterogeneities can all act as voidnucleation sites. However, it is not well understood how important these interfaces are to damage evolution and failure as a function of the surrounding parentmaterials. In this work, we present results on three different polycrystallinematerials: (1) Cu, (2) Cu-24 wt. %Ag, and (3) Cu-15 wt. %Nb which were studied to probe the influence of bi-metal interfaces onvoidnucleation and growth. These materials were chosen due to the range of difference in structure and bulk properties between the two phases. The initial results suggest that when there are significant differences between the bulk properties (for example: stacking fault energy, melting temperature, etc.) the type of interface between the two parent materials does not principally control the damage nucleation and growth process. Rather, it is the “weaker” material that dictates the dynamic spall strength of the overall two-phase material.

  7. DOE Collects Civil Penalties for Failure to Certify Compliance | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy Collects Civil Penalties for Failure to Certify Compliance DOE Collects Civil Penalties for Failure to Certify Compliance March 4, 2016 - 6:06pm Addthis DOE recently resolved enforcement actions against a variety of companies for failure to certify that the products they were distributing meet the applicable energy or water conservation standards. DOE found that Utility Refrigerator had failed to certify the compliance of its commercial refrigeration equipment, Fujitsu General

  8. A REVIEW OF SOFTWARE-INDUCED FAILURE EXPERIENCE.

    SciTech Connect

    CHU, T.L.; MARTINEZ-GURIDI, G.; YUE, M.; LEHNER, J.

    2006-09-01

    We present a review of software-induced failures in commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) and in several non-nuclear industries. We discuss the approach used for connecting operational events related to these failures and the insights gained from this review. In particular, we elaborate on insights that can be used to model this kind of failure in a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model. We present the conclusions reached in these areas.

  9. Deformation and Failure Mechanisms of Shape Memory Alloys (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Deformation and Failure Mechanisms of Shape Memory Alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deformation and Failure Mechanisms of Shape Memory Alloys The goal of this research was to understand the fundamental mechanics that drive the deformation and failure of shape memory alloys (SMAs). SMAs are difficult materials to characterize because of the complex phase transformations that give rise to their unique properties, including shape

  10. EEO is the Law Poster Supplement

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    EEO Intake Form EEO Intake Form Download and fill out this form to start the process for Equal Employment Opportunity complaints at the Department of Energy. For more information about the EEO process, visit this site. To get in touch with our Office of Civil Rights, call (202) 586-2218. DOE EEO Intake Form 2016 (395.3 KB) More Documents & Publications Equal Employment Opportunity Intake Process DOE F 1600.2 DOE F 1600.1

    EEO is the Law" Poster Supplement Employers Holding Federal

  11. Fractional power-law spatial dispersion in electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, Vasily E.; Trujillo, Juan J.

    2013-07-15

    Electric fields in non-local media with power-law spatial dispersion are discussed. Equations involving a fractional Laplacian in the Riesz form that describe the electric fields in such non-local media are studied. The generalizations of Coulomb’s law and Debye’s screening for power-law non-local media are characterized. We consider simple models with anomalous behavior of plasma-like media with power-law spatial dispersions. The suggested fractional differential models for these plasma-like media are discussed to describe non-local properties of power-law type. -- Highlights: •Plasma-like non-local media with power-law spatial dispersion. •Fractional differential equations for electric fields in the media. •The generalizations of Coulomb’s law and Debye’s screening for the media.

  12. Sandia Energy - Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) Tutorial

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) Tutorial Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics PV Systems Reliability Tutorial on FMEA Process...

  13. Physics of Failure of Electrical Interconnects | Department of...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ape036devoto2012p.pdf (851.05 KB) More Documents & Publications Reliability of Electrical Interconnects Physics of Failure

  14. Physics of Failure of Electrical Interconnects | Department of...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ape036devoto2011p.pdf (402.27 KB) More Documents & Publications Physics of Failure of Electrical Interconnects Reliability

  15. Investigation of Possible Wellbore Cement Failures During Hydraulic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Investigation of Possible Wellbore Cement Failures During Hydraulic Fracturing Operations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Investigation of Possible ...

  16. The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 failure analysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 failure analysis activities. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 ...

  17. Failure Stress and Apparent Elastic Modulus of Diesel Particulate...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Three established mechanical test specimen geometries and test methods for brittle materials are adapted to DPF architecture to evaluate failure initiation stress and apparent ...

  18. Failure of materials. (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Failure of materials. No abstract prepared. Authors: Boyce, Brad Lee Publication Date: 2010-08-01 OSTI Identifier: 1024457 Report ...

  19. Wind Turbine Gearbox Failure Modes - A Brief (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, S.; McDade, M.; Errichello, R.

    2011-10-01

    Wind turbine gearboxes are not always meeting 20-year design life. Premature failure of gearboxes increases cost of energy, turbine downtime, unplanned maintenance, gearbox replacement and rebuild, and increased warranty reserves. The problem is widespread, affects most Original Equipment Manufacturers, and is not caused by manufacturing practices. There is a need to improve gearbox reliability and reduce turbine downtime. The topics of this presentation are: GRC (Gearbox Reliability Collaborative) technical approach; Gearbox failure database; Recorded incidents summary; Top failure modes for bearings; Top failure modes for gears; GRC test gearbox; Bearing nomenclature; Test history; Real damage; Gear sets; Bearings; Observations; and Summary. 5 refs.

  20. Sandian Presents on PV Failure Analysis at European PV Solar...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Presents on PV Failure Analysis at European PV Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EU PVSC) - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator ...

  1. Code System to Calculate Pressure Vessel Failure Probabilities.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2001-03-27

    Version 00 OCTAVIA (Operationally Caused Transients And Vessel Integrity Analysis) calculates the probability of pressure vessel failure from operationally-caused pressure transients which can occur in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). For specified vessel and operating environment characteristics the program computes the failure pressure at which the vessel will fail for different-sized flaws existing in the beltline and the probability of vessel failure per reactor year due to the flaw. The probabilities are summed over themore » various flaw sizes to obtain the total vessel failure probability. Sensitivity studies can be performed to investigate different vessel or operating characteristics in the same computer run.« less

  2. DOE Collects Civil Penalties for Failure to Certify

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Enforcement recently settled enforcement actions against ten companies for failure to submit the required certification that products comply with the federal energy conservation...

  3. Failure mechanisms in MEMS. (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In MEMS, both electrical and mechanical precautions must be enacted to reduce the risk of ... Subject: 42 ENGINEERING; MICROELECTRONICS; FAILURE MODE ANALYSIS; FABRICATION; PACKAGING; ...

  4. Simulations of Failure via Three-Dimensional Cracking in Fuel Cladding for Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Hongbing; Bukkapatnam, Satish; Harimkar, Sandip; Singh, Raman; Bardenhagen, Scott

    2014-01-09

    Enhancing performance of fuel cladding and duct alloys is a key means of increasing fuel burnup. This project will address the failure of fuel cladding via three-dimensional cracking models. Researchers will develop a simulation code for the failure of the fuel cladding and validate the code through experiments. The objective is to develop an algorithm to determine the failure of fuel cladding in the form of three-dimensional cracking due to prolonged exposure under varying conditions of pressure, temperature, chemical environment, and irradiation. This project encompasses the following tasks: 1. Simulate 3D crack initiation and growth under instantaneous and/or fatigue loads using a new variant of the material point method (MPM); 2. Simulate debonding of the materials in the crack path using cohesive elements, considering normal and shear traction separation laws; 3. Determine the crack propagation path, considering damage of the materials incorporated in the cohesive elements to allow the energy release rate to be minimized; 4. Simulate the three-dimensional fatigue crack growth as a function of loading histories; 5. Verify the simulation code by comparing results to theoretical and numerical studies available in the literature; 6. Conduct experiments to observe the crack path and surface profile in unused fuel cladding and validate against simulation results; and 7. Expand the adaptive mesh refinement infrastructure parallel processing environment to allow adaptive mesh refinement at the 3D crack fronts and adaptive mesh merging in the wake of cracks. Fuel cladding is made of materials such as stainless steels and ferritic steels with added alloying elements, which increase stability and durability under irradiation. As fuel cladding is subjected to water, chemicals, fission gas, pressure, high temperatures, and irradiation while in service, understanding performance is essential. In the fast fuel used in advanced burner reactors, simulations of the nuclear

  5. Failure Atlas for Rolling Bearings in Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Tallian, T. E.

    2006-01-01

    This Atlas is structured as a supplement to the book: T.E. Tallian: Failure Atlas for Hertz Contact Machine Elements, 2nd edition, ASME Press New York, (1999). The content of the atlas comprises plate pages from the book that contain bearing failure images, application data, and descriptions of failure mode, image, and suspected failure causes. Rolling bearings are a critical component of the mainshaft system, gearbox and generator in the rapidly developing technology of power generating wind turbines. The demands for long service life are stringent; the design load, speed and temperature regimes are demanding and the environmental conditions including weather, contamination, impediments to monitoring and maintenance are often unfavorable. As a result, experience has shown that the rolling bearings are prone to a variety of failure modes that may prevent achievement of design lives. Morphological failure diagnosis is extensively used in the failure analysis and improvement of bearing operation. Accumulated experience shows that the failure appearance and mode of failure causation in wind turbine bearings has many distinguishing features. The present Atlas is a first effort to collect an interpreted database of specifically wind turbine related rolling bearing failures and make it widely available. This Atlas is structured as a supplement to the book: T. E. Tallian: Failure Atlas for Hertz Contact Machine Elements, 2d edition, ASME Press New York, (1999). The main body of that book is a comprehensive collection of self-contained pages called Plates, containing failure images, bearing and application data, and three descriptions: failure mode, image and suspected failure causes. The Plates are sorted by main failure mode into chapters. Each chapter is preceded by a general technical discussion of the failure mode, its appearance and causes. The Plates part is supplemented by an introductory part, describing the appearance classification and failure classification

  6. Dynamic failure in two-phase materials

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Fensin, S. J.; Walker, E. K.; Cerreta, E. K.; Trujillo, C. P.; Martinez, D. T.; Gray, G. T.

    2015-12-21

    Previous experimental research has shown that microstructural features such as interfaces, inclusions, vacancies, and heterogeneities can all act as voidnucleation sites. However, it is not well understood how important these interfaces are to damage evolution and failure as a function of the surrounding parentmaterials. In this work, we present results on three different polycrystallinematerials: (1) Cu, (2) Cu-24 wt. %Ag, and (3) Cu-15 wt. %Nb which were studied to probe the influence of bi-metal interfaces onvoidnucleation and growth. These materials were chosen due to the range of difference in structure and bulk properties between the two phases. The initial resultsmore » suggest that when there are significant differences between the bulk properties (for example: stacking fault energy, melting temperature, etc.) the type of interface between the two parent materials does not principally control the damage nucleation and growth process. Rather, it is the “weaker” material that dictates the dynamic spall strength of the overall two-phase material.« less

  7. Corrosion-related failures in feedwater heaters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Agrawal, A.K.; Berry, W.E.

    1983-07-01

    A survey of the literature was performed for the Electric Power Research Institute on corrosion-related failures in feedwater heaters. The survey was directed toward failures in fossil and in pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants, but includes some pertinent information related to failures in boiling water reactor (BWR) power plants. The survey was organized into sections on the commonly used feedwater heater materials; C steel, brasses, Cu-Ni alloys, MONEL Alloy 400, and Type 304 Stainless Steel. A section on Ti as a potential feedwater heater material also is given in the appendices. Each section is divided into subsections on field experience and laboratory studies tat relate to the field failures that have been observed. Appendices are given on a feedwater heater description, water quality in power plants, forms of corrosion, and failure analysis techniques.

  8. Energy Efficiency and Renewables: Market and Behavioral Failures

    ScienceCinema

    James Sweeney

    2016-07-12

    Thursday, January 28, 2010: Policies to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency have been gaining momentum throughout the world, often justified by environmental and energy security concerns. This presentation first talks about energy efficiency options, then delves into the economic motivation for energy efficiency and renewable energy policies by articulating the classes of relevant behavioral failures and market failures. Such behavioral and market failures may vary intertemporally or atemporally; the temporal structure and the extent of the failures are the critical considerations in the development of energy policies. The talk discusses key policy instruments and assess the extent to which they are well-suited to correct for failures with different structures. http://eetd.lbl.gov/dls/lecture-01-28...

  9. Filament velocity scaling laws for warm ions

    SciTech Connect

    Manz, P.; Max-Planck-Institut fr Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Assoziation, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching ; Carralero, D.; Birkenmeier, G.; Mller, H. W.; Scott, B. D.; Mller, S. H.; Fuchert, G.; Stroth, U.; Physik-Department E28, Technische Universitt Mnchen, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching

    2013-10-15

    The dynamics of filaments or blobs in the scrape-off layer of magnetic fusion devices are studied by magnitude estimates of a comprehensive drift-interchange-Alfvn fluid model. The standard blob models are reproduced in the cold ion case. Even though usually neglected, in the scrape-off layer, the ion temperature can exceed the electron temperature by an order of magnitude. The ion pressure affects the dynamics of filaments amongst others by adding up to the interchange drive and the polarisation current. It is shown how both effects modify the scaling laws for filament velocity in dependence of its size. Simplifications for experimentally relevant limit regimes are given. These are the sheath dissipation, collisional, and electromagnetic regime.

  10. Power-law spatial dispersion from fractional Liouville equation

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2013-10-15

    A microscopic model in the framework of fractional kinetics to describe spatial dispersion of power-law type is suggested. The Liouville equation with the Caputo fractional derivatives is used to obtain the power-law dependence of the absolute permittivity on the wave vector. The fractional differential equations for electrostatic potential in the media with power-law spatial dispersion are derived. The particular solutions of these equations for the electric potential of point charge in this media are considered.

  11. Solar Easements & Rights Laws | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government Agricultural Institutional Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics Program Info Sector Name State State Washington Program Type Solar/Wind Access Policy Summary Washington's solar easement laws are similar to those in many other states. The law does not create an automatic right to sunlight. Rather, the law

  12. Equal Employment Opportunity/Workforce Restructuring Laws | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Opportunity/Workforce Restructuring Laws Equal Employment Opportunity/Workforce Restructuring Laws Equal Employment Opportunity laws prohibit discrimination against individuals on the basis of various protected categories including race, sex, age, disability, and veteran status: Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 Executive Order 11246 of September 24, 1965 (Equal Employment Opportunity Act)

  13. Formation of Hard Power Laws in the Energetic Particle Spectra...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Formation of Hard Power Laws in the Energetic Particle Spectra Resulting from Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Formation of Hard Power ...

  14. Environmental Law Institute Webinar to Promote Superior Energy...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Superior Energy Performance(tm) (SEP), the U.S. certification program for driving continuous improvement in energy efficiency, will be discussed during the Environmental Law ...

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Laws and Incentives

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Biodiesel Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Laws and Incentives to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data ...

  16. ACHP - Relationship of Section 106 to Other Laws | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act and other laws. Author Advisory Council on Historic Preservation Published Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, Date...

  17. International Maritime Law Institute (IMLI) | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    agency of the United Nations. The Institute is an international centre for the training of specialists in maritime law. It also contributes to the development and...

  18. Violation of the Wiedemann-Franz Law in Hydrodynamic Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Violation of the Wiedemann-Franz Law in Hydrodynamic Electron Liquids This content will become publicly available on July 30, 2016 Prev Next Title: Violation of the ...

  19. Violation of the Wiedemann-Franz Law in Hydrodynamic Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Violation of the Wiedemann-Franz Law in Hydrodynamic Electron Liquids Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on July 30, ...

  20. Investigation of Possible Wellbore Cement Failures During Hydraulic Fracturing Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jihoon; Moridis, George

    2014-11-01

    We model and assess the possibility of shear failure, using the Mohr-Coulomb model ? along the vertical well by employing a rigorous coupled flow-geomechanic analysis. To this end, we vary the values of cohesion between the well casing and the surrounding cement to representing different quality levels of the cementing operation (low cohesion corresponds to low-quality cement and/or incomplete cementing). The simulation results show that there is very little fracturing when the cement is of high quality.. Conversely, incomplete cementing and/or weak cement can causes significant shear failure and the evolution of long fractures/cracks along the vertical well. Specifically, low cohesion between the well and cemented areas can cause significant shear failure along the well, but the same cohesion as the cemented zone does not cause shear failure. When the hydraulic fracturing pressure is high, low cohesion of the cement can causes fast propagation of shear failure and of the resulting fracture/crack, but a high-quality cement with no weak zones exhibits limited shear failure that is concentrated near the bottom of the vertical part of the well. Thus, high-quality cement and complete cementing along the vertical well appears to be the strongest protection against shear failure of the wellbore cement and, consequently, against contamination hazards to drinking water aquifers during hydraulic fracturing operations.

  1. A NEW REDDENING LAW FOR M4

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, Benjamin; VandenBerg, Don A.; Stetson, Peter B.; Dall'Ora, Massimo

    2012-07-15

    We have used a combination of broadband near-infrared and optical Johnson-Cousins photometry to study the dust properties in the line of sight to the Galactic globular cluster M4. We have investigated the reddening effects in terms of absolute strength and variation across the cluster field, as well as the shape of the reddening law defined by the type of dust. All three aspects had been poorly defined for this system and, consequently, there has been controversy about the absolute distance to this globular cluster, which is closest to the Sun. Here, we determine the ratio of absolute to selective extinction (R{sub V} ) in the line of sight toward M4, which is known to be a useful indicator for the type of dust and therefore characterizes the applicable reddening law. Our method is independent of age assumptions and appears to be significantly more precise and accurate than previous approaches. We obtain A{sub V} /E(B - V) = 3.76 {+-} 0.07 (random error) for the dust in the line of sight to M4 for our set of filters. That corresponds to a dust-type parameter R{sub V} = 3.62 {+-} 0.07 in the Cardelli et al. reddening law. With this value, the distance to M4 is found to be 1.80 {+-} 0.05 kpc, corresponding to a true distance modulus of (m - M){sub 0} = 11.28 {+-} 0.06 (random error). A reddening map for M4 has been created, which reveals a spatial differential reddening of {delta}E(B - V) {>=} 0.2 mag across the field within 10' around the cluster center; this is about 50% of the total mean reddening, which we have determined to be E(B - V) = 0.37 {+-} 0.01. In order to provide accurate zero points for the extinction coefficients of our photometric filters, we investigated the impact of stellar parameters such as temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity on the extinction properties and the necessary corrections in different bandpasses. Using both synthetic ATLAS9 spectra and observed spectral energy distributions, we found similarly sized effects for the range

  2. Experimental aspects of an investigation of macroscopic ductile failure criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Soo Hoo, M.S.; Benzley, S.E.; Priddy, T.G.

    1981-03-01

    Experimental results for the ductile failure of 7075-T651 aluminum are presented. Four separate shapes were tested to investigate the importance that macroscopic effective shear stress, hydrostatic stress, and plastic strain play in describing ductile failure of materials. The specimens used were: thin wall torsion tubes to create a state of pure shear, uniform hollow tubes to create a state of uniaxial stress; hour-glass shaped hollow tubes to create a state of biaxial stress; and notched round bars to create a state of triaxial stress. Two proposed ductile failure criteria are discussed in conjunction with the experimental results presented.

  3. Vulnerability Assessment for Cascading Failures in Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baldick, R.; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Dong, Zhao Yang; Gou, Bei; Hawkins, David L.; Huang, Zhenyu; Joung, Manho; Kim, Janghoon; Kirschen, Daniel; Lee, Stephen; Li, Fangxing; Li, Juan; Li, Zuyi; Liu, Chen-Ching; Luo, Xiaochuan; Mili, Lamine; Miller, Stephen; Nakayama, Marvin; Papic, Milorad; Podmore, Robin; Rossmaier, John; Schneider, Kevin P.; Sun, Hongbin; Sun, Kai; Wang, David; Wu, Zhigang; Yao, Liangzhong; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2008-09-10

    Cascading failures present severe threats to power grid security, and thus vulnerability assessment of power grids is of significant importance. Focusing on analytic methods, this paper reviews the state of the art of vulnerability assessment methods in the context of cascading failures in three categories: steady-state modeling based analysis; dynamic modeling analysis; and non-traditional modeling approaches. The impact of emerging technologies including phasor technology, high-performance computing techniques, and visualization techniques on the vulnerability assessment of cascading failures is then addressed, and future research directions are presented.

  4. Failure analysis of an HCl gas cylinder valve

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2000-12-01

    The fouling failure of an anhydrous HCl gas cylinder valve was investigated after the failure led to an accidental release of HCl gas. It is surmised that water penetrated into the valve by improper purging or valving, and created a severely corrosive environment. The aluminum bronze valve body underwent general corrosion. The corrosion products, primarily nantokite (CuCl), built up within the valve and led to the fouling failure. Dezincification was observed in a leaded nickel silver component of the valve. The Monel 400 valve stem was intact. The cylinder and valve testing procedures that led to the gas release incident are also examined.

  5. Memorandum, Protective Force Law Enforcement Authority- May 1, 2009

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Investigation allegations that contractor procetive force personnel at a DOE site exceeded their legistative ,regulatory, and policy-based authority by providing on-duty, armed off-site assistance to local law enforcement authorites during other than recapture/recovery operations, and by accessing the local law enforcement database for background checks during the course of on-site administrative traffic stops.

  6. New Guatemala law tries to attract new explorers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    With only 6,280 bopd of production and reserves of only 13 million barrels, Guatemala's 25,200 bpd thirst has forced the country to rewrite its petroleum law. Among pluses in the new law are full-cost recovery and prices based on world levels. However, the stiff royalty and no provision for neutral arbitration are significant minuses.

  7. Resurrecting power law inflation in the light of Planck results

    SciTech Connect

    Unnikrishnan, Sanil; Sahni, Varun E-mail: varun@iucaa.ernet.in

    2013-10-01

    It is well known that a canonical scalar field with an exponential potential can drive power law inflation (PLI). However, the tensor-to-scalar ratio in such models turns out to be larger than the stringent limit set by recent Planck results. We propose a new model of power law inflation for which the scalar spectra index, the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the non-gaussianity parameter f{sub N{sub L}{sup equil}} are in excellent agreement with Planck results. Inflation, in this model, is driven by a non-canonical scalar field with an inverse power law potential. The Lagrangian for our model is structurally similar to that of a canonical scalar field and has a power law form for the kinetic term. A simple extension of our model resolves the graceful exit problem which usually afflicts models of power law inflation.

  8. Power-law connections: From Zipf to Heaps and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2013-05-15

    In this paper we explore the asymptotic statistics of a general model of rank distributions in the large-ensemble limit; the construction of the general model is motivated by recent empirical studies of rank distributions. Applying Lorenzian, oligarchic, and Heapsian asymptotic analyses we establish a comprehensive set of closed-form results linking together rank distributions, probability distributions, oligarchy sizes, and innovation rates. In particular, the general results reveal the fundamental underlying connections between Zipfs law, Paretos law, and Heaps lawthree elemental empirical power-laws that are ubiquitously observed in the sciences. -- Highlights: ? The large-ensemble asymptotic statistics of rank distributions are explored. ? Lorenzian, oligarchic, and Heapsian asymptotic analyses are applied. ? Associated oligarchy sizes and induced innovation rates are analyzed. ? General elemental statistical connections are established. ? The underlying connections between Zipfs, Paretos and Heaps laws are unveiled.

  9. Thermal Cycling on Fatigue Failure of the Plutonium Vitrification Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Jeffrey; Gorczyca, Jennifer

    2009-02-11

    One method for disposition of excess plutonium is vitrification into cylindrical wasteforms. Due to the hazards of working with plutonium, the vitrification process must be carried out remotely in a shielded environment. Thus, the equipment must be easily maintained. With their simple design, induction melters satisfy this criterion, making them ideal candidates for plutonium vitrification. However, due to repeated heating and cooling cycles and differences in coefficients of thermal expansion of contacting materials fatigue failure of the induction melter is of concern. Due to the cost of the melter, the number of cycles to failure is critical. This paper presents a method for determining the cycles to failure for an induction melter by using the results from thermal and structural analyses as input to a fatigue failure model.

  10. Terrestrial Photovoltaic Module Accelerated Test-To-Failure Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C. R.

    2008-03-01

    This technical report documents a test-to-failure protocol that may be used to obtain quantitative information about the reliability of photovoltaic modules using accelerated testing in environmental temperature-humidity chambers.

  11. Code System for the Radioactive Liquid Tank Failure Study.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2000-01-03

    Version 01 RATAF calculates the consequences of radioactive liquid tank failures. In each of the processing systems considered, RATAF can calculate the tank isotopic concentrations in either the collector tank or the evaporator bottoms tank.

  12. Performance of wireless sensor networks under random node failures

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan; Hagberg, Aric; Feng, Pan

    2011-01-28

    Networks are essential to the function of a modern society and the consequence of damages to a network can be large. Assessing network performance of a damaged network is an important step in network recovery and network design. Connectivity, distance between nodes, and alternative routes are some of the key indicators to network performance. In this paper, random geometric graph (RGG) is used with two types of node failure, uniform failure and localized failure. Since the network performance are multi-facet and assessment can be time constrained, we introduce four measures, which can be computed in polynomial time, to estimate performance of damaged RGG. Simulation experiments are conducted to investigate the deterioration of networks through a period of time. With the empirical results, the performance measures are analyzed and compared to provide understanding of different failure scenarios in a RGG.

  13. The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 failure analysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 failure analysis activities. ... Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size NAView Full Text View Full ...

  14. Large-Scale Atomistic Simulations of Material Failure

    DOE Data Explorer

    Abraham, Farid [IBM Almaden Research; Duchaineau, Mark [LLNL; Wirth, Brian [LLNL; Heidelberg,; Seager, Mark [LLNL; De La Rubia, Diaz [LLNL

    These simulations from 2000 examine the supersonic propagation of cracks and the formation of complex junction structures in metals. Eight simulations concerning brittle fracture, ductile failure, and shockless compression are available.

  15. Researchers Achieve Breakthrough in Solving Leading Cause of Gearbox Failures

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Accomplishing a significant milestone, researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory have successfully replicated the leading cause of wind turbine gearbox failures,...

  16. On-clip high frequency reliability and failure test structures

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, E.S.; Campbell, D.V.

    1997-04-29

    Self-stressing test structures for realistic high frequency reliability characterizations. An on-chip high frequency oscillator, controlled by DC signals from off-chip, provides a range of high frequency pulses to test structures. The test structures provide information with regard to a variety of reliability failure mechanisms, including hot-carriers, electromigration, and oxide breakdown. The system is normally integrated at the wafer level to predict the failure mechanisms of the production integrated circuits on the same wafer. 22 figs.

  17. On-clip high frequency reliability and failure test structures

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Eric S.; Campbell, David V.

    1997-01-01

    Self-stressing test structures for realistic high frequency reliability characterizations. An on-chip high frequency oscillator, controlled by DC signals from off-chip, provides a range of high frequency pulses to test structures. The test structures provide information with regard to a variety of reliability failure mechanisms, including hot-carriers, electromigration, and oxide breakdown. The system is normally integrated at the wafer level to predict the failure mechanisms of the production integrated circuits on the same wafer.

  18. Self-heating and failure in scalable graphene devices

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Beechem, Thomas E.; Shaffer, Ryan A.; Nogan, John; Ohta, Taisuke; Hamilton, Allister B.; McDonald, Anthony E.; Howell, Stephen W.

    2016-06-09

    Self-heating induced failure of graphene devices synthesized from both chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and epitaxial means is compared using a combination of infrared thermography and Raman imaging. Despite a larger thermal resistance, CVD devices dissipate >3x the amount of power before failure than their epitaxial counterparts. The discrepancy arises due to morphological irregularities implicit to the graphene synthesis method that induce localized heating. As a result, morphology, rather than thermal resistance, therefore dictates power handling limits in graphene devices.

  19. Integrating Electricity Subsector Failure Scenarios into a Risk Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Methodology (December 2013) | Department of Energy Integrating Electricity Subsector Failure Scenarios into a Risk Assessment Methodology (December 2013) Integrating Electricity Subsector Failure Scenarios into a Risk Assessment Methodology (December 2013) The nation's power system consists of both legacy and next generation technologies. New grid technologies are introducing millions of novel, intelligent components to the electric grid that communicate in much more advanced ways than in

  20. Mini-Ckpts: Surviving OS Failures in Persistent Memory

    SciTech Connect

    Fiala, David; Mueller, Frank; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Engelmann, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Concern is growing in the high-performance computing (HPC) community on the reliability of future extreme-scale systems. Current efforts have focused on application fault-tolerance rather than the operating system (OS), despite the fact that recent studies have suggested that failures in OS memory are more likely. The OS is critical to a system's correct and efficient operation of the node and processes it governs -- and in HPC also for any other nodes a parallelized application runs on and communicates with: Any single node failure generally forces all processes of this application to terminate due to tight communication in HPC. Therefore, the OS itself must be capable of tolerating failures. In this work, we introduce mini-ckpts, a framework which enables application survival despite the occurrence of a fatal OS failure or crash. Mini-ckpts achieves this tolerance by ensuring that the critical data describing a process is preserved in persistent memory prior to the failure. Following the failure, the OS is rejuvenated via a warm reboot and the application continues execution effectively making the failure and restart transparent. The mini-ckpts rejuvenation and recovery process is measured to take between three to six seconds and has a failure-free overhead of between 3-5% for a number of key HPC workloads. In contrast to current fault-tolerance methods, this work ensures that the operating and runtime system can continue in the presence of faults. This is a much finer-grained and dynamic method of fault-tolerance than the current, coarse-grained, application-centric methods. Handling faults at this level has the potential to greatly reduce overheads and enables mitigation of additional fault scenarios.

  1. Prediction of Technological Failures in Nuclear Power Plant Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Salnykov, A. A.

    2015-01-15

    A method for predicting operating technological failures in nuclear power plants which makes it possible to reduce the unloading of the generator unit during the onset and development of an anomalous engineering state of the equipment by detecting a change in state earlier and taking suitable measures. With the circulating water supply loop of a nuclear power plant as an example, scenarios and algorithms for predicting technological failures in the operation of equipment long before their actual occurrence are discussed.

  2. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Technical Report: Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing Authors: Snir, M. ; Wisniewski, R. W. ; Abraham, J. A. ; Adve, S. V. ; Bagchi, S. ; Balaji, P. ; Belak, J. ; Bose, P. ; Cappello, F. ; Carlson, B. ; Chien, A. A. ; Coteus, P. ; Debardeleben, N. A. ; Diniz, P. ; Engelmann, C. ; Erez, M. ; Fazzari, S. ; Geist, A. ; Gupta, R. ; Johnson, F. more »; Krishnamoorthy, S. ; Leyffer, S. ; Liberty, D.

  3. Relevance of the Second Law of Thermodynamics to energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Use of the Second (2nd) Law of Thermodynamic concepts in energy system analysis is assessed. The basic advantage of using the 2nd law and availability concepts is that, while the First Law of Thermodynamics considers all energy quantities with equal weight, the 2nd law (and the entropy concept) distinguishes a grade or quality of the energy being considered as well as quantity. From this distinction flow two important considerations: (1) the losses at each point in a system can be assessed and measured in units that are directly proportional to input or purchased fuel energy; and (2) the minimum energy required to perform a given function or process is ascertainable as well as the maximum energy available from a given source. These considerations represent valuable analysis tools and compel consideration of the 2nd law in the analysis of energy systems. The use of 2nd law concepts is certainly not new or neglected. Practitioners in the energy field make implicit use of these ideas in the design and operation of most contemporary energy systems. The question is addressed here of whether explicit use of these ideas can provide any new or overlooked benefits in the design, operation, and reporting of energy using systems. To address the explicit use of 2nd law concepts, three areas of concern were chosen: energy monitoring; process and system design and modification; and component design and modification.

  4. PDC IC WELD FAILURE EVALUATION AND RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.; Howard, S.; Maxwell, D.; Fiscus, J.

    2012-04-16

    During final preparations for start of the PDCF Inner Can (IC) qualification effort, welding was performed on an automated weld system known as the PICN. During the initial weld, using a pedigree canister and plug, a weld defect was observed. The defect resulted in a hole in the sidewall of the canister, and it was observed that the plug sidewall had not been consumed. This was a new type of failure not seen during development and production of legacy Bagless Transfer Cans (FB-Line/Hanford). Therefore, a team was assembled to determine the root cause and to determine if the process could be improved. After several brain storming sessions (MS and T, R and D Engineering, PDC Project), an evaluation matrix was established to direct this effort. The matrix identified numerous activities that could be taken and then prioritized those activities. This effort was limited by both time and resources (the number of canisters and plugs available for testing was limited). A discovery process was initiated to evaluate the Vendor's IC fabrication process relative to legacy processes. There were no significant findings, however, some information regarding forging/anneal processes could not be obtained. Evaluations were conducted to compare mechanical properties of the PDC canisters relative to the legacy canisters. Some differences were identified, but mechanical properties were determined to be consistent with legacy materials. A number of process changes were also evaluated. A heat treatment procedure was established that could reduce the magnetic characteristics to levels similar to the legacy materials. An in-situ arc annealing process was developed that resulted in improved weld characteristics for test articles. Also several tack welds configurations were addressed, it was found that increasing the number of tack welds (and changing the sequence) resulted in decreased can to plug gaps and a more stable weld for test articles. Incorporating all of the process improvements

  5. PUBLIC LAW 111-5„FEB

    Energy Saver

    329-SEPT. 30, 2008 CONSOLIDATED SECURITY, DISASTER ASSISTANCE, AND CONTINUING APPROPRIATIONS ACT, 2009 VerDate Aug 31 2005 12:35 Oct 28, 2008 Jkt 079139 PO 00329 Frm 00001 Fmt 6579 Sfmt 6579 E:\PUBLAW\PUBL329.110 APPS10 PsN: PUBL329 dkrause on GSDDPC44 with PUBLIC LAWS 122 STAT. 3574 PUBLIC LAW 110-329-SEPT. 30, 2008 Public Law 110-329 110th Congress An Act Making appropriations for the Department of Homeland Security for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2008, and for other purposes. Be it

  6. Scaling laws in magnetized plasma turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Boldyrev, Stanislav

    2015-06-28

    Interactions of plasma motion with magnetic fields occur in nature and in the laboratory in an impressively broad range of scales, from megaparsecs in astrophysical systems to centimeters in fusion devices. The fact that such an enormous array of phenomena can be effectively studied lies in the existence of fundamental scaling laws in plasma turbulence, which allow one to scale the results of analytic and numerical modeling to the sized of galaxies, velocities of supernovae explosions, or magnetic fields in fusion devices. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) provides the simplest framework for describing magnetic plasma turbulence. Recently, a number of new features of MHD turbulence have been discovered and an impressive array of thought-provoking phenomenological theories have been put forward. However, these theories have conflicting predictions, and the currently available numerical simulations are not able to resolve the contradictions. MHD turbulence exhibits a variety of regimes unusual in regular hydrodynamic turbulence. Depending on the strength of the guide magnetic field it can be dominated by weakly interacting Alfv\\'en waves or strongly interacting wave packets. At small scales such turbulence is locally anisotropic and imbalanced (cross-helical). In a stark contrast with hydrodynamic turbulence, which tends to ``forget'' global constrains and become uniform and isotropic at small scales, MHD turbulence becomes progressively more anisotropic and unbalanced at small scales. Magnetic field plays a fundamental role in turbulent dynamics. Even when such a field is not imposed by external sources, it is self-consistently generated by the magnetic dynamo action. This project aims at a comprehensive study of universal regimes of magnetic plasma turbulence, combining the modern analytic approaches with the state of the art numerical simulations. The proposed study focuses on the three topics: weak MHD turbulence, which is relevant for laboratory devices, the solar

  7. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-18

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended.

  8. Electric power monthly, July 1998 with data for April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  9. Electric power monthly with data for November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  10. Electric power monthly, January 1999 with data for October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. 1 fig., 63 tabs.

  11. Electric power monthly, April 1998, with data for January 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. 63 tabs.

  12. Electric power monthly: March 1996, with data for December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. 69 tabs.

  13. Electric power monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-24

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  14. Electric power monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  15. Electric power monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  16. Electric power monthly: February 1995, with data for November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-22

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. 64 tabs.

  17. Electric power monthly, May 1997 with data for February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. 63 tabs.

  18. Form Approved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    2014 2015 View History Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet) 2,915 5,526 2014-2015 Total Liquids Extracted (Thousand Barrels) 173 173 2014-2015 NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) 233 235 2014

    Approved 0MB No. 1905-0092. El A 457B (Expires May 31, 1990.) This survey is voluntary and authorized under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275} as amended. Information about specific households will be kept strictly confidential. The data will be

  19. Public Law 104-134, the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Public Law 104-134, the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996 Public Law 104-13, the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996 Public Law 104-134, the Debt Collection Improvement ...

  20. POF-Darts: Geometric adaptive sampling for probability of failure

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Ebeida, Mohamed S.; Mitchell, Scott A.; Swiler, Laura P.; Romero, Vicente J.; Rushdi, Ahmad A.

    2016-06-18

    We introduce a novel technique, POF-Darts, to estimate the Probability Of Failure based on random disk-packing in the uncertain parameter space. POF-Darts uses hyperplane sampling to explore the unexplored part of the uncertain space. We use the function evaluation at a sample point to determine whether it belongs to failure or non-failure regions, and surround it with a protection sphere region to avoid clustering. We decompose the domain into Voronoi cells around the function evaluations as seeds and choose the radius of the protection sphere depending on the local Lipschitz continuity. As sampling proceeds, regions uncovered with spheres will shrink,more » improving the estimation accuracy. After exhausting the function evaluation budget, we build a surrogate model using the function evaluations associated with the sample points and estimate the probability of failure by exhaustive sampling of that surrogate. In comparison to other similar methods, our algorithm has the advantages of decoupling the sampling step from the surrogate construction one, the ability to reach target POF values with fewer samples, and the capability of estimating the number and locations of disconnected failure regions, not just the POF value. Furthermore, we present various examples to demonstrate the efficiency of our novel approach.« less

  1. FOLEY & LARDNER LLP ATTORNEYS AT LAW WASHINGTON HARBOUR 3000...

    Energy Saver

    :FOLEY FOLEY & LARDNER LLP ATTORNEYS AT LAW WASHINGTON HARBOUR 3000 K STREET, N.W. SUITE 600 WASHINGTON, D.C. 20007-5109 202.672.5300 TEL 202.672.5399 FAX foley.com WRITER'S DIRECT ...

  2. Solar and Wind Easements & Local Option Rights Laws

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Minnesota law also allows local zoning boards to restrict development for the purpose of protecting access to sunlight. In addition, zoning bodies may create variances in zoning rules in...

  3. Office of the Assistant General Counsel for General Law

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of the Assistant General Counsel for General Law (GC-56) provides legal support for non-programmatic issues other than those involving procurement and intellectual property.  The office...

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Laws and Incentives

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Laws and Incentives to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data ...

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative ...

  6. Montana Guide to the Streamside Management Zone Law & Rules Webpage...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Guide to the Streamside Management Zone Law & Rules Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Guide to the Streamside Management...

  7. Relevance of the second law of thermodynamics to energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the potential relevance of the use of analytical tools based on the Second Law of thermodynamics to existing federal programs for energy conservation in the industrial, transportation, buildings, and utility sectors in the US. (LCL)

  8. Water Law and Management in Oklahoma | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: Water Law and Management in OklahomaPermittingRegulatory GuidanceGuideHandbook Abstract...

  9. Title 1 General Provisions Chapter 5 Common Law; General Rights...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    General Provisions Chapter 5 Common Law; General Rights 3 V.S.A. Section 2809 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute:...

  10. Key energy efficiency measures signed into law by President Obama...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Key energy efficiency measures signed into law by President Obama Home > Groups > OpenEI Community Central Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(2017) Super contributor 2...

  11. Montana Public Water Supply Law and Rules Webpage | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Public Water Supply Law and Rules Webpage Abstract Provides overview of statutes and...

  12. Title 19 Chapter 1 State Highway Law | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    1 State Highway LawLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 1985 Legal Citation 19 V.S.A. 1-43 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online...

  13. Solar Easements & Rights Laws | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Construction Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential State Government Federal Government Agricultural Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Photovoltaics Solar Pool Heating Program Info Sector Name State State Maryland Program Type Solar/Wind Access Policy Summary Maryland has a long-standing law protecting the rights of solar energy system owners. The original law prohibited restrictive land use covenants that imposed unreasonable limitations on the

  14. Empirical Math Model: Ideal Gas Law | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Empirical Math Model: Ideal Gas Law Empirical Math Model: Ideal Gas Law January 29, 2013 - 9:54am Addthis What are the key facts? Empirical models are generally most useful in describing conditions close to the experiments used to develop or calibrate them. Predictive tools are essential to understanding phenomena that can not be described experimentally, like used fuel behavior over thousands of years in a repository. Predictability is measured by understanding errors where they are introduced

  15. Fifth Anniversary of Radiological Alarm Response Training for Local Law

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Enforcement and First Responders Across the Country | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Fifth Anniversary of Radiological Alarm Response Training for Local Law Enforcement and First Responders Across the Country Wednesday, February 12, 2014 - 3:00pm This week marks the fifth anniversary of NNSA's Alarm Response Training (ART) program for local law enforcement and other critical first responders around the country. In the five years of providing this course, NNSA has trained

  16. AARP, National Consumer Law Center, and Public Citizen Comments

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    to:DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges | Department of Energy AARP, National Consumer Law Center, and Public Citizen Comments to:DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges AARP, National Consumer Law Center, and Public Citizen Comments to:DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges AARP submits the following comments on consumers and smart grid issues in response to the

  17. NGL Downlight Demonstration Project: Alston & Bird, LLP, Law Offices |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy NGL Downlight Demonstration Project: Alston & Bird, LLP, Law Offices NGL Downlight Demonstration Project: Alston & Bird, LLP, Law Offices As of 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates 700 million downlight luminaires were installed in residential and commercial buildings; light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires represent less than 1% of this installed base. Downlight luminaires using conventional incandescent, halogen, and compact fluorescent lamps have

  18. Analysis of self-similar solutions of multidimensional conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Keyfitz, Barbara

    2014-02-15

    This project focused on analysis of multidimensional conservation laws, specifically on extensions to the study of self-siminar solutions, a project initiated by the PI. In addition, progress was made on an approach to studying conservation laws of very low regularity; in this research, the context was a novel problem in chromatography. Two graduate students in mathematics were supported during the grant period, and have almost completed their thesis research.

  19. Fifth Anniversary of Radiological Alarm Response Training for Local Law

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Enforcement and First Responders across the Country | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Fifth Anniversary of Radiological Alarm Response Training for Local Law Enforcement and First Responders across the Country February 10, 2014 This week marks the fifth anniversary of the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Alarm Response Training (ART) program for local law enforcement and other critical first responders around the country. In the five

  20. A New Polyethylene Scattering Law Determined Using Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Lavelle, Christopher M [ORNL; Liu, C [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Stone, Matthew B [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Monte Carlo neutron transport codes such as MCNP rely on accurate data for nuclear physics cross-sections to produce accurate results. At low energy, this takes the form of scattering laws based on the dynamic structure factor, S (Q, E). High density polyethylene (HDPE) is frequently employed as a neutron moderator at both high and low temperatures, however the only cross-sections available are for T =300 K, and the evaluation has not been updated in quite some time. In this paper we describe inelastic neutron scattering measurements on HDPE at 5 and 300 K which are used to improve the scattering law for HDPE. We describe the experimental methods, review some of the past HDPE scattering laws, and compare computations using these models to the measured S (Q, E). The total cross-section is compared to available data, and the treatment of the carbon secondary scatterer as a free gas is assessed. We also discuss the use of the measurement itself as a scattering law via the 1 phonon approximation. We show that a scattering law computed using a more detailed model for the Generalized Density of States (GDOS) compares more favorably to this experiment, suggesting that inelastic neutron scattering can play an important role in both the development and validation of new scattering laws for Monte Carlo work.

  1. Technical basis for the aboveground structure failure and associated represented hazardous conditions

    SciTech Connect

    MANGAN, D.

    2003-03-20

    The purpose of the Technical Basis Document is to determine the consequences and frequency of aboveground structure failures. These failures include drops of contained equipment, such as a pump, from a SST or DST, a crane failure resulting in a load drop onto a HEPA filter. These failures can result in an uncontrolled release of radiological and toxicological material.

  2. Computational modeling for hexcan failure under core distruptive accidental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, T.; Ninokata, H.; Shimizu, A.

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes the development of computational modeling for hexcan wall failures under core disruptive accident conditions of fast breeder reactors. A series of out-of-pile experiments named SIMBATH has been analyzed by using the SIMMER-II code. The SIMBATH experiments were performed at KfK in Germany. The experiments used a thermite mixture to simulate fuel. The test geometry of SIMBATH ranged from single pin to 37-pin bundles. In this study, phenomena of hexcan wall failure found in a SIMBATH test were analyzed by SIMMER-II. Although the original model of SIMMER-II did not calculate any hexcan failure, several simple modifications made it possible to reproduce the hexcan wall melt-through observed in the experiment. In this paper the modifications and their significance are discussed for further modeling improvements.

  3. Statistical analysis of cascading failures in power grids

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Pfitzner, Rene; Turitsyn, Konstantin

    2010-12-01

    We introduce a new microscopic model of cascading failures in transmission power grids. This model accounts for automatic response of the grid to load fluctuations that take place on the scale of minutes, when optimum power flow adjustments and load shedding controls are unavailable. We describe extreme events, caused by load fluctuations, which cause cascading failures of loads, generators and lines. Our model is quasi-static in the causal, discrete time and sequential resolution of individual failures. The model, in its simplest realization based on the Directed Current description of the power flow problem, is tested on three standard IEEE systems consisting of 30, 39 and 118 buses. Our statistical analysis suggests a straightforward classification of cascading and islanding phases in terms of the ratios between average number of removed loads, generators and links. The analysis also demonstrates sensitivity to variations in line capacities. Future research challenges in modeling and control of cascading outages over real-world power networks are discussed.

  4. Failure modes and effects analysis of fusion magnet systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, M; Kazimi, M S; Siu, N O; Thome, R J

    1988-12-01

    A failure modes and consequence analysis of fusion magnet system is an important contributor towards enhancing the design by improving the reliability and reducing the risk associated with the operation of magnet systems. In the first part of this study, a failure mode analysis of a superconducting magnet system is performed. Building on the functional breakdown and the fault tree analysis of the Toroidal Field (TF) coils of the Next European Torus (NET), several subsystem levels are added and an overview of potential sources of failures in a magnet system is provided. The failure analysis is extended to the Poloidal Field (PF) magnet system. Furthermore, an extensive analysis of interactions within the fusion device caused by the operation of the PF magnets is presented in the form of an Interaction Matrix. A number of these interactions may have significant consequences for the TF magnet system particularly interactions triggered by electrical failures in the PF magnet system. In the second part of this study, two basic categories of electrical failures in the PF magnet system are examined: short circuits between the terminals of external PF coils, and faults with a constant voltage applied at external PF coil terminals. An electromagnetic model of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is used to examine the mechanical load conditions for the PF and the TF coils resulting from these fault scenarios. It is found that shorts do not pose large threats to the PF coils. Also, the type of plasma disruption has little impact on the net forces on the PF and the TF coils. 39 refs., 30 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Alloy 400 tube failures by stress corrosion cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Amar, A.S.

    1995-12-01

    A feedwater heater with SB163 Alloy 400 (cold drawn - stress relieved) tubing experienced numerous tube failures and was replaced after of 4.5 years. Failures were attributed to Inter Granular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) in the roll transition area. An eddy current test method was developed with EPRI NDE Center technical support to detect the cracks in the tubesheet region. Three tubes were pulled for metallurgical examination. Short axial cracks were found on tube inner surface. Measured crack depths were correlated with the eddy current indications. A large number of tubes were plugged. However, the heater continued to deteriorate rapidly. Potential contributors to IGSCC are discussed.

  6. Investigation of valve failure problems in LWR power plants

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    An analysis of component failures from information in the computerized Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) data bank shows that for both PWR and BWR plants the component category most responsible for approximately 19.3% of light water reactor (LWR) power plant shutdowns. This investigation by Burns and Roe, Inc. shows that the greatest cause of shutdowns in LWRs due to valve failures is leakage from valve stem packing. Both BWR plants and PWR plants have stem leakage problems (BWRs, 21% and PWRs, 34%).

  7. Ground control failures. A pictorial view of case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.S.

    2007-07-01

    The book shows, in pictorial views, many forms and/or stages of types of failures in mines, for instance, cutter, roof falls, and cribs. In each case, the year of occurrence is stated in the beginning so that the environment or technological background under which it occurred are reflected. The narrative than begins with the mining and geological conditions, followed by a description of the ground control problems and recommended solutions and results, if any. The sections cover failure of pillars, roof falls, longwall, roof bolting, multiple-seam mining, floor heave, longwall, flooding and weathering of coal, old workings, and shortwall and thin-seam plow longwall.

  8. Criticality Calculations Using the Isopiestic Density Law of Actinide Nitrates

    SciTech Connect

    Leclaire, Nicolas P.; Anno, Jacques A.; Courtois, Gerard; Dannus, Pascal; Poullot, Gilles; Rouyer, Veronique

    2003-12-15

    Up to now, criticality safety experts used density laws fitted on experimental data and applied them outside the measurement range. Depending on the case, such an approach could be wrong for nitrate solutions. Seven components are concerned: UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, U(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}, Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}, Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}, Am(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, and HNO{sub 3}. To obviate this problem, a new methodology based on the thermodynamic concept of mixtures of binary electrolytes solutions (one electrolyte + water) at constant water activity, a so-called 'isopiestic' solution, has been developed by the Institute de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) to calculate the nitrate solutions density. This paper presents its qualification by using criticality experiments. The theory and the implementation are also given.Qualification results of the uranyl and plutonium nitrate solutions show that the new density law (also called the isopiestic law) is in good agreement with the benchmarks. Thus, no bias is put into evidence for the uranium solutions, and a small negative bias equal to 0.2% is found for the plutonium solutions.Moreover, the isopiestic law corrects the observed 1% overestimation of k{sub eff} due to the empirical IRSN Leroy and Jouan density law for uranium solutions and the observed 3.4% underestimation of k{sub eff} due to the ARH-600 density law for plutonium solutions.The isopiestic density law has been implemented in CIGALES V2.0, the graphical user interface of the French criticality safety package CRISTAL that calculates the atom densities of nuclides (and writes the input file for CRISTAL computations)

  9. Role of microbial induced corrosion in subsea water pipeline failure

    SciTech Connect

    Samant, A.K.; Singh, S.K.

    1998-12-31

    Premature failure of subsea water injection pipelines due to rupture was observed in Indian offshore facilities. In this connection various contributing factors like metallurgy of pipeline, operating conditions and corrosion related parameters have been examined. Material defects that can lead to premature failure of pipelines like microstructural anomalies, variation in hardness and elemental composition and tensile strength etc. have been found within the specified limits of material specification. Analysis of various operating parameters and water quality data indicated failure due to microbial induced internal corrosion. Due to low flow velocities, suspended insoluble corrosion products, bacteria and other microbes, present in the water, accumulated inside the pipeline surface mostly in low areas. Deposit provided hiding place for bacteria and shielded them from effective treatment by bactericide. Deposits also resulted in the formation of oxygen concentration cells resulting in localized corrosion. Non-pigging of pipe lines, even after long shut down, also resulted in accumulation of deposits. During this period, microbial activities dominated resulting in the formation of acidic metabolizes which ultimately led to internal corrosion. In this paper, all above aspects have been examined with special reference to the role of microbiologically induced corrosion for failure of subsea water injection pipe lines.

  10. Failure and Redemption of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (MFRSR)/Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) Cloud Screening: Contrasting Algorithm Performance at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Southern Great Plains (SGP) Sites (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Failure and Redemption of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR)/Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) Cloud Screening: Contrasting Algorithm Performance at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North

  11. Distortion of power law blinking with binning and thresholding

    SciTech Connect

    Amecke, Nicole; Heber, André; Cichos, Frank

    2014-03-21

    Fluorescence intermittency is a random switching between emitting (on) and non-emitting (off) periods found for many single chromophores such as semiconductor quantum dots and organic molecules. The statistics of the duration of on- and off-periods are commonly determined by thresholding the emission time trace of a single chromophore and appear to be power law distributed. Here we test with the help of simulations if the experimentally determined power law distributions can actually reflect the underlying statistics. We find that with the experimentally limited time resolution real power law statistics with exponents α{sub on/off} ≳ 1.6, especially if α{sub on} ≠ α{sub off} would not be observed as such in the experimental data after binning and thresholding. Instead, a power law appearance could simply be obtained from the continuous distribution of intermediate intensity levels. This challenges much of the obtained data and the models describing the so-called power law blinking.

  12. U. S. oil spill law to cause growing tanker problem

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.B.

    1991-09-30

    This paper reports on tanker owners which face a growing dilemma on the issue of oil spill liability. The U.S. Oil Pollution Act, passed last year in the wake of the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, was intended to reduce risk of and damage from such accidents. However, in addition to phasing in double hulls on most tankers operating in U.S. waters, the law substantially increases shipowner's liability for spills. And the federal law does not preempt state liability laws, which in most cases amount to unlimited liability for spill cleanup. Rather than face potentially unlimited liability in the event of a spill, tanker owners worldwide are exercising a number of options to shield themselves. Some of those options could increase the potential for oil spills, industry officials warn. The act also threatens to shatter the international alliance among shippers. A report by Drewry Shipping Consultants Ltd., London, says the law could have a devastating effect on operating practices. Tanker owners and operators have voiced the most opposition to the new spill law and the shackles it places on them. Now the industry that insures tankers has spoken up about is increased liability, and it too may launch a boycott.

  13. Results of industry experience survey on coiled tubing uses and failures

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, J.G.; Cayard, M.S.; Kane, R.D.

    1999-11-01

    A survey of coiled tubing failures in various field applications was conducted. The survey included the collection of information on failure type, number of strain cycles to failure, service environment, well depth, failure location on the coiled tubing string, and coiled tubing grade employed. The most prevalent causes of failures and the impact of localized corrosion on the performance of coiled tubing were assessed from over thirty case studies herein reported. Pitting and tensile overload were the primary causes for failure in fifty percent of the cases reported from the field. Fatigue and weld area failures were the next most common types of failure. Most failures occurred within the range of 10 to 50 strain cycles. H{sub 2}S and brine/water containing environments were the most prevalent service conditions. Most failures occurred at well depths between 5,001 to 10,000 feet (1,524.3 to 3,048 meters). Also, most failures occurred in the coiled tubing string near the surface (less than 1,000 feet (304.8 meters)). Failures in roughly similar numbers were reported in 70, 80 and 100 coiled tubing grades. The understanding of the principal modes of failure herein reported should help in the development of improved handling and running procedures to minimize coiled tubing failures.

  14. Letter Report: LAW Simulant Development for Cast Stone Screening Test

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Swanberg, David J.; Eibling, Russell E.; Cozzi, Alex; Lindberg, Michael J.; Josephson, Gary B.; Rinehart, Donald E.

    2013-03-27

    More than 56 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste are stored in 177 underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the wastes and immobilize them in a glass waste form. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) containing most of the radioactivity and a larger volume of low-activity waste (LAW) containing most of the nonradioactive chemicals. The HLW will be converted to glass in the HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal at an offsite federal repository. At least a portion (~35%) of the LAW will be converted to glass in the LAW vitrification facility and will be disposed of onsite at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment and HLW vitrification facilities will have the capacity to treat and immobilize the wastes destined for each facility. However, a second facility will be needed for the expected volume of additional LAW requiring immobilization. A cementitious waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide the required additional LAW immobilization capacity. The Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. The Cast Stone waste form and immobilization process must be tested to demonstrate that the final Cast Stone waste form can comply with waste acceptance criteria for the IDF disposal facility and that the immobilization processes can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. Further, the waste form must be tested to provide the technical basis for understanding the long term performance of the waste form in the IDF disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support risk assessment and performance assessment (PA) analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the waste disposal in the IDF. A

  15. Immunities from the antitrust laws for regulated entities

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.B.

    1985-05-30

    Just as regulation is an ever-present and crucial factor in most of the day-to-day operating decisions of regulated natural gas transmission and distribution companies, it is also an important factor to consider in assessing the application of the antitrust laws to the conduct of these regulated entities. The legal guidelines are far from clear and are evolving. However, as regulated entities find themselves in an ever more competitive environment, it becomes necessary for their legal counsel to monitor closely the developments in the law concerning immunities from the antitrust laws by virtue of regulation imposed by government. The author hopes that this article will provide a useful starting point for that analysis.

  16. Deviation from the Knudsen law on quantum gases

    SciTech Connect

    Babac, Gulru

    2014-12-09

    Gas flow in micro/nano scale systems has been generally studied for the Maxwell gases. In the limits of very low temperature and very confined domains, the Maxwellian approximation can break down and the quantum character of the gases becomes important. In these cases, Knudsen law, which is one of the important equations to analyze rarefied gas flows is invalid and should be reanalyzed for quantum gases. In this work, the availability of quantum gas conditions in the high Knudsen number cases is discussed and Knudsen law is analyzed for quantum gases.

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Law Enforcement Vehicles Fill up With

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Propane Texas Law Enforcement Vehicles Fill up With Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Law Enforcement Vehicles Fill up With Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Law Enforcement Vehicles Fill up With Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Law Enforcement Vehicles Fill up With Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Law Enforcement Vehicles Fill up With Propane on Delicious

  18. In-vessel ITER tubing failure rates for selected materials and coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, T.D.; Cadwallader, L.C.

    1994-03-01

    Several materials have been suggested for fabrication of ITER in-vessel coolant tubing: beryllium, copper, Inconel, niobium, stainless steel, titanium, and vanadium. This report generates failure rates for the materials to identify the best performer from an operational safety and availability perspective. Coolant types considered in this report are helium gas, liquid lithium, liquid sodium, and water. Failure rates for the materials are generated by including the influence of ITER`s operating environment and anticipated tubing failure mechanisms with industrial operating experience failure rates. The analyses define tubing failure mechanisms for ITER as: intergranular attack, flow erosion, helium induced swelling, hydrogen damage, neutron irradiation embrittlement, cyclic fatigue, and thermal cycling. K-factors, multipliers, are developed to model each failure mechanism and are applied to industrial operating experience failure rates to generate tubing failure rates for ITER. The generated failure rates identify the best performer by its expected reliability. With an average leakage failure rate of 3.1e-10(m-hr){sup {minus}1}and an average rupture failure rate of 3.1e-11(m-hr){sup {minus}1}, titanium proved to be the best performer of the tubing materials. The failure rates generated in this report are intended to serve as comparison references for design safety and optimization studies. Actual material testing and analyses are required to validate the failure rates.

  19. Degradation and failure characteristics of NPP containment protective coating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2000-03-30

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level 1 coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are discussed in this report and the application of these elements to the System 5 coating system (polyamide epoxy primer, carbon steel substrate) is used to evaluate performance.

  20. Case study of slope failures at Spilmans Island

    SciTech Connect

    Kayyal, M.K.; Hasen, M.

    1998-11-01

    This paper presents a case study for a dredge disposal site called Spilmans Island, located along the Houston-Galveston Ship Channel, east of Houston. Initially classified as a sand bar in the San Jacinto River, Spilmans Island evolved in recent years with the construction of perimeter levees to contain the flow of materials produced from dredging operations. These levees were often constructed on soft dredged sediments, and as the levees were raised, occasionally slope failures occurred. The objectives of this paper are to illustrate the importance of reconstructing the history of a site as a basis for geotechnical analyses, and to demonstrate the significance of keeping accurate records of past investigations, construction activities, slope failures and subsequent remedial measures. The results of the geotechnical investigation described in this paper offer a clear example of how such data can be used to provide reliable predictions on the stability conditions of raised levees.

  1. Summary of failure analysis activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cowgill, M.G.; Czajkowski, C.J.; Franz, E.M.

    1996-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has for many years conducted examinations related to the failures of nuclear materials and components. These examinations included the confirmation of root cause analyses, the determination of the causes of failure, identification of the species that accelerate corrosion, and comparison of the results of nondestructive examinations with those obtained by destructive examination. The results of those examinations, which had previously appeared in various formats (formal and informal reports, journal articles, etc.), have been collected together and summarized in the present report. The report is divided into sections according to the general subject matter (for example, corrosion, fatigue, etc.). Each section presents summaries of the information contained in specific reports and publications, all of which are fully identified as to title, authors, report number or journal reference, date of publication, and FIN number under which the work was performed.

  2. Examination of pump failure data in the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Casada, D.

    1996-12-01

    There are several elements that are critical to any program which is used to optimize the availability and reliability of process equipment. Perhaps the most important elements are routine monitoring and predictive maintenance elements. In order to optimize equipment monitoring and predictive maintenance, it is necessary to fundamentally and thoroughly understand the principal failure modes for the equipment and the effectiveness of alternative monitoring methods. While these observations are general in nature, they are certainly true for the {open_quotes}heart{close_quotes} of fluid systems - pumps. In recent years, particularly within the last decade, the capabilities and ease of use of previously existing pump diagnostic technologies, such as vibration monitoring and oil analysis, have improved dramatically. Newer technologies, such as thermal imaging, have been found effective at detecting certain undesirable or degraded conditions, such as misalignment and overheated bearings or packing. The ASME Code and NRC regulatory requirements have been, like essentially all similar code and regulatory bodies, conservative in their adoption or endorsement of newer technologies. The requirements prescribed by the Code and endorsed by the NRC have, in their essence, changed only minimally over more than a dozen years. As a follow-on to studies of check valve failure experience in the nuclear industry that have proven useful in identifying the effectiveness of alternative monitoring methods, a study of nuclear industry pump failure data has been conducted. The results of this study, conducted for the NRC by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are presented. The historical effectiveness of both regulatory required and voluntarily implemented pump monitoring programs are shown. The distribution of pump failures by application, affected area, and level of significance are indicated. Apparent strengths and weaknesses of alternative monitoring methods are discussed.

  3. Potential failure of steam generator tubes following a station blackout

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, L.W.; Palmrose, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is considering changes to pressurized water reactor (PWR) requirements relating to steam generator tube plugging and repair criteria, including leakage monitoring. The proposed changes are known as the alternate tube plugging criteria (APC) and are intended to permit PWRs to operate with through-wall cracks in steam generator tubes subject to meeting a specified limit on predicted primary to secondary leakage under accident conditions. To assess the consequences of the alternate plugging criteria, analyses were performed for a station blackout sequence in which the reactor core melts while the reactor coolant system (RCS) remains at high pressure. Evaluations were conducted to investigate the potential for tube failure with and without secondary system depressurization. The excessive heat coupled with the high-pressure differentials across the steam generator tubes could result in creep rupture failure of the tubes during a severe accident, which could lead to a radiological release directly to the environment. In order to assess the safety significance of the APC, it is important to identify the level of steam generator tube leakage that can occur without challenging the previous study conclusions that steam generator creep failure will not occur prior to a surge line or hot-leg failure. To assess the effect of leakage on steam generator tube integrity during a core melt sequence with the RCS at high pressure and the secondary side of the steam generators pressurized and depressurized, an analysis was performed for a core melt event resulting from an unmitigated station blackout to identify the total steamenerator and tube leakage flow rates that could induce tube ruptures prior to other RCS boudary faliures that could depressurize the RCS.

  4. Defining Human Failure Events for Petroleum Risk Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; Knut Øien

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, an identification and description of barriers and human failure events (HFEs) for human reliability analysis (HRA) is performed. The barriers, called target systems, are identified from risk significant accident scenarios represented as defined situations of hazard and accident (DSHAs). This report serves as the foundation for further work to develop petroleum HFEs compatible with the SPAR-H method and intended for reuse in future HRAs.

  5. DOE Collects Civil Penalties for Failure to Certify Commercial

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Refrigeration Equipment | Department of Energy Commercial Refrigeration Equipment DOE Collects Civil Penalties for Failure to Certify Commercial Refrigeration Equipment November 18, 2015 - 11:54am Addthis The General Counsel's enforcement office recently resolved enforcement actions against two companies that failed to submit required reports to certify that their commercial refrigeration equipment complies with federal energy conservation standards. DOE assessed civil penalties of $8,000

  6. DOE Collects Civil Penalties for Failure to Certify

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Enforcement recently resolved enforcement actions against thirty-nine companies for failure to submit the required certification reports that their covered products or equipment comply with federal energy and water conservation standards. DOE assessed civil penalties averaging about $8,000 per manufacturer for a wide variety of products, including lighting products, home appliances, and commercial walk-in cooler/freezer components.

  7. Product component genealogy modeling and field-failure prediction

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    King, Caleb; Hong, Yili; Meeker, William Q.

    2016-04-13

    Many industrial products consist of multiple components that are necessary for system operation. There is an abundance of literature on modeling the lifetime of such components through competing risks models. During the life-cycle of a product, it is common for there to be incremental design changes to improve reliability, to reduce costs, or due to changes in availability of certain part numbers. These changes can affect product reliability but are often ignored in system lifetime modeling. By incorporating this information about changes in part numbers over time (information that is readily available in most production databases), better accuracy can bemore » achieved in predicting time to failure, thus yielding more accurate field-failure predictions. This paper presents methods for estimating parameters and predictions for this generational model and a comparison with existing methods through the use of simulation. Our results indicate that the generational model has important practical advantages and outperforms the existing methods in predicting field failures.« less

  8. Evaluations of Structural Failure Probabilities and Candidate Inservice Inspection Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Simonen, Fredric A.

    2009-05-01

    The work described in this report applies probabilistic structural mechanics models to predict the reliability of nuclear pressure boundary components. These same models are then applied to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative programs for inservice inspection to reduce these failure probabilities. Results of the calculations support the development and implementation of risk-informed inservice inspection of piping and vessels. Studies have specifically addressed the potential benefits of ultrasonic inspections to reduce failure probabilities associated with fatigue crack growth and stress-corrosion cracking. Parametric calculations were performed with the computer code pc-PRAISE to generate an extensive set of plots to cover a wide range of pipe wall thicknesses, cyclic operating stresses, and inspection strategies. The studies have also addressed critical inputs to fracture mechanics calculations such as the parameters that characterize the number and sizes of fabrication flaws in piping welds. Other calculations quantify uncertainties associated with the inputs calculations, the uncertainties in the fracture mechanics models, and the uncertainties in the resulting calculated failure probabilities. A final set of calculations address the effects of flaw sizing errors on the effectiveness of inservice inspection programs.

  9. LX-17 Corner-Turning and Reactive Flow Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C; Andreski, H; Cook III, C F; Garza, R; Pastrone, R; Phillips, D; Roeske, F; Vitello, P; Molitoris, J

    2004-03-11

    We have performed a series of highly-instrumented experiments examining corner-turning of detonation. A TATB booster is inset 15 mm into LX-17 (92.5% TATB, 7.5% kel-F) so that the detonation must turn a right angle around an air well. An optical pin located at the edge of the TATB gives the start time of the corner-turn. The breakout time on the side and back edges is measured with streak cameras. Three high-resolution X-ray images were taken on each experiment to examine the details of the detonation. We have concluded that the detonation cannot turn the corner and subsequently fails, but the shock wave continues to propagate in the unreacted explosive, leaving behind a dead zone. The detonation front farther out from the corner slowly turns and eventually reaches the air well edge 180{sup o} from its original direction. The dead zone is stable and persists 7.7 {micro}s after the corner-turn, although it has drifted into the original air well area. Our regular reactive flow computer models sometimes show temporary failure but they recover quickly and are unable to model the dead zones. We present a failure model that cuts off the reaction rate below certain detonation velocities and reproduces the qualitative features of the corner-turning failure.

  10. Law Seminar International Tribal Economic Development and Sovereignty

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Law Seminars International is hosting a two-day conference to give an overview of the current legislative developments, Supreme Court cases, and new opportunities for tribal advancement. Attendees will hear about tribal resource development in the Arctic and tribal energy challenges.

  11. Violation of Laws, Losses, and Incidents of Security Concerns

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1992-09-15

    To set forth Department of Energy (DOE) procedures to assure timely and effective action relating to violations of criminal, laws, loses, and incidents of security concern to DOE. Cancels DOE O 5631.5. Canceled by DOE O 470.1 of 9-28-1995.

  12. Clock ambiguity and the emergence of physical laws

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Andreas; Iglesias, Alberto

    2008-03-15

    The process of identifying a time variable in time-reparameterization invariant theories results in great ambiguities about the actual laws of physics described by a given theory. A theory set up to describe one set of physical laws can equally well be interpreted as describing any other laws of physics by making a different choice of time variable or clock. In this article we demonstrate how this 'clock ambiguity' arises and then discuss how one might still hope to extract specific predictions about the laws of physics even when the clock ambiguity is present. We argue that a requirement of quasiseparability should play a critical role in such an analysis. As a step in this direction, we compare the Hamiltonian of a local quantum field theory with a completely random Hamiltonian. We find that any random Hamiltonian (constructed in a sufficiently large space) can yield a 'good enough' approximation to a local field theory. Based on this result we argue that theories that suffer from the clock ambiguity may in the end provide a viable fundamental framework for physics in which locality can be seen as a strongly favored (or predicted) emergent behavior. We also speculate on how other key aspects of known physics such as gauge symmetries and Poincare invariance might be predicted to emerge in this framework.

  13. Exports and the antitrust laws: problems and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Almstedt, K.W.

    1981-11-01

    Currently pending in Congress is the Export Trading Company Act of 1981 that would clarify precisely when American businesses operating overseas are subject to American antitrust laws. The Act encourages business cooperation to increase exports. The mining industry, coal in particular, is on the verge of an export boom and can be a primary beneficiary. 26 refs.

  14. High Temperature Reverse By-Pass Diodes Bias and Failures | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Reverse By-Pass Diodes Bias and Failures High Temperature Reverse By-Pass Diodes Bias and Failures Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, ...

  15. Life Prediction and Classification of Failure Modes in Solid State Luminaires Using Bayesian Probabilistic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Lall, Pradeep; Wei, Junchao; Sakalaukus, Peter

    2014-05-27

    A new method has been developed for assessment of the onset of degradation in solid state luminaires to classify failure mechanisms by using metrics beyond lumen degradation that are currently used for identification of failure. Luminous Flux output, Correlated Color Temperature Data on Philips LED Lamps has been gathered under 85°C/85%RH till lamp failure. The acquired data has been used in conjunction with Bayesian Probabilistic Models to identify luminaires with onset of degradation much prior to failure through identification of decision boundaries between lamps with accrued damage and lamps beyond the failure threshold in the feature space. In addition luminaires with different failure modes have been classified separately from healthy pristine luminaires. It is expected that, the new test technique will allow the development of failure distributions without testing till L70 life for the manifestation of failure.

  16. Failure of man-made cavities in salt and surface subsidence due to sulfur mining

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, G.K.; Lee, C.A.; McClain, W.C.; Senseny, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    An engineering data base relevant to subsidence due to sulfur mining and to structural failure of cavities in salt is established, evaluated and documented. Nineteen failure events are discussed. Based on these documented failure events, capabilities of and inputs to a mathematical model of cavity failure are determined. Two failure events are adequately documented for use in model verification studies. A conclusion of this study that is pertinent to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve is that cavity failures in dome salt are fairly rare, but that as the number of large cavities (especially those having large roof spans) increases, failures will probably be more common unless stability and failure mechanisms of cavities are better understood.

  17. Tritium Waste Treatment System component failure data analysis from June 18, 1984--December 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C. ); Stolpe Gavett, M.A. )

    1990-09-01

    This document gives the failure rates for the major tritium-bearing components in the Tritium Waste Treatment System at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly, which is a fusion research and technology facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The failure reports, component populations, and operating demands/hours are given in this report, and sample calculations for binomial demand failure rates and poisson hourly failure rates are given in the appendices. The failure rates for tritium-bearing components were on the order of the screening failure rate values suggested for fusion reliability and risk analyses. More effort should be directed toward collecting and analyzing fusion component failure data, since accurate failure rates are necessary to refine reliability and risk analyses. 15 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Delamination Failures in Long-Term Field Aged PV Modules from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Delamination Failures in Long-Term Field Aged PV Modules from Point of View of Encapsulant Delamination Failures in Long-Term Field Aged PV Modules from Point of View of ...

  19. Extended Leach Testing of Simulated LAW Cast Stone Monoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.; Williams, Benjamin D.; Jung, H. B.; Wang, Guohui

    2015-07-09

    This report describes the results from long-term laboratory leach tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the release of key constituents from monoliths of Cast Stone prepared with four simulated low-activity waste (LAW) liquid waste streams. Specific objectives of the Cast Stone long-term leach tests described in this report focused on four activities: 1. Extending the leaching times for selected ongoing EPA-1315 tests on monoliths made with LAW simulants beyond the conventional 63-day time period up to 609 days reported herein (with some tests continuing that will be documented later) in an effort to evaluate long-term leaching properties of Cast Stone to support future performance assessment activities. 2. Starting new EPA-1315 leach tests on archived Cast Stone monoliths made with four LAW simulants using two leachants (deionized water [DIW] and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water [VZP]). 3. Evaluating the impacts of varying the iodide loading (starting iodide concentrations) in one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) Average) by manufacturing new Cast Stone monoliths and repeating the EPA-1315 leach tests using DIW and the VZP leachants. 4. Evaluating the impacts of using a non-pertechnetate form of Tc that is present in some Hanford tanks. In this activity one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na HTWOS Average) was spiked with a Tc(I)-tricarbonyl gluconate species and then solidified into Cast Stone monoliths. Cured monoliths were leached using the EPA-1315 leach protocol with DIW and VZP. The leach results for the Tc-Gluconate Cast Stone monoliths were compared to Cast Stone monoliths pertechnetate.

  20. 01-12-2000 - Mechanical Failure of Supplied Air Fitting | The...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    2000 - Mechanical Failure of Supplied Air Fitting Document Number: NA Effective Date: 012000 File (public): 01-12-2000...

  1. Accelerated Testing and On-Sun Failure of CPV Die-Attach (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N.; Kurtz, S.; Stokes, A.

    2010-10-01

    Accelerated Testing and On-Sun Failure of CPV Die-attach. Presentation on CPV accelerated reliability testing.

  2. Compilation of Failure Data and Fault Tree Analysis for Geothermal Energy Conversion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, F.L., Jr.; Zimmerman, D.E.

    1990-11-01

    The failure data for geothermal energy conversion facilities collected to date are compiled and tabled. These facilities have not accumulated sufficient production history to reliably estimated component failure rates. In addition, the improvements made in drilling technology in recent years may have made less pertinent the accumulation of data on well failures.

  3. Effect of Component Failures on Economics of Distributed Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lubin, Barry T.

    2012-02-02

    This report describes an applied research program to assess the realistic costs of grid connected photovoltaic (PV) installations. A Board of Advisors was assembled that included management from the regional electric power utilities, as well as other participants from companies that work in the electric power industry. Although the program started with the intention of addressing effective load carrying capacity (ELCC) for utility-owned photovoltaic installations, results from the literature study and recommendations from the Board of Advisors led investigators to the conclusion that obtaining effective data for this analysis would be difficult, if not impossible. The effort was then re-focused on assessing the realistic costs and economic valuations of grid-connected PV installations. The 17 kW PV installation on the University of Hartford's Lincoln Theater was used as one source of actual data. The change in objective required a more technically oriented group. The re-organized working group (changes made due to the need for more technically oriented participants) made site visits to medium-sized PV installations in Connecticut with the objective of developing sources of operating histories. An extensive literature review helped to focus efforts in several technical and economic subjects. The objective of determining the consequences of component failures on both generation and economic returns required three analyses. The first was a Monte-Carlo-based simulation model for failure occurrences and the resulting downtime. Published failure data, though limited, was used to verify the results. A second model was developed to predict the reduction in or loss of electrical generation related to the downtime due to these failures. Finally, a comprehensive economic analysis, including these failures, was developed to determine realistic net present values of installed PV arrays. Two types of societal benefits were explored, with quantitative valuations developed for

  4. RHIC POWER SUPPLIES-FAILURE STATISTICS FOR RUNS 4, 5, AND 6

    SciTech Connect

    BRUNO,D.; GANETIS, G.; SANDBERG, J.; LOUIE, W.; HEPPNER, G.; SCHULTHEISS, C.

    2007-06-25

    The two rings in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RFIIC) require a total of 933 power supplies to supply current to highly inductive superconducting magnets. Failure statistics for the RHIC power supplies will be failure associated with the CEPS group's responsibilities. presented for the last three RHIC runs. The failures of the power supplies will be analyzed. The statistics associated with the power supply failures will be presented. Comparisons of the failure statistics for the last three RHIC runs will be shown. Improvements that have increased power supply availability will be discussed.

  5. Polymer Filler Aging and Failure Studied by Lateral Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ratto, T; Saab, A P

    2009-05-27

    In the present work, we study, via force microscopy, the basic physical interactions of a single bead of silica filler with a PDMS matrix both before and after exposure to gamma radiation. Our goal was to confirm our results from last year, and to explore force microscopy as a means of obtaining particle-scale polymer/filler interactions suitable for use as empirical inputs to a computational model consisting of an ensemble of silica beads embedded in a PDMS matrix. Through careful calibration of a conventional atomic force microscope, we obtained both normal and lateral force data that was fitted to yield adhesion, surface shear modulus, and friction of a 1 {micro}m silica bead in contact with PDMS layers of various thickness. Comparison of these terms before and after gamma exposure indicated that initially, radiation exposure lead to softening of the PDMS, but eventually resulted in stiffening. Simultaneously, adhesion between the polymer and silica decreased. This could indicate a serious failure path for filled PDMS exposed to radiation, whereby stiffening of the bulk polymer leads to loss of compressive elastic behavior, while a decrease in polymer filler adhesion results in an increased likelihood of stress failure under load. In addition to further testing of radiation damaged polymers, we also performed FEA modeling of silica beads in a silicone matrix using the shear modulus and adhesion values isolated from the force microscopy experiments as model inputs. The resulting simulation indicated that as a polymer stiffens due to impinging radiation, it also undergoes weakening of adhesion to the filler. The implication is that radiation induces a compound failure mode in filled polymer systems.

  6. Corrosion and failure processes in high-level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Mahidhara, R.K.; Elleman, T.S.; Murty, K.L.

    1992-11-01

    A large amount of radioactive waste has been stored safely at the Savannah River and Hanford sites over the past 46 years. The aim of this report is to review the experimental corrosion studies at Savannah River and Hanford with the intention of identifying the types and rates of corrosion encountered and indicate how these data contribute to tank failure predictions. The compositions of the High-Level Wastes, mild steels used in the construction of the waste tanks and degradation-modes particularly stress corrosion cracking and pitting are discussed. Current concerns at the Hanford Site are highlighted.

  7. Component failures at pressurized water reactors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reisinger, M.F.

    1980-10-01

    Objectives of this study were to identify those systems having major impact on safety and availability (i.e. to identify those systems and components whose failures have historically caused the greatest number of challenges to the reactor protective systems and which have resulted in greatest loss of electric generation time). These problems were identified for engineering solutions and recommendations made for areas and programs where research and development should be concentrated. The program was conducted in three major phases: Data Analysis, Engineering Evaluation, Cost Benefit Analysis.

  8. Analysis of damage and failure in metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Brust, F.W.; Majumdar, B.S.; Newaz, G.M.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the results of the analysis of the constitutive response of a model Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) system. The model is described first, followed by some direct comparison of predicted response to corresponding experimental data. An important result discussed here is that when model verification is made, it is important to compare load direction response to the experimental data, but also, comparisons to the out of load direction response must be made, or the model may not be performing as desired. Some discussion of failure predictions using simple models is also made here.

  9. Weld monitor and failure detector for nuclear reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Sutton, Jr., Harry G.

    1987-01-01

    Critical but inaccessible welds in a nuclear reactor system are monitored throughout the life of the reactor by providing small aperture means projecting completely through the reactor vessel wall and also through the weld or welds to be monitored. The aperture means is normally sealed from the atmosphere within the reactor. Any incipient failure or cracking of the weld will cause the environment contained within the reactor to pass into the aperture means and thence to the outer surface of the reactor vessel where its presence is readily detected.

  10. 2014 Enhanced LAW Glass Property-Composition Models, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Isabelle; Pegg, Ian L.; Joseph, Innocent; Gilbo, Konstantin

    2015-10-28

    This report describes the results of testing specified by the Enhanced LAW Glass Property-Composition Models, VSL-13T3050-1, Rev. 0 Test Plan. The work was performed in compliance with the quality assurance requirements specified in the Test Plan. Results required by the Test Plan are reported. The te4st results and this report have been reviewed for correctness, technical adequacy, completeness, and accuracy.

  11. Generalised relativistic Ohm's laws, extended gauge transformations, and magnetic linking

    SciTech Connect

    Pegoraro, F.

    2015-11-15

    Generalisations of the relativistic ideal Ohm's law are presented that include specific dynamical features of the current carrying particles in a plasma. Cases of interest for space and laboratory plasmas are identified where these generalisations allow for the definition of generalised electromagnetic fields that transform under a Lorentz boost in the same way as the real electromagnetic fields and that obey the same set of homogeneous Maxwell's equations.

  12. DOE Awards Hanford Site Law Enforcement Contract to Benton County

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, WASH. – The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded a contract to the Benton County Sheriff’s Office in Kennewick, Wash., to provide law enforcement services at the DOE Hanford Site. The contract has a five-year period of performance, consisting of a one-year base period, with four one-year option periods and an approximate total value of $5 million.

  13. Power-law cosmology, SN Ia, and BAO

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, Aleksander; Halenka, Vitali; Tkachev, Igor E-mail: vithal@umich.edu

    2014-10-01

    We revise observational constraints on the class of models of modified gravity which at low redshifts lead to a power-law cosmology. To this end we use available public data on Supernova Ia and on baryon acoustic oscillations. We show that the expansion regime a(t)?t{sup ?} with ? close to 3/2 in a spatially flat universe is a good fit to these data.

  14. Daniel Cohen Assistant General Counsel for Legislation and Regulatory Law

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    2, 2014 Daniel Cohen Assistant General Counsel for Legislation and Regulatory Law Office of the General Counsel Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585-0121 Re: Ex Parte Communication following meeting between DOE and the National Marine Manufacturers Association At 2 p.m. ET on Wednesday, May 7 2014 the National Marine Manufacturers Association (NMMA) along with representatives from three of its member organizations met with Jeremy Dommu of the Department of

  15. Daniel Cohen Assistant General Counsel for Legislation and Regulatory Law

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Daniel Cohen Assistant General Counsel for Legislation and Regulatory Law Office of the General Counsel Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585-0121 Re: Ex Parte Memorandum Dear Mr. Cohen: On Tuesday, May 4, 2010, Kit Kennedy and Kate Houren of the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) initiated a telephone call with Daniel Cohen and Bryan Miller of the Department of Energy's Office of the General Council. During the call, NRDC advocated for the adoption of the

  16. Argonne researchers posit way to locally circumvent Second Law of

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermodynamics | Argonne National Laboratory You may also like Integrated Imaging Institute helps innovators envision success October 21, 2016 Argonne researchers posit way to locally circumvent Second Law of Thermodynamics October 19, 2016 Building a room clean enough to make sensors to find light from the birth of the universe October 17, 2016 Argonne and Kyma Technologies win spot in second cohort of Technologist In Residence Program October 6, 2016 A novel way to power greener homes

  17. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    SciTech Connect

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  18. Robust regression on noisy data for fusion scaling laws

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoolaege, Geert

    2014-11-15

    We introduce the method of geodesic least squares (GLS) regression for estimating fusion scaling laws. Based on straightforward principles, the method is easily implemented, yet it clearly outperforms established regression techniques, particularly in cases of significant uncertainty on both the response and predictor variables. We apply GLS for estimating the scaling of the L-H power threshold, resulting in estimates for ITER that are somewhat higher than predicted earlier.

  19. Effect of confinement on failure in 95 TATB/5 KEL-F

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsay, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    A modification of the usual wedge test for measuring the failure thickness has been developed that eliminates the effect of the confinement provided by the witness plate. The new test uses a prism of the explosive with a line initiator to start a detonation along the trapezoidal face of the prism. Experiments using PBX 9502 have shown that the failure thickness measured using the prism test is 1/2 the failure diameter measured in long cyclindrical charges, provided the wave can propagate 15 to 25 times the failure width. No significant effects of confinement is observed for low impedance confinement, whereas high impedance materials reduce the failure thickness. Thin layers of confinement reduce the failure thickness significantly. Copper, 0.025 mm thick, and 0.25-mm aluminum each reduce the failure thickness of PBX 9502 by 35%. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Nebraska governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitiled ''Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities--Volume One: An Overview.'' This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  1. FIA-13-0074 - In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    74 - In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group, LLC FIA-13-0074 - In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group, LLC On December 16, 2013, the Department of Energy's (DOE) ...

  2. NEPA at 19: A Primer on an "Old" Law with Solutions to New Problems...

    Energy Saver

    at 19: A Primer on an "Old" Law with Solutions to New Problems (CEQ, 1989) NEPA at 19: A Primer on an "Old" Law with Solutions to New Problems (CEQ, 1989) In this article, the ...

  3. FIA-13-0027 - In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    27 - In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group, LLC FIA-13-0027 - In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group, LLC On June 10, 2013, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office ...

  4. FIA-12-0056 - In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    56 - In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group, LLC FIA-12-0056 - In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group, LLC On October 19, 2012, the Department of Energy's (DOE) ...

  5. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER...

  6. Getting into hot water: the law of geothermal resources in Colorado...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Getting into hot water: the law of geothermal resources in Colorado Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Periodical: Getting into hot water: the law...

  7. Public Law 109-364, dated OCT 17, 2006 | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Public Law 109-364, dated OCT 17, 2006, Subtitle D-United States Defense Industrial Base Provisions Public Law 109-364, dated OCT 17, 2006 More Documents & Publications Special...

  8. 1 V.S.A. Chapter 5 Common Law; General Rights | Open Energy Informatio...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    V.S.A. Chapter 5 Common Law; General Rights Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: 1 V.S.A. Chapter 5 Common Law;...

  9. Long-Range Validity of Threshold Laws in Inner-Shell Photodetachment

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Wednesday, 29 March 2006 00:00 A threshold law describes the dependence of a reaction ... threshold behavior with a threshold law or a departure from it can be a sensitive ...

  10. Photomultiplier tube failure under hydrostatic pressure in future neutrino detectors

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Chambliss, K.; Diwan, M.; Simos, N.; Sundaram, S. K.

    2014-10-09

    Failure of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) under hydrostatic pressure is a concern in neutrino detection, specifically, in the proposed Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment project. Controlled hydrostatic implosion tests were performed on prototypic PMT bulbs of 10-inch diameter and recorded using high speed filming techniques to capture failures in detail. These high-speed videos were analyzed frame-by-frame in order to identify the origin of a crack, measure the progression of individual crack along the surface of the bulb as it propagates through the glass, and estimate crack velocity. Crack velocity was calculated for each individual crack, and an average velocity was determined for allmore » measurable cracks on each bulb. Overall, 32 cracks were measured in 9 different bulbs tested. Finite element modeling (FEM) of crack formation and growth in prototypic PMT shows stress concentration near the middle section of the PMT bulbs that correlates well with our crack velocity measurements in that section. The FEM model predicts a crack velocity value that is close to the terminal crack velocity reported. Our measurements also reveal significantly reduced crack velocities compared to terminal crack velocities measured in glasses using fracture mechanics testing and reported in literature.« less

  11. Photomultiplier tube failure under hydrostatic pressure in future neutrino detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Chambliss, K.; Diwan, M.; Simos, N.; Sundaram, S. K.

    2014-10-09

    Failure of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) under hydrostatic pressure is a concern in neutrino detection, specifically, in the proposed Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment project. Controlled hydrostatic implosion tests were performed on prototypic PMT bulbs of 10-inch diameter and recorded using high speed filming techniques to capture failures in detail. These high-speed videos were analyzed frame-by-frame in order to identify the origin of a crack, measure the progression of individual crack along the surface of the bulb as it propagates through the glass, and estimate crack velocity. Crack velocity was calculated for each individual crack, and an average velocity was determined for all measurable cracks on each bulb. Overall, 32 cracks were measured in 9 different bulbs tested. Finite element modeling (FEM) of crack formation and growth in prototypic PMT shows stress concentration near the middle section of the PMT bulbs that correlates well with our crack velocity measurements in that section. The FEM model predicts a crack velocity value that is close to the terminal crack velocity reported. Our measurements also reveal significantly reduced crack velocities compared to terminal crack velocities measured in glasses using fracture mechanics testing and reported in literature.

  12. Refractory failure in IGCC fossil fuel power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Cynthia P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    Current generation refractory materials used in slagging gasifiers employed in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) fossil fuel power systems have unacceptably short service lives, limiting the reliability and cost effectiveness of gasification as a means to generate power. The short service life of the refractory lining results from exposure to the extreme environment inside the operating gasifier, where the materials challenges include temperatures to 1650 C, thermal cycling, alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions, and the presence of corrosive slags and gases. Compounding these challenges is the current push within the industry for fuel flexibility, which results in slag chemistries and operating conditions that can vary widely as the feedstock for the gasifier is supplemented with alternative sources of carbon, such as petroleum coke and biomass. As a step toward our goal of developing improved refractory materials for this application, we have characterized refractory-slag interactions, under a variety of simulated gasifier conditions, utilizing laboratory exposure tests such as the static cup test and a gravimetric test. Combining this information with that gained from the post-mortem analyses of spent refractories removed from working gasifiers, we have developed a better understanding of refractory failure in gasifier environments. In this paper, we discuss refractory failures in slagging gasifiers and possible strategies to reduce them. Emphasis focuses on the refractories employed in gasifier systems which utilize coal as the primary feedstock.

  13. Test-to-Failure of Crystalline Silicon Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S.; Trudell, D.; Bosco, N.; Johnston, S.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2010-10-01

    Accelerated lifetime testing of five crystalline silicon module designs was carried out according to the Terrestrial Photovoltaic Module Accelerated Test-to-Failure Protocol. This protocol compares the reliability of various module constructions on a quantitative basis. The modules under test are subdivided into three accelerated lifetime testing paths: 85..deg..C/85% relative humidity with system bias, thermal cycling between ?40..deg..C and 85..deg..C, and a path that alternates between damp heat and thermal cycling. The most severe stressor is damp heat with system bias applied to simulate the voltages that modules experience when connected in an array. Positive 600 V applied to the active layer with respect to the grounded module frame accelerates corrosion of the silver grid fingers and degrades the silicon nitride antireflective coating on the cells. Dark I-V curve fitting indicates increased series resistance and saturation current around the maximum power point; however, an improvement in junction recombination characteristics is obtained. Shunt paths and cell-metallization interface failures are seen developing in the silicon cells as determined by electroluminescence, thermal imaging, and I-V curves in the case of negative 600 V bias applied to the active layer. Ability to withstand electrolytic corrosion, moisture ingress, and ion drift under system voltage bias are differentiated.

  14. STUDY OF THE RHIC BPM SMA CONNECTOR FAILURE PROBLEM

    SciTech Connect

    LIAW,C.; SIKORA, R.; SCHROEDER, R.

    2007-06-25

    About 730 BPMs are mounted on the RHIC CQS and Triplet super-conducting magnets. Semi-rigid coaxial cables are used to bring the electrical signal from the BPM feedthroughs to the outside flanges. at the ambient temperature. Every year around 10 cables will lose their signals during the operation. The connection usually failed at the warm end of the cable. The problems were either the solder joint failed or the center conductor retracted out of the SMA connector. Finite element analyses were performed to understand the failure mechanism of the solder joint. The results showed that (1) The SMA center conductor can separate from the mating connector due to the thermal retraction. (2) The maximum thermal stress at the warm end solder joint can exceed the material strength of the Pb37/Sn63 solder material and (3) The magnet ramping frequency (-10 Hz), during the machine startup, can possibly resonant the coaxial cable and damage the solder joints, especially when a fracture is initiated. Test results confirmed that by using the silver bearing solder material (a higher strength material) and by crimping the cable at the locations close to the SMA connector (to prevent the center conductor from retracting) can effectively resolve the connector failure problem.

  15. RECONFIGURING POWER SYSTEMS TO MINIMIZE CASCADING FAILURES: MODELS AND ALGORITHMS

    SciTech Connect

    Bienstock, Daniel

    2014-04-11

    the main goal of this project was to develop new scientific tools, based on optimization techniques, with the purpose of controlling and modeling cascading failures of electrical power transmission systems. We have developed a high-quality tool for simulating cascading failures. The problem of how to control a cascade was addressed, with the aim of stopping the cascade with a minimum of load lost. Yet another aspect of cascade is the investigation of which events would trigger a cascade, or more appropriately the computation of the most harmful initiating event given some constraint on the severity of the event. One common feature of the cascade models described (indeed, of several of the cascade models found in the literature) is that we study thermally-induced line tripping. We have produced a study that accounts for exogenous randomness (e.g. wind and ambient temperature) that could affect the thermal behavior of a line, with a focus on controlling the power flow of the line while maintaining safe probability of line overload. This was done by means of a rigorous analysis of a stochastic version of the heat equation. we incorporated a model of randomness in the behavior of wind power output; again modeling an OPF-like problem that uses chance-constraints to maintain low probability of line overloads; this work has been continued so as to account for generator dynamics as well.

  16. Recent tax law changes create new opportunities for leasing wind energy property

    SciTech Connect

    Schutzer, George J.

    2010-01-15

    Recent changes in tax law make leveraged lease transactions far more attractive on paper than they were before the changes. However, changes in the economy and the financial industry and other changes in law counterbalance the favorable tax law changes and make it uncertain whether lease transactions will be used to finance new wind facilities. (author)

  17. Proceedings of the Eastern Mineral Law Foundation's 1983 fourth annual institute

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on mineral law. Topics considered include oil and gas leases, the environmental regulation of coal mining, breach of coal supply contracts, coal bankruptcies, natural gas pricing regulation, landowner's royalties, recent developments in oil and gas law, and recent cases affecting coal law practice.

  18. Understanding and Exploiting Spatial Properties of System Failures on Extreme-Scale HPC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, Devesh; Rogers, James H; Maxwell, Don E

    2015-01-01

    As we approach exascale, the scientific simulations are expected to experience more interruptions due to increased system failures. Designing better HPC resilience techniques requires understanding the key characteristics of system failures on these systems. While temporal properties of system failures on HPC systems have been well-investigated, there is limited understanding about the spatial characteristics of system failures and its impact on the resilience mechanisms. Therefore, we examine the spatial characteristics and behavior of system failures. We investigate the interaction between spatial and temporal characteristics of failures and its implications for system operations and resilience mechanisms on large-scale HPC systems. We show that system failures have spatial locality at different granularity in the system; study impact of different failure-types; and investigate the correlation among different failure-types. Finally, we propose a novel scheme that exploits the spatial locality in failures to improve application and system performance. Our evaluation shows that the proposed scheme significantly improves the system performance in a dynamic and production-level HPC system.

  19. A weak zero-one law for sequences of random distance graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukovskii, Maksim E

    2012-07-31

    We study zero-one laws for properties of random distance graphs. Properties written in a first-order language are considered. For p(N) such that pN{sup {alpha}}{yields}{infinity} as N{yields}{infinity}, and (1-p)N{sup {alpha}} {yields} {infinity} as N {yields} {infinity} for any {alpha}>0, we succeed in refuting the law. In this connection, we consider a weak zero-one j-law. For this law, we obtain results for random distance graphs which are similar to the assertions concerning the classical zero-one law for random graphs. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  20. Controlling weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-08-08

    Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the improvement in international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. The emphasis in the phrase ``Cold War`` was on the word ``cold,`` and relations with the former Communist regimes are now ``warm`` by comparison. It is equally valid to consider what has happened to the word ``was` in this highly descriptive phrase. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of the last fifty years, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. Out of these military postures a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to controlling weapons,of mass destruction through the ``rule of law.`` Rawls wrote that ``legal system is a coercive order of public rules addressed to rational persons for the purpose of regulating their conduct and providing the framework for social cooperation. The regular and impartial administration of public rules, becomes the rule of law when applied to the legal system.`` Inparticular, Rawls identifies as part of this system of public rules those laws that aim to prevent free riders on the economic system and those that aim to correct such externalities as environmental pollution.``

  1. Component Failure Rate Data Sources for Probabilistic Safety and Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; S. A. Eide

    2010-09-01

    Probabilistic safety methods are being used in several industries, including chemical, manufacturing, and energy. When performing reliability studies or using probabilistic safety approaches, a basic need arises for input data on failure rates of the mechanical, electrical, instrumentation and control, and other components that comprise the engineering systems in the facility. Some companies have many types of data stored and can retrieve these in-house data for such uses. Other companies hire consultants to perform safety assessments; the consulting firms often use their own data bases. For those analysts who do not have either of those options available, this paper presents some data sources that are retrievable from the literature. These data sources have been evaluated with a basic rating of usefulness for analysis work, and each has a description of what data can be found in the citation that can be used to support assessments in industry. The accessibility of data documents via the internet is also described.

  2. Inflation in the generalized inverse power law scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zhun

    2013-11-01

    We propose a single field inflationary model by generalizing the inverse power law potential from the intermediate model. We study the implication of our model on the primordial anisotropy of cosmological microwave background radiation. Specifically, we apply the slow-roll approximation to calculate the scalar spectral tilt n{sub s} and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r. The results are compared with the recent data measured by the Planck satellite. We find that by choosing proper values for the parameters, our model can well describe the Planck data.

  3. Summary - WTP Analytical Lab, BOF and LAW Waste Vitrification Facilities

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Wa Schem DOE is Immob site's t facilitie Balanc Activity of this techno facilitie are su WTP d Readin The as along w Level ( * Tw 1. 2. The Ele Site: H roject: W Report Date: M ited States aste Trea Labo Why DOE matic of Laser Ab s constructing bilization Plant tank wastes. T es including an ces of Facilities y Waste (LAW assessment w ology elements es (LAB, BOF, fficiently matur design, which n ness Level of 6 What th ssessment team with each elem (TRL) for the L wo LAB system . Autosamplin

  4. Failure detection in high-performance clusters and computers using chaotic map computations

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Nageswara S.

    2015-09-01

    A programmable media includes a processing unit capable of independent operation in a machine that is capable of executing 10.sup.18 floating point operations per second. The processing unit is in communication with a memory element and an interconnect that couples computing nodes. The programmable media includes a logical unit configured to execute arithmetic functions, comparative functions, and/or logical functions. The processing unit is configured to detect computing component failures, memory element failures and/or interconnect failures by executing programming threads that generate one or more chaotic map trajectories. The central processing unit or graphical processing unit is configured to detect a computing component failure, memory element failure and/or an interconnect failure through an automated comparison of signal trajectories generated by the chaotic maps.

  5. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance.

  6. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2007-08-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance.

  7. Generic component failure data base for light water and liquid sodium reactor PRAs (probabilistic risk assessments)

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, S.A.; Chmielewski, S.V.; Swantz, T.D.

    1990-02-01

    A comprehensive generic component failure data base has been developed for light water and liquid sodium reactor probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). The Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) and the Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) data bases were used to generate component failure rates. Using this approach, most of the failure rates are based on actual plant data rather than existing estimates. 21 refs., 9 tabs.

  8. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US Massive Gas Injection Disruption Mitigation System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a candidate design for the ITER Disruption Mitigation System. This candidate is the Massive Gas Injection System that provides machine protection in a plasma disruption event. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data as well as some data calculated from operating facilities, and the failure events were ranked for their criticality to system operation.

  9. Success in prevention of casing failures opposite salts, Little Knife Field, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Rike, E.A.; Bryant, G.A.; Williams, S.D.

    1986-04-01

    The authors became aware in early 1981 of a severe problem with casing failures opposite salts in the Little Knife Field. A concerted engineering effort was initiated to isolate and to remedy the cause of failures. With the use of a relaxed invert-oil-emulsion drilling fluid and properly designed cementing programs, the problem has been arrested. In the 26 wells drilled in the Little Knife Field since initiation of this drilling program, there have been no instances of casing failure.

  10. Failure and Degradation Modes of PV Modules in a Hot Dry Climate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Report Delamination Failures in Long-Term Field Aged PV Modules from Point of View of Encapsulant Accelerated Stress Testing, Qualification Testing, HAST, Field Experience

  11. An Experimental Study of Shear-Dominated Failure in the 2013...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the 2013 Sandia Fracture Challenge Specimen Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Experimental Study of Shear-Dominated Failure in the 2013 Sandia Fracture ...

  12. Probability of loss of assured safety in systems with multiple time-dependent failure modes.

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, Jon Craig; Pilch, Martin M.; Sallaberry, Cedric M.

    2012-09-01

    Weak link (WL)/strong link (SL) systems are important parts of the overall operational design of high-consequence systems. In such designs, the SL system is very robust and is intended to permit operation of the entire system under, and only under, intended conditions. In contrast, the WL system is intended to fail in a predictable and irreversible manner under accident conditions and render the entire system inoperable before an accidental operation of the SL system. The likelihood that the WL system will fail to deactivate the entire system before the SL system fails (i.e., degrades into a configuration that could allow an accidental operation of the entire system) is referred to as probability of loss of assured safety (PLOAS). Representations for PLOAS for situations in which both link physical properties and link failure properties are time-dependent are derived and numerically evaluated for a variety of WL/SL configurations, including PLOAS defined by (i) failure of all SLs before failure of any WL, (ii) failure of any SL before failure of any WL, (iii) failure of all SLs before failure of all WLs, and (iv) failure of any SL before failure of all WLs. The effects of aleatory uncertainty and epistemic uncertainty in the definition and numerical evaluation of PLOAS are considered.

  13. Microsoft PowerPoint - STP Blade Failure_Hentschel_SWPA Conf...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Stockton Turbine Blade Failure Spillway Tainter Gates Tailrace Powerhouse Switchyard BUILDING STRONG Stockton Power Plant Cross Section Location of failed blade section Runner ...

  14. 01-12-2000 - Mechanical Failure of Supplied Air Fitting | The Ames

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory 2000 - Mechanical Failure of Supplied Air Fitting Document Number: NA Effective Date: 01/2000 File (public): PDF icon 01-12-2000

  15. Operating experience feedback report: Service water system failures and degradations: Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.; Leeds, E.

    1988-11-01

    A comprehensive review and evaluation of service water system failures and degradations observed in operating events in light water reactors from 1980 to 1987 has been conducted. The review and evaluation focused on the identification of causes of system failures and degradations, the adequacy of corrective actions implemented and planned, and the safety significance of the operating events. The results of this review and evaluation indicate that the service water system failures and degradations have significant safety implications. These system failures and degradations are attributable to a great variety of causes, and have adverse impact on a large number of safety-related systems and components which are required to mitigate reactor accidents. Specifically, the causes of failures and degradations include various fouling mechanisms (sediment deposition, biofouling, corrosion and erosion, pipe coating failure, calcium carbonate, foreign material and debris intrusion); single failures and other design deficiencies; flooding; multiple equipment failures; personnel and procedural errors; and seismic deficiencies. Systems and components adversely impacted by a service water system failure or degradation include the component cooling water system, emergency diesel generators, emergency core cooling system pumps and heat exchangers, the residual heat removal system, containment spray and fan coolers, control room chillers, and reactor building cooling units. 44 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications

    SciTech Connect

    Barshick, S.-A.; Griest, W.H.; Vass, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic `fingerprint` pattern representative of the vapor- phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The results to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

  17. Large Deformation Constitutive Laws for Isotropic Thermoelastic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Plohr, Bradley J.; Plohr, Jeeyeon N.

    2012-07-25

    We examine the approximations made in using Hooke's law as a constitutive relation for an isotropic thermoelastic material subjected to large deformation by calculating the stress evolution equation from the free energy. For a general thermoelastic material, we employ the volume-preserving part of the deformation gradient to facilitate volumetric/shear strain decompositions of the free energy, its first derivatives (the Cauchy stress and entropy), and its second derivatives (the specific heat, Grueneisen tensor, and elasticity tensor). Specializing to isotropic materials, we calculate these constitutive quantities more explicitly. For deformations with limited shear strain, but possibly large changes in volume, we show that the differential equations for the stress components involve new terms in addition to the traditional Hooke's law terms. These new terms are of the same order in the shear strain as the objective derivative terms needed for frame indifference; unless the latter terms are negligible, the former cannot be neglected. We also demonstrate that accounting for the new terms requires that the deformation gradient be included as a field variable

  18. Effects of collisions on conservation laws in gyrokinetic field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, H.; Nunami, M.; Watanabe, T.-H.

    2015-08-15

    Effects of collisions on conservation laws for toroidal plasmas are investigated based on the gyrokinetic field theory. Associating the collisional system with a corresponding collisionless system at a given time such that the two systems have the same distribution functions and electromagnetic fields instantaneously, it is shown how the collisionless conservation laws derived from Noether's theorem are modified by the collision term. Effects of the external source term added into the gyrokinetic equation can be formulated similarly with the collisional effects. Particle, energy, and toroidal momentum balance equations including collisional and turbulent transport fluxes are systematically derived using a novel gyrokinetic collision operator, by which the collisional change rates of energy and canonical toroidal angular momentum per unit volume in the gyrocenter space can be given in the conservative forms. The ensemble-averaged transport equations of particles, energy, and toroidal momentum given in the present work are shown to include classical, neoclassical, and turbulent transport fluxes which agree with those derived from conventional recursive formulations.

  19. LiveWall Operational Evaluation: Seattle Law Enforcement Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Burtner, Edwin R.; Stein, Steven L.

    2013-10-01

    The LiveWall concept envisioned as an outgrowth of the Precision Information Environment (PIE) project allows communications between separate groups using interactive video, audio, and a shared desktop environment; this allows everyone to participate and collaborate in real time, regardless of location. The LiveWall concept provides a virtual window to other locations, where all parties can interact and collaboratively work with each other. This functionality is intended to improve multi-site coordination amongst emergency operations centers (EOC), field operations sites and across organizations and jurisdictions to accommodate communications during routine and emergency events. For the initial LiveWall operational evaluation PNNL partnered with the Seattle Police Department (SPD). This partnership allowed for the creation of an excellent LiveWall test bed specific to law enforcement. This partnership made it possible to test the LiveWall concept with scenarios involving the many facets of the law enforcement work done by SPD. PNNL and SPD agreed that integrating the systems into operations for a real event would be the best test of the technology and give SPD staff greater visibility into the functionality and benefits offered by the LiveWall concept.

  20. Chapter 11. Fuel Economy: The Case for Market Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L; German, John; Delucchi, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of energy using durable goods, from automobiles to home air conditioners, is not only a key determinant of economy-wide energy use but also of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, climate change and energy insecurity. Energy analysts have long noted that consumers appear to have high implicit discount rates for future fuel savings when choosing among energy using durable goods (Howarth and Sanstad, 1995). In modeling consumers choices of appliances, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) has used discount rates of 30 percent for heating systems, 69 percent for choice of refrigerator and up to 111 percent for choice of water heater (U.S. DOE/EIA, 1996). Several explanations have been offered for this widespread phenomenon, including asymmetric information, bounded rationality and transaction costs. This chapter argues that uncertainty combined with loss aversion by consumers is sufficient to explain the failure to adopt cost effective energy efficiency improvements in the market for automotive fuel economy, although other market failures appear to be present as well. Understanding how markets for energy efficiency function is crucial to formulating effective energy policies (see Pizer, 2006). Fischer et al., (2004), for example, demonstrated that if consumers fully value the discounted present value of future fuel savings, fuel economy standards are largely redundant and produce small welfare losses. However, if consumers value only the first three years of fuel savings, then fuel economy standards can significantly increase consumer welfare. The nature of any market failure that might be present in the market for energy efficiency would also affect the relative efficacy of energy taxes versus regulatory standards (CBO, 2003). If markets function efficiently, energy taxes would generally be more efficient than regulatory standards in increasing energy efficiency and reducing energy use. If markets are decidedly inefficient, standards would likely be

  1. Patterns of Failure After MammoSite Brachytherapy Partial Breast Irradiation: A Detailed Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Sea Dickler, Adam; Kirk, Michael; Shah, Anand; Jokich, Peter; Solmos, Gene; Strauss, Jonathan; Dowlatshahi, Kambiz; Nguyen, Cam; Griem, Katherine

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To report the results of a detailed analysis of treatment failures after MammoSite breast brachytherapy for partial breast irradiation from our single-institution experience. Methods and Materials: Between October 14, 2002 and October 23, 2006, 78 patients with early-stage breast cancer were treated with breast-conserving surgery and accelerated partial breast irradiation using the MammoSite brachytherapy applicator. We identified five treatment failures in the 70 patients with >6 months' follow-up. Pathologic data, breast imaging, and radiation treatment plans were reviewed. For in-breast failures more than 2 cm away from the original surgical bed, the doses delivered to the areas of recurrence by partial breast irradiation were calculated. Results: At a median follow-up time of 26.1 months, five treatment failures were identified. There were three in-breast failures more than 2 cm away from the original surgical bed, one failure directly adjacent to the original surgical bed, and one failure in the axilla with synchronous distant metastases. The crude failure rate was 7.1% (5 of 70), and the crude local failure rate was 5.7% (4 of 70). Estimated progression-free survival at 48 months was 89.8% (standard error 4.5%). Conclusions: Our case series of 70 patients with >6 months' follow-up and a median follow-up of 26 months is the largest single-institution report to date with detailed failure analysis associated with MammoSite brachytherapy. Our failure data emphasize the importance of patient selection when offering partial breast irradiation.

  2. Pathways of Barotrauma in Juvenile Salmonids Exposed to Simulated Hydroturbine Passage: Boyle’s Law vs. Henry’s Law

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Brauner, Colin J.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Seaburg, Adam

    2012-06-01

    On their seaward migration, juvenile salmonids commonly pass hydroelectric dams. Fish passing by the turbine blade may experience rapid decompression, the severity of which can be highly variable and may result in a number of barotraumas. The mechanisms of these injuries can be due to expansion of existing bubbles or gases coming out of solution; governed by Boyle’s Law and Henry’s Law, respectively. This paper combines re-analysis of published data with new experiments to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury and mortality for fish experiencing rapid decompression associated with hydroturbine passage. From these data it appears that the majority of decompression related injuries are due to the expansion of existing bubbles in the fish, particularly the expansion and rupture of the swim bladder. This information is particularly useful for fisheries managers and turbine manufacturers, demonstrating that reducing the rate of swim bladder ruptures by reducing the frequency of occurrence and severity of rapid decompression during hydroturbine passage could reduce the rates of injury and mortality for hydroturbine passed juvenile salmonids.

  3. SEM evaluation of advanced refractory failures in slagging gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, W.Keith; Dahlin, Cheryl L.; Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Rawers, James C.

    2005-08-01

    The SEM is an invaluable tool in the evaluation of advanced refractories and their failure. A reaction vessel?s refractory liner, at minimum, must protect the reaction vessel from elevated temperatures, corrosive slag and thermal cycling. To understand the failure mechanisms ARC staff had first to determine how an advanced chrome rich refractory was attacked by various components that make up a slag. Refractory cups were made from the refractory of interest and various compounds that can be found in a slag such as CaO, SiO2, Fe2O3, NaCl were placed into the test cups and fired for 24 hours at the required temperature with the desired atmosphere. The cups are prepared for examination by embedding in epoxy and cross sectioning. SEM examination revealed how various slag compositions attacked and penetrated the refractory. The slag could corrode, free refractory grains or react with the refractory and from a new compound. It was found that the only way to measure slag component penetration was with multiple elemental X-ray maps. SiO2 penetrated deeply and in many instances moved through the cup. The knowledge of slag refractory interactions gather during cup testing was applied to actual spent refractory from reaction vessels. Obtaining samples from the reaction vessel itself proved difficult due to time constraints imposed in relining. Samples were selected based on spent brick shape, color or location in the heap of spent refractory. Sample preparation affected the results dry, water or oil coolant during cutting may dissolve reaction products. The complex reactions between the slag and refractory made for very interesting and time consuming evaluation. Elemental X-ray maps at low and high magnification combined with point analysis aided in locating regions of interest. Crystals were found growing in voids and appear to be from vapor deposition. Other crystal structures are from the slag refractory interaction. Knowledge gathered from this and other supporting

  4. EXCITATION OF STRUCTURAL RESONANCE DUE TO A BEARING FAILURE

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R; David Stefanko, D

    2007-04-30

    Vibration due to a bearing failure in a pump created significant vibrations in a fifteen foot by fifteen foot by eight feet tall mounting platform due to excitation of resonant frequencies. In this particular application, an 18,000 pound pump was mounted to a structural steel platform. When bearing damage commenced, the platform vibrated with sufficient magnitude that conversations could not be heard within forty feet of the pump. Vibration analysis determined that the frequency of the bearing was coincident to one of the natural frequencies of the pump, which was, in turn, coincident to one of the natural frequencies of the mounting platform. This coincidence of frequencies defines resonance. Resonance creates excessive vibrations when the natural frequency of a structure is coincident to an excitation frequency. In this well documented case, the excitation frequency was related to ball bearing failures. The pump is a forty foot long vertical pump used to mix nuclear waste in 1,300,000 gallon tanks. A 300 horsepower drive motor is mounted to a structural steel platform on top of the tank. The pump hangs down into the tank from above to mix the waste and is inaccessible after installation. Initial awareness of the problem was due to increased noise from the pump. Initial vibration analysis indicated that the vibration levels of the bearing were within the expected range for this type of bearing, and the resonant condition was not obvious. Further analysis consisted of disassembly of the motor to inspect the bearings and extensive vibration monitoring. Vibration data for the bearings was obtained from the manufacturer and compared to measured vibration plots for the pump and mounting platform. Vibration data measured along the length of the pump was available from full scale testing, and vibrations were also measured at the installed pump. One of the axial frequencies of the pump, the platform frequency in the vertical direction, and the ball spin frequency for the

  5. Taxonomy for Common-Cause Failure Vulnerability and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Thomas; Korsah, Kofi; Mullens, James Allen; Pullum, Laura L.

    2015-09-01

    Applying current guidance and practices for common-cause failure (CCF) mitigation to digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems has proven problematic, and the regulatory environment has been unpredictable. The potential for CCF vulnerability inhibits I&C modernization, thereby challenging the long-term sustainability of existing plants. For new plants and advanced reactor concepts, concern about CCF vulnerability in highly integrated digital I&C systems imposes a design burden that results in higher costs and increased complexity. The regulatory uncertainty in determining which mitigation strategies will be acceptable (e.g., what diversity is needed and how much is sufficient) drives designers to adopt complicated, costly solutions devised for existing plants. To address the conditions that constrain the transition to digital I&C technology by the US nuclear industry, crosscutting research is needed to resolve uncertainty, demonstrate necessary characteristics, and establish an objective basis for qualification of digital technology for nuclear power plant (NPP) I&C applications. To fulfill this research need, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is investigating mitigation of CCF vulnerability for nuclear-qualified applications. The outcome of this research is expected to contribute to a fundamentally sound, comprehensive basis to qualify digital technology for nuclear power applications. This report documents the development of a CCF taxonomy. The basis for the CCF taxonomy was generated by determining consistent terminology and establishing a classification approach. The terminology is based on definitions from standards, guides, and relevant nuclear power industry technical reports. The classification approach is derived from identified classification schemes focused on I&C systems and key characteristics, including failure modes. The CCF taxonomy provides the basis for a systematic organization of key systems aspects relevant to analyzing the potential for

  6. Improved Engine Design Concepts Using the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-30

    This project was aimed at developing and using numerical tools which incorporate the second law of thermodynamics to better understand engine operation and particularly the combustion process. A major activity of this project was the continual enhancement and use of an existing engine cycle simulation to investigate a wide range of engine parameters and concepts. The major motivation of these investigations was to improve engine efficiency. These improvements were examined from both the first law and second law perspective. One of the most important aspects of this work was the identification of the combustion irreversibilities as functions of engine design and operating parameters. The combustion irreversibility may be quantified in a number of ways but one especially useful way is by determining the destruction of exergy (availability) during the combustion process. This destruction is the penalty due to converting the fuel exergy to thermal energy for producing work. The engine cycle simulation was used to examine the performance of an automotive (5.7 liter), V-8 spark-ignition engine. A base case was defined for operation at 1400 rpm, stoichiometric, MBT spark timing with a bmep of 325 kPa. For this condition, the destruction of exergy during the combustion process was 21.0%. Variations of many engine parameters (including speed, load, and spark timing) did not alter the level of destruction very much (with these variations, the exergy destruction was within the range of 20.5-21.5%). Also, the use of turbocharging or the use of an over-expanded engine design did not significantly change the exergy destruction. The exergy destruction during combustion was most affected by increased inlet oxygen concentration (which reduced the destruction due to the higher combustion temperatures) and by the use of cooled EGR (which increased the destruction). This work has demonstrated that, in general, the exergy destruction for conventional engines is fairly constant ({approx

  7. Identifying failure in a tree network of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Pinnow, Kurt W.; Wallenfelt, Brian P.

    2010-08-24

    Methods, parallel computers, and products are provided for identifying failure in a tree network of a parallel computer. The parallel computer includes one or more processing sets including an I/O node and a plurality of compute nodes. For each processing set embodiments include selecting a set of test compute nodes, the test compute nodes being a subset of the compute nodes of the processing set; measuring the performance of the I/O node of the processing set; measuring the performance of the selected set of test compute nodes; calculating a current test value in dependence upon the measured performance of the I/O node of the processing set, the measured performance of the set of test compute nodes, and a predetermined value for I/O node performance; and comparing the current test value with a predetermined tree performance threshold. If the current test value is below the predetermined tree performance threshold, embodiments include selecting another set of test compute nodes. If the current test value is not below the predetermined tree performance threshold, embodiments include selecting from the test compute nodes one or more potential problem nodes and testing individually potential problem nodes and links to potential problem nodes.

  8. The origins of political electricity: Market failure or political opportunism?

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.L. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The current debate over restructuring the electric industry, which includes such issues as displacing the regulatory covenant, repealing the Public Utility Holding Company Act, and privatizing municipal power systems, the Rural Utilities Service (formerly Rural Electrification Administration), and federally owned power systems, makes a look back at the origins of political electricity relevant. The thesis of this essay, that government intervention into electric markets was not the result of market failures but, rather, represented business and political opportunism, suggests that the intellectual and empirical case for market-oriented reform is even stronger than would otherwise be the case. A major theme of applied political economy is the dynamics of government intervention in the marketplace. Because interventions are often related, an analytical distinction can be made between basis point and cumulative intervention. Basis point regulation, taxation, or subsidizaion is the opening government intervention into a market setting; cumulative intervention is further regulation, taxation, or subsidization that is attributable to the effects of prior (basis point or cumulative) intervention. The origins and maturation of political electricity, as will be seen, are interpretable through this theoretical framework.

  9. Toward Interpreting Failure in Sintered-Silver Interconnection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Waters, Shirley B

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical strength and subsequent reliability of a sintered-silver interconnection system is a function of numerous independent parameters. That system is still undergoing process development. Most of those parameters (e.g., choice of plating) are arguably and unfortunately taken for granted and are independent of the silver s cohesive strength. To explore such effects, shear strength testing and failure analyses were completed on a simple, mock sintered-silver interconnection system consisting of bonding two DBC ceramic substrates. Silver and gold platings were part of the test matrix, as was pre-drying strategies, and the consideration of stencil-printing vs. screen-printing. Shear strength of sintered-silver interconnect systems was found to be was insensitive to the choice of plating, drying practice, and printing method provided careful and consistent processing of the sintered-silver are practiced. But if the service stress in sintered silver interconnect systems is anticipated to exceed ~ 60 MPa, then the system will likely fail.

  10. A Dynamic Approach to Modeling Dependence Between Human Failure Events

    SciTech Connect

    Boring, Ronald Laurids

    2015-09-01

    In practice, most HRA methods use direct dependence from THERP—the notion that error be- gets error, and one human failure event (HFE) may increase the likelihood of subsequent HFEs. In this paper, we approach dependence from a simulation perspective in which the effects of human errors are dynamically modeled. There are three key concepts that play into this modeling: (1) Errors are driven by performance shaping factors (PSFs). In this context, the error propagation is not a result of the presence of an HFE yielding overall increases in subsequent HFEs. Rather, it is shared PSFs that cause dependence. (2) PSFs have qualities of lag and latency. These two qualities are not currently considered in HRA methods that use PSFs. Yet, to model the effects of PSFs, it is not simply a matter of identifying the discrete effects of a particular PSF on performance. The effects of PSFs must be considered temporally, as the PSFs will have a range of effects across the event sequence. (3) Finally, there is the concept of error spilling. When PSFs are activated, they not only have temporal effects but also lateral effects on other PSFs, leading to emergent errors. This paper presents the framework for tying together these dynamic dependence concepts.

  11. Pipeline failure: The roles played by corrosion, flow and metallurgy

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, D.; Barrett, N.; Wilson, O.

    1999-11-01

    Carbon dioxide corrosion has been widely studied in the field and laboratory. It is recognized that flow regime and metallurgy are important factors that influence in-situ corrosion rates but there are relatively few documented case studies that are able to separate the individual contributions of corrosion, flow regime and metallurgy on the observed corrosion damage. This paper deals with failure of a pipeline where high quality inspection data together with comprehensive as-built records and stable production conditions allowed the separate influences of flow and metallurgy on corrosion to be studied. The flow regimes in the pipeline ranged from low velocity, stratified flow to high velocity, slug flow. The inspection data showed that the affect of turbulent flow was to increase the frequency of corrosion pits and, in the case of weld corrosion, the mean corrosion rate. The pipeline was constructed from two grades of steel and welded using two types of welding consumable. One grade of pipeline steel corroded at a significantly higher rate and with a higher frequency of corrosion pits than another, apparently similar steel. However, no significant relationship was found between weld metallurgy and corrosion rate or frequency.

  12. Tables for Trials and Failures with PD for Designated Confidence Level

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, Janice

    2014-02-01

    Two attachments are provided for performance testing of sensors and other Physical Protection System (PPS) components.#2; The first attachment is a table of Trials and Failures, giving Probability of Detection (PD) for a designated confidence level and sorted by trials.#2; The second attachment contains the same data, sorted by failures.

  13. Power-law and exponential rank distributions: A panoramic Gibbsian perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-04-15

    Rank distributions are collections of positive sizes ordered either increasingly or decreasingly. Many decreasing rank distributions, formed by the collective collaboration of human actions, follow an inverse power-law relation between ranks and sizes. This remarkable empirical fact is termed Zipf’s law, and one of its quintessential manifestations is the demography of human settlements — which exhibits a harmonic relation between ranks and sizes. In this paper we present a comprehensive statistical-physics analysis of rank distributions, establish that power-law and exponential rank distributions stand out as optimal in various entropy-based senses, and unveil the special role of the harmonic relation between ranks and sizes. Our results extend the contemporary entropy-maximization view of Zipf’s law to a broader, panoramic, Gibbsian perspective of increasing and decreasing power-law and exponential rank distributions — of which Zipf’s law is one out of four pillars.

  14. Ubiquity of Benford's law and emergence of the reciprocal distribution

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Friar, James Lewis; Goldman, Terrance J.; Pérez-Mercader, J.

    2016-04-07

    In this paper, we apply the Law of Total Probability to the construction of scale-invariant probability distribution functions (pdf's), and require that probability measures be dimensionless and unitless under a continuous change of scales. If the scale-change distribution function is scale invariant then the constructed distribution will also be scale invariant. Repeated application of this construction on an arbitrary set of (normalizable) pdf's results again in scale-invariant distributions. The invariant function of this procedure is given uniquely by the reciprocal distribution, suggesting a kind of universality. Finally, we separately demonstrate that the reciprocal distribution results uniquely from requiring maximum entropymore » for size-class distributions with uniform bin sizes.« less

  15. Cosmological Ohm's law and dynamics of non-minimal electromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenstein, Lukas; Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Urban, Federico R. E-mail: jain@cp3.dias.sdu.dk

    2013-01-01

    The origin of large-scale magnetic fields in cosmic structures and the intergalactic medium is still poorly understood. We explore the effects of non-minimal couplings of electromagnetism on the cosmological evolution of currents and magnetic fields. In this context, we revisit the mildly non-linear plasma dynamics around recombination that are known to generate weak magnetic fields. We use the covariant approach to obtain a fully general and non-linear evolution equation for the plasma currents and derive a generalised Ohm law valid on large scales as well as in the presence of non-minimal couplings to cosmological (pseudo-)scalar fields. Due to the sizeable conductivity of the plasma and the stringent observational bounds on such couplings, we conclude that modifications of the standard (adiabatic) evolution of magnetic fields are severely limited in these scenarios. Even at scales well beyond a Mpc, any departure from flux freezing behaviour is inhibited.

  16. Parallel, adaptive finite element methods for conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, R.; Devine, K.D.; Flaherty, J.E. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY )

    1994-01-01

    We construct parallel finite element methods for the solution of hyperbolic conservation laws in one and two dimensions. Spatial discretization is performed by a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method using a basis of piecewise Legendre polynomials. Temporal discretization utilizes a Runge-Kutta method. Dissipative fluxes and projection limiting prevent oscillations near solution discontinuities. A posteriori estimates of spatial errors are obtained by a p-refinement technique using superconvergence at Radau points. The resulting method is of high order and may be parallelized efficiently on MIMD computers. We compare results using different limiting schemes and demonstrate parallel efficiency through computations on an NCUBE/2 hypercube. We also present results using adaptive h- and p-refinement to reduce the computational cost of the method.

  17. Determining the Cause of a Header Failure in a Natural Gas Production Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Matthes, S.A.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, G.R.

    2007-03-01

    An investigation was made into the premature failure of a gas-header at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) natural gas production facility. A wide variety of possible failure mechanisms were considered: design of the header, deviation from normal pipe alloy composition, physical orientation of the header, gas composition and flow rate, type of corrosion, protectiveness of the interior oxide film, time of wetness, and erosion-corrosion. The failed header was examined using metallographic techniques, scanning electron microscopy, and microanalysis. A comparison of the failure site and an analogous site that had not failed, but exhibited similar metal thinning was also performed. From these studies it was concluded that failure resulted from erosion-corrosion, and that design elements of the header and orientation with respect to gas flow contributed to the mass loss at the failure point.

  18. Global Failure Criteria for SOFC Positive/Electrolyte/Negative (PEN) Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Qu, Jianmin

    2007-04-01

    Due to the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients (TEC) of the various layer materials in SOFC, the internal stresses are unavoidable under temperature differential. In order to create the reliable cell and stack of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), it is necessary to develop a failure criterion for SOFC PEN structures for the initial failures occurred during cell/stack assembly. In this paper, a global failure criterion is developed for the initial design against mechanical failure of the PEN structure in high temperature SOFCs. The relationship of the critical energy release rate and critical curvature and maximum displacement of the warpage of the cells caused by the temperature differential is established so that the failure reliability of SOFC PEN structures may be determined by the measurement of the curvature and displacement of the warpaged cells.

  19. On the Applicability of Fick's Law to Diffusion in Inhomogeneous Systems

    SciTech Connect

    van Milligen, B. Ph.; Bons, P. D.; Carreras, Benjamin A; Sanchez, Raul

    2005-09-01

    Two alternative expressions exist for the diffusive flux in inhomogeneous systems: Fick's law and the Fokker-Planck law. Here we re-examine the origin of these expressions and perform numerical and physical experiments to shed light on this duality. We conclude that in general the Fokker-Planck expression should be conceded preference, in spite of the fact that Fick's law seems to be more popular.

  20. ADR LUNCHTIME PROGRAM: "Crisis Negotiation: Apply the Skills Used By Law

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Enforcement In Resolving Conflict Situations" | Department of Energy LUNCHTIME PROGRAM: "Crisis Negotiation: Apply the Skills Used By Law Enforcement In Resolving Conflict Situations" ADR LUNCHTIME PROGRAM: "Crisis Negotiation: Apply the Skills Used By Law Enforcement In Resolving Conflict Situations" Law enforcement, crisis/hostage negotiators, and other police personnel use highly effective communication and de-escalation techniques to help calm people in

  1. Acquisition Guide Chapter 25, Compliance with U.S. Export Control Laws,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Regulations, and Policies | Department of Energy 25, Compliance with U.S. Export Control Laws, Regulations, and Policies Acquisition Guide Chapter 25, Compliance with U.S. Export Control Laws, Regulations, and Policies DATE: June 06, 2016 TO: Procurement Directors/Contracting Officers FROM: Office of Acquisition Management SUBJECT: Acquisition Guide Chapter 25, Compliance with U.S. Export Control Laws, Regulations, and Policies SUMMARY: The subject guide chapter has been revised to change

  2. Manual of bearing failures and repair in power plant rotating equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkus, O. )

    1991-07-01

    Turbine bearing failures in electric utilities have been responsible for outages amounting to 1.1 to 1.8% of theoretical power output. In addition to bearing failures in the turbo-generators, failures occur in other rotating equipment, such as pumps, fans, and auxiliary gas turbines. Knowledge of bearing failure mechanisms and causes permits the introduction of safeguards to prevent their occurrence. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has commissioned Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) under EPRI contract RP1648-10 to write a bearing failure manual geared directly to bearing problems typical of the rotating equipment in electric utility power plants. The main purpose of the manual is to provide power plant engineering and service personnel with ways to properly identify specific modes of bearing damage, as well as root causes, followed by a list of remedial actions applicable to each specific case. The repair manual is a comprehensive encyclopedia on the subject of bearing failure and cause diagnosis. The manual is organized along the following lines. It first classifies 16 modes of bearing failure that are likely to occur in the rotating equipment of an electric utility. These modes are listed in the bearing failure code tabulation that follows. Each mode of failure is described in the manual regarding its symptoms and characteristics, and each is accompanied by photographs of the damaged surface. The visual aids, together with additional laboratory evidence described in the text, offer the tools for a correct diagnosis of the mode of failure. 105 refs., 222 figs., 18 tabs.

  3. Environmental Law Institute Webinar to Promote Superior Energy Performance™ on July 22, 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Superior Energy Performance™ (SEP), the U.S. certification program for driving continuous improvement in energy efficiency, will be discussed during the Environmental Law Institute (ELI) seminar on...

  4. Acid mine drainage: Common law, SMCRA, and the Clean Water Act

    SciTech Connect

    Henrich, C.

    1995-12-31

    Acid mine drainage is a major problem related to coal mining which, if unabated, can severely damage the aquatic environment. Damage resulting from acid mine drainage was first addressed by common law and riparian principles. As societal laws changed, common law principles alone could not effectively control this problem. Preventing and controlling pollution including acid mine drainage are important goals of the Surface Mining Control Reclamation Act (SMCRA) and the Clean Water Act (CWA). This article examines how common law, SMCRA, and the CWA address the acid mine drainage issue independently, and how improvements in the control of acid mine drainage can be achieved.

  5. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED...

    Energy Saver

    development of combined heat and power ("CHP") facilities, as well as to determine ... THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIES CHP: ...

  6. National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 [Public Law (PL)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    104-113] | Department of Energy Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 [Public Law (PL) 104-113] National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 [Public Law (PL) 104-113] On March 7, 1996, President Clinton signed into law "The National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995." The new law, referred to as PL 104-113, serves to continue the policy changes initiated in the 1980s under Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-119 (OMB A-119), Federal

  7. Update on Common-Cause Failure Experience and Mitigation Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Thomas; Muhlheim, Michael David; Pullum, Laura L; Smith, Cyrus M; Holcomb, David Eugene; Korsah, Kofi

    2014-04-01

    Experience in other industries has shown that digital technology can provide substantial benefits in terms of performance and reliability. However, the U.S. nuclear power industry has been slow to adopt the technology extensively in its instrumentation and control (I&C) applications because of inhibiting factors such as regulatory uncertainty, insufficient technological experience base, implementation complexity, limited availability of nuclear-qualified products and vendors, and inadequate definition of modernization cost recapture. Although there have been examples of digital technology usage in the nuclear power industry, challenges to the qualification of digital technology for high-integrity nuclear power plant (NPP) applications have severely constrained more widespread progress in achieving the benefits that are possible through the transition to digital. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) established the Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation (ASI) technology area under the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) Program to coordinate the instrumentation and controls (I&C) research across DOE NE and to identify and lead efforts to address common needs. As part of the NEET ASI research program, the Digital Technology Qualification project was established. Under this project, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leading the investigation into mitigation of digital common-cause failure (CCF) vulnerabilities for nuclear-qualified applications. This technical report documents updated and expanded findings from research activities by ORNL. Specifically, the report describes CCF experience in the nuclear and nonnuclear industries, identifies the state of the practice for CCF mitigation through key examples, and presents conclusions from the determination of knowledge gaps.

  8. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  9. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-23

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the third quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  10. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience,including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  11. Quarterly coal report July--September 1995, February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-16

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the second quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  12. Quarterly coal report

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  13. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-24

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  14. WTP Calculation Sheet: Determining the LAW Glass Former Constituents and Amounts for G2 and Acm Models. 24590-LAW-M4C-LFP-00002, Rev. B

    SciTech Connect

    Gimpel, Rodney F.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2013-12-16

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the LAW glass former recipe and additives with their respective amounts. The methodology and equations contained herein are to be used in the G2 and ACM models until better information is supplied by R&T efforts. This revision includes calculations that determines the mass and volume of the bulk chemicals/minerals needed per batch. Plus, it contains calculations (for the G2 model) to help prevent overflow in LAW Feed Preparation Vessel.

  15. Review of Failure Probability Calculations for HFIR Primary Coolant System Piping

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, Fredric A.

    2001-10-31

    During July 2001, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was requested by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Facilities Management, Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology, Germantown, Maryland, to review calculations of piping failure probabilities for the High Flux Test Reactor (HFIR) located at and operated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of the failure probability calculations was to estimate the probabilities of large leaks (>1500 gpm) that are of sufficient size to disable the primary coolant system of HFIR to the extent that there is a potential for core damage. PNNL reviewed the computational methods and the inputs to the calculations along with an evaluation of potential failure mechanisms not explicitly addressed by the ORNL calculations. The review concluded that the calculated failure probabilities even with consideration of uncertainties in the calculations and of other potential failure mechanisms provide a high level of confidence that failure frequencies are less than the stated goal of 10-6 piping failures per year.

  16. Common-Cause Failure Treatment in Event Assessment: Basis for a Proposed New Model

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Kelly; Song-Hua Shen; Gary DeMoss; Kevin Coyne; Don Marksberry

    2010-06-01

    Event assessment is an application of probabilistic risk assessment in which observed equipment failures and outages are mapped into the risk model to obtain a numerical estimate of the events risk significance. In this paper, we focus on retrospective assessments to estimate the risk significance of degraded conditions such as equipment failure accompanied by a deficiency in a process such as maintenance practices. In modeling such events, the basic events in the risk model that are associated with observed failures and other off-normal situations are typically configured to be failed, while those associated with observed successes and unchallenged components are assumed capable of failing, typically with their baseline probabilities. This is referred to as the failure memory approach to event assessment. The conditioning of common-cause failure probabilities for the common cause component group associated with the observed component failure is particularly important, as it is insufficient to simply leave these probabilities at their baseline values, and doing so may result in a significant underestimate of risk significance for the event. Past work in this area has focused on the mathematics of the adjustment. In this paper, we review the Basic Parameter Model for common-cause failure, which underlies most current risk modelling, discuss the limitations of this model with respect to event assessment, and introduce a proposed new framework for common-cause failure, which uses a Bayesian network to model underlying causes of failure, and which has the potential to overcome the limitations of the Basic Parameter Model with respect to event assessment.

  17. ARRA: Reconfiguring Power Systems to Minimize Cascading Failures - Models and Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, Ian; Hiskens, Ian; Linderoth, Jeffrey; Wright, Stephen

    2013-12-16

    Building on models of electrical power systems, and on powerful mathematical techniques including optimization, model predictive control, and simluation, this project investigated important issues related to the stable operation of power grids. A topic of particular focus was cascading failures of the power grid: simulation, quantification, mitigation, and control. We also analyzed the vulnerability of networks to component failures, and the design of networks that are responsive to and robust to such failures. Numerous other related topics were investigated, including energy hubs and cascading stall of induction machines

  18. Methodology to predict the number of forced outages due to creep failure

    SciTech Connect

    Palermo, J.V. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    All alloy metals at a temperature above 950 degrees Fahrenheit experience creep damage. Creep failures in boiler tubes usually begin after 25 to 40 years of operation. Since creep damage is irreversible, the only remedy is to replace the tube sections. By predicting the number of failures per year, the utility can make the best economic decision concerning tube replacement. This paper describes a methodology to calculate the number of forced outages per yea due to creep failures. This methodology is particularly useful to utilities that have boilers that have at least 25 years of operation.

  19. Success in Prevention of Casing Failures Opposite Salts, Little Knife Field, ND

    SciTech Connect

    Rilke, E.A.

    1984-05-01

    Early in 1981, Gulf became aware of a severe problem with casing failures opposite salts in the Little Knife Field. A concerted effort was initiated at that time to isolate and remedy the cause of failures. By properly designing tubulars, utilizing a relaxed invert oil emulsion drilling fluid, and properly designing cementing programs, the problem has been arrested. In the 22 wells drilled in the Little Knife Field since initiation of this drilling program in 1981, there have been no instances of casing failure.

  20. Transport and Failure in Li-ion Batteries | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Lightsource Transport and Failure in Li-ion Batteries Monday, February 13, 2012 - 1:30pm SSRL Conference Room 137-322 Stephen J. Harris, General Motors R&D While battery performance is well predicted by the macrohomogeneous model of Newman and co-workers, predicting degradation and failure remains a challenge. It may be that, like most materials, failure depends on local imperfections and inhomogeneities. We use tomographic data to evaluate the homogeneity of the tortuosity of the

  1. Contact method to allow benign failure in ceramic capacitor having self-clearing feature

    DOEpatents

    Myers, John D.; Taylor, Ralph S.

    2012-06-26

    A capacitor exhibiting a benign failure mode has a first electrode layer, a first ceramic dielectric layer deposited on a surface of the first electrode, and a second electrode layer disposed on the ceramic dielectric layer, wherein selected areas of the ceramic dielectric layer have additional dielectric material of sufficient thickness to exhibit a higher dielectric breakdown voltage than the remaining majority of the dielectric layer. The added thickness of the dielectric layer in selected areas allows lead connections to be made at the selected areas of greater dielectric thickness while substantially eliminating a risk of dielectric breakdown and failure at the lead connections, whereby the benign failure mode is preserved.

  2. Public Law 108-458-Dec. 17, 2004; Intelligence Reform and Terrorism...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    6579 E:PUBLAWPUBL458.108 APPS06 PsN: PUBL458 118 STAT. 3638 PUBLIC LAW 108-458-DEC. 17, 2004 Public Law 108-458 108th Congress An Act To reform the intelligence community and ...

  3. POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #07 Current Appropriations Law and Compensation of Foreign Nationals

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Due to recent changes in appropriations law, the Department no longer has the authority to compensate a noncitizen, unless the noncitizen is lawfully admitted for permanent residence, or falls within one of a few very narrow exceptions based on the individuals profession.

  4. PUBLIC LAW 102-486-OCT. 24, 1992, 106 STAT. 2951 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    102-486-OCT. 24, 1992, 106 STAT. 2951 PUBLIC LAW 102-486-OCT. 24, 1992, 106 STAT. 2951 P.L.102-486 106stat2951.pdf (138.46 KB) More Documents & Publications Federal Regulations for Natural Gas Imports and Exports Patent and copyright cases PUBLIC LAW 97-415-JAN. 4, 1983, 96 STAT. 2078

  5. PUBLIC LAW 97-415-JAN. 4, 1983, 96 STAT. 2078 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    97-415-JAN. 4, 1983, 96 STAT. 2078 PUBLIC LAW 97-415-JAN. 4, 1983, 96 STAT. 2078 P.L.97-415 96stat2078.pdf (233.89 KB) More Documents & Publications PUBLIC LAW 102-486-OCT. 24, 1992, 106 STAT. 2951 Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970 Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy.

  6. Generalized second law of thermodynamics in f(T) gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Karami, K.; Abdolmaleki, A. E-mail: AAbdolmaleki@uok.ac.ir

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the validity of the generalized second law (GSL) of gravitational thermodynamics in the framework of f(T) modified teleparallel gravity. We consider a spatially flat FRW universe containing only the pressureless matter. The boundary of the universe is assumed to be enclosed by the Hubble horizon. For two viable f(T) models containing f(T) = T+?{sub 1}((?T)){sup n} and f(T) = T??{sub 2}T(1?e{sup ?T{sub 0}/T}), we first calculate the effective equation of state and deceleration parameters. Then, (we investigate the null and strong energy conditions and conclude that a sudden future singularity appears in both models. Furthermore, using a cosmographic analysis we check the viability of two models. Finally, we examine the validity of the GSL and find that for both models it) is satisfied from the early times to the present epoch. But in the future, the GSL is violated for the special ranges of the torsion scalar T.

  7. Environment and NAFTA: Understanding and implementing the new continental law

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.M.; Beaulieu, A.

    1995-12-01

    Two internationally-known experts discuss both law and policy as they examine the environmental implications of the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the related North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC). The authors consider the context in which those implications were brought to the negotiating table, the legal mechanism established to address them, and the original trilateral institution set up to maintain a continent-wide level of environmental cooperation. The authors explain how NAFTA and its interaction with NAAEC might take place and how that will affect trade policy and practices, environmental protection efforts, and the relationships between Canada, Mexico, and the United States. In addition, they consider the environmental features of NAFTA as part of the `social agenda` of trade--the environmental, labor, and broad human rights issues that are coming to play an increasing role in the development of international agreements. The manner in which NAFTA parties have confronted that challenge provides valuable insight into the future of regional and international cooperation. Also included in the volume are appendices that provide the complete text of the NAAEC along with selected provisions of NAFTA that relate to the environment.

  8. ON THE STAR FORMATION LAW FOR SPIRAL AND IRREGULAR GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2015-12-01

    A dynamical model for star formation on a galactic scale is proposed in which the interstellar medium is constantly condensing to star-forming clouds on the dynamical time of the average midplane density, and the clouds are constantly being disrupted on the dynamical timescale appropriate for their higher density. In this model, the areal star formation rate scales with the 1.5 power of the total gas column density throughout the main regions of spiral galaxies, and with a steeper power, 2, in the far outer regions and in dwarf irregular galaxies because of the flaring disks. At the same time, there is a molecular star formation law that is linear in the main and outer parts of disks and in dIrrs because the duration of individual structures in the molecular phase is also the dynamical timescale, canceling the additional 0.5 power of surface density. The total gas consumption time scales directly with the midplane dynamical time, quenching star formation in the inner regions if there is no accretion, and sustaining star formation for ∼100 Gyr or more in the outer regions with no qualitative change in gas stability or molecular cloud properties. The ULIRG track follows from high densities in galaxy collisions.

  9. Constitutive Law and Flow Mechanism in Diamond Deformation

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Yu, Xiaohui; Raterron, Paul; Zhang, Jianzhong; Lin, Zhijun; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Yusheng

    2012-11-19

    Constitutive laws and crystal plasticity in diamond deformation have been the subjects of substantial interest since synthetic diamond was made in 1950's. To date, however, little is known quantitatively regarding its brittle-ductile properties and yield strength at high temperatures. In this paper, we report, for the first time, the strain-stress constitutive relations and experimental demonstration of deformation mechanisms under confined high pressure. The deformation at room temperature is essentially brittle, cataclastic, and mostly accommodated by fracturing on {111} plane with no plastic yielding at uniaxial strains up to 15%. At elevated temperatures of 1000°C and 1200°C diamond crystals exhibit significantmore » ductile flow with corresponding yield strength of 7.9 and 6.3 GPa, indicating that diamond starts to weaken when temperature is over 1000°C. Finally, at high temperature the plastic deformation and ductile flow is meditated by the <110>{111} dislocation glide and a very active {111} micro-twinning.« less

  10. Quantum Hooke's Law to classify pulse laser induced ultrafast melting

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Hu, Hao; Ding, Hepeng; Liu, Feng

    2015-02-03

    Ultrafast crystal-to-liquid phase transition induced by femtosecond pulse laser excitation is an interesting material's behavior manifesting the complexity of light-matter interaction. There exist two types of such phase transitions: one occurs at a time scale shorter than a picosecond via a nonthermal process mediated by electron-hole plasma formation; the other at a longer time scale via a thermal melting process mediated by electron-phonon interaction. However, it remains unclear what material would undergo which process and why? Here, by exploiting the property of quantum electronic stress (QES) governed by quantum Hooke's law, we classify the transitions by two distinct classes ofmore » materials: the faster nonthermal process can only occur in materials like ice having an anomalous phase diagram characterized with dTm/dP < 0, where Tm is the melting temperature and P is pressure, above a high threshold laser fluence; while the slower thermal process may occur in all materials. Especially, the nonthermal transition is shown to be induced by the QES, acting like a negative internal pressure, which drives the crystal into a “super pressing” state to spontaneously transform into a higher-density liquid phase. Our findings significantly advance fundamental understanding of ultrafast crystal-to-liquid phase transitions, enabling quantitative a priori predictions.« less

  11. Quantum Hooke's Law to classify pulse laser induced ultrafast melting

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Hao; Ding, Hepeng; Liu, Feng

    2015-02-03

    Ultrafast crystal-to-liquid phase transition induced by femtosecond pulse laser excitation is an interesting material's behavior manifesting the complexity of light-matter interaction. There exist two types of such phase transitions: one occurs at a time scale shorter than a picosecond via a nonthermal process mediated by electron-hole plasma formation; the other at a longer time scale via a thermal melting process mediated by electron-phonon interaction. However, it remains unclear what material would undergo which process and why? Here, by exploiting the property of quantum electronic stress (QES) governed by quantum Hooke's law, we classify the transitions by two distinct classes of materials: the faster nonthermal process can only occur in materials like ice having an anomalous phase diagram characterized with dTm/dP < 0, where Tm is the melting temperature and P is pressure, above a high threshold laser fluence; while the slower thermal process may occur in all materials. Especially, the nonthermal transition is shown to be induced by the QES, acting like a negative internal pressure, which drives the crystal into a super pressing state to spontaneously transform into a higher-density liquid phase. Our findings significantly advance fundamental understanding of ultrafast crystal-to-liquid phase transitions, enabling quantitative a priori predictions.

  12. International energy program and United States antitrust law

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Congress granted participating US oil companies a limited antitrust defense, through Section 252 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, for certain actions taken in carrying out the International Energy Agency's (IEA) emergency oil allocation and information systems. These limits (1) apply only to actions taken in accordance with approved voluntary plans, (2) are not applicable if the purpose is to injure competition, and (3) apply only to voluntary plans or agreements concerning allocation and information provisions of the International Energy Program. These limitations are augmented by other antitrust safeguards incorporated in the Voluntary Agreement. Actions by oil companies outside antitrust defense do not necessarily violate the antitrust laws. A May 1981 revised draft of Plan of Action was issued by DOE. Comments raised are concerns for independent transactions and whether the limited antitrust defense should be extended to some reallocation activities independent of IEA requests. Risks (such as collusion) arising from participation in meetings with government and joint action by competitors are outlined. 15 references.

  13. Parallel partitioning strategies for the adaptive solution of conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, K.D.; Flaherty, J.E.; Loy, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    We describe and examine the performance of adaptive methods for Solving hyperbolic systems of conservation laws on massively parallel computers. The differential system is approximated by a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method with a hierarchical Legendre piecewise polynomial basis for the spatial discretization. Fluxes at element boundaries are computed by solving an approximate Riemann problem; a projection limiter is applied to keep the average solution monotone; time discretization is performed by Runge-Kutta integration; and a p-refinement-based error estimate is used as an enrichment indicator. Adaptive order (p-) and mesh (h-) refinement algorithms are presented and demonstrated. Using an element-based dynamic load balancing algorithm called tiling and adaptive p-refinement, parallel efficiencies of over 60% are achieved on a 1024-processor nCUBE/2 hypercube. We also demonstrate a fast, tree-based parallel partitioning strategy for three-dimensional octree-structured meshes. This method produces partition quality comparable to recursive spectral bisection at a greatly reduced cost.

  14. Illinois SB 1987: the Clean Coal Portfolio Standard Law

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-15

    On January 12, 2009, Governor Rod Blagojevich signed SB 1987, the Clean Coal Portfolio Standard Law. The legislation establishes emission standards for new coal-fueled power plants power plants that use coal as their primary feedstock. From 2009-2015, new coal-fueled power plants must capture and store 50 percent of the carbon emissions that the facility would otherwise emit; from 2016-2017, 70 percent must be captured and stored; and after 2017, 90 percent must be captured and stored. SB 1987 also establishes a goal of having 25 percent of electricity used in the state to come from cost-effective coal-fueled power plants that capture and store carbon emissions by 2025. Illinois is the first state to establish a goal for producing electricity from coal-fueled power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS). To support the commercial development of CCS technology, the legislation guarantees purchase agreements for the first Illinois coal facility with CCS technology, the Taylorville Energy Center (TEC); Illinois utilities are required to purchase at least 5 percent of their electricity supply from the TEC, provided that customer rates experience only modest increases. The TEC is expected to be completed in 2014 with the ability to capture and store at least 50 percent of its carbon emissions.

  15. CONSISTENT SCALING LAWS IN ANELASTIC SPHERICAL SHELL DYNAMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Rakesh K.; Gastine, Thomas; Christensen, Ulrich R.; Duarte, Lucia D. V.

    2013-09-01

    Numerical dynamo models always employ parameter values that differ by orders of magnitude from the values expected in natural objects. However, such models have been successful in qualitatively reproducing properties of planetary and stellar dynamos. This qualitative agreement fuels the idea that both numerical models and astrophysical objects may operate in the same asymptotic regime of dynamics. This can be tested by exploring the scaling behavior of the models. For convection-driven incompressible spherical shell dynamos with constant material properties, scaling laws had been established previously that relate flow velocity and magnetic field strength to the available power. Here we analyze 273 direct numerical simulations using the anelastic approximation, involving also cases with radius-dependent magnetic, thermal, and viscous diffusivities. These better represent conditions in gas giant planets and low-mass stars compared to Boussinesq models. Our study provides strong support for the hypothesis that both mean velocity and mean magnetic field strength scale as a function of the power generated by buoyancy forces in the same way for a wide range of conditions.

  16. Radioactivity in the ocean: laws and biological effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the literature on US laws and international agreements, experimental and monitoring data, and ongoing studies to provide background information for environmental assessment and regulatory compliance activities for ocean dumping of low-level radioactive waste. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act is the major US legislation governing ocean disposal of radioactive waste. The major international agreement on ocean dumping is the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter. The United States ended its ocean dumping of radioactive wastes in 1970, but other countries have continued ocean dumping under international supervision in the northeast Atlantic. Monitoring of former US disposal sites has neither revealed significant effects on marine biota nor indicated a hazard to human health. Also, no effects on marine organisms have been found that could be attributed to routine discharges into the Irish Sea from the Windscale reprocessing plant. We must improve our ability to predict the oceanic carrying capacity and the fate and effects of ionizing radiation in the marine environment.

  17. Cosmology with hybrid expansion law: scalar field reconstruction of cosmic history and observational constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Akarsu, Özgür; Kumar, Suresh; Myrzakulov, R.; Sami, M.; Xu, Lixin E-mail: sukuyd@gmail.com E-mail: samijamia@gmail.com

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a simple form of expansion history of Universe referred to as the hybrid expansion law - a product of power-law and exponential type of functions. The ansatz by construction mimics the power-law and de Sitter cosmologies as special cases but also provides an elegant description of the transition from deceleration to cosmic acceleration. We point out the Brans-Dicke realization of the cosmic history under consideration. We construct potentials for quintessence, phantom and tachyon fields, which can give rise to the hybrid expansion law in general relativity. We investigate observational constraints on the model with hybrid expansion law applied to late time acceleration as well as to early Universe a la nucleosynthesis.

  18. THE MID-INFRARED EXTINCTION LAW IN THE OPHIUCHUS, PERSEUS, AND SERPENS MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Nicholas L.; Mundy, Lee G.; Lai, Shih-Ping; Evans, Neal J. II

    2009-01-01

    We compute the mid-IR extinction law from 3.6 to 24 {mu}m in three molecular clouds-Ophiuchus, Perseus, and Serpens-by combining data from the 'Cores to Disks' Spitzer Legacy Science program with deep JHK{sub s} imaging. Using a new technique, we are able to calculate the line-of-sight (LOS) extinction law toward each background star in our fields. With these LOS measurements, we create, for the first time, maps of the {chi}{sup 2} deviation of the data from two extinction law models. Because our {chi}{sup 2} maps have the same spatial resolution as our extinction maps, we can directly observe the changing extinction law as a function of the total column density. In the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands, 3.6-8 {mu}m, we see evidence for grain growth. Below A{sub K{sub s}}= 0.5, our extinction law is well fitted by the Weingartner and Draine R{sub V} = 3.1 diffuse interstellar-medium dust model. As the extinction increases, our law gradually flattens, and for A{sub K{sub s}}{>=}1, the data are more consistent with the Weingartner and Draine R{sub V} = 5.5 model that uses larger maximum dust grain sizes. At 24 {mu}m, our extinction law is 2-4 times higher than the values predicted by theoretical dust models, but is more consistent with the observational results of Flaherty et al. Finally, from our {chi}{sup 2} maps we identify a region in Perseus where the IRAC extinction law is anomalously high considering its column density. A steeper near-IR extinction law than the one we have assumed may partially explain the IRAC extinction law in this region.

  19. PID Failure of c-Si and Thin-Film Modules and Possible Correlation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    PID Failure of c-Si and Thin-Film Modules and Possible Correlation with Leakage Currents This PowerPoint presentation was originally presented at the NREL 2013 PV Module ...

  20. In-situ TEM study of sodiation and failure mechanism of Sb anodes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: In-situ TEM study of sodiation and failure mechanism of Sb anodes. Abstract not provided. Authors: XueHai Tan ; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh ; Mook, William ; David Mitlin ...

  1. Failure Stress and Apparent Elastic Modulus of Diesel Particulate Filter Ceramics

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Three established mechanical test specimen geometries and test methods for brittle materials are adapted to DPF architecture to evaluate failure initiation stress and apparent elastic modulus of the ceramics.

  2. A Probabilistic-Micro-mechanical Methodology for Assessing Zirconium Alloy Cladding Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Y.M.; Chan, K.S.; Riha, D.S.

    2007-07-01

    Cladding failure of fuel rods caused by hydride-induced embrittlement is a reliability concern for spent nuclear fuel after extended burnup. Uncertainties in the cladding temperature, cladding stress, oxide layer thickness, and the critical stress value for hydride reorientation preclude an assessment of the cladding failure risk. A set of micro-mechanical models for treating oxide cracking, blister cracking, delayed hydride cracking, and cladding fracture was developed and incorporated in a computer model. Results obtained from the preliminary model calculations indicate that at temperatures below a critical temperature of 318.5 deg. C [605.3 deg. F], the time to failure by delayed hydride cracking in Zr-2.5%Nb decreased with increasing cladding temperature. The overall goal of this project is to develop a probabilistic-micro-mechanical methodology for assessing the probability of hydride-induced failure in Zircaloy cladding and thereby establish performance criteria. (authors)

  3. DOE Institutes Enforcement Action Against AeroSys, Inc. for Failure...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to Certify Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps DOE Institutes Enforcement Action Against AeroSys, Inc. for Failure to Certify Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps February 4, 2010 - 1:58pm ...

  4. The consequences of failure should be considered in siting geologic carbon sequestration projects

    SciTech Connect

    Price, P.N.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2009-02-23

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the injection of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} into deep geologic formations where the CO{sub 2} is intended to remain indefinitely. If successfully implemented, geologic carbon sequestration will have little or no impact on terrestrial ecosystems aside from the mitigation of climate change. However, failure of a geologic carbon sequestration site, such as large-scale leakage of CO{sub 2} into a potable groundwater aquifer, could cause impacts that would require costly remediation measures. Governments are attempting to develop regulations for permitting geologic carbon sequestration sites to ensure their safety and effectiveness. At present, these regulations focus largely on decreasing the probability of failure. In this paper we propose that regulations for the siting of early geologic carbon sequestration projects should emphasize limiting the consequences of failure because consequences are easier to quantify than failure probability.

  5. DELPHI expert panel evaluation of Hanford high level waste tank failure modes and release quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Dunford, G.L.; Han, F.C.

    1996-09-30

    The Failure Modes and Release Quantities of the Hanford High Level Waste Tanks due to postulated accident loads were established by a DELPHI Expert Panel consisting of both on-site and off-site experts in the field of Structure and Release. The Report presents the evaluation process, accident loads, tank structural failure conclusion reached by the panel during the two-day meeting.

  6. Fuel-element failures in Hanford single-pass reactors 1944--1971

    SciTech Connect

    Gydesen, S.P.

    1993-07-01

    The primary objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. To estimate the doses, the staff of the Source Terms Task use operating information from historical documents to approximate the radioactive emissions. One source of radioactive emissions to the Columbia River came from leaks in the aluminum cladding of the uranium metal fuel elements in single-pass reactors. The purpose of this letter report is to provide photocopies of the documents that recorded these failures. The data from these documents will be used by the Source Terms Task to determine the contribution of single-pass reactor fuel-element failures to the radioactivity of the reactor effluent from 1944 through 1971. Each referenced fuel-element failure occurring in the Hanford single-pass reactors is addressed. The first recorded failure was in 1948, the last in 1970. No records of fuel-element failures were found in documents prior to 1948. Data on the approximately 2000 failures which occurred during the 28 years (1944--1971) of Hanford single-pass reactor operations are provided in this report.

  7. A Report on Simulation-Driven Reliability and Failure Analysis of Large-Scale Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Lipeng; Wang, Feiyi; Oral, H. Sarp; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S.; Cao, Qing

    2014-11-01

    High-performance computing (HPC) storage systems provide data availability and reliability using various hardware and software fault tolerance techniques. Usually, reliability and availability are calculated at the subsystem or component level using limited metrics such as, mean time to failure (MTTF) or mean time to data loss (MTTDL). This often means settling on simple and disconnected failure models (such as exponential failure rate) to achieve tractable and close-formed solutions. However, such models have been shown to be insufficient in assessing end-to-end storage system reliability and availability. We propose a generic simulation framework aimed at analyzing the reliability and availability of storage systems at scale, and investigating what-if scenarios. The framework is designed for an end-to-end storage system, accommodating the various components and subsystems, their interconnections, failure patterns and propagation, and performs dependency analysis to capture a wide-range of failure cases. We evaluate the framework against a large-scale storage system that is in production and analyze its failure projections toward and beyond the end of lifecycle. We also examine the potential operational impact by studying how different types of components affect the overall system reliability and availability, and present the preliminary results

  8. Modeling Stress Strain Relationships and Predicting Failure Probabilities For Graphite Core Components

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, Stephen

    2013-09-09

    This project will implement inelastic constitutive models that will yield the requisite stress-strain information necessary for graphite component design. Accurate knowledge of stress states (both elastic and inelastic) is required to assess how close a nuclear core component is to failure. Strain states are needed to assess deformations in order to ascertain serviceability issues relating to failure, e.g., whether too much shrinkage has taken place for the core to function properly. Failure probabilities, as opposed to safety factors, are required in order to capture the bariability in failure strength in tensile regimes. The current stress state is used to predict the probability of failure. Stochastic failure models will be developed that can accommodate possible material anisotropy. This work will also model material damage (i.e., degradation of mechanical properties) due to radiation exposure. The team will design tools for components fabricated from nuclear graphite. These tools must readily interact with finite element software--in particular, COMSOL, the software algorithm currently being utilized by the Idaho National Laboratory. For the eleastic response of graphite, the team will adopt anisotropic stress-strain relationships available in COMSO. Data from the literature will be utilized to characterize the appropriate elastic material constants.

  9. Hanford immobilized LAW product acceptance: Initial Tanks Focus Area testing data package

    SciTech Connect

    JD Vienna; A Jiricka; BP McGrail; BM Jorgensen; DE Smith; BR Allen; JC Marra; DK Peeler; KG Brown; IA Reamer; WL Ebert

    2000-03-08

    The Hanford Site's mission has been to produce nuclear materials for the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors. A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste, largely generated during plutonium production, exists in 177 underground single- and double-shell tanks. These wastes are to be retrieved and separated into low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) fractions. The total volume of LAW requiring immobilization will include the LAW separated from the tank waste, as well as new wastes generated by the retrieval, pretreatment, and immobilization processes. Per the Tri-Party Agreement (1994), both the LAW and HLW will be vitrified. It has been estimated that vitrification of the LAW waste will result in over 500,000 metric tons or 200,000 m{sup 3} of immobilized LAW (ILAW) glass. The ILAW glass is to be disposed of onsite in a near-surface burial facility. It must be demonstrated that the disposal system will adequately retain the radionuclides and prevent contamination of the surrounding environment. This report describes a study of the impacts of systematic glass-composition variation on the responses from accelerated laboratory corrosion tests of representative LAW glasses. A combination of two tests, the product consistency test and vapor-hydration test, is being used to give indictations of the relative rate at which a glass could be expected to corrode in the burial scenario.

  10. The microstructural mechanism of electromigration failure in narrow interconnects of Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Choongun

    1993-04-01

    This thesis reports a study of the mechanism of electromigration failure in Al-2Cu-1Si thin-film conducting lines on Si. Samples were patterned from 0.5 {mu}m thick vapor-deposited films with various mean grain sizes (G), and had lines widths (W) of 1.3, 2, 4 and 6 {mu}m. The lines were aged at various conditions to change the Cu-precipitate distribution and were tested to failure at T = 225{degrees}C and j = 2.5 {times} 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2}. Some samples were tested over a range of substrate temperatures, current densities and current reversal times. Aging produces an initially dense distribution of metastable {Theta}{prime} (Al{sub 2}Cu; coherent) in the grain interiors, with stable {Theta} (Al{sub 2}Cu; incoherent) at the grain boundaries. The intragranular {theta}{prime} is gradually absorbed into the grain boundary precipitates. In the wide lines the mean time to failure increases slowly and monotonically with pre-aging time and current reversal time. The failure mode is the formation and coalescence of voids that form on grain boundaries with an apparent activation energy of 0.65 eV. In the narrow lines, the lines failed by a transgranular-slit mechanism with an activation energy near 0.93 eV. The distribution of the polygranular segments and the kinetics of failure varies with the linewidths. Failure occurs after Cu has been swept from the grains that fail. Pre-aging the line to create a more stable distribution of Cu significantly increases the time to failure. When the density of intragranular {Theta}-phase precipitates is maximized, the transgranular-slit failure mechanism is suppressed, and the bamboo grain fails by diffuse thinning to rupture. The results from the current reversal test indicate that the time to sweep Cu in the polygranular segments is longer for longer polygranular segments. Thus the time to first failure in an array of lines is much longer than predicted by a log-normal fit to the distribution of failure times.

  11. Transport coefficients in Lorentz plasmas with the power-law kappa-distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Jiulin, Du

    2013-09-15

    Transport coefficients in Lorentz plasma with the power-law κ-distribution are studied by means of using the transport equation and macroscopic laws of Lorentz plasma without magnetic field. Expressions of electric conductivity, thermoelectric coefficient, and thermal conductivity for the power-law κ-distribution are accurately derived. It is shown that these transport coefficients are significantly modified by the κ-parameter, and in the limit of the parameter κ→∞ they are reduced to the standard forms for a Maxwellian distribution.

  12. A test of star formation laws in disk galaxies. II. Dependence on dynamical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Suwannajak, Chutipong; Tan, Jonathan C.; Leroy, Adam K.

    2014-05-20

    We use the observed radial profiles of the mass surface densities of total, Σ {sub g}, and molecular, Σ{sub H2}, gas, rotation velocity, and star formation rate (SFR) surface density, Σ{sub sfr}, of the molecular-rich (Σ{sub H2} ≥ Σ{sub HI}/2) regions of 16 nearby disk galaxies to test several star formation (SF) laws: a 'Kennicutt-Schmidt (K-S)' law, Σ{sub sfr}=A{sub g}Σ{sub g,2}{sup 1.5}; a 'Constant Molecular' law, Σ{sub sfr} = A {sub H2}Σ{sub H2,2}; the turbulence-regulated laws of Krumholz and McKee (KM05) and Krumholz, McKee, and Tumlinson (KMT09); a 'Gas-Ω' law, Σ{sub sfr}=B{sub Ω}Σ{sub g}Ω; and a shear-driven 'giant molecular cloud (GMC) Collision' law, Σ{sub sfr} = B {sub CC}Σ {sub g}Ω(1-0.7β), where β ≡ d ln v {sub circ}/d ln r. If allowed one free normalization parameter for each galaxy, these laws predict the SFR with rms errors of factors of 1.4-1.8. If a single normalization parameter is used by each law for the entire galaxy sample, then rms errors range from factors of 1.5-2.1. Although the Constant Molecular law gives the smallest rms errors, the improvement over the KMT, K-S, and GMC Collision laws is not especially significant, particularly given the different observational inputs that the laws utilize and the scope of included physics, which ranges from empirical relations to detailed treatment of interstellar medium processes. We next search for systematic variation of SF law parameters with local and global galactic dynamical properties of disk shear rate (related to β), rotation speed, and presence of a bar. We demonstrate with high significance that higher shear rates enhance SF efficiency per local orbital time. Such a trend is expected if GMC collisions play an important role in SF, while an opposite trend would be expected if the development of disk gravitational instabilities is the controlling physics.

  13. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    AND POWER FACILITIE | Department of Energy STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIE Section 1308 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 ("EISA 2007") directed the Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the States, to undertake a study of the laws affecting the siting of privately-owned distribution wires on or across public

  14. Contact for the Assistant General Counsel for General Law (GC-56) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Contact for the Assistant General Counsel for General Law (GC-56) Contact for the Assistant General Counsel for General Law (GC-56) All comments and requests for assistance should be directed to our office phone at 202-586-1522. Susan Beard, Assistant General Counsel for General Law 202-586-1522 susan.beard@hq.doe.gov Christina (Tina) Hymer, Deputy Assistant General Counsel for Standards of Conduct 202-586-1522 christina.hymer@hq.doe.gov William (Will) Grant II, Deputy

  15. THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    FACILITIES | Department of Energy THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIES THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIES Section 1308 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 ("EISA 2007") directed the Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the States, to undertake a study of the laws affecting the siting of privately-owned distribution wires on or across public rights of way and to

  16. AEGIS: A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF SPITZER POWER-LAW GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. Q.; Barmby, P.; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Fazio, G. G.; Georgakakis, A.; Ivison, R. J.; Konidaris, N. P.; Rosario, D. J.; Nandra, K.

    2010-07-10

    This paper analyzes a sample of 489 Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) sources in the Extended Groth Strip (EGS), whose spectral energy distributions fit a red power law (PL) from 3.6 to 8.0 {mu}m. The median redshift for sources with known redshifts is (z) = 1.6. Though all or nearly all of the sample galaxies are likely to be active galactic nuclei (AGNs), only 33% were detected in the EGS X-ray survey (AEGIS-X) using 200 ks Chandra observations. The detected sources are X-ray luminous with L {sub X}>10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} and moderately to heavily obscured with N {sub H}>10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}. Stacking the X-ray-undetected sample members yields a statistically significant X-ray signal, suggesting that they are on average more distant or more obscured than sources with X-ray detections. The ratio of X-ray to mid-infrared fluxes suggests that a substantial fraction of the sources undetected in X-rays are obscured at the Compton-thick level, in contrast to the X-ray-detected sources, all of which appear to be Compton thin. For the X-ray-detected PL sources with redshifts, an X-ray luminosity L {sub X} {approx} 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} marks a transition between low-luminosity, blue sources dominated by the host galaxy to high-luminosity, red PL sources dominated by nuclear activity. X-ray-to-optical ratios, infrared variability, and 24 {mu}m properties of the sample are consistent with the identification of infrared PL sources as active nuclei, but a rough estimate is that only 22% of AGNs are selected by the PL criteria. Comparison of the PL selection technique and various IRAC color criteria for identifying AGNs confirms that high-redshift samples selected via simple IRAC colors may be heavily contaminated by starlight-dominated objects.

  17. Celiac Node Failure Patterns After Definitive Chemoradiation for Esophageal Cancer in the Modern Era

    SciTech Connect

    Amini, Arya; Xiao Lianchun; Allen, Pamela K.; Suzuki, Akihiro; Hayashi, Yuki; Liao, Zhongxing; Hofstetter, Wayne; Crane, Christopher; Komaki, Ritsuko; Bhutani, Manoop S.; Lee, Jeffrey H.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Welsh, James

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: The celiac lymph node axis acts as a gateway for metastatic systemic spread. The need for prophylactic celiac nodal coverage in chemoradiation therapy for esophageal cancer is controversial. Given the improved ability to evaluate lymph node status before treatment via positron emission tomography (PET) and endoscopic ultrasound, we hypothesized that prophylactic celiac node irradiation may not be needed for patients with localized esophageal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the radiation treatment volumes for 131 patients who underwent definitive chemoradiation for esophageal cancer. Patients with celiac lymph node involvement at baseline were excluded. Median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy. The location of all celiac node failures was compared with the radiation treatment plan to determine whether the failures occurred within or outside the radiation treatment field. Results: At a median follow-up time of 52.6 months (95% CI 46.1-56.7 months), 6 of 60 patients (10%) without celiac node coverage had celiac nodal failure; in 5 of these patients, the failures represented the first site of recurrence. Of the 71 patients who had celiac coverage, only 5 patients (7%) had celiac region relapse. In multivariate analyses, having a pretreatment-to-post-treatment change in standardized uptake value on PET >52% (odds ratio [OR] 0.198, p = 0.0327) and having failure in the clinical target volume (OR 10.72, p = 0.001) were associated with risk of celiac region relapse. Of those without celiac coverage, the 6 patients that later developed celiac failure had a worse median overall survival time compared with the other 54 patients who did not fail (median overall survival time: 16.5 months vs. 31.5 months, p = 0.041). Acute and late toxicities were similar in both groups. Conclusions: Although celiac lymph node failures occur in approximately 1 of 10 patients, the lack of effective salvage treatments and subsequent low morbidity may justify prophylactic treatment

  18. FIA-13-0004- In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group, LLC

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    On February 25, 2013, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) denied a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Appeal filed by the Torres Consulting & Law Group, LLC, ...

  19. FIA-14-0070- In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group, LLC

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    On November 20, 2014, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) denied a Freedom of Information Act Appeal (FOIA) filed by Torres Consulting and Law Group, LLC ...

  20. Tunable power law in the desynchronization events of coupled chaotic electronic circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Gilson F. de Lorenzo, Orlando di; Chevrollier, Martine; Passerat de Silans, Thierry; Oriá, Marcos; Souza Cavalcante, Hugo L. D. de

    2014-03-15

    We study the statistics of the amplitude of the synchronization error in chaotic electronic circuits coupled through linear feedback. Depending on the coupling strength, our system exhibits three qualitatively different regimes of synchronization: weak coupling yields independent oscillations; moderate to strong coupling produces a regime of intermittent synchronization known as attractor bubbling; and stronger coupling produces complete synchronization. In the regime of moderate coupling, the probability distribution for the sizes of desynchronization events follows a power law, with an exponent that can be adjusted by changing the coupling strength. Such power-law distributions are interesting, as they appear in many complex systems. However, most of the systems with such a behavior have a fixed value for the exponent of the power law, while here we present an example of a system where the exponent of the power law is easily tuned in real time.

  1. FIA-14-0032- In the Matter of Torres Consulting & Law Group, LLC

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    On June 16, 2014, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) denied a Freedom of Information Act Appeal (FOIA) filed by Torres Consulting & Law Group, LLC, (Appellant...

  2. "Glass Formulation and Testing with TWRS LAW Simulants," Final Report to Duratek Inc. and BNFL Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Isabelle S.; Pegg, Ian L.; Gan, Hao; Buechele, Andrew C.; Kim, C.; Lai, Shan-Tao T.; Del Rosario, G.; Yan, Q.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2015-06-22

    This report presents the results of glass formulation development with TWRS LAW simulants that was conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic University of America during TWRS Phase I.

  3. FAST Code Verification of Scaling Laws for DeepCwind Floating Wind System Tests: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, A.; Robertson, A. N.; Jonkman, J. M.; Goupee, A. J.; Kimball, R. W.; Swift, A. H. P.

    2012-04-01

    This paper investigates scaling laws that were adopted for the DeepCwind project for testing three different floating wind systems at 1/50 scale in a wave tank under combined wind and wave loading.

  4. Title 1 Chapter 3 Common Law; General Rights | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Law; General RightsLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 1975 Legal Citation 1 V.S.A. 2171-339 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online...

  5. Melting Hanford LAW into Iron-Phosphate Glass in a CCIM (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Melting Hanford LAW into Iron-Phosphate Glass in a CCIM A vitrification test has been conducted using the cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test system at the Idaho ...

  6. PROBABILITY OF FAILURE OF THE TRUDOCK CRANE SYSTEM AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, M.A.; Sargent, T.J.

    2000-05-01

    This probabilistic analysis of WIPP TRUDOCK crane failure is based on two sources of failure data. The source for operator errors is the report by Swain and Guttman, NUREG/CR-1278-F, August 1983. The source for crane cable hook breaks was initially made by WIPP/WID-96- 2196, Rev. O by using relatively old (1970s) U.S. Navy data (NUREG-0612). However, a helpful analysis by R.K. Deremer of PLG guided the authors to values that were more realistic and more conservative, with the recommendation that the crane cable/hook failure rate should be 2.5 x 10-6 per demand. This value was adopted and used. Based on these choices a mean failure rate of 9.70 x 10-3(1/yr) was calculated. However, a mean rate by itself does not reveal the level of confidence to be associated with this number. Guidance to making confidence calculations came from the report by Swain and Guttman, who stated that failure data could be described by lognormal distributions. This is in agreement with the widely use d reports (by DOE and others) NPRD-95 and NPRD-91, on failure data. The calculations of confidence levels showed that the mean failure rate of 9.70x 10-3(1/yr) corresponded to a percentile value of approximately 71; i.e. there is a 71% likelihood that the failure rate is less than 9.70x 10-3(1/yr). One also calculated that there is a 95% likelihood that the failure rate is less than 29.6x 10-3(1/yr). Or, as stated previously, there is a 71% likelihood that not more than one dropped load will occur in 103 years. Also, there is a 95% likelihood that not more than one dropped load will occur in approximately 34 years. It is the responsibility of DOE to select the confidence level at which it desires to operate.

  7. Comments of the Southern Environmental Law Center and the American Lung

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Association in response to the Department of Energy's Emergency Order to Resume Operations at the Potomac River Generating Station in Alexandria, VA | Department of Energy the Southern Environmental Law Center and the American Lung Association in response to the Department of Energy's Emergency Order to Resume Operations at the Potomac River Generating Station in Alexandria, VA Comments of the Southern Environmental Law Center and the American Lung Association in response to the Department

  8. In search of a new governing failure criterion for torispherical heads

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, A.; Updike, D.P.; Rana, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    The failure criterion that governs the present design rules of formed heads in Section 8/Div. 2 of the ASME B and PV Code limits crown displacement upon a single application of pressure, and it does so by means of a calculated collapse pressure. One problem with the rules is that they require greater head thicknesses than those of Section 8/Div. 1. Another problem is that recent test data taken for two formed heads have shown no signs of head displacements or deformations that could have rendered the heads unserviceable at pressures substantially higher than the calculated collapse pressures. Any link between the calculated collapse pressures and the failures of the test heads could not be established. The main thesis proposed in the paper is that such a link does not exist for torispherical heads in general. The reason for this is investigated theoretically and attributed to the geometric strengthening of heads, as they deform. It is recommended that the reasons for limiting displacements or deformations for a single application of pressure be reviewed and, if needed, a new failure criterion defined, or other failure modes, such as tensile plastic instability (burst), be considered. The latter mode is described and options for its evaluation are presented in this paper. The protection of torispherical heads against the failure modes of low-cycle fatigue and incremental plastic growth upon cyclic loading, which are controlled by shakedown, is not covered in this paper but is left to future investigations.

  9. STRESS AND FAILURE ANALYSIS OF RAPIDLY ROTATING ASTEROID (29075) 1950DA

    SciTech Connect

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Rozitis et al. recently reported that near-Earth asteroid (29075) 1950DA, whose bulk density ranges from 1.0 g cm{sup 3} to 2.4g cm{sup 3}, is a rubble pile and requires a cohesive strength of at least 44-76 Pa to keep from failing due to its fast spin period. Since their technique for giving failure conditions required the averaged stress over the whole volume, it discarded information about the asteroid's failure mode and internal stress condition. This paper develops a finite element model and revisits the stress and failure analysis of 1950DA. For the modeling, we do not consider material hardening and softening. Under the assumption of an associated flow rule and uniform material distribution, we identify the deformation process of 1950DA when its constant cohesion reaches the lowest value that keeps its current shape. The results show that to avoid structural failure the internal core requires a cohesive strength of at least 75-85 Pa. It suggests that for the failure mode of this body, the internal core first fails structurally, followed by the surface region. This implies that if cohesion is constant over the whole volume, the equatorial ridge of 1950DA results from a material flow going outward along the equatorial plane in the internal core, but not from a landslide as has been hypothesized. This has additional implications for the likely density of the interior of the body.

  10. Predicting age of ovarian failure after radiation to a field that includes the ovaries

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W. Hamish B. . E-mail: Hamish.Wallace@ed.ac.uk; Thomson, Angela B.; Saran, Frank; Kelsey, Tom W.

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To predict the age at which ovarian failure is likely to develop after radiation to a field that includes the ovary in women treated for cancer. Methods and Materials: Modern computed tomography radiotherapy planning allows determination of the effective dose of radiation received by the ovaries. Together with our recent assessment of the radiosensitivity of the human oocyte, the effective surviving fraction of primordial oocytes can be determined and the age of ovarian failure, with 95% confidence limits, predicted for any given dose of radiotherapy. Results: The effective sterilizing dose (ESD: dose of fractionated radiotherapy [Gy] at which premature ovarian failure occurs immediately after treatment in 97.5% of patients) decreases with increasing age at treatment. ESD at birth is 20.3 Gy; at 10 years 18.4 Gy, at 20 years 16.5 Gy, and at 30 years 14.3 Gy. We have calculated 95% confidence limits for age at premature ovarian failure for estimated radiation doses to the ovary from 1 Gy to the ESD from birth to 50 years. Conclusions: We report the first model to reliably predict the age of ovarian failure after treatment with a known dose of radiotherapy. Clinical application of this model will enable physicians to counsel women on their reproductive potential following successful treatment.

  11. Fatigue failure of regenerator screens in a high frequency Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, D.R.; Alger, D.L.; Moore, T.J.; Sheuermann, C.M.

    1987-03-01

    Failure of Stirling Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) regenerator screens was investigated. After several hours of operation the SPDE was shut down for inspection and upon removal of the regenerator screens, debris of an unknown origin was discovered along with considerable cracking of the screens in localized areas. Metallurgical analysis of the debris determined it to be cracked-off-deformed pieces of the 41 pm thickness Type 304 stainless steel wire screen. Scanning electron microscopy of the cracked screens revealed failures occurring at wire crossovers and fatigue striations on the fracture surface of the wires. Thus, the screen failure can be characterized as a fatigue failure of the wires. The crossovers were determined to contain a 30 percent reduction in wire thickness and a highly worked microstructure occurring from the manufacturing process of the wire screens. Later it was found that reduction in wire thickness occurred because the screen fabricator had subjected the screen to a light cold-roll process after weaving. Installation of this screen left a clearance in the regenerator allowing the screens to move. The combined effects of the reduction in wire thickness, stress concentration (caused by screen movement), and highly worked microstructure at the wire crossovers led to the fatigue failure of the screens.

  12. Model documentation report: Residential sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document that provides a detailed description for energy analysts, other users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports according to Public Law 93-275, section 57(b)(1). Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements.

  13. Electric power monthly. June 1966 with data for March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public, with the purpose of providing energy decisionmakers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities (Public Law 93-275). A section on upgrading transmission capacity for wholesale electric power trade is included. The tables include US electric power at a glance, utility net generation, utility consumption of fossil fuels, fossil-fuel stocks/receipts/cost at utilities, utility sales/revenue/revenue per kWh, and monthly plant aggregates.

  14. Inventory of power plants in the United States 1989. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-21

    This document is prepared annually by the Electric Power Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units in operation and to provide a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 states and the District of Columbia). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA, to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The report is organized into the following chapters: Summary Statistics; Operable Electric Generating Units; and Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions.

  15. Model documentation report: Transportation sector model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of TRAN for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirements of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, 57(b)(1)). Third, it permits continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements.

  16. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1997. The publication also provides a 10-yr outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  17. Inventory of power plants in the United States, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  18. Expert system for identification of simultaneous and sequential reactor fuel failures with gas tagging

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.

    1994-07-26

    Failure of a fuel element in a nuclear reactor core is determined by a gas tagging failure detection system and method. Failures are catalogued and characterized after the event so that samples of the reactor's cover gas are taken at regular intervals and analyzed by mass spectroscopy. Employing a first set of systematic heuristic rules which are applied in a transformed node space allows the number of node combinations which must be processed within a barycentric algorithm to be substantially reduced. A second set of heuristic rules treats the tag nodes of the most recent one or two leakers as background'' gases, further reducing the number of trial node combinations. Lastly, a fuzzy'' set theory formalism minimizes experimental uncertainties in the identification of the most likely volumes of tag gases. This approach allows for the identification of virtually any number of sequential leaks and up to five simultaneous gas leaks from fuel elements. 14 figs.

  19. Expert system for identification of simultaneous and sequential reactor fuel failures with gas tagging

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.

    1994-01-01

    Failure of a fuel element in a nuclear reactor core is determined by a gas tagging failure detection system and method. Failures are catalogued and characterized after the event so that samples of the reactor's cover gas are taken at regular intervals and analyzed by mass spectroscopy. Employing a first set of systematic heuristic rules which are applied in a transformed node space allows the number of node combinations which must be processed within a barycentric algorithm to be substantially reduced. A second set of heuristic rules treats the tag nodes of the most recent one or two leakers as "background" gases, further reducing the number of trial node combinations. Lastly, a "fuzzy" set theory formalism minimizes experimental uncertainties in the identification of the most likely volumes of tag gases. This approach allows for the identification of virtually any number of sequential leaks and up to five simultaneous gas leaks from fuel elements.

  20. Failure Scenarios and Mitigations and for the BaBar Superconducting Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, EunJoo; Candia, A.; Craddock, W.W.; Racine, M.; Weisend, J.G., II; /SLAC

    2005-12-13

    The cryogenic department at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is responsible for the operation, troubleshooting, and upgrade of the 1.5 Tesla superconducting solenoid detector for the BABAR B-factory experiment. Events that disable the detector are rare but significantly impact the availability of the detector for physics research. As a result, a number of systems and procedures have been developed over time to minimize the downtime of the detector, for example improved control systems, improved and automatic backup systems, and spares for all major components. Together they can prevent or mitigate many of the failures experienced by the utilities, mechanical systems, controls and instrumentation. In this paper we describe various failure scenarios, their effect on the detector, and the modifications made to mitigate the effects of the failure. As a result of these modifications the reliability of the detector has increased significantly with only 3 shutdowns of the detector due to cryogenics systems over the last 2 years.

  1. Security Analysis of Selected AMI Failure Scenarios Using Agent Based Game Theoretic Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Schlicher, Bob G; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2014-01-01

    Information security analysis can be performed using game theory implemented in dynamic Agent Based Game Theoretic (ABGT) simulations. Such simulations can be verified with the results from game theory analysis and further used to explore larger scale, real world scenarios involving multiple attackers, defenders, and information assets. We concentrated our analysis on the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) functional domain which the National Electric Sector Cyber security Organization Resource (NESCOR) working group has currently documented 29 failure scenarios. The strategy for the game was developed by analyzing five electric sector representative failure scenarios contained in the AMI functional domain. From these five selected scenarios, we characterize them into three specific threat categories affecting confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA). The analysis using our ABGT simulation demonstrates how to model the AMI functional domain using a set of rationalized game theoretic rules decomposed from the failure scenarios in terms of how those scenarios might impact the AMI network with respect to CIA.

  2. Probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, M.A.; Sargent, T.J. |

    1998-01-01

    In its most recent report on the annual probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the annual failure rate is calculated to be 1.3E({minus}7)(1/yr), rounded off from 1.32E({minus}7). A calculation by the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) produces a result that is about 4% higher, namely 1.37E({minus}7)(1/yr). The difference is due to a minor error in the US Department of Energy (DOE) calculations in the Westinghouse 1996 report. WIPP`s hoist safety relies on a braking system consisting of a number of components including two crucial valves. The failure rate of the system needs to be recalculated periodically to accommodate new information on component failure, changes in maintenance and inspection schedules, occasional incidents such as a hoist traveling out-of-control, either up or down, and changes in the design of the brake system. This report examines DOE`s last two reports on the redesigned waste hoist system. In its calculations, the DOE has accepted one EEG recommendation and is using more current information about the component failures rates, the Nonelectronic Parts Reliability Data (NPRD). However, the DOE calculations fail to include the data uncertainties which are described in detail in the NPRD reports. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission recommended that a system evaluation include mean estimates of component failure rates and take into account the potential uncertainties that exist so that an estimate can be made on the confidence level to be ascribed to the quantitative results. EEG has made this suggestion previously and the DOE has indicated why it does not accept the NRC recommendation. Hence, this EEG report illustrates the importance of including data uncertainty using a simple statistical example.

  3. Failure Forewarning in NPP Equipment NERI2000-109 Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, LM

    2004-03-26

    The objective of this project is forewarning of machine failures in critical equipment at next-generation nuclear power plants (NPP). Test data were provided by two collaborating institutions: Duke Engineering and Services (first project year), and the Pennsylvania State University (Applied Research Laboratory) during the second and third project years. New nonlinear methods were developed and applied successfully to extract forewarning trends from process-indicative, time-serial data for timely, condition-based maintenance. Anticipation of failures in critical equipment at next-generation NPP will improve the scheduling of maintenance activities to minimize safety concerns, unscheduled non-productive downtime, and collateral damage due to unexpected failures. This approach provides significant economic benefit, and is expected to improve public acceptance of nuclear power. The approach is a multi-tiered, model-independent, and data-driven analysis that uses ORNL's novel nonlinear method to extract forewarning of machine failures from appropriate data. The first tier of the analysis provides a robust choice for the process-indicative data. The second tier rejects data of inadequate quality. The third tier removes signal artifacts that would otherwise confound the analysis, while retaining the relevant nonlinear dynamics. The fourth tier converts the artifact-filtered time-serial data into a geometric representation, that is then transformed to a discrete distribution function (DF). This method allows for noisy, finite-length datasets. The fifth tier obtains dissimilarity measures (DM) between the nominal-state DF and subsequent test-state DFs. Forewarning of a machine failure is indicated by several successive occurrences of the DM above a threshold, or by a statistically significant trend in the DM. This paradigm yields robust nonlinear signatures of degradation and its progression, allowing earlier and more accurate detection of the machine failure.

  4. Beam losses due to abrupt crab cavity failures in the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, T.; Barranco, J.; Calaga, R.; Tomas, R.; Wenninger, B.; Yee, B.; Zimmermann, F.

    2011-03-28

    A major concern for the implementation of crab crossing in a future High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is machine protection in an event of a fast crab-cavity failure. Certain types of abrupt crab-cavity amplitude and phase changes are simulated to characterize the effect of failures on the beam and the resulting particle-loss signatures. The time-dependent beam loss distributions around the ring and particle trajectories obtained from the simulations allow for a first assessment of the resulting beam impact on LHC collimators and on sensitive components around the ring. Results for the nominal LHC lattice is presented.

  5. Failure analysis for the dual input quad NAND fate CD4011 under dormant storage conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2004-11-01

    Several groups of plastic molded CD4011 were electrically tested as part of an Army dormant storage program. For this test, parts had been in storage in missile containers for 4.5 years. Eight of the parts (out of 1200) failed the electrical tests and were subsequently analyzed to determine the cause of the failures. The root cause was found to be corrosion of the unpassivated Al bondpads. No significant attack of the passivated Al traces was found. Seven of the eight failures occurred in parts stored on a preposition ship (Jeb Stuart), suggesting a link between the external environment and observed corrosion.

  6. Failure analysis for the dual input quad NAND gate CD4011 under dormant storage conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2007-05-01

    Several groups of plastic molded CD4011s were electrically tested as part of an Army dormant storage program. These parts had been in storage in missile containers for 4.5 years, and were electrically tested annually. Eight of the parts (out of 1200) failed the electrical tests and were subsequently analyzed to determine the cause of the failures. The root cause was found to be corrosion of the unpassivated Al bondpads. No significant attack of the passivated Al traces was found. Seven of the eight failures occurred in parts stored on a pre-position ship (the Jeb Stuart), suggesting a link between the external environment and observed corrosion.

  7. Device for detecting imminent failure of high-dielectric stress capacitors

    DOEpatents

    McDuff, George G.

    1982-01-01

    A device for detecting imminent failure of a high-dielectric stress capacitor utilizing circuitry for detecting pulse width variations and pulse magnitude variations. Inexpensive microprocessor circuitry is utilized to make numerical calculations of digital data supplied by detection circuitry for comparison of pulse width data and magnitude data to determine if preselected ranges have been exceeded, thereby indicating imminent failure of a capacitor. Detection circuitry may be incorporated in transmission lines, pulse power circuitry, including laser pulse circuitry or any circuitry where capacitors or capactior banks are utilized.

  8. Device for detecting imminent failure of high-dielectric stress capacitors. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    McDuff, G.G.

    1980-11-05

    A device is described for detecting imminent failure of a high-dielectric stress capacitor utilizing circuitry for detecting pulse width variations and pulse magnitude variations. Inexpensive microprocessor circuitry is utilized to make numerical calculations of digital data supplied by detection circuitry for comparison of pulse width data and magnitude data to determine if preselected ranges have been exceeded, thereby indicating imminent failure of a capacitor. Detection circuitry may be incorporated in transmission lines, pulse power circuitry, including laser pulse circuitry or any circuitry where capacitors or capacitor banks are utilized.

  9. An Experimental Study of Shear-Dominated Failure in the 2013 Sandia Fracture Challenge Specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Corona, Edmundo; Deibler, Lisa Anne; Reedlunn, Benjamin; Ingraham, Mathew Duffy; Williams, Shelley

    2015-04-01

    This report presents an experimental study motivated by results obtained during the 2013 Sandia Fracture Challenge. The challenge involved A286 steel, shear-dominated compression specimens whose load-deflection response contained a load maximum fol- lowed by significant displacement under decreasing load, ending with a catastrophic fracture. Blind numerical simulations deviated from the experiments well before the maximum load and did not predict the failure displacement. A series of new tests were conducted on specimens machined from the original A286 steel stock to learn more about the deformation and failure processes in the specimen and potentially improve future numerical simulations. The study consisted of several uniaxial tension tests to explore anisotropy in the material, and a set of new tests on the compression speci- men. In some compression specimen tests, stereo digital image correlation (DIC) was used to measure the surface strain fields local to the region of interest. In others, the compression specimen was loaded to a given displacement prior to failure, unloaded, sectioned, and imaged under the microscope to determine when material damage first appeared and how it spread. The experiments brought the following observations to light. The tensile tests revealed that the plastic response of the material is anisotropic. DIC during the shear- dominated compression tests showed that all three in-plane surface strain components had maxima in the order of 50% at the maximum load. Sectioning of the specimens revealed no signs of material damage at the point where simulations deviated from the experiments. Cracks and other damage did start to form approximately when the max- imum load was reached, and they grew as the load decreased, eventually culminating in catastrophic failure of the specimens. In addition to the steel specimens, a similar study was carried out for aluminum 7075-T651 specimens. These specimens achieved much lower loads and displacements

  10. Proceedings: Third international conference on boiler tube failures in fossil plants

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The objectives of the conference were to review, document and transfer technology on all aspects of BTF. To meet these objectives, papers and presentations were provided on the following topics: general overview of BTF around the world; waterwall fireside corrosion; corrosion fatigue; root cause analysis; non-destructive evaluation for BTF; superheater failures; condition assessment and data acquisition; and boiler tube failure reduction programs. Each topic was discussed in a separate conference session. Discussions followed each paper and are included in the proceedings. A questionnaire was completed by the attendees on BTF and the remaining needs for research and development. The results are provided in Appendix A.

  11. Failures and repairs of headers and drums in fossil fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Thielsch, H.; Cone, F.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses failures which have occurred in a number of thick-walled pressure vessels including superheater and reheat outlet headers, and med and steam drums in fossil fired boilers. It provides details regarding the causes of failure, which range from original manufacturing defects to service-related deterioration such as creep and thermal fatigue. It also provides information regarding inspection techniques which are capable of detecting similar conditions before they have reached dangerous levels of deterioration. Finally, it provides details pertaining to techniques used to successfully repair these pressure vessels when they have failed.

  12. On the development of life prediction methodologies for the failure of human teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Nalla, R.K.; Imbeni, V.; Kinney, J.H.; Marshall, S.J.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2002-09-18

    Human dentin is known to be susceptible to failure under cyclic loading. Surprisingly, there are few reports that quantify the effect of such loading, considering the fact that a typical tooth experiences a million or so loading cycles annually. In the present study, a systematic investigation is described of the effects of prolonged cyclic loading on human dentin in a simulated physiological environment. In vitro stress-life (S/N) data are discussed in the context of possible mechanisms of fatigue damage and failure.

  13. Body Mass Index and Prostate-Specific Antigen Failure Following Brachytherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Efstathiou, Jason A. Skowronski, Rafi Y.; Coen, John J.; Grocela, Joseph A.; Hirsch, Ariel E.; Zietman, Anthony L.

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: Increasing body mass index (BMI) is associated with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure after radical prostatectomy and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). We investigated whether BMI is associated with PSA failure in men treated with brachytherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: Retrospective analyses were conducted on 374 patients undergoing brachytherapy for stage T1c-T2cNXM0 prostate cancer from 1996-2001. Forty-nine patients (13%) received supplemental EBRT and 131 (35%) received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Height and weight data were available for 353 (94%). Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between BMI and PSA failure (nadir + 2 ng/ml definition). Covariates included age, race, preimplantation PSA, Gleason score, T category, percent of prescription dose to 90% of the prostate, use of supplemental EBRT, and ADT. Results: Median age, PSA, and BMI were 66 years (range, 42-80 years), 5.7 ng/ml (range, 0.4-22.6 ng/ml), and 27.1 kg/m{sup 2} (range, 18.2-53.6 kg/m{sup 2}), respectively. After a median follow-up of 6.0 years (range, 3.0-10.2 years), there were 76 PSA recurrences. The BMI was not associated with PSA failure. Six-year PSA failure rates were 30.2% for men with BMI less than 25 kg/m{sup 2}, 19.5% for BMI of 25 or greater to less than 30 kg/m{sup 2}, and 14.4% for BMI of 30 kg/m{sup 2} or greater (p = 0.19). Results were similar when BMI was analyzed as a continuous variable, using alternative definitions of PSA failure, and excluding patients treated with EBRT and/or ADT. In multivariate analyses, only baseline PSA was significantly associated with shorter time to PSA failure (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.20; p 0.0006). Conclusions: Unlike after surgery or EBRT, BMI is not associated with PSA failure in men treated with brachytherapy for prostate cancer. This raises the possibility that brachytherapy may be a preferred treatment

  14. Bladder Cancer Patterns of Pelvic Failure: Implications for Adjuvant Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Brian C.; Guzzo, Thomas J.; He Jiwei; Vaughn, David J.; Keefe, Stephen M.; Vapiwala, Neha; Deville, Curtiland; Bekelman, Justin E.; Tucker, Kai; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Christodouleas, John P.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Local-regional failures (LFs) after cystectomy with or without chemotherapy are common in locally advanced disease. Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) could reduce LFs, but toxicity has discouraged its use. Modern RT techniques with improved normal tissue sparing have rekindled interest but require knowledge of pelvic failure patterns to design treatment volumes. Methods and Materials: Five-year LF rates after radical cystectomy plus pelvic node dissection with or without chemotherapy were determined for 8 pelvic sites among 442 urothelial bladder carcinoma patients. The impact of pathologic stage, margin status, nodal involvement, and extent of node dissection on failure patterns was assessed using competing risk analysis. We calculated the percentage of patients whose sites of LF would have been completely encompassed within various hypothetical clinical target volumes (CTVs) for postoperative radiation. Results: Compared with stage {<=}pT2, stage {>=}pT3 patients had higher 5-year LF rates in virtually all pelvic sites. Among stage {>=}pT3 patients, margin status significantly altered the failure pattern whereas extent of node dissection and nodal positivity did not. In stage {>=}pT3 patients with negative margins, failure occurred predominantly in the iliac/obturator nodes and uncommonly in the cystectomy bed and/or presacral nodes. Of these patients in whom failure subsequently occurred, 76% would have had all LF sites encompassed within CTVs covering only the iliac/obturator nodes. In stage {>=}pT3 with positive margins, cystectomy bed and/or presacral nodal failures increased significantly. Only 57% of such patients had all LF sites within CTVs limited to the iliac/obturator nodes, but including the cystectomy bed and presacral nodes in the CTV when margins were positive increased the percentage of LFs encompassed to 91%. Conclusions: Patterns of failure within the pelvis are summarized to facilitate design of adjuvant RT protocols. These data suggest

  15. A Summary of Taxonomies of Digital System Failure Modes Provided by the DigRel Task Group

    SciTech Connect

    Chu T. L.; Yue M.; Postma, W.

    2012-06-25

    Recently, the CSNI directed WGRisk to set up a task group called DIGREL to initiate a new task on developing a taxonomy of failure modes of digital components for the purposes of PSA. It is an important step towards standardized digital I&C reliability assessment techniques for PSA. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparison of the failure mode taxonomies provided by the participants. The failure modes are classified in terms of their levels of detail. Software and hardware failure modes are discussed separately.

  16. Compressive creep and creep failure of 8Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped hot-pressed silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Crampon, J.; Duclos, R.; Peni, F.; Guicciardi, S.; Portu, G. De

    1997-01-01

    The compressive creep properties of hot-pressed Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-8Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (wt%) have been investigated in the temperature range of 1,543--1,603 K in air. The stress exponent, n, of the power creep law was determined to be 1.5, and the activation energy was determined to be 650 kJ/mol. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed that grain-boundary sliding occurred with cavitation formation in the grain-boundary glassy phase. The quasi-steady-state creep results were consistent with that of the diffusion-controlled solution-diffusion-precipitation creep mechanism, and the distinguished failure mechanism was cavitation creep damage controlled by the viscosity of the boundary glassy phase. The compressive creep failure time, obtained at 1,573 K, in the stress range of 175--300 MPa, followed the Monkman-Grant relation, indicating that cavity growth was mainly controlled by the creep response of the material.

  17. Testing of Large-Scale ICV Glasses with Hanford LAW Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Matyas, Josef; Smith, Donald E.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Yeager, John D.

    2005-03-01

    Preliminary glass compositions for immobilizing Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) by the in-container vitrification (ICV) process were initially fabricated at crucible- and engineering-scale, including simulants and actual (radioactive) LAW. Glasses were characterized for vapor hydration test (VHT) and product consistency test (PCT) responses and crystallinity (both quenched and slow-cooled samples). Selected glasses were tested for toxicity characteristic leach procedure (TCLP) responses, viscosity, and electrical conductivity. This testing showed that glasses with LAW loading of 20 mass% can be made readily and meet all product constraints by a far margin. Glasses with over 22 mass% Na2O can be made to meet all other product quality and process constraints. Large-scale testing was performed at the AMEC, Geomelt Division facility in Richland. Three tests were conducted using simulated LAW with increasing loadings of 12, 17, and 20 mass% Na2O. Glass samples were taken from the test products in a manner to represent the full expected range of product performance. These samples were characterized for composition, density, crystalline and non-crystalline phase assemblage, and durability using the VHT, PCT, and TCLP tests. The results, presented in this report, show that the AMEC ICV product with meets all waste form requirements with a large margin. These results provide strong evidence that the Hanford LAW can be successfully vitrified by the ICV technology and can meet all the constraints related to product quality. The economic feasibility of the ICV technology can be further enhanced by subsequent optimization.

  18. Constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio for non-power-law models

    SciTech Connect

    Vázquez, J. Alberto; Bridges, M.; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Hobson, M.P. E-mail: mb435@mrao.cam.ac.uk E-mail: mph@mrao.cam.ac.uk

    2013-08-01

    Recent cosmological observations hint at a deviation from the simple power-law form of the primordial spectrum of curvature perturbations. In this paper we show that in the presence of a tensor component, a turn-over in the initial spectrum is preferred by current observations, and hence non-power-law models ought to be considered. For instance, for a power-law parameterisation with both a tensor component and running parameter, current data show a preference for a negative running at more than 2.5σ C.L. As a consequence of this deviation from a power-law, constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r are slightly broader. We also present constraints on the inflationary parameters for a model-independent reconstruction and the Lasenby and Doran (LD) model. In particular, the constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio from the LD model are: r{sub LD} = 0.11±0.024. In addition to current data, we show expected constraints from Planck-like and CMB-Pol sensitivity experiments by using Markov-Chain-Monte-Carlo sampling chains. For all the models, we have included the Bayesian Evidence to perform a model selection analysis. The Bayes factor, using current observations, shows a strong preference for the LD model over the standard power-law parameterisation, and provides an insight into the accuracy of differentiating models through future surveys.

  19. Preliminary ILAW Formulation Algorithm Description, 24590 LAW RPT-RT-04-0003, Rev. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.

    2013-12-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), has contracted with Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) to design, construct, and commission the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site (DOE 2000). This plant is designed to operate for 40 years and treat roughly 50 million gallons of mixed hazardous high-level waste (HLW) stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The process involves separating the hight-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions through filtration, leaching, Cs ion exchange, and precipitation. Each fraction will be separately vitrified into borosilicate waste glass. This report documents the initial algorithm for use by Hanford WTP in batching LAW and glass-forming chemicals (GFCs) in the LAW melter feed preparation vessel (MFPV). Algorithm inputs include the chemical analyses of the pretreated LAW in the concentrate receipt vessel (CRV), the volume of the MFPV heel, and the compositions of individual GFCs. In addition to these inputs, uncertainties in the LAW composition and processing parameters are included in the algorithm.

  20. UNIVERSALITY OF THE NEAR-INFRARED EXTINCTION LAW BASED ON THE APOGEE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shu; Jiang, B. W. E-mail: bjiang@bnu.edu.cn

    2014-06-10

    Whether the near-infrared (NIR) extinction law is universal has long been a debated topic. Based on the APOGEE H-band spectroscopic survey, a key project of SDSS-III, the intrinsic colors of a large number of giant stars are accurately determined from the stellar effective temperature. Taking advantage of this and using a sample of 5942 K-type giants, the NIR extinction law is carefully revisited. The color excess ratio E(J – H)/E(J – K {sub S}), representative of the NIR extinction law, shows no dependence on the color excess when E(J – K {sub S}) changes from ∼0.3 to ∼4.0, which implies a universal NIR extinction law from diffuse to dense regions. The constant value of E(J – H)/E(J – K {sub S}), 0.64, corresponds to a power law index of 1.95. The other two ratios, E(H – K {sub S})/E(J – K {sub S}) and E(J – H)/E(H – K {sub S}), are 0.36 and 1.78, respectively. The results are consistent with the MRN dust size distribution.

  1. Structural integrity and potential failure modes of hanford high-level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Han, F.C.

    1996-09-30

    Structural Integrity of the Hanford High-Level Waste Tanks were evaluated based on the existing Design and Analysis Documents. All tank structures were found adequate for the normal operating and seismic loads. Potential failure modes of the tanks were assessed by engineering interpretation and extrapolation of the existing engineering documents.

  2. Delamination Failures in Long-Term Field Aged PV Modules from Point of View of Encapsulant

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This PowerPoint presentation was originally given by Tsuyoshi Shioda of Mitsui Chemicals, Inc. on Feb. 26, 2014 during the opening session of the 2013 NREL PV Module Reliability Workshop. It summarizes the study of long-term, field-aged photovoltaic modules with typical delamination failures from the point of view of the encapsulant.

  3. Temperature effects on failure thickness and deflagration-to-detonation transition in PBX 9502 and TATB

    SciTech Connect

    Asay, B.W.; McAfee, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    The deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) behavior of TATB has been investigated at high temperatures and severe confinement. comparison is made to other common explosives under similar confinement. TATB did not DDT under these conditions. The failure thickness of PBX 9502 at 250[degrees]C has also been determined. Two mm appears to be the limiting value at this temperature.

  4. Temperature effects on failure thickness and deflagration-to-detonation transition in PBX 9502 and TATB

    SciTech Connect

    Asay, B.W.; McAfee, J.B.

    1993-04-01

    The deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) behavior of TATB has been investigated at high temperatures and severe confinement. comparison is made to other common explosives under similar confinement. TATB did not DDT under these conditions. The failure thickness of PBX 9502 at 250{degrees}C has also been determined. Two mm appears to be the limiting value at this temperature.

  5. SU-E-T-495: Neutron Induced Electronics Failure Rate Analysis for a Single Room Proton Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, N; DeWees, T; Klein, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the failure rate as a function of neutron dose of the range modulator's servo motor controller system (SMCS) while shielded with Borated Polyethylene (BPE) and unshielded in a single room proton accelerator. Methods: Two experimental setups were constructed using two servo motor controllers and two motors. Each SMCS was then placed 30 cm from the end of the plugged proton accelerator applicator. The motor was then turned on and observed from outside of the vault while being irradiated to known neutron doses determined from bubble detector measurements. Anytime the motor deviated from the programmed motion a failure was recorded along with the delivered dose. The experiment was repeated using 9 cm of BPE shielding surrounding the SMCS. Results: Ten SMCS failures were recorded in each experiment. The dose per monitor unit for the unshielded SMCS was 0.0211 mSv/MU and 0.0144 mSv/MU for the shielded SMCS. The mean dose to produce a failure for the unshielded SMCS was 63.5 58.3 mSv versus 17.0 12.2 mSv for the shielded. The mean number of MUs between failures were 2297 1891 MU for the unshielded SMCS and 2122 1523 MU for the shielded. A Wilcoxon Signed Ranked test showed the dose between failures were significantly different (P value = 0.044) while the number of MUs between failures were not (P value = 1.000). Statistical analysis determined a SMCS neutron dose of 5.3 mSv produces a 5% chance of failure. Depending on the workload and location of the SMCS, this failure rate could impede clinical workflow. Conclusion: BPE shielding was shown to not reduce the average failure of the SMCS and relocation of the system outside of the accelerator vault was required to lower the failure rate enough to avoid impeding clinical work flow.

  6. Risk Analysis of the Space Shuttle: Pre-Challenger Bayeisan Prediction of Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Dana L. Kelly

    2008-02-01

    Dalal et al performed a statistical analysis of field and nozzle O-ring data collected prior to the ill-fated launch of the Challenger in January 1986. The purpose of their analysis was to show how statistical analysis could be used to provide information to decisionmakers prior to the launch, information that could have been expected to lead to a decision to abort the launch due to the low temperatures (~30o F.) present at the launch pad on the morning of the scheduled launch. Dalal et al. performed a frequentist analysis of the O-ring data, and found that a logistic regression model provided a relatively good fit to the past data. In the second portion of their paper, Dalal et al. propagated parameter uncertainties through the fitted logistic regression model in order to estimate the probability of shuttle failure due to O-ring failure at the estimated launch temperature of ~30o F. Because their analysis was frequentist in nature, probability distributions representing epistemic uncertainty in the input parameters were not available, and the authors had to resort to an approximate approach based on bootstrap confidence intervals. In this paper, we will re-evaluate the analyses of Dalal et al. from a Bayesian perspective. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling will be used to sample from the joint posterior distribution of the model parameters, and to sample from the posterior predictive distributions at the estimated launch temperature, a temperature that had not been observed in prior launches of the space shuttle. Uncertainties, which are represented by probability distributions in the Bayesian approach, are propagated through the model to obtain a probability distribution for O-ring failure, and subsequently for shuttle failure as a result of O-ring failure. No approximations are required in the Bayesian approach and the resulting distributions can be input to a decision analysis to obtain expected utility for the decision to launch.

  7. Analyzing the Interplay of Failures and Workload on a Leadership-Class Supercomputer

    SciTech Connect

    Meneses, Esteban; Ni, Xiang; Jones, Terry R; Maxwell, Don E

    2015-01-01

    The unprecedented computational power of cur- rent supercomputers now makes possible the exploration of complex problems in many scientific fields, from genomic analysis to computational fluid dynamics. Modern machines are powerful because they are massive: they assemble millions of cores and a huge quantity of disks, cards, routers, and other components. But it is precisely the size of these machines that glooms the future of supercomputing. A system that comprises many components has a high chance to fail, and fail often. In order to make the next generation of supercomputers usable, it is imperative to use some type of fault tolerance platform to run applications on large machines. Most fault tolerance strategies can be optimized for the peculiarities of each system and boost efficacy by keeping the system productive. In this paper, we aim to understand how failure characterization can improve resilience in several layers of the software stack: applications, runtime systems, and job schedulers. We examine the Titan supercomputer, one of the fastest systems in the world. We analyze a full year of Titan in production and distill the failure patterns of the machine. By looking into Titan s log files and using the criteria of experts, we provide a detailed description of the types of failures. In addition, we inspect the job submission files and describe how the system is used. Using those two sources, we cross correlate failures in the machine to executing jobs and provide a picture of how failures affect the user experience. We believe such characterization is fundamental in developing appropriate fault tolerance solutions for Cray systems similar to Titan.

  8. Pattern of Failure After Limited Margin Radiotherapy and Temozolomide for Glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Mark W.; Shu, Hui-Kuo G.; Curran, Walter J.; Crocker, Ian R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the pattern of failure after limited margin radiotherapy for glioblastoma. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 62 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma treated between 2006 and 2008 with standard fractionation to a total dose of 60Gy with concurrent temozolomide (97%) or arsenic trioxide (3%). The initial clinical target volume included postoperative T2 abnormality with a median margin of 0.7cm. The boost clinical target volume included residual T1-enhancing tumor and resection cavity with a median margin of 0.5cm. Planning target volumes added a 0.3- or 0.5-cm margin to clinical target volumes. The total boost planning target volume (PTV{sub boost}) margin was 1cm or less in 92% of patients. The volume of recurrent tumor (new T1 enhancement) was categorized by the percent within the 60-Gy isodose line as central (>95%), infield (81-95%), marginal (20-80%), or distant (<20%). For comparison, an initial planning target volume with a 2-cm margin and PTV{sub boost} with a 2.5-cm margin were created for each patient. Results: With a median follow-up of 12 months, radiographic tumor progression developed in 43 of 62 patients. Imaging was available for analysis in 41: 38 (93%) had central or infield failure, 2 (5%) had marginal failure, and 1 (2%) had distant failure relative to the 60-Gy isodose line. The treated PTV{sub boost} (median, 140cm{sup 3}) was, on average, 70% less than the PTV{sub boost} with a 2.5-cm margin (median, 477cm{sup 3}) (p < 0.001). Conclusions: A PTV{sub boost} margin of 1cm or less did not appear to increase the risk of marginal and/or distant tumor failures compared with other published series. With careful radiation planning and delivery, it appears that treatment margins for glioblastoma can be reduced.

  9. The generalized second law of thermodynamics in Ho?ava-Lifshitz cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Jamil, Mubasher; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Setare, M.R. E-mail: msaridak@phys.uoa.gr

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics in a universe governed by Ho?ava-Lifshitz gravity. Under the equilibrium assumption, that is in the late-time cosmological regime, we calculate separately the entropy time-variation for the matter fluid and, using the modified entropy relation, that of the apparent horizon itself. We find that under detailed balance the generalized second law is generally valid for flat and closed geometry and it is conditionally valid for an open universe, while beyond detailed balance it is only conditionally valid for all curvatures. Furthermore, we also follow the effective approach showing that it can lead to misleading results. The non-complete validity of the generalized second law could either provide a suggestion for its different application, or act as an additional problematic feature of Ho?ava-Lifshitz gravity.

  10. Phase diagram of power law and Lennard-Jones systems: Crystal phases

    SciTech Connect

    Travesset, Alex

    2014-10-28

    An extensive characterization of the low temperature phase diagram of particles interacting with power law or Lennard-Jones potentials is provided from Lattice Dynamical Theory. For power law systems, only two lattice structures are stable for certain values of the exponent (or softness) (A15, body centered cube (bcc)) and two more (face centered cubic (fcc), hexagonal close packed (hcp)) are always stable. Among them, only the fcc and bcc are equilibrium states. For Lennard-Jones systems, the equilibrium states are either hcp or fcc, with a coexistence curve in pressure and temperature that shows reentrant behavior. The hcp solid never coexists with the liquid. In all cases analyzed, for both power law and Lennard-Jones potentials, the fcc crystal has higher entropy than the hcp. The role of anharmonic terms is thoroughly analyzed and a general thermodynamic integration to account for them is proposed.

  11. Pathways to Identity: Aiding Law Enforcement in Identification Tasks With Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, Joseph R.; Scholtz, Jean; Hodges, Duncan; Emanuel, Lia; Stanton-Fraser, Danae; Creese, Sadie; Love, Oriana J.

    2014-09-18

    The nature of identity has changed dramatically in recent years, and has grown in complexity. Identities are defined in multiple domains: biological and psychological elements strongly contribute, but also biographical and cyber elements are necessary to complete the picture. Law enforcement is beginning to adjust to these changes, recognizing its importance in criminal justice. The SuperIdentity project seeks to aid law enforcement officials in their identification tasks through research of techniques for discovering identity traits, generation of statistical models of identity and analysis of identity traits through visualization. We present use cases compiled through user interviews in multiple fields, including law enforcement, as well as the modeling and visualization tools design to aid in those use cases.

  12. A cohesive law for interfaces in graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chenxi; Lou, Jun; Song, Jizhou

    2014-04-14

    Graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) heterostructure has showed great potential to improve the performance of graphene device. We have established the cohesive law for interfaces between graphene and monolayer or multi-layer h-BN based on the van der Waals force. The cohesive energy and cohesive strength are given in terms of area density of atoms on corresponding layers, number of layers, and parameters in the van der Waals force. It is found that the cohesive law in the graphene/multi-layer h-BN is dominated by the three h-BN layers which are closest to the graphene. The approximate solution is also obtained to simplify the expression of cohesive law. These results are very useful to study the deformation of graphene/h-BN heterostructure, which may have significant impacts on the performance and reliability of the graphene devices especially in the areas of emerging applications such as stretchable electronics.

  13. Pathways to Identity. Using Visualization to Aid Law Enforcement in Identification Tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, Joseph R.; Scholtz, Jean; Hodges, Duncan; Emanuel, Lia; Stanton Fraser, Danae; Creese, Sadie; Love, Oriana J.

    2014-09-18

    The nature of identity has changed dramatically in recent years and has grown in complexity. Identities are defined in multiple domains: biological and psychological elements strongly contribute, but biographical and cyber elements also are necessary to complete the picture. Law enforcement is beginning to adjust to these changes, recognizing identity’s importance in criminal justice. The SuperIdentity project seeks to aid law enforcement officials in their identification tasks through research of techniques for discovering identity traits, generation of statistical models of identity and analysis of identity traits through visualization. We present use cases compiled through user interviews in multiple fields, including law enforcement, and describe the modeling and visualization tools design to aid in those use cases.

  14. The momentum of an electromagnetic wave inside a dielectric derived from the Snell refraction law

    SciTech Connect

    Torchigin, V.P. Torchigin, A.V.

    2014-12-15

    Author of the paper [M. Testa, Ann. Physics 336 (2013) 1] has derived a conclusion that there is a connection between the Snell refraction law and the Abraham form of the momentum of light in matter. In other words, author derived the Snell law on assumption that the momentum of light in matter decreases by n times as compared with that in free space. The conclusion is derived under assumption that the forces exerted on an optical medium by an electromagnetic field do not distinguish between polarization and free charges. We show that, on the contrary, the Minkowski form of the momentum of light in matter directly follows from the Snell law. No previous assumption is required for this purpose.

  15. Technical Review of Law Enforcement Standards and Guides Relative to Incident Management

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, Robert D.; Salter, R.; Stanton, J. R.; Fisher, D.

    2009-03-24

    In an effort to locate potential law enforcement-related standards that support incident management, a team from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contacted representatives from the National Institute of Standards-Office of Law Enforcement Standards (NIST-OLES), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Secret Service, ASTM International committees that have a law enforcement focus, and a variety of individuals from local and regional law enforcement organizations. Discussions were held with various state and local law enforcement organizations. The NIJ has published several specific equipment-related law enforcement standards that were included in the review, but it appears that law enforcement program and process-type standards are developed principally by organizations that operate at the state and local level. Input is provided from state regulations and codes and from external non-government organizations (NGOs) that provide national standards. The standards that are adopted from external organizations or developed independently by state authorities are available for use by local law enforcement agencies on a voluntary basis. The extent to which they are used depends on the respective jurisdictions involved. In some instances, use of state and local disseminated standards is mandatory, but in most cases, use is voluntary. Usually, the extent to which these standards are used appears to depend on whether or not jurisdictions receive certification from a “governing” entity due to their use and compliance with the standards. In some cases, these certification-based standards are used in principal but without certification or other compliance monitoring. In general, these standards appear to be routinely used for qualification, selection for employment, and training. In these standards, the term “Peace Officer” is frequently used to refer to law enforcement personnel. This technical review of national law

  16. Entanglement Area Law in Disordered Free Fermion Anderson Model in One, Two, and Three Dimensions

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Pouranvari, Mohammad; Zhang, Yuhui; Yang, Kun

    2015-01-01

    We calculate numerically the entanglement entropy of free fermion ground states in one-, two-, and three-dimensional Anderson models and find that it obeys the area law as long as the linear size of the subsystem is sufficiently larger than the mean free path. This result holds in the metallic phase of the three-dimensional Anderson model, where the mean free path is finite although the localization length is infinite. Relation between the present results and earlier ones on area law violation in special one-dimensional models that support metallic phases is discussed.

  17. The extent of power-law energy spectra in collisionless relativistic magnetic reconnection in pair plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, G. R.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Cerutti, B.; Nalewajko, K.; Begelman, M. C.

    2015-12-30

    Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we characterize the energy spectra of particles accelerated by relativistic magnetic reconnection (without guide field) in collisionless electron–positron plasmas, for a wide range of upstream magnetizations σ and system sizes L. The particle spectra are well-represented by a power law ${\\gamma }^{-\\alpha }$, with a combination of exponential and super-exponential high-energy cutoffs, proportional to σ and L, respectively. As a result, for large L and σ, the power-law index α approaches about 1.2.

  18. In the Weeds: Idaho’s Invasive Species Laws and Biofuel Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, April Lea

    2015-05-01

    Federal laws, policies, and programs that incentivize and mandate the development of biofuels have local effects on both Idaho’s environment and on research supporting biofuels. The passage of a new energy crop rule in Idaho, effective as of March 20, 2014, follows an increased interest in growing, possessing, and transporting energy crops comprised of invasive plant species that are regulated under Idaho’s Invasive Species Act. Idaho’s new energy crop rule is an example of how a state can take measures to protect against unintended consequences of federal laws, policies, and programs while also taking advantage of the benefits of such policies and programs.

  19. FREQUENCY DEPENDENCE OF THE POWER-LAW INDEX OF SOLAR RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Song Qiwu; Huang Guangli; Tan Baolin E-mail: glhuang@pmo.ac.cn

    2012-05-10

    We process solar flare observations of Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters with an improved maximum likelihood method developed recently by Clauset et al. The method accurately extracts power-law behaviors of the peak fluxes in 486 radio bursts at six frequencies (1-35 GHz) and shows an excellent performance in this study. The power-law indices on 1-35 GHz given by this study vary around 1.74-1.87, which is consistent with earlier statistics in different solar cycles and very close to the simulations of the avalanche model by Lu.

  20. COLLOQUIUM: Estimating the Age of Life Using Moore's Law | Princeton Plasma

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Lab October 12, 2016, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium, PPPL (284 cap.) COLLOQUIUM: Estimating the Age of Life Using Moore's Law Dr. Alexei Sharov National Institutes of Health Moore's law is an empirical observation that the complexity of computer chips measured by the number of transistors doubles every 18-24 months. Because there is similarity between the evolution of human technology and living organisms, it is intriguing if an exponential increase in complexity can be