National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for kwh valence lithium

  1. Valence Technology Inc | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Austin, Texas Zip: 78730 Sector: Vehicles Product: Valence develops and commercialises lithium phosphate rechargeable battery technologies for various uses from consumer...

  2. Understanding core-valence-valence Auger lineshapes

    SciTech Connect

    Jennison, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of recent advances in understanding, core-valence-valence (CVV) Auger spectroscopy is now being used as a local valence probe of molecular, chemisorbed and solid state species. Analysis of Auger data has led to the discovery of localized multi-hole valence excitations in covalent systems, and there is evidence that these excitations may play a major role in the dissociation of large molecules and in stimulated desorption from semiconductor surfaces. Understanding of the basic physics behind the CVV decay is summarized. The relative importance and applicability of factors which influence the decay amplitudes (local charge density, initial state screening, valence nonorthogonality and configuration mixing) and the Auger energies (independent vs coupled final state holes) are stressed.

  3. PROJECT PROFILE: kWh Analytics (Phase 3) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    PROJECT PROFILE: kWh Analytics (Phase 3) PROJECT PROFILE: kWh Analytics (Phase 3) Funding Opportunity: Orange Button (SB-DATA) SunShot Subprogram: Soft Costs Location: San Francisco, CA Amount Awarded: $1,000,000 Awardee Cost Share: $1,000,000 kWh Analytics will support the adoption of industry-led data standards, including the development of a data format translation software tool, Solar BabelFish, which will instantly translate original data formats into data standards. This will significantly

  4. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyPerAreaKwhM2Other | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Property Edit with form History Property:BuildingSPPurchasedEngyPerAreaKwhM2Other Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Other Pages using the property...

  5. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2ElctrcEngineHeaters...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Property Edit with form History Property:BuildingSPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2ElctrcEngineHeaters Jump to: navigation, search This is...

  6. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2HeatPumpsUsedForColg...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Property Edit with form History Property:BuildingSPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2HeatPumpsUsedForColg Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Heat pumps used...

  7. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2Printers | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    rcityUseKwhM2Printers" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.928422444931 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 1.42372881356 + Sweden...

  8. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2ElctrcHeating...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    UseKwhM2ElctrcHeating" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.915704329247 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building...

  9. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyPerAreaKwhM2Total | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    EngyPerAreaKwhM2Total" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 221.549575215 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 213.701117318 + Sweden...

  10. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2Misc | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    ElctrcityUseKwhM2Misc" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 9.09953195331 + Sweden Building...

  11. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2Pcs | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    fElctrcityUseKwhM2Pcs" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 26.0998626444 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 22.2888135593 + Sweden...

  12. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2LargeKitchens...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    UseKwhM2LargeKitchens" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.763086941039 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building...

  13. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2CirculationFans...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    eKwhM2CirculationFans" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 13.3422495258 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building...

  14. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyPerAreaKwhM2ElctrcHeating |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    reaKwhM2ElctrcHeating" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.915704329247 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building...

  15. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2AirCompressors...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    seKwhM2AirCompressors" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 1.33591087145 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building...

  16. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2Pumps | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    lctrcityUseKwhM2Pumps" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 6.37190900733 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 6.03888185355 + Sweden...

  17. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyPerAreaKwhM2Oil-FiredBoiler...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Oil-FiredBoiler Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Oil-fired boiler Pages using the property "BuildingSPPurchasedEngyPerAreaKwhM2Oil-FiredBoiler"...

  18. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2LargeComputersServers...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Large computers servers Pages using the property "BuildingSPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2LargeComp...

  19. text in "Max kWh" fields | OpenEI Community

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    it should as we are trying to prevent users from writing "less than X", "greater than Y", etc. and follow the intention of the "Max kWh" field. Also there should be a warning...

  20. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyPerAreaKwhM2WoodChips | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    PerAreaKwhM2WoodChips" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0...

  1. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2Laundry | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    trcityUseKwhM2Laundry" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0...

  2. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyPerAreaKwhM2Pellets | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    gyPerAreaKwhM2Pellets" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0...

  3. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T.; Andersson, Anna M.

    2012-04-03

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  4. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T.; Andersson, Anna M.

    2008-03-18

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z(A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).s- ub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  5. Understanding core--valence--valence Auger line shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Jennison, D.R.

    1982-03-01

    Core--valence--valence (CVV) Auger spectroscopy can now be used as a local valence probe of molecular, chemisorbed and solid-state species. Analysis of Auger data has led to the discovery of localized multihole valence excitations in covalent systems, and there is evidence that these excitations may play a major role in the dissociation of large molecules and in stimulated desorption from semiconductor surfaces. The basic physics behind the CVV decay is summarized. The relative importance of factors that influence the decay amplitudes (local charge density, initial-state screening, valence nonorthogonality, and configuration mixing) and the Auger energies (independent vs coupled final-state holes) is explored.

  6. Valence Energy | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Valence Energy Place: Santa Clara, California Zip: 95050 Sector: Services Product: California-based energy management software and services...

  7. Lithium Batteries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thin-Film Battery with Lithium Anode Courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional Information...

  8. Lithium Batteries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    information about thin-film lithium batteries is available in full-text and on the Web. ... Additional Web Pages: Thin Films for Advanced Batteries Thin-Film Rechargeable Lithium, ...

  9. Lithium battery

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, V. R.

    1981-02-24

    An electrolyte for a rechargeable electrochemical cell featuring diethylether, a cosolvent, and a lithium salt is disclosed.

  10. CEMEX: Cement Manufacturer Saves 2.1 Million kWh Annually with a Motor Retrofit Project

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-25

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how the CEMEX cement manufacturing plant in Davenport, California, saves 2 million kWh and $168,000 in energy costs annually by replacing 13 worn-out motors with new energy-efficient ones.

  11. CEMEX: Cement Manufacturer Saves 2.1 Million kWh Annually with a Motor Retrofit Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-11-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how the CEMEX cement manufacturing plant in Davenport, California, saves 2 million kWh and $168,000 in energy costs annually by replacing 13 worn-out motors with new energy-efficient ones.

  12. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  13. High-performance batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage. Progress report, October 1978-September 1979. [40 kWh, Li-Al and Li-Si anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, D. L.; Steunenberg, R. K.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Gay, E. C.; Battles, J. E.; Hornstra, F.; Miller, W. E.; Vissers, D. R.; Roche, M. F.; Shimotake, H.; Hudson, R.; Askew, B. A.; Sudar, S.

    1980-03-01

    The research, development, and management activities of the programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at contractors' laboratories on high-temperature batteries during the period October 1978 to September 1979 are reported. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and for stationary energy-storage applications. The present cells, which operate at 400 to 500/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing negative electrodes of lithium-aluminum or lithium-silicon alloy, and molten LiCl-KC1 electrolyte. During this reporting period, cell and battery development work has continued at ANL and contractors' laboratories. A 40 kWh electric-vehicle battery (designated Mark IA) was fabricated and delivered to ANL for testing. During the initial heat-up, one of the two modules failed due to a short circuit. A failure analysis was conducted, and the Mark IA program completed. Development work on the next electric-vehicle battery (Mark II) was initiated at Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. and Gould, Inc. Work on stationary energy-storage batteries during this period has consisted primarily of conceptual design studies. 107 figures, 67 tables.

  14. Development of zinc-bromine batteries for utility energy storage. First annual report, 1 September 1978-31 August 1979. [8-kWh submodule

    SciTech Connect

    Putt, R.; Attia, A.J.; Lu, P.Y.; Heyland, J.H.

    1980-05-01

    Development work on the Zn/Br battery is reported. A major improvement was the use of a bipolar cell design; this design is superior with respect to cost, performance, and simplicity. A cost and design study for an 80-kWh module resulted in a cost estimate of $54/kWh(1979$) for purchased materials and components, on the basis of 2500 MWh of annual production. A cell submodule (nominal 2 kWh) of full-sized electrodes (1 ft/sup 2/) accrued over 200 continuous cycles in a hands-off, automatic routine with efficiencies in the range of 53 to 56%. Initial testing of a full-sized 8-kWh submodule demonstrated energy efficiencies of 65 to 67%. 23 figures, 10 tables. (RWR)

  15. Development of 8 kWh Zinc bromide battery as a precursor of battery for electric power storage

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, T.; Ando, Y.; Fujii, E.; Hirotu, A.; Ito, H.; Kanazashi, M.; Misaki, H.; Yamamoto, A.

    1984-08-01

    Zinc bromide battery is characterized with its room temperature operation, simple construction and easy maintenance. After four years' research and development of electrode materials, electrolyte composition, battery stack construction and other components, we prepared 1 kW class (8 kWh) battery for the first interim official evaluation. This battery showed a good and stable energy efficiency of 80% after 130 cycles of 1.25 kW 8 hours charge and 1.0 kW 8 hours discharge.

  16. Lithium battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, H.; Nakaido, S.; Narukara, S.

    1983-08-16

    In a lithium battery having a negative electrode formed with lithium as active material and the positive electrode formed with manganese dioxide, carbon fluoride or the like as the active material, the discharge capacity of the negative electrode is made smaller than the discharge capacity of the positive electrode, whereby a drop in the battery voltage during the final discharge stage is steepened, and prevents a device using such a lithium battery as a power supply from operating in an unstable manner, thereby improving the reliability of such device.

  17. Lithium literature review: lithium's properties and interactions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithium may be used as a breeding blanket and reactor coolant in these facilities. Physical and chemical properties of lithium as well as the chemical interactions of lithium with ...

  18. Lithium uptake data of lithium imprinted polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Susanna Ventura

    2015-12-04

    Batch tests of lithium imprinted polymers of variable composition to assess their ability to extract lithium from synthetic brines at T=45C. Initial selectivity data are included

  19. Prospects for reducing the processing cost of lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wood III, David L.; Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus

    2014-11-06

    A detailed processing cost breakdown is given for lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which focuses on: elimination of toxic, costly N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) dispersion chemistry; doubling the thicknesses of the anode and cathode to raise energy density; and, reduction of the anode electrolyte wetting and SEI-layer formation time. These processing cost reduction technologies generically adaptable to any anode or cathode cell chemistry and are being implemented at ORNL. This paper shows step by step how these cost savings can be realized in existing or new LIB manufacturing plants using a baseline case of thin (power) electrodes produced with NMP processing and a standard 10-14-day wetting and formation process. In particular, it is shown that aqueous electrode processing can cut the electrode processing cost and energy consumption by an order of magnitude. Doubling the thickness of the electrodes allows for using half of the inactive current collectors and separators, contributing even further to the processing cost savings. Finally wetting and SEI-layer formation cost savings are discussed in the context of a protocol with significantly reduced time. These three benefits collectively offer the possibility of reducing LIB pack cost from $502.8 kWh-1-usable to $370.3 kWh-1-usable, a savings of $132.5/kWh (or 26.4%).

  20. Prospects for reducing the processing cost of lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Wood III, David L.; Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus

    2014-11-06

    A detailed processing cost breakdown is given for lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which focuses on: elimination of toxic, costly N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) dispersion chemistry; doubling the thicknesses of the anode and cathode to raise energy density; and, reduction of the anode electrolyte wetting and SEI-layer formation time. These processing cost reduction technologies generically adaptable to any anode or cathode cell chemistry and are being implemented at ORNL. This paper shows step by step how these cost savings can be realized in existing or new LIB manufacturing plants using a baseline case of thin (power) electrodes produced with NMP processing and amore » standard 10-14-day wetting and formation process. In particular, it is shown that aqueous electrode processing can cut the electrode processing cost and energy consumption by an order of magnitude. Doubling the thickness of the electrodes allows for using half of the inactive current collectors and separators, contributing even further to the processing cost savings. Finally wetting and SEI-layer formation cost savings are discussed in the context of a protocol with significantly reduced time. These three benefits collectively offer the possibility of reducing LIB pack cost from $502.8 kWh-1-usable to $370.3 kWh-1-usable, a savings of $132.5/kWh (or 26.4%).« less

  1. Prospects for Reducing the Processing Cost of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wood III, David L; Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus

    2014-01-01

    A detailed processing cost breakdown is given for lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which focuses on: 1) elimination of toxic, costly N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) dispersion chemistry; 2) doubling the thicknesses of the anode and cathode to raise energy density; and 3) reduction of the anode electrolyte wetting and SEI-layer formation time. These processing cost reduction technologies generically adaptable to any anode or cathode cell chemistry and are being implemented at ORNL. This paper shows step by step how these cost savings can be realized in existing or new LIB manufacturing plants using a baseline case of thin (power) electrodes produced with NMP processing and a standard 10-14-day wetting and formation process. In particular, it is shown that aqueous electrode processing can cut the electrode processing cost and energy consumption by an order of magnitude. Doubling the thickness of the electrodes allows for using half of the inactive current collectors and separators, contributing even further to the processing cost savings. Finally wetting and SEI-layer formation cost savings are discussed in the context of a protocol with significantly reduced time. These three benefits collectively offer the possibility of reducing LIB pack cost from $502.8 kWh-1-usable to $370.3 kWh-1-usable, a savings of $132.5/kWh (or 26.4%).

  2. lithium cobalt oxide cathode

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    lithium cobalt oxide cathode - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers lithium cobalt oxide cathode Home...

  3. Lithium Iron Phosphate Composites for Lithium Batteries (IN-11...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Iron Phosphate Composites for Lithium Batteries (IN-11-024) Low-Cost Phosphate Compounds Enhance Lithium Battery Performance Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About ...

  4. Lithium Balance | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Balance Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lithium Balance Place: Copenhagen, Denmark Product: Lithium ion battery developer. References: Lithium Balance1 This article is a stub....

  5. Chlorine hazard evaluation for the zinc-chlorine electric vehicle battery. Final technical report. [50 kWh

    SciTech Connect

    Zalosh, R. G.; Bajpai, S. N.; Short, T. P.; Tsui, R. K.

    1980-04-01

    Hazards associated with conceivable accidental chlorine releases from zinc-chlorine electric vehicle batteries are evaluated. Since commercial batteries are not yet available, this hazard assessment is based on both theoretical chlorine dispersion models and small-scale and large-scale spill tests with chlorine hydrate (which is the form of chlorine storage in the charged battery). Six spill tests involving the chlorine hydrate equivalent of a 50-kWh battery indicate that the danger zone in which chlorine vapor concentrations intermittently exceed 100 ppM extends at least 23 m directly downwind of a spill onto a warm (30 to 38/sup 0/C) road surface. Other accidental chlorine release scenarios may also cause some distress, but are not expected to produce the type of life-threatening chlorine exposures that can result from large hydrate spills. Chlorine concentration data from the hydrate spill tests compare favorably with calculations based on a quasi-steady area source dispersion model and empirical estimates of the hydrate decomposition rate. The theoretical dispersion model was combined with assumed hydrate spill probabilities and current motor vehicle accident statistics in order to project expected chlorine-induced fatality rates. These calculations indicate that expected chlorine fataility rates are several times higher in a city such as Los Angeles with a warm and calm climate than in a colder and windier city such as Boston. Calculated chlorine-induced fatality rate projections for various climates are presented as a function of hydrate spill probability in order to illustrate the degree of vehicle/battery crashworthiness required to maintain chlorine-induced fatality rates below current vehicle fatality rates due to fires and asphyxiations. 37 figures, 19 tables.

  6. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in ...

  7. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  8. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  9. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  10. USFOE: Extended Summary - Lithium ion batteries and their manufacturing challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Claus

    2014-01-01

    There is no one lithium ion battery. With the variety of materials and electrochemical couples at our disposal as shown in the previous talks, we have the opportunity to design battery cells specific for their applications. Such applications require optimization of voltage, state of charge utilization, lifetime needs, and safety considerations. Electrochemical couples allow for designing power and energy ratios and available energy for the application. Integration in a large format cell requires optimized roll to roll electrode manufacturing and active material utilization. Electrodes are coated on a current collector in a composite structure comprised of active material, binders, and conductive additives which requires careful control of colloidal chemistry, adhesion, and solidification. These added inactive materials and the cell packaging reduce energy density. Degree of porosity and compaction in the electrode can impede or enhance battery performance. Pathways are explored to bring batteries from currently commercially available 100Wh/kg and 200Wh/L at $500/kWh to 250Wh/kg and 400Wh/L at $125/kWh.

  11. Economic Competitiveness of U.S. Utility-Scale Photovoltaics Systems in 2015: Regional Cost Modeling of Installed Cost ($/W) and LCOE ($/kWh)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Economic Competitiveness of U.S. Utility-Scale Photovoltaics Systems in 2015: Regional Cost Modeling of Installed Cost ($/W) and LCOE ($/kWh) 1 Ran Fu, 2 Ted L James, 1 Donald Chung, 1 Douglas Gagne, 1 Anthony Lopez, 1 Aron Dobos 1 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO 80401, United States 2 Pacific Gas & Electric Company (PG&E), San Francisco, CA 94105, United States Abstract - Utility-scale photovoltaics (PV) system growth is largely driven by the economic metrics of

  12. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. ... conductivity; suitable; lithium; batteries; electrochromic; devices; ...

  13. Method of recycling lithium borate to lithium borohydride through diborane

    DOEpatents

    Filby, Evan E.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a method for the recycling of lithium borate to lithium borohydride which can be reacted with water to generate hydrogen for utilization as a fuel. The lithium borate by-product of the hydrogen generation reaction is reacted with hydrogen chloride and water to produce boric acid and lithium chloride. The boric acid and lithium chloride are converted to lithium borohydride through a diborane intermediate to complete the recycle scheme.

  14. Clean Anodic Lithium Films for Longer Life, Rechargeable Lithium...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Clean Anodic Lithium ... polymer electrolytes are used to prepare clean anodic lithium films for use in safe, ...

  15. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water, and Lithium-Sulfur batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Batteries Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium- Air, Lithium-Water, and Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Developing a Lower Cost and Higher Energy Density Alternative to Lithium- Ion Batteries Introduction As the world moves toward increased electric transportation and the use of renewable sources of energy for grid power, advanced electrochemical energy storage technologies will become more and more important. The introduction of

  16. Lithium Redistribution in Lithium-Metal Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrese, A; Albertus, P; Christensen, J; Newman, J

    2012-01-01

    A model of a lithium-metal battery with a CoO2 positive electrode has been modeled in order to predict the movement of lithium in the negative electrode along the negative electrode/separator interface during cell cycling. A finite-element approach was used to incorporate an intercalation positive electrode using superposition, electrode tabbing, transport using concentrated solution theory, as well as the net movement of the lithium electrode during cycling. From this model, it has been found that movement of lithium along the negative electrode/separator interface does occur during cycling and is affected by three factors: the cell geometry, the slope of the open-circuit-potential function of the positive electrode, and concentration gradients in both the solid and liquid phases in the cell. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.027210jes] All rights reserved.

  17. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - Lithium

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    lithium Nearly everybody knows about lithium - a light, silvery alkali metal - used in rechargeable batteries powering everything from laptops to hybrid cars. What may not be so...

  18. Lithium purification technique

    DOEpatents

    Keough, Robert F.; Meadows, George E.

    1985-01-01

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  19. Lithium purification technique

    DOEpatents

    Keough, R.F.; Meadows, G.E.

    1984-01-10

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  20. Kondo universality, energy scales, and intermediate valence in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Kondo universality, energy scales, and intermediate valence in plutonium ... OSTI Identifier: 21443698 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: ...

  1. Stabilization of Th{sup 3+} ions into mixed-valence thorium fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, Marc; Dieudonne, Belto; Mesbah, Adel; Bonnet, Pierre; El-Ghozzi, Malika; Renaudin, Guillaume; Avignant, Daniel

    2011-01-15

    The unusual oxidation state +3 of the thorium has been stabilized into a lithium containing non-stoichiometric mixed-valence (III/IV) thorium fluorinated phase with formula Li{sub 2+x}Th{sub 12}F{sub 50} (0valence III/IV thorium fluoride. The electrochemical insertion of Li{sup +} ions into the open channels of the host matrix has been carried out at 60 {sup o}C, using an alkylcarbonate PC-LiClO{sub 4} 1 M electrolyte. The Li{sup +} and Th{sup 3+} contents, both in the starting composition and the Li{sup +} inserted ones, were investigated by high resolution solid state {sup 7}Li NMR and EPR, respectively. -- Graphical abstract: Electrochemical insertion of Li{sup +} ions into mixed-valence III/IV thorium fluoride and EPR spectra for the raw and inserted compounds. Display Omitted

  2. Lithium Droplet Injector......Inventors ..--..Lane Roquemore...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Droplet Injector......Inventors ..--..Lane Roquemore, Daniel Andruczyk A liquid lithium device has been invented that produces spherical droplets of lithium for the control ...

  3. American Lithium Energy Corp | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Lithium Energy Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: American Lithium Energy Corp Place: San Marcos, California Zip: 92069 Product: California-based developer of lithium ion...

  4. Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries Lithium-ion battery ...

  5. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries Title: Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium ...

  6. Cathode material for lithium batteries (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Cathode material for lithium batteries A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium ...

  7. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  8. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-13

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  9. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Johnson, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  10. Evidence of ion intercalation mediated band structure modification and opto-ionic coupling in lithium niobite

    SciTech Connect

    Shank, Joshua C.; Tellekamp, M. Brooks; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2015-01-21

    The theoretically suggested band structure of the novel p-type semiconductor lithium niobite (LiNbO{sub 2}), the direct coupling of photons to ion motion, and optically induced band structure modifications are investigated by temperature dependent photoluminescence. LiNbO{sub 2} has previously been used as a memristor material but is shown here to be useful as a sensor owing to the electrical, optical, and chemical ease of lithium removal and insertion. Despite the high concentration of vacancies present in lithium niobite due to the intentional removal of lithium atoms, strong photoluminescence spectra are observed even at room temperature that experimentally confirm the suggested band structure implying transitions from a flat conduction band to a degenerate valence band. Removal of small amounts of lithium significantly modifies the photoluminescence spectra including additional larger than stoichiometric-band gap features. Sufficient removal of lithium results in the elimination of the photoluminescence response supporting the predicted transition from a direct to indirect band gap semiconductor. In addition, non-thermal coupling between the incident laser and lithium ions is observed and results in modulation of the electrical impedance.

  11. Lithium Dendrite Formation

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-06

    Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory have captured the first real-time nanoscale images of lithium dendrite structures known to degrade lithium-ion batteries. The ORNL team’s electron microscopy could help researchers address long-standing issues related to battery performance and safety. Video shows annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging (ADF STEM) of lithium dendrite nucleation and growth from a glassy carbon working electrode and within a 1.2M LiPF6 EC:DM battery electrolyte.

  12. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  13. High Performance Binderless Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    High Performance Binderless Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries National ... Electrode for fast-charging Lithium Ion Batteries, Accelerating Innovation Webinar ...

  14. APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF LITHIUM METAL

    DOEpatents

    Baker, P.S.; Duncan, F.R.; Greene, H.B.

    1961-08-22

    Methods and apparatus for the production of high-purity lithium from lithium halides are described. The apparatus is provided for continuously contacting a molten lithium halide with molten barium, thereby forming lithium metal and a barium halide, establishing separate layers of these reaction products and unreacted barium and lithium halide, and continuously withdrawing lithium and barium halide from the reaction zone. (AEC)

  15. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Brett L. Lucht Department of Chemistry University of Rhode Island 51 Lower College Rd. Kingston, RI 02881 Tel (401)874-5071 Fax (401) ...

  16. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOEpatents

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  17. Lithium formate ion clusters formation during electrospray ionization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biological Sciences Division, Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific ... LITHIUM; LITHIUM 3; LITHIUM IONS; MASS SPECTROSCOPY; MONOMERS; STABILITY; SYMMETRY Word ...

  18. Lithium battery management system

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J.

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  19. Atmospheric corrosion of lithium electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.

    1981-10-01

    Atmospheric corrosion of lithium during lithium-cell assembly and the dry storage of cells prior to electrolyte fill has been found to initiate lithium corrosion pits and to form corrosion products. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate lithium pitting and the white floccullent corrosion products. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Auger spectroscopy in combination with X-ray diffraction were used to characterize lithium surfaces. Lithium surfaces with corrosion products were found to be high in carbonate content indicating the presence of lithium carbonate. Lithium electrodes dry stored in unfilled batteries were found to contain high concentration of lithium flouride a possible corrosion product from gaseous materials from the carbon monofluoride cathode. Future investigations of the corrosion phenomena will emphasize the effect of the corrosion products on the electrolyte and ultimate battery performance. The need to protect lithium electrodes from atmospheric exposure is commonly recognized to minimize corrosion induced by reaction with water, oxygen, carbon dioxide or nitrogen (1). Manufacturing facilities customarily limit the relative humidity to less than two percent. Electrodes that have been manufactured for use in lithium cells are typically stored in dry-argon containers. In spite of these precautions, lithium has been found to corrode over a long time period due to residual gases or slow diffusion of the same into storage containers. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the nature of the lithium corrosion.

  20. Lithium | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    reactions also have used lithium to coat the walls of donut-shaped tokamak reactors. ... lithium that may be used to coat components that face the plasma in future tokamaks. ...

  1. Phostech Lithium | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Phostech Lithium Jump to: navigation, search Name: Phostech Lithium Place: St-Bruno-de-Montarville, Quebec, Canada Zip: J3V 6B7 Sector: Hydro Product: String representation...

  2. Quantum Monte Carlo methods and lithium cluster properties. [Atomic clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, R.K.

    1990-12-01

    Properties of small lithium clusters with sizes ranging from n = 1 to 5 atoms were investigated using quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. Cluster geometries were found from complete active space self consistent field (CASSCF) calculations. A detailed development of the QMC method leading to the variational QMC (V-QMC) and diffusion QMC (D-QMC) methods is shown. The many-body aspect of electron correlation is introduced into the QMC importance sampling electron-electron correlation functions by using density dependent parameters, and are shown to increase the amount of correlation energy obtained in V-QMC calculations. A detailed analysis of D-QMC time-step bias is made and is found to be at least linear with respect to the time-step. The D-QMC calculations determined the lithium cluster ionization potentials to be 0.1982(14) (0.1981), 0.1895(9) (0.1874(4)), 0.1530(34) (0.1599(73)), 0.1664(37) (0.1724(110)), 0.1613(43) (0.1675(110)) Hartrees for lithium clusters n = 1 through 5, respectively; in good agreement with experimental results shown in the brackets. Also, the binding energies per atom was computed to be 0.0177(8) (0.0203(12)), 0.0188(10) (0.0220(21)), 0.0247(8) (0.0310(12)), 0.0253(8) (0.0351(8)) Hartrees for lithium clusters n = 2 through 5, respectively. The lithium cluster one-electron density is shown to have charge concentrations corresponding to nonnuclear attractors. The overall shape of the electronic charge density also bears a remarkable similarity with the anisotropic harmonic oscillator model shape for the given number of valence electrons.

  3. Quantum Monte Carlo methods and lithium cluster properties

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, R.K.

    1990-12-01

    Properties of small lithium clusters with sizes ranging from n = 1 to 5 atoms were investigated using quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. Cluster geometries were found from complete active space self consistent field (CASSCF) calculations. A detailed development of the QMC method leading to the variational QMC (V-QMC) and diffusion QMC (D-QMC) methods is shown. The many-body aspect of electron correlation is introduced into the QMC importance sampling electron-electron correlation functions by using density dependent parameters, and are shown to increase the amount of correlation energy obtained in V-QMC calculations. A detailed analysis of D-QMC time-step bias is made and is found to be at least linear with respect to the time-step. The D-QMC calculations determined the lithium cluster ionization potentials to be 0.1982(14) [0.1981], 0.1895(9) [0.1874(4)], 0.1530(34) [0.1599(73)], 0.1664(37) [0.1724(110)], 0.1613(43) [0.1675(110)] Hartrees for lithium clusters n = 1 through 5, respectively; in good agreement with experimental results shown in the brackets. Also, the binding energies per atom was computed to be 0.0177(8) [0.0203(12)], 0.0188(10) [0.0220(21)], 0.0247(8) [0.0310(12)], 0.0253(8) [0.0351(8)] Hartrees for lithium clusters n = 2 through 5, respectively. The lithium cluster one-electron density is shown to have charge concentrations corresponding to nonnuclear attractors. The overall shape of the electronic charge density also bears a remarkable similarity with the anisotropic harmonic oscillator model shape for the given number of valence electrons.

  4. Valence-orbital-electron momentum distributions for butanone

    SciTech Connect

    Li, G. Q.; Deng, J. K.; Li, B.; Ren, X. G.; Ning, C. G.

    2005-12-15

    We report here the measurements of the complete valence shell binding energy spectra and the valence-orbital momentum profiles of butanone using the binary (e,2e) electron momentum spectroscopy. The impact energy was 1200 eV plus the binding energy and the symmetric noncoplanar kinematics was used. The experimental momentum profiles of the valence orbitals are compared with the theoretical momentum distributions calculated using Hartree-Fock and density functional theory methods with various basis sets. The experimental measurements are generally described by theoretical calculations except for summed 4a{sup ''}, 15a{sup '}, 3a{sup ''}, and 14a{sup '} orbital and summed 8a{sup '}, 7a{sup '}, and 6a{sup '} orbitals.

  5. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. ... conductivity; suitable; lithium; batteries; electrochromic; devices; ...

  6. Bond-valence methods for pKa prediction. II. Bond-valence, electrostatic, molecular geometry, and solvation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Bickmore, Barry R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Tadanier, Christopher J.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Doud, Darrin

    2006-08-15

    In a previous contribution, we outlined a method for predicting (hydr)oxy-acid and oxide surface acidity constants based on three main factors: bond valence, Me?O bond ionicity, and molecular shape. Here electrostatics calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are used to qualitatively show that Me?O bond ionicity controls the extent to which the electrostatic work of proton removal departs from ideality, bond valence controls the extent of solvation of individual functional groups, and bond valence and molecular shape controls local dielectric response. These results are consistent with our model of acidity, but completely at odds with other methods of predicting acidity constants for use in multisite complexation models. In particular, our ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of solvated monomers clearly indicate that hydrogen bonding between (hydr)oxo-groups and water molecules adjusts to obey the valence sum rule, rather than maintaining a fixed valence based on the coordination of the oxygen atom as predicted by the standard MUSIC model.

  7. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  8. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  9. Lithium disulfide battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1988-01-01

    A negative electrode limited secondary electrochemical cell having dense FeS.sub.2 positive electrode operating exclusively on the upper plateau, a Li alloy negative electrode and a suitable lithium-containing electrolyte. The electrolyte preferably is 25 mole percent LiCl, 38 mole percent LiBr and 37 mole percent KBr. The cell may be operated isothermally.

  10. Lithium Iron Phosphate Composites for Lithium Batteries | Argonne...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries Technology available for licensing: Inexpensive, electrochemically active phosphate compounds with high functionality for high-power and high-energy lithium batteries ...

  11. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m/sup 3/ lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion.

  12. Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: Acyclic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: Acyclic Carbonates and Esters Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: ...

  13. Lithium Energy Japan | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Japan Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lithium Energy Japan Place: Kyoto, Japan Zip: 6018520 Product: Kyoto-based developer, manufacturer and seller of large lithium-ion...

  14. "Radiative Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor" Inventor..-- Masayuki...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    "Radiative Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor" Inventor..-- Masayuki Ono The invention utilizes liquid lithium as a radiative material. The radiative process greatly reduces the ...

  15. characterizing lithium-ion electrode microstructures

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    characterizing lithium-ion electrode microstructures - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon ... SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers characterizing lithium-ion electrode ...

  16. Lithium Ion Conducting Ionic Electrolytes - Energy Innovation...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Lithium Ion Conducting ... electrolytes which combine lithium salts with high molecular weight anionic polymers. ...

  17. Manganese Oxide Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries |...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Manganese Oxide Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries Technology available for licensing: Improved spinel-containing "layered-layered" lithium metal oxide electrodes Materials ...

  18. Self-Regulating, Nonflamable Rechargeable Lithium Batteries ...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    lithium metal and, in the most serious cases, result in explosive chemical reactions. ... Automatic shutoff mechanism prevents lithium from melting and avoids explosive chemical ...

  19. US Lithium Energetics | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energetics Jump to: navigation, search Name: US Lithium Energetics Product: Batteries manufacturer References: US Lithium Energetics1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  20. Strong Lithium Polysulfide Chemisorption on Electroactive Sites...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    For High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathodes Citation Details In-Document ... For High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathodes Despite the high theoretical ...

  1. Y-12 lithium-6 production

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    lithium-6 production The United States was not expecting the Soviet Union's explosion of their first nuclear device using hydrogen and other fusion materials on August 12, 1953....

  2. Band width and multiple-angle valence-state mapping of diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, I.; Terminello, L.J.; Sutherland, D.G.J.

    1997-04-01

    The band width may be considered the single most important parameter characterizing the electronic structure of a solid. The ratio of band width and Coulomb repulsion determines how correlated or delocalized an electron system is. Some of the most interesting solids straddle the boundary between localized and delocalized, e.g. the high-temperature superconductors. The bulk of the band calculations available today is based on local density functional (DF) theory. Even though the Kohn-Sham eigenvalues from that theory do not represent the outcome of a band-mapping experiment, they are remarkably similar to the bands mapped via photoemission. Strictly speaking, one should use an excited state calculation that takes the solid`s many-body screening response to the hole created in photoemission into account. Diamond is a useful prototype semiconductor because of its low atomic number and large band width, which has made it a long-time favorite for testing band theory. Yet, the two experimental values of the band width of diamond have error bars of {+-}1 eV and differ by 3.2 eV. To obtain an accurate valence band width for diamond, the authors use a band-mapping method that collects momentum distributions instead of the usual energy distributions. This method has undergone extensive experimental and theoretical tests in determining the band width of lithium fluoride. An efficient, imaging photoelectron spectrometer is coupled with a state-of-the-art undulator beam line at the Advanced Light Source to allow collection of a large number of data sets. Since it takes only a few seconds to take a picture of the photoelectrons emitted into a 84{degrees} cone, the authors can use photon energies as high as 350 eV where the cross section for photoemission from the valence band is already quite low, but the emitted photoelectrons behave free-electron-like. This make its much easier to locate the origin of the inter-band transitions in momentum space.

  3. Lithium Ion Cell Development for Photovoltaic Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Babinec, Susan

    2012-02-08

    The overall project goal is to reduce the cost of home and neighborhood photovoltaic storage systems by reducing the single largest cost component the energy storage cells. Solar power is accepted as an environmentally advantaged renewable power source. Its deployment in small communities and integrated into the grid, requires a safe, reliable and low cost energy storage system. The incumbent technology of lead acid cells is large, toxic to produce and dispose of, and offer limited life even with significant maintenance. The ideal PV storage battery would have the safety and low cost of lead acid but the performance of lithium ion chemistry. Present lithium ion batteries have the desired performance but cost and safety remain the two key implementation barriers. The purpose of this project is to develop new lithium ion cells that can meet PVES cost and safety requirements using A123Systems phosphate-based cathode chemistries in commercial PHEV cell formats. The cost target is a cell design for a home or neighborhood scale at <$25/kWh. This DOE program is the continuation and expansion of an initial MPSC (Michigan Public Service Commission) program towards this goal. This program further pushes the initial limits of some aspects of the original program even lower cost anode and cathode actives implemented at even higher electrode loadings, and as well explores new avenues of cost reduction via new materials specifically our higher voltage cathode. The challenge in our materials development is to achieve parity in the performance metrics of cycle life and high temperature storage, and to produce quality materials at the production scale. Our new cathode material, M1X, has a higher voltage and so requires electrolyte reformulation to meet the high temperature storage requirements. The challenge of thick electrode systems is to maintain adequate adhesion and cycle life. The composite separator has been proven in systems having standard loading electrodes; the challenge

  4. Chemical bonding in hydrogen and lithium under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Naumov, Ivan I.; Hemley, Russell J.; Hoffmann, Roald; Ashcroft, N. W.

    2015-08-14

    Though hydrogen and lithium have been assigned a common column of the periodic table, their crystalline states under common conditions are drastically different: the former at temperatures where it is crystalline is a molecular insulator, whereas the latter is a metal that takes on simple structures. On compression, however, the two come to share some structural and other similarities associated with the insulator-to-metal and metal-to-insulator transitions, respectively. To gain a deeper understanding of differences and parallels in the behaviors of compressed hydrogen and lithium, we performed an ab initio comparative study of these systems in selected identical structures. Both elements undergo a continuous pressure-induced s-p electronic transition, though this is at a much earlier stage of development for H. The valence charge density accumulates in interstitial regions in Li but not in H in structures examined over the same range of compression. Moreover, the valence charge density distributions or electron localization functions for the same arrangement of atoms mirror each other as one proceeds from one element to the other. Application of the virial theorem shows that the kinetic and potential energies jump across the first-order phase transitions in H and Li are opposite in sign because of non-local effects in the Li pseudopotential. Finally, the common tendency of compressed H and Li to adopt three-fold coordinated structures as found is explained by the fact that such structures are capable of yielding a profound pseudogap in the electronic densities of states at the Fermi level, thereby reducing the kinetic energy. These results have implications for the phase diagrams of these elements and also for the search for new structures with novel properties.

  5. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  6. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  7. Microsoft Word - Kß Valence to Core X bh

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    June 2016 Applying Kβ Valence-to-Core X-ray Emission Spectroscopy to Cu(I) Binding Proteins with Relevance to Peptidylglycine Monooxygenase Reactivity Copper serves as a redox center in metalloproteins, often cycling between the +1 and +2 oxidation states. Oxidases, such as petidylglycine monooxygenase (PHM), bind oxygen at Cu(I) sites giving rise to "oxo" reactive intermediates capable of oxidizing organic substrates. To modulate the redox properties of the copper center, the

  8. Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects Novel Lithium Ion ... Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel Lithium-Ion Anodes

  9. Thin-Film Lithium-Based Electrochromic Devices - Energy Innovation...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Thin-Film Lithium-Based Electrochromic Devices ... For lithium-based electrochromic cells, the electrolyte contains mobile lithium which ...

  10. Lithium Methyl Carbonate as a Reaction Product of Metallic Lithiumand...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithium methyl carbonate is only one of the components, the others being lithium oxalate and lithium methoxide. Authors: Zhuang, Guorong V. ; Yang, Hui ; Ross Jr., Philip N. ; Xu, ...

  11. Advanced Lithium Power Inc ALP | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Lithium Power Inc ALP Jump to: navigation, search Name: Advanced Lithium Power Inc (ALP) Place: Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Product: They develop lithium ion and advanced...

  12. Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated (or Partially Fluorinated) Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes ...

  13. Basic features of the pion valence-quark distribution function

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Chang, Lei; Mezrag, Cdric; Moutarde, Herv; Roberts, Craig D.; Rodrguez-Quintero, Jose; Tandy, Peter C.

    2014-10-07

    The impulse-approximation expression used hitherto to define the pion's valence-quark distribution function is flawed because it omits contributions from the gluons which bind quarks into the pion. A corrected leading-order expression produces the model-independent result that quarks dressed via the rainbowladder truncation, or any practical analogue, carry all the pion's light-front momentum at a characteristic hadronic scale. Corrections to the leading contribution may be divided into two classes, responsible for shifting dressed-quark momentum into glue and sea-quarks. Working with available empirical information, we use an algebraic model to express the principal impact of both classes of corrections. This enables amorerealistic comparison with experiment that allows us to highlight the basic features of the pion's measurable valence-quark distribution, q?(x); namely, at a characteristic hadronic scale, q?(x)~(1-x)2 for x?0.85; and the valence-quarks carry approximately two-thirds of the pion's light-front momentum.less

  14. Sketching the pion's valence-quark generalised parton distribution

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Mezrag, C.; Chang, L.; Moutarde, H.; Roberts, C. D.; Rodrguez-Quintero, J.; Sabati, F.; Schmidt, S. M.

    2015-02-01

    In order to learn effectively from measurements of generalised parton distributions (GPDs), it is desirable to compute them using a framework that can potentially connect empirical information with basic features of the Standard Model. We sketch an approach to such computations, based upon a rainbow-ladder (RL) truncation of QCDs DysonSchwinger equations and exemplified via the pions valence dressed-quark GPD, Hv?(x, ?, t). Our analysis focuses primarily on ?=0, although we also capitalise on the symmetry-preserving nature of the RL truncation by connecting Hv?(x, ?=1, t)with the pions valence-quark parton distribution amplitude. We explain that the impulse-approximation used hitherto to definemorethe pions valence dressed-quark GPD is generally invalid owing to omission of contributions from the gluons which bind dressed-quarks into the pion. A simple correction enables us to identify a practicable improvement to the approximation for Hv?(x, 0, t), expressed as the Radon transform of a single amplitude. Therewith we obtain results for Hv?(x, 0, t) and the associated impact-parameter dependent distribution, qv?(x, |b?|), which provide a qualitatively sound picture of the pions dressed-quark structure at a hadronic scale. We evolve the distributions to a scale ? = 2 GeV, so as to facilitate comparisons in future with results from experiment or other nonperturbative methods.less

  15. Kondo universality, energy scales, and intermediate valence in plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Clementyev, E. S.; Mirmelstein, A. V.

    2009-07-15

    On the basis of the concepts of an intermediate-valence (IV) regime, an analysis is carried out of macroscopic properties of the {alpha} and {delta} phases of plutonium, as well as of several model systems based on rare earth elements. Within a single-site approximation (SSA), the characteristic Kondo interaction energy, the f-electron shell occupation number, the effective degeneracy of the ground-state f multiplet, and the crystal field splitting energy are estimated. The ground state in plutonium is considered as a quantum-mechanical superposition of states with different valences. The temperature dependence of the static magnetic susceptibility of {delta} plutonium is calculated. It is shown that {delta} plutonium satisfies the Wilson and Kadowaki-Woods universal relations, whereby it can be classified as a Kondo system. At the same time, the problem of the position of plutonium in the general classification of solids, as well as the problem of the temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility of {delta} plutonium, remains open. The concept of multiple intermediate valence (MIV) is put forward as a possible means for solving the above problems. The MIV regime is characterized by fluctuations from the basic configuration 3+ to the states 4+ and 2+, which make a fundamental difference between plutonium and 4f electron systems based, say, on samarium.

  16. On the valence fluctuation in the early actinide metals

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Soderlind, P.; Landa, A.; Tobin, J. G.; Allen, P.; Medling, S.; Booth, C. H.; Bauer, E. D.; Cooley, J. C.; Sokaras, D.; Weng, T. -C.; et al

    2015-12-15

    In this study, recent X-ray measurements suggest a degree of valence fluctuation in plutonium and uranium intermetallics. We are applying a novel scheme, in conjunction with density functional theory, to predict 5f configuration fractions of states with valence fluctuations for the early actinide metals. For this purpose we perform constrained integer f-occupation calculations for the α phases of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium metals. For plutonium we also investigate the δ phase. The model predicts uranium and neptunium to be dominated by the f3 and f4 configurations, respectively, with only minor contributions from other configurations. For plutonium (both α and δmore » phase) the scenario is dramatically different. Here, the calculations predict a relatively even distribution between three valence configurations. The δ phase has a greater configuration fraction of f6 compared to that of the α phase. The theory is consistent with the interpretations of modern X-ray experiments and we present resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy results for α-uranium.« less

  17. On the valence fluctuation in the early actinide metals

    SciTech Connect

    Soderlind, P.; Landa, A.; Tobin, J. G.; Allen, P.; Medling, S.; Booth, C. H.; Bauer, E. D.; Cooley, J. C.; Sokaras, D.; Weng, T. -C.; Nordlund, D.

    2015-12-15

    In this study, recent X-ray measurements suggest a degree of valence fluctuation in plutonium and uranium intermetallics. We are applying a novel scheme, in conjunction with density functional theory, to predict 5f configuration fractions of states with valence fluctuations for the early actinide metals. For this purpose we perform constrained integer f-occupation calculations for the α phases of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium metals. For plutonium we also investigate the δ phase. The model predicts uranium and neptunium to be dominated by the f3 and f4 configurations, respectively, with only minor contributions from other configurations. For plutonium (both α and δ phase) the scenario is dramatically different. Here, the calculations predict a relatively even distribution between three valence configurations. The δ phase has a greater configuration fraction of f6 compared to that of the α phase. The theory is consistent with the interpretations of modern X-ray experiments and we present resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy results for α-uranium.

  18. A Lithium-Air Battery Based on Lithium Superoxide | Argonne National...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    A Lithium-Air Battery Based on Lithium Superoxide January 20, 2016 Tweet EmailPrint ... However there have been no reports of a battery based on lithium superoxide (LiO2), ...

  19. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, Charles H.; Graham, Robert A.; Kuehn, Stephen F.; Precit, Richard R.; Rogers, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

  20. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

    1990-01-09

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

  1. Method of recycling lithium borate to lithium borohydride through methyl borate

    DOEpatents

    Filby, Evan E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a method for the recycling of lithium borate to lithium borohydride which can be reacted with water to generate hydrogen for utilization as a fuel. The lithium borate by-product of the hydrogen generation reaction is reacted with hydrogen chloride and water to produce boric acid and lithium chloride. The boric acid and lithium chloride are converted to lithium borohydride through a methyl borate intermediate to complete the recycle scheme.

  2. Lithium-based Technologies | Y-12 National Security Complex

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-based Technologies Lithium-based Technologies Y-12's 60 years of rich lithium operational history and expertise make it the clear choice for deployment of new lithium-based ...

  3. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Xu, Kang; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  4. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  5. Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kepler, Keith D.; Vaughey, John T.

    2003-01-01

    A negative electrode (12) for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell (10) with an intermetallic host structure containing two or more elements selected from the metal elements and silicon, capable of accommodating lithium within its crystallographic host structure such that when the host structure is lithiated it transforms to a lithiated zinc-blende-type structure. Both active elements (alloying with lithium) and inactive elements (non-alloying with lithium) are disclosed. Electrochemical cells and batteries as well as methods of making the negative electrode are disclosed.

  6. Cyanoethylated compounds as additives in lithium/lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

    1999-01-01

    The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

  7. Kondo and mixed-valence regimes in multilevel quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Chudnovskiy, A. L.; Ulloa, S. E.

    2001-04-15

    We investigate the dependence of the ground state of a multilevel quantum dot on the coupling to an external fermionic system and on the interactions in the dot. As the coupling to the external system increases, the rearrangement of the effective energy levels in the dot signals the transition from the Kondo regime to a mixed-valence (MV) regime. The MV regime in a two-level dot is characterized by an intrinsic mixing of the levels in the dot, resulting in nonperturbative subtunneling and supertunneling phenomena that strongly influence the Kondo effect.

  8. Silica Precipitation and Lithium Sorption

    SciTech Connect

    Jay Renew

    2015-09-20

    This file contains silica precipitation and lithium sorption data from the project. The silica removal data is corrected from the previous submission. The previous submission did not take into account the limit of detection of the ICP-MS procedure.

  9. Air breathing lithium power cells

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2014-07-15

    A cell suitable for use in a battery according to one embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; a stabilized zirconia electrolyte for selective oxygen anion transport; a molten salt electrolyte; and a lithium-based anode. A cell suitable for use in a battery according to another embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; an electrolyte; a membrane selective to molecular oxygen; and a lithium-based anode.

  10. Q-dependence of the spin fluctuations in the intermediate valence...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Q-dependence of the spin fluctuations in the intermediate valence compound CePd3 Citation Details ... We report inelastic neutron scattering experiments on a ...

  11. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium walls

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G.; Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K.; Kubota, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; and others

    2015-05-15

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started.

  12. Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    1994-01-01

    A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

  13. Quantification of Electrochemical Nanoscale Processes in Lithium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In addition, extensive worldwide research efforts are now being devoted to more advanced "beyond Li-ion" battery chemistries - such as lithium-sulfur (Li-S) and lithium-air (Li-O2) ...

  14. Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema

    Thackeray, Michael

    2016-07-12

    Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Active Radiatiive Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor | Princeton...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Active Radiatiive Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor Developing a reactor-compatible divertor ... Application of Lithium (Li) in NSTX resulted in improved H-mode confinement, H-mode power ...

  16. Michael Thackery on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema

    Michael Thackery

    2010-01-08

    Michael Thackery, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema

    Khalil Amine

    2016-07-12

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil Amine

    2009-09-14

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Recent advances in lithium ion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Lithium ion technology is based on the use of lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells (1) and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems (2) it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these cells have the high energy density, high voltage and fight weight of metallic lithium systems plus a very long cycle life, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium.

  20. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  1. California Lithium Battery, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    California Lithium Battery, Inc. America's Next Top Energy Innovator Challenge 626 likes California Lithium Battery, Inc. Argonne National Laboratory California Lithium Battery ("CALBattery") is a start-up California company established in 2011 to develop and manufacture a breakthrough high energy density and long cycle life lithium battery for utility energy storage, transportation, and defense industries. The company is a joint venture between California-based Ionex Energy Storage

  2. Electronic structural and electrochemical properties of lithium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Electronic structural and electrochemical properties of lithium zirconates and ... Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of the Electrochemical Society; ...

  3. Lithium Technology Corporation | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Technology Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lithium Technology Corporation Place: Plymouth Meeting, Pennsylvania Zip: PA 19462 Sector: Vehicles Product:...

  4. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2011-05-31

    Fact sheet describing development and application of processing and process control for nanocomposite materials for lithium ion batteries

  5. Magnetism in LithiumOxygen Discharge Product

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2013-05-13

    Nonaqueous lithiumoxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithiumoxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithiumoxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

  6. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  7. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2000-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  8. The valence-fluctuating ground state of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Janoschek, Marc; Das, Pinaki; Chakrabarti, Bismayan; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Lawrence, John M.; Thompson, Joe D.; Lander, Gerard H.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Richmond, Scott; Ramos, Mike; Trouw, Frans; Zhu, Jian -Xin; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel; Bauer, Eric D.

    2015-07-10

    A central issue in material science is to obtain understanding of the electronic correlations that control complex materials. Such electronic correlations frequently arise because of the competition of localized and itinerant electronic degrees of freedom. Although the respective limits of well-localized or entirely itinerant ground states are well understood, the intermediate regime that controls the functional properties of complex materials continues to challenge theoretical understanding. We have used neutron spectroscopy to investigate plutonium, which is a prototypical material at the brink between bonding and nonbonding configurations. In addition, our study reveals that the ground state of plutonium is governed by valence fluctuations, that is, a quantum mechanical superposition of localized and itinerant electronic configurations as recently predicted by dynamical mean field theory. Our results not only resolve the long-standing controversy between experiment and theory on plutonium’s magnetism but also suggest an improved understanding of the effects of such electronic dichotomy in complex materials.

  9. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2006-11-14

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  10. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2004-01-13

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  11. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Dudney, N. J.; Bates, J. B.; Lubben, D.

    1995-06-01

    Thin film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin film battery.

  12. Spatial periphery of lithium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Galanina, L. I. Zelenskaja, N. S.

    2013-12-15

    The spatial structure of lithium isotopes is studied with the aid of the charge-exchange and (t, p) reactions on lithium nuclei. It is shown that an excited isobaric-analog state of {sup 6}Li (0{sup +}, 3.56MeV) has a halo structure formed by a proton and a neutron, that, in the {sup 9}Li nucleus, there is virtually no neutron halo, and that {sup 11}Li is a Borromean nucleus formed by a {sup 9}Li core and a two-neutron halo manifesting itself in cigar-like and dineutron configurations.

  13. Surface protected lithium-metal-oxide electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2016-04-05

    A lithium-metal-oxide positive electrode having a layered or spinel structure for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell and battery is disclosed comprising electrode particles that are protected at the surface from undesirable effects, such as electrolyte oxidation, oxygen loss or dissolution by one or more lithium-metal-polyanionic compounds, such as a lithium-metal-phosphate or a lithium-metal-silicate material that can act as a solid electrolyte at or above the operating potential of the lithium-metal-oxide electrode. The surface protection significantly enhances the surface stability, rate capability and cycling stability of the lithium-metal-oxide electrodes, particularly when charged to high potentials.

  14. Solid solution lithium alloy cermet anodes

    DOEpatents

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2013-07-09

    A metal-ceramic composite ("cermet") has been produced by a chemical reaction between a lithium compound and another metal. The cermet has advantageous physical properties, high surface area relative to lithium metal or its alloys, and is easily formed into a desired shape. An example is the formation of a lithium-magnesium nitride cermet by reaction of lithium nitride with magnesium. The reaction results in magnesium nitride grains coated with a layer of lithium. The nitride is inert when used in a battery. It supports the metal in a high surface area form, while stabilizing the electrode with respect to dendrite formation. By using an excess of magnesium metal in the reaction process, a cermet of magnesium nitride is produced, coated with a lithium-magnesium alloy of any desired composition. This alloy inhibits dendrite formation by causing lithium deposited on its surface to diffuse under a chemical potential into the bulk of the alloy.

  15. Lithium-loaded liquid scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng; Kesanli, Banu; Neal, John S.

    2012-05-15

    The invention is directed to a liquid scintillating composition containing (i) one or more non-polar organic solvents; (ii) (lithium-6)-containing nanoparticles having a size of up to 10 nm and surface-capped by hydrophobic molecules; and (iii) one or more fluorophores. The invention is also directed to a liquid scintillator containing the above composition.

  16. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2008-06-24

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell system. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plastized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  17. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2011-04-05

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  18. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2012-01-31

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  19. Field desorption of lithium fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Stintz, A.; Panitz, J.A. )

    1995-03-01

    Layers of lithium fluoride (LiF), [similar to]10 nm thick, were field desorbed from iridium substrates at temperatures between 25 and 600 [degree]C. The electric field was increased until desorption of the salt layer occurred. Combined mass spectroscopy and field desorption microscopy characterized the desorption process. During desorption, ions of the form (LiF)[sub [ital n

  20. The valence-fluctuating ground state of plutonium

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Janoschek, Marc; Das, Pinaki; Chakrabarti, Bismayan; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Lawrence, John M.; Thompson, Joe D.; Lander, Gerard H.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Richmond, Scott; et al

    2015-07-10

    A central issue in material science is to obtain understanding of the electronic correlations that control complex materials. Such electronic correlations frequently arise because of the competition of localized and itinerant electronic degrees of freedom. Although the respective limits of well-localized or entirely itinerant ground states are well understood, the intermediate regime that controls the functional properties of complex materials continues to challenge theoretical understanding. We have used neutron spectroscopy to investigate plutonium, which is a prototypical material at the brink between bonding and nonbonding configurations. In addition, our study reveals that the ground state of plutonium is governed bymore » valence fluctuations, that is, a quantum mechanical superposition of localized and itinerant electronic configurations as recently predicted by dynamical mean field theory. Our results not only resolve the long-standing controversy between experiment and theory on plutonium’s magnetism but also suggest an improved understanding of the effects of such electronic dichotomy in complex materials.« less

  1. ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth Print Thursday, 24 April 2014 09:46 Lithium-ion ...

  2. Effect of Lithium PFC Coatings on NSTX Density Control (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of Lithium PFC Coatings on NSTX Density Control Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of Lithium PFC Coatings on NSTX Density Control Lithium coatings on the ...

  3. Q-dependence of the spin fluctuations in the intermediate valence compound

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CePd3 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Q-dependence of the spin fluctuations in the intermediate valence compound CePd3 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Q-dependence of the spin fluctuations in the intermediate valence compound CePd3 We report inelastic neutron scattering experiments on a single crystal of the intermediate valence compound CePd3. At 300 K the magnetic scattering is quasielastic, with half-width G = 23 meV, and is independent of momentum transfer

  4. Breakdown of ionic character of molecular alkali bromides in inner-valence photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Karpenko, A. Iablonskyi, D.; Kettunen, J. A.; Cao, W.; Huttula, M.; Aksela, H.; Urpelainen, S.

    2014-05-28

    The inner-valence region of alkali bromide XBr (X=Li, Na, K, Rb) vapours has been studied experimentally by means of synchrotron radiation excited photoelectron spectroscopy. Experimental spectra were analyzed by comparing them with available theoretical results and previous experiments. Ionic character of alkali bromides is seen to change in the inner-valence region with increasing atomic number of the alkali atom. A mechanism involving mixing between Br 4s and Rb 4p orbitals has been suggested to account for the fine structure observed in inner-valence ionization region of RbBr.

  5. A Material Change: Bringing Lithium Production Back to America | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy A Material Change: Bringing Lithium Production Back to America A Material Change: Bringing Lithium Production Back to America June 29, 2012 - 5:34pm Addthis The Rockwood Lithium manufacturing facility in Kings Mountain, North Carolina. | Photo courtesy of Rockwood Lithium. The Rockwood Lithium manufacturing facility in Kings Mountain, North Carolina. | Photo courtesy of Rockwood Lithium. Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Between 1980 and

  6. Lithium-aluminum-iron electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary electrochemical cell. The cell also includes an electrolyte with lithium ions such as a molten salt of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides that can be used in high-temperature cells. The cell's positive electrode contains a a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent in an alloy of aluminum-iron. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, aluminum and iron are formed. The lithium within the intermetallic phase of Al.sub.5 Fe.sub.2 exhibits increased activity over that of lithium within a lithium-aluminum alloy to provide an increased cell potential of up to about 0.25 volt.

  7. Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin Authors:...

  8. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lucht, Brett L 25...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lucht, Brett L 25 ENERGY STORAGE We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have...

  9. Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) The Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) produced its first plasma in September, 2008. The new device will continue the promising, innovative work...

  10. Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    More Documents & Publications Studies on Lithium Manganese Rich MNC Composite Cathodes ... Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials

  11. Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production FY 2011

  12. Deuterium Uptake in Magnetic Fusion Devices with Lithium Conditioned...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Fusion Devices with Lithium Conditioned Carbon Walls American Fusion News Category: U.S. Universities Link: Deuterium Uptake in Magnetic Fusion Devices with Lithium ...

  13. Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production FY 2012

  14. Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations Review of Oak Ridge process and QC activities by David Wood, ...

  15. Vacuum Attachment for Collection of Lithium Powder ---- Inventor...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    of Lithium Powder ---- Inventor(s) Hans Schneider and Stephan Jurczynski The Vacuum Attachment is part of an integrated system designed to collect Lithium (Li) Power for ...

  16. Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) The Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) produced its first plasma in September, 2008. The new device will continue the promising, innovative work ...

  17. Layered Electrodes for Lithium Cells and Batteries | Argonne...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrodes for Lithium Cells and Batteries Technology available for licensing: Layered lithium metal oxide compounds for ultra-high-capacity, rechargeable cathodes Lowers cost to ...

  18. Novel Redox Shuttles for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-Ion...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Protection of Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: Electrolytes containing novel redox shuttles (electron transporters) for lithium-ion batteries ...

  19. Lithium Salt-doped, Gelled Polymer Electrolyte with a Nanoporous...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Lithium Salt-doped, Gelled Polymer Electrolyte with a ... electrolyte material for use in lithium ion batteries that exhibits better ion ...

  20. simulate the dynamic distribution of lithium in the electrode

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    simulate the dynamic distribution of lithium in the electrode - Sandia Energy Energy ... simulate the dynamic distribution of lithium in the electrode HomeTag:simulate the ...

  1. Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout |...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout Title Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout Publication Type Miscellaneous Year of Publication 2014...

  2. Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  3. Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  4. Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage...

  5. Etna Resources soon to be Pan American Lithium | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Etna Resources soon to be Pan American Lithium Jump to: navigation, search Name: Etna Resources (soon to be Pan American Lithium) Place: Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Zip:...

  6. Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries Title: Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries Functional electrolyte solvents include ...

  7. Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries (Patent)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries Title: Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries Methods for making composite anodes, ...

  8. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur ...

  9. Solid-state lithium battery (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. ...

  10. High Rate and Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: High Rate and Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries. However, dendritic Li growth and limited ...

  11. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion ...

  12. Organosilicon-Based Electrolytes for Long-Life Lithium Primary...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Organosilicon-Based Electrolytes for Long-Life Lithium Primary Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Organosilicon-Based Electrolytes for Long-Life Lithium Primary ...

  13. Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes Title: Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes The present invention relates to ...

  14. Review of Reactivity Experiments for Lithium Ternary Alloys ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The plant uses lithium in both the primary coolant and blanket; therefore, lithium related hazards are of primary concern. Reducing chemical reactivity is the primary motivation ...

  15. Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? |...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? Title Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? Publication Type Presentation Year of Publication 2013...

  16. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    If the chemical reactivity of lithium could be overcome, the result would have a profound ... whilemore mitigating the chemical reactivity issues of pure lithium. less Authors: ...

  17. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes (Patent) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Lithium ion batteries with titaniagraphene anodes Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to ...

  18. Lithium based electrochemical cell systems having a degassing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Lithium based electrochemical cell systems having a degassing agent A lithium based electrochemical cell system includes a positive electrode; a negative electrode; an ...

  19. Lithium-ion batteries with intrinsic pulse overcharge protection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The present invention relates in general to the field of lithium rechargeable batteries, and more particularly relates to the positive electrode design of lithium-ion batteries ...

  20. Correlation of Lithium-Ion Battery Performance with Structural...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Correlation of Lithium-Ion Battery Performance with Structural and Chemical ... Specifically, the surfaces of lithium-ion battery electrodes evolve simultaneously with ...

  1. Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Issues | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    International Collaboration With a Case Study in Assessment of Worlds Supply of Lithium Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Lithium-Ion Battery Production and ...

  2. Electrolyte additive for lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery

    DOEpatents

    Behl, Wishvender K.; Chin, Der-Tau

    1989-01-01

    A large excess of lithium iodide in solution is used as an electrolyte adive to provide overcharge protection for a lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery.

  3. Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Wiring Up Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes Vehicle ...

  4. Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes ...

  5. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis You ...

  6. Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage Program is ...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Lithium...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    High Energy Lithium Batteries for PHEV Applications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Lithium Batteries for PHEV Applications Presentation given by...

  8. Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Electrolytes Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual...

  9. China Lithium Energy Electric Vehicle Investment Group CLEEVIG...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Lithium Energy Electric Vehicle Investment Group CLEEVIG Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Lithium Energy Electric Vehicle Investment Group (CLEEVIG) Place: Beijing, China...

  10. Electrolyte additive for lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery

    DOEpatents

    Behl, Wishvender K.; Chin, Der-Tau

    1989-02-07

    A large excess of lithium iodide in solution is used as an electrolyte adive to provide overcharge protection for a lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery.

  11. Composite Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries ...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Composite Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for ... of lithium layers by transition metal ions. PDF icon compositeelectrodesforlibatteries

  12. Scientists Probe Lithium-Sulfur Batteries in Real Time - Joint...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    7, 2012, Videos Scientists Probe Lithium-Sulfur Batteries in Real Time Lithium-sulfur batteries are a promising technology that could some day power electric vehicles. Scientists ...

  13. Understanding Lithium-Sulfur Batteries at the Molecular Level...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    June 17, 2015, Accomplishments Understanding Lithium-Sulfur Batteries at the Molecular Level Conceived some 40 years ago, the lithium-sulfur battery can store, in theory, ...

  14. Surface Modification Agents Increase Safety, Security of Lithium...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Modification Agents Increase Safety, Security of Lithium-Ion Batteries New Process to Modify the Surface of the Active Material Used in Lithium-Ion Batteries Argonne ...

  15. Nanocomposite Carbon/Tin Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries - Energy...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanocomposite CarbonTin Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence Berkeley National ... Applications and Industries Anodes for lithium ion batteries More InformationFOR MORE ...

  16. Novel Electrolyte Enables Stable Graphite Anodes in Lithium Ion...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Novel Electrolyte Enables Stable Graphite Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence ... Coulombic Efficiency for Lithium Ion Batteries," Journal of the Electrochemical ...

  17. Longer Life Lithium Ion Batteries with Silicon Anodes - Energy...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Longer Life Lithium Ion Batteries with Silicon Anodes Lawrence Berkeley National ... Researchers have developed a new technology to advance the life of lithium-ion batteries. ...

  18. Expanded North Carolina Lithium Facility Opens, Boosting U.S...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... A Material Change: Bringing Lithium Production Back to America California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand Low-temp geothermal technologies are meeting a ...

  19. Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes For Lithium Cells And Batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2004-01-20

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  20. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil

    2008-12-23

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  1. max kwh | OpenEI Community

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    This is likely due to users not understanding the meaning of "Max kWh"--often I see things like: "300, 700, 1000" (derived from "first 300, next 700, greater than 1000") which...

  2. KWhOURS | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    South Hamilton, Massachusetts Zip: 1982 Sector: Services Product: Massachusetts software maker which provides mobile data collection, calculation, and report generation...

  3. Electrode materials and lithium battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Belharouak, Ilias; Liu, Jun

    2011-06-28

    A material comprising a lithium titanate comprising a plurality of primary particles and secondary particles, wherein the average primary particle size is about 1 nm to about 500 nm and the average secondary particle size is about 1 .mu.m to about 4 .mu.m. In some embodiments the lithium titanate is carbon-coated. Also provided are methods of preparing lithium titanates, and devices using such materials.

  4. Thermal Variation of Ce Valence in Mixed ValenceKondo Lattice Systems CeT2(Si1-xGex)2 with T= Mn and Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Liang,G.; Croft, M.

    2008-01-01

    The results on the thermal variation of Ce L3-valence in CeT2(Si1-xGex)2 series with 0{le}x{le}1 and T=Mn and Ni are reported. It is observed that for both series, the Ce valence increases with decreasing temperature and has little thermal variation for samples in the nearly trivalent regime. The magnitude of this thermal variation in the T=Mn series is much greater than in the T=Ni series. The results are explained by the degenerate Anderson model and correlated with the specific heat data.

  5. The effect of f[subscript O2] on the partitioning and valence...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: The effect of fsubscript O2 on the partitioning and valence of V and Cr in garnetmelt pairs and the relation to terrestrial mantle V and Cr content Citation ...

  6. Understanding the Ultimate Battery Chemistry: Rechargeable Lithium...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Kah Chun Lau (MSD, ANL), Aaron Knoll (MCS, ANL), Larry A Curtiss (MSDCNM, ANL). Understanding the Ultimate Battery Chemistry: Rechargeable LithiumAir PI Name: Jack Wells PI ...

  7. Ternary compound electrode for lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, I.D.; Godshall, N.A.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-30

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and of light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated in the temperature range of about 350 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell in which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell has a positive electrode which includes a ternary compound generally represented as Li-M-O, wherein M is a transition metal. Corrosion of the inventive cell is considerably reduced.

  8. Ternary compound electrode for lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Godshall, Ned A.; Huggins, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and of light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated in the temperature range of about 350.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell in which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell has a positive electrode which includes a ternary compound generally represented as Li-M-O, wherein M is a transition metal. Corrosion of the inventive cell is considerably reduced.

  9. Simplified Electrode Formation using Stabilized Lithium Metal...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Powder (SLMP) Doping of Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary A team of ...

  10. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wu; Wang, Jiulin; Ding, Fei; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-10-29

    Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

  11. Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: Cyclic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and ester solvents coordinate Li+ cations in electrolyte solutions for lithium batteries. One approach to gleaning significant insight into these interactions is to examine...

  12. Categorical Exclusion 4497: Lithium Wet Chemistry Project

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Detennination Form Proposed Action Tills: Lithium W@t Chemistry Project (4597) Program or Fild Oftke: Y-12 Site Office L&cationfs)...

  13. Categorical Exclusion 4577: Lithium Isotope Separation & Enrichment...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Isotope Separation & Enrichment Technologies (4577) Program or Field Office: Y-12 Site Office Location(s) (CityCountyState): Oak Ridge, Anderson County, Tennessee...

  14. ELECTROCHROMIC NICKEL OXIDE SIMULTANEOUSLY DOPED WITH LITHIUM...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    News Events Return to Search ELECTROCHROMIC NICKEL OXIDE SIMULTANEOUSLY DOPED WITH LITHIUM AND A METAL DOPANT United States Patent Application *** PATENT GRANTED ***...

  15. Lithium electrodeposition dynamics in aprotic electrolyte observed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium electrodeposition dynamics in aprotic ... the Li plating and stripping processes is needed to enable practical Li-metal batteries. ...

  16. Electronic Spin Transition in Nanosize Stoichiometric Lithium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Electronic Spin Transition in Nanosize Stoichiometric Lithium Cobalt Oxide Authors: ... Language: English Subject: energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), defects, ...

  17. Conductive polymeric compositions for lithium batteries (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The conductivity at high temperatures and wide electrochemical window make these materials especially suitable as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Inventors: ...

  18. Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technologies - Energy Innovation...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technologies Lawrence ... improved battery life when used in the fabrication of negative silicon electrodes. ...

  19. Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award Washington: ... Improving charge time and these other battery characteristics could significantly expand ...

  20. Iron-lithium anode for thermal battery

    SciTech Connect

    Winchester, C.S.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a lithium anode for use in a thermal battery having a composite material comprising lithium and a particulate metal capable of being wetted by molten lithium, but only slightly or not alloyable with the lithium. The composite anode material is positioned adjacent a metal collector element the improvement comprising: a metal screen positioned between and substantially co-extensive with the anode composite and the metal collector element. The anode is thereby spaced apart from the element but is in electrical contact and the screen is electrically conductive.

  1. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  2. A lithium oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect

    Semkow, K.W.; Sammells, A.F.

    1987-08-01

    In principle the lithium-oxygen couple should provide one of the highest energy densities yet investigated for advanced battery systems. The problem to this time has been one of identifying strategies for achieving high electrochemical reversibilities at each electrode under conditions where one might anticipate to also achieve long materials lifetimes. This has been addressed in recent work by us via the application of stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes, for the effective separation of respective half-cell reactions.

  3. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  4. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  5. Electronic states of lithium passivated germanium nanowires: An ab-initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Trejo, A.; Carvajal, E.; Vzquez-Medina, R.; Cruz-Irisson, M.

    2014-05-15

    A study of the electronic and structural properties of germanium nanowires (GeNWs) was performed using the ab-initio Density Functional Theory within the generalized gradient approximation where electron-ion interactions are described by ultrasoft pseudopotentials. To study the effects of the lithium in the surface of the GeNWs we compare the electronic band structures of Hydrogen passivated GeNWs with those of partial and totally Li passivated GeNWs. The nanowires were constructed in the [001], [111] and [110] directions, using the supercell model to create different wire diameters. The results show that in the case of partial Li passivation there are localized orbitals near the valence band maximum, which would create a p-doped-kind of state. The total Li passivation created metallic states for all the wires.

  6. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely

  7. Jeff Chamberlain on Lithium-air batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Jeff Chamberlain, technology transfer expert at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

  8. Jeff Chamberlain on Lithium-air batteries

    ScienceCinema

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2013-04-19

    Jeff Chamberlain, technology transfer expert at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

  9. 2015 Market Research Report on Global Niobium Oxalate Lithium...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Niobium Oxalate Lithium Industry Home There are currently no posts in this category. Syndicate content...

  10. Impact of Lithium Availability on Vehicle Electrification (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J.

    2011-07-01

    This presentation discusses the relationship between electric drive vehicles and the availability of lithium.

  11. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  12. Electrolyte additive for lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery

    SciTech Connect

    Behl, W.K.; Chin, D.T.

    1988-02-08

    This invention relates in general to a rechargeable lithium organic electrolyte battery and, in particular, to an electrolyte additive for such a battery that provides overcharge protection. Rechargeable lithium-organic electrolyte batteries are being developed to provide low-cost, high-energy-density power sources for communication, night vision and various other Army applications. Typically, a rechargeable lithium organic electrolyte battery includes a lithium anode, a cathode including compounds such as titanium disulfide, molybdenum oxide, molybdenum sulfide, vanadium oxide, vanadium sulfide, chromium oxide, etc an electrolyte solution including an inorganic lithium salt such as lithium hexafluoroarsenate, lithium perchlorate, etc.

  13. Process for recovering tritium from molten lithium metal

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium tritide (LiT) is extracted from molten lithium metal that has been exposed to neutron irradiation for breeding tritium within a thermonuclear or fission reactor. The extraction is performed by intimately contacting the molten lithium metal with a molten lithium salt, for instance, lithium chloride - potassium chloride eutectic to distribute LiT between the salt and metal phases. The extracted tritium is recovered in gaseous form from the molten salt phase by a subsequent electrolytic or oxidation step.

  14. Trace Water Catalyzes Lithium Peroxide Electrochemistry - Joint Center for

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Research June 19, 2014, Research Highlights Trace Water Catalyzes Lithium Peroxide Electrochemistry Reaction cycle for reduction of di-oxygen by lithium and water to lithium peroxide on single crystal gold surface. Scientific Achievement Water at ppm levels catalyzes the conversion of lithium superoxide (LiO2) to lithium peroxide (Li2O2) by the reaction cycle shown. Because water is not consumed in the cycle, trace amounts leverage large effects. Significance and Impact Trace

  15. Electroactive compositions with poly(arylene oxide) and stabilized lithium

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    metal particles (Patent) | DOEPatents Electroactive compositions with poly(arylene oxide) and stabilized lithium metal particles Title: Electroactive compositions with poly(arylene oxide) and stabilized lithium metal particles An electroactive composition includes an anodic material; a poly(arylene oxide); and stabilized lithium metal particles; where the stabilized lithium metal particles have a size less than about 200 .mu.m in diameter, are coated with a lithium salt, are present in an

  16. LithiumIonBatteries.jpg | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Information LithiumIonBatteries

  17. Lithium thermal targets shot on PBFA II

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, P.S.; Aubert, J.H.; Baca, P.M.; McNamara, W.F.

    1993-09-01

    Recent lithium ion beam experiments on PBFAII have required intricate targets to measure beam performance and to study target physics issues. Because of the stopping power difference between lithium ions and protons, these targets have presented significantly increased challenges for material preparation and handling compared to previous proton shots. The greatest challenges included complex shaped gold hohlraums, CH foams of densities ranging from 3 to 6 mg/cm3 and vacuum seals covering large areas with a thickness under 1 um. Details regarding assembly and characterization of lithium thermal targets will be described in this poster.

  18. Modeling Lithium Movement over Multiple Cycles in a Lithium-Metal Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrese, A; Newman, J

    2014-04-11

    This paper builds on the work by Ferrese et al. [J. Electrochem., 159, A1615 (2012)], where a model of a lithium-metal battery with a LiyCoO2 positive electrode was created in order to predict the movement of lithium in the negative electrode along the negative electrode/separator interface during cell cycling. In this paper, the model is expanded to study the movement of lithium along the lithium-metal anode over multiple cycles. From this model, it is found that when a low percentage of lithium at the negative electrode is utilized, the movement of lithium along the negative electrode/separator interface reaches a quasi steady state after multiple cycles. This steady state is affected by the slope of the open-circuit-potential function in the positive electrode, the rate of charge and discharge, the depth of discharge, and the length of the rest periods. However, when a high percent of the lithium at the negative electrode is utilized during cycling, the movement does not reach a steady state and pinching can occur, where the lithium nearest the negative tab becomes progressively thinner after cycling. This is another nonlinearity that leads to a progression of the movement of lithium over multiple cycles. (C) 2014 The Electrochemical Society.

  19. Electrolytic method for the production of lithium using a lithium-amalgam electrode

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.; Krikorian, Oscar H.; Homsy, Robert V.

    1979-01-01

    A method for recovering lithium from its molten amalgam by electrolysis of the amalgam in an electrolytic cell containing as a molten electrolyte a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of two or more alkali metal halides, preferably alkali metal halides selected from lithium iodide, lithium chloride, potassium iodide and potassium chloride. A particularly suitable molten electrolyte is a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of at least three components obtained by modifying an eutectic mixture of LiI-KI by the addition of a minor amount of one or more alkali metal halides. The lithium-amalgam fused-salt cell may be used in an electrolytic system for recovering lithium from an aqueous solution of a lithium compound, wherein electrolysis of the aqueous solution in an aqueous cell in the presence of a mercury cathode produces a lithium amalgam. The present method is particularly useful for the regeneration of lithium from the aqueous reaction products of a lithium-water-air battery.

  20. Lithium-cation conductivity and crystal structure of lithium diphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Voronin, V.I.; Sherstobitova, E.A.; Blatov, V.A.; Shekhtman, G.Sh.

    2014-03-15

    The electrical conductivity of lithium diphosphate Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been measured and jump-like increasing of ionic conductivity at 913 K has been found. The crystal structure of Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been refined using high temperature neutron diffraction at 300–1050 K. At 913 K low temperature triclinic form of Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} transforms into high temperature monoclinic one, space group P2{sub 1}/n, a=8.8261(4) Å, b=5.2028(4) Å, c=13.3119(2) Å, β=104.372(6)°. The migration maps of Li{sup +} cations based on experimental data implemented into program package TOPOS have been explored. It was found that lithium cations in both low- and high temperature forms of Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} migrate in three dimensions. Cross sections of the migrations channels extend as the temperature rises, but at the phase transition point have a sharp growth showing a strong “crystal structure – ion conductivity” correlation. -- Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} at 950 K. Red balls represent oxygen atoms; black lines show Li{sup +} ion migration channels in the layers perpendicular to [001] direction. Highlights: • Structure of Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been refined using high temperature neutron diffraction. • At 913 K triclinic form of Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} transforms into high temperature monoclinic one. • The migration maps of Li{sup +} implemented into program package TOPOS have been explored. • Cross sections of the migrations channels at the phase transition have a sharp growth.

  1. NSTX Plasma Response to Lithium Coated Divertor

    SciTech Connect

    H.W. Kugel, M.G. Bell, J.P. Allain, R.E. Bell, S. Ding, S.P. Gerhardt, M.A. Jaworski, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, R. Maingi, R. Majeski, R. Maqueda, D.K. Mansfield, D. Mueller, R. Nygren, S.F. Paul, R. Raman, A.L. Roquemore, S.A. Sabbagh, H. Schneider, C.H. Skinner, V.A. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor, J.R. Timberlak, W.R. Wampler, L.E. Zakharov, S.J. Zweben, and the NSTX Research Team

    2011-01-21

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  2. Lithium Circuit Test Section Design and Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Godfroy, Thomas; Garber, Anne; Martin, James

    2006-01-20

    The Early Flight Fission -- Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has designed and built an actively pumped lithium flow circuit. Modifications were made to a circuit originally designed for NaK to enable the use of lithium that included application specific instrumentation and hardware. Component scale freeze/thaw tests were conducted to both gain experience with handling and behavior of lithium in solid and liquid form and to supply anchor data for a Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) model that was modified to include the physics for freeze/thaw transitions. Void formation was investigated. The basic circuit components include: reactor segment, lithium to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. This paper discusses the overall system design and build and the component testing findings.

  3. Y-12 begins to separate lithium isotopes

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    begins to separate lithium isotopes During the years from 1946 through the early 1950s, Y-12 continued to expand as needed to meet the demand for a growing primary mission of...

  4. Electrochromic nickel oxide simultaneously doped with lithium...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    More Like This Return to Search Electrochromic nickel oxide simultaneously doped with lithium and a metal dopant United States Patent Patent Number: 8,687,261 Issued: April 1,...

  5. Shock Induced Birefringence in Lithium Fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, N C

    2001-06-01

    We have used an ellipsometer to measure the birefringence of lithium fluoride in shock compression experiments. In previous x-ray diffraction experiments, single crystal [100] LiF has been reported to remain cubic at moderate pressures.

  6. Lithium Metal Anodes | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    esp17vaughey.pdf (3.6 MB) More Documents & Publications Lithium Metal Anodes Integrated LabIndustry Research Project at LBNL Overview and Progress of the Exploratory Technology ...

  7. Lithium ion battery with improved safety

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Chun-hua; Hyung, Yoo Eup; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    2006-04-11

    A lithium battery with improved safety that utilizes one or more additives in the battery electrolyte solution wherein a lithium salt is dissolved in an organic solvent, which may contain propylene, carbonate. For example, a blend of 2 wt % triphenyl phosphate (TPP), 1 wt % diphenyl monobutyl phosphate (DMP) and 2 wt % vinyl ethylene carbonate additives has been found to significantly enhance the safety and performance of Li-ion batteries using a LiPF6 salt in EC/DEC electrolyte solvent. The invention relates to both the use of individual additives and to blends of additives such as that shown in the above example at concentrations of 1 to 4-wt % in the lithium battery electrolyte. This invention relates to additives that suppress gas evolution in the cell, passivate graphite electrode and protect it from exfoliating in the presence of propylene carbonate solvents in the electrolyte, and retard flames in the lithium batteries.

  8. Cathode material for lithium batteries (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material. Inventors: Park, Sang-Ho ; Amine, Khalil Issue Date: 2015-01-13 ...

  9. Layered electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Christopher S.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Kahaian, Arthur J.; Kim, Jeom-Soo

    2008-04-15

    Lithium metal oxide compounds of nominal formula Li.sub.2MO.sub.2, in which M represents two or more positively charged metal ions, selected predominantly and preferably from the first row of transition metals are disclosed herein. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds have a layered-type structure, which can be used as positive electrodes for lithium electrochemical cells, or as a precursor for the in-situ electrochemical fabrication of LiMO.sub.2 electrodes. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds of the invention may have additional functions in lithium cells, for example, as end-of-discharge indicators, or as negative electrodes for lithium cells.

  10. Design and simulation of lithium rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, C.M.

    1995-08-01

    Lithium -based rechargeable batteries that utilize insertion electrodes are being considered for electric-vehicle applications because of their high energy density and inherent reversibility. General mathematical models are developed that apply to a wide range of lithium-based systems, including the recently commercialized lithium-ion cell. The modeling approach is macroscopic, using porous electrode theory to treat the composite insertion electrodes and concentrated solution theory to describe the transport processes in the solution phase. The insertion process itself is treated with a charge-transfer process at the surface obeying Butler-Volmer kinetics, followed by diffusion of the lithium ion into the host structure. These models are used to explore the phenomena that occur inside of lithium cells under conditions of discharge, charge, and during periods of relaxation. Also, in order to understand the phenomena that limit the high-rate discharge of these systems, we focus on the modeling of a particular system with well-characterized material properties and system parameters. The system chosen is a lithium-ion cell produced by Bellcore in Red Bank, NJ, consisting of a lithium-carbon negative electrode, a plasticized polymer electrolyte, and a lithium-manganese-oxide spinel positive electrode. This battery is being marketed for consumer electronic applications. The system is characterized experimentally in terms of its transport and thermodynamic properties, followed by detailed comparisons of simulation results with experimental discharge curves. Next, the optimization of this system for particular applications is explored based on Ragone plots of the specific energy versus average specific power provided by various designs.

  11. Lithium-Ion Batteries - Energy Innovation Portal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Lithium-Ion Batteries Predictive computer models for lithium-ion battery performance under standard and potentially abusive conditions National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Design. Build. Test. Break. Repeat. Developing batteries is an expensive and time-intensive process. Testing costs the

  12. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Development and Application of Processing and Process Control for Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Introduction In recent years, sales of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have increased and several automakers have also started to market plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Successful market penetration of PHEVs would signifcantly reduce automobile tailpipe emissions and help guard against oil price volatility. However, cost,

  13. Rechargeable Thin-film Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6 {mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li TiS{sub 2}, Li V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin film lithium batteries.

  14. Effect of additives on lithium cycling efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Toshiro; Yoshimatsu, Isamu; Yamaki, J. )

    1994-09-01

    Lithium cycling efficiency was evaluated for LiAsF[sub 6]-ethylene carbonate/2-methyltetrahydrofuran mixed-solvent electrolyte (LiAsF[sub 6]-EC/2MeTHF) with several additives: tetraalkylammonium chlorides with a long n-alkyl chain and three methyl groups. The ammonium chlorides with n-alkyl group longer than n-C[sub 12]H[sub 25]- increased lithium cycling efficiency. Cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) produced the best improvement in lithium cycling efficiency. A figure of merit (FOM) of lithium for 0.01 M CTAC was 46, which was 1.5 times the FOM for the corresponding additive-free electrolyte. The LiAsF[sub 6]-EC/2MeTHF with CTAC showed an increase in FOM with stack pressure, but the effect was less than that for the additive-free LiAsF[sub 6]-EC/2MeTHF. Scanning electron microscope observation showed that the addition of CTAC decreased the needle-like lithium deposition and increased particulate lithium deposition. This deposition morphology may be the main cause of the increase in FOM. The additive had no effect on rate capability for cell cycling at 3 mA/cm[sup 2] discharge and 1 mA/cm[sup 2] charge.

  15. Predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, H.; Vangerow, J. von; Stienkemeier, F.; Mudrich, M.; Bogomolov, A. S.; Baklanov, A. V.; Reich, D. M.; Skomorowski, W.; Koch, C. P.

    2015-01-28

    The predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide (LiI) in the first excited A-state is investigated for molecules in the gas phase and embedded in helium nanodroplets, using femtosecond pump-probe photoionization spectroscopy. In the gas phase, the transient Li{sup +} and LiI{sup +} ion signals feature damped oscillations due to the excitation and decay of a vibrational wave packet. Based on high-level ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of LiI and simulations of the wave packet dynamics, the exponential signal decay is found to result from predissociation predominantly at the lowest avoided X-A potential curve crossing, for which we infer a coupling constant V{sub XA} = 650(20) cm{sup −1}. The lack of a pump-probe delay dependence for the case of LiI embedded in helium nanodroplets indicates fast droplet-induced relaxation of the vibrational excitation.

  16. Electrode for a lithium cell

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2008-10-14

    This invention relates to a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell or battery, and to an electrochemical cell or battery; the invention relates more specifically to a positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell or battery when the electrode is used therein. The positive electrode includes a composite metal oxide containing AgV.sub.3O.sub.8 as one component and one or more other components consisting of LiV.sub.3O.sub.8, Ag.sub.2V.sub.4O.sub.11, MnO.sub.2, CF.sub.x, AgF or Ag.sub.2O to increase the energy density of the cell, optionally in the presence of silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrode and to improve the power capability of the cell or battery.

  17. Rechargeable lithium-ion cell

    DOEpatents

    Bechtold, Dieter; Bartke, Dietrich; Kramer, Peter; Kretzschmar, Reiner; Vollbert, Jurgen

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

  18. Glass for sealing lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Leedecke, C.J.

    1981-08-28

    Glass compositions resistant to corrosion by lithium cell electrolyte and having an expansion coefficient of 45 to 85 x 10/sup -70/C/sup -1/ have been made with SiO/sub 2/, 25 to 55% by weight; B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 5 to 12%; Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 12 to 35%; CaO, 5 to 15%; MgO, 5 to 15%; SrO, 0 to 10%; and La/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 0 to 5%. Preferred compositions within that range contain 3 to 8% SrO and 0.5 to 2.5% La/sub 2/O/sub 3/.

  19. Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL 2012 DOE ...

  20. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Our way of life is deeply ... As conventional lithium-ion batteries approach their theoretical energy-storage limits, ...

  1. A Method to Distill Hydrogen Isotopes from Lithium | Princeton...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    to Distill Hydrogen Isotopes from Lithium This white paper outlines a method for the removal of tritium and deuterium from liquid lithium. The method is based on rapid or flash ...

  2. Solid-state Inorganic Lithium-Ion Conductors - Energy Innovation...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Solid-state Inorganic Lithium-Ion Conductors ... milling system for preparation of electrodes for use in a solid state lithium-ion battery. ...

  3. "Stationary Flowing Liquid Lithium System For Pumping Out Atomic...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium System For Pumping Out Atomic Hydrogen Isotopes and Ions" Leonid E. Zakharov and Charles Gentile The system is comprised of a stationary closed loop for liquid lithium flow ...

  4. Electrode Interface Dictates Oxygen Evolution from Lithium Peroxide...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    from Lithium Peroxide in Li-O2 Batteries Isolation of the charge reaction from the discharge in Li-O2 cells by utilizing electrodes prefilled with commercial lithium peroxide ...

  5. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in ... 8.0.1 show a lower "lowest unoccupied molecular orbital" for the new Berkeley Lab ...

  6. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good...

  7. Nanostructured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries - Energy Innovation...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Nanostructured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries New Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Increase Energy Density Four-Fold...

  8. California: Geothermal Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Geothermal Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand California: Geothermal Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand May 21, 2013 - 5:54pm Addthis Through funding provided by the...

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    lithium-sulfur cathodes. PDF icon es230cui2015o.pdf More Documents & Publications Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Vehicle Technologies...

  10. Polyamidoamine Dendrimer-Based Binders for High-Loading Lithium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Polyamidoamine Dendrimer-Based Binders for High-Loading Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathodes Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are regarded as one of the most promising candidates ...

  11. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries A ...

  12. Lithium: Thionyl chloride battery state-of-the-art assessment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithium: Thionyl chloride battery state-of-the-art assessment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium: Thionyl chloride battery state-of-the-art assessment You are ...

  13. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  14. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries ... In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the ... characterization, and simulation in a novel approach to ...

  15. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries ... In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the ... characterization, and simulation in a novel approach to ...

  16. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion ... In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the ... characterization, and simulation in a novel approach to ...

  17. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good ...

  18. Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with ...

  19. Effect of Lithium PFC Coatings on NSTX Density Control (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of Lithium PFC Coatings on NSTX Density Control Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of Lithium PFC Coatings on NSTX Density Control You are accessing a ...

  20. Solid Electrolyte: the Key for High-Voltage Lithium Batteries...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solid Electrolyte: the Key for High-Voltage Lithium Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solid Electrolyte: the Key for High-Voltage Lithium Batteries Authors: Li, ...

  1. Excellent Stability of a Lithium-Ion-Conducting Solid Electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Excellent Stability of a Lithium-Ion-Conducting Solid Electrolyte upon Reversible Li+H+ Exchange in Aqueous Solutions Title: Excellent Stability of a Lithium-Ion-Conducting Solid ...

  2. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Batteries |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Batteries Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Batteries PolyPlus Battery Company - Berkeley, CA A protected lithium electrode, solid electrolyte, and scaled-up manufacturing process will be developed for high-energy-density lithium batteries. This project will scale up production from a batch mode to a high-volume process. Commercial introduction of this manufacturing process could extend the driving

  3. Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries Share Description Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. Speakers Michael Thackeray Duration 2:10 Topic Energy Energy usage Energy storage Batteries Lithium-air batteries Programs Chemical sciences & engineering Electrochemical energy storage Video ID

  4. Methods for making lithium vanadium oxide electrode materials

    DOEpatents

    Schutts, Scott M.; Kinney, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    A method of making vanadium oxide formulations is presented. In one method of preparing lithium vanadium oxide for use as an electrode material, the method involves: admixing a particulate form of a lithium compound and a particulate form of a vanadium compound; jet milling the particulate admixture of the lithium and vanadium compounds; and heating the jet milled particulate admixture at a temperature below the melting temperature of the admixture to form lithium vanadium oxide.

  5. Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt015_es_wise_2012_p.pdf (321.02 KB) More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production FY 2011

  6. Lithium based electrochemical cell systems having a degassing agent

    DOEpatents

    Hyung, Yoo-Eup; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    2012-05-01

    A lithium based electrochemical cell system includes a positive electrode; a negative electrode; an electrolyte; and a degassing agent.

  7. A Lithium Getter Pump System ---- nventors Richard Majeski, Eugene Kearns,

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    and John Schmitt | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Lithium Getter Pump System ---- nventors Richard Majeski, Eugene Kearns, and John Schmitt This invention is a device to pump volatile gases that bond to lithium in a high vacuum environment. Typically, a crust is formed on lithium getters under the high temperatures and vacuum conditions of fusion experiments. In this invention, electromagnetic stirring of the liquid metal prevents the formation of the crust. Without stirring, the lithium must

  8. Process for the production of lithium fluoride detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nink, R.

    1980-08-12

    A lithium fluoride detector for thermoluminescence dosimetry is produced by pulling a doped lithium fluoride monocrystal from the melt. Lithium fluoride powder with titanium added to it is used as starting material and oxygen is incorporated into the lithium fluoride crystal lattice during or after production of the crystal. If titanium dioxide is added to the starting material, the oxygen may be incorporated during production of the crystal by eliminating the oxygen from the titanium dioxide.

  9. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session

    Energy Saver

    Report | Department of Energy Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report Breakout session presentation for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Battery Workshop on July 26, 2012 held at the Doubletree OHare, Chicago, IL. report_out-beyond_lithium_ion_b.pdf (138.93 KB) More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere

  10. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials Processing and ...

  11. Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    More Documents & Publications Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial Behavior of Electrolytes Interfacial Behavior of Electrolytes Electrolytes - ...

  12. Sparingly Solvating Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research August 24, 2016, Videos Sparingly Solvating Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries As JCESR scientists work to develop lighter and less expensive chemistries than those used in current lithium-ion batteries, lithium-sulfur shows tremendous promise. However, current lithium-sulfur batteries require an excessive amount of electrolyte to achieve moderate cycle life. This perspective presents an alternate approach of

  13. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries Share Description Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. Speakers Khalil Amine Duration 2:34 Topic Energy Energy usage Energy storage Batteries Lithium-air batteries Programs Chemical sciences & engineering Electrochemical energy storage Video ID http://youtu.be/K-rO39scjUs

  14. Secondary electron emission from lithium and lithium compounds

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Capece, A. M.; Patino, M. I.; Raitses, Y.; Koel, B. E.

    2016-07-06

    In this work, measurements of electron-induced secondary electron emission ( SEE) yields of lithium as a function of composition are presented. The results are particularly relevant for magnetic fusion devices such as tokamaks, field-reversed configurations, and stellarators that consider Li as a plasma-facing material for improved plasma confinement. SEE can reduce the sheath potential at the wall and cool electrons at the plasma edge, resulting in large power losses. These effects become significant as the SEE coefficient, γe, approaches one, making it imperative to maintain a low yield surface. This work demonstrates that the yield from Li strongly depends onmore » chemical composition and substantially increases after exposure to oxygen and water vapor. The total yield was measured using a retarding field analyzer in ultrahigh vacuum for primary electron energies of 20-600 eV. The effect of Li composition was determined by introducing controlled amounts of O2 and H2O vapor while monitoring film composition with Auger electron spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption. The results show that the energy at which γe = 1 decreases with oxygen content and is 145 eV for a Li film that is 17% oxidized and drops to less than 25 eV for a fully oxidized film. This work has important implications for laboratory plasmas operating under realistic vacuum conditions in which oxidation significantly alters the electron emission properties of Li walls. Published by AIP Publishing.« less

  15. RECOVERY AND SEPARATION OF LITHIUM VALUES FROM SALVAGE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Hansford, D.L.; Raabe, E.W.

    1963-08-20

    Lithium values can be recovered from an aqueous basic solution by reacting the values with a phosphate salt soluble in the solution, forming an aqueous slurry of the resultant aqueous insoluble lithium phosphate, contacting the slurry with an organic cation exchange resin in the acid form until the slurry has been clarified, and thereafter recovering lithium values from the resin. (AEC)

  16. Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Facilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Facilities Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Facilities 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt020_es_coy_2012_p.pdf (1.72 MB) More Documents & Publications Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Facilities Recycling Hybrid and Elecectric Vehicle Batteries EA-1722: Final Environmental Assessment

  17. Reciprocal Lithium-ion Cell with Novel Lithium-Free Cathode and Pre-Lithiated Carbonaceus Anode

    SciTech Connect

    Ravdel, Boris

    2010-05-19

    Phase I of this program was focused mostly on the testing of pre-lithiated carbonaceous negative-electrode material as the source of the active lithium in lithium-ion cells coupled with "lithium-free" positive-electrode material. The secondary objective was na attempt to determine the ways of developing such as inexpense, stable, and environmentally benign "lithium-free" high-energy cathode material.

  18. CO{sub 2} capture properties of lithium silicates with different ratios of Li{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2}: an ab initio thermodynamic and experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Yuhua Duan, Yuhua; Pfeiffer, Heriberto; Li, Bingyun, Romero-Ibarra, Issis C; Sorescu, Dan C; Luebke, David; Halley, J Woods

    2013-06-05

    The lithium silicates have attracted scientific interest due to their potential use as high-temperature sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The electronic properties and thermodynamic stabilities of lithium silicates with different Li{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} ratios (Li{sub 2}O, Li{sub 8}SiO{sub 6}, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 6}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}, Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Li{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 7}, and a-SiO{sub 2}) have been investigated by combining first-principles density functional theory with lattice phonon dynamics. All these lithium silicates examined are insulators with band-gaps larger than 4.5 eV. By decreasing the Li{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} ratio, the first valence bandwidth of the corresponding lithium silicate increases. Additionally, by decreasing the Li{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} ratio, the vibrational frequencies of the corresponding lithium silicates shift to higher frequencies. Based on the calculated energetic information, their CO{sub 2} absorption capabilities were extensively analyzed through thermodynamic investigations on these absorption reactions. We found that by increasing the Li{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} ratio when going from Li{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 7} to Li{sub 8}SiO{sub 6}, the corresponding lithium silicates have higher CO{sub 2} capture capacity, higher turnover temperatures and heats of reaction, and require higher energy inputs for regeneration. Based on our experimentally measured isotherms of the CO{sub 2} chemisorption by lithium silicates, we found that the CO{sub 2} capture reactions are two-stage processes: (1) a superficial reaction to form the external shell composed of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and a metal oxide or lithium silicate secondary phase and (2) lithium diffusion from bulk to the surface with a simultaneous diffusion of CO{sub 2} into the shell to continue the CO{sub 2} chemisorption process. The second stage is the rate determining step for the capture process. By changing the mixing ratio of Li{sub 2}O and SiO{sub 2}, we

  19. A Stable Fluorinated and Alkylated Lithium Malonatoborate Salt for Lithium Ion Battery Application

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2015-01-01

    A new fluorinated and alkylated lithium malonatoborate salt, lithium bis(2-methyl-2-fluoromalonato)borate (LiBMFMB), has been synthesized for lithium ion battery application. A 0.8 M LiBMFMB solution is obtained in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2 by wt.). The new LiBMFMB based electrolyte exhibits good cycling stability and rate capability in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells.

  20. A Stable Fluorinated and Alkylated Lithium Malonatoborate Salt for Lithium Ion Battery Application

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Shun; Jiang, Xueguang; Guo, Bingkun; Dai, Sheng; Goodenough, John B.; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2015-04-27

    A new fluorinated and alkylated lithium malonatoborate salt, lithium bis(2-methyl-2-fluoromalonato)borate (LiBMFMB), has been synthesized for lithium ion battery application. A 0.8 M LiBMFMB solution is obtained in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2 by wt.). The new LiBMFMB based electrolyte exhibits good cycling stability and rate capability in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells.

  1. What is the valence of Mn in Ga1-xMnxN?

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Berlijn, Tom; Jarrell, Mark; Nelson, Ryky; Ku, Wei; Moreno, Juana

    2015-11-04

    Motivated by the potential high Curie temperature of Ga1-xMnxN, we investigate the controversial Mn valence in this diluted magnetic semiconductor. From a first-principles Wannier-function analysis of the high energy Hilbert space, we find unambiguously the Mn valence to be close to 2+(d5), but in a mixed spin configuration with average magnetic moments of 4µB. By integrating out high-energy degrees of freedom differently, we further demonstrate the feasibility of both effective d4 and d5 descriptions. These two descriptions offer simple pictures for local and extended properties of the system, and highlight the dual nature of its doped hole. Specifically, in themore » effective d5 description, we demonstrate novel physical effects absent in previous studies. Thus, our derivation highlights the richness of low-energy sectors in interacting many-body systems and the generic need for multiple effective descriptions.« less

  2. Self-trapped exciton and core-valence luminescence in BaF{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Vistovskyy, V. V. Zhyshkovych, A. V.; Chornodolskyy, Ya. M.; Voloshinovskii, A. S.; Myagkota, O. S.; Gloskovskii, A.; Gektin, A. V.; Vasil'ev, A. N.; Rodnyi, P. A.

    2013-11-21

    The influence of the BaF{sub 2} nanoparticle size on the intensity of the self-trapped exciton luminescence and the radiative core-valence transitions is studied by the luminescence spectroscopy methods using synchrotron radiation. The decrease of the self-trapped exciton emission intensity at energies of exciting photons in the range of optical exciton creation (hν ≤ E{sub g}) is less sensitive to the reduction of the nanoparticle sizes than in the case of band-to-band excitation, where excitons are formed by the recombination way. The intensity of the core-valence luminescence shows considerably weaker dependence on the nanoparticle sizes in comparison with the intensity of self-trapped exciton luminescence. The revealed regularities are explained by considering the relationship between nanoparticle size and photoelectron or photohole thermalization length as well as the size of electronic excitations.

  3. Applying Kβ Valence-to-Core X-ray Emission Spectroscopy to Cu(I) Binding

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Proteins with Relevance to Peptidylglycine Monooxygenase Reactivity | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Applying Kβ Valence-to-Core X-ray Emission Spectroscopy to Cu(I) Binding Proteins with Relevance to Peptidylglycine Monooxygenase Reactivity Thursday, June 30, 2016 Copper serves as a redox center in metalloproteins, often cycling between the +1 and +2 oxidation states. Oxidases, such as petidylglycine monooxygenase (PHM), bind oxygen at Cu(I) sites giving rise to "oxo"

  4. Enhanced lithium ion storage in nanoimprinted carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Li, Jiangyu; Xie, Shuhong; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2015-07-27

    Disordered carbons processed from polymers have much higher theoretical capacity as lithium ion battery anode than graphite, but they suffer from large irreversible capacity loss and have poor cyclic performance. Here, a simple process to obtain patterned carbon structure from polyvinylpyrrolidone was demonstrated, combining nanoimprint lithography for patterning and three-step heat treatment process for carbonization. The patterned carbon, without any additional binders or conductive fillers, shows remarkably improved cycling performance as Li-ion battery anode, twice as high as the theoretical value of graphite at 98 cycles. Localized electrochemical strain microscopy reveals the enhanced lithium ion activity at the nanoscale, and the control experiments suggest that the enhancement largely originates from the patterned structure, which improves surface reaction while it helps relieving the internal stress during lithium insertion and extraction. This study provides insight on fabricating patterned carbon architecture by rational design for enhanced electrochemical performance.

  5. Electrochemical Lithium Ion Battery Performance Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2007-03-29

    The Electrochemical Lithium Ion Battery Performance Model allows for the computer prediction of the basic thermal, electrical, and electrochemical performance of a lithium ion cell with simplified geometry. The model solves governing equations describing the movement of lithium ions within and between the negative and positive electrodes. The governing equations were first formulated by Fuller, Doyle, and Newman and published in J. Electrochemical Society in 1994. The present model solves the partial differential equations governingmore » charge transfer kinetics and charge, species, heat transports in a computationally-efficient manner using the finite volume method, with special consideration given for solving the model under conditions of applied current, voltage, power, and load resistance.« less

  6. Lithium-aluminum-magnesium electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Melendres, Carlos A.; Siegel, Stanley

    1978-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary, high-temperature electrochemical cell. The cell also includes a molten salt electrolyte of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides and a positive electrode including a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent and a magnesium-aluminum alloy as a structural matrix. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, magnesium, and aluminum are formed but the electrode composition in both its charged and discharged state remains substantially free of the alpha lithium-aluminum phase and exhibits good structural integrity.

  7. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOEpatents

    Coops, Melvin S.

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  8. Interchannel coupling effects in the valence photoionization of SF{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, J.; Lucchese, R. R.; Rescigno, T. N.

    2014-05-28

    The complex Kohn and polyatomic Schwinger variational techniques have been employed to illustrate the interchannel coupling correlation effects in the valence photoionization dynamics of SF{sub 6}. Partial photoionization cross sections and asymmetry parameters of six valence subshells (1t{sub 1g}, 5t{sub 1u}, 1t{sub 2u}, 3e{sub g}, 1t{sub 2g}, 4t{sub 1u}) are discussed in the framework of several theoretical and experimental studies. The complex Kohn results are in rather good agreement with experimental results, indicative of the fact that the interchannel coupling effects alter the photoionization dynamics significantly. We find that the dominant effect of interchannel coupling is to reduce the magnitude of shape resonant cross sections near the threshold and to induce resonant features in other channels to which resonances are coupled. The long-standing issue concerning ordering of the valence orbitals is addressed and confirmed 4t{sub 1u}{sup 6}1t{sub 2g}{sup 6}3e{sub g}{sup 4}(5t{sub 1u}{sup 6}+1t{sub 2u}{sup 6}) 1t{sub 1g}{sup 6} as the most likely ordering.

  9. Polymeric electrolytes for ambient temperature lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, G.C. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1991-07-01

    A new type of highly conductive Li{sup +} polymer electrolyte, referred to as the Innovision polymer electrolyte, is completely amorphous at room temperature and has an ionic conductivity in the range of 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm. This report discusses the electrochemical characteristics (lithium oxidation and reduction), conductivity, and physical properties of Innovision electrolytes containing various dissolved salts. These electrolytes are particularly interesting since they appear to have some of the highest room-temperature lithium ion conductivities yet observed among polymer electrolytes. 13 refs. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen; Xu, Wu

    2008-01-01

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  11. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Tempe, AZ

    2009-05-05

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  12. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2001-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte containing poly(ethylene oxide), lithium tetrafluoroborate and titanium dioxide is provided in the form of an annealed film having a room temperature conductivity of from 10.sup.-5 S cm.sup.-1 to 10.sup.-3 S cm.sup.-1 and an activation energy of about 0.5 eV.

  13. Lithium Surface Coatings for Improved Plasma Performance in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H W; Ahn, J -W; Allain, J P; Bell, R; Boedo, J; Bush, C; Gates, D; Gray, T; Kaye, S; Kaita, R; LeBlanc, B; Maingi, R; Majeski, R; Mansfield, D; Menard, J; Mueller, D; Ono, M; Paul, S; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Ross, P W; Sabbagh, S; Schneider, H; Skinner, C H; Soukhanovskii, V; Stevenson, T; Timberlake, J; Wampler, W R

    2008-02-19

    NSTX high-power divertor plasma experiments have shown, for the first time, significant and frequent benefits from lithium coatings applied to plasma facing components. Lithium pellet injection on NSTX introduced lithium pellets with masses 1 to 5 mg via He discharges. Lithium coatings have also been applied with an oven that directed a collimated stream of lithium vapor toward the graphite tiles of the lower center stack and divertor. Lithium depositions from a few mg to 1 g have been applied between discharges. Benefits from the lithium coating were sometimes, but not always seen. These improvements sometimes included decreases plasma density, inductive flux consumption, and ELM frequency, and increases in electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement and periods of MHD quiescence. In addition, reductions in lower divertor D, C, and O luminosity were measured.

  14. Lithium pellet production (LiPP): A device for the production of small spheres of lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Fiflis, P.; Andrucyzk, D.; McGuire, M.; Curreli, D.; Ruzic, D. N.; Roquemore, A. L.

    2013-06-15

    With lithium as a fusion material gaining popularity, a method for producing lithium pellets relatively quickly has been developed for NSTX. The Lithium Pellet Production device is based on an injector with a sub-millimeter diameter orifice and relies on a jet of liquid lithium breaking apart into small spheres via the Plateau-Rayleigh instability. A prototype device is presented in this paper and for a pressure difference of {Delta}P= 5 Torr, spheres with diameters between 0.91 < D < 1.37 mm have been produced with an average diameter of D= 1.14 mm, which agrees with the developed theory. Successive tests performed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory with Wood's metal have confirmed the dependence of sphere diameter on pressure difference as predicted.

  15. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and ...

  16. Lithium Polysulfidophosphates: A Family of Lithium-Conducting Sulfur-Rich Compounds for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhan; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wujun; Dudney, Nancy J; Liang, Chengdu

    2013-01-01

    Given the great potential for improving the energy density of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries by a factor of 5, a breakthrough in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries will have a dramatic impact in a broad scope of energy related fields. Conventional Li-S batteries that use liquid electrolytes are intrinsically short-lived with low energy efficiency. The challenges stem from the poor electronic and ionic conductivities of elemental sulfur and its discharge products. We report herein lithium polysulfidophosphates (LPSP), a family of sulfur-rich compounds, as the enabler of long-lasting and energy-efficient Li-S batteries. LPSP have ionic conductivities of 3.0 10-5 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 8 orders of magnitude higher than that of Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high Li-ion conductivity of LPSP is the salient characteristic of these compounds that impart the excellent cycling performance to Li-S batteries. In addition, the batteries are configured in an all-solid state that promises the safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

  17. Pulsed deuterium lithium nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, A.G.

    1980-01-08

    A nuclear reactor that burns hydrogen bomb material 6-lithium deuterotritide to helium in successive microexplosions which are ignited electrically and enclosed by this same molten material, and that permits the conversion of the reaction heat into useful electrical power. A specially-constructed high-current pulse machine is discharged via a thermally-preformed highly conducting path through a mass of the molten salt 6lid1-xtx (0

  18. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz,John; Newman, John

    2005-09-29

    We have investigated possible anticipated advantages of ionic-liquid electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries. Thermal stabilities and phase behavior were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazoliumTFSI systems, pyrrolidiniumTFSI, BMIMPF{sub 6}, BMIMBF{sub 4}, and BMIMTf. Thermal stabilities were measured for neat ionic liquids and for BMIMBF{sub 4}-LiBF{sub 4}, BMIMTf-LiTf, BMIMTFSI-LiTFSI mixtures. Conductivities have been measured for various ionic-liquid lithium-salt systems. We show the development of interfacial impedance in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell and we report results from cycling experiments for a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + 1 mol/kg LIBF{sub 4}|C cell. The interfacial resistance increases with time and the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode. As expected, imidazolium-based ionic liquids react with lithium electrodes. We seek new ionic liquids that have better chemical stabilities.

  19. Electrothermal Analysis of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Vlahinos, A.; Bharathan, D.; Duong, T.

    2006-03-01

    This report presents the electrothermal analysis and testing of lithium ion battery performance. The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop an electrothermal process/model for predicting thermal performance of real battery cells and modules; and (2) use the electrothermal model to evaluate various designs to improve battery thermal performance.

  20. Rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.; Yu, X.

    1993-09-01

    Rechargeable thin-film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. These include Li-TiS{sub 2}, Li-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li-Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The realization of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46}and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The thin-film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 5 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. Over most of the charge-discharge range, the internal resistance appears to be dominated by the cathode, and the major source of the resistance is the diffusion of Li{sup +} ions from the electrolyte into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients were determined from ac impedance measurements.

  1. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, X.

    1993-11-01

    Rechargeable thin films batteries with lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. The cathodes include TiS{sub 2}, the {omega} phase of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the cubic spinel Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The development of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. Thin film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 2 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. The polarization resistance of the cells is due to the slow insertion rate of Li{sup +} ions into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients for Li{sup +} ions in the three types of cathodes have been estimated from the analysis of ac impedance measurements.

  2. Implications of NSTX Lithium Results for Magnetic Fusion Research

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ono, M.G. Bell, R.E. Bell, R. Kaita, H.W. Kugel, B.P. LeBlanc, J.M. Canik, S. Diem, S.P.. Gerhardt, J. Hosea, S. Kaye, D. Mansfield, R. Maingi, J. Menard, S. F. Paul, R. Raman, S.A. Sabbagh, C.H. Skinner, V. Soukhanovskii, G. Taylor, and the NSTX Research Team

    2010-01-14

    Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on NSTX for the last five years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to ~ 100 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between lithium reloadings. The unique feature of the lithium research program on NSTX is that it can investigate the effects of lithium in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system thus far has produced many intriguing and potentially important results; the latest of these are summarized in a companion paper by H. Kugel. In this paper, we suggest possible implications and applications of the NSTX lithium results on the magnetic fusion research which include electron and global energy confinement improvements, MHD stability enhancement at high beta, ELM control, H-mode power threshold reduction, improvements in radio frequency heating and non-inductive plasma start-up performance, innovative divertor solutions and improved operational efficiency.

  3. Growth, defect structure, and THz application of stoichiometric lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Lengyel, K.; Péter, Á.; Kovács, L.; Corradi, G.; Dravecz, G.; Hajdara, I.; Szaller, Zs.; Polgár, K.; Pálfalvi, L.; Unferdorben, M.; Hebling, J.

    2015-12-15

    Owing to the extraordinary richness of its physical properties, congruent lithium niobate has attracted multidecade-long interest both for fundamental science and applications. The combination of ferro-, pyro-, and piezoelectric properties with large electro-optic, acousto-optic, and photoelastic coefficients as well as the strong photorefractive and photovoltaic effects offers a great potential for applications in modern optics. To provide powerful optical components in high energy laser applications, tailoring of key material parameters, especially stoichiometry, is required. This paper reviews the state of the art of growing large stoichiometric LiNbO{sub 3} (sLN) crystals, in particular, the defect engineering of pure and doped sLN with emphasis on optical damage resistant (ODR) dopants (e.g., Mg, Zn, In, Sc, Hf, Zr, Sn). The discussion is focused on crystals grown by the high temperature top seeded solution growth (HTTSSG) technique using alkali oxide fluxing agents. Based on high-temperature phase equilibria studies of the Li{sub 2}O–Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}–X{sub 2}O ternary systems (X = Na, K, Rb, Cs), the impact of alkali homologue additives on the stoichiometry of the lithium niobate phase will be analyzed, together with a summary of the ultraviolet, infrared, and far-infrared absorption spectroscopic methods developed to characterize the composition of the crystals. It will be shown that using HTTSSG from K{sub 2}O containing flux, crystals closest to the stoichiometric composition can be grown characterized by a UV-edge position of at about 302 nm and a single narrow hydroxyl band in the IR with a linewidth of less than 3 cm{sup −1} at 300 K. The threshold concentrations for ODR dopants depend on crystal stoichiometry and the valence of the dopants; Raman spectra, hydroxyl vibration spectra, and Z-scan measurements prove to be useful to distinguish crystals below and above the photorefractive threshold. Crystals just above the threshold are

  4. Better Lithium-Ion Batteries Are On The Way From Berkeley Lab

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-Ion Batteries A Better Lithium-ion Battery on the Way Simulations Reveal How New Polymer Absorbs Eight Times the Lithium of Current Designs September 23, 2011 Paul Preuss,...

  5. Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, David O.

    1998-01-01

    An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures.

  6. Beyond Lithium-Ion Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    7, 2014, Videos Beyond Lithium-Ion Batteries beyond_lithium_ion_batteris_audio JCESR Director George Crabtree and Deputy Director Jeff Chamberlain discuss how JCESR will go beyond lithium ion batteries in this audio podcast

  7. Experimental study of the valence band of Bi2Se3

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Gao, Yi-Bin; He, Bin; Parker, David; Androulakis, Ioannis; Heremans, Joseph P.

    2014-09-26

    The valence band of Bi2Se3 is investigated with Shubnikov - de Haas measurements, galvanomagnetic and thermoelectric transport. At low hole concentration, the hole Fermi surface is closed and box-like, but at higher concentrations it develops tube-like extensions that are open. The experimentally determined density-of-states effective mass is lighter than density-functional theory calculations predict; while we cannot give a definitive explanation for this, we suspect that the theory may lack sufficient precision to compute room-temperature transport properties, such as the Seebeck coefficient, in solids in which there are Van der Waals interlayer bonds.

  8. Modeling the Performance and Cost of Lithium-Ion Batteries for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. ... calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ionbattery manufacturing process. ...

  9. Automotive Lithium-ion Battery Supply Chain and U.S. Competitiveness...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Automotive Lithium-ion Battery Supply Chain and U.S. Competitiveness Considerations Automotive Lithium-ion Battery Supply Chain and U.S. Competitiveness Considerations This Clean ...

  10. Model for the Fabrication of Tailored Materials for Lithium-Ion...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Model for the Fabrication of Tailored Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: Safe, stable and high-capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries ...

  11. High Conductivity Single-ion Cross-linked Polymers for Lithium...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    High Conductivity Single-ion Cross-linked Polymers for Lithium Batteries and Fuel Cells ... for use as membranes in lithium batteries, fuel cells, and electrochromic windows. ...

  12. Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Vehicle Technologies ...

  13. Non-Cross-Linked Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Non-Cross-Linked Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence Berkeley ... have invented nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries. ...

  14. Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Protection of Li Anodes ...

  15. Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies ...

  16. Direct Evidence of Lithium-Induced Atomic Ordering in Amorphous TiO2 Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Qi; Gu, Meng; Nie, Anmin; Mashayek, Farzad; Wang, Chong M.; Odegard, Gregory M.; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza

    2014-01-27

    In this paper, we report the first direct chemical and imaging evidence of lithium-induced atomic ordering in amorphous TiO2 nanomaterials and propose new reaction mechanisms that contradict the many works in the published literature on the lithiation behavior of these materials. The lithiation process was conducted in situ inside an atomic resolution transmission electron microscope. Our results indicate that the lithiation started with the valence reduction of Ti4+ to Ti3+ leading to a LixTiO2 intercalation compound. The continued intercalation of Li ions in TiO2 nanotubes triggered an amorphous to crystalline phase transformation. The crystals were formed as nano-islands and identified to be Li2Ti2O4 with cubic structure (a = 8.375 ). The tendency for the formation of these crystals was verified with density functional theory (DFT) simulations. The size of the crystalline islands provides a characteristic length scale (?5 nm) at which the atomic bonding configuration has been changed within a short time period. This phase transformation is associated with local inhomogeneities in Li distribution. On the basis of these observations, a new reaction mechanism is proposed to explain the first cycle lithiation behavior in amorphous TiO2 nanotubes.

  17. Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations Review of Oak Ridge process and QC activities by David Wood, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, at the EERE QC Workshop held December 9-10, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations (1.1 MB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Roll-to-Roll

  18. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Daniel, Claus

    2013-05-28

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  19. Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Separator | Department of Energy Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt009_es_rumierz_2012_p.pdf (745.7 KB) More Documents & Publications Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator Celgard US

  20. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Saver

    Breakout Session Report | Department of Energy Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report Breakout session presentation for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Battery Workshop on July 26, 2012 held at the Doubletree OHare, Chicago, IL. report_out-next-generation_li-ion_b.pdf (136.48 KB) More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion

  1. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Daniel, Claus

    2015-11-19

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  2. Lithium: Measurement of Young's Modulus and Yield Strength

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan P Schultz

    2002-11-07

    The Lithium Collection Lens is used for anti-proton collection. In analyzing the structural behavior during operation, various material properties of lithium are often needed. properties such as density, coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, specific heat, compressability, etc.; are well known. However, to the authors knowledge there is only one published source for Young's Modulus. This paper reviews the results from the testing of Young's Modulus and the yield strength of lithium at room temperature.

  3. Overcharge Protection Prevents Exploding Lithium Ion Batteries - Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Overcharge Protection Prevents Exploding Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Berkeley Lab scientists Guoying Chen and Thomas J. Richardson have invented a new type of separator membrane that prevents dangerous overcharge and overdischarge conditions in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, i.e., exploding lithium ion batteries. This low cost separator, with electroactive polymers

  4. Electrical Detector for Liquid Lithium Leaks Around Demountable Pipe Joints

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Electrical Detector for Liquid Lithium Leaks Around Demountable Pipe Joints This system is designed to detect leaks of liquid lithium from around demountable pipe joints. Demountable pipe joints such as vacuum fittings are likely spots for a leak in any system transporting fluids. Since liquid lithium reacts with air, water, concrete and other common materials, it is important to quickly detect a leak. The system will partially contain the leak and is designed

  5. Intermetallic Electrodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium-Ion

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries | Argonne National Laboratory Intermetallic Electrodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: A new class of intermetallic material that can be used as a negative electrode for nonaqueous lithium electrochemical cells and batteries Enhances stability at a reduced cost. Materials operate by lithium insertion, metal displacement reactions, or both. Materials have higher volumetric and gravimetric capacity, and improve battery

  6. Helium Pumping Wall for a Liquid Lithium Tokamak Richard Majeski |

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Helium Pumping Wall for a Liquid Lithium Tokamak Richard Majeski This invention is designed to be a subsystem of a device, a tokamak with walls or plasma facing components of liquid lithium. This approach to constructing the lithium-bearing walls of the tokamak allows the wall to fulfill a necessary function -- helium pumping - for which a complex structure was formerly required. The primary novel feature of the invention is that a permeable wall is used to

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Daikin Advanced Lithium Ion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Battery Technology - High Voltage Electrolyte | Department of Energy Daikin Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technology - High Voltage Electrolyte Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Daikin Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technology - High Voltage Electrolyte Presentation given by Daikin America at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Daikin advanced lithium ion battery technology - high

  8. Vertically Integrated Mass Production of Automotive Class Lithium Ion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Batteries | Department of Energy Vertically Integrated Mass Production of Automotive Class Lithium Ion Batteries Vertically Integrated Mass Production of Automotive Class Lithium Ion Batteries 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt018_es_alvarez_2012_p.pdf (244.54 KB) More Documents & Publications Vertically Integrated Mass Production of Automotive Class Lithium Ion Batteries Vertically Integrated

  9. A new class of electrochemically and thermally stable lithium salts for lithium battery electrolytes. 3: Synthesis and properties of some lithium organoborates

    SciTech Connect

    Barthel, J.; Buestrich, R.; Carl, E.; Gores, H.J.

    1996-11-01

    Synthesis, analysis, and purification of new lithium salts for lithium batteries, lithium bis[tetrafluoro-1,2-benzene-diolato(2-)-O,O{prime}]borate and lithium bis[2,3-naphthalenediolato(2-)-O,O{prime}]borate are described, and the results of electrochemical studies of these salts and of lithium bis[3-fluoro-1,2-benzenediolato(2-)-O,O{prime}]borate, in propylene carbonate are reported. The effect of the electron-withdrawing substituent fluorine results in an increase of the electrochemical window by 0.1 V/fluorine per one chelate ligand. The slope, which can be calculated from the linear correlation of the highest occupied molecular orbital energies with anodic oxidation potentials is {minus}3.0 eV/V, a value equal to that known for aryl borates and fluoroaryl borates.

  10. Li K-Edge XANES Spectra of Lithium Niobate and Lithium Tantalite

    SciTech Connect

    Mizota, H.; Ito, Y.; Tochio, T.; Handa, K.; Takekawa, S.; Kitamura, K.

    2007-02-02

    The x-ray emission with the single crystal of lithium niobate (LiNbO3) or lithium tantalite (LiTaO3) by thermal changes in a vacuum system is closely concerned with the electronic state of each crystal. Therefore, lithium K-edge x-ray absorption near edge structures (XANES) spectra of these materials were measured in the region from 50 eV to 90 eV by means of total electron yield method (T.E.Y.), using the extremely soft x-ray. Samples were powder of lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) and single crystal of lithium fluoride (LiF), LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 in order to compare the shapes of these XANES spectra. Various peak structures appear in these spectra in the range from 55 eV to 80 eV and each spectrum has different shapes as a result of the difference of bond length and bond angles for the atoms which are in less than 60 nm from the absorbing atom. The relationship between these spectra and the electronic states was discussed by FEFF 8.

  11. METHOD FOR PRODUCING ISOTOPIC METHANES FROM LITHIUM CARBONATE AND LITHIUM HYDRIDE

    DOEpatents

    Frazer, J.W.

    1959-10-27

    A process is descrlbed for the production of methane and for the production of methane containing isotopes of hydrogen and/or carbon. Finely divided lithium hydrlde and litldum carbonate reactants are mixed in intimate contact and subsequently compacted under pressures of from 5000 to 60,000 psl. The compacted lithium hydride and lithium carbenate reactunts are dispised in a gas collecting apparatus. Subsequently, the compact is heated to a temperature in the range 350 to 400 deg C whereupon a solid-solid reaction takes place and gaseous methane is evolved. The evolved methane is contaminated with gaseous hydrogen and a very small amount of CO/sub 2/; however, the desired methane product is separated from sald impurities by well known chemical processes, e.g., condensation in a cold trap. The product methane contalns isotopes of carbon and hydrogen, the Isotopic composition being determined by the carbon isotopes originally present In the lithium carbonate and the hydrogen isotopes originally present in the lithium hydride.

  12. Intermetallic Electrodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Intermetallic Electrodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: A new class of intermetallic material that can be used as a ...

  13. Final Progress Report for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties Henderson, Wesley 25 ENERGY STORAGE battery, electrolyte, solvation, ionic association battery, electrolyte,...

  14. Solid Lithium Ion Conducting Electrolytes Suitable for Manufacturing...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryThe lithium ion battery found in electronics like cell phones uses liquid electrolytes ...

  15. Analysis of Molecular Clusters in Simulations of Lithium-Ion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Analysis of Molecular Clusters in Simulations of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analysis of Molecular Clusters in ...

  16. Inward Lithium-Ion Breathing of Hierarchically Porous Silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithium ion battery assembled with this new nanoporous material exhibits high capacity, high power, long cycle life and high coulombic efficiency, which is superior to the current ...

  17. Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries (Patent)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries Title: ... A laminated structure may be prepared from the tape and sintered to produce a porous ...

  18. Negative Electrodes Improve Safety in Lithium Cells and Batteries...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Negative Electrodes Improve Safety in Lithium Cells and Batteries Technology available for licensing: Enhanced stability at a lower cost Lowers cost for enhanced stability ...

  19. Granular Lithium Injector --- Inventor(s) Lane Roquemore and...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Granular Lithium Injector --- Inventor(s) Lane Roquemore and Dennis Mansfield This invention utilizes a rotating impeller operating at up to 15000 rpm to inject spherical particles ...

  20. Examining Hysteresis in Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Composite...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Understanding Structural Changes in LMR-NMC Materials Thermodynamic Investigations of Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Transition Metal Oxides

  1. Insertion of lithium into electrochromic devices after completion

    SciTech Connect

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Frey, Jonathan Mack; Barrett, Kathryn Suzanne; DuPont, Paul Damon; Schaller, Ronald William

    2015-12-22

    The present disclosure describes methods of inserting lithium into an electrochromic device after completion. In the disclosed methods, an ideal amount of lithium can be added post-fabrication to maximize or tailor the free lithium ion density of a layer or the coloration range of a device. Embodiments are directed towards a method to insert lithium into the main device layers of an electrochromic device as a post-processing step after the device has been manufactured. In an embodiment, the methods described are designed to maximize the coloration range while compensating for blind charge loss.

  2. Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium...

    Energy Saver

    Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program ...

  3. Lithium In Tufas Of The Great Basin- Exploration Implications...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    In Tufas Of The Great Basin- Exploration Implications For Geothermal Energy And Lithium Resources Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference...

  4. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Our way of life is deeply intertwined with battery technologies that have enabled a mobile revolution powering cell...

  5. EERE Success Story-Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Pennsylvania: Porous Power Technologies Improves Lithium Ion Battery, Wins R&D 100 Award Project Overview Positive Impact EERE-supported graphene nanostructures increases ...

  6. Development of High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles FY 2011 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage ...

  7. Nanoscale Imaging of Lithium Ion Distribution During In Situ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale Imaging of Lithium Ion Distribution ... energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), hydrogen and fuel ...

  8. Approaches to Evaluating and Improving Lithium-Ion Battery Safety...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Approaches to Evaluating and Improving Lithium-Ion Battery Safety. Citation ... presentation at the Advanced Automotive Batteries Conference held February 4-8, 2013 in ...

  9. Additional capacities seen in metal oxide lithium-ion battery...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional capacities seen in metal oxide lithium-ion battery electrodes Citation Details ... Language: English Subject: energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), defects, ...

  10. Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated directly on flexible substrates for high power solid-state batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fast ...

  11. How Voltage Drops are Manifested by Lithium Ion Configurations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: How Voltage Drops are Manifested by Lithium Ion Configurations at Interfaces and in ... Subject: bio-inspired, energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), defects, ...

  12. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Although reducing chemical reactivity is the primary motivation for the development of new lithium alloys, the successful candidates will have to guarantee acceptable performance ...

  13. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Our way of life is deeply intertwined with battery technologies that have enabled a mobile revolution powering cell ...

  14. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report Breakout session presentation for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Battery Workshop on July 26, 2012 ...

  15. Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Mitigating Performance Degradation of High-Energy Lithium-Ion Cells Diagnostic studies on Li-battery cells and cell components Cell Fabrication Facility Team Production and ...

  16. Surface-Modified Copper Current Collector for Lithium Ion Battery...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Copper Current Collector for Lithium Ion Battery Anode Lawrence Berkeley National ... swelling during charge recharge operations and a major cause of shortened battery life. ...

  17. Lithium Ion Solvation and Intercalation at Anode-Electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Interface from First Principles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium Ion Solvation and Intercalation at Anode-Electrolyte Interface from First ...

  18. Lithium Ion Solvation and Intercalation at Anode-Electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Lithium Ion Solvation and Intercalation at Anode-Electrolyte Interface from First Principles Authors: Ong, M T ; Lordi, V ; Draeger, E W ; Pask, J E Publication Date: ...

  19. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles and Classical Reactive Molecular Dynamics Authors: Ong, M T ; Verners, O ; Draeger, E ...

  20. Physicist Tyler Abrams models lithium erosion in tokamaks | Princeton...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    particles from eroding the protective lithium coating. Physicist Tyler Abrams has led experiments on a facility in the Netherlands called Magnum-PSI that could provide an answer. ...

  1. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... this composite anode exhibits the best performance so far in lithium-ion batteries, while retaining an economical cost and compatibility with existing manufacturing ...

  2. Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    More Documents & Publications Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office: 2009 Energy Storage R&D Annual Progress...

  3. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles Molecular Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic ...

  4. Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review ...

  5. Thermodynamic Investigations of Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Transition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Thermodynamic Investigations of Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Transition Metal Oxides 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review ...

  6. Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries - Energy Innovation Portal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries DOE Grant Recipients Arizona ... the need for high-output, long-lasting rechargeable batteries has grown tremendously. ...

  7. Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries > Research...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs High Performance ...

  8. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries - Joint Center...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    March 3, 2014, Research Highlights Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries (a) ... Li metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries beyond Li ion The review ...

  9. Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    More Documents & Publications Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries High Energy Novel Cathode Alloy Automotive Cell Develop & evaluate materials & ...

  10. Following the Transient Reactions in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Following the Transient Reactions in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Using an In Situ Nuclear ... cell electrochemical reactions in Li-S batteries using a microbattery design Interphase ...

  11. Flexible Thin Film Solid State Lithium Ion Batteries - Energy...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Flexible Thin Film Solid State Lithium Ion Batteries National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Batteries are ...

  12. Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries - Joint Center...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Recent developments on the protection of the Li metal anode in Li-S batteries are reviewed. Scientific Achievement Recent ...

  13. Surface Modification Agents for Lithium-Ion Batteries | Argonne...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Modification Agents for Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: ... and security of batteries Substantially reduces power fade and potential for explosions. ...

  14. Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Electrolytes - Interfacial and Bulk Properties and Stability Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial Behavior of Electrolytes Interfacial Behavior of ...

  15. Excellent Stability of a Lithium-Ion-Conducting Solid Electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Excellent Stability of a Lithium-Ion-Conducting Solid Electrolyte upon Reversible Li+H+ Exchange in Aqueous Solutions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Excellent ...

  16. Sol-gel synthesis of nanocomposite materials based on lithium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    With the final goal to obtain thin films containing stoichiometric lithium niobate ... Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of Solid State Chemistry; Journal Volume: 182; ...

  17. Edge Turbulence Velocity Changes with Lithium Coating on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, A.; Zweben, S. J.; Stotler, D. P.; Bell, M.; Diallo, A.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B.

    2012-08-10

    Lithium coating improves energy confinement and eliminates edge localized modes in NSTX, but the mechanism of this improvement is not yet well understood. We used the gas-puff-imaging (GPI) diagnostic on NSTX to measure the changes in edge turbulence which occurred during a scan with variable lithium wall coating, in order to help understand the reason for the confinement improvement with lithium. There was a small increase in the edge turbulence poloidal velocity and a decrease in the poloidal velocity fluctuation level with increased lithium. The possible effect of varying edge neutral density on turbulence damping was evaluated for these cases in NSTX. __________________________________________________

  18. Researchers Create Transparent Lithium-Ion Battery - Joint Center...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Stanford and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory researchers have invented a transparent lithium-ion battery that is also highly flexible. It is comparable in cost to regular ...

  19. The electronic characterization of biphenylene—Experimental and theoretical insights from core and valence level spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lüder, Johann; Sanyal, Biplab; Eriksson, Olle; Brena, Barbara; Puglia, Carla; Simone, Monica de; Totani, Roberta; Coreno, Marcello; Grazioli, Cesare

    2015-02-21

    In this paper, we provide detailed insights into the electronic structure of the gas phase biphenylene molecule through core and valence spectroscopy. By comparing results of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements with ΔSCF core-hole calculations in the framework of Density Functional Theory (DFT), we could decompose the characteristic contributions to the total spectra and assign them to non-equivalent carbon atoms. As a difference with similar molecules like biphenyl and naphthalene, an influence of the localized orbitals on the relative XPS shifts was found. The valence spectrum probed by photoelectron spectroscopy at a photon energy of 50 eV in conjunction with hybrid DFT calculations revealed the effects of the localization on the electronic states. Using the transition potential approach to simulate the X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements, similar contributions from the non-equivalent carbon atoms were determined from the total spectrum, for which the slightly shifted individual components can explain the observed asymmetric features.

  20. Manganese valence and coordination structure in Mn,Mg-codoped {gamma}-AlON green phosphor

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Takashi; Xie, Rong-Jun; Hirosaki, Naoto; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Honma, Tetuso

    2012-10-15

    The valence and coordination structure of manganese in a Mn,Mg-codoped {gamma}-AlON spinel-type oxynitride green phosphor were studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and absorption fine structure measurements. The absorption edge position of the XANES revealed the bivalency of Mn. Two cation sites are available in the spinel structure for cation doping: a tetrahedral site and an octahedral site. The pre-edge of the XANES and the distance to the nearest neighbor atoms obtained from the EXAFS measurement showed that Mn was situated at the tetrahedral site. Rietveld analysis showed that the vacancy occupied the octahedral site. The preferential occupation of the tetrahedral site by Mn and the roles of N and Mg are discussed in relation to the spinel crystal structure. - Graphical Abstract: Fourier transform of EXAFS of Mn K-edge for Mn,Mg-codoped green phosphor and Mn coordination structure. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn, Mg-codoped {gamma}-AlON green phosphor for white LED. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The valence of Mn is divalent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn occupies the tetrahedral site in the spinel structure.

  1. Structural and valence state of iron ions in sodium-aluminum-phosphate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Vashman, A.A.; Pronin, I.S.; Samsonov, V.E.; Filin, V.M.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the structural and valence state of iron ions in sodium-aluminum-phosphate glass for the application of liquid radioactive waste solidification. Electron paramagnetic resonance, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonances were used to conduct the study. Results were used to determine the characteristics of the occupancy and distribution of iron ions over tetra- and octahedral positions as a function of the ratio of the concentration of iron and aluminum oxides, to determine the concentration of Fe{sup 3}{sup +} and Fe{sup 2}{sup +} ions and the number of phosphorus and aluminum atoms in the nearest neighbor environment of the impurity iron ions, and estimate the effect of the concentration of aluminum oxide on the average distance between the phosphorus atoms in the glass. Results indicate that it must be assumed that tetrahedral glass-forming positions of ions are more stable than octahedral positions. Therefore, the long-term fixation of iron ions in sodium-aluminum-phosphate glasses will be more reliable with lower iron-aluminum ratios. These results will apparently extend to radioactive ions due to similar valence properties. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. CVD-Based Valence-Mending Passivation for Crystalline-Si Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Meng

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate a new surface passivation technique, valence-mending passivation, for its applications in crystalline-Si solar cells to achieve significant efficiency improvement and cost reduction. As the enabling technique, the project includes the development of chemical vapor deposition recipes to passivate textured Si(100) and multicrystalline-Si surfaces by sulfur and the characterization of the passivated Si surfaces, including thermal stability, Schottky barrier height, contact resistance and surface recombination. One important application is to replace the Ag finger electrode in Si cells with Al to reduce cost, by ~$0.1/Wp, and allow terawatt-scale deployment of crystalline-Si solar cells. These all-Al Si cells require a low-temperature metallization process for the Al electrode, to be compatible with valence-mending passivation and to prevent Al diffusion into n-type Si. Another application is to explore valence-mending passivation of grain boundaries in multicrystalline Si by diffusing sulfur into grain boundaries, to reduce the efficiency gas between monocrystalline-Si solar cells and multicrystalline-Si cells. The major accomplishments of this project include: 1) Demonstration of chemical vapor deposition processes for valence-mending passivation of both monocrystalline Si(100) and multicrystalline Si surfaces. Record Schottky barriers have been demonstrated, with the new record-low barrier of less than 0.08 eV between Al and sulfur-passivated n-type Si(100) and the new record-high barrier of 1.14 eV between Al and sulfur-passivated p-type Si(100). On the textured p-type monocrystalline Si(100) surface, the highest barrier with Al is 0.85 eV by valence-mending passivation. 2) Demonstration of a low-temperature metallization process for Al in crystalline-Si solar cells. The new metallization process is based on electroplating of Al in a room-temperature ionic liquid. The resistivity of the electroplated Al is ~7×10–6

  3. Solid polymeric electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles A.; Xu, Wu; Sun, Xiaoguang

    2006-03-14

    Novel conductive polyanionic polymers and methods for their preparion are provided. The polyanionic polymers comprise repeating units of weakly-coordinating anionic groups chemically linked to polymer chains. The polymer chains in turn comprise repeating spacer groups. Spacer groups can be chosen to be of length and structure to impart desired electrochemical and physical properties to the polymers. Preferred embodiments are prepared from precursor polymers comprising the Lewis acid borate tri-coordinated to a selected ligand and repeating spacer groups to form repeating polymer chain units. These precursor polymers are reacted with a chosen Lewis base to form a polyanionic polymer comprising weakly coordinating anionic groups spaced at chosen intervals along the polymer chain. The polyanionic polymers exhibit high conductivity and physical properties which make them suitable as solid polymeric electrolytes in lithium batteries, especially secondary lithium batteries.

  4. Lithium-Air and ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Kellar, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The final portion of this project was accomplished at Sandia National Labs, Livermore, with the overall goal being to optimize lithium-air cells with an ionic liquid electrolyte. Both of these are potential future routes for lithium-ion technology. Lithiumair presents the advantage of higher gravimetric energy density, and ionic liquids present the advantage of greater hydrophobicity and much lower volatility, along with a larger window of electrochemical stability. Ionic liquids however have several drawbacks for the battery industry. Currently they are not as cost effective as many organic solvents. Additionally, because of the added viscosity of ionic interactions compared to the typical dipole interactions of a solvent, the ionic conductivity is lower than for common organic solvents.

  5. Manganese oxide composite electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Christopher S.; Kang, Sun-Ho; Thackeray, Michael M.

    2009-12-22

    An activated electrode for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell is disclosed with a precursor thereof a lithium metal oxide with the formula xLi.sub.2MnO.sub.3.(1-x)LiMn.sub.2-yM.sub.yO.sub.4 for 0.5lithium and lithia, from the precursor. A cell and battery are also disclosed incorporating the disclosed positive electrode.

  6. Manganese oxide composite electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Li, Naichao (Croton on Hudson, NY)

    2007-12-04

    An activated electrode for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell is disclosed with a precursor of a lithium metal oxide with the formula xLi.sub.2MnO.sub.3.(1-x)LiMn.sub.2-yM.sub.yO.sub.4 for 0lithium and lithia, from the precursor. A cell and battery are also disclosed incorporating the disclosed positive electrode.

  7. Conductive polymeric compositions for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles A.; Xu, Wu

    2009-03-17

    Novel chain polymers comprising weakly basic anionic moieties chemically bound into a polyether backbone at controllable anionic separations are presented. Preferred polymers comprise orthoborate anions capped with dibasic acid residues, preferably oxalato or malonato acid residues. The conductivity of these polymers is found to be high relative to that of most conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes. The conductivity at high temperatures and wide electrochemical window make these materials especially suitable as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  8. Lithium-Polysulfide Flow Battery Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Wesley

    2014-06-30

    In this video, Stanford graduate student Wesley Zheng demonstrates the new low-cost, long-lived flow battery he helped create. The researchers created this miniature system using simple glassware. Adding a lithium polysulfide solution to the flask immediately produces electricity that lights an LED. A utility version of the new battery would be scaled up to store many megawatt-hours of energy.

  9. Lithium Air Electrodes - Energy Innovation Portal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Air Electrodes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contact PNNL About This Technology A comparison chart illustrates that Li-Air electrodes offer the highest energy density, second to gasoline. A comparison chart illustrates that Li-Air electrodes offer the highest energy density, second to gasoline. Comparing metal air batteries, Li-air delivers the highest specific energy. Comparing metal air batteries, Li-air delivers the highest specific energy. Technology Marketing Summary With

  10. RIngle-crystal lithium fluoride detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nepomnyashchikh, A.I.; Afonin, G.P.; Mironenko, S.N.; Selyauko, A.I.

    1985-10-01

    The use of lithium fluoride as detectors for thermoluminescence dosimetry is discussed. The principal characteristics of detectors of diameters 3, 8, and 10 mm are discussed, including: lower limit of detectable dose, repeated use of detectors, dependence of the thermally stimulated luminescence yield on the radiation dose, and loss of accumulated light sum during storage of the detectors. The detector preserves its characteristics to within + or - 15% after irradiation with a dose of 5 . 10/sup 4/ cGy.

  11. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  12. Lithium-Polysulfide Flow Battery Demonstration

    ScienceCinema

    Zheng, Wesley

    2014-07-16

    In this video, Stanford graduate student Wesley Zheng demonstrates the new low-cost, long-lived flow battery he helped create. The researchers created this miniature system using simple glassware. Adding a lithium polysulfide solution to the flask immediately produces electricity that lights an LED. A utility version of the new battery would be scaled up to store many megawatt-hours of energy.

  13. High expansion, lithium corrosion resistant sealing glasses

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; Watkins, Randall D.

    1991-01-01

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, SrO and BaO in various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with pin materials of 446 Stainless Steel and Alloy-52 rather than molybdenum, for use in harsh chemical environments, specifically in lithium batteries.

  14. High expansion, lithium corrosion resistant sealing glasses

    DOEpatents

    Brow, R.K.; Watkins, R.D.

    1991-06-04

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], B[sub 2]O[sub 3], SrO and BaO in various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with pin materials of 446 Stainless Steel and Alloy-52 rather than molybdenum, for use in harsh chemical environments, specifically in lithium batteries.

  15. Lithium-coated polymeric matrix as a minimum volume-change and dendrite-free lithium metal anode

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Liu, Yayuan; Lin, Dingchang; Liang, Zheng; Zhao, Jie; Yan, Kai; Cui, Yi

    2016-03-18

    Lithium metal is the ideal anode for the next generation of high-energy-density batteries. Nevertheless, dendrite growth, side reactions and infinite relative volume change have prevented it from practical applications. Here, we demonstrate a promising metallic lithium anode design by infusing molten lithium into a polymeric matrix. The electrospun polyimide employed is stable against highly reactive molten lithium and, via a conformal layer of zinc oxide coating to render the surface lithiophilic, molten lithium can be drawn into the matrix, affording a nano-porous lithium electrode. Importantly, the polymeric backbone enables uniform lithium stripping/plating, which successfully confines lithium within the matrix, realizingmore » minimum volume change and effective dendrite suppression. The porous electrode reduces the effective current density; thus, flat voltage profiles and stable cycling of more than 100 cycles is achieved even at a high current density of 5 mA cm-2 in both carbonate and ether electrolyte. Furthermore, the advantages of the porous, polymeric matrix provide important insights into the design principles of lithium metal anodes.« less

  16. Electrochemistry of KC{sub 8} in lithium-containing electrolytes and its use in lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tossici, R.; Berrettoni, M.; Rosolen, M.; Marassi, R.; Scrosati, B.

    1997-01-01

    The electrochemistry of KC{sub 8} in a lithium-containing ethylene carbonate-dimethylcarbonate electrolyte has been studied. The results show that upon oxidation KC{sub 8} irreversibly releases potassium ions and that during the following cathodic cycle, the residual graphite intercalates lithium reversibly and with fast rate up to a LiC{sub 6} composition. The results also show that a KC{sub 8} electrode can be used in lithium-ion cells in combination with partially lithiated or even with lithium-free cathodes. The maximum capacities (referred to the anode) that may be achieved are 372 and 279 mAh/g, respectively.

  17. Lithium cycling performance in improved lithium hexafluoroarsenate/2-Methyl tetrahydrofuran electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Desjardins, C.D.; Cadge, T.G.; Casey, E.J.; Donaldson, G.; Salter, R.S.

    1985-03-01

    Lithium hexafluoroarsenate/2-methyl tetrahydrofuran electrolytes have been prepared, purified, and evaluated using half-cell galvanostatic lithium cycling, cyclic voltammetry, plus colorimetric, gas chromatographic, and UV absorption techniques. Superior electrolytes have been prepared yielding reproducible cycling efficiencies in excess of 97%. Static aging trials at ambient temperature clearly demonstrate deterioration in cycling performance with time. This decline in performance is related to electrolyte degradation, possibly arising from the formation of peroxides. However, studies of various battery testing regimes on 1M LiAsF/sub 6//2Me-THF electrolyte support the system' battery potential with respect to both rate capability and shelf-life characteristics.

  18. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Rohan, James F.; Foo, Conrad C.; Pasquariello, David M.

    1999-01-01

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4 positive electrode (cathode).

  19. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, K.M.; Rohan, J.F.; Foo, C.C.; Pasquariello, D.M.

    1999-01-12

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} positive electrode (cathode). 8 figs.

  20. Recovery of lithium and cobalt from waste lithium ion batteries of mobile phone

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Manis Kumar, E-mail: mkjha@nmlindia.org; Kumari, Anjan; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumar, Vinay; Hait, Jhumki; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2013-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Recovery of valuable metals from scrap batteries of mobile phone. - Highlights: Recovery of Co and Li from spent LIBs was performed by hydrometallurgical route. Under the optimum condition, 99.1% of lithium and 70.0% of cobalt were leached. The mechanism of the dissolution of lithium and cobalt was studied. Activation energy for lithium and cobalt were found to be 32.4 kJ/mol and 59.81 kJ/mol, respectively. After metal recovery, residue was washed before disposal to the environment. - Abstract: In view of the stringent environmental regulations, availability of limited natural resources and ever increasing need of alternative energy critical elements, an environmental eco-friendly leaching process is reported for the recovery of lithium and cobalt from the cathode active materials of spent lithium-ion batteries of mobile phones. The experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for the recovery of lithium and cobalt by varying the concentration of leachant, pulp density, reductant volume and temperature. Leaching with 2 M sulfuric acid with the addition of 5% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (v/v) at a pulp density of 100 g/L and 75 C resulted in the recovery of 99.1% lithium and 70.0% cobalt in 60 min. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in sulfuric acid solution acts as an effective reducing agent, which enhance the percentage leaching of metals. Leaching kinetics of lithium in sulfuric acid fitted well to the chemical controlled reaction model i.e. 1 ? (1 ? X){sup 1/3} = k{sub c}t. Leaching kinetics of cobalt fitted well to the model ash diffusion control dense constant sizes spherical particles i.e. 1 ? 3(1 ? X){sup 2/3} + 2(1 ? X) = k{sub c}t. Metals could subsequently be separated selectively from the leach liquor by solvent extraction process to produce their salts by crystallization process from the purified solution.

  1. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries nanocomposite_materials_li_ion.pdf (508.08 KB) More Documents & Publications Progress of DOE Materials, Manufacturing Process R&D, and ARRA Battery Manufacturing Grants Vehicle Technologies Office: 2009 Energy Storage R&D Annual Progress Report Energy Storage R&D and ARRA

  2. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  3. Production of lithium fluoride for thermoluminescent radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Mironenko, S.N.; Ikrami, D.D.; Nepomnyashchikh, A.I.; Paramzin, A.S.; Rakhimov, M.E.

    1985-08-01

    The authors examine thermostimulated luminescence for lithium fluoride single crystals in relation to the method of producing the initial raw material and the features of the preliminary treatment. They conclude that only especially pure lithium fluoride made via the hydrofluoride, which is then decomposed, can be used without additional treatment to make single crystal thermoluminescent dosimeters having low intensities for lowtemperature peaks.

  4. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O-CeO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  5. Liquid surface skimmer apparatus for molten lithium and method

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Samuel C.; Pollard, Roy E.; Thompson, William F.; Stark, Marshall W.; Currin, Jr., Robert T.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to an apparatus for separating two fluids having different specific gravities. The invention also relates to a method for using the separating apparatus of the present invention. This invention particularly relates to the skimming of molten lithium metal from the surface of a fused salt electrolyte in the electrolytic production of lithium metal from a mixed fused salt.

  6. Valence-band electronic structure evolution of graphene oxide upon thermal annealing for optoelectronics

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Yamaguchi, Hisato; Ogawa, Shuichi; Watanabe, Daiki; Hozumi, Hideaki; Gao, Yongqian; Eda, Goki; Mattevi, Cecilia; Fujita, Takeshi; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Ishizuka, Shinji; et al

    2016-04-08

    We report valence band electronic structure evolution of graphene oxide (GO) upon its thermal reduction. Degree of oxygen functionalization was controlled by annealing temperatures, and an electronic structure evolution was monitored using real-time ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. We observed a drastic increase in density of states around the Fermi level upon thermal annealing at ~600 °C. The result indicates that while there is an apparent band gap for GO prior to a thermal reduction, the gap closes after an annealing around that temperature. This trend of band gap closure was correlated with electrical, chemical, and structural properties to determine a setmore » of GO material properties that is optimal for optoelectronics. The results revealed that annealing at a temperature of ~500 °C leads to the desired properties, demonstrated by a uniform and an order of magnitude enhanced photocurrent map of an individual GO sheet compared to as-synthesized counterpart.« less

  7. A modified two-state empirical valence bond model for proton transport in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Mabuchi, Takuya; Fukushima, Akinori; Tokumasu, Takashi

    2015-07-07

    A detailed analysis of the proton solvation structure and transport properties in aqueous solutions is performed using classical molecular dynamics simulations. A refined two-state empirical valence bond (aTS-EVB) method, which is based on the EVB model of Walbran and Kornyshev and the anharmonic water force field, is developed in order to describe efficiently excess proton transport via the Grotthuss mechanism. The new aTS-EVB model clearly satisfies the requirement for simpler and faster calculation, because of the simplicity of the two-state EVB algorithm, while providing a better description of diffusive dynamics of the excess proton and water in comparison with the previous two-state EVB models, which significantly improves agreement with the available experimental data. The results of activation energies for the excess proton and water calculated between 300 and 340 K (the temperature range used in this study) are also found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data.

  8. Toxicity of materials used in the manufacture of lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1994-05-01

    The growing interest in battery systems has led to major advances in high-energy and/or high-power-density lithium batteries. Potential applications for lithium batteries include radio transceivers, portable electronic instrumentation, emergency locator transmitters, night vision devices, human implantable devices, as well as uses in the aerospace and defense programs. With this new technology comes the use of new solvent and electrolyte systems in the research, development, and production of lithium batteries. The goal is to enhance lithium battery technology with the use of non-hazardous materials. Therefore, the toxicity and health hazards associated with exposure to the solvents and electrolytes used in current lithium battery research and development is evaluated and described.

  9. Lithium-boron anodes in nitrate thermal battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    McManis III, G. E.; Fletcher, A. N.; Miles, M. H.

    1985-08-13

    A thermally activated electrochemical cell utilizes a lithium-boron anode and a molten nitrate electrolyte selected from the group consisting of lithium nitrate, a mixture of lithium nitrate and sodium nitrate, a mixture of lithium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and a mixture of lithium nitrate and sodium nitrate with potassium nitrate, to provide improved cell electrical performance. The electrolyte is contained on a fiberglass separator and the electrolyte adjacent to the cathode may contain silver nitrate as well. Current densities over 300 mA/cm/sup 2/ with a usable temperature range of over 150/sup 0/ C. have been obtained. Anode open circuit potentials of about 3.2 V were found with little polarization at 100 mA/cm/sup 2/ and with very slight polarization at 300 mA/cm/sup 2/.

  10. Lithium aluminum/iron sulfide battery having lithium aluminum and silicon as negative electrode

    DOEpatents

    Gilbert, Marian; Kaun, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    A method of making a negative electrode, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical cell using the electrode. Silicon powder is mixed with powdered electroactive material, such as the lithium-aluminum eutectic, to provide an improved electrode and cell.

  11. The Impact Of Lithium Wall Coatings On NSTX Discharges And The Engineering Of The Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX)

    SciTech Connect

    R. Majeski, H. Kugel and R. Kaita

    2010-03-18

    Recent experiments on the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) have shown the benefits of solid lithium coatings on carbon PFC's to diverted plasma performance, in both Land H- mode confinement regimes. Better particle control, with decreased inductive flux consumption, and increased electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement time, and DD neutron rate were observed. Successive increases in lithium coverage resulted in the complete suppression of ELM activity in H-mode discharges. A liquid lithium divertor (LLD), which will employ the porous molybdenum surface developed for the LTX shell, is being installed on NSTX for the 2010 run period, and will provide comparisons between liquid walls in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX) and liquid divertor targets in NSTX. LTX, which recently began operations at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, is the world's first confinement experiment with full liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs). All materials and construction techniques in LTX are compatible with liquid lithium. LTX employs an inner, heated, stainless steel-faced liner or shell, which will be lithium-coated. In order to ensure that lithium adheres to the shell, it is designed to operate at up to 500 - 600 oC to promote wetting of the stainless by the lithium, providing the first hot wall in a tokamak to operate at reactor-relevant temperatures. The engineering of LTX will be discussed.

  12. Review of Reactivity Experiments for Lithium Ternary Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jolodosky, A.; Bolind, A.; Fratoni, M.

    2015-09-28

    Lithium is often the preferred choice as breeder and coolant in fusion blankets as it offers high tritium breeding, excellent heat transfer and corrosion properties, and most importantly, it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and exacerbates plant safety concerns. Consequently, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is attempting to develop a lithium-based alloy—most likely a ternary alloy—which maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) while reducing overall flammability concerns for use in the blanket of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. The LLNL concept employs inertial confinement fusion (ICF) through the use of lasers aimed at an indirect-driven target composed of deuterium-tritium fuel. The fusion driver/target design implements the same physics currently experimented at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The plant uses lithium in both the primary coolant and blanket; therefore, lithium related hazards are of primary concern. Reducing chemical reactivity is the primary motivation for the development of new lithium alloys, and it is therefore important to come up with proper ways to conduct experiments that can physically study this phenomenon. This paper will start to explore this area by outlining relevant past experiments conducted with lithium/air reactions and lithium/water reactions. Looking at what was done in the past will then give us a general idea of how we can setup our own experiments to test a variety of lithium alloys.

  13. Lithium Salts for Advanced Lithium Batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    SciTech Connect

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M; Johansson, Patrik; Edstrom, Kristina; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-01-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions and conditions within such cells. This review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.

  14. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    SciTech Connect

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik; Edstrom, Kristina; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-06-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions and conditions within such cells. Furthermore, this review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.

  15. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik; Edstrom, Kristina; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-06-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions andmore » conditions within such cells. Furthermore, this review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.« less

  16. A new class of electrochemically and thermally stable lithium salts for lithium battery electrolytes. 2: Conductivity of lithium organoborates in dimethoxyethane and propylene carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Barthel, J.; Buestrich, R.; Carl, E.; Gores, H.J.

    1996-11-01

    A conductivity study is carried out on lithium bis[1,2 benzenediolato (2-)-O,O{prime}]borate and on lithium bis[3-fluoro-1,2-benzenediolato(2-)-O,O{prime}]borate in dimethoxyethane and propylene carbonate from infinite dilution to saturation in the temperature range 228 < T (K) < 308. The electron-drawing fluorine substituent produces a decrease of the association constant by a factor of about three for PC-based solutions and 5.5 for solutions in dimethoxyethane. The increase in the maximum of conductivity by about 30% (propylene carbonate) and about 80% (dimethoxyethane), independent of temperature, reveals the effect of ion-ion interaction on the conductivity maximum, with the solvent permittivity, viscosity, and ionic radii remaining unchanged. Synthesis, analysis, and purification of lithium bis[3-fluoro-1,2-benzenediolato(2-)O,O{prime}]borate, which is a candidate for lithium batteries, is described.

  17. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have

  18. Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Liu, Jun; Vissers, Donald R.; Lu, Wenquan

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to non-aqueous electrolytes having electrode stabilizing additives, stabilized electrodes, and electrochemical devices containing the same. Thus the present invention provides electrolytes containing an alkali metal salt, a polar aprotic solvent, and an electrode stabilizing additive. In some embodiments the additives include a substituted or unsubstituted cyclic or spirocyclic hydrocarbon containing at least one oxygen atom and at least one alkenyl or alkynyl group. When used in electrochemical devices with, e.g., lithium manganese oxide spinel electrodes or olivine or carbon-coated olivine electrodes, the new electrolytes provide batteries with improved calendar and cycle life.

  19. Surface modifications for carbon lithium intercalation anodes

    DOEpatents

    Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Kinoshita, Kimio (Cupertino, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A prefabricated carbon anode containing predetermined amounts of passivating film components is assembled into a lithium-ion rechargeable battery. The modified carbon anode enhances the reduction of the irreversible capacity loss during the first discharge of a cathode-loaded cell. The passivating film components, such as Li.sub.2 O and Li.sub.2 CO.sub.3, of a predetermined amount effective for optimal passivation of carbon, are incorporated into carbon anode materials to produce dry anodes that are essentially free of battery electrolyte prior to battery assembly.

  20. (Lead-lithium corrosion and chemistry)

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, P.F.

    1990-09-21

    The traveler participated in the 1990 European Workshop on Lead-Lithium Corrosion and Chemistry. Main areas of emphasis in the European liquid metal (exclusively Pb-17 at. % Li) program are now on deposition effects and corrosion-resistant surface product layers that can also serve as barriers to tritium permeation and insulators. Dr. Tortorelli also visited Harwell Laboratory to discuss innovative methods of corrosion analysis. He attended the 16th Symposium on Fusion Technology in London and the initial meeting of the Program Committee for the Second International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology, which will be held in June 1991. He toured the JET facilities as part of the SOFT program.

  1. Electric quadrupole transition probabilities for atomic lithium

    SciTech Connect

    elik, Gltekin; Gke, Yasin; Y?ld?z, Murat

    2014-05-15

    Electric quadrupole transition probabilities for atomic lithium have been calculated using the weakest bound electron potential model theory (WBEPMT). We have employed numerical non-relativistic HartreeFock wavefunctions for expectation values of radii and the necessary energy values have been taken from the compilation at NIST. The results obtained with the present method agree very well with the Coulomb approximation results given by Caves (1975). Moreover, electric quadrupole transition probability values not existing in the literature for some highly excited levels have been obtained using the WBEPMT.

  2. Materials issues in lithium ion rechargeable battery technology

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, D.H.

    1995-07-01

    Lithium ion rechargeable batteries are predicted to replace Ni/Cd as the workhorse consumer battery. The pace of development of this battery system is determined in large part by the availability of materials and the understanding of interfacial reactions between materials. Lithium ion technology is based on the use of two lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems, it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these electrochemical cells have the high energy density, high voltage and light weight of metallic lithium, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge, improving their safety and cycle life.

  3. Hexagonal phase transformation in the engineered scavenger compound lithium titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, W.K.; Riley, W.D.; Jong, B.W.

    1993-01-01

    Engineered scavenger compounds (ESC's) developed by the US Bureau of Mines are a novel class of compounds that selectively can recover a desired element from a solid or molten alloy. Lithium titanate (Li[sub 2]Ti[sub 3]O[sub 7] or Li[sub 2]O [center dot] 3TiO[sub 2]) is used as an ESC to recover lithium (Li) from aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys. X-ray diffraction measurements have shown that Li[sub 2]Ti[sub 3]O[sub 7] undergoes a phase change during scavenging from an orthorhombic structure to a hexagonal structure. This change is due to the incorporation of lithium in the matrix of the material and the effect of temperature. Although both phases are metastable, the hexagonal phase that forms during the scavenging of lithium from Al-Li alloys appears to be the more stable phase. Recovering lithium from the ESC by electrodeposition does not cause the structure to revert to the orthorhombic phase. The orthorhombic and the hexagonal structures of Li[sub 2]Ti[sub 3]O[sub 7] have similar scavenging capacities for lithium. This report proposes a new mechanism for the phase transformation.

  4. The lithium abundances of a large sample of red giants

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y. J.; Tan, K. F.; Wang, L.; Zhao, G.; Li, H. N.; Sato, Bun'ei; Takeda, Y. E-mail: gzhao@nao.cas.cn

    2014-04-20

    The lithium abundances for 378 G/K giants are derived with non-local thermodynamic equilibrium correction considered. Among these are 23 stars that host planetary systems. The lithium abundance is investigated, as a function of metallicity, effective temperature, and rotational velocity, as well as the impact of a giant planet on G/K giants. The results show that the lithium abundance is a function of metallicity and effective temperature. The lithium abundance has no correlation with rotational velocity at v sin i < 10 km s{sup –1}. Giants with planets present lower lithium abundance and slow rotational velocity (v sin i < 4 km s{sup –1}). Our sample includes three Li-rich G/K giants, 36 Li-normal stars, and 339 Li-depleted stars. The fraction of Li-rich stars in this sample agrees with the general rate of less than 1% in the literature, and the stars that show normal amounts of Li are supposed to possess the same abundance at the current interstellar medium. For the Li-depleted giants, Li-deficiency may have already taken place at the main sequence stage for many intermediate mass (1.5-5 M {sub ☉}) G/K giants. Finally, we present the lithium abundance and kinematic parameters for an enlarged sample of 565 giants using a compilation of the literature, and confirm that the lithium abundance is a function of metallicity and effective temperature. With the enlarged sample, we investigate the differences between the lithium abundance in thin-/thick-disk giants, which indicate that the lithium abundance in thick-disk giants is more depleted than that in thin-disk giants.

  5. Testing of Liquid Lithium Limiters in CDX-U

    SciTech Connect

    R. Majeski; R. Kaita; M. Boaz; P. Efthimion; T. Gray; B. Jones; D. Hoffman; H. Kugel; J. Menard; T. Munsat; A. Post-Zwicker; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Seraydarian; R. Maingi; M. Maiorano; S. Smith; D. Rodgers

    2004-07-30

    Part of the development of liquid metals as a first wall or divertor for reactor applications must involve the investigation of plasma-liquid metal interactions in a functioning tokamak. Most of the interest in liquid-metal walls has focused on lithium. Experiments with lithium limiters have now been conducted in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) device at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Initial experiments used a liquid-lithium rail limiter (L3) built by the University of California at San Diego. Spectroscopic measurements showed some reduction of impurities in CDX-U plasmas with the L3, compared to discharges with a boron carbide limiter. While no reduction in recycling was observed with the L3, which had a plasma-wet area of approximately 40 cm2, subsequent experiments with a larger area fully toroidal lithium limiter demonstrated significant reductions in both recycling and in impurity levels. Two series of experiments with the toroidal limiter have now be en performed. In each series, the area of exposed, clean lithium was increased, until in the latest experiments the liquid-lithium plasma-facing area was increased to 2000 cm2. Under these conditions, the reduction in recycling required a factor of eight increase in gas fueling in order to maintain the plasma density. The loop voltage required to sustain the plasma current was reduced from 2 V to 0.5 V. This paper summarizes the technical preparations for lithium experiments and the conditioning required to prepare the lithium surface for plasma operations. The mechanical response of the liquid metal to induced currents, especially through contact with the plasma, is discussed. The effect of the lithium-filled toroidal limiter on plasma performance is also briefly described.

  6. Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-09-25

    Lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most promising power sources to be deployed in electric vehicles (EV), including solely battery powered vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and hybrid electrical vehicles. With the increasing demand on devices of high energy densities (>500 Wh/kg) , new energy storage systems, such as lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries and other emerging systems beyond the conventional LIB also attracted worldwide interest for both transportation and grid energy storage applications in recent years. It is well known that the electrochemical performances of these energy storage systems depend not only on the composition of the materials, but also on the structure of electrode materials used in the batteries. Although the desired performances characteristics of batteries often have conflict requirements on the micro/nano-structure of electrodes, hierarchically designed electrodes can be tailored to satisfy these conflict requirements. This work will review hierarchically structured materials that have been successfully used in LIB and Li-O2 batteries. Our goal is to elucidate 1) how to realize the full potential of energy materials through the manipulation of morphologies, and 2) how the hierarchical structure benefits the charge transport, promotes the interfacial properties, prolongs the electrode stability and battery lifetime.

  7. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2015-11-12

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing anion receptor additives to enhance the power capability of lithium-ion batteries. The anion receptor of the present invention is a Lewis acid that can help to dissolve LiF in the passivation films of lithium-ion batteries. Accordingly, one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising a lithium salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and an anion receptor additive; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  8. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  9. Can mirror matter solve the the cosmological lithium problem?

    SciTech Connect

    Coc, Alain [Centre de Sciences Nuclaires et de Sciences de la Matire (CSNSM), CNRS/IN2P3, Universit Paris Sud 11, UMR 8609, Btiment 104, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR-7095 du CNRS, Universit Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris, France and Sorbonne Universits, Institut Lagrange de Paris, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

    2014-05-02

    The abundance of lithium-7 confronts cosmology with a long lasting inconsistency between the predictions of standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis with the baryonic density determined from the Cosmic Microwave Background observations on the one hand, and the spectroscopic determination of the lithium-7 abundance on the other hand. We investigated the influence of the existence of a mirror world, focusing on models in which mirror neutrons can oscillate into ordinary neutrons. Such a mechanism allows for an effective late time neutron injection, which induces an increase of the destruction of beryllium-7and thus a lower final lithium-7 abundance.

  10. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    The goals of this program were to discover and implement a redox shuttle that is compatible with large format lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (NMC) cathode material and to understand the mechanism of redox shuttle action. Many redox shuttles, both commercially available and experimental, were tested and much fundamental information regarding the mechanism of redox shuttle action was discovered. In particular, studies surrounding the mechanism of the reduction of the oxidized redox shuttle at the carbon anode surface were particularly revealing. The initial redox shuttle candidate, namely 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (BDB) supplied by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL, Lemont, Illinois), did not effectively protect cells containing NMC cathodes from overcharge. The ANL-RS2 redox shuttle molecule, namely 1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butyl-benzene, which is a derivative of the commercially successful redox shuttle 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB, 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota), is an effective redox shuttle for cells employing LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) cathode material. The main advantage of ANL-RS2 over DDB is its larger solubility in electrolyte; however, ANL-RS2 is not as stable as DDB. This shuttle also may be effectively used to rebalance cells in strings that utilize LFP cathodes. The shuttle is compatible with both LTO and graphite anode materials although the cell with graphite degrades faster than the cell with LTO, possibly because of a reaction with the SEI layer. The degradation products of redox shuttle ANL-RS2 were positively identified. Commercially available redox shuttles Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} (Air Products, Allentown, Pennsylvania and Showa Denko, Japan) and DDB were evaluated and were found to be stable and effective redox shuttles at low C-rates. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} is suitable for lithium ion cells utilizing a high voltage cathode (potential that is higher

  11. Investigation of parameters of interaction of hydrogen isotopes with liquid lithium and lithium capillary-porous system under reactor irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tazhibayeva, I. L. Kulsartov, T. V.; Gordienko, Yu. N.; Zaurbekova, Zh. A.; Ponkratov, Yu. V.; Barsukov, N. I.; Tulubayev, Ye. Yu.; Baklanov, V. V.; Gnyrya, V. S.; Kenzhin, Ye. A.

    2015-12-15

    In this study, the effect of reactor irradiation on the processes of interaction of hydrogen with liquid lithium and a lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) is considered. The experiments are carried out by the gas-absorption method with use of a specially designed ampoule device. The results of investigation of the interaction of hydrogen with liquid lithium and a lithium CPS under conditions of reactor irradiation are described; namely, these are the temperature dependences of the rate constant for the interaction of hydrogen with liquid lithium at different reactor powers, the activation energies of the processes, and the pre-exponential factor in the Arrhenius dependence. The effect of increasing absorption of hydrogen by the samples under investigation as a result of the reactor irradiation is fixed. The effect can be explained by increasing mobility of hydrogen in liquid lithium due to hot spots in lithium bulk and the interaction of helium and tritium ions (formed as a result of the nuclear reaction of {sup 6}Li with neutron) with a surface hydride film.

  12. Lithium As Plasma Facing Component for Magnetic Fusion Research

    SciTech Connect

    Masayuki Ono

    2012-09-10

    The use of lithium in magnetic fusion confinement experiments started in the 1990's in order to improve tokamak plasma performance as a low-recycling plasma-facing component (PFC). Lithium is the lightest alkali metal and it is highly chemically reactive with relevant ion species in fusion plasmas including hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, carbon, and oxygen. Because of the reactive properties, lithium can provide strong pumping for those ions. It was indeed a spectacular success in TFTR where a very small amount (~ 0.02 gram) of lithium coating of the PFCs resulted in the fusion power output to improve by nearly a factor of two. The plasma confinement also improved by a factor of two. This success was attributed to the reduced recycling of cold gas surrounding the fusion plasma due to highly reactive lithium on the wall. The plasma confinement and performance improvements have since been confirmed in a large number of fusion devices with various magnetic configurations including CDX-U/LTX (US), CPD (Japan), HT-7 (China), EAST (China), FTU (Italy), NSTX (US), T-10, T-11M (Russia), TJ-II (Spain), and RFX (Italy). Additionally, lithium was shown to broaden the plasma pressure profile in NSTX, which is advantageous in achieving high performance H-mode operation for tokamak reactors. It is also noted that even with significant applications (up to 1,000 grams in NSTX) of lithium on PFCs, very little contamination (< 0.1%) of lithium fraction in main fusion plasma core was observed even during high confinement modes. The lithium therefore appears to be a highly desirable material to be used as a plasma PFC material from the magnetic fusion plasma performance and operational point of view. An exciting development in recent years is the growing realization of lithium as a potential solution to solve the exceptionally challenging need to handle the fusion reactor divertor heat flux, which could reach 60 MW/m2 . By placing the liquid lithium (LL) surface in the path of the main

  13. Mathematical modeling of the lithium deposition overcharge reaction in lithium-ion batteries using carbon-based negative electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, P.; Doyle, M.; White, R.E.

    1999-10-01

    Two major issues facing lithium-ion battery technology are safety and capacity grade during cycling. A significant amount of work has been done to improve the cycle life and to reduce the safety problems associated with these cells. This includes newer and better electrode materials, lower-temperature shutdown separators, nonflammable or self-extinguishing electrolytes, and improved cell designs. The goal of this work is to predict the conditions for the lithium deposition overcharge reaction on the negative electrode (graphite and coke) and to investigate the effect of various operating conditions, cell designs and charging protocols on the lithium deposition side reaction. The processes that lead to capacity fading affect severely the cycle life and rate behavior of lithium-ion cells. One such process is the overcharge of the negative electrode causing lithium deposition, which can lead to capacity losses including a loss of active lithium and electrolyte and represents a potential safety hazard. A mathematical model is presented to predict lithium deposition on the negative electrode under a variety of operating conditions. The Li{sub x}C{sub 6} {vert{underscore}bar} 1 M LiPF{sub 6}, 2:1 ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate, poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) {vert{underscore}bar} LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cell is simulated to investigate the influence of lithium deposition on the charging behavior of intercalation electrodes. The model is used to study the effect of key design parameters (particle size, electrode thickness, and mass ratio) on the lithium deposition overcharge reaction. The model predictions are compared for coke and graphite-based negative electrodes. The cycling behavior of these cells is simulated before and after overcharge to understand the hazards and capacity fade problems, inherent in these cells, can be minimized.

  14. Comparison of H-Mode Plasmas Diverted to Solid and Liquid Lithium Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    R. Kaita, et. al.

    2012-07-20

    Experiments were conducted with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) in NSTX. Among the goals was to use lithium recoating to sustain deuterium (D) retention by a static liquid lithium surface, approximating the ability of flowing liquid lithium to maintain chemical reactivity. Lithium evaporators were used to deposit lithium on the LLD surface. Improvements in plasma edge conditions were similar to those with lithiated graphite plasma-facing components (PFCs), including an increase in confinement over discharges without lithiumcoated PFCs and ELM reduction during H-modes. With the outer strike point on the LLD, the D retention in the LLD was about the same as that for solid lithium coatings on graphite, or about two times that achieved without lithium PFC coatings. There were also indications of contamination of the LLD surface, possibly due erosion and redeposition of carbon from PFCs. Flowing lithium may thus be needed for chemically active PFCs during long-pulse operation.

  15. Lithium-Air Battery: High Performance Cathodes for Lithium-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2010-08-01

    BEEST Project: Researchers at Missouri S&T are developing an affordable lithium-air (Li-Air) battery that could enable an EV to travel up to 350 miles on a single charge. Todays EVs run on Li-Ion batteries, which are expensive and suffer from low energy density compared with gasoline. This new Li-Air battery could perform as well as gasoline and store 3 times more energy than current Li-Ion batteries. A Li-Air battery uses an air cathode to breathe oxygen into the battery from the surrounding air, like a human lung. The oxygen and lithium react in the battery to produce electricity. Current Li-Air batteries are limited by the rate at which they can draw oxygen from the air. The team is designing a battery using hierarchical electrode structures to enhance air breathing and effective catalysts to accelerate electricity production.

  16. Protective coating on positive lithium-metal-oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Christopher S.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Kahaian, Arthur J.

    2006-05-23

    A positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell comprising a LiMn2-xMxO4 spinel structure in which M is one or more metal cations with an atomic number less than 52, such that the average oxidation state of the manganese ions is equal to or greater than 3.5, and in which 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.15, having one or more lithium spine oxide LiM'2O4 or lithiated spinel oxide Li1+yM'2O4 compounds on the surface thereof in which M' are cobalt cations and in which 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1.

  17. kWh Analytics: Quality Ratings for PV

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation summarizes the information given during the SunShot Grand Challenge Summit and Technology Forum, June 13-14, 2012.

  18. Property:Incentive/PVNPFitDolKWh | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy (Wisconsin Power and Light) - Advanced Renewables Tariff (Wisconsin) + 0.25 + C CPS Energy - Solartricity Producer Program (Texas) + 0.27 + N NC GreenPower Production...

  19. Property:Incentive/PVResFitDolKWh | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy (Wisconsin Power and Light) - Advanced Renewables Tariff (Wisconsin) + 0.25 + C CPS Energy - Solartricity Producer Program (Texas) + 0.27 + N NC GreenPower Production...

  20. Property:Incentive/PVComFitDolKWh | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy (Wisconsin Power and Light) - Advanced Renewables Tariff (Wisconsin) + 0.25 + C CPS Energy - Solartricity Producer Program (Texas) + 0.27 + N NC GreenPower Production...

  1. Valence electronenergy-lossspectroscopystudyofZrSiO4 and ZrO2

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, John; Jiang, Nan

    2013-07-01

    ZrSiO4 (zircon) and m-ZrO2 (zirconia) are fundamental and industrially important materials.This work reports the detailed valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) studies of these compounds. The dielectric response functions, as well as single-electron interband transition spectra,are derived from VEELS data for both ZrSiO4 and m-ZrO2, in the rang e5–50 eV using the Kramers–Kronig analysis method. Our interpretation of the interband transitions is given with the aid of ab initio calculations of density of states. The bandgap energies for both materials are also measured using VEELS.The surface and bulk plasmons are identified: the surface plasmon peaks locate at around 12 eV,and two bulk plasmon peaks are ~15–16 eV and ~25–27 eV,respectively.Although similarities in the VEELS exist between ZrSiO4 and m-ZrO2, two majo rdifferences are als onoticed and explained in terms of composition and structure differences.

  2. Composition dependence of electronic, magnetic, transport and morphological properties of mixed valence manganite thin films

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Singh, Surendra; Freeland, J. W.; Fitzsimmons, Michael R.; Jeen, H.; Biswas, A.

    2016-07-27

    Mixed-valence manganese oxides present striking properties like the colossal magnetoresistance, metal-insulator transition (MIT) that may result from coexistence of ferromagnetic, metallic and insulating phases. Percolation of such phase coexistence in the vicinity of MIT leads to first-order transition in these manganites. However the length scales over which the electronic and magnetic phases are separated across MIT which appears compelling for bulk systems has been elusive in (La1-yPry)1-xCaxMnO3 films. Here we show the in-plane length scale over which charge and magnetism are correlated in (La0.4Pr0.6)1-xCaxMnO3 films with x = 0.33 and 0.375, across the MIT temperature. We combine electrical transport (resistance)more » measurements, x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), and specular/off-specular x-ray resonant magnetic scattering (XRMS) measurements as a function of temperature to elucidate relationships between electronic, magnetic and morphological structure of the thin films. Using off-specular XRMS we obtained the charge-charge and charge-magnetic correlation length of these LPCMO films across the MIT. We observed different charge-magnetic correlation length for two films which increases below the MIT. The different correlation length shown by two films may be responsible for different macroscopic (transport and magnetic) properties.« less

  3. Electronic and thermoelectric properties of van der Waals materials with ring-shaped valence bands

    SciTech Connect

    Wickramaratne, Darshana E-mail: rlake@ece.ucr.edu; Lake, Roger K. E-mail: rlake@ece.ucr.edu; Zahid, Ferdows

    2015-08-21

    The valence band of a variety of few-layer, two-dimensional materials consist of a ring of states in the Brillouin zone. The energy-momentum relation has the form of a “Mexican hat” or a Rashba dispersion. The two-dimensional density of states is singular at or near the band edge, and the band-edge density of modes turns on nearly abruptly as a step function. The large band-edge density of modes enhances the Seebeck coefficient, the power factor, and the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT. Electronic and thermoelectric properties are determined from ab initio calculations for few-layer III–VI materials GaS, GaSe, InS, InSe, for Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, for monolayer Bi, and for bilayer graphene as a function of vertical field. The effect of interlayer coupling on these properties in few-layer III–VI materials and Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} is described. Analytical models provide insight into the layer dependent trends that are relatively consistent for all of these few-layer materials. Vertically biased bilayer graphene could serve as an experimental test-bed for measuring these effects.

  4. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Development of High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Cells for Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    BEEST Project: Sion Power is developing a lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery, a potentially cost-effective alternative to the Li-Ion battery that could store 400% more energy per pound. All batteries have 3 key partsa positive and negative electrode and an electrolytethat exchange ions to store and release electricity. Using different materials for these components changes a batterys chemistry and its ability to power a vehicle. Traditional Li-S batteries experience adverse reactions between the electrolyte and lithium-based negative electrode that ultimately limit the battery to less than 50 charge cycles. Sion Power will sandwich the lithium- and sulfur-based electrode films around a separator that protects the negative electrode and increases the number of charges the battery can complete in its lifetime. The design could eventually allow for a battery with 400% greater storage capacity per pound than Li-Ion batteries and the ability to complete more than 500 recharge cycles.

  5. The effect of proton irradiation on magnetic properties of lithium ferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Hyun, Sung Wook; Kouh, Taejoon; Kim, Sam Jin; Kim, Chul Sung

    2009-04-01

    The effect of proton irradiation on magnetic properties of lithium ferrites has been investigated with x-ray diffraction (XRD), magnetization, and Moessbauer spectroscopy measurements. Li{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.5}O{sub 4} powders have been fabricated by the sol-gel method. Following the annealing at 700 deg. C, these samples have been proton irradiated with 1, 5, and 10 pC/{mu}m{sup 2}. The analysis of XRD patterns by Rietveld refinement method shows that these samples have ordered cubic spinel structures with space group of P4{sub 3}32. We have observed that the corresponding lattice constant a{sub 0} linearly increases from 8.3301 to 8.3314{+-}0.0001 A with increasing proton irradiation. Compared to nonirradiated sample, which has the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of 66.4 emu/g and oxygen occupancy of 3.9980 at room temperature, the values of magnetization and oxygen occupancy at room temperature are 66.0, 62.6, and 60.8 emu/g and 3.9840, 3.9452, and 3.9272, respectively, for 1, 5, and 10 pC/{mu}m{sup 2} irradiated powders. Also, the coercivity (H{sub c}) decreases from 175.6 to 154.0 Oe with increasing proton irradiation. The Moessbauer spectra taken at room temperature show that the values of isomer shift ({delta}) for the tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites are consistent with the Fe{sup 3+} valence state. The results suggest that the proton irradiation induces the oxygen vacancy defects, which in turn leads to the changes in magnetic properties.

  6. Process for manufacturing a lithium alloy electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, William R.

    1992-10-13

    A process for manufacturing a lithium alloy, metal sulfide cell tape casts slurried alloy powders in an organic solvent containing a dissolved thermoplastic organic binder onto casting surfaces. The organic solvent is then evaporated to produce a flexible tape removable adhering to the casting surface. The tape is densified to increase its green strength and then peeled from the casting surface. The tape is laminated with a separator containing a lithium salt electrolyte and a metal sulfide electrode to form a green cell. The binder is evaporated from the green cell at a temperature lower than the melting temperature of the lithium salt electrolyte. Lithium alloy, metal sulfide and separator powders may be tape cast.

  7. Lithium Ethylene Dicarbonate Identified as the Primary Product...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithium Ethylene Dicarbonate Identified as the Primary Product ofChemical and Electrochemical Reduction of EC in EC:EMC1.2M LiPF6Electrolyte Citation Details In-Document Search ...

  8. Lithium-Titanium-Oxide Anodes Improve Battery Safety and Performance...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-Titanium-Oxide Anodes Improve Battery Safety and Performance Technology available for licensing: Li4Ti5O12 spinel is a promising alternative to graphite electrodes with ...

  9. WATER-LITHIUM BROMIDE DOUBLE-EFFECT ABSORPTION COOLING ANALYSIS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    WATER-LITHIUM BROMIDE DOUBLE-EFFECT ABSORPTION COOLING ANALYSIS Gary C . V l i e t , ... i e n t simulation of the double-effect, water-1 ithium bromide absorption cooling ...

  10. Lithium / Sulfur Cells with Long Cycle Life and High Specific...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Sulfur Cells with Long Cycle Life and High Specific Energy Lawrence Berkeley ... Song, M-K., Zhang, Y., Cairns, E.J., "A long-life, high-rate lithiumsulfur cell: a ...

  11. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-21

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Lastly, our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.

  12. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-21

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through themore » systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Lastly, our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.« less

  13. Imaging Lithium Atoms at Sub-Angstrom Resolution (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Imaging Lithium Atoms at Sub-Angstrom Resolution Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ... Publication Date: 2005-01-03 OSTI Identifier: 875740 Report Number(s): ...

  14. Physicist Tyler Abrams models lithium erosion in tokamaks | Princeton...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    inner walls is 10 to 20 times cooler, it still has enough energy to erode the layer of liquid lithium that may be used to coat components that face the plasma in future tokamaks. ...

  15. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... perhaps the most striking discovery is lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 or simply LFP). ... (green) diffuse into and out of the olivine framework through a one-dimensional channel. ...

  16. Protective shells may boost silicon lithium-ion batteries | Argonne...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Protective shells may boost silicon lithium-ion batteries By Sarah Schlieder * August 5, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint Imagine a cell a phone that charges in less than an hour and lasts...

  17. Y-12 plant prepares to separate lithium isotopes

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    plant prepares to separate lithium isotopes The Y-12 National Security Complex is one of three major Manhattan Project sites in Oak Ridge. Y-12 is the nation's sole storage...

  18. Graphite fiber as a positive electrode of rechargeable lithium cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Y.; Katsuma, H.; Morita, M.

    1984-01-01

    Graphite compounds have gained interest as possible positive electrodes for rechargeable lithium cells. Their charge-discharge characteristics have been studied in organic electrolytic solutions such as sulfolane dimethylsulfite, and propylene carbonate.

  19. The regenerating mechanisms of high-lithium contend zirconates...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Results indicate that among known lithium zirconates, Li2ZrO3 is the best sorbent for CO2 capture. Authors: Duan, Yuhua 1 ; Leske, Jonathan 2 + Show Author Affiliations ...

  20. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium-air batteries

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Chen, Zonghai; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2016-06-07

    A lithium-air cell includes a negative electrode; an air positive electrode; and a non-aqueous electrolyte which includes an anion receptor that may be represented by one or more of the formulas. ##STR00001##