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Sample records for karlsruhe atmospheric mesoscale

  1. Karlsruhe Institute for Industrial Production | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Karlsruhe Institute for Industrial Production Jump to: navigation, search Name: Karlsruhe Institute for Industrial Production Place: Karlsruhe, Germany Zip: 76187 Product: String...

  2. Using Mesoscale Weather Model Output as Boundary Conditions for Atmospheric Large-Eddy Simulations and Wind-Plant Aerodynamic Simulations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churchfield, M. J.; Michalakes, J.; Vanderwende, B.; Lee, S.; Sprague, M. A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Moriarty, P. J.

    2013-10-01

    Wind plant aerodynamics are directly affected by the microscale weather, which is directly influenced by the mesoscale weather. Microscale weather refers to processes that occur within the atmospheric boundary layer with the largest scales being a few hundred meters to a few kilometers depending on the atmospheric stability of the boundary layer. Mesoscale weather refers to large weather patterns, such as weather fronts, with the largest scales being hundreds of kilometers wide. Sometimes microscale simulations that capture mesoscale-driven variations (changes in wind speed and direction over time or across the spatial extent of a wind plant) are important in wind plant analysis. In this paper, we present our preliminary work in coupling a mesoscale weather model with a microscale atmospheric large-eddy simulation model. The coupling is one-way beginning with the weather model and ending with a computational fluid dynamics solver using the weather model in coarse large-eddy simulation mode as an intermediary. We simulate one hour of daytime moderately convective microscale development driven by the mesoscale data, which are applied as initial and boundary conditions to the microscale domain, at a site in Iowa. We analyze the time and distance necessary for the smallest resolvable microscales to develop.

  3. THE SIMULATION OF FINE SCALE NOCTURNAL BOUNDARY LAYER MOTIONS WITH A MESO-SCALE ATMOSPHERIC MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werth, D.; Kurzeja, R.; Parker, M.

    2009-04-02

    A field project over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement-Clouds and Radiation Testbed (ARM-CART) site during a period of several nights in September, 2007 was conducted to explore the evolution of the low-level jet (LLJ). Data was collected from a tower and a sodar and analyzed for turbulent behavior. To study the full range of nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) behavior, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) was used to simulate the ARM-CART NBL field experiment and validated against the data collected from the site. This model was run at high resolution, and is ideal for calculating the interactions among the various motions within the boundary layer and their influence on the surface. The model reproduces adequately the synoptic situation and the formation and dissolution cycles of the low-level jet, although it suffers from insufficient cloud production and excessive nocturnal cooling. The authors suggest that observed heat flux data may further improve the realism of the simulations both in the cloud formation and in the jet characteristics. In a higher resolution simulation, the NBL experiences motion on a range of timescales as revealed by a wavelet analysis, and these are affected by the presence of the LLJ. The model can therefore be used to provide information on activity throughout the depth of the NBL.

  4. Technologiefabrik Karlsruhe GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Name: Technologiefabrik Karlsruhe GmbH Place: Germany Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Government Public sector ) References: Technologiefabrik...

  5. Raman spectroscopy at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schloesser, M.; Bornschein, B.; Fischer, S.; Kassel, F.; Rupp, S.; Sturm, M.; James, T.M.; Telle, H.H.

    2015-03-15

    Raman spectroscopy is employed successfully for analysis of hydrogen isotopologues at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). Raman spectroscopy is based on the inelastic scattering of photons off molecules. Energy is transferred to the molecules as rotational/vibrational excitation being characteristic for each type of molecule. Thus, qualitative analysis is possible from the Raman shifted light, while quantitative information can be obtained from the signal intensities. After years of research and development, the technique is now well-advanced providing fast (< 10 s), precise (< 0.1%) and true (< 3%) compositional analysis of gas mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues. In this paper, we summarize the recent achievements in the further development on this technique, and the various applications for which it is used at TLK. Raman spectroscopy has evolved as a versatile, highly accurate key method for quantitative analysis complementing the port-folio of analytic techniques at the TLK.

  6. SciTech Connect: mesoscale

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mesoscale Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: mesoscale Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator Author:...

  7. Poster Sessions J. Dudhia Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    J. Dudhia Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, CO 80307-3000 Introduction The concept of an Integrated Data Assimilation and Sounding System (IDASS) ensures that the needs of data collection are partly determined by the requirements of an assimilating mesoscale model. Hence, the sounding strategy is geared towards allowing the model to do the best possible job in representing the atmosphere over CART sites, for example. It is not clear a

  8. Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments Title: Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments Authors: Bahns, ...

  9. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  10. Mesoscale Simulations of Coarsening in GB Networks

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Mukul Kumar is the Principal Investigator for Mesoscale Simulations of Coarsening in GB Networks LLNL BES Programs Highlight Mesoscale Simulations of Coarsening in GB Networks The...

  11. Mesoscale magnetism (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mesoscale magnetism This content will become publicly available on March 16, 2017 Prev Next Title: Mesoscale magnetism Authors: Hoffmann, Axel ; Schulthei, Helmut ...

  12. Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments Authors: ...

  13. Acoustic Characterization of Mesoscale Objects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chinn, D; Huber, R; Chambers, D; Cole, G; Balogun, O; Spicer, J; Murray, T

    2007-03-13

    This report describes the science and engineering performed to provide state-of-the-art acoustic capabilities for nondestructively characterizing mesoscale (millimeter-sized) objects--allowing micrometer resolution over the objects entire volume. Materials and structures used in mesoscale objects necessitate the use of (1) GHz acoustic frequencies and (2) non-contacting laser generation and detection of acoustic waves. This effort demonstrated that acoustic methods at gigahertz frequencies have the necessary penetration depth and spatial resolution to effectively detect density discontinuities, gaps, and delaminations. A prototype laser-based ultrasonic system was designed and built. The system uses a micro-chip laser for excitation of broadband ultrasonic waves with frequency components reaching 1.0 GHz, and a path-stabilized Michelson interferometer for detection. The proof-of-concept for mesoscale characterization is demonstrated by imaging a micro-fabricated etched pattern in a 70 {micro}m thick silicon wafer.

  14. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact Title: Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp

  15. Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments Bahns, J. T.; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S.; Gray, S. K.; Chen, L. Not Available American Physical Society None USDOE...

  16. Secure Long Term Storage of Waste Products at the Karlsruhe Research Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graf, A.; Merx, H.; Valencia, L.

    2002-02-27

    Due to the political situation in Germany there will presumably be no final disposal for radioactive waste in the next 30 years. This means, that the operators of nuclear facilities have to ensure a secure long term intermediate storage for radioactive waste products. The Karlsruhe Research Center operated and cooperated with different nuclear research facilities and laboratories with hot cells, which are now dismantled. During operation and decommissioning of the nuclear facilities radioactive waste was produced. The Central Decontamination Department (HDB) of the Research Center Karlsruhe has been conditioning radioactive waste into waste products for final disposal. Until the opening of a final disposal the resulting waste products will have to be stored at the HDB. To ensure secure long term storage, quality preserving measures will have to be taken. For example, the corrosion-preventing coating of the containers has to be kept intact. In case of damage the container has to be repaired or should be replaced. Another long term protection measure is the casting of drums in concrete inside the containers. This provides an additional barrier layer in case of drum corrosion. At HDB 46,500 m{sup 3} of radioactive waste products are in intermediate storage. The main project of the next few years will be the realization of the quality measures. In this paper the different methods are described in detail.

  17. In the OSTI Collections: Mesoscale Science | OSTI, US Dept of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mesoscale Science Article Acknowledgement: Dr. William N. Watson, Physicist DOE Office of ... Experiments and Tools Mesoscale science for defense Apparent requirements for ...

  18. DOE Science Showcase - Mesoscale | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mesoscale science entails the observation, understanding, and control of these ... FOR MESOSCALE SCIENCE, A Report from the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. ...

  19. Mesoscale modeling of fuel restructuring. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mesoscale modeling of fuel restructuring. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mesoscale modeling of fuel restructuring. Abstract not provided. Authors: Dingreville, Remi...

  20. STATISTICAL MECHANICS MODELING OF MESOSCALE DEFORMATION IN METALS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    STATISTICAL MECHANICS MODELING OF MESOSCALE DEFORMATION IN METALS Anter El-Azab 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE dislocation dynamics; mesoscale deformation of metals; crystal mechanics...

  1. From Quanta to the Continuum: Opportunities for Mesoscale Science...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Opportunities for Mesoscale Science Citation Details In-Document Search Title: From Quanta to the Continuum: Opportunities for Mesoscale Science This report explores the ...

  2. Coupling a Mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction Model with Large-Eddy Simulation for Realistic Wind Plant Aerodynamics Simulations (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draxl, C.; Churchfield, M.; Mirocha, J.; Lee, S.; Lundquist, J.; Michalakes, J.; Moriarty, P.; Purkayastha, A.; Sprague, M.; Vanderwende, B.

    2014-06-01

    Wind plant aerodynamics are influenced by a combination of microscale and mesoscale phenomena. Incorporating mesoscale atmospheric forcing (e.g., diurnal cycles and frontal passages) into wind plant simulations can lead to a more accurate representation of microscale flows, aerodynamics, and wind turbine/plant performance. Our goal is to couple a numerical weather prediction model that can represent mesoscale flow [specifically the Weather Research and Forecasting model] with a microscale LES model (OpenFOAM) that can predict microscale turbulence and wake losses.

  3. Protection of Operators and Environment - the Safety Concept of the Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant VEK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleisch, J.; Kuttruf, H.; Lumpp, W.; Pfeifer, W.; Roth, G.; Weisenburger, S.

    2002-02-26

    The Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant (VEK) plant is a milestone in decommissioning and complete dismantling of the former Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant WAK, which is in an advanced stage of disassembly. The VEK is scheduled to vitrify approx. 70 m3 of the highly radioactive liquid waste (HLW) resulting from reprocessing. Site preparation, civil work and component manufacturing began in 1999. The building will be finalized by mid of 2002, hot vitrification operation is currently scheduled for 2004/2005. Provisions against damages arising from construction and operation of the VEK had to be made in accordance with the state of the art as laid down in the German Atomic Law and the Radiation Protection Regulations. For this purpose, the appropriate analysis of accidents and their external and internal impacts were investigated. During the detailed design phase, a failure effects analysis was carried out, in which single events were studied with respect to the objectives of protection and ensuring activity containment, limiting radioactive discharges to the environment and protecting of the staff. Parallel to the planning phase of the VEK plant a cold prototype test facility (PVA) covering the main process steps was constructed and operated at the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) of FZK. This pilot operation served to demonstrate the process technique and its operation with a simulated waste solution, and to test the main items of equipment, but was conducted also to use the experimental data and experience to back the safety concept of the radioactive VEK plant. This paper describes the basis of the safety concept of the VEK plant and results of the failure effect analysis. The experimental simulation of the failure scenarios, their effect on the process behavior, and the controllability of these events as well as the effect of the results on the safety concept of VEK are discussed. Additionally, an overview of the actual status of civil work and manufacturing of

  4. A shallow convection parameterization for the non-hydrostatic MM5 mesoscale model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seaman, N.L.; Kain, J.S.; Deng, A.

    1996-04-01

    A shallow convection parameterization suitable for the Pennsylvannia State University (PSU)/National Center for Atmospheric Research nonhydrostatic mesoscale model (MM5) is being developed at PSU. The parameterization is based on parcel perturbation theory developed in conjunction with a 1-D Mellor Yamada 1.5-order planetary boundary layer scheme and the Kain-Fritsch deep convection model.

  5. MESOSCALE SIMULATIONS OF POWDER COMPACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomov, Ilya; Fujino, Don; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin

    2009-12-28

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of shock compaction of metal and ceramic powders have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating a well-characterized shock compaction experiment of a porous ductile metal. Simulation results using the Steinberg material model and handbook values for solid 2024 aluminum showed good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not as well studied as metals, so a simple material model for solid ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powders have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. The numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as that measured experimentally using VISAR. The numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line as observed in experiments. We found that for good quantitative agreement with experiments 3D simulations are essential.

  6. Impact of aerosol on mixed-phase stratocumulus during MPACE in a mesoscale

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    model with two-moment microphysics Impact of aerosol on mixed-phase stratocumulus during MPACE in a mesoscale model with two-moment microphysics Morrison, Hugh MMM/ASP National Center for Atmospheric Research Pinto, James University of Colorado Curry, Judith Georgia Institute of Technology Category: Modeling The Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model MM5 is coupled to a new microphysics scheme to examine the impact of aerosol on mixed-phase stratocumulus during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Stratus

  7. Mesoscale Simulations of Power Compaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomov, I; Fujino, D; Antoun, T; Liu, B

    2009-08-06

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of metal and ceramic powder compaction in shock waves have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating shock compaction of porous well-characterized ductile metal using Steinberg material model. Results of the simulations with handbook values for parameters of solid 2024 aluminum have good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not so well studied as metals, so material model for ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been fitted to shock compression experiments of non-porous samples and further calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powder have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. Numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as measured with VISAR. Numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line also observed in experiments. They found that to receive good quantitative agreement with experiment it is essential to perform 3D simulations.

  8. Karlsruhe Database for Radioactive Wastes (KADABRA) - Accounting and Management System for Radioactive Waste Treatment - 12275

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himmerkus, Felix; Rittmeyer, Cornelia [WAK Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs- GmbH, 76339 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The data management system KADABRA was designed according to the purposes of the Cen-tral Decontamination Department (HDB) of the Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs-GmbH (WAK GmbH), which is specialized in the treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste. The layout considers the major treatment processes of the HDB as well as regulatory and legal requirements. KADABRA is designed as an SAG ADABAS application on IBM system Z mainframe. The main function of the system is the data management of all processes related to treatment, transfer and storage of radioactive material within HDB. KADABRA records the relevant data concerning radioactive residues, interim products and waste products as well as the production parameters relevant for final disposal. Analytical data from the laboratory and non destructive assay systems, that describe the chemical and radiological properties of residues, production batches, interim products as well as final waste products, can be linked to the respective dataset for documentation and declaration. The system enables the operator to trace the radioactive material through processing and storage. Information on the actual sta-tus of the material as well as radiological data and storage position can be gained immediately on request. A variety of programs accessed to the database allow the generation of individual reports on periodic or special request. KADABRA offers a high security standard and is constantly adapted to the recent requirements of the organization. (authors)

  9. Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe: administrative and technical framework for isotope laboratory operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welte, S.; Besserer, U.; Osenberg, D.; Wendel, J.

    2015-03-15

    Originally licensed in 1993 the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) is a unique pilot scale isotope laboratory focused on tritium handling and processing to conduct a variety of scientific experiments and development tasks in view of future fusion power plants. TLK currently operates 15 glove boxes of 125 m{sup 3} total volume in an experimental hall measuring nearly 1500 m{sup 2}. The tritium infrastructure, comprising of the tritium storage system, the tritium transfer system and the isotope separation system, is integrated into TLK as a closed loop system to supply tritium to the experiments. Having a license for handling of up to 40 g of tritium and a closed tritium processing loop, TLK is a unique institute in non-military tritium research. In order to fulfil all requirements regarding the license, a framework of regulations is applied as a basis for the operation of TLK, as well as the setup of new experiments and the design of components. This paper will give an overview on the framework of operation in view of licensing issues, as well as administrative and technical regulations mandatory to legally and reliably operate an isotope laboratory of this scale.

  10. Research on long term safety of nuclear waste disposal at the research center Karlsruhe, Germany

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gompper, Klaus; Bosbach, Dirk; Denecke, Melissa A.; Geckeis, Horst; Kienzler, Bernhard; Klenze, Reinhardt

    2007-07-01

    In Germany the safe disposal of radioactive waste is in the responsibility of the federal government. The R and D performed in the Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (INE) at the Research Center Karlsruhe contributes to the German provident research in the field of long-term safety for final disposal of high level heat producing nuclear wastes. INE's research is focused on the actinide elements and long lived fission products since these dominate the radiotoxicity over a long time. The research strategy synergistically combines fundamental science of aquatic radionuclide chemistry with applied investigations of real systems (waste form, host rock, aquifer), studied on laboratory scale and in underground laboratories. Because Germany has not yet selected a site for a high-level waste repository, all host rock formations under discussion in the international community (salt, hard rock, clay/tone) are investigated. Emphasis in long-term safety R and D at INE is on the development of actinide speciation methods and techniques in the trace concentration range. (authors)

  11. Mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B. (Center for Nanoscale Materials)

    2011-06-01

    In the midst of an exciting era of polymer nanoscience, where the development of materials and understanding of properties at the nanoscale remain a major R&D endeavor, there are several exciting phenomena that have been reported at the mesoscale (approximately an order of magnitude larger than the nanoscale). In this review article, we focus on mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films from the viewpoint of origination of structure formation, structure development and the interaction forces that govern these morphologies. Mesoscale morphologies, including dendrites, holes, spherulites, fractals and honeycomb structures have been observed in thin films of homopolymer, copolymer, blends and composites. Following a largely phenomenological level of description, we review the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of mesostructure formation outlining some of the key mechanisms at play. We also discuss various strategies to direct, limit, or inhibit the appearance of mesostructures in polymer thin films as well as an outlook toward potential areas of growth in this field of research.

  12. THE APPLICATION OF AN EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHM TO THE OPTIMIZATION OF A MESOSCALE METEOROLOGICAL MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werth, D.; O'Steen, L.

    2008-02-11

    We show that a simple evolutionary algorithm can optimize a set of mesoscale atmospheric model parameters with respect to agreement between the mesoscale simulation and a limited set of synthetic observations. This is illustrated using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). A set of 23 RAMS parameters is optimized by minimizing a cost function based on the root mean square (rms) error between the RAMS simulation and synthetic data (observations derived from a separate RAMS simulation). We find that the optimization can be efficient with relatively modest computer resources, thus operational implementation is possible. The optimization efficiency, however, is found to depend strongly on the procedure used to perturb the 'child' parameters relative to their 'parents' within the evolutionary algorithm. In addition, the meteorological variables included in the rms error and their weighting are found to be an important factor with respect to finding the global optimum.

  13. The characteristics of local atmospheric circulation around the Wolsung NPP in Korea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, G.B.; Lee, M.C.; Song, Y.I.

    1998-12-31

    The transport of air pollutants in coastal regions has been known to be strongly affected by the mesoscale atmospheric circulations such as sea-land breezes. These mesoscale atmospheric circulations depend on synoptic weather conditions. In this study, a three-dimensional sea-land breeze model was developed to evaluate the effects of the sea and land breezes on the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants in Korea. In the model, the hydrostatic primitive equations in the terrain-following coordinate system were used. The mesoscale atmospheric circulation simulation were carried out under various synoptic weather conditions for all seasons around the Wolsung nuclear power plant site.

  14. Mesoscale and Large-Eddy Simulations for Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marjanovic, N

    2011-02-22

    Operational wind power forecasting, turbine micrositing, and turbine design require high-resolution simulations of atmospheric flow over complex terrain. The use of both Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) and large-eddy (LES) simulations is explored for wind energy applications using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. To adequately resolve terrain and turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer, grid nesting is used to refine the grid from mesoscale to finer scales. This paper examines the performance of the grid nesting configuration, turbulence closures, and resolution (up to as fine as 100 m horizontal spacing) for simulations of synoptically and locally driven wind ramping events at a West Coast North American wind farm. Interestingly, little improvement is found when using higher resolution simulations or better resolved turbulence closures in comparison to observation data available for this particular site. This is true for week-long simulations as well, where finer resolution runs show only small changes in the distribution of wind speeds or turbulence intensities. It appears that the relatively simple topography of this site is adequately resolved by all model grids (even as coarse as 2.7 km) so that all resolutions are able to model the physics at similar accuracy. The accuracy of the results is shown in this paper to be more dependent on the parameterization of the land-surface characteristics such as soil moisture rather than on grid resolution.

  15. Mesoscale Modeling of Fuel Swelling and Restructuring: Coupling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    evolution and Mechanical Localization. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mesoscale Modeling of Fuel Swelling and Restructuring: Coupling Microstructure evolution and ...

  16. Meso-Scale during Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing Chen,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermal Properties and Beam-Particle Interaction at Meso-Scale during Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing Chen, Jian ORNL ORNL; Zheng, Lili ORNL ORNL; Feng, Zhili...

  17. From Quanta to the Continuum: Opportunities for Mesoscale Science...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Quanta to the Continuum: Opportunities for Mesoscale Science Crabtree, George Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sarrao, John Los Alamos National Lab....

  18. Challenge of Dynamic Mesoscale Imaging Barnes, Cris William ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes Project, and the Challenge of Dynamic Mesoscale Imaging Barnes, Cris William Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barber, John L. Los...

  19. Quanta to the Continuum: Opportunities for Mesoscale Science...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Quanta to the Continuum: Opportunities for Mesoscale Science Sarrao, John L Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crabtree, George Argonne National Laboratory 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE;...

  20. Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique Fluid particulate flows are common phenomena in nature and industry. ...

  1. Unusual lithiation and fracture behavior of silicon mesoscale...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Unusual lithiation and fracture behavior of silicon mesoscale pillars: roles of ultrathin ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Unusual lithiation and fracture behavior of ...

  2. Nesting large-eddy simulations within mesoscale simulations for wind energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundquist, J K; Mirocha, J D; Chow, F K; Kosovic, B; Lundquist, K A

    2008-09-08

    With increasing demand for more accurate atmospheric simulations for wind turbine micrositing, for operational wind power forecasting, and for more reliable turbine design, simulations of atmospheric flow with resolution of tens of meters or higher are required. These time-dependent large-eddy simulations (LES), which resolve individual atmospheric eddies on length scales smaller than turbine blades and account for complex terrain, are possible with a range of commercial and open-source software, including the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In addition to 'local' sources of turbulence within an LES domain, changing weather conditions outside the domain can also affect flow, suggesting that a mesoscale model provide boundary conditions to the large-eddy simulations. Nesting a large-eddy simulation within a mesoscale model requires nuanced representations of turbulence. Our group has improved the Weather and Research Forecasting model's (WRF) LES capability by implementing the Nonlinear Backscatter and Anisotropy (NBA) subfilter stress model following Kosovic (1997) and an explicit filtering and reconstruction technique to compute the Resolvable Subfilter-Scale (RSFS) stresses (following Chow et al, 2005). We have also implemented an immersed boundary method (IBM) in WRF to accommodate complex terrain. These new models improve WRF's LES capabilities over complex terrain and in stable atmospheric conditions. We demonstrate approaches to nesting LES within a mesoscale simulation for farms of wind turbines in hilly regions. Results are sensitive to the nesting method, indicating that care must be taken to provide appropriate boundary conditions, and to allow adequate spin-up of turbulence in the LES domain.

  3. Generation of mesoscale convective structures in tokamak edge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Smolyakov, A. I. [University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2007-10-15

    It is shown that the interplay of the interchange drive and nonlinear effects of Reynolds stress and inverse cascade of drift wave turbulence select a range of plasma parameters (plasma pressure), for which mesoscale perturbations of a certain transverse length scale become unstable. It is suggested that the blob formation is a result of these mesoscale instabilities.

  4. Mesoscale Engineering of Nanocomposite Nonlinear Optical Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afonso, C.N.; Feldman, L.C.; Gonella, F.; Haglund, R.F.; Luepke, G.; Magruder, R.H.; Mazzoldi, P.; Osborne, D.H.; Solis, J.; Zuhr, R.A.

    1999-11-01

    Complex nonlinear optical materials comprising elemental, compound or alloy quantum dots embedded in appropriate dielectric or semiconducting hosts may be suitable for deployment in photonic devices. Ion implantation, ion exchange followed by ion implantation, and pulsed laser deposition have ail been used to synthesize these materials. However, the correlation between the parameters of energetic-beam synthesis and the nonlinear optical properties is still very rudimentary when one starts to ask what is happening at nanoscale dimensions. Systems integration of complex nonlinear optical materials requires that the mesoscale materials science be well understood within the context of device structures. We discuss the effects of beam energy and energy density on quantum-dot size and spatial distribution, thermal conductivity, quantum-dot composition, crystallinity and defects - and, in turn, on the third-order optical susceptibility of the composite material. Examples from recent work in our laboratories are used to illustrate these effects.

  5. Removal efficiency of silver impregnated filter materials and performance of iodie filters in the off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Hoeflich, V.

    1997-08-01

    An almost quantitative retention of iodine is required in reprocessing plants. For the iodine removal in the off-gas streams of a reprocessing plant various sorption materials had been tested under realistic conditions in the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in cooperation with the Karlsruhe research center FZK. The laboratory results achieved with different iodine sorption materials justified long time performance tests in the WAK Plant. Technical iodine filters and sorption materials for measurements of iodine had been tested from 1972 through 1992. This paper gives an overview over the most important results, Extended laboratory, pilot plant, hot cell and plant experiences have been performed concerning the behavior and the distribution of iodine-129 in chemical processing plants. In a conventional reprocessing plant for power reactor fuel, the bulk of iodine-129 and iodine-127 is evolved into the dissolver off-gas. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and gaseous process and waste streams of the plant. Iodine filters with silver nitrate impregnated silica were installed in the dissolver off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in 1975 and in two vessel vent systems in 1988. The aim of the Karlsruhe iodine research program was an almost quantitative evolution of the iodine during the dissolution process to remove as much iodine with the solid bed filters as possible. After shut down of the WAK plant in December 1990 the removal efficiency of the iodine filters at low iodine concentrations had been investigated during the following years. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. From Quanta to the Continuum: Opportunities for Mesoscale Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crabtree, George; Sarrao, John; Alivisatos, Paul; Barletta, William; Bates, Frank; Brown, Gordon; French, Roger; Greene, Laura; Hemminger, John; Kastner, Marc; Kay, Bruce; Lewis, Jennifer; Ratner, Mark; Anthony, Rollett; Rubloff, Gary; Spence, John; Tobias, Douglas; Tranquada, John

    2012-09-01

    This report explores the opportunity and defines the research agenda for mesoscale science—discovering, understanding, and controlling interactions among disparate systems and phenomena to reach the full potential of materials complexity and functionality. The ability to predict and control mesoscale phenomena and architectures is essential if atomic and molecular knowledge is to blossom into a next generation of technology opportunities, societal benefits, and scientific advances.. The body of this report outlines the need, the opportunities, the challenges, and the benefits of mastering mesoscale science.

  7. Plant Decontamination as a Precondition of the Remote Dismantling Concept of the Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant VEK - 12206

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dux, Joachim; Fleisch, Joachim; Latzko, Bernhard; Rohleder, Norbert

    2012-07-01

    Vitrification of the high-active liquid waste concentrates (HAWC) was a major milestone in the WAK decommissioning project (StiWAK). From September 2009 to June 2010, about 56 m{sup 3} of HAWC were vitrified at the Karlsruhe vitrification facility (VEK) and filled into 123 canisters. HAWC vitrification was followed by an extensive rinsing and shutdown program, in the course of which both the VEK process installations and the facilities for the storage and evaporation of high-active fission product solutions (LAVA) are prepared specifically for dismantling. Finally the rinsing programme leads to an overall reduction of the remaining contamination in the installations by a factor of approx. 5 - 10. The amount of liquids arisen from this program has been vitrified and another 17 canisters have been filled. In total, 140 canisters were packed into 5 CASTOR casks that were already transported to the Zwischenlager Nord (interim store North) of EWN GmbH (ZLN) in the mid of February 2011. The melter of the VEK was already shut down in the late November 2010. (authors)

  8. Limitations of one-dimensional mesoscale PBL parameterizations in reproducing mountain-wave flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munoz-Esparza, Domingo; Sauer, Jeremy A.; Linn, Rodman R.; Kosovic, Branko

    2015-12-08

    In this study, mesoscale models are considered to be the state of the art in modeling mountain-wave flows. Herein, we investigate the role and accuracy of planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterizations in handling the interaction between large-scale mountain waves and the atmospheric boundary layer. To that end, we use recent large-eddy simulation (LES) results of mountain waves over a symmetric two-dimensional bell-shaped hill [Sauer et al., J. Atmos. Sci. (2015)], and compare them to four commonly used PBL schemes. We find that one-dimensional PBL parameterizations produce reasonable agreement with the LES results in terms of vertical wavelength, amplitude of velocity and turbulent kinetic energy distribution in the downhill shooting flow region. However, the assumption of horizontal homogeneity in PBL parameterizations does not hold in the context of these complex flow configurations. This inappropriate modeling assumption results in a vertical wavelength shift producing errors of ≈ 10 m s–1 at downstream locations due to the presence of a coherent trapped lee wave that does not mix with the atmospheric boundary layer. In contrast, horizontally-integrated momentum flux derived from these PBL schemes displays a realistic pattern. Therefore results from mesoscale models using ensembles of one-dimensional PBL schemes can still potentially be used to parameterize drag effects in general circulation models. Nonetheless, three-dimensional PBL schemes must be developed in order for mesoscale models to accurately represent complex-terrain and other types of flows where one-dimensional PBL assumptions are violated.

  9. Limitations of one-dimensional mesoscale PBL parameterizations in reproducing mountain-wave flows

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Munoz-Esparza, Domingo; Sauer, Jeremy A.; Linn, Rodman R.; Kosovic, Branko

    2016-07-01

    In this study, mesoscale models are considered to be the state of the art in modeling mountain-wave flows. Herein, we investigate the role and accuracy of planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterizations in handling the interaction between large-scale mountain waves and the atmospheric boundary layer. To that end, we use recent large-eddy simulation (LES) results of mountain waves over a symmetric two-dimensional bell-shaped hill [Sauer et al., J. Atmos. Sci. (2015)], and compare them to four commonly used PBL schemes. We find that one-dimensional PBL parameterizations produce reasonable agreement with the LES results in terms of vertical wavelength, amplitude of velocitymore » and turbulent kinetic energy distribution in the downhill shooting flow region. However, the assumption of horizontal homogeneity in PBL parameterizations does not hold in the context of these complex flow configurations. This inappropriate modeling assumption results in a vertical wavelength shift producing errors of ≈ 10 m s–1 at downstream locations due to the presence of a coherent trapped lee wave that does not mix with the atmospheric boundary layer. In contrast, horizontally-integrated momentum flux derived from these PBL schemes displays a realistic pattern. Therefore results from mesoscale models using ensembles of one-dimensional PBL schemes can still potentially be used to parameterize drag effects in general circulation models. Nonetheless, three-dimensional PBL schemes must be developed in order for mesoscale models to accurately represent complex-terrain and other types of flows where one-dimensional PBL assumptions are violated.« less

  10. Phase Effects on Mesoscale Object X-ray Absorption Images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martz, Jr., H E; Aufderheide, M B; Barty, A; Lehman, S K; Kozioziemski, B J; Schneberk, D J

    2004-09-24

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory particular emphasis is being placed on the nondestructive characterization (NDC) of 'mesoscale' objects.[Martz and Albrecht 2003] We define mesoscale objects as objects that have mm extent with {micro}m features. Here we confine our discussions to x-ray imaging methods applicable to mesoscale object characterization. The goal is object recovery algorithms including phase to enable emerging high-spatial resolution x-ray imaging methods to ''see'' inside or image mesoscale-size materials and objects. To be successful our imaging characterization effort must be able to recover the object function to one micrometer or better spatial resolution over a few millimeters field-of-view with very high contrast.

  11. Data assimilation of a ten-day period during June 1993 over the Southern Great Plains Site using a nested mesoscale model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudhia, J.; Guo, Y.R.

    1996-04-01

    A goal of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has been to obtain a complete representation of physical processes on the scale of a general circulation model (GCM) grid box in order to better parameterize radiative processes in these models. Since an observational network of practical size cannot be used alone to characterize the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site`s 3D structure and time development, data assimilation using the enhanced observations together with a mesoscale model is used to give a full 4D analysis at high resolution. The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5) has been applied over a ten-day continuous period in a triple-nested mode with grid sizes of 60, 20 and 6.67 in. The outer domain covers the United States` 48 contiguous states; the innermost is a 480-km square centered on Lamont, Oklahoma. A simulation has been run with data assimilation using the Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System (MAPS) 60-km analyses from the Forecast Systems Laboratory (FSL) of the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The nested domains take boundary conditions from and feed back continually to their parent meshes (i.e., they are two-way interactive). As reported last year, this provided a simulation of the basic features of mesoscale events over the CART site during the period 16-26 June 1993 when an Intensive Observation Period (IOP) was under way.

  12. Mesoscale Modeling Framework Design: Subcontract Report (Technical Report)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Mesoscale Modeling Framework Design: Subcontract Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mesoscale Modeling Framework Design: Subcontract Report Authors: Chen, L Q ; Tang, M ; Heo, T W ; Wood, B C Publication Date: 2014-01-09 OSTI Identifier: 1116973 Report Number(s): LLNL-SR-648484 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of

  13. Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lagrange Multiplier Technique (Conference) | SciTech Connect Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique Fluid particulate flows are common phenomena in nature and industry. Modeling of such flows at micro and macro levels as well establishing relationships between these approaches are needed to

  14. Mesoscale simulations of particulate flows with parallel distributed

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lagrange multiplier technique (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Mesoscale simulations of particulate flows with parallel distributed Lagrange multiplier technique Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mesoscale simulations of particulate flows with parallel distributed Lagrange multiplier technique Authors: Kanarska, Y ; Lomov, I ; Antoun, T Publication Date: 2010-09-10 OSTI Identifier: 1120915 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-455392 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48

  15. Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments Authors: Bahns, J. T. ; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S. ; Gray, S. K. ; Chen, L. Publication Date: 2011-02-28 OSTI Identifier: 1099937 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review Letters Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 106; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN

  16. Integrated Mesoscale Architectures for Sustainable Catalysis (IMASC) | U.S.

    Office of Science (SC) [DOE]

    DOE Office of Science (SC) Integrated Mesoscale Architectures for Sustainable Catalysis (IMASC) Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers EFRC External Websites Research Science Highlights News & Events Publications History Contact BES Home Centers Integrated Mesoscale Architectures for Sustainable Catalysis (IMASC) Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page IMASC Header Director Cynthia Friend Lead Institution Harvard University Year Established 2014 Mission To drive

  17. Silicon Micromachined Dimensional Calibration Artifact for Mesoscale Measurement Machines

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Silicon Micromachined Dimensional Calibration Artifact for Mesoscale Measurement Machines 1 Silicon Micromachined Dimensional Calibration Artifact for Mesoscale Measurement Machines 2 Sandia National Laboratories PO Box 5800 Albuquerque, NM 87185 USA Hy D. Tran, PhD, PE Phone: (505)844-5417 Fax: (505)844-4372 hdtran@sandia.gov AFFIRMATION: I affirm that all information submitted as a part of, or supplemental to, this entry is a fair and accurate representation of this product.

  18. LDRD final report : mesoscale modeling of dynamic loading of heterogeneous

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    materials. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect LDRD final report : mesoscale modeling of dynamic loading of heterogeneous materials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: LDRD final report : mesoscale modeling of dynamic loading of heterogeneous materials. Material response to dynamic loading is often dominated by microstructure (grain structure, porosity, inclusions, defects). An example critically important to Sandia's mission is dynamic strength of polycrystalline metals where

  19. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Evaluation of mesoscale

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    model cloud simulations of the March 2000 IOP Evaluation of mesoscale model cloud simulations of the March 2000 IOP Tselioudis, George NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies A suite of mesoscale models was used to produce month-long runs of the March 2000 SGP IOP. The model cloud fields were evaluated against satellite and in-situ observations, using both monthly statistics of cloud properties and instantaneous cloud property distributions. It was found that compared to satellite

  20. Mesoscale modeling of solute precipitation and radiation damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yongfeng; Schwen, Daniel; Ke, Huibin; Bai, Xianming; Hales, Jason

    2015-09-01

    This report summarizes the low length scale effort during FY 2014 in developing mesoscale capabilities for microstructure evolution in reactor pressure vessels. During operation, reactor pressure vessels are subject to hardening and embrittlement caused by irradiation-induced defect accumulation and irradiation-enhanced solute precipitation. Both defect production and solute precipitation start from the atomic scale, and manifest their eventual effects as degradation in engineering-scale properties. To predict the property degradation, multiscale modeling and simulation are needed to deal with the microstructure evolution, and to link the microstructure feature to material properties. In this report, the development of mesoscale capabilities for defect accumulation and solute precipitation are summarized. Atomic-scale efforts that supply information for the mesoscale capabilities are also included.

  1. Co-Design at the Mesoscale: Opportunities for NSLS-II (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Co-Design at the Mesoscale: Opportunities for NSLS-II Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Co-Design at the Mesoscale: Opportunities for NSLS-II Authors: Sarrao,...

  2. Co-Design at the Mesoscale: Opportunities for NSLS-II (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Co-Design at the Mesoscale: Opportunities for NSLS-II Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Co-Design at the Mesoscale: Opportunities for NSLS-II You are...

  3. Co-Design at the Mesoscale: Opportunities for NSLS-II (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Co-Design at the Mesoscale: Opportunities for NSLS-II Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Co-Design at the Mesoscale: Opportunities for NSLS-II Authors: Sarrao, ...

  4. Quanta to the Continuum: Opportunities for Mesoscale Science (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Conference: Quanta to the Continuum: Opportunities for Mesoscale Science Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quanta to the Continuum: Opportunities for Mesoscale Science No abstract prepared. Authors: Sarrao, John L [1] ; Crabtree, George [2] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory Publication Date: 2012-09-06 OSTI Identifier: 1050503 Report Number(s): LA-UR-12-24565 TRN: US201218%%1487 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396

  5. Review of structure representation and reconstruction on mesoscale and microscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Dongsheng

    2014-05-01

    Structure representation and reconstruction on mesoscale and microscale is critical in material design, advanced manufacturing and multiscale modeling. Microstructure reconstruction has been applied in different areas of materials science and technology, structural materials, energy materials, geology, hydrology, etc. This review summarizes the microstructure descriptors and formulations used to represent and algorithms to reconstruct structures at microscale and mesoscale. In the stochastic methods using correlation function, different optimization approaches have been adapted for objective function minimization. A variety of reconstruction approaches are compared in efficiency and accuracy.

  6. GAP Flow Measurements During the Mesoscale Alpine Programme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayr, G.; Armi, L.; Arnold, S.; Banta, Robert M.; Darby, Lisa S.; Durran, D. D.; Flamant, C.; Gabersek, S.; Gohm, A.; Mayr, R.; Mobbs, S.; Nance, L. B.; Vergeiner, I.; Vergeiner, J.; Whiteman, Charles D.

    2004-04-30

    This article provides an overview of the Gap Flow sub-program of the Mesoscale Alpine Programme, a major international meteorological field experiment conducted in the European Alps. The article describes the initial results of an investigation of the wind flow through the Brenner Pass gap in the east-west oriented central section of the European Alps under conditions of south foehn. The overview describes the objectives of the experiments, the instrumentation used for the field investigation, and the mesoscale model simulations. Initial findings of the scientific program are provided.

  7. Evaluation of cloud prediction and determination of critical relative humidity for a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seaman, N.L.; Guo, Z.; Ackerman, T.P.

    1996-04-01

    Predictions of cloud occurrence and vertical location from the Pennsylvannia State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research nonhydrostatic mesoscale model (MM5) were evaluated statistically using cloud observations obtained at Coffeyville, Kansas, as part of the Second International satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment campaign. Seventeen cases were selected for simulation during a November-December 1991 field study. MM5 was used to produce two sets of 36-km simulations, one with and one without four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA), and a set of 12-km simulations without FDDA, but nested within the 36-km FDDA runs.

  8. Diagnostics from a 1-D atmospheric column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flatley, J.M.; Mace, G.

    1996-04-01

    Various diagnostics were computed from an array of radiosondes during an intensive field operation arranged by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. The network data was centered around the site at Lamont, Oklahoma. The apparent heat source and apparent moisture sink were computed and compared to the kinematic vertical velocity for both real data and the mesoscale analysis and prediction system. Three different case studies of various weathe regimes were examined.

  9. Assessment of MARMOT. A Mesoscale Fuel Performance Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonks, M. R.; Schwen, D.; Zhang, Y.; Chakraborty, P.; Bai, X.; Fromm, B.; Yu, J.; Teague, M. C.; Andersson, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    MARMOT is the mesoscale fuel performance code under development as part of the US DOE Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Program. In this report, we provide a high level summary of MARMOT, its capabilities, and its current state of validation. The purpose of MARMOT is to predict the coevolution of microstructure and material properties of nuclear fuel and cladding. It accomplished this using the phase field method coupled to solid mechanics and heat conduction. MARMOT is based on the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE), and much of its basic capability in the areas of the phase field method, mechanics, and heat conduction come directly from MOOSE modules. However, additional capability specific to fuel and cladding is available in MARMOT. While some validation of MARMOT has been completed in the areas of fission gas behavior and grain growth, much more validation needs to be conducted. However, new mesoscale data needs to be obtained in order to complete this validation.

  10. Thermodynamic properties of mesoscale convective systems observed during BAMEX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Correia, James; Arritt, R.

    2008-11-01

    Dropsonde observations from the Bow-echo and Mesoscale convective vortex EXperiment (BAMEX) are used to document the spatio-temporal variability of temperature, moisture and wind within mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). Onion type sounding structures are found throughout the stratiform region of MCSs but the temperature and moisture variability is large. Composite soundings were constructed and statistics of thermodynamic variability were generated within each sub-region of the MCS. The calculated air vertical velocity helped identify subsaturated downdrafts. We found that lapse rates within the cold pool varied markedly throughout the MCS. Layered wet bulb potential temperature profiles seem to indicate that air within the lowest several km comes from a variety of source regions. We also found that lapse rate transitions across the 0 C level were more common than isothermal, melting layers. We discuss the implications these findings have and how they can be used to validate future high resolution numerical simulations of MCSs.

  11. Quantum fluctuations and saturable absorption in mesoscale lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy-Choudhury, Kaushik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States); Levi, A. F. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-2533 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    We present a quantum-mechanical treatment of fluctuations and saturable absorption in mesoscale lasers. The time evolution of the density matrix is obtained from numerical integration and field-field and intensity-intensity correlations are calculated to obtain steady-state linewidth and photon statistics. Inclusion of a saturable absorber in the otherwise homogeneous medium is shown to suppress lasing, increase fluctuations, and enhance spontaneous emission near threshold.

  12. Mesoscale Modeling of LX-17 Under Isentropic Compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, H K; Willey, T M; Friedman, G; Fried, L E; Vandersall, K S; Baer, M R

    2010-03-06

    Mesoscale simulations of LX-17 incorporating different equilibrium mixture models were used to investigate the unreacted equation-of-state (UEOS) of TATB. Candidate TATB UEOS were calculated using the equilibrium mixture models and benchmarked with mesoscale simulations of isentropic compression experiments (ICE). X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) data provided the basis for initializing the simulations with realistic microstructural details. Three equilibrium mixture models were used in this study. The single constituent with conservation equations (SCCE) model was based on a mass-fraction weighted specific volume and the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The single constituent equation-of-state (SCEOS) model was based on a mass-fraction weighted specific volume and the equation-of-state of the constituents. The kinetic energy averaging (KEA) model was based on a mass-fraction weighted particle velocity mixture rule and the conservation equations. The SCEOS model yielded the stiffest TATB EOS (0.121{micro} + 0.4958{micro}{sup 2} + 2.0473{micro}{sup 3}) and, when incorporated in mesoscale simulations of the ICE, demonstrated the best agreement with VISAR velocity data for both specimen thicknesses. The SCCE model yielded a relatively more compliant EOS (0.1999{micro}-0.6967{micro}{sup 2} + 4.9546{micro}{sup 3}) and the KEA model yielded the most compliant EOS (0.1999{micro}-0.6967{micro}{sup 2}+4.9546{micro}{sup 3}) of all the equilibrium mixture models. Mesoscale simulations with the lower density TATB adiabatic EOS data demonstrated the least agreement with VISAR velocity data.

  13. Mesoscale modeling of metal-loaded high explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bdzil, John Bohdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lieberthal, Brandon [UNIV OF ILLINOIS; Srewart, Donald S [UNIV OF ILLINOIS

    2010-01-01

    We describe a 3D approach to modeling multi-phase blast explosive, which is primarily condensed explosive by volume with inert embedded particles. These embedded particles are uniform in size and placed on the array of a regular lattice. The asymptotic theory of detonation shock dynamics governs the detonation shock propagation in the explosive. Mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations are used to show how the particles are compressed, deformed, and accelerated by the high-speed detonation products flow.

  14. Explicit simulation of a midlatitude Mesoscale Convective System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander, G.D.; Cotton, W.R.

    1996-04-01

    We have explicitly simulated the mesoscale convective system (MCS) observed on 23-24 June 1985 during PRE-STORM, the Preliminary Regional Experiment for the Stormscale Operational and Research and Meterology Program. Stensrud and Maddox (1988), Johnson and Bartels (1992), and Bernstein and Johnson (1994) are among the researchers who have investigated various aspects of this MCS event. We have performed this MCS simulation (and a similar one of a tropical MCS; Alexander and Cotton 1994) in the spirit of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Cloud Systems Study (GCSS), in which cloud-resolving models are used to assist in the formulation and testing of cloud parameterization schemes for larger-scale models. In this paper, we describe (1) the nature of our 23-24 June MCS dimulation and (2) our efforts to date in using our explicit MCS simulations to assist in the development of a GCM parameterization for mesoscale flow branches. The paper is organized as follows. First, we discuss the synoptic situation surrounding the 23-24 June PRE-STORM MCS followed by a discussion of the model setup and results of our simulation. We then discuss the use of our MCS simulation. We then discuss the use of our MCS simulations in developing a GCM parameterization for mesoscale flow branches and summarize our results.

  15. Atmospheric Chemistry

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    chemistry Atmospheric Chemistry Atmospheric Chemistry is the study of the composition of the atmosphere, the sources and fates of gases and particles in air, and changes induced by ...

  16. Posters Single-Column Model for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites: Model

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Posters Single-Column Model for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites: Model Development and Sensitivity Test Q. Xu and M. Dong Cooperative Institute of Mesoscale Meteorological Studies University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma A single-column model (SCM) is constructed by extracting the physical subroutines from the community climate model (CCM1) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Using observational data obtained from the Oklahoma Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site

  17. A mesoscale analysis of the Rayleigh-Plateau instability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pao, Wenxiao (BU); Soteriou, Marios (UTRC); Li, Xiaoyi (UTRC); Karniadakis, George (BU); Arienti, Marco

    2010-11-01

    Capillary pinch-off results carried out with the Many-Body Dissipative Particle Dynamics (MDPD) method are compared with the two-phase continuum discretization of hydrodynamics. The MDPD method provides a mesoscale description of the liquid-gas interface -- molecules can be thought of as grouped in particles with modeled Brownian and dissipative effects. No liquid-gas interface is explicitly defined; surface properties, such as surface tension, result from the MDPD interaction parameters. In side-to-side comparisons, the behavior of the MDPD liquid is demonstrated to replicate the macroscale behavior (thin interface assumption) calculated by the Combined Level Set-Volume of Fluid (CLSVOF) method. For instance, in both the continuum and mesoscale discretizations the most unstable wavelength perturbation leads to pinch-off, whereas a smaller wavelength-to-diameter ratio, as expected, does not. The behavior of the virial pressure in MDPD will be discussed in relation to the hydrodynamic capillary pressure that results from the thin interface assumption.

  18. Mesoscale Benchmark Demonstration Problem 1: Mesoscale Simulations of Intra-granular Fission Gas Bubbles in UO2 under Post-irradiation Thermal Annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Montgomery, Robert; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin; Tonks, Michael; Biner, Bullent; Millet, Paul; Tikare, Veena; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Andersson , David

    2012-04-11

    A study was conducted to evaluate the capabilities of different numerical methods used to represent microstructure behavior at the mesoscale for irradiated material using an idealized benchmark problem. The purpose of the mesoscale benchmark problem was to provide a common basis to assess several mesoscale methods with the objective of identifying the strengths and areas of improvement in the predictive modeling of microstructure evolution. In this work, mesoscale models (phase-field, Potts, and kinetic Monte Carlo) developed by PNNL, INL, SNL, and ORNL were used to calculate the evolution kinetics of intra-granular fission gas bubbles in UO2 fuel under post-irradiation thermal annealing conditions. The benchmark problem was constructed to include important microstructural evolution mechanisms on the kinetics of intra-granular fission gas bubble behavior such as the atomic diffusion of Xe atoms, U vacancies, and O vacancies, the effect of vacancy capture and emission from defects, and the elastic interaction of non-equilibrium gas bubbles. An idealized set of assumptions was imposed on the benchmark problem to simplify the mechanisms considered. The capability and numerical efficiency of different models are compared against selected experimental and simulation results. These comparisons find that the phase-field methods, by the nature of the free energy formulation, are able to represent a larger subset of the mechanisms influencing the intra-granular bubble growth and coarsening mechanisms in the idealized benchmark problem as compared to the Potts and kinetic Monte Carlo methods. It is recognized that the mesoscale benchmark problem as formulated does not specifically highlight the strengths of the discrete particle modeling used in the Potts and kinetic Monte Carlo methods. Future efforts are recommended to construct increasingly more complex mesoscale benchmark problems to further verify and validate the predictive capabilities of the mesoscale modeling

  19. Mesoscale polycrystal calculations of damage in spallation in metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonks, Davis L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bingert, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Livescu, Veronica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, C A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this project is to produce a damage model for spallation in metals informed by the polycrystalline grain structure at the mesoscale. Earlier damage models addressed the continuwn macroscale in which these effects were averaged out. In this work we focus on cross sections from recovered samples examined with EBSD (electron backscattered diffraction), which reveal crystal grain orientations and voids. We seek to understand the loading histories of specific sample regions by meshing up the crystal grain structure of these regions and simulating the stress, strain, and damage histories in our hydro code, FLAG. The stresses and strain histories are the fundamental drivers of damage and must be calculated. The calculated final damage structures are compared with those from the recovered samples to validate the simulations.

  20. Predicting mesoscale microstructural evolution in electron beam welding

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Rodgers, Theron M.; Madison, Jonathan D.; Tikare, Veena; Maguire, Michael C.

    2016-03-16

    Using the kinetic Monte Carlo simulator, Stochastic Parallel PARticle Kinetic Simulator, from Sandia National Laboratories, a user routine has been developed to simulate mesoscale predictions of a grain structure near a moving heat source. Here, we demonstrate the use of this user routine to produce voxelized, synthetic, three-dimensional microstructures for electron-beam welding by comparing them with experimentally produced microstructures. When simulation input parameters are matched to experimental process parameters, qualitative and quantitative agreement for both grain size and grain morphology are achieved. The method is capable of simulating both single- and multipass welds. As a result, the simulations provide anmore » opportunity for not only accelerated design but also the integration of simulation and experiments in design such that simulations can receive parameter bounds from experiments and, in turn, provide predictions of a resultant microstructure.« less

  1. Center for Mesoscale Transport Properties (m2M) | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) [DOE]

    mesoscale (m2m); to minimize heat and maximize work of electrical energy storage devices. ... GrandChallenge 2 Grand Challenge 2 BES Reports Electrical Energy Storage Science for ...

  2. MaRIE: A facility for time-dependent materials science at the mesoscale

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: MaRIE: A facility for time-dependent materials science at the mesoscale Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MaRIE: A facility for time-dependent materials science at the mesoscale To meet new and emerging national security issues the Laboratory is stepping up to meet another grand challenge-transitioning from observing to controlling a material's performance. This challenge requires the best of experiment, modeling, simulation,

  3. Linking atomistic and mesoscale simulations of nanocrystalline materials : quantitative validation for the case of grain growth.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moldovan, D.; Wolf, D.; Phillpot, S. R.; Materials Science Division; Louisiana State Univ.

    2003-11-01

    Using grain growth in nanocrystalline palladium as a simple case study, we demonstrate how a novel mesoscale approach for simulating microstructural evolution in polycrystalline materials can be validated directly against atomic-level simulations of the same system. We first describe molecular dynamics simulations of grain growth in a columnar model microstructure. The atomic-level insights into the grain-growth mechanism gained from these simulations, particularly in the role of grain rotations, are captured theoretically for incorporation into the mesoscale approach, in which the objects evolving in space and time are the grain boundaries and grain junctions rather than the atoms. With all the input parameters to the mesoscale being physically well defined and obtained directly from the atomic-level simulations, the mesoscale simulations are fully prescribed. We find that the morphology of the mesoscale system evolves in an almost identical manner with that of the molecular dynamics simulation, demonstrating that the length- and time-scale linking has been performed correctly. When applied to systems containing large numbers of grains, the now validated mesoscale simulation approach allows the growth topology and long-time growth kinetics to be determined. As an outlook, we describe how the effects of applied stress can be incorporated.

  4. Top-down estimate of methane emissions in California using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: The South Coast Air Basin

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Cui, Yu Yan; Brioude, Jerome; McKeen, Stuart A.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Kim, Si -Wan; Frost, Gregory J.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Peischl, Jeff; Bousserez, Nicolas; Liu, Zhen; et al

    2015-07-28

    Methane (CH4) is the primary component of natural gas and has a larger global warming potential than CO2. Some recent top-down studies based on observations showed CH4 emissions in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) were greater than those expected from population-apportioned bottom-up state inventories. In this study, we quantify CH4 emissions with an advanced mesoscale inverse modeling system at a resolution of 8 km × 8 km, using aircraft measurements in the SoCAB during the 2010 Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change campaign to constrain the inversion. To simulate atmospheric transport, we use the FLEXible PARTicle-Weather Research andmore » Forecasting (FLEXPART-WRF) Lagrangian particle dispersion model driven by three configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. We determine surface fluxes of CH4 using a Bayesian least squares method in a four-dimensional inversion. Simulated CH4 concentrations with the posterior emission inventory achieve much better correlations with the measurements (R2 = 0.7) than using the prior inventory (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory 2005, R2 = 0.5). The emission estimates for CH4 in the posterior, 46.3 ± 9.2 Mg CH4/h, are consistent with published observation-based estimates. Changes in the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the SoCAB between the prior and posterior inventories are discussed. Missing or underestimated emissions from dairies, the oil/gas system, and landfills in the SoCAB seem to explain the differences between the prior and posterior inventories. Furthermore, we estimate that dairies contributed 5.9 ± 1.7 Mg CH4/h and the two sectors of oil and gas industries (production and downstream) and landfills together contributed 39.6 ± 8.1 Mg CH4/h in the SoCAB.« less

  5. Meso-scale modeling of irradiated concrete in test reactor

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Giorla, Alain B.; Vaitová, M.; Le Pape, Yann; Štemberk, P.

    2015-10-18

    In this paper, we detail a numerical model accounting for the effects of neutron irradiation on concrete at the mesoscale. Irradiation experiments in test reactor (Elleuch et al.,1972), i.e., in accelerated conditions, are simulated. Concrete is considered as a two-phase material made of elastic inclusions (aggregate) subjected to thermal and irradiation-induced swelling and embedded in a cementitious matrix subjected to shrinkage and thermal expansion. The role of the hardened cement paste in the post-peak regime (brittle-ductile transition with decreasing loading rate), and creep effects are investigated. Radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) of the aggregate cause the development and propagation of damagemore » around the aggregate which further develops in bridging cracks across the hardened cement paste between the individual aggregate particles. The development of damage is aggravated when shrinkage occurs simultaneously with RIVE during the irradiation experiment. The post-irradiation expansion derived from the simulation is well correlated with the experimental data and, the obtained damage levels are fully consistent with previous estimations based on a micromechanical interpretation of the experimental post-irradiation elastic properties (Le Pape et al.,2015). In conclusion, the proposed modeling opens new perspectives for the interpretation of test reactor experiments in regards to the actual operation of light water reactors.« less

  6. Meso-scale modeling of irradiated concrete in test reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giorla, Alain B.; Vaitová, M.; Le Pape, Yann; Štemberk, P.

    2015-10-18

    In this paper, we detail a numerical model accounting for the effects of neutron irradiation on concrete at the mesoscale. Irradiation experiments in test reactor (Elleuch et al.,1972), i.e., in accelerated conditions, are simulated. Concrete is considered as a two-phase material made of elastic inclusions (aggregate) subjected to thermal and irradiation-induced swelling and embedded in a cementitious matrix subjected to shrinkage and thermal expansion. The role of the hardened cement paste in the post-peak regime (brittle-ductile transition with decreasing loading rate), and creep effects are investigated. Radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) of the aggregate cause the development and propagation of damage around the aggregate which further develops in bridging cracks across the hardened cement paste between the individual aggregate particles. The development of damage is aggravated when shrinkage occurs simultaneously with RIVE during the irradiation experiment. The post-irradiation expansion derived from the simulation is well correlated with the experimental data and, the obtained damage levels are fully consistent with previous estimations based on a micromechanical interpretation of the experimental post-irradiation elastic properties (Le Pape et al.,2015). In conclusion, the proposed modeling opens new perspectives for the interpretation of test reactor experiments in regards to the actual operation of light water reactors.

  7. MICRO-SEISMOMETERS VIA ADVANCED MESO-SCALE FABRICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, Caesar A; Onaran, Guclu; Avenson, Brad; Hall, Neal

    2014-11-07

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) seek revolutionary sensing innovations for the monitoring of nuclear detonations. Performance specifications are to be consistent with those obtainable by only an elite few products available today, but with orders of magnitude reduction in size, weight, power, and cost. The proposed commercial innovation calls upon several technologies including the combination of meso-scale fabrication and assembly, photonics-based displacement / motion detection methods, and the use of digital control electronics . Early Phase II development has demonstrated verified and repeatable sub 2ng noise floor from 3Hz to 100Hz, compact integration of 3-axis prototypes, and robust deployment exercises. Ongoing developments are focusing on low frequency challenges, low power consumption, ultra-miniature size, and low cross axis sensitivity. We are also addressing the rigorous set of specifications required for repeatable and reliable long-term explosion monitoring, including thermal stability, reduced recovery time from mass re-centering and large mechanical shocks, sensitivity stability, and transportability. Successful implementation will result in small, hand-held demonstration units with the ability to address national security needs of the DOE/NNSA. Additional applications envisioned include military/defense, scientific instrumentation, oil and gas exploration, inertial navigation, and civil infrastructure monitoring.

  8. Co-Design at the Mesoscale: Opportunities for NSLS-II (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Conference: Co-Design at the Mesoscale: Opportunities for NSLS-II Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Co-Design at the Mesoscale: Opportunities for NSLS-II Authors: Sarrao, John L. [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2013-08-15 OSTI Identifier: 1090634 Report Number(s): LA-UR-13-26447 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: NSLS-II First Experiments Workshop ; 2013-08-12 -

  9. A Coupling Methodology for Mesoscale-informed Nuclear Fuel Performance Codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Tonks; Derek Gaston; Cody Permann; Paul Millett; Glen Hansen; Dieter Wolf

    2010-10-01

    This study proposes an approach for capturing the effect of microstructural evolution on reactor fuel performance by coupling a mesoscale irradiated microstructure model with a finite element fuel performance code. To achieve this, the macroscale system is solved in a parallel, fully coupled, fully-implicit manner using the preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton Krylov (JFNK) method. Within the JFNK solution algorithm, microstructure-influenced material parameters are calculated by the mesoscale model and passed back to the macroscale calculation. Due to the stochastic nature of the mesoscale model, a dynamic fitting technique is implemented to smooth roughness in the calculated material parameters. The proposed methodology is demonstrated on a simple model of a reactor fuel pellet. In the model, INLs BISON fuel performance code calculates the steady-state temperature profile in a fuel pellet and the microstructure-influenced thermal conductivity is determined with a phase field model of irradiated microstructures. This simple multiscale model demonstrates good nonlinear convergence and near ideal parallel scalability. By capturing the formation of large mesoscale voids in the pellet interior, the multiscale model predicted the irradiation-induced reduction in the thermal conductivity commonly observed in reactors.

  10. Top-down estimate of methane emissions in California using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: The South Coast Air Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Yu Yan; Brioude, Jerome; McKeen, Stuart A.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Kim, Si -Wan; Frost, Gregory J.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Peischl, Jeff; Bousserez, Nicolas; Liu, Zhen; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Wofsy, Steve C.; Santoni, Gregory W.; Kort, Eric A.; Fischer, Marc L.; Trainer, Michael

    2015-07-28

    Methane (CH4) is the primary component of natural gas and has a larger global warming potential than CO2. Some recent top-down studies based on observations showed CH4 emissions in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) were greater than those expected from population-apportioned bottom-up state inventories. In this study, we quantify CH4 emissions with an advanced mesoscale inverse modeling system at a resolution of 8 km 8 km, using aircraft measurements in the SoCAB during the 2010 Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change campaign to constrain the inversion. To simulate atmospheric transport, we use the FLEXible PARTicle-Weather Research and Forecasting (FLEXPART-WRF) Lagrangian particle dispersion model driven by three configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. We determine surface fluxes of CH4 using a Bayesian least squares method in a four-dimensional inversion. Simulated CH4 concentrations with the posterior emission inventory achieve much better correlations with the measurements (R2 = 0.7) than using the prior inventory (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory 2005, R2 = 0.5). The emission estimates for CH4 in the posterior, 46.3 9.2 Mg CH4/h, are consistent with published observation-based estimates. Changes in the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the SoCAB between the prior and posterior inventories are discussed. Missing or underestimated emissions from dairies, the oil/gas system, and landfills in the SoCAB seem to explain the differences between the prior and posterior inventories. Furthermore, we estimate that dairies contributed 5.9 1.7 Mg CH4/h and the two sectors of oil and gas industries (production and downstream) and landfills together contributed 39.6 8.1 Mg CH4/h in the SoCAB.

  11. Top-down estimate of methane emissions in California using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: The South Coast Air Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Yu Yan; Brioude, Jerome; McKeen, Stuart A.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Kim, Si -Wan; Frost, Gregory J.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Peischl, Jeff; Bousserez, Nicolas; Liu, Zhen; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Wofsy, Steve C.; Santoni, Gregory W.; Kort, Eric A.; Fischer, Marc L.; Trainer, Michael

    2015-07-28

    Methane (CH4) is the primary component of natural gas and has a larger global warming potential than CO2. Some recent top-down studies based on observations showed CH4 emissions in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) were greater than those expected from population-apportioned bottom-up state inventories. In this study, we quantify CH4 emissions with an advanced mesoscale inverse modeling system at a resolution of 8 km × 8 km, using aircraft measurements in the SoCAB during the 2010 Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change campaign to constrain the inversion. To simulate atmospheric transport, we use the FLEXible PARTicle-Weather Research and Forecasting (FLEXPART-WRF) Lagrangian particle dispersion model driven by three configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. We determine surface fluxes of CH4 using a Bayesian least squares method in a four-dimensional inversion. Simulated CH4 concentrations with the posterior emission inventory achieve much better correlations with the measurements (R2 = 0.7) than using the prior inventory (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory 2005, R2 = 0.5). The emission estimates for CH4 in the posterior, 46.3 ± 9.2 Mg CH4/h, are consistent with published observation-based estimates. Changes in the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the SoCAB between the prior and posterior inventories are discussed. Missing or underestimated emissions from dairies, the oil/gas system, and landfills in the SoCAB seem to explain the differences between the prior and posterior inventories. Furthermore, we estimate that dairies contributed 5.9 ± 1.7 Mg CH4/h and the two sectors of oil and gas industries (production and downstream) and landfills together contributed 39.6 ± 8.1 Mg CH4/h in the SoCAB.

  12. MESO-SCALE MODELING OF THE INFLUENCE OF INTERGRANULAR GAS BUBBLES ON EFFECTIVE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul C. Millett; Michael Tonks

    2011-06-01

    Using a mesoscale modeling approach, we have investigated how intergranular fission gas bubbles, as observed in high-burnup nuclear fuel, modify the effective thermal conductivity in a polycrystalline material. The calculations reveal that intergranular porosity has a significantly higher resistance to heat transfer compared to randomly-distributed porosity. A model is developed to describe this conductivity reduction that considers an effective grain boundary Kapitza resistance as a function of the fractional coverage of grain boundaries by bubbles.

  13. Dynamics and generation mechanisms of mesoscale structures in tokamak edge plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasheninnikov, S. I. [University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Smolyakov, A. I. [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Intermittent convective-like plasma transport associated with mesoscale coherent structures extended along the magnetic field lines (''blobs'') is often dominant at the edge of tokamaks, stellarators, and linear devices. Blobs can travel a large distance toward the wall ({approx}10 cm and larger) and strongly enhance both edge plasma energy and particle transport and plasma-wall interactions. The dynamics of blobs and blob generation mechanisms are discussed in this paper.

  14. An Evaluation of Mesoscale Model Predictions of Down-Valley and Canyon Flows and Their Consequences Using Doppler Lidar Measurements During VTMX 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, Jerome D.; Darby, Lisa S.

    2004-04-01

    A mesoscale model, a Lagrangian particle dispersion model, and extensive Doppler lidar wind measurements during the VTMX 2000 field campaign were used to examine converging flows over the Salt Lake Valley and their effect on vertical mixing of tracers at night and during the morning transition period. The simulated wind components were transformed into radial velocities to make a direct comparison with about 1.3 million Doppler lidar data points and critically evaluate, using correlation coefficients, the spatial variations in the simulated wind fields aloft. The mesoscale model captured reasonably well the general features of the observed circulations including the daytime up-valley flow, the nighttime slope, canyon, and down-valley flows, and the convergence of the flows over the valley. When there were errors in the simulated wind fields, they were usually associated with the timing, structure, or strength of specific flows. Simulated outflows from canyons along the Wasatch Mountains propagated over the valley and converged with the down-valley flow, but the advance and retreat of these simulated flows was often out of phase with the lidar measurements. While the flow reversal during the evening transition period produced rising motions over much of the valley atmosphere in the absence of significant ambient winds, average vertical velocities became close to zero as the down-valley flow developed. Still, vertical velocities between 5 and 15 cm s-1 occurred where down-slope, canyon and down-valley flows converged and vertical velocities greater than 50 cm s-1 were produced by hydraulic jumps at the base of the canyons. The presence of strong ambient winds resulted in smaller average rising motions during the evening transition period and larger average vertical velocities after that. A fraction of the tracer released at the surface was transported up to the height of the surrounding mountains; however, higher concentrations were produced aloft for evenings

  15. Simulations of Clouds and Sensitivity Study by Weather Research and Forecast Model for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Case 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, J.; Zhang, M.

    2005-03-18

    One of the large errors in general circulation models (GCMs) cloud simulations is from the mid-latitude, synoptic-scale frontal cloud systems. Now, with the availability of the cloud observations from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) 2000 cloud Intensive Operational Period (IOP) and other observational datasets, the community is able to document the model biases in comparison with the observations and make progress in development of better cloud schemes in models. Xie et al. (2004) documented the errors in midlatitude frontal cloud simulations for ARM Case 4 by single-column models (SCMs) and cloud resolving models (CRMs). According to them, the errors in the model simulated cloud field might be caused by following reasons: (1) lacking of sub-grid scale variability; (2) lacking of organized mesoscale cyclonic advection of hydrometeors behind a moving cyclone which may play important role to generate the clouds there. Mesoscale model, however, can be used to better under stand these controls on the subgrid variability of clouds. Few studies have focused on applying mesoscale models to the forecasting of cloud properties. Weaver et al. (2004) used a mesoscale model RAMS to study the frontal clouds for ARM Case 4 and documented the dynamical controls on the sub-GCM-grid-scale cloud variability.

  16. Mesoscale Origin of the Enhanced Cycling-Stability of the Si-Conductive Polymer Anode for Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Meng; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Browning, Nigel D.; Wang, Chong M.

    2014-01-14

    Electrode used in lithium-ion battery is invariably a composite of multifunctional components. The performance of the electrode is controlled by the interactive function of all components at mesoscale. Fundamental understanding of mesoscale phenomenon sets the basis for innovative designing of new materials. Here we report the achievement and origin of a significant performance enhancement of electrode for lithium ion batteries based on Si nanoparticles wrapped with conductive polymer. This new material is in marked contrast with conventional material, which exhibit fast capacity fade. In-situ TEM unveils that the enhanced cycling stability of the conductive polymer-Si composite is associated with mesoscale concordant function of Si nanoparticles and the conductive polymer. Reversible accommodation of the volume changes of Si by the conductive polymer allows good electrical contact between all the particles during the cycling process. In contrast, the failure of the conventional Si-electrode is probed to be the inadequate electrical contact.

  17. Meso-Scale Magnetic Signatures for Nuclear Reactor Steel Irradiation Embrittlement Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suter, Jonathan D.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; McCloy, John S.; Xu, Ke; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Jiang, Weilin; Edwards, Danny J.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Johnson, Bradley R.

    2015-03-31

    Verifying the structural integrity of passive components in light-water and advanced reactors will be necessary to ensure safe, long-term operations of the existing U.S. nuclear fleet. This objective can be achieved through nondestructive condition monitoring techniques, which can be integrated with plant operations to quantify the ‘state of health’ of structural materials in real-time. While nondestructive methods for monitoring many classes of degradation (such as fatigue or stress corrosion cracking) are relatively advanced, this is not the case for degradation caused by irradiation. The development of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technologies for these types of degradation will require advanced materials characterization techniques and tools that enable comprehensive understanding of nuclear reactor material microstructural and behavioral changes under extreme operating environments. Irradiation-induced degradation of reactor steels causes changes in their microstructure that impacts their micro-magnetic properties. In this paper, we describe preliminary results to integrate advanced material characterization techniques with meso-scale computational models to provide an interpretive understanding of the state of degradation in a material. Microstructural data are presented from monocrystalline Fe and are correlated with variable-field magnetic force microscopy and micro-magnetic measurements. In future efforts, microstructural measurements and meso-scale magnetic measurements on thin films will be used to gain insights into the structural state of these materials to study the impact of irradiation on magnetic properties. Preliminary conclusions from these correlations are presented, and next steps described.

  18. Impact of Resolution on Simulation of Closed Mesoscale Cellular Convection Identified by Dynamically Guided Watershed Segmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martini, Matus; Gustafson, William I.; Yang, Qing; Xiao, Heng

    2014-11-27

    Organized mesoscale cellular convection (MCC) is a common feature of marine stratocumulus that forms in response to a balance between mesoscale dynamics and smaller scale processes such as cloud radiative cooling and microphysics. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) and fully coupled cloud-aerosol interactions to simulate marine low clouds during the VOCALS-REx campaign over the southeast Pacific. A suite of experiments with 3- and 9-km grid spacing indicates resolution-dependent behavior. The simulations with finer grid spacing have smaller liquid water paths and cloud fractions, while cloud tops are higher. The observed diurnal cycle is reasonably well simulated. To isolate organized MCC characteristics we develop a new automated method, which uses a variation of the watershed segmentation technique that combines the detection of cloud boundaries with a test for coincident vertical velocity characteristics. This ensures that the detected cloud fields are dynamically consistent for closed MCC, the most common MCC type over the VOCALS-REx region. We demonstrate that the 3-km simulation is able to reproduce the scaling between horizontal cell size and boundary layer height seen in satellite observations. However, the 9-km simulation is unable to resolve smaller circulations corresponding to shallower boundary layers, instead producing invariant MCC horizontal scale for all simulated boundary layers depths. The results imply that climate models with grid spacing of roughly 3 km or smaller may be needed to properly simulate the MCC structure in the marine stratocumulus regions.

  19. Evaluation of the Mesoscale Eta Model over the western United States. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, R.T.

    1995-09-10

    The skill of the Mesoscale Eta Model is evaluated over a 6-month period from October 1, 1994 to March 31, 1995 over the western United States. This model will continue to undergo changes until and after its projected operational release in July 1995. Many diagnostics and error statistics are created to evaluate its performance as forecasts are received and archived at the University of Utah. These statistics are available on the Internet allowing researchers and operational forecasters access to them in near real-time. The Mesoscale Eta Model forecast initialized at 1200 UTC, 9 November 1994 is used as a case study to introduce many of the diagnostics developed to evaluate the model. A systematic evaluation of the average and root-mean-squared error over months and seasons reveals little significant bias in upper tropospheric fields such as 300 mb wind or 500 mb geopotential height. Moderate average errors are evident in lower tropospheric temperature. Accumulated precipitation over months and seasons indicates the model`s spinup of precipitation during the first 12 hours of the forecast cycle.

  20. Implementation and assessment of turbine wake models in the Weather Research and Forecasting model for both mesoscale and large-eddy simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, M; Mirocha, J; Lundquist, J; Cleve, J

    2010-03-03

    Flow dynamics in large wind projects are influenced by the turbines located within. The turbine wakes, regions characterized by lower wind speeds and higher levels of turbulence than the surrounding free stream flow, can extend several rotor diameters downstream, and may meander and widen with increasing distance from the turbine. Turbine wakes can also reduce the power generated by downstream turbines and accelerate fatigue and damage to turbine components. An improved understanding of wake formation and transport within wind parks is essential for maximizing power output and increasing turbine lifespan. Moreover, the influence of wakes from large wind projects on neighboring wind farms, agricultural activities, and local climate are all areas of concern that can likewise be addressed by wake modeling. This work describes the formulation and application of an actuator disk model for studying flow dynamics of both individual turbines and arrays of turbines within wind projects. The actuator disk model is implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, which is an open-source atmospheric simulation code applicable to a wide range of scales, from mesoscale to large-eddy simulation. Preliminary results demonstrate the applicability of the actuator disk model within WRF to a moderately high-resolution large-eddy simulation study of a small array of turbines.

  1. Ionic liquid-mediated synthesis of meso-scale porous lanthanum-transition-metal perovskites with high CO oxidation performance

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Lu, Hanfeng; Zhang, Pengfei; Qiao, Zhen-An; Zhang, Jinshui; Zhu, Huiyuan; Chen, Jihua; Chen, Yinfei; Dai, Sheng

    2015-02-19

    Lanthanum-transition-metal perovskites with robust meso-scale porous frameworks (meso-LaMO3) are synthesized through use of ionic liquids. The resultant samples demonstrate a rather high activity for CO oxidation, by taking advantage of unique nanostructure-derived benefits. This synthesis strategy opens up a new opportunity for preparing functional mesoporous complex oxides of various compositions.

  2. Ionic liquid-mediated synthesis of meso-scale porous lanthanum-transition-metal perovskites with high CO oxidation performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Hanfeng; Zhang, Pengfei; Qiao, Zhen-An; Zhang, Jinshui; Zhu, Huiyuan; Chen, Jihua; Chen, Yinfei; Dai, Sheng

    2015-02-19

    Lanthanum-transition-metal perovskites with robust meso-scale porous frameworks (meso-LaMO3) are synthesized through use of ionic liquids. The resultant samples demonstrate a rather high activity for CO oxidation, by taking advantage of unique nanostructure-derived benefits. This synthesis strategy opens up a new opportunity for preparing functional mesoporous complex oxides of various compositions.

  3. Fully-coupled engineering and mesoscale simulations of thermal conductivity in UO2 fuel using an implicit multiscale approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Tonks; Derek Gaston; Cody Permann; Paul Millett; Glen Hansen; Chris Newman

    2009-08-01

    Reactor fuel performance is sensitive to microstructure changes during irradiation (such as fission gas and pore formation). This study proposes an approach to capture microstructural changes in the fuel by a two-way coupling of a mesoscale phase field irradiation model to an engineering scale, finite element calculation. This work solves the multiphysics equation system at the engineering-scale in a parallel, fully-coupled, fully-implicit manner using a preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method (JFNK). A sampling of the temperature at the Gauss points of the coarse scale is passed to a parallel sequence of mesoscale calculations within the JFNK function evaluation phase of the calculation. The mesoscale thermal conductivity is calculated in parallel, and the result is passed back to the engineering-scale calculation. As this algorithm is fully contained within the JFNK function evaluation, the mesoscale calculation is nonlinearly consistent with the engineering-scale calculation. Further, the action of the Jacobian is also consistent, so the composite algorithm provides the strong nonlinear convergence properties of Newton's method. The coupled model using INL's \\bison\\ code demonstrates quadratic nonlinear convergence and good parallel scalability. Initial results predict the formation of large pores in the hotter center of the pellet, but few pores on the outer circumference. Thus, the thermal conductivity is is reduced in the center of the pellet, leading to a higher internal temperature than that in an unirradiated pellet.

  4. Francesco Grilli: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    was his supervisor and mentor while he was at the Lab. In 2011 Grilli received the Dr. Meyer-Struckmann Science Prize of Bradenburg University of Technology Cottbus for his work...

  5. Mesoscale simulations of shock initiation in energetic materials characterized by three-dimensional nanotomography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Gregory T.; Brundage, Aaron L.; Wixom, Ryan R.; Tappan, Alexander Smith

    2009-08-01

    Three-dimensional shock simulations of energetic materials have been conducted to improve our understanding of initiation at the mesoscale. Vapor-deposited films of PETN and pressed powders of HNS were characterized with a novel three-dimensional nanotomographic technique. Detailed microstructures were constructed experimentally from a stack of serial electron micrographs obtained by successive milling and imaging in a dual-beam FIB/SEM. These microstructures were digitized and imported into a multidimensional, multimaterial Eulerian shock physics code. The simulations provided insight into the mechanisms of pore collapse in PETN and HNS samples with distinctly different three-dimensional pore morphology and distribution. This modeling effort supports investigations of microscale explosive phenomenology and elucidates mechanisms governing initiation of secondary explosives.

  6. A creep-damage model for mesoscale simulations of concrete expansion-degradation phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giorla, Alain B; Le Pape, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Long-term performance of aging concrete in nuclear power plants (NPPs) requires a careful examination of the physical phenomena taking place in the material. Concrete under high neutron irradiation is subjected to large irreversible deformations as well as mechanical damage, caused by a swelling of the aggregates. However, these results, generally obtained in accelerated conditions in test reactors, cannot be directly applied to NPP irradiated structures, i.e., the biological shield, operating conditions due to difference in time scale and environmental conditions (temperature, humidity). Mesoscale numerical simulations are performed to separate the underlying mechanisms and their interactions. The cement paste creep-damage model accounts for the effect of the loading rate on the apparent damage properties of the material and uses an event-based approach to capture the competition between creep and damage. The model is applied to the simulation of irradiation experiments from the literature and shows a good agreement with the experimental data.

  7. Physically consistent simulation of mesoscale chemical kinetics: The non-negative FIS-{alpha} method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana, Saswati, E-mail: saswatid@rishi.serc.iisc.ernet.in [Supercomputer Education and Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Raha, Soumyendu, E-mail: raha@serc.iisc.ernet.in [Supercomputer Education and Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2011-10-01

    Biochemical pathways involving chemical kinetics in medium concentrations (i.e., at mesoscale) of the reacting molecules can be approximated as chemical Langevin equations (CLE) systems. We address the physically consistent non-negative simulation of the CLE sample paths as well as the issue of non-Lipschitz diffusion coefficients when a species approaches depletion and any stiffness due to faster reactions. The non-negative Fully Implicit Stochastic {alpha} (FIS {alpha}) method in which stopped reaction channels due to depleted reactants are deleted until a reactant concentration rises again, for non-negativity preservation and in which a positive definite Jacobian is maintained to deal with possible stiffness, is proposed and analysed. The method is illustrated with the computation of active Protein Kinase C response in the Protein Kinase C pathway.

  8. Mesoscale simulation of shocked poly-(4-methyl-1-pentene) (PMP) foams.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroen, Diana Grace; Flicker, Dawn G.; Haill, Thomas A.; Root, Seth; Mattsson, Thomas Kjell Rene

    2011-06-01

    Hydrocarbon foams are commonly used in HEDP experiments, and are subject to shock compression from tens to hundreds of GPa. Modeling foams is challenging due to the heterogeneous character of the foam. A quantitative understanding of foams under strong dynamic compression is sought. We use Sandia's ALEGRA-MHD code to simulate 3D mesoscale models of pure poly(4-methyl-1-petene) (PMP) foams. We employ two models of the initial polymer-void structure of the foam and analyze the statistical properties of the initial and shocked states. We compare the simulations to multi-Mbar shock experiments at various initial foam densities and flyer impact velocities. Scatter in the experimental data may be a consequence of the initial foam inhomogeneity. We compare the statistical properties the simulations with the scatter in the experimental data.

  9. Crossing the mesoscale no-mans land via parallel kinetic Monte Carlo.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia Cardona, Cristina (San Diego State University); Webb, Edmund Blackburn, III; Wagner, Gregory John; Tikare, Veena; Holm, Elizabeth Ann; Plimpton, Steven James; Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Slepoy, Alexander (U. S. Department of Energy, NNSA); Zhou, Xiao Wang; Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Chandross, Michael Evan

    2009-10-01

    The kinetic Monte Carlo method and its variants are powerful tools for modeling materials at the mesoscale, meaning at length and time scales in between the atomic and continuum. We have completed a 3 year LDRD project with the goal of developing a parallel kinetic Monte Carlo capability and applying it to materials modeling problems of interest to Sandia. In this report we give an overview of the methods and algorithms developed, and describe our new open-source code called SPPARKS, for Stochastic Parallel PARticle Kinetic Simulator. We also highlight the development of several Monte Carlo models in SPPARKS for specific materials modeling applications, including grain growth, bubble formation, diffusion in nanoporous materials, defect formation in erbium hydrides, and surface growth and evolution.

  10. LDRD final report : mesoscale modeling of dynamic loading of heterogeneous materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robbins, Joshua; Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Voth, Thomas Eugene; Furnish, Michael David

    2013-12-01

    Material response to dynamic loading is often dominated by microstructure (grain structure, porosity, inclusions, defects). An example critically important to Sandia's mission is dynamic strength of polycrystalline metals where heterogeneities lead to localization of deformation and loss of shear strength. Microstructural effects are of broad importance to the scientific community and several institutions within DoD and DOE; however, current models rely on inaccurate assumptions about mechanisms at the sub-continuum or mesoscale. Consequently, there is a critical need for accurate and robust methods for modeling heterogeneous material response at this lower length scale. This report summarizes work performed as part of an LDRD effort (FY11 to FY13; project number 151364) to meet these needs.

  11. Simulating atmosphere flow for wind energy applications with WRF-LES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundquist, J K; Mirocha, J D; Chow, F K; Kosovic, B; Lundquist, K A

    2008-01-14

    Forecasts of available wind energy resources at high spatial resolution enable users to site wind turbines in optimal locations, to forecast available resources for integration into power grids, to schedule maintenance on wind energy facilities, and to define design criteria for next-generation turbines. This array of research needs implies that an appropriate forecasting tool must be able to account for mesoscale processes like frontal passages, surface-atmosphere interactions inducing local-scale circulations, and the microscale effects of atmospheric stability such as breaking Kelvin-Helmholtz billows. This range of scales and processes demands a mesoscale model with large-eddy simulation (LES) capabilities which can also account for varying atmospheric stability. Numerical weather prediction models, such as the Weather and Research Forecasting model (WRF), excel at predicting synoptic and mesoscale phenomena. With grid spacings of less than 1 km (as is often required for wind energy applications), however, the limits of WRF's subfilter scale (SFS) turbulence parameterizations are exposed, and fundamental problems arise, associated with modeling the scales of motion between those which LES can represent and those for which large-scale PBL parameterizations apply. To address these issues, we have implemented significant modifications to the ARW core of the Weather Research and Forecasting model, including the Nonlinear Backscatter model with Anisotropy (NBA) SFS model following Kosovic (1997) and an explicit filtering and reconstruction technique to compute the Resolvable Subfilter-Scale (RSFS) stresses (following Chow et al, 2005).We are also modifying WRF's terrain-following coordinate system by implementing an immersed boundary method (IBM) approach to account for the effects of complex terrain. Companion papers presenting idealized simulations with NBA-RSFS-WRF (Mirocha et al.) and IBM-WRF (K. A. Lundquist et al.) are also presented. Observations of flow

  12. ARM - Atmospheric Heat Budget

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    The Atmospheric Heat Budget shows where the atmospheric heat energy comes from and where it goes. Practically all this energy ultimately comes from the sun in the form of the ...

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    3 ARM 2003 Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement WARNING! WARNING! Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Two Topics Two Topics * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan -

  14. Atmosphere to Electrons

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Atmosphere to Electrons Enabling the Wind Plant of Tomorrow 2 Atmosphere to Electrons Enabling the Wind Plant of Tomorrow The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) research initiative is focused on improving the performance and reliability of wind plants by establishing an unprecedented under- standing of how the Earth's atmosphere interacts with the wind plants and developing innovative technologies to maximize energy extraction from the wind. The A2e initiative

  15. NIR-Selective electrochromic heteromaterial frameworks: a platform to understand mesoscale transport phenomena in solid-state electrochemical devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, TE; Chang, CM; Rosen, EL; Garcia, G; Runnerstrom, EL; Williams, BL; Koo, B; Buonsanti, R; Milliron, DJ; Helms, BA

    2014-01-01

    We report here the first solid-state, NIR-selective electrochromic devices. Critical to device performance is the arrangement of nanocrystal-derived electrodes into heteromaterial frameworks, where hierarchically porous ITO nanocrystal active layers are infiltrated by an ion-conducting polymer electrolyte with mesoscale periodicity. Enhanced coloration efficiency and transport are realized over unarchitectured electrodes in devices, paving the way towards new smart windows technologies.

  16. Refined BCF-type boundary conditions for mesoscale surface step dynamics

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Zhao, Renjie; Ackerman, David M.; Evans, James W.

    2015-06-24

    Deposition on a vicinal surface with alternating rough and smooth steps is described by a solid-on-solid model with anisotropic interactions. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of the model reveal step pairing in the absence of any additional step attachment barriers. We explore the description of this behavior within an analytic Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF)-type step dynamics treatment. Without attachment barriers, conventional kinetic coefficients for the rough and smooth steps are identical, as are the predicted step velocities for a vicinal surface with equal terrace widths. However, we determine refined kinetic coefficients from a two-dimensional discrete deposition-diffusion equation formalism which accounts for stepmore » structure. These coefficients are generally higher for rough steps than for smooth steps, reflecting a higher propensity for capture of diffusing terrace adatoms due to a higher kink density. Such refined coefficients also depend on the local environment of the step and can even become negative (corresponding to net detachment despite an excess adatom density) for a smooth step in close proximity to a rough step. Incorporation of these refined kinetic coefficients into a BCF-type step dynamics treatment recovers quantitatively the mesoscale step-pairing behavior observed in the KMC simulations.« less

  17. Evaluation of Test Methods for Triaxially Braided Composites using a Meso-Scale Finite Element Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Chao

    2015-10-01

    The characterization of triaxially braided composite is complicate due to the nonuniformity of deformation within the unit cell as well as the possibility of the freeedge effect related to the large size of the unit cell. Extensive experimental investigation has been conducted to develop more accurate test approaches in characterizing the actual mechanical properties of the material we are studying. In this work, a meso-scale finite element model is utilized to simulate two complex specimens: notched tensile specimen and tube tensile specimen, which are designed to avoid the free-edge effect and free-edge effect induced premature edge damage. The full field strain data is predicted numerically and compared with experimental data obtained by Digit Image Correlation. The numerically predicted tensile strength values are compared with experimentally measured results. The discrepancy between numerically predicted and experimentally measured data, the capability of different test approaches are analyzed and discussed. The presented numerical model could serve as assistance to the evaluation of different test methods, and is especially useful in identifying potential local damage events.

  18. Temperature-dependent elastic anisotropy and mesoscale deformation in a nanostructured ferritic alloy

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Stoica, G. M.; Stoica, A. D.; Miller, M. K.; Ma, D.

    2014-10-10

    Nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFA) are a new class of ultrafine-grained oxide dispersion-strengthened steels, promising for service in extreme environments of high temperature and high irradiation in the next-generation of nuclear reactors. This is owing to the remarkable stability of their complex microstructures containing a high density of Y-Ti-O nanoclusters within grains and along the grain boundaries. While nanoclusters have been recognized to be the primary contributor to the exceptional resistance to irradiation and high-temperature creep, very little is known about the mechanical roles of the polycrystalline grains that constitute the bulk ferritic matrix. Here we report the mesoscale characterization ofmore » anisotropic responses of the ultrafine NFA grains to tensile stresses at various temperatures using the state-of-the-art in situ neutron diffraction. We show the first experimental determination of temperature-dependent single-crystal elastic constants for the NFA, and reveal a strong temperature-dependent elastic anisotropy due to a sharp decrease in the shear stiffness constant [c'=(c_11-c_12)/2] when a critical temperature ( T_c ) is approached, indicative of elastic softening and instability of the ferritic matrix. We also show, from anisotropy-induced intergranular strain/stress accumulations, that a common dislocation slip mechanism operates at the onset of yielding for low temperatures, while there is a deformation crossover from low-temperature lattice hardening to high temperature lattice softening in response to extensive plastic deformation.« less

  19. Refined BCF-type boundary conditions for mesoscale surface step dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Renjie; Ackerman, David M.; Evans, James W.

    2015-06-24

    Deposition on a vicinal surface with alternating rough and smooth steps is described by a solid-on-solid model with anisotropic interactions. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of the model reveal step pairing in the absence of any additional step attachment barriers. We explore the description of this behavior within an analytic Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF)-type step dynamics treatment. Without attachment barriers, conventional kinetic coefficients for the rough and smooth steps are identical, as are the predicted step velocities for a vicinal surface with equal terrace widths. However, we determine refined kinetic coefficients from a two-dimensional discrete deposition-diffusion equation formalism which accounts for step structure. These coefficients are generally higher for rough steps than for smooth steps, reflecting a higher propensity for capture of diffusing terrace adatoms due to a higher kink density. Such refined coefficients also depend on the local environment of the step and can even become negative (corresponding to net detachment despite an excess adatom density) for a smooth step in close proximity to a rough step. Incorporation of these refined kinetic coefficients into a BCF-type step dynamics treatment recovers quantitatively the mesoscale step-pairing behavior observed in the KMC simulations.

  20. Meso-scale magnetic signatures for nuclear reactor steel irradiation embrittlement monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suter, J. D. Ramuhalli, P. Hu, S.; Li, Y.; Jiang, W.; Edwards, D. J.; Schemer-Kohrn, A. L.; Johnson, B. R.; McCloy, J. S. Xu, K.

    2015-03-31

    Verifying the structural integrity of passive components in light water and advanced reactors will be necessary to ensure safe, long-term operations of the existing U.S. nuclear fleet. This objective can be achieved through nondestructive condition monitoring techniques, which can be integrated with plant operations to quantify the “state of health” of structural materials in real-time. While nondestructive methods for monitoring many classes of degradation (such as fatigue or stress corrosion cracking) are relatively advanced, this is not the case for degradation caused by irradiation. The development of nondestructive evaluation technologies for these types of degradation will require advanced materials characterization techniques and tools that enable comprehensive understanding of nuclear reactor material microstructural and behavioral changes under extreme operating environments. Irradiation-induced degradation of reactor steels causes changes in their microstructure that impacts their micro-magnetic properties. In this paper, we describe preliminary results of integrating advanced material characterization techniques with meso-scale computational models. In the future, this will help to provide an interpretive understanding of the state of degradation in structural materials. Microstructural data are presented from monocrystalline Fe and are correlated with variable-field magnetic force microscopy and micro-magnetic measurements. Ongoing research is focused on extending the measurements and models on thin films to gain insights into the structural state of irradiated materials and the resulting impact on magnetic properties. Preliminary conclusions from these correlations are presented, and next steps described.

  1. Equilibrium Structure of a Triblock Copolymer System Revealed by Mesoscale Simulation and Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Do, Changwoo [ORNL] [ORNL; Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL] [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, Gregory Scott [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    We have performed both mesoscale simulations and neutron scattering experiments on Pluronic L62, a poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymer system in aqueous solution. The influence of simulation variables such PEO/PPO block ratio, interaction parameters, and coarse-graining methods is extensively investigated by covering all permutations of parameters found in the literatures. Upon increasing the polymer weight fraction from 50 wt% to 90 wt%, the equilibrium structure of the isotropic, reverse micellar, bicontinuous, worm-like micelle network, and lamellar phases are respectively predicted from the simulation depending on the choices of simulation parameters. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements show that the same polymer systems exhibit the spherical micellar, lamellar, and reverse micellar phases with the increase of the copolymer concentration at room temperature. Detailed structural analysis and comparison with simulations suggest that one of the simulation parameter sets can provide reasonable agreement with the experimentally observed structures.

  2. Temperature-dependent elastic anisotropy and mesoscale deformation in a nanostructured ferritic alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoica, Grigoreta M [ORNL; Stoica, Alexandru Dan [ORNL; Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Ma, Dong [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFA) are a new class of ultrafine-grained oxide dispersion-strengthened steels, promising for service in extreme environments of high temperature and high irradiation in the next-generation of nuclear reactors. This is owing to the remarkable stability of their complex microstructures containing a high density of Y-Ti-O nanoclusters within grains and along the grain boundaries. While nanoclusters have been recognized to be the primary contributor to the exceptional resistance to irradiation and high-temperature creep, very little is known about the mechanical roles of the polycrystalline grains that constitute the bulk ferritic matrix. Here we report the mesoscale characterization of anisotropic responses of the ultrafine NFA grains to tensile stresses at various temperatures using the state-of-the-art in situ neutron diffraction. We show the first experimental determination of temperature-dependent single-crystal elastic constants for the NFA, and reveal a strong temperature-dependent elastic anisotropy due to a sharp decrease in the shear stiffness constant [c'=(c_11-c_12)/2] when a critical temperature ( T_c ) is approached, indicative of elastic softening and instability of the ferritic matrix. We also show, from anisotropy-induced intergranular strain/stress accumulations, that a common dislocation slip mechanism operates at the onset of yielding for low temperatures, while there is a deformation crossover from low-temperature lattice hardening to high temperature lattice softening in response to extensive plastic deformation.

  3. Measuring kinetic energy changes in the mesoscale with low acquisition rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roldn, .; Martnez, I. A.; Rica, R. A.; Dinis, L.

    2014-06-09

    We report on the measurement of the average kinetic energy changes in isothermal and non-isothermal quasistatic processes in the mesoscale, realized with a Brownian particle trapped with optical tweezers. Our estimation of the kinetic energy change allows to access to the full energetic description of the Brownian particle. Kinetic energy estimates are obtained from measurements of the mean square velocity of the trapped bead sampled at frequencies several orders of magnitude smaller than the momentum relaxation frequency. The velocity is tuned applying a noisy electric field that modulates the amplitude of the fluctuations of the position and velocity of the Brownian particle, whose motion is equivalent to that of a particle in a higher temperature reservoir. Additionally, we show that the dependence of the variance of the time-averaged velocity on the sampling frequency can be used to quantify properties of the electrophoretic mobility of a charged colloid. Our method could be applied to detect temperature gradients in inhomogeneous media and to characterize the complete thermodynamics of biological motors and of artificial micro and nanoscopic heat engines.

  4. Sensitivity of summer ensembles of fledgling superparameterized U.S. mesoscale convective systems to cloud resolving model microphysics and grid configuration

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Elliott, Elizabeth J.; Yu, Sungduk; Kooperman, Gabriel J.; Morrison, Hugh; Wang, Minghuai; Pritchard, Michael S.

    2016-05-01

    The sensitivities of simulated mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) in the central U.S. to microphysics and grid configuration are evaluated here in a global climate model (GCM) that also permits global-scale feedbacks and variability. Since conventional GCMs do not simulate MCSs, studying their sensitivities in a global framework useful for climate change simulations has not previously been possible. To date, MCS sensitivity experiments have relied on controlled cloud resolving model (CRM) studies with limited domains, which avoid internal variability and neglect feedbacks between local convection and larger-scale dynamics. However, recent work with superparameterized (SP) GCMs has shown that eastward propagating MCS-likemore » events are captured when embedded CRMs replace convective parameterizations. This study uses a SP version of the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (SP-CAM5) to evaluate MCS sensitivities, applying an objective empirical orthogonal function algorithm to identify MCS-like events, and harmonizing composite storms to account for seasonal and spatial heterogeneity. A five-summer control simulation is used to assess the magnitude of internal and interannual variability relative to 10 sensitivity experiments with varied CRM parameters, including ice fall speed, one-moment and two-moment microphysics, and grid spacing. MCS sensitivities were found to be subtle with respect to internal variability, and indicate that ensembles of over 100 storms may be necessary to detect robust differences in SP-GCMs. Furthermore, these results emphasize that the properties of MCSs can vary widely across individual events, and improving their representation in global simulations with significant internal variability may require comparison to long (multidecadal) time series of observed events rather than single season field campaigns.« less

  5. Community Atmosphere Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-10-18

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) is an atmospheric general circulation model that solves equations for atmospheric dynamics and physics. CAM is an outgrowth of the Community Climate Model at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and was developed as a joint collaborative effort between NCAR and several DOE laboratories, including LLNL. CAM contains several alternative approaches for advancing the atmospheric dynamics. One of these approaches uses a finite-volume method originally developed by personnel atmore » NASNGSFC, We have developed a scalable version of the finite-volume solver for massively parallel computing systems. FV-CAM is meant to be used in conjunction with the Community Atmosphere Model. It is not stand-alone.« less

  6. ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric pressure

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    pressure ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric pressure The pressure exerted by the atmosphere as a consequence of gravitational attraction exerted upon the "column" of air lying directly above the point in question. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream

  7. Mesoscale Simulations of a Wind Ramping Event for Wind Energy Prediction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, M; Lundquist, J K

    2011-09-21

    Ramping events, or rapid changes of wind speed and wind direction over a short period of time, present challenges to power grid operators in regions with significant penetrations of wind energy in the power grid portfolio. Improved predictions of wind power availability require adequate predictions of the timing of ramping events. For the ramping event investigated here, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was run at three horizontal resolutions in 'mesoscale' mode: 8100m, 2700m, and 900m. Two Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) schemes, the Yonsei University (YSU) and Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) schemes, were run at each resolution as well. Simulations were not 'tuned' with nuanced choices of vertical resolution or tuning parameters so that these simulations may be considered 'out-of-the-box' tests of a numerical weather prediction code. Simulations are compared with sodar observations during a wind ramping event at a 'West Coast North America' wind farm. Despite differences in the boundary-layer schemes, no significant differences were observed in the abilities of the schemes to capture the timing of the ramping event. As collaborators have identified, the boundary conditions of these simulations probably dominate the physics of the simulations. They suggest that future investigations into characterization of ramping events employ ensembles of simulations, and that the ensembles include variations of boundary conditions. Furthermore, the failure of these simulations to capture not only the timing of the ramping event but the shape of the wind profile during the ramping event (regardless of its timing) indicates that the set-up and execution of such simulations for wind power forecasting requires skill and tuning of the simulations for a specific site.

  8. An atomistically informed mesoscale model for growth and coarsening during discharge in lithium-oxygen batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welland, Michael J.; Lau, Kah Chun; Redfern, Paul C.; Wolf, Dieter; Curtiss, Larry A.; Liang, Linyun; Zhai, Denyun

    2015-12-14

    An atomistically informed mesoscale model is developed for the deposition of a discharge product in a Li-O{sub 2} battery. This mescocale model includes particle growth and coarsening as well as a simplified nucleation model. The model involves LiO{sub 2} formation through reaction of O{sub 2}{sup −} and Li{sup +} in the electrolyte, which deposits on the cathode surface when the LiO{sub 2} concentration reaches supersaturation in the electrolyte. A reaction-diffusion (rate-equation) model is used to describe the processes occurring in the electrolyte and a phase-field model is used to capture microstructural evolution. This model predicts that coarsening, in which large particles grow and small ones disappear, has a substantial effect on the size distribution of the LiO{sub 2} particles during the discharge process. The size evolution during discharge is the result of the interplay between this coarsening process and particle growth. The growth through continued deposition of LiO{sub 2} has the effect of causing large particles to grow ever faster while delaying the dissolution of small particles. The predicted size evolution is consistent with experimental results for a previously reported cathode material based on activated carbon during discharge and when it is at rest, although kinetic factors need to be included. The approach described in this paper synergistically combines models on different length scales with experimental observations and should have applications in studying other related discharge processes, such as Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} deposition, in Li-O{sub 2} batteries and nucleation and growth in Li-S batteries.

  9. NOAA federal/state cooperative program in atmospheric modification research. Collected publication titles and abstracts. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinking, R.F.

    1993-04-01

    The volume contains the titles and abstracts of technical publications through fiscal year 1992 that are the products of the NOAA Federal/State Cooperative Program in Atmospheric Modification Research. The program is focused on the very interdisciplinary science of purposeful cloud modification for precipitation enhancement and hail suppression, and unintentional modification of clouds and precipitation. The audience includes, for example, water managers, policy makers, scientists, practitioners in the field, and the interested public. Listed are publications on topics including but not limited to: cloud and precipitation processes, numerical cloud and atmospheric mesoscale modeling, atmospheric and storm monitoring instrumentation and technologies, aerosol transport and dispersion in clouds and over complex terrain, cloud seeding technologies and effects, agricultural responses to cloud modification, weather economics and societal aspects of cloud modification, unintentional weather and climate modification, and precipitation and hydrological assessment and forecasting.

  10. Collaborative project. Ocean-atmosphere interaction from meso- to planetary-scale. Mechanics, parameterization, and variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saravanan, Ramalingam; Small, Justin

    2015-12-01

    Most climate models are currently run with grid spacings of around 100km, which, with today’s computing power, allows for long (up to 1000 year) simulations, or ensembles of simulations to explore climate change and variability. However this grid spacing does not resolve important components of the weather/climate system such as atmospheric fronts and mesoscale systems, and ocean boundary currents and eddies. The overall aim of this project has been to look at the effect of these small-scale features on the weather/climate system using a suite of high and low resolution climate models, idealized models and observations. High-resolution global coupled integrations using CAM/CESM were carried out at NCAR by the lead PI. At TAMU, we have complemented the work at NCAR by analyzing datasets from the high-resolution (28km) CESM integrations (Small et al., 2014) as well as very high resolution (9km, 3km) runs using a coupled regional climate (CRCM) carried out locally. The main tasks carried out were: 1. Analysis of surface wind in observations and high-resolution CAM/CCSM simulations 2. Development of a feature-tracking algorithm for studying midlatitude air-sea interaction by following oceanic mesoscale eddies and creating composites of the atmospheric response overlying the eddies. 3. Applying the Lagrangian analysis technique in the Gulf Stream region to compare data from observational reanalyses, global CESM coupled simulations, 9km regional coupled simulations and 3km convection-resolving regional coupled simulations. Our main findings are that oceanic mesoscale eddies influence not just the atmospheric boundary layer above them, but also the lower portions of the free troposphere above the boundary layer. Such a vertical response could have implications for a remote influence of Gulf Stream oceanic eddies on North Atlantic weather patterns through modulation of the storm track, similar to what has been noted in the North Pacific. The coarse resolution

  11. Coupled ocean-atmosphere model system for studies of interannual-to-decadal climate variability over the North Pacific Basin and precipitation over the Southwestern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Chung-Chieng A.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The ultimate objective of this research project is to make understanding and predicting regional climate easier. The long-term goals of this project are (1) to construct a coupled ocean-atmosphere model (COAM) system, (2) use it to explore the interannual-to-decadal climate variability over the North Pacific Basin, and (3) determine climate effects on the precipitation over the Southwestern United States. During this project life, three major tasks were completed: (1) Mesoscale ocean and atmospheric model; (2) global-coupled ocean and atmospheric modeling: completed the coupling of LANL POP global ocean model with NCAR CCM2+ global atmospheric model; and (3) global nested-grid ocean modeling: designed the boundary interface for the nested-grid ocean models.

  12. Interactive Mesoscale Lagrangian Puff Dispersion Model with Deposition and Decay. See CCC-677/MESORAD.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1986-06-15

    Version: 00 MESOI Version 2.0 is a third generation Lagrangian puff transport and diffusion model based on the earlier MESODIF model. It explicitly treats physical processes affecting material released to the atmosphere which were not treated in the earlier versions. It is an interactive model for estimating the transport, diffusion, deposition and decay of effluents released to the atmosphere. It is capable of treating simultaneous releases from as many as four release points which maymore » be elevated or at ground level.« less

  13. Ensemble Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Addis, R.P.

    2002-06-24

    Prognostic atmospheric dispersion models are used to generate consequence assessments, which assist decision-makers in the event of a release from a nuclear facility. Differences in the forecast wind fields generated by various meteorological agencies, differences in the transport and diffusion models, as well as differences in the way these models treat the release source term, result in differences in the resulting plumes. Even dispersion models using the same wind fields may produce substantially different plumes. This talk will address how ensemble techniques may be used to enable atmospheric modelers to provide decision-makers with a more realistic understanding of how both the atmosphere and the models behave.

  14. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  15. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, Roland L.; Cannon, Theodore W.

    1988-01-01

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  16. ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric moisture

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    moisture ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric moisture The moisture content of the air as indicated by several measurements including relative humidity, specific humidity, dewpoint, vapor pressure, water vapor mixing ratio, and water vapor density; note that precipitable water is a separate type. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered

  17. ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric temperature

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric temperature The temperature indicated by a thermometer exposed to the air in a place sheltered from direct solar radiation. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list

  18. Design and fabrication of a meso-scale stirling engine and combustor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Echekki, Tarek (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Haroldsen, Brent L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Krafcik, Karen L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Morales, Alfredo Martin; Mills, Bernice E.; Liu, Shiling; Lee, Jeremiah C. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Karpetis, Adionos N. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Chen, Jacqueline H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ceremuga, Joseph T. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Raber, Thomas N.; Hekmuuaty, Michelle A.

    2005-05-01

    Power sources capable of supplying tens of watts are needed for a wide variety of applications including portable electronics, sensors, micro aerial vehicles, and mini-robotics systems. The utility of these devices is often limited by the energy and power density capabilities of batteries. A small combustion engine using liquid hydrocarbon fuel could potentially increase both power and energy density by an order of magnitude or more. This report describes initial development work on a meso-scale external combustion engine based on the Stirling cycle. Although other engine designs perform better at macro-scales, we believe the Stirling engine cycle is better suited to small-scale applications. The ideal Stirling cycle requires efficient heat transfer. Consequently, unlike other thermodynamic cycles, the high heat transfer rates that are inherent with miniature devices are an advantage for the Stirling cycle. Furthermore, since the Stirling engine uses external combustion, the combustor and engine can be scaled and optimized semi-independently. Continuous combustion minimizes issues with flame initiation and propagation. It also allows consideration of a variety of techniques to promote combustion that would be difficult in a miniature internal combustion engine. The project included design and fabrication of both the engine and the combustor. Two engine designs were developed. The first used a cylindrical piston design fabricated with conventional machining processes. The second design, based on the Wankel rotor geometry, was fabricated by through-mold electroforming of nickel in SU8 and LIGA micromolds. These technologies provided the requisite precision and tight tolerances needed for efficient micro-engine operation. Electroformed nickel is ideal for micro-engine applications because of its high strength and ductility. A rotary geometry was chosen because its planar geometry was more compatible with the fabrication process. SU8 lithography provided rapid

  19. Carbonaceous spheresan unusual template for solid metal oxide mesoscale spheres: Application to ZnO spheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrinoiu, Greta; Caldern-Moreno, Jose Maria; Culita, Daniela C. [Illie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, Splaiul Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Birjega, Ruxandra [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box Mg27, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Ene, Ramona [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, Splaiul Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Carp, Oana, E-mail: ocarp@icf.ro [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, Splaiul Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-06-15

    A green template route for the synthesis of mesoscale solid ZnO spheres was ascertained. The protocol involves a double coating of the carbonaceous spheres with successive layers of zinc-containing species by alternating a non-ultrasound and ultrasound-assisted deposition, followed by calcination treatments. The composites were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy while the obtained ZnO spheres by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorptiondesorption isotherms and photoluminescence investigations. A growth mechanism of the solid spheres is advanced based on these results. While the spheres' diameters and the mean size values of ZnO are independent on deposition order, the surface area and the external porosity are fairly dependent. The photoluminescence measurements showed interesting emission features, with emission bands in the violet to orange region. The spheres present high photocatalytical activity towards the degradation of phenol under UV irradiation, the main reaction being its mineralization. - Graphical abstract: A novel and eco-friendly methodology for the synthesis of mesoscale solid ZnO spheres was developed. The protocol involves a double coating of the starch-derived carbonaceous spheres with successive layers of zinc-containing species by alternating a non-ultrasound and ultrasound-assisted deposition, followed by calcination treatments. - Highlights: ZnO solid spheres are obtained via a template route using carbonaceous spheres. Two-step coatings of interchangeable order are used as deposition procedure. The coating procedure influences the porosity and surface area. ZnO spheres exhibited interesting visible photoluminescence properties. Solid spheres showed photocatalytical activity in degradation of phenol.

  20. North Pacific Mesoscale Coupled Air-Ocean Simulations Compared with Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koracin, Darko; Cerovecki, Ivana; Vellore, Ramesh; Mejia, John; Hatchett, Benjamin; McCord, Travis; McLean, Julie; Dorman, Clive

    2013-04-11

    Executive summary The main objective of the study was to investigate atmospheric and ocean interaction processes in the western Pacific and, in particular, effects of significant ocean heat loss in the Kuroshio and Kuroshio Extension regions on the lower and upper atmosphere. It is yet to be determined how significant are these processes are on climate scales. The understanding of these processes led us also to development of the methodology of coupling the Weather and Research Forecasting model with the Parallel Ocean Program model for western Pacific regional weather and climate simulations. We tested NCAR-developed research software Coupler 7 for coupling of the WRF and POP models and assessed its usability for regional-scale applications. We completed test simulations using the Coupler 7 framework, but implemented a standard WRF model code with options for both one- and two-way mode coupling. This type of coupling will allow us to seamlessly incorporate new WRF updates and versions in the future. We also performed a long-term WRF simulation (15 years) covering the entire North Pacific as well as high-resolution simulations of a case study which included extreme ocean heat losses in the Kuroshio and Kuroshio Extension regions. Since the extreme ocean heat loss occurs during winter cold air outbreaks (CAO), we simulated and analyzed a case study of a severe CAO event in January 2000 in detail. We found that the ocean heat loss induced by CAOs is amplified by additional advection from mesocyclones forming on the southern part of the Japan Sea. Large scale synoptic patterns with anomalously strong anticyclone over Siberia and Mongolia, deep Aleutian Low, and the Pacific subtropical ridge are a crucial setup for the CAO. It was found that the onset of the CAO is related to the breaking of atmospheric Rossby waves and vertical transport of vorticity that facilitates meridional advection. The study also indicates that intrinsic parameterization of the surface fluxes

  1. Multiscale Simulation of Moist Global Atmospheric Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grabowski, Wojciech W.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.

    2015-04-13

    The overarching goal of this award was to include phase changes of the water substance and accompanying latent heating and precipitation processes into the all-scale nonhydrostatic atmospheric dynamics EUlerian/LAGrangian (EULAG) model. The model includes fluid flow solver that is based on either an unabbreviated set of the governing equations (i.e., compressible dynamics) or a simplified set of equations without sound waves (i.e., sound-proof, either anelastic or pseudo-incompressible). The latter set has been used in small-scale dynamics for decades, but its application to the all-scale dynamics (from small-scale to planetary) has never been studied in practical implementations. The highlight of the project is the development of the moist implicit compressible model that can be run by applying time steps, as long as the anelastic model is limited only by the computational stability of the fluid flow and not by the speed of sound waves that limit the stability of explicit compressible models. Applying various versions of the EULAG model within the same numerical framework allows for an unprecedented comparison of solutions obtained with various sets of the governing equations and straightforward evaluation of the impact of various physical parameterizations on the model solutions. The main outcomes of this study are reported in three papers, two published and one currently under review. These papers include comparisons between model solutions for idealized moist problems across the range of scales from small to planetary. These tests include: moist thermals rising in the stable-stratified environment (following Grabowski and Clark, J. Atmos. Sci. 1991) and in the moist-neutral environment (after Bryan and Fritsch, Mon. Wea. Rev. 2002), moist flows over a mesoscale topography (as in Grabowski and Smolarkiewicz, Mon. Wea. Rev. 2002), deep convection in a sheared environment (following Weisman and Klemp, Mon. Wea. Rev. 1982), moist extension of the baroclinic wave on

  2. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griesbach, Otto A.; Stencel, Joseph R.

    1990-01-01

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  3. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griesbach, O.A.; Stencel, J.R.

    1987-10-02

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The moisture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H/sub 2/ or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  4. LABLE: A multi-institutional, student-led, atmospheric boundary layer experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, P.; Bonin, T. A.; Newman, J. F.; Turner, D. D.; Chilson, P. B.; Wainwright, C. E.; Blumberg, W. G.; Mishra, S.; Carney, M.; Jacobsen, E. P.; Wharton, Sonia; Newsom, Rob K.

    2015-10-23

    This paper presents an overview of the Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE), which included two measurement campaigns conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma during 2012 and 2013. LABLE was conducted as a collaborative effort between the University of Oklahoma (OU), the National Severe Storms Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the ARM program. LABLE can be considered unique in that it was designed as a multi-phase, low-cost, multi-agency collaboration. Graduate students served as principal investigators and took the lead in designing and conducting experiments aimed at examining boundary-layer processes. The main objective of LABLE was to study turbulent phenomena in the lowest 2 km of the atmosphere over heterogeneous terrain using a variety of novel atmospheric profiling techniques. Several instruments from OU and LLNL were deployed to augment the suite of in-situ and remote sensing instruments at the ARM site. The complementary nature of the deployed instruments with respect to resolution and height coverage provides a near-complete picture of the dynamic and thermodynamic structure of the atmospheric boundary layer. This paper provides an overview of the experiment including i) instruments deployed, ii) sampling strategies, iii) parameters observed, and iv) student involvement. To illustrate these components, the presented results focus on one particular aspect of LABLE, namely the study of the nocturnal boundary layer and the formation and structure of nocturnal low-level jets. During LABLE, low-level jets were frequently observed and they often interacted with mesoscale atmospheric disturbances such as frontal passages.

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 3, Atmospheric sciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1988-08-01

    Currently, the broad goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales in the air, in clouds, and on the surface. For several years, studies of transport and diffusion have been extended to mesoscale areas of complex terrain. Atmospheric cleansing research has expanded to a regional scale, multilaboratory investigation of precipitation scavenging processes involving the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' In addition, the redistribution and long-range transport of transformed contaminants passing through clouds is recognized as a necessary extension of our research to even larger scales in the future. A few long-range tracer experiments conducted in recent years and the special opportunity for measuring the transport and removal of radioactivity following the Chernobyl reactor accident of April 1986 offer important initial data bases for studying atmospheric processes at these super-regional scales.

  6. ARM - Evolution of the Atmosphere

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ListEvolution of the Atmosphere Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Evolution of the Atmosphere The earth's atmosphere plays a crucial role in shaping the weather, climate, and life-supporting systems. However, the ocean and atmosphere are the earth's fluid outer layers and are

  7. An analytical coarse-graining method which preserves the free energy, structural correlations, and thermodynamic state of polymer melts from the atomistic to the mesoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarty, J.; Clark, A. J.; Copperman, J.; Guenza, M. G.

    2014-05-28

    Structural and thermodynamic consistency of coarse-graining models across multiple length scales is essential for the predictive role of multi-scale modeling and molecular dynamic simulations that use mesoscale descriptions. Our approach is a coarse-grained model based on integral equation theory, which can represent polymer chains at variable levels of chemical details. The model is analytical and depends on molecular and thermodynamic parameters of the system under study, as well as on the direct correlation function in the k ? 0 limit, c{sub 0}. A numerical solution to the PRISM integral equations is used to determine c{sub 0}, by adjusting the value of the effective hard sphere diameter, d{sub HS}, to agree with the predicted equation of state. This single quantity parameterizes the coarse-grained potential, which is used to perform mesoscale simulations that are directly compared with atomistic-level simulations of the same system. We test our coarse-graining formalism by comparing structural correlations, isothermal compressibility, equation of state, Helmholtz and Gibbs free energies, and potential energy and entropy using both united atom and coarse-grained descriptions. We find quantitative agreement between the analytical formalism for the thermodynamic properties, and the results of Molecular Dynamics simulations, independent of the chosen level of representation. In the mesoscale description, the potential energy of the soft-particle interaction becomes a free energy in the coarse-grained coordinates which preserves the excess free energy from an ideal gas across all levels of description. The structural consistency between the united-atom and mesoscale descriptions means the relative entropy between descriptions has been minimized without any variational optimization parameters. The approach is general and applicable to any polymeric system in different thermodynamic conditions.

  8. Better Catalysts through Microscopy: Mesoscale M1/M2 Intergrowth in Molybdenum–Vanadium Based Complex Oxide Catalysts for Propane Ammoxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Qian; Woo, Jungwon; Belianinov, Alexei; Guliants, Vadim V.; Borisevich, Albina Y.

    2015-03-06

    Catalysis research has transformed from the predominantly empirical field to one where it is possible to control the catalytic properties via characterization and modification of the atomic-scale active centers. Many phenomena in catalysis, such as synergistic effect, however, transcend the atomic scale and also require the knowledge and control of the mesoscale structure of the specimen to harness. Our paper, we use our discovery of atomic-scale epitaxial interfaces in molybdenum vanadium based complex oxide catalysts systems (i.e., MoVMO, M = Ta, Te, Sb, Nb, etc.) to achieve control of the mesoscale structure of this complex mixture of very different active phases. We can now achieve true epitaxial intergrowth between the catalytically critical M1 and M2 phases in the system that are hypothesized to have synergistic interactions, and demonstrate that the resulting catalyst has improved selectivity in the initial studies. Finally, we highlight the crucial role atomic scale characterization and mesoscale structure control play in uncovering the complex underpinnings of the synergistic effect in catalysis.

  9. Better Catalysts through Microscopy: Mesoscale M1/M2 Intergrowth in Molybdenum–Vanadium Based Complex Oxide Catalysts for Propane Ammoxidation

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    He, Qian; Woo, Jungwon; Belianinov, Alexei; Guliants, Vadim V.; Borisevich, Albina Y.

    2015-03-06

    Catalysis research has transformed from the predominantly empirical field to one where it is possible to control the catalytic properties via characterization and modification of the atomic-scale active centers. Many phenomena in catalysis, such as synergistic effect, however, transcend the atomic scale and also require the knowledge and control of the mesoscale structure of the specimen to harness. Our paper, we use our discovery of atomic-scale epitaxial interfaces in molybdenum vanadium based complex oxide catalysts systems (i.e., MoVMO, M = Ta, Te, Sb, Nb, etc.) to achieve control of the mesoscale structure of this complex mixture of very different activemore » phases. We can now achieve true epitaxial intergrowth between the catalytically critical M1 and M2 phases in the system that are hypothesized to have synergistic interactions, and demonstrate that the resulting catalyst has improved selectivity in the initial studies. Finally, we highlight the crucial role atomic scale characterization and mesoscale structure control play in uncovering the complex underpinnings of the synergistic effect in catalysis.« less

  10. Analyzing Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Escamilla, J.; Ernst, D. J.; Latimer, D. C.

    2007-10-26

    We provide a pedagogic derivation of the formula needed to analyze atmospheric data and then derive, for the subset of the data that are fully-contained events, an analysis tool that is quantitative and numerically efficient. Results for the full set of neutrino oscillation data are then presented. We find the following preliminary results: 1.) the sub-dominant approximation provides reasonable values for the best fit parameters for {delta}{sub 32}, {theta}{sub 23}, and {theta}{sub 13} but does not quantitatively provide the errors for these three parameters; 2.) the size of the MSW effect is suppressed in the sub-dominant approximation; 3.) the MSW effect reduces somewhat the extracted error for {delta}{sub 32}, more so for {theta}{sub 23} and {theta}{sub 13}; 4.) atmospheric data alone constrains the allowed values of {theta}{sub 13} only in the sub-dominant approximation, the full three neutrino calculations requires CHOOZ to get a clean constraint; 5.) the linear in {theta}{sub 13} terms are not negligible; and 6.) the minimum value of {theta}{sub 13} is found to be negative, but at a statistically insignificant level.

  11. Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gero, Jonathan; Ermold, Brian; Gaustad, Krista; Koontz, Annette; Hackel, Denny; Garcia, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) is a ground-based instrument that measures the downwelling infrared radiance from the Earth’s atmosphere. The observations have broad spectral content and sufficient spectral resolution to discriminate among gaseous emitters (e.g., carbon dioxide and water vapor) and suspended matter (e.g., aerosols, water droplets, and ice crystals). These upward-looking surface observations can be used to obtain vertical profiles of tropospheric temperature and water vapor, as well as measurements of trace gases (e.g., ozone, carbon monoxide, and methane) and downwelling infrared spectral signatures of clouds and aerosols. The AERI is a passive remote sounding instrument, employing a Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the spectral range 3.3–19.2 μm (520–3020 cm-1) at an unapodized resolution of 0.5 cm-1 (max optical path difference of 1 cm). The extended-range AERI (ER-AERI) deployed in dry climates, like in Alaska, have a spectral range of 3.3–25.0 μm (400–3020 cm-1) that allow measurements in the far-infrared region. Typically, the AERI averages views of the sky over a 16-second interval and operates continuously.

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly ... Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites ...

  13. Collaborative project. Ocean-atmosphere interaction from meso-to planetary-scale. Mechanisms, parameterization, and variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Small, Richard; Bryan, Frank; Tribbia, Joseph; Park, Sungsu; Dennis, John; Saravanan, R.; Schneider, Niklas; Kwon, Young-Oh

    2015-06-11

    This project aims to improve long term global climate simulations by resolving ocean mesoscale activity and the corresponding response in the atmosphere. The main computational objectives are; i) to perform and assess Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulations with the new Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) spectral element dynamical core; ii) use static mesh refinement to focus on oceanic fronts; iii) develop a new Earth System Modeling tool to investigate the atmospheric response to fronts by selectively filtering surface flux fields in the CESM coupler. The climate research objectives are 1) to improve the coupling of ocean fronts and the atmospheric boundary layer via investigations of dependency on model resolution and stability functions: 2) to understand and simulate the ensuing tropospheric response that has recently been documented in observations: and 3) to investigate the relationship of ocean frontal variability to low frequency climate variability and the accompanying storm tracks and extremes in high resolution simulations. This is a collaborative multi-institution project consisting of computational scientists, climate scientists and climate model developers. It specifically aims at DOE objectives of advancing simulation and predictive capability of climate models through improvements in resolution and physical process representation.

  14. ARM - Sources of Atmospheric Carbon

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Sources of Atmospheric Carbon Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Sources of Atmospheric Carbon Atmospheric carbon represented a steady state system, where influx equaled outflow, before the Industrial Revolution. Currently, it is no longer a steady state system because the

  15. ORISE: Climate and Atmospheric Research

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education Climate and Atmospheric Research Conducting climate research focused on issues of national and global importance is one of the primary objectives of the Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (ATDD)-a field division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. ORAU partners with ATDD-and in collaboration with scientists and engineers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as well as government agencies, universities, and private

  16. In Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network, Meso-Scale Test Bed - Phase 3 Fluid Injection Test Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serrato, M. G.

    2013-09-27

    The DOE Office of Environmental management (DOE EM) faces the challenge of decommissioning thousands of excess nuclear facilities, many of which are highly contaminated. A number of these excess facilities are massive and robust concrete structures that are suitable for isolating the contained contamination for hundreds of years, and a permanent decommissioning end state option for these facilities is in situ decommissioning (ISD). The ISD option is feasible for a limited, but meaningfull number of DOE contaminated facilities for which there is substantial incremental environmental, safety, and cost benefits versus alternate actions to demolish and excavate the entire facility and transport the rubble to a radioactive waste landfill. A general description of an ISD project encompasses an entombed facility; in some cases limited to the blow-grade portion of a facility. However, monitoring of the ISD structures is needed to demonstrate that the building retains its structural integrity and the contaminants remain entombed within the grout stabilization matrix. The DOE EM Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering (EM-13) Program Goal is to develop a monitoring system to demonstrate long-term performance of closed nuclear facilities using the ISD approach. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has designed and implemented the In Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network, Meso-Scale Test Bed (ISDSN-MSTB) to address the feasibility of deploying a long-term monitoring system into an ISD closed nuclear facility. The ISDSN-MSTB goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of installing and operating a remote sensor network to assess cementitious material durability, moisture-fluid flow through the cementitious material, and resulting transport potential for contaminate mobility in a decommissioned closed nuclear facility. The original ISDSN-MSTB installation and remote sensor network operation was demonstrated in FY 2011-12 at the ISDSN-MSTB test cube

  17. Polyport atmospheric gas sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guggenheim, S. Frederic

    1995-01-01

    An atmospheric gas sampler with a multi-port valve which allows for multi, sequential sampling of air through a plurality of gas sampling tubes mounted in corresponding gas inlet ports. The gas sampler comprises a flow-through housing which defines a sampling chamber and includes a gas outlet port to accommodate a flow of gases through the housing. An apertured sample support plate defining the inlet ports extends across and encloses the sampling chamber and supports gas sampling tubes which depend into the sampling chamber and are secured across each of the inlet ports of the sample support plate in a flow-through relation to the flow of gases through the housing during sampling operations. A normally closed stopper means mounted on the sample support plate and operatively associated with each of the inlet ports blocks the flow of gases through the respective gas sampling tubes. A camming mechanism mounted on the sample support plate is adapted to rotate under and selectively lift open the stopper spring to accommodate a predetermined flow of gas through the respective gas sampling tubes when air is drawn from the housing through the outlet port.

  18. Retrieving 4-dimensional atmospheric boundary layer structure from surface observations and profiles over a single station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pu, Zhaoxia

    2015-10-06

    Most routine measurements from climate study facilities, such as the Department of Energy’s ARM SGP site, come from individual sites over a long period of time. While single-station data are very useful for many studies, it is challenging to obtain 3-dimensional spatial structures of atmospheric boundary layers that include prominent signatures of deep convection from these data. The principal objective of this project is to create realistic estimates of high-resolution (~ 1km × 1km horizontal grids) atmospheric boundary layer structure and the characteristics of precipitating convection. These characteristics include updraft and downdraft cumulus mass fluxes and cold pool properties over a region the size of a GCM grid column from analyses that assimilate surface mesonet observations of wind, temperature, and water vapor mixing ratio and available profiling data from single or multiple surface stations. The ultimate goal of the project is to enhance our understanding of the properties of mesoscale convective systems and also to improve their representation in analysis and numerical simulations. During the proposed period (09/15/2011–09/14/2014) and the no-cost extension period (09/15/2014–09/14/2015), significant accomplishments have been achieved relating to the stated goals. Efforts have been extended to various research and applications. Results have been published in professional journals and presented in related science team meetings and conferences. These are summarized in the report.

  19. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. I. ACOUSTIC AND INERTIA-GRAVITY WAVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Imamura, T.; Read, P. L.; Luz, D.; Piccialli, A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper is the first of a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases when the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this first part, only waves that are direct solutions of the generic dispersion relation are studied—acoustic and inertia-gravity waves. Concerning inertia-gravity waves, we found that in the cases of short horizontal wavelengths, null background wind, or propagation in the equatorial region, only pure gravity waves are possible, while for the limit of large horizontal wavelengths and/or null static stability, the waves are inertial. The correspondence between classical atmospheric approximations and wave filtering has been examined too, and we carried out a classification of the mesoscale waves found in the clouds of Venus at different vertical levels of its atmosphere. Finally, the classification of waves in exoplanets is discussed and we provide a list of possible candidates with cyclostrophic regimes.

  20. MaRIE 1.0: The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes Project, and the Challenge of Dynamic Mesoscale Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, Cris William; Barber, John L.; Kober, Edward Martin; Lookman, Turab; Sandberg, Richard L.; Shlachter, Jack S.; Sheffield, Richard L.

    2015-02-23

    The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes project will build the experimental facility for the time-dependent control of dynamic material performance. An x-ray free electron laser at up to 42-keV fundamental energy and with photon pulses down to sub-nanosecond spacing, MaRIE 1.0 is designed to meet the challenges of time-dependent mesoscale materials science. Those challenges will be outlined, the techniques of coherent diffractive imaging and dynamic polycrystalline diffraction described, and the resulting requirements defined for a coherent x-ray source. The talk concludes with the role of the MaRIE project and science in the future.

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using ARM Mobile

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using ARM Mobile Facility, GERB, and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST) Beginning in January 2006, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) began supporting RADAGAST to provide the first well-sampled direct esti- mates of the energy balance across the atmosphere. The experiment is part of an ongoing international study of the West African monsoon system and Saharan dust storms. Stationed outside the Niger Meteo- rological Office at the Niamey International Airport, the AMF is located

  2. (Chemistry of the global atmosphere)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marland, G.

    1990-09-27

    The traveler attended the conference The Chemistry of the Global Atmosphere,'' and presented a paper on the anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to the atmosphere. The conference included meetings of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) programme, a core project of the International Geosphere/Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and the traveler participated in meetings on the IGAC project Development of Global Emissions Inventories'' and agreed to coordinate the working group on CO{sub 2}. Papers presented at the conference focused on the latest developments in analytical methods, modeling and understanding of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NMHCs, CFCs, and aerosols.

  3. Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1991-11-20

    The Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC) is a real-time emergency response modeling capability designed to advise Emergency Managers of the path, timing, and projected impacts from an atmospheric release. TRAC evaluates the effects of both radiological and non-radiological hazardous substances, gases and particulates. Using available surface and upper air meteorological information, TRAC realistically treats complex sources and atmospheric conditions, such as those found in mountainous terrain. TRAC calculates atmospheric concentration, deposition, and dose for more thanmore » 25,000 receptor locations within 80 km of the release point. Human-engineered output products support critical decisions on the type, location, and timing of protective actions for workers and the public during an emergency.« less

  4. Atmospheric science and power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randerson, D.

    1984-07-01

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    27 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-16-027 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-16-037 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    01 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-16-001 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  8. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion...

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science and Infrastructure Steering Committee CHARTER June 2012 DISCLAIMER ...

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Annual...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2006 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research ...

  11. Working with SRNL - Our Facilities - Atmospheric Technologies...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    The SRNL Atmospheric Technologies Center has extensive capabilities for world-wide meteorological forecasts and real-time atmospheric transport modeling and assessment. ...

  12. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Name: National Oceanic and...

  13. Search for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Switch to Detail View for this search DOE Data Explorer Search Results Page 1 of 70 Search for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" 697 results for: "atmospheric radiation ...

  14. Evaluating atmospheric CO2 inversions at multiple scales over a highly-inventoried agricultural landscape.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuh, Andrew E.; Lauvaux, Thomas; West, Tristram O.; Denning, A.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Miles, Natasha; Richardson, S. J.; Uliasz, Marek; Lokupitiya, Erandathie; Cooley, Dan; Andrews, Arlyn; Ogle, Stephen

    2013-05-01

    An intensive regional research campaign was conducted by the North American Carbon Program (NACP) in 2005 to study the carbon cycle of the highly productive agricultural regions of the Midwestern United States. Forty-_ve di_erent associated projects were spawned across _ve U.S. agencies over the course of nearly a decade involving hundreds of researchers. The primary objective of the project was to investigate the ability of atmospheric inversion techniques to use highly calibrated CO2 mixing ratio data to estimate CO2 exchange over the major croplands of the U.S. Statistics from densely monitored crop production, consisting primarily corn and soybeans, provided the backbone of a well-studied\\bottom up"flux estimate that was used to evaluate the atmospheric inversion results. Three different inversion systems, representing spatial scales varying from high resolution mesoscale, to continental, to global, coupled to different transport models and optimization techniques were compared to the bottom up" inventory estimates. The mean annual CO2-C sink for 2007 from the inversion systems ranged from 120 TgC to 170 TgC, when viewed across a wide variety of inversion setups, with the best" point estimates ranging from 145 TgC to 155 TgC. Inversion-based mean C sink estimates were generally slightly stronger, but statistically indistinguishable,from the inventory estimate whose mean C sink was 135 TgC. The inversion results showed temporal correlations at seasonal lengths while week to week correlations remained low. Comparisons were made between atmospheric transport yields of the two regional inversion systems, which despite having different influence footprints in space and time due to differences in underlying transport models and external forcings, showed similarity when aggregated in space and time.

  15. Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative and latent heating profiles of mesoscale convective systems for general circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Houze, Robert, A., Jr.; Zeng, Xiping

    2013-03-14

    This three-year project, in cooperation with Professor Bob Houze at University of Washington, has been successfully finished as planned. Both ARM (the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program) data and cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations were used to identify the water budgets of clouds observed in two international field campaigns. The research results achieved shed light on several key processes of clouds in climate change (or general circulation models), which are summarized below. 1. Revealed the effect of mineral dust on mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) Two international field campaigns near a desert and a tropical coast provided unique data to drive and evaluate CRM simulations, which are TWP-ICE (the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment) and AMMA (the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis). Studies of the two campaign data were contrasted, revealing that much mineral dust can bring about large MCSs via ice nucleation and clouds. This result was reported as a PI presentation in the 3rd ASR Science Team meeting held in Arlington, Virginia in March 2012. A paper on the studies was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2013). 2. Identified the effect of convective downdrafts on ice crystal concentration Using the large-scale forcing data from TWP-ICE, ARM-SGP (the Southern Great Plains) and other field campaigns, Goddard CRM simulations were carried out in comparison with radar and satellite observations. The comparison between model and observations revealed that convective downdrafts could increase ice crystal concentration by up to three or four orders, which is a key to quantitatively represent the indirect effects of ice nuclei, a kind of aerosol, on clouds and radiation in the Tropics. This result was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2011) and summarized in the DOE/ASR Research Highlights Summaries (see http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/RMjY5/view). 3. Used radar

  16. Response of the regional water cycle to an increase of atmosphere moisture related to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frei, C.; Widmann, M.; Luethi, D.

    1997-11-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of the mid-latitude regional hydrological cycle to an imposed warming. Mesoscale limited-area climate simulations over Europe are performed. The modelling study is complemented with a detailed analysis of the observed precipitation and circulation trends in the same region. It is demonstrated that an increase of the moisture content leads to an enhancement of the model`s water cycle during the synoptically active seasons. The simulations suggest that this mechanism may contribute towards an increase in mean precipitation and more frequency occurrence of heavy precipitation events. Observational analysis results illustrate that the relationship between precipitation and atmospheric moisture seen in the climate simulations constitutes a possible physical mechanism relevant for the interpretation of the observed trends. A key feature of the model results is the pronounced increase in the frequency of strong precipitation events associated with the intensification of the water cycle. This large sensitivity highlights the vulnerability of the precipitation climate with respect to global climate change. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Atmospheric tracer technology and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiken, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on atmospheric tracer technology and applications. It summarizes the state of the art, provides information exchange for members of the atmospheric community, defines areas for future applications of tracers, and identifies requirements for tracer techniques. A major objective of research in atmospheric science over the past several decades has been to obtain an enhanced description of transport, transformation, and deposition of trace constituents present in the atmosphere. Interest in these processes has been hightened with the recognition that pollutant materials transported over long distances may exert significant effects at receptor locations, and the consequent desire to improve knowledge of source-receptor relationships. There is a wide range of practical applications for tracer experiments. In many cases the tracer allows 1) the documentation of a potential airborne hazard without actually emitting hazardous material or 2) the evaluation of the expected outcome of an expensive process alteration. Some examples of the former case are testing of rocket fuels, developing chemical defense strategies, establishing safety procedures for possible accidents in the handling and transportation of hazardous materials, and assessing the fire and explosion hazards present in handling special materials such as liquified natural gas. The practical use of tracers for economic benefit includes designing emissions systems, for both air quality control and dissemination systems such as in forest and crop spraying or cloud seeding, and siting of industrial facilities. Other applications include source attribution, which is currently of interest in the acid rain problem.

  18. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemore » and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.« less

  19. Light extinction in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laulainen, N.

    1992-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles originating from natural sources, such as volcanos and sulfur-bearing gas emissions from the oceans, and from human sources, such as sulfur emissions from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, strongly affect visual air quality and are suspected to significantly affect radiative climate forcing of the planet. During the daytime, aerosols obscure scenic vistas, while at night they diminish our ability to observe stellar objects. Scattering of light is the main means by which aerosols attenuate and redistribute light in the atmosphere and by which aerosols can alter and reduce visibility and potentially modify the energy balance of the planet. Trends and seasonal variability of atmospheric aerosol loading, such as column-integrated light extinction or optical depth, and how they may affect potential climate change have been difficult to quantify because there have been few observations made of important aerosol optical parameters, such as optical depth, over the globe and over time and often these are of uneven quality. To address questions related to possible climate change, there is a pressing need to acquire more high-quality aerosol optical depth data. Extensive deployment of improved solar radiometers over the next few years will provide higher-quality extinction data over a wider variety of locations worldwide. An often overlooked source of turbidity data, however, is available from astronomical observations, particularly stellar photoelectric photometry observations. With the exception of the Project ASTRA articles published almost 20 years ago, few of these data ever appear in the published literature. This paper will review the current status of atmospheric extinction observations, as highlighted by the ASTRA work and augmented by more recent solar radiometry measurements.

  20. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  1. DEFRA Global Atmosphere Dept | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Kingdom Zip: SW1E 6DE Product: Atmosphere research department of the UK Department of Food and Rural Affairs. References: DEFRA - Global Atmosphere Dept.1 This article is a...

  2. Quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Springston, Stephen R.; Lloyd, Judith; Zheng, Jun

    2007-10-23

    A method for the quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical comprising: (a) contacting a liquid phase atmospheric sample with a chemiluminescent compound which luminesces on contact with hydroperoxyl radical; (b) determining luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample; and (c) comparing said luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample to a standard luminescence intensity for hydroperoxyl radical. An apparatus for automating the method is also included.

  3. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-02-01

    The earth's atmosphere affects the velocity of propagation of microwave signals. This imparts a range error to radar range measurements that assume the typical simplistic model for propagation velocity. This range error is a function of atmospheric constituents, such as water vapor, as well as the geometry of the radar data collection, notably altitude and range. Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models.

  4. Long Range Weather Prediction III: Miniaturized Distributed Sensors for Global Atmospheric Measurements

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Teller, E.; Leith, C.; Canavan, G.; Wood, L.

    2001-11-13

    We continue consideration of ways-and-means for creating, in an evolutionary, ever-more-powerful manner, a continually-updated data-base of salient atmospheric properties sufficient for finite differenced integration-based, high-fidelity weather prediction over intervals of 2-3 weeks, leveraging the 10{sup 14} FLOPS digital computing systems now coming into existence. A constellation comprised of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 9} small atmospheric sampling systems--high-tech superpressure balloons carrying early 21st century semiconductor devices, drifting with the local winds over the meteorological spectrum of pressure-altitudes--that assays all portions of the troposphere and lower stratosphere remains the central feature of the proposed system. We suggest that these devices should be active-signaling, rather than passive-transponding, as we had previously proposed only for the ground- and aquatic-situated sensors of this system. Instead of periodic interrogation of the intra-atmospheric transponder population by a constellation of sophisticated small satellites in low Earth orbit, we now propose to retrieve information from the instrumented balloon constellation by existing satellite telephony systems, acting as cellular tower-nodes in a global cellular telephony system whose ''user-set'' is the atmospheric-sampling and surface-level monitoring constellations. We thereby leverage the huge investment in cellular (satellite) telephony and GPS technologies, with large technical and economic gains. This proposal minimizes sponsor forward commitment along its entire programmatic trajectory, and moreover may return data of weather-predictive value soon after field activities commence. We emphasize its high near-term value for making better mesoscale, relatively short-term weather predictions with computing-intensive means, and its great long-term utility in enhancing the meteorological basis for global change predictive studies. We again note that adverse impacts of weather

  5. Long Range Weather Prediction III: Miniaturized Distributed Sensors for Global Atmospheric Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teller, E; Leith, C; Canavan, G; Wood, L

    2001-11-13

    We continue consideration of ways-and-means for creating, in an evolutionary, ever-more-powerful manner, a continually-updated data-base of salient atmospheric properties sufficient for finite differenced integration-based, high-fidelity weather prediction over intervals of 2-3 weeks, leveraging the 10{sup 14} FLOPS digital computing systems now coming into existence. A constellation comprised of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 9} small atmospheric sampling systems--high-tech superpressure balloons carrying early 21st century semiconductor devices, drifting with the local winds over the meteorological spectrum of pressure-altitudes--that assays all portions of the troposphere and lower stratosphere remains the central feature of the proposed system. We suggest that these devices should be active-signaling, rather than passive-transponding, as we had previously proposed only for the ground- and aquatic-situated sensors of this system. Instead of periodic interrogation of the intra-atmospheric transponder population by a constellation of sophisticated small satellites in low Earth orbit, we now propose to retrieve information from the instrumented balloon constellation by existing satellite telephony systems, acting as cellular tower-nodes in a global cellular telephony system whose ''user-set'' is the atmospheric-sampling and surface-level monitoring constellations. We thereby leverage the huge investment in cellular (satellite) telephony and GPS technologies, with large technical and economic gains. This proposal minimizes sponsor forward commitment along its entire programmatic trajectory, and moreover may return data of weather-predictive value soon after field activities commence. We emphasize its high near-term value for making better mesoscale, relatively short-term weather predictions with computing-intensive means, and its great long-term utility in enhancing the meteorological basis for global change predictive studies. We again note that adverse impacts of weather

  6. Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) Data Archive () | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) Data Archive Title: Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) Data Archive The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) originally ...

  7. Regional Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange Via Atmospheric Budgets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, K.J.; Richardson, S.J.; Miles, N.L.

    2007-03-07

    Inversions of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio measurements to determine CO2 sources and sinks are typically limited to coarse spatial and temporal resolution. This limits our ability to evaluate efforts to upscale chamber- and stand-level CO2 flux measurements to regional scales, where coherent climate and ecosystem mechanisms govern the carbon cycle. As a step towards the goal of implementing atmospheric budget or inversion methodology on a regional scale, a network of five relatively inexpensive CO2 mixing ratio measurement systems was deployed on towers in northern Wisconsin. Four systems were distributed on a circle of roughly 150-km radius, surrounding one centrally located system at the WLEF tower near Park Falls, WI. All measurements were taken at a height of 76 m AGL. The systems used single-cell infrared CO2 analyzers (Licor, model LI-820) rather than the siginificantly more costly two-cell models, and were calibrated every two hours using four samples known to within 0.2 ppm CO2. Tests prior to deployment in which the systems sampled the same air indicate the precision of the systems to be better than 0.3 ppm and the accuracy, based on the difference between the daily mean of one system and a co-located NOAA-ESRL system, is consistently better than 0.3 ppm. We demonstrate the utility of the network in two ways. We interpret regional CO2 differences using a Lagrangian parcel approach. The difference in the CO2 mixing ratios across the network is at least 2?3 ppm, which is large compared to the accuracy and precision of the systems. Fluxes estimated assuming Lagrangian parcel transport are of the same sign and magnitude as eddy-covariance flux measurements at the centrally-located WLEF tower. These results indicate that the network will be useful in a full inversion model. Second, we present a case study involving a frontal passage through the region. The progression of a front across the network is evident; changes as large as four ppm in one minute are

  8. Atmospheric corrosion of lithium electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1981-10-01

    Atmospheric corrosion of lithium during lithium-cell assembly and the dry storage of cells prior to electrolyte fill has been found to initiate lithium corrosion pits and to form corrosion products. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate lithium pitting and the white floccullent corrosion products. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Auger spectroscopy in combination with X-ray diffraction were used to characterize lithium surfaces. Lithium surfaces with corrosion products were found to be high in carbonate content indicating the presence of lithium carbonate. Lithium electrodes dry stored in unfilled batteries were found to contain high concentration of lithium flouride a possible corrosion product from gaseous materials from the carbon monofluoride cathode. Future investigations of the corrosion phenomena will emphasize the effect of the corrosion products on the electrolyte and ultimate battery performance. The need to protect lithium electrodes from atmospheric exposure is commonly recognized to minimize corrosion induced by reaction with water, oxygen, carbon dioxide or nitrogen (1). Manufacturing facilities customarily limit the relative humidity to less than two percent. Electrodes that have been manufactured for use in lithium cells are typically stored in dry-argon containers. In spite of these precautions, lithium has been found to corrode over a long time period due to residual gases or slow diffusion of the same into storage containers. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the nature of the lithium corrosion.

  9. Aerosol Effects on Cirrus through Ice Nucleation in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5 with a Statistical Cirrus Scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Minghuai; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Kai; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2014-09-01

    A statistical cirrus cloud scheme that tracks ice saturation ratio in the clear-sky and cloudy portion of a grid box separately has been implemented into NCAR CAM5 to provide a consistent treatment of ice nucleation and cloud formation. Simulated ice supersaturation and ice crystal number concentrations strongly depend on the number concentrations of heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN), subgrid temperature formulas and the number concentration of sulfate particles participating in homogeneous freezing, while simulated ice water content is insensitive to these perturbations. 1% to 10% dust particles serving as heterogeneous IN is 20 found to produce ice supersaturaiton in better agreement with observations. Introducing a subgrid temperature perturbation based on long-term aircraft observations of meso-scale motion produces a better hemispheric contrast in ice supersaturation compared to observations. Heterogeneous IN from dust particles significantly alter the net radiative fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA) (-0.24 to -1.59 W m-2) with a significant clear-sky longwave component (0.01 to -0.55 W m-2). Different cirrus treatments significantly perturb the net TOA anthropogenic aerosol forcing from -1.21 W m-2 to -1.54 W m-2, with a standard deviation of 0.10 W m-2. Aerosol effects on cirrus clouds exert an even larger impact on the atmospheric component of the radiative fluxes (two or three times the changes in the TOA radiative fluxes) and therefore on the hydrology cycle through the fast atmosphere response. This points to the urgent need to quantify aerosol effects on cirrus clouds through ice nucleation and how these further affect the hydrological cycle.

  10. New and Improved Data Logging and Collection System for Atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility, Tropical Western ... for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility, Tropical Western ...

  11. ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    engineering data Title: ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): engineering data Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral ...

  12. Precipitation characteristics of CAM5 physics at mesoscale resolution during MC3E and the impact of convective timescale choice

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Gustafson, William I.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-12-17

    The physics suite of the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) has recently been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to explore the behavior of the parameterization suite at high resolution and in the more controlled setting of a limited area model. The initial paper documenting this capability characterized the behavior for northern high latitude conditions. This present paper characterizes the precipitation characteristics for continental, mid-latitude, springtime conditions during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) over the central United States. This period exhibited a range of convective conditions from those driven strongly by large-scale synoptic regimesmore » to more locally driven convection. The study focuses on the precipitation behavior at 32 km grid spacing to better anticipate how the physics will behave in the global model when used at similar grid spacing in the coming years. Importantly, one change to the Zhang-McFarlane deep convective parameterization when implemented in WRF was to make the convective timescale parameter an explicit function of grid spacing. This study examines the sensitivity of the precipitation to the default value of the convective timescale in WRF, which is 600 seconds for 32 km grid spacing, to the value of 3600 seconds used for 2 degree grid spacing in CAM5. For comparison, an infinite convective timescale is also used. The results show that the 600 second timescale gives the most accurate precipitation over the central United States in terms of rain amount. However, this setting has the worst precipitation diurnal cycle, with the convection too tightly linked to the daytime surface heating. Longer timescales greatly improve the diurnal cycle but result in less precipitation and produce a low bias. An analysis of rain rates shows the accurate precipitation amount with the shorter timescale is assembled from an over abundance of drizzle combined with too

  13. Precipitation characteristics of CAM5 physics at mesoscale resolution during MC3E and the impact of convective timescale choice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustafson, William I.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-12-01

    The physics suite of the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) has recently been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to explore the behavior of the parameterization suite at high resolution and in the more controlled setting of a limited area model. The initial paper documenting this capability characterized the behavior for northern high latitude conditions. This present paper characterizes the precipitation characteristics for continental, mid-latitude, springtime conditions during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) over the central United States. This period exhibited a range of convective conditions from those driven strongly by large-scale synoptic regimes to more locally driven convection. The study focuses on the precipitation behavior at 32 km grid spacing to better anticipate how the physics will behave in the global model when used at similar grid spacing in the coming years. Importantly, one change to the Zhang-McFarlane deep convective parameterization when implemented in WRF was to make the convective timescale parameter an explicit function of grid spacing. This study examines the sensitivity of the precipitation to the default value of the convective timescale in WRF, which is 600 seconds for 32 km grid spacing, to the value of 3600 seconds used for 2 degree grid spacing in CAM5. For comparison, an infinite convective timescale is also used. The results show that the 600 second timescale gives the most accurate precipitation over the central United States in terms of rain amount. However, this setting has the worst precipitation diurnal cycle, with the convection too tightly linked to the daytime surface heating. Longer timescales greatly improve the diurnal cycle but result in less precipitation and produce a low bias. An analysis of rain rates shows the accurate precipitation amount with the shorter timescale is assembled from an over abundance of drizzle combined with too little heavy

  14. Precipitation characteristics of CAM5 physics at mesoscale resolution during MC3E and the impact of convective timescale choice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustafson, William I.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-12-17

    The physics suite of the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) has recently been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to explore the behavior of the parameterization suite at high resolution and in the more controlled setting of a limited area model. The initial paper documenting this capability characterized the behavior for northern high latitude conditions. This present paper characterizes the precipitation characteristics for continental, mid-latitude, springtime conditions during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) over the central United States. This period exhibited a range of convective conditions from those driven strongly by large-scale synoptic regimes to more locally driven convection. The study focuses on the precipitation behavior at 32 km grid spacing to better anticipate how the physics will behave in the global model when used at similar grid spacing in the coming years. Importantly, one change to the Zhang-McFarlane deep convective parameterization when implemented in WRF was to make the convective timescale parameter an explicit function of grid spacing. This study examines the sensitivity of the precipitation to the default value of the convective timescale in WRF, which is 600 seconds for 32 km grid spacing, to the value of 3600 seconds used for 2 degree grid spacing in CAM5. For comparison, an infinite convective timescale is also used. The results show that the 600 second timescale gives the most accurate precipitation over the central United States in terms of rain amount. However, this setting has the worst precipitation diurnal cycle, with the convection too tightly linked to the daytime surface heating. Longer timescales greatly improve the diurnal cycle but result in less precipitation and produce a low bias. An analysis of rain rates shows the accurate precipitation amount with the shorter timescale is assembled from an over abundance of drizzle combined with too little heavy

  15. Atmosphere to Electrons | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Atmosphere to Electrons Atmosphere to Electrons Addthis Description Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) is a multi-year U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research initiative targeting significant reductions in the cost of wind energy through an improved understanding of the complex physics governing electricity generation by wind plants. The goal of A2e is to ensure future wind plants are sited, built, and operated in a way that produces the most cost-effective, usable electric power. Text Version

  16. Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations Professor Takaaki Kajita

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Atiq Warraich About Us Atiq Warraich - Technical Lead/Project Manager Atiq Warraich Most Recent Digital Strategy May

    Research & Development » Atmosphere to Electrons Atmosphere to Electrons Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) is a multi-year U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research initiative targeting significant reductions in the cost of wind energy through an improved understanding of the complex physics governing electricity generation by wind plants. The goal of A2e is to ensure future

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2012 (Program Document) | SciTech Connect Program Document: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2012 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2012 Individual datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science ...

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly ... are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest ...

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations ... are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest ...

  1. DOE Science Showcase - Atmospheric Radiation Measurement | OSTI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atmospheric radiation measurements are fundamental data used to better understand the radiation budget of the earth, why climate is changing, and how climate change will affect our ...

  2. Correcting radar range measurements for atmospheric propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Correcting radar range measurements for atmospheric propagation effects. Abstract not provided. Authors: Doerry, Armin Walter Publication Date: 2013-12-01 OSTI Identifier: ...

  3. Atmosphere to Electrons | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Atmosphere to Electrons Atmosphere to Electrons Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) is a multi-year U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research initiative targeting significant reductions in the cost of wind energy through an improved understanding of the complex physics governing electricity generation by wind plants. The goal of A2e is to ensure future wind plants are sited, built, and operated in a way that produces the most cost-effective, usable electric power. Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) is a

  4. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while...

  5. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Science Plan Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) Science Plan The use of ...

  6. Atmospheric Ionization Mass Spectrometry Capabilities at Sandia...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mass Spectrometry Capabilities at Sandia National Labs. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Ionization Mass Spectrometry Capabilities at Sandia National Labs. ...

  7. PRECISION DETERMINATION OF ATMOSPHERIC EXTINCTION AT OPTICAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    State-of-the-art models of atmospheric radiation transport and modern codes are used to ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 79 ASTROPHYSICS, ...

  8. Assessment of radionuclides (uranium and thorium) atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Assessment of radionuclides (uranium and thorium) atmospheric pollution around Manjung district, Perak using moss as bio-indicator Bio-monitoring method using mosses have ...

  9. Search for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Shouxian, China for the Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China In a complex ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) deployment, monitoring ...

  10. Retrieving 4-dimensional atmospheric boundary layer structure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (BER) (SC-23) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Atmospheric System Research Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview ...

  11. Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling in Safety Analyses; GENII

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    part of GENII) 5 GENII Acute Atmospheric Transport Straight-line (centerline) Gaussian plume for individuals For short duration releases (2 hours) Single source...

  12. Search for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    measurement" 50 results for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" Full Text and Citations Filters Filter Search Results Everything (Citations and Full Text) (50 results) ...

  13. Sea ice - atmosphere interaction: Application of multispectral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Application of multispectral satellite data in polar surface energy flux estimates. ... Title: Sea ice - atmosphere interaction: Application of multispectral satellite data in ...

  14. URBAN ATMOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY (UAO) FIRST PLANNING WORKSHOP, JANUARY 27-28-2003. WORKSHOP SUMMARY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REYNOLDS,R.M.; LEE,H.N.

    2003-03-27

    The Urban Atmospheric Observatory (UAO) First Planning Workshop was held on 27-28 January 2003 at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) in downtown Manhattan, New York City. The meeting was well attended by local, state, and national administrators, as well as scientists and engineers from the national laboratories and academia. The real-time intensive UAO is a necessary step toward the development and validation of new technologies in support of the New York City emergency management and anti-terrorism effort. The real-time intensive UAO will be a dense array of meteorological instrumentation, remote sensing and satellite products and model output, as well as radiation detection, gamma spectrometer and aerosol measurements focused onto a small area in the heart of Manhattan. Such a test-bed, developed in a somewhat homogeneous urban area, and with a well-developed communication and data collection backbone, will be of immense utility for understanding how models of all scales can be improved and how they can best be integrated into the city's emergency program. The goal of the First Planning Workshop was to bring together a small group of experts in the fields of urban meteorology, modeling from mesoscale to fine-mesh computational fluid dynamics, instrumentation, communications and visualization, in order to (1) establish the importance of the observational program, (2) define the most efficient and cost-effective design for the program, (3) define needed intensive observational efforts and establish a schedule, and (4) define the importance of the UAO in emergency operations. The workshop achieved its goals with the enthusiastic participation of over forty persons. There was a synthesis of ideas towards a world-class facility that would benefit both immediate emergency management activities and, over an extended time, the entire field of urban meteorology and contaminant dispersion modeling.

  15. Meso-scale cooling effects of high albedo surfaces: Analysis of meteorological data from White Sands National Monument and White Sands Missile Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishman, B.; Taha, H.; Akbari, H.

    1994-05-20

    Urban summer daytime temperatures often exceed those of the surrounding rural areas. Summer ``urban heat islands`` are caused by dark roofs and paved surfaces as well as the lack of vegetation. Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are interested in studying the effects of increasing the albedo of roof tops and paved surfaces in order to reduce the impacts of summer urban heat islands. Increasing the albedo of urban surfaces may reduce this heat island effect in two ways, directly and indirectly. The direct effect involves reducing surface temperature and, therefore, heat conduction through the building envelope. This effect of surface albedo on surface temperatures is better understood and has been quantified in several studies. The indirect effect is the impact of high albedo surfaces on the near surface air temperatures. Although the indirect effect has been modeled for the Los Angeles basin by Sailor, direct field observations are required. The objective of this report is to investigate the meso-scale climate of a large high albedo area and identify the effects of albedo on the near surface air temperature. To accomplish this task, data from several surface weather stations at White Sands, New Mexico were analyzed. This report is organized into six sections in addition to this introduction. The first gives the general geological, topographic, and meteorological background of White Sands. The second is a discussion of the basic surface meteorology of the White Sands region. This section is followed by a general discussion of the instrumentation and available data. The fourth section is a description of the method used for data analyis. The fifth section which presents the results of this analysis. Finally, the last section is the summary and conclusion, where a discussion of the results is presented.

  16. Use of ARM observations and numerical models to determine radiative and latent heating profiles of mesoscale convective systems for general circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houze, Jr., Robert A.

    2013-11-13

    We examined cloud radar data in monsoon climates, using cloud radars at Darwin in the Australian monsoon, on a ship in the Bay of Bengal in the South Asian monsoon, and at Niamey in the West African monsoon. We followed on with a more in-depth study of the continental MCSs over West Africa. We investigated whether the West African anvil clouds connected with squall line MCSs passing over the Niamey ARM site could be simulated in a numerical model by comparing the observed anvil clouds to anvil structures generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model at high resolution using six different ice-phase microphysical schemes. We carried out further simulations with a cloud-resolving model forced by sounding network budgets over the Niamey region and over the northern Australian region. We have devoted some of the effort of this project to examining how well satellite data can determine the global breadth of the anvil cloud measurements obtained at the ARM ground sites. We next considered whether satellite data could be objectively analyzed to so that their large global measurement sets can be systematically related to the ARM measurements. Further differences were detailed between the land and ocean MCS anvil clouds by examining the interior structure of the anvils with the satellite-detected the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR). The satellite survey of anvil clouds in the Indo-Pacific region was continued to determine the role of MCSs in producing the cloud pattern associated with the MJO.

  17. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-07-18

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

  18. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, Scott A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Glish, Gary L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above.

  19. SWiFT site atmospheric characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, Christopher Lee; Ennis, Brandon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Historical meteorological tall tower data are analyzed from the Texas Tech University 200 m tower to characterize the atmospheric trends of the Scaled Wind Farm Technologies (SWiFT) site. In this report the data are analyzed to reveal bulk atmospheric trends, temporal trends and correlations of atmospheric variables. Through this analysis for the SWiFT turbines the site International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) classification is determined to be class III-C. Averages and distributions of atmospheric variables are shown, revealing large fluctuations and the importance of understanding the actual site trends as opposed to simply using averages. The site is significantly directional with the average wind speed from the south, and particularly so in summer and fall. Site temporal trends are analyzed from both seasonal (time of the year) to daily (hour of the day) perspectives. Atmospheric stability is seen to vary most with time of day and less with time of year. Turbulence intensity is highly correlated with stability, and typical daytime unstable conditions see double the level of turbulence intensity versus that experienced during the average stable night. Shear, veer and atmospheric stability correlations are shown, where shear and veer are both highest for stable atmospheric conditions. An analysis of the Texas Tech University tower anemometer measurements is performed which reveals the extent of the tower shadow effects and sonic tilt misalignment.

  20. The Great Plains low-level jet (LLJ) during the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) intensive observation period (IOP)-4 and simulations of land use pattern effect on the LLJ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Y.; Raman, S.

    1996-04-01

    The Great Plains low-level jet (LLJ) is an important element of the low-level atmospheric circulation. It transports water vapor from the Gulf of Mexico, which in turn affects the development of weather over the Great Plains of the central United States. The LLJ is generally recognized as a complex response of the atmospheric boundary layer to the diurnal cycle of thermal forcing. Early studies have attributed the Great Plains LLJ to the diurnal oscillations of frictional effect, buoyancy over sloping terrain, and the blocking effects of the Rocky Mountains. Recent investigations show that the speed of the LLJ is also affected by the soil type and soil moisture. Some studies also suggest that synoptic patterns may play an important role in the development of the LLJ. Land surface heterogeneties significantly affect mesoscale circulations by generating strong contrasts in surface thermal fluxes. Thus one would expect that the land use pattern should have effects on the LLJ`s development and structure. In this study, we try to determine the relative roles of the synoptic forcing, planetary boundary layers (PBL) processes, and the land use pattern in the formation of the LLJ using the observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Intensive Operation Period (IOP)-4 and numerical sensitivity tests.

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable ...

  2. Operating Experience Level 3, Atmospheric Dispersion Parameter...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    5 OE-3 2015-02: Atmospheric Dispersion Parameter (xQ) for Calculation of Co-located Worker Dose This Operating Experience Level 3 (OE-3) document informs the complex of the...

  3. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    A large portion of the microscopic particles floating in the air originate from incomplete combustion of coal and oil and from dust storms. Once in the atmosphere, they can have ...

  4. Reducing the atmospheric impact of wet slaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.D. Zubitskii; G.V. Ushakov; B.G. Tryasunov; A.G.Ushakov

    2009-05-15

    Means of reducing the atmospheric emissions due to the wet slaking of coke are considered. One option, investigated here, is to remove residual active silt and organic compounds from the biologically purified wastewater sent for slaking, by coagulation and flocculation.

  5. Atmospheric and Climate Science | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric and Climate Science Argonne research in aerosols, micro-meteorology, remote sensing, and atmospheric chemistry combined with our scalable, portable, high-performance climate and weather applications offer a unique look at the complexities of a dynamic planet. Changes in climate can affect biodiversity, the cost of food, our health, and even whole economies. Argonne is developing computational models and tools designed to shed light on complex biological processes and their economic,

  6. Technology evaluation for space station atmospheric leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemon, D.K.; Friesel, M.A.; Griffin, J.W.; Skorpik, J.R.; Shepard, C.L.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Kurtz, R.J.

    1990-02-01

    A concern in operation of a space station is leakage of atmosphere through seal points and through the walls as a result of damage from particle (space debris and micrometeoroid) impacts. This report describes a concept for a monitoring system to detect atmosphere leakage and locate the leak point. The concept is based on analysis and testing of two basic methods selected from an initial technology survey of potential approaches. 18 refs., 58 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Air Activation Following an Atmospheric Explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2013-03-13

    In addition to thermal radiation and fission products, nuclear explosions result in a very high flux of unfissioned neutrons. Within an atmospheric nuclear explosion, these neutrons can activate the various elemental components of natural air, potentially adding to the radioactive signature of the event as a whole. The goal of this work is to make an order-of-magnitude estimate of the total amount of air activation products that can result from an atmospheric nuclear explosion.

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility | Argonne

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Argonne scientists study climate change 1 of 22 Argonne scientists study climate change The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science provided $60 million in ARRA funding for climate research to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, a DOE national user facility that has been operating climate observing sites around the world for nearly two decades. These sites help scientists

  9. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    2008-01-15

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  10. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  11. VOCALS: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study () | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    VOCALS: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Title: VOCALS: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study VOCALS (VAMOS* Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study) is an international ...

  12. Atmospheric Neutrinos in the MINOS Far Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howcroft, Caius L.F.

    2004-12-01

    The phenomenon of flavour oscillations of neutrinos created in the atmosphere was first reported by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration in 1998 and since then has been confirmed by Soudan 2 and MACRO. The MINOS Far Detector is the first magnetized neutrino detector able to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations. Although it was designed to detect neutrinos from the NuMI beam, it provides a unique opportunity to measure the oscillation parameters for neutrinos and anti-neutrinos independently. The MINOS Far Detector was completed in August 2003 and since then has collected 2.52 kton-years of atmospheric data. Atmospheric neutrino interactions contained within the volume of the detector are separated from the dominant background from cosmic ray muons. Thirty seven events are selected with an estimated background contamination of less than 10%. Using the detector's magnetic field, 17 neutrino events and 6 anti-neutrino events are identified, 14 events have ambiguous charge. The neutrino oscillation parameters for {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} are studied using a maximum likelihood analysis. The measurement does not place constraining limits on the neutrino oscillation parameters due to the limited statistics of the data set analysed. However, this thesis represents the first observation of charge separated atmospheric neutrino interactions. It also details the techniques developed to perform atmospheric neutrino analyses in the MINOS Far Detector.

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ARM) | U.S.

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    (Barrels per Calendar Day) Data Series: Total Number of Operable Refineries Number of Operating Refineries Number of Idle Refineries Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/SD) Vacuum

  14. Validation of the ARchived CERES Surface and Atmosphere Radiation...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Archived CERES Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget at SGP T. P. Charlock National ... System (CERES) Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget (SARB) product (Charlock et al. ...

  15. Search for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    velocity (162) radar doppler (150) general circulation models (149) atmospheric chemistry (146) remote sensing (143) water vapor (134) earth atmosphere (133) radiometers (130) ...

  16. Model-Observation "Data Cubes" for the DOE Atmospheric Radiation...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Model-Observation "Data Cubes" for the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility's ... Program through its Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility. 2. Data Cube ...

  17. DOE/SC-ARM-020 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    20 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-020 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  18. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere. (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models. Authors: Doerry, Armin Walter ...

  19. A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained by ... Title: A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained ...

  20. About Effective? Height of the Aerosol Atmosphere in Visible...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Kabanov, M. V. Panchenko, Yu. A. Pkhalagov, and S. M. Sakerin Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction Aerosol component of the atmosphere is one of the important...

  1. Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5 Prev Next Title: Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5 ...

  2. Global Atmospheric Pollution Forum Air Pollutant Emission Inventory...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Atmospheric Pollution Forum Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Global Atmospheric Pollution (GAP) Forum Air Pollutant...

  3. ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1 data Title: ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): channel 1 data Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology ...

  4. ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    summary data Title: ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): summary data Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology ...

  5. Simulated response of the atmosphere-ocean system to deforestation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the atmosphere-ocean system to deforestation in the Indonesian Archipelago Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulated response of the atmosphere-ocean system to ...

  6. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH uptake ...

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the North Slope...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    North Slope Alaska (NSA) Site Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the North Slope Alaska (NSA) Site The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the ...

  8. Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically Relevant Aqueous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically Relevant Aqueous Liquid-Air Interfaces Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically...

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Aerial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the ARM Aerial Facility Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Aerial Facility The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global ...

  10. Multi-scale Atmospheric Modeling of Green House Gas Dispersion in Complex Terrain. Atmospheric Methane at Four Corners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costigan, Keeley Rochelle; Dubey, Manvendra Krishna

    2015-07-10

    Atmospheric models are compared in collaboration with LANL and the University of Michigan to understand emissions and the condition of the atmosphere from a model perspective.

  11. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

    2006-09-01

    This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

  12. The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) Modeling and Decision Support System for Radiological and Nuclear Emergency Preparedness and Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasstrom, J S; Sugiyama, G; Baskett, R; Larsen, S; Bradley, M

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the tools and services provided by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for modeling the impacts of airborne hazardous materials. NARAC provides atmospheric plume modeling tools and services for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear airborne hazards. NARAC can simulate downwind effects from a variety of scenarios, including fires, industrial and transportation accidents, radiation dispersal device explosions, hazardous material spills, sprayers, nuclear power plant accidents, and nuclear detonations. NARAC collaborates with several government agencies and laboratories in order to accomplish its mission. The NARAC suite of software tools include simple stand-alone, local-scale plume modeling tools for end-user's computers, and Web- and Internet-based software to access advanced modeling tools and expert analyses from the national center at LLNL. Initial automated, 3-D predictions of plume exposure limits and protective action guidelines for emergency responders and managers are available from the center in 5-10 minutes. These can be followed immediately by quality-assured, refined analyses by 24 x 7 on-duty or on-call NARAC staff. NARAC continues to refine calculations using updated on-scene information, including measurements, until all airborne releases have stopped and the hazardous threats are mapped and impacts assessed. Model predictions include the 3-D spatial and time-varying effects of weather, land use, and terrain, on scales from the local to regional to global. Real-time meteorological data and forecasts are provided by redundant communications links to the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Navy, and U.S. Air Force, as well as an in-house mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. NARAC provides an easy-to-use Geographical Information System (GIS) for display of plume predictions with affected population counts and

  13. Our Dusty Atmosphere | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Dusty Atmosphere Our Dusty Atmosphere September 6, 2011 - 4:26pm Addthis A heavy layer of air pollution, a mix of aerosol particles and vapors, obscures the view over Mexico City. Two studies by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show the importance of including the small-scale effects of aerosols in climate modeling. | Image courtesy of PNNL A heavy layer of air pollution, a mix of aerosol particles and vapors, obscures the view over Mexico City. Two studies by the Pacific Northwest

  14. Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, S.P.; Woods, R.W.

    1998-08-11

    A process is disclosed for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750 C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5--3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite. 2 figs.

  15. Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Woods, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    A process for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750.degree. C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5-3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite.

  16. Atmospheric Line of Site Experiment (ALOSE) Final Campaign Summary

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Atmospheric Line of Site Experiment (ALOSE) Final Campaign Summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Line of Site Experiment (ALOSE) Final Campaign Summary The Atmospheric Line of Site Experiment (ALOSE) was a project to produce best-estimate atmospheric state measurements at the: 1. DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Clouds and Radiation Test-bed (CART) site located in Lamont, Oklahoma (11-14 December 2012) 2. Poker Flat

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Niamey, Niger for the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using AMF, GERB and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST) () | Data Explorer Niamey, Niger for the Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using AMF, GERB and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST) Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Niamey, Niger for the Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using AMF, GERB and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST) The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. Atmosphere to Electrons Program Overview Presentation | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Atmosphere to Electrons Program Overview Presentation Atmosphere to Electrons Program Overview Presentation Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) is a new, multi-year, multi-stakeholder DOE research and development initiative tasked with improving wind plant performance and mitigating risk and uncertainty to achieve substantial reductions in the cost of wind energy. Atmosphere to Electrons Overview.pdf (762.31 KB) More Documents & Publications External Merit Review for the Atmosphere to

  19. ARM - Field Campaign - Radon Measurements of Atmospheric Mixing (RAMIX)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsRadon Measurements of Atmospheric Mixing (RAMIX) Campaign Links Field Campaign Report ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Radon Measurements of Atmospheric Mixing (RAMIX 2013) 2013.03.01, Torn, SGP Radon Measurements of Atmospheric Mixing (RAMIX 2011-2013) 2011.03.01, Fischer, SGP Radon Measurements of Atmospheric Mixing (RAMIX 2010-2011) 2010.03.01, Fischer, SGP Radon Measurements of Atmospheric Mixing (RAMIX 2009-2010) 2009.04.01, Fischer, SGP Radon Measurements of

  20. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ``ventilation rate`` of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  1. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ventilation rate'' of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  2. Atmospheric Science: Solving Challenges of Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geffen, Charlette

    2015-08-05

    PNNL’s atmospheric science research provides data required to make decisions about challenges presented by climate change: Where to site power plants, how to manage water resources, how to prepare for severe weather events and more. Our expertise in fundamental observations and modeling is recognized among the national labs and the world.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF CLOUDS IN TITAN'S TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Penteado, Paulo; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Baines, Kevin H.; Buratti, Bonnie; Sotin, Christophe; Clark, Roger; Nicholson, Phil; Jaumann, Ralf

    2009-09-10

    Images of Titan's clouds, possible over the past 10 years, indicate primarily discrete convective methane clouds near the south and north poles and an immense stratiform cloud, likely composed of ethane, around the north pole. Here we present spectral images from Cassini's Visual Mapping Infrared Spectrometer that reveal the increasing presence of clouds in Titan's tropical atmosphere. Radiative transfer analyses indicate similarities between summer polar and tropical methane clouds. Like their southern counterparts, tropical clouds consist of particles exceeding 5 {mu}m. They display discrete structures suggestive of convective cumuli. They prevail at a specific latitude band between 8 deg. - 20 deg. S, indicative of a circulation origin and the beginning of a circulation turnover. Yet, unlike the high latitude clouds that often reach 45 km altitude, these discrete tropical clouds, so far, remain capped to altitudes below 26 km. Such low convective clouds are consistent with the highly stable atmospheric conditions measured at the Huygens landing site. Their characteristics suggest that Titan's tropical atmosphere has a dry climate unlike the south polar atmosphere, and despite the numerous washes that carve the tropical landscape.

  4. Connectivity To Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-02-26

    To establish DOE and NNSA connectivity to Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) for sites and facilities that have the potential for releasing hazardous materials sufficient to generate certain emergency declarations and to promote efficient use of resources for consequence assessment activities at DOE sites, facilities, operations, and activities in planning for and responding to emergency events. No cancellations.

  5. Application of lidar to current atmospheric topics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedlacek, A.J. III

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the conference was to address the various applications of lidar to topics of interest in the atmospheric community. Specifically, with the development of frequency-agile, all solid state laser systems, high-quantum-efficiency detectors, increased computational power along with new and more powerful algorithms, and novel detection schemes, the application of lidar to both old and new problems has expanded. This expansion is evidenced by the contributions to the proceedings, which demonstrate the progress made on a variety of atmospheric remote sensing problems, both theoretically and experimentally. The first session focused on aerosol, ozone, and temperature profile measurements from ground-based units. The second session, Chemical Detection, provided applications of lidar to the detection of atmospheric pollutants. Papers in the third session, Wind and Turbulence Measurements, described the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) experiments, Doppler techniques for ground-based wind profiling and mesopause radial wind and temperature measurements utilizing a frequency-agile lidar system. The papers in the last two sessions, Recent Advanced in Lidar Technology and Techniques and Advanced Operational Lidars, provided insights into novel approaches, materials, and techniques that would be of value to the lidar community. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  6. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Honolulu, Hawaii

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The staff residences at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center in Hawaii now have solar water heating systems funded by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The Center is part of the Department of Commerce's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC-NOAA).

  7. Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) Data Archive

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) originally consisted of an atmospheric chemistry program, an environmental meteorology program, a tropospheric aerosol program, and NARSTO activities. In 2004, the ASP was reconfigured to focus on aerosol radiative forcing of climate change: aerosol formation and evolution and aerosol properties that affect direct and indirect influences on climate and climate change. This included developing a comprehensive understanding of the atmospheric processes that control the transport, transformation, and fate of energy related trace chemicals and particulate matter. The current focus of the program is aerosol radiative forcing of climate. Effective October 1, 2009, The ASP merged with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM), with the overall program now called Atmospheric System Research. The overall research goal is one that was shared in common, i.e. to further the understanding of how the climate, as a system works, and to represent the understanding in computer models. The Office of Science and Brookhaven announced, ôA major benefit of the merge is expected to be a strengthening of the aerosol- and cloud-related research components of the programs by bringing together the ARM capabilities of continuous remote sensing measurements of cloud properties and aerosol influences on radiation with the ASP capabilities for in-situ characterization of aerosol properties, evolution, and cloud interactions.ö [http://www.asp.bnl.gov/#New] The ASP data archive has now been moved to a new location in order to be maintained with ARM data. The new url is http://iop.archive.arm.gov/arm-iop/0special-data/ASP_Campaigns_past/. BNL continues to maintain an excellent list of ASP-publications at http://www.asp.bnl.gov/asp_pubs.html

  8. A case study of the Great Plains low-level jet using wind profiler network data and a high resolution mesoscale model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, S.; Fast, J.D.; Bian, X.; Stage, S.

    1996-04-01

    The Great Plains low-level jet (LLJ) has important effects on the life cycle of clouds and on radiative and surface heat and moisture fluxes at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site. This diurnal phenomenon governs the transport and convergence of low-level moisture into the region and often leads to the development of clouds and precipitation. A full understanding of the life cycle of clouds at the SGP CART site and their proper representation in single column and global climate models cannot be obtained without an improved understanding of this important phenomenon.

  9. ANALYTICAL MODELS OF EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES. I. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS VIA THE SHALLOW WATER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heng, Kevin; Workman, Jared E-mail: jworkman@coloradomesa.edu

    2014-08-01

    Within the context of exoplanetary atmospheres, we present a comprehensive linear analysis of forced, damped, magnetized shallow water systems, exploring the effects of dimensionality, geometry (Cartesian, pseudo-spherical, and spherical), rotation, magnetic tension, and hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction. Across a broad range of conditions, we find that the key governing equation for atmospheres and quantum harmonic oscillators are identical, even when forcing (stellar irradiation), sources of friction (molecular viscosity, Rayleigh drag, and magnetic drag), and magnetic tension are included. The global atmospheric structure is largely controlled by a single key parameter that involves the Rossby and Prandtl numbers. This near-universality breaks down when either molecular viscosity or magnetic drag acts non-uniformly across latitude or a poloidal magnetic field is present, suggesting that these effects will introduce qualitative changes to the familiar chevron-shaped feature witnessed in simulations of atmospheric circulation. We also find that hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction have dissimilar phase signatures and affect the flow in fundamentally different ways, implying that using Rayleigh drag to mimic magnetic drag is inaccurate. We exhaustively lay down the theoretical formalism (dispersion relations, governing equations, and time-dependent wave solutions) for a broad suite of models. In all situations, we derive the steady state of an atmosphere, which is relevant to interpreting infrared phase and eclipse maps of exoplanetary atmospheres. We elucidate a pinching effect that confines the atmospheric structure to be near the equator. Our suite of analytical models may be used to develop decisively physical intuition and as a reference point for three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of atmospheric circulation.

  10. Perspective: Water cluster mediated atmospheric chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaida, Veronica

    2011-07-14

    The importance of water in atmospheric and environmental chemistry initiated recent studies with results documenting catalysis, suppression and anti-catalysis of thermal and photochemical reactions due to hydrogen bonding of reagents with water. Water, even one water molecule in binary complexes, has been shown by quantum chemistry to stabilize the transition state and lower its energy. However, new results underscore the need to evaluate the relative competing rates between reaction and dissipation to elucidate the role of water in chemistry. Water clusters have been used successfully as models for reactions in gas-phase, in aqueous condensed phases and at aqueous surfaces. Opportunities for experimental and theoretical chemical physics to make fundamental new discoveries abound. Work in this field is timely given the importance of water in atmospheric and environmental chemistry.

  11. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

    1993-10-26

    A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g., organic and medical waste, drying materials, heating air, calcining and the like.

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Convective and Orographically Induced

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is providing the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to support a long-term precipitation study in the Black Forest region of Germany. Requested by researchers from the University of Hohenheim, the AMF will be deployed as one of four heav- ily instrumented supersites established for the Convective and Orographically Induced Precipita- tion Study

  13. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K.

    1995-09-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J{sub 2}/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated.

  14. Atmospheric and combustion chemistry of dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielsen, O.J.; Egsgaard, H.; Larsen, E.; Sehested, J.; Wallington, T.J.

    1997-12-31

    It has been demonstrated that dimethyl ether (DME) is an ideal diesel fuel alternative. DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}, combines good fuel properties with low exhaust emissions and low combustion noise. Large scale production of this fuel can take place using a single step catalytic process converting CH{sub 4} to DME. The fate of DME in the atmosphere has previously been studied. The atmospheric degradation is initiated by the reaction with hydroxyl radicals, which is also a common feature of combustion processes. Spectrokinetic investigations and product analysis were used to demonstrate that the intermediate oxy radical, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 2}O, exhibits a novel reaction pathway of hydrogen atom ejection. The application of tandem mass spectrometry to chemi-ions based on supersonic molecular beam sampling has recently been demonstrated. The highly reactive ionic intermediates are sampled directly from the flame and identified by collision activation mass spectrometry and ion-molecule reactions. The mass spectrum reflects the distribution of the intermediates in the flame. The atmospheric degradation of DME as well as the unique fuel properties of a oxygen containing compound will be discussed.

  15. Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S.; Henins, Ivars; Babayan, Steve E.; Hicks, Robert F.

    2001-01-01

    Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two planar, parallel electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the volume therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly spacing the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, there is a negligible density of ions surviving for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike the situation for low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, T

    2004-10-31

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at

  17. Radon Measurements of Atmospheric Mixing (RAMIX) 2006-2014 Final...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    troposphere leads to large uncertainty in "top-down" estimates of regional land-atmosphere carbon exchange (i.e., estimates based on measurements of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios. ...

  18. VIDEO: Atmosphere to Electrons Is Helping Define the Wind Power...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    VIDEO: Atmosphere to Electrons Is Helping Define the Wind Power Plant of the Future VIDEO: Atmosphere to Electrons Is Helping Define the Wind Power Plant of the Future September ...

  19. SOAR Data: Data from Shipboard Oceanographic and Atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Availability: Special Interface Available Language: ... interrelations; NOAA's Scientific Computer System (SCS); ARM; Atmospheric Radiation ...

  20. Atmosphere to Electrons: Enabling the Wind Plant of Tomorrow | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy Atmosphere to Electrons: Enabling the Wind Plant of Tomorrow Atmosphere to Electrons: Enabling the Wind Plant of Tomorrow a2e-fact-sheet-cover-thumbnail.jpg The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) research initiative is focused on improving the performance and reliability of wind plants by establishing an unprecedented understanding of how the Earth's atmosphere interacts with the wind plants and developing innovative technologies to maximize energy

  1. Overview of the United States Department of Energy's ARM (Atmospheric

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation Measurement) Program (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Overview of the United States Department of Energy's ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Program Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Overview of the United States Department of Energy's ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Program The Department of Energy (DOE) is initiating a major atmospheric research effort, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM). The program is a key component of DOE's

  2. National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center NARAC Logo NNSA's Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability's (ARAC) role in an emergency begins when hazardous material is released into the atmosphere by a radiological dispersal device, improvised nuclear weapon, or nuclear radiological accident. ARAC is hosted in a facility called the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), operated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NARAC's centralized,

  3. Charter for the ARM Atmospheric Modeling Advisory Group (Program Document)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Program Document: Charter for the ARM Atmospheric Modeling Advisory Group Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Charter for the ARM Atmospheric Modeling Advisory Group The Atmospheric Modeling Advisory Group of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is guided by the following: 1. The group will provide feedback on the overall project plan including input on how to address priorities and trade-offs in the

  4. HIGH-RESOLUTION ATMOSPHERIC ENSEMBLE MODELING AT SRNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, R.; Werth, D.; Chiswell, S.; Etherton, B.

    2011-05-10

    The High-Resolution Mid-Atlantic Forecasting Ensemble (HME) is a federated effort to improve operational forecasts related to precipitation, convection and boundary layer evolution, and fire weather utilizing data and computing resources from a diverse group of cooperating institutions in order to create a mesoscale ensemble from independent members. Collaborating organizations involved in the project include universities, National Weather Service offices, and national laboratories, including the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The ensemble system is produced from an overlapping numerical weather prediction model domain and parameter subsets provided by each contributing member. The coordination, synthesis, and dissemination of the ensemble information are performed by the Renaissance Computing Institute (RENCI) at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. This paper discusses background related to the HME effort, SRNL participation, and example results available from the RENCI website.

  5. Atmosphere purification of radon and radon daughter elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, L.

    1973-12-11

    A method for purifying an atmosphere of radon and radon daughter elements which may be contained therein by contacting the atmosphere with a fluorinating solution, whereby the radon and radon daughters are oxidized to their respective fluorides is discussed. The fluorides dissolve in the fluorinating solutlon and are removed from the atmosphere, which may then be recirculated. (Official Gazette)

  6. Nonlinear symmetric stability of planetary atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, J.C.; Shepherd, T.G.

    1994-11-01

    The energy-Casimir method is applied to the problem of symmetric stability in the context of a compressible, hydrostatic planetary atmosphere with a general equation of state. Linear stability criteria for symmetric disturbances to a zonally symmetric baroclinic flow are obtained. In the special case of a perfect gas the results of Stevens (1983) are recovered. Nonlinear stability conditions are also obtained that, in addition to implying linear stability, provide an upper bound on a certain positive-definite measure of disturbance amplitude.

  7. DISMANTLING OF THE UPPER RPV COMPONENTS OF THE KARLSRUHE MULTI-PURPOSE RESEARCH REACTOR (MZFR), GERMANY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prechtl, E.; Suessdorf, W.

    2003-02-27

    The Multi-purpose Research Reactor was a pressurized-water reactor cooled and moderated with heavy water. It was built from 1961 to 1966 and went critical for the first time on 29 September 1965. After nineteen years of successful operation, the reactor was de-activated on 3 May 1984. The reactor had a thermal output of 200 MW and an electrical output of 50 MW. The MZFR not only served to supply electrical power, but also as a test bed for: - research into various materials for reactor building (e. g. zirkaloy), - the manufacturing and operating industry to gain experience in erection and operation, - training scientific and technical reactor staff, and - power supply (first nuclear combined-heat-and-power system, 1979-1984). The experience gained in operating the MZFR was very helpful for the development and operation of power reactors. At first, safe containment and enclosure of the plant was planned, but then it was decided to dismantle the plant completely, step by step, in view o f the clear advantages of this approach. The decommissioning concept for the complete elimination of the plant down to a green-field site provides for eight steps. A separate decommissioning license is required for each step. As part of the dismantling, about 72,000 Mg [metric tons] of concrete and 7,200 Mg of metal (400 Mg RPV) must be removed. About 700 Mg of concrete (500 Mg biological shield) and 1300 Mg of metal must be classified as radioactive waste.

  8. ARM - Field Campaign - Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Ocean-Atmosphere Response Exp govCampaignsTropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Exp ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Exp 1992.07.11 - 1993.02.28 Lead Scientist : Chuck Long Data Availability Final data available. For data sets, see below. Summary IOP completed. Abstract The Tropical Ocean

  9. Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersal 3.2

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-06-26

    ERAD (Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersal) is a 3D numerical transport and diffusion model, used to model the consequences associated with the buoyant (or nonbuoyant) dispersal of radioactive material It incorporates an integral plume rise model to simulate the buoyant rise of heated gases following an explosive detonation. treating buoyancy effects from time zero onward, eliminating the need for the stabilized doud assumption, and enabling the penetration of inversions. Modeling of the atmospheric boundary layer usesmore » contemporary parameterization based on scaling theories derived from observational, laboratory and numerical studies. A Monte Carlo stochastic process simulates particle dispersion. Results were validated for both dose and deposition against measurements taken during Operation Roller Coaster (a joint US-UK test performed at NTS). Meteorology is defined using a single vertical sounding containing wind speed and direction and temperature as a function of height. Post processing applies 50-year CEDE DCFs (either ICRP 26 or 60) to determine the contribution of the relevant dose pathways (inhalation, submersion, and ground shine) as well as the total dose received. Dose and deposition contours are overlaid on a fully integrated worldwide GIS and tabulates hearth effects (fatalities and casualties) to resident population. The software runs on a laptop and takes less than 2 minutes to process. The Municipal version of ERAD does not include the ability to model the mitigation effects of aqueous foam.« less

  10. Cold atmospheric plasma in cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keidar, Michael; Shashurin, Alex; Volotskova, Olga; Ann Stepp, Mary; Srinivasan, Priya; Sandler, Anthony; Trink, Barry

    2013-05-15

    Recent progress in atmospheric plasmas has led to the creation of cold plasmas with ion temperature close to room temperature. This paper outlines recent progress in understanding of cold plasma physics as well as application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) in cancer therapy. Varieties of novel plasma diagnostic techniques were developed recently in a quest to understand physics of CAP. It was established that the streamer head charge is about 10{sup 8} electrons, the electrical field in the head vicinity is about 10{sup 7} V/m, and the electron density of the streamer column is about 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}. Both in-vitro and in-vivo studies of CAP action on cancer were performed. It was shown that the cold plasma application selectively eradicates cancer cells in-vitro without damaging normal cells and significantly reduces tumor size in-vivo. Studies indicate that the mechanism of action of cold plasma on cancer cells is related to generation of reactive oxygen species with possible induction of the apoptosis pathway. It is also shown that the cancer cells are more susceptible to the effects of CAP because a greater percentage of cells are in the S phase of the cell cycle.

  11. Cable twisting due to atmospheric icing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McComber, P.; Druez, J.; Savadjiev, K.

    1995-12-31

    Samples of ice accretions collected on cables of overhead transmission lines have shown evidence of twisting of the cable during atmospheric icing. Previous work has attributed cable twisting to the torque created by the weight of an eccentric ice shape and by wind forces. However, testing of stranded cables and conductors has shown that such cables also twist when there is a change in tension in the cable span. This phenomenon is related to the interaction of the different strand layers under tension. When a cable is subjected to atmospheric icing, cable tension increases and this type of twisting should also be considered. In order to determine how the two types of twisting would compare on transmission lines, a numerical simulation was made using characteristics of a typical 35-mm stranded conductor. The twist angle was computed as a function of cable span, sag to span ratio and increasing ice loads. The simulation shows that for transmission lines, twisting due to varying tension will be significant. Since cable tension is influenced by wind speed and ambient temperature as well as ice load, this phenomenon, unless prevented, results in ice accretion more circular in shape and hence eventually in larger ice loads.

  12. Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Handbook

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gero, Jonathan; Hackel, Denny; Garcia, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) is a ground-based instrument that measures the downwelling infrared radiance from the Earth’s atmosphere. The observations have broad spectral content and sufficient spectral resolution to discriminate among gaseous emitters (e.g., carbon dioxide and water vapor) and suspended matter (e.g., aerosols, water droplets, and ice crystals). These upward-looking surface observations can be used to obtain vertical profiles of tropospheric temperature and water vapor, as well as measurements of trace gases (e.g., ozone, carbon monoxide, and methane) and downwelling infrared spectral signatures of clouds and aerosols.The AERI is a passive remote sounding instrument, employing a Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the spectral range 3.3–19.2 μm (520–3020 cm-1) at an unapodized resolution of 0.5 cm-1 (max optical path difference of 1 cm). The extended-range AERI (ER-AERI) deployed in dry climates, like in Alaska, have a spectral range of 3.3–25.0 μm (400–3020 cm-1) that allow measurements in the far-infrared region. Typically, the AERI averages views of the sky over a 16-second interval and operates continuously.

  13. Emulation to simulate low resolution atmospheric data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hebbur Venkata Subba Rao, Vishwas [ORNL; Archibald, Richard K [ORNL; Evans, Katherine J [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    Climate simulations require significant compute power, they are complex and therefore it is time consuming to simulate them. We have developed an emulator to simulate unknown climate datasets. The emulator uses stochastic collocation and multi-dimensional in- terpolation to simulate the datasets. We have used the emulator to determine various physical quantities such as temperature, short and long wave cloud forcing, zonal winds etc. The emulation gives results which are very close to those obtained by simulations. The emulator was tested on 2 degree atmospheric datasets. The work evaluates the pros and cons of evaluating the mean first and inter- polating and vice versa. To determine the physical quantities, we have assumed them to be a function of time, longitude, latitude and a random parameter. We have looked at parameters that govern high stable clouds, low stable clouds, timescale for convection etc. The emulator is especially useful as it requires negligible compute times when compared to the simulation itself.

  14. Atmospheric lead in downtown Guatemala City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durando, M.L.; Aragon, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    Atomic absorption (AA) analysis was employed to determine, for the first time in this country, lead concentrations in aerosols collected in Nuclepore filter media during the months of February and March (1980) in Guatemala City, Guatemala. In particular, the lead in the atmospheric fine particulate was measured in different downtown locations around noontime and in a single location at 1-h intervals throughout the day. The first was used to study short-term variations from one location to the other, and the second one was used to correlate parameters such as traffic density and wind velocity with the levels of airborne lead on the same day. In addition, this paper presents a brief discussion of the lead content in Guatemalan gasoline, the lead levels in street dusts, and the total suspended particulate matter in downtown Guatemala City.

  15. Sterilization effects of atmospheric cold plasma brush

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Q.S.; Huang, C.; Hsieh, F.-H.; Huff, H.; Duan Yixiang

    2006-01-02

    This study investigated the sterilization effects of a brush-shaped plasma created at one atmospheric pressure. A population of 1.0x10{sup 4}-1.0x10{sup 5} Escherichia coli or Micrococcus luteus bacteria was seeded in filter paper media and then subjected to Ar and/or Ar+O{sub 2} plasmas. A complete kill of the Micrococcus luteus required about 3 min argon plasma exposures. With oxygen addition into the argon plasma gas streams, a complete kill of the bacteria needed only less than 1 min plasma exposure for Micrococcus luteus and about 2 min exposure for Escherichia coli. The plasma treatment effects on the different bacteria cell structures were examined using scanning electron microscopy.

  16. Aeras: A next generation global atmosphere model

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Spotz, William F.; Smith, Thomas M.; Demeshko, Irina P.; Fike, Jeffrey A.

    2015-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing a new global atmosphere model named Aeras that is performance portable and supports the quantification of uncertainties. These next-generation capabilities are enabled by building Aeras on top of Albany, a code base that supports the rapid development of scientific application codes while leveraging Sandia's foundational mathematics and computer science packages in Trilinos and Dakota. Embedded uncertainty quantification (UQ) is an original design capability of Albany, and performance portability is a recent upgrade. Other required features, such as shell-type elements, spectral elements, efficient explicit and semi-implicit time-stepping, transient sensitivity analysis, and concurrent ensembles, were not componentsmore » of Albany as the project began, and have been (or are being) added by the Aeras team. We present early UQ and performance portability results for the shallow water equations.« less

  17. Aeras: A next generation global atmosphere model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spotz, William F.; Smith, Thomas M.; Demeshko, Irina P.; Fike, Jeffrey A.

    2015-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing a new global atmosphere model named Aeras that is performance portable and supports the quantification of uncertainties. These next-generation capabilities are enabled by building Aeras on top of Albany, a code base that supports the rapid development of scientific application codes while leveraging Sandia's foundational mathematics and computer science packages in Trilinos and Dakota. Embedded uncertainty quantification (UQ) is an original design capability of Albany, and performance portability is a recent upgrade. Other required features, such as shell-type elements, spectral elements, efficient explicit and semi-implicit time-stepping, transient sensitivity analysis, and concurrent ensembles, were not components of Albany as the project began, and have been (or are being) added by the Aeras team. We present early UQ and performance portability results for the shallow water equations.

  18. Atmospheric transmittance model for photosynthetically active radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulescu, Marius; Stefu, Nicoleta; Gravila, Paul; Paulescu, Eugenia; Boata, Remus; Pacurar, Angel; Mares, Oana; Pop, Nicolina; Calinoiu, Delia

    2013-11-13

    A parametric model of the atmospheric transmittance in the PAR band is presented. The model can be straightforwardly applied for calculating the beam, diffuse and global components of the PAR solar irradiance. The required inputs are: air pressure, ozone, water vapor and nitrogen dioxide column content, Ångström's turbidity coefficient and single scattering albedo. Comparison with other models and ground measured data shows a reasonable level of accuracy for this model, making it suitable for practical applications. From the computational point of view the calculus is condensed into simple algebra which is a noticeable advantage. For users interested in speed-intensive computation of the effective PAR solar irradiance, a PC program based on the parametric equations along with a user guide are available online at http://solar.physics.uvt.ro/srms.

  19. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith, Raymond E.

    1991-10-01

    Colorado-Ute Electric Association began a study to evaluate options for upgrading and extending the life of its Nucla power station in 1982. Located in southwestern Colorado near the town of Nucla, this station was commissioned in 1959 with a local bituminous coal as its design fuel for three identical stoker-fired units, each rated at 12.6 MW(e). Poor station efficiency, high fuel costs, and spiraling boiler maintenance costs forced the Nucla Station into low priority in the CUEA dispatch order as early as 1981. Among the options CUEA considered was to serve as a host utility to demonstrate Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) technology. The anticipated environmental benefits and apparent attractive economics of a circulating AFBC led to Colorado-Ute's decision to proceed with the design and construction of a demonstration project in 1984 at the Nucla facility.

  20. Atmospheric Dispersion Effects in Weak Lensing Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plazas, Andrés Alejandro; Bernstein, Gary

    2012-10-01

    The wavelength dependence of atmospheric refraction causes elongation of finite-bandwidth images along the elevation vector, which produces spurious signals in weak gravitational lensing shear measurements unless this atmospheric dispersion is calibrated and removed to high precision. Because astrometric solutions and PSF characteristics are typically calibrated from stellar images, differences between the reference stars' spectra and the galaxies' spectra will leave residual errors in both the astrometric positions (dr) and in the second moment (width) of the wavelength-averaged PSF (dv) for galaxies.We estimate the level of dv that will induce spurious weak lensing signals in PSF-corrected galaxy shapes that exceed the statistical errors of the DES and the LSST cosmic-shear experiments. We also estimate the dr signals that will produce unacceptable spurious distortions after stacking of exposures taken at different airmasses and hour angles. We also calculate the errors in the griz bands, and find that dispersion systematics, uncorrected, are up to 6 and 2 times larger in g and r bands,respectively, than the requirements for the DES error budget, but can be safely ignored in i and z bands. For the LSST requirements, the factors are about 30, 10, and 3 in g, r, and i bands,respectively. We find that a simple correction linear in galaxy color is accurate enough to reduce dispersion shear systematics to insignificant levels in the r band for DES and i band for LSST,but still as much as 5 times than the requirements for LSST r-band observations. More complex corrections will likely be able to reduce the systematic cosmic-shear errors below statistical errors for LSST r band. But g-band effects remain large enough that it seems likely that induced systematics will dominate the statistical errors of both surveys, and cosmic-shear measurements should rely on the redder bands.

  1. Atmospheric Dispersion Effects in Weak Lensing Measurements

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Plazas, Andrés Alejandro; Bernstein, Gary

    2012-10-01

    The wavelength dependence of atmospheric refraction causes elongation of finite-bandwidth images along the elevation vector, which produces spurious signals in weak gravitational lensing shear measurements unless this atmospheric dispersion is calibrated and removed to high precision. Because astrometric solutions and PSF characteristics are typically calibrated from stellar images, differences between the reference stars' spectra and the galaxies' spectra will leave residual errors in both the astrometric positions (dr) and in the second moment (width) of the wavelength-averaged PSF (dv) for galaxies.We estimate the level of dv that will induce spurious weak lensing signals in PSF-corrected galaxy shapes that exceed themore » statistical errors of the DES and the LSST cosmic-shear experiments. We also estimate the dr signals that will produce unacceptable spurious distortions after stacking of exposures taken at different airmasses and hour angles. We also calculate the errors in the griz bands, and find that dispersion systematics, uncorrected, are up to 6 and 2 times larger in g and r bands,respectively, than the requirements for the DES error budget, but can be safely ignored in i and z bands. For the LSST requirements, the factors are about 30, 10, and 3 in g, r, and i bands,respectively. We find that a simple correction linear in galaxy color is accurate enough to reduce dispersion shear systematics to insignificant levels in the r band for DES and i band for LSST,but still as much as 5 times than the requirements for LSST r-band observations. More complex corrections will likely be able to reduce the systematic cosmic-shear errors below statistical errors for LSST r band. But g-band effects remain large enough that it seems likely that induced systematics will dominate the statistical errors of both surveys, and cosmic-shear measurements should rely on the redder bands.« less

  2. ARM - PI Product - Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics & Radiative Flux

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsAtmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics & Radiative Flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics & Radiative Flux [ ARM Principal Investigator (PI) Data Product ] Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the

  3. Atmosphere purification of radon and radon daughter elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, L.

    1974-01-01

    A method of removing radon and radon daughter elements from an atmosphere containing these elements by passing the atmosphere through a bed of fluorinating compound whereby the radon and radon daughters are oxidized to their respective fluorides is discussed. These fluorides adhere to the fluorinating compound and are thus removed from the atmosphere which may then be recirculated. A method for recovering radon and separating radon from its daughter elements is also described. (Official Gazette)

  4. Clear Skies S. A. Clough Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc.

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    S. A. Clough Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Cambridge, MA 02139 The objective of this research effort is to develop radiative transfer models that are consistent with Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program spectral radiance measurements for clear and cloudy atmospheres. Our approach is to develop the model physics and related databases with a line-by-line model in the context of available spectral radiance measurements. The line-by- line mode! then functions as an

  5. A U. S. Department of Energy User Facility Atmospheric Radiation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    S. Department of Energy User Facility Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program DOE/SC-ARM/P-07-003 Science and Research Data Products Climate Data for the World A primary objective of the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to improve scientific understanding of the fundamental physics related to interactions between clouds and radiative feedback processes in the

  6. Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds, and Climate

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) Field Campaign Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds, and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds, and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) Field Campaign Report Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional

  7. Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Scientists and an international research team have announced discovery of molecular oxygen ions in the upper-most atmosphere of Dione. March 3, 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics

  8. SRNL EMERGENCY RESPONSE CAPABILITY FOR ATMOSPHERIC CONTAMINANT RELEASES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koffman, L; Chuck Hunter, C; Robert Buckley, R; Robert Addis, R

    2006-07-12

    Emergency response to an atmospheric release of chemical or radiological contamination is enhanced when plume predictions, field measurements, and real-time weather information are integrated into a geospatial framework. The Weather Information and Display (WIND) System at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) utilizes such an integrated framework. The rapid availability of predictions from a suite of atmospheric transport models within this geospatial framework has proven to be of great value to decision makers during an emergency involving an atmospheric contaminant release.

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Future Directions of the ARM Science Program (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science

  10. An ensemble constrained variational analysis of atmospheric forcing data

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and its application to evaluate clouds in CAM5: Ensemble 3DCVA and Its Application (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES An ensemble constrained variational analysis of atmospheric forcing data and its application to evaluate clouds in CAM5: Ensemble 3DCVA and Its Application Title: An ensemble constrained variational analysis of atmospheric forcing data and its application to evaluate clouds in CAM5: Ensemble 3DCVA and Its Application Large-scale atmospheric forcing data can greatly impact the

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experiment Field Campaign Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment Field Campaign Report Every 30-90 days during the Northern Hemisphere winter, the equatorial tropical atmosphere experiences pulses of extraordinarily strong deep convection and rainfall.

  12. Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Handbook (Dataset) | Data Explorer Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST) Handbook Title: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST) Handbook The Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST), like the AERI, measures infrared spectral zenith radiance at high spectral resolution. Authors: Flynn,Connor ; Mendoza,Albert Publication Date: 2016-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1253919 DOE Contract Number:

  13. Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation Measurement Program (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) maintains a fleet of monitoring stations to aid in the improved scientific understanding of the basic physics related to radiative

  14. Final Technical Report for Chief Scientist for Atmospheric Radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Final Technical Report for Chief Scientist for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Vehicle Program (AVP) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  15. An ensemble constrained variational analysis of atmospheric forcing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An ensemble constrained variational analysis of atmospheric forcing data and its application to evaluate clouds in CAM5: Ensemble 3DCVA and Its Application Prev Next Title: ...

  16. ARM - Field Campaign - Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Related Campaigns 2013 Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment 2013.05.28, Turner, SGP ... Lead Scientist : David Turner For data sets, see below. Abstract Boundary layer turbulence ...

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - 2013 Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment 2012.09.17, Turner, SGP Comments? We would ... Lead Scientist : David Turner For data sets, see below. Abstract Instruments were deployed ...

  18. An Evaluation of the Nonlinearity Correction Applied to Atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    used in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's AERIs. Authors: Turner, DD ; Revercomb, HE ; Knuteson, RO ; Dedecker, RG ; Feltz, WF Publication Date: ...

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Southern...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research ... reflect conditions over the typical distribution of land uses within the site. ...

  20. Atmospheric Dispersion Parameter (x/Q) for Calculation of Co...

    Energy Savers

    Nuclear facilities that are potentially affected by the situation described above should review their atmospheric dispersion assumptions and NSRD- 2015-TD01. Attachment E of...

  1. Atmospheric Dispersion and Consequence Analysis at Sandia's TA...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Atmospheric Dispersion and Consequence Analysis at Sandia's TA-V Nuclear Facilities Jim Dahl Manager, Nuclear Safety Analysis Sandia National Laboratories Office: 505-284-9067 ...

  2. IMPACT Project Integrated Modeling of Perturbations in Atmospheres...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    IMPACT Project Integrated Modeling of Perturbations in Atmospheres for Conjunction ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: IMPACT Project Integrated Modeling of ...

  3. Search for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... radiation (237) climate models (206) radar reflectivity (194) aerosols (188) climatic change (168) research programs (157) vertical velocity (155) atmospheric chemistry (146) ...

  4. Analysis of the Uncertainty in Wind Measurements from the Atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Program Document: Analysis of the Uncertainty in Wind Measurements from the Atmospheric ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analysis of the Uncertainty in Wind ...

  5. Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere Composition and Health Responses to Inhaled Emissions 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference ...

  6. Analysis of the Uncertainty in Wind Measurements from the Atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Analysis of the Uncertainty in Wind Measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analysis of the Uncertainty in Wind ...

  7. Estimating atmospheric parameters and reducing noise for multispectral imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conger, James Lynn

    2014-02-25

    A method and system for estimating atmospheric radiance and transmittance. An atmospheric estimation system is divided into a first phase and a second phase. The first phase inputs an observed multispectral image and an initial estimate of the atmospheric radiance and transmittance for each spectral band and calculates the atmospheric radiance and transmittance for each spectral band, which can be used to generate a "corrected" multispectral image that is an estimate of the surface multispectral image. The second phase inputs the observed multispectral image and the surface multispectral image that was generated by the first phase and removes noise from the surface multispectral image by smoothing out change in average deviations of temperatures.

  8. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Atmospheric Testing

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    and information on nuclear phenomena to improve the design of nuclear weapons. Atmospheric testing ceased for good in 1963, after which nuclear testing moved underground. ...

  9. Search for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon: Sounding Enhancement Field Campaign ... The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate ...

  10. Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases (Book) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chapter 4 of the IPCC Third Assessment Report Climate Change ... Questions 2774.6 Overall Impact of Global Atmospheric ... Language: English Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ...

  11. Good Is Not Enough: Improving Measurements of Atmospheric Particles

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    scatter sunlight, with other particle properties. These properties include particle size, chemical composition, and ability to soak up atmospheric water. By linking these...

  12. Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) maintains a fleet of monitoring stations to aid in the improved scientific understanding of the basic physics related to ...

  13. Sea ice-atmospheric interaction: Application of multispectral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Annual progress report This is the third annual report on: Sea Ice-Atmosphere Interaction ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL ...

  14. Estimating Bacteria Emissions from Inversion of Atmospheric Transport...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bacteria Emissions from Inversion of Atmospheric Transport: Sensitivity to Modelled Particle Characteristics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimating Bacteria ...

  15. Atmosphere-Land-Surface Interaction over the Southern Great Plains...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plains: Diagnosis of Mechanisms from SGP ARM Data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmosphere-Land-Surface Interaction over the Southern Great Plains: Diagnosis of ...

  16. An ensemble constrained variational analysis of atmospheric forcing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: An ensemble constrained variational analysis of atmospheric forcing data and its application to evaluate clouds in CAM5: Ensemble 3DCVA and Its Application ...

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Eastern...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Eastern North Atlantic Site (ENA), Graciosa Island, Azores Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Eastern North Atlantic Site (ENA), Graciosa Island, ...

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Point Reyes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Seashore, on the California coast north of San Francisco, was the location of the first deployment of the DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). ...

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the North Slope...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    North Slope Alaska (NSA) Site Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the North Slope Alaska (NSA) Site You are accessing a document from the Department of ...

  20. Photochemistry in terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres. III. Photochemistry and thermochemistry in thick atmospheres on super Earths and mini Neptunes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Renyu; Seager, Sara

    2014-03-20

    Some super Earths and mini Neptunes will likely have thick atmospheres that are not H{sub 2}-dominated. We have developed a photochemistry-thermochemistry kinetic-transport model for exploring the compositions of thick atmospheres on super Earths and mini Neptunes, applicable for both H{sub 2}-dominated atmospheres and non-H{sub 2}-dominated atmospheres. Using this model to study thick atmospheres for wide ranges of temperatures and elemental abundances, we classify them into hydrogen-rich atmospheres, water-rich atmospheres, oxygen-rich atmospheres, and hydrocarbon-rich atmospheres. We find that carbon has to be in the form of CO{sub 2} rather than CH{sub 4} or CO in a H{sub 2}-depleted water-dominated thick atmosphere and that the preferred loss of light elements from an oxygen-poor carbon-rich atmosphere leads to the formation of unsaturated hydrocarbons (C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}). We apply our self-consistent atmosphere models to compute spectra and diagnostic features for known transiting low-mass exoplanets GJ 1214 b, HD 97658 b, and 55 Cnc e. For GJ 1214 b, we find that (1) C{sub 2}H{sub 2} features at 1.0 and 1.5 ?m in transmission and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} features at 9-14 ?m in thermal emission are diagnostic for hydrocarbon-rich atmospheres; (2) a detection of water-vapor features and a confirmation of the nonexistence of methane features would provide sufficient evidence for a water-dominated atmosphere. In general, our simulations show that chemical stability has to be taken into account when interpreting the spectrum of a super Earth/mini Neptune. Water-dominated atmospheres only exist for carbon to oxygen ratios much lower than the solar ratio, suggesting that this kind of atmospheres could be rare.

  1. Antineutrino Oscillations in the Atmospheric Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himmel, Alexander I.

    2011-05-01

    This thesis presents measurements of the oscillations of muon antineutrinos in the atmospheric sector, where world knowledge of antineutrino oscillations lags well behind the knowledge of neutrinos, as well as a search for vμ → $\\bar{v}$μ transitions. Differences between neutrino and antineutrino oscillations could be a sign of physics beyond the Standard Model, including non-standard matter interactions or the violation of CPT symmetry. These measurements leverage the sign-selecting capabilities of the magnetized steel-scintillator MINOS detectors to analyze antineutrinos from the NuMI beam, both when it is in neutrino-mode and when it is in antineutrino-mode. Antineutrino oscillations are observed at |Δ$\\bar{m}$atm 2| = (3.36-0.40+0.46(stat) ± 0.06(syst)) x 10-3 eV2 and sin2(2$\\bar{θ}$23) = 0.860-0.12+0.11(stat) ± 0.01(syst). The oscillation parameters measured for antineutrinos and those measured by MINOS for neutrinos differ by a large enough margin that the chance of obtaining two values as discrepant as those observed is only 2%, assuming the two measurements arise from the same underlying mechanism, with the same parameter values. No evidence is seen for neutrino-to-antineutrino transitions.

  2. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  3. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.; Doyle, Edward F.; DiBella, Francis A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  4. Atmosphere to Electrons: Enabling the Wind Plant of Tomorrow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmosphere to Electrons research initiative is focused on improving the performance and reliability of wind plants by establishing an unprecedented understanding of how the Earth’s atmosphere interacts with the wind plants and developing innovative technologies to maximize energy extraction from the wind.

  5. Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility March 2013 Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility March 2013 Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research March 2013 ii Contents 1.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 1 2.0 Acronyms and Abbreviations

  6. DE-SC0001933 DOE Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerovecki, Ivana

    2014-11-14

    The overall objective of this study was to improve the representation of regional ocean circulation in the North Pacific by using high resolution atmospheric forcing that accurately represents mesoscale processes in ocean-atmosphere regional (North Pacific) model configuration. The goal was to assess the importance of accurate representation of mesoscale processes in the atmosphere and the ocean on large scale circulation. This is an important question, as mesoscale processes in the atmosphere which are resolved by the high resolution mesoscale atmospheric models such as Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), are absent in commonly used atmospheric forcing such as CORE forcing, employed in e.g. the Community Climate System Model (CCSM).

  7. Atmospheric process evaluation of mobile source emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    During the past two decades there has been a considerable effort in the US to develop and introduce an alternative to the use of gasoline and conventional diesel fuel for transportation. The primary motives for this effort have been twofold: energy security and improvement in air quality, most notably ozone, or smog. The anticipated improvement in air quality is associated with a decrease in the atmospheric reactivity, and sometimes a decrease in the mass emission rate, of the organic gas and NO{sub x} emissions from alternative fuels when compared to conventional transportation fuels. Quantification of these air quality impacts is a prerequisite to decisions on adopting alternative fuels. The purpose of this report is to present a critical review of the procedures and data base used to assess the impact on ambient air quality of mobile source emissions from alternative and conventional transportation fuels and to make recommendations as to how this process can be improved. Alternative transportation fuels are defined as methanol, ethanol, CNG, LPG, and reformulated gasoline. Most of the discussion centers on light-duty AFVs operating on these fuels. Other advanced transportation technologies and fuels such as hydrogen, electric vehicles, and fuel cells, will not be discussed. However, the issues raised herein can also be applied to these technologies and other classes of vehicles, such as heavy-duty diesels (HDDs). An evaluation of the overall impact of AFVs on society requires consideration of a number of complex issues. It involves the development of new vehicle technology associated with engines, fuel systems, and emission control technology; the implementation of the necessary fuel infrastructure; and an appropriate understanding of the economic, health, safety, and environmental impacts associated with the use of these fuels. This report addresses the steps necessary to properly evaluate the impact of AFVs on ozone air quality.

  8. Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program: Atmospheric Remote Sensing and Assessment Program -- Final Report. Part 1: The lower atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tooman, T.P.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents work done between FY91 and FY95 for the lower atmospheric portion of the joint Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Remote Sensing and Assessment Program (ARSAP) within the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP). The work focused on (1) developing new measurement capabilities and (2) measuring atmospheric heating in a well-defined layer and then relating it to cloud properties an water vapor content. Seven new instruments were develop3ed for use with Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles (UAVs) as the host platform for flux, radiance, cloud, and water vapor measurements. Four major field campaigns were undertaken to use these new as well as existing instruments to make critically needed atmospheric measurements. Scientific results include the profiling of clear sky fluxes from near surface to 14 km and the strong indication of cloudy atmosphere absorption of solar radiation considerably greater than predicted by extant models.

  9. A GRID OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL STELLAR ATMOSPHERE MODELS OF SOLAR METALLICITY. I. GENERAL PROPERTIES, GRANULATION, AND ATMOSPHERIC EXPANSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trampedach, Regner; Asplund, Martin; Collet, Remo; Nordlund, Ake

    2013-05-20

    Present grids of stellar atmosphere models are the workhorses in interpreting stellar observations and determining their fundamental parameters. These models rely on greatly simplified models of convection, however, lending less predictive power to such models of late-type stars. We present a grid of improved and more reliable stellar atmosphere models of late-type stars, based on deep, three-dimensional (3D), convective, stellar atmosphere simulations. This grid is to be used in general for interpreting observations and improving stellar and asteroseismic modeling. We solve the Navier Stokes equations in 3D and concurrent with the radiative transfer equation, for a range of atmospheric parameters, covering most of stellar evolution with convection at the surface. We emphasize the use of the best available atomic physics for quantitative predictions and comparisons with observations. We present granulation size, convective expansion of the acoustic cavity, and asymptotic adiabat as functions of atmospheric parameters.

  10. Radiative transfer in atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Z.; Stamnes, K.; Weeks, W.F.; Tsay, S.C.

    1996-04-01

    Radiative energy is critical in controlling the heat and mass balance of sea ice, which significantly affects the polar climate. In the polar oceans, light transmission through the atmosphere and sea ice is essential to the growth of plankton and algae and, consequently, to the microbial community both in the ice and in the ocean. Therefore, the study of radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean system is of particular importance. Lacking a properly coupled radiative transfer model for the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system, a consistent study of the radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, snow, sea ice, and ocean system has not been undertaken before. The radiative transfer processes in the atmosphere and in the ice and ocean have been treated separately. Because the radiation processes in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean depend on each other, this separate treatment is inconsistent. To study the radiative interaction between the atmosphere, clouds, snow, sea ice, and ocean, a radiative transfer model with consistent treatment of radiation in the coupled system is needed and is under development.

  11. ARM - Field Campaign - Land - Atmosphere Feedback Experiment (LAFE)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsLand - Atmosphere Feedback Experiment (LAFE) Campaign Links Science Plan Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Land - Atmosphere Feedback Experiment (LAFE) 2017.08.01 - 2017.08.31 Lead Scientist : Volker Wulfmeyer Abstract The Land-Atmosphere Feedback Experiment (LAFE) will deploy several state-of-the-art scanning lidar and remote sensing systems to the ARM SGP site. These instruments will augment the ARM

  12. Airborne Instrumentation Needs for Climate and Atmospheric Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarquhar, Greg; Schmid, Beat; Korolev, Alexei; Ogren, John A.; Russell, P. B.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Turner, David D.; Wiscombe, Warren J.

    2011-10-06

    Observational data are of fundamental importance for advances in climate and atmospheric research. Advances in atmospheric science are being made not only through the use of ground-based and space-based observations, but also through the use of in-situ and remote sensing observations acquired on instrumented aircraft. In order for us to enhance our knowledge of atmospheric processes, it is imperative that efforts be made to improve our understanding of the operating characteristics of current instrumentation and of the caveats and uncertainties in data acquired by current probes, as well as to develop improved observing methodologies for acquisition of airborne data.

  13. Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Battlefield of the Cold War: The Nevada Test Site, Volume I | Department of Energy Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963. Battlefield of the Cold War: The Nevada Test Site, Volume I Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963. Battlefield of the Cold War: The Nevada Test Site, Volume I Terrence R. Fehner and F.G. Gosling. Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963. Battlefield of the Cold War: The Nevada Test Site, Volume I (pdf). DOE/MA-0003. Washington,

  14. JGR-Atmospheres Papers from the RADAGAST Research Team

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    JGR-Atmospheres Papers from the RADAGAST Research Team Bharmal, N.A., A. Slingo, G.J. Robinson, and J.J. Settle, 2009: Simulation of surface and top of atmosphere thermal fluxes and radiances from the RADAGAST experiment. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 114, doi:10.1029/2008JD010504, in press. Kollias, P., M.A. Miller, K.L. Johnson, M.P. Jensen, and D.T. Troyan, 2009: Cloud, thermodynamic, and precipitation observations in West Africa during 2006. Journal of Geophysical Research-

  15. ARM - Field Campaign - Radon Measurements of Atmospheric Mixing (RAMIX

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    2008) govCampaignsRadon Measurements of Atmospheric Mixing (RAMIX 2008) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Radon Measurements of Atmospheric Mixing (RAMIX) 2006.11.01, Fischer, SGP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Radon Measurements of Atmospheric Mixing (RAMIX 2008) 2008.04.01 - 2009.03.31 Lead Scientist : Marc Fischer For data sets, see below. Abstract At present, uncertainty in vertical mixing

  16. Radon Measurements of Atmospheric Mixing (RAMIX) 2006-2014 Final...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The radioisotope radon-222 (222Rn) is a valuable tracer for measuring atmospheric mixing because it is emitted from the land surface and has a short enough half-life (3.8 days) to ...

  17. Light self-focusing in the atmosphere: Thin window model

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Vaseva, Irina A.; Fedoruk, Mikhail P.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    2016-08-02

    Ultra-high power (exceeding the self-focusing threshold by more than three orders of magnitude) light beams from ground-based laser systems may find applications in space-debris cleaning. The propagation of such powerful laser beams through the atmosphere reveals many novel interesting features compared to traditional light self-focusing. It is demonstrated here that for the relevant laser parameters, when the thickness of the atmosphere is much shorter than the focusing length (that is, of the orbit scale), the beam transit through the atmosphere in lowest order produces phase distortion only. This means that by using adaptive optics it may be possible to eliminatemore » the impact of self-focusing in the atmosphere on the laser beam. Furthermore, the area of applicability of the proposed “thin window” model is broader than the specific physical problem considered here. For instance, it might find applications in femtosecond laser material processing.« less

  18. Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951...

    Energy Savers

    Cold War: The Nevada Test Site, Volume I Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963. Battlefield of the Cold War: The Nevada Test Site, Volume I Terrence ...

  19. PNNL: Atmospheric Sciences & Global Change Search for Staff

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Science & Global Change Search for Staff Search for an ASGC staff member (Last, First) Search Search for staff member by Group View Alphabetical List of all ASGC Staff...

  20. Analysis of Sterilization Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Pulsed Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekem, N.; Akan, T.; Pat, S.; Akgun, Y.; Kiremitci, A.; Musa, G.

    2007-04-23

    We have developed a new technology, the High Voltage Atmospheric Pressure Pulsed Plasma (HVAPPP), for bacteria killing. The aim of this paper is to present a simple device to generate plasma able to kill efficiently bacteria.

  1. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trabalka, J R

    1985-12-01

    This state-of-the-art volume presents discussions on the global cycle of carbon, the dynamic balance among global atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  2. ARM - Field Campaign - Cross-Scale Land-Atmosphere Experiment

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Cross-Scale Land-Atmosphere Experiment 2016.09.01 - 2019.05.31 Lead Scientist :...

  3. ARMlUnmanned Air VehiclelSatelites The Atmospheric Radiation...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ARMlUnmanned Air VehiclelSatelites The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Unmanned ... This paper and the one that follows describe the start-up of the ARM-Unmanned Aerospace ...

  4. Computer support to run models of the atmosphere. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fung, I.

    1996-08-30

    This research is focused on a better quantification of the variations in CO{sub 2} exchanges between the atmosphere and biosphere and the factors responsible for these exchangers. The principal approach is to infer the variations in the exchanges from variations in the atmospheric CO{sub 2} distribution. The principal tool involves using a global three-dimensional tracer transport model to advect and convect CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. The tracer model the authors used was developed at the Goddard institute for Space Studies (GISS) and is derived from the GISS atmospheric general circulation model. A special run of the GCM is made to save high-frequency winds and mixing statistics for the tracer model.

  5. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a synthesis of net land-atmosphere CO2 exchange for North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico) over the period 1990-2009. Only CO2 is considered, not methane or...

  6. Free Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas | Princeton Plasma...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    7, 2008, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium Free Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas Dr. Glen Wurden Los Alamos National Laboratory Presentation: PDF icon Free...

  7. STUDIES OF MILLIMETER-WAVE ATMOSPHERIC NOISE ABOVE MAUNA KEA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayers, J.; Bock, J. J.; Goldin, A.; Nguyen, H. T.; Golwala, S. R.; Edgington, S. F.; Lange, A. E.; Rossinot, P.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, J. E.; Haig, D.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Glenn, J.; Laurent, G. T.; Schlaerth, J.

    2010-01-10

    We report measurements of the fluctuations in atmospheric emission (atmospheric noise) above Mauna Kea recorded with Bolocam at 143 and 268 GHz from the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The 143 GHz data were collected during a 40 night observing run in late 2003, and the 268 GHz observations were made in early 2004 and early 2005 over a total of 60 nights. Below approx =0.5 Hz, the data time-streams are dominated by atmospheric noise in all observing conditions. The atmospheric noise data are consistent with a Kolmogorov-Taylor turbulence model for a thin wind-driven screen, and the median amplitude of the fluctuations is 280 mK{sup 2} rad{sup -5/3} at 143 GHz and 4000 mK{sup 2} rad{sup -5/3} at 268 GHz. Comparing our results with previous ACBAR data, we find that the normalization of the power spectrum of the atmospheric noise fluctuations is a factor of approx =80 larger above Mauna Kea than above the South Pole at millimeter wavelengths. Most of this difference is due to the fact that the atmosphere above the South Pole is much drier than the atmosphere above Mauna Kea. However, the atmosphere above the South Pole is slightly more stable as well: the fractional fluctuations in the column depth of precipitable water vapor are a factor of approx =sq root2 smaller at the South Pole compared to Mauna Kea. Based on our atmospheric modeling, we developed several algorithms to remove the atmospheric noise, and the best results were achieved when we described the fluctuations using a low-order polynomial in detector position over the 8' field of view. However, even with these algorithms, we were not able to reach photon-background-limited instrument photometer performance at frequencies below approx =0.5 Hz in any observing conditions. We also observed an excess low-frequency noise that is highly correlated between detectors separated by approx<(f/number sign)lambda; this noise appears to be caused by atmospheric fluctuations, but we do not have an adequate model to

  8. ARM - Field Campaign - ASSIST: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Spectral Technology govCampaignsASSIST: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : ASSIST: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology 2008.07.08 - 2008.07.18 Lead Scientist : Michael Howard For data sets, see below. Abstract Goals of assist were to intercompare radiance spectra and profile retrievals

  9. Taking another look at the atmosphere | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemist Steve Klippenstein Chemist Steve Klippenstein Taking another look at the atmosphere By Jared Sagoff * September 24, 2012 Tweet EmailPrint Even on a relatively calm day, the Earth's atmosphere is a swirling mix of gases that react faster than the human eye can see. In order to model these reactions, scientists have generally simplified the problem by treating them as occurring sequentially. However, a new study by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory

  10. DOE/ER-0441 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Plan - February 1990

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Plan ARM Program Plan Forward In 1978 the Department of Energy initiated the Carbon Dioxide Research Program to address climate change from the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Over the years the Program has studied the many facets of the issue, from the carbon cycle, the climate diagnostics, the vegetative effects, to the societal impacts. The Program is presently the Department's principal entry in the U.S. Global Change

  11. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) (Dataset) | Data Explorer Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) Title: Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) Data were collected to improve understanding of the Arctic troposphere, and to provide researchers with a focused case-study period for future observational and modeling studies

  12. ARM - Field Campaign - Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) govCampaignsEvaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) Campaign Links Science Plan ERASMUS Backgrounder News & Press Images Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) 2015.08.02 - 2016.10.31 Lead Scientist : Gijs de Boer For data sets, see

  13. AUDIT REPORT Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility OAI-M-16-10 May 2016 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 May 16, 2016 MEMORANDUM FOR THE DIRECTOR, OFFICE OF SCIENCE FROM: George W. Collard Deputy Inspector General for Audits and Inspections Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report on the "Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility" BACKGROUND

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Facilities Newsletter - September 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holdridge, D. J., ed

    1999-09-27

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program September 1999 Facilities Newsletter discusses the several Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) that the ARM SGP CART site will host in the near future. Two projects of note are the International Pyrgeometer Intercomparison and the Fall Single Column Model (SCM)/Nocturnal Boundary Layer (NBL) IOP. Both projects will bring many US and international scientists to the SGP CART site to participate in atmospheric research.

  15. Citations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Featured

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    at OSTI's DOE Data Explorer | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information Citations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Featured at OSTI's DOE Data Explorer Back to the OSTI News Listing for 2008 Now you can find additional citations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program at the DOE Data Explorer. ARM, a key contributor to national and international research efforts related to global climate change, is a multi-laboratory,

  16. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Systems (ERASMUS) Science Plan (Program Document) | SciTech Connect Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) Science Plan Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) Science Plan The use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) is becoming increasingly popular for a variety of applications. One way in which these systems can provide revolutionary scientific

  17. COLLOQUIUM: Extending the Ice Core Record of Atmospheric Composition and

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    the Global Carbon and Oxygen Cycles Beyond 1 Million Years | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab 1, 2016, 2:15pm to 3:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium, PPPL (284 cap.) COLLOQUIUM: Extending the Ice Core Record of Atmospheric Composition and the Global Carbon and Oxygen Cycles Beyond 1 Million Years Professor John Higgins Princeton University Ice cores serve as a critical archive of past environmental conditions, providing constraints on global atmospheric composition and the climate of polar regions.

  18. Analysis of the Uncertainty in Wind Measurements from the Atmospheric

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation Measurement Doppler Lidar during XPIA: Field Campaign Report (Program Document) | SciTech Connect Analysis of the Uncertainty in Wind Measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Doppler Lidar during XPIA: Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analysis of the Uncertainty in Wind Measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Doppler Lidar during XPIA: Field Campaign Report In March and April of 2015, the ARM Doppler lidar that was

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Point Reyes, California

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for the Marine Stratus, Radiation, Aerosol, and Drizzle (MASRAD) Project () | Data Explorer Point Reyes, California for the Marine Stratus, Radiation, Aerosol, and Drizzle (MASRAD) Project Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Point Reyes, California for the Marine Stratus, Radiation, Aerosol, and Drizzle (MASRAD) Project Point Reyes National Seashore, on the California coast north of San Francisco, was the location of the first deployment of the DOE's Atmospheric

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Aerial Facility

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    () | Data Explorer the ARM Aerial Facility Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Aerial Facility The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. ARM data is collected both through

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the North Slope Alaska

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (NSA) Site () | Data Explorer North Slope Alaska (NSA) Site Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the North Slope Alaska (NSA) Site The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Southern Great Plains

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (SGP) Site () | Data Explorer Southern Great Plains (SGP) Site Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Site The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Tropical Western

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pacific (TWP) Site. () | Data Explorer Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Site. Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Site. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of

  4. Carbonyl sulfide: potential agent of atmospheric sulfur corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graedel, T.E.; Kammlott, G.W.; Franey, J.P.

    1981-05-08

    Laboratory exposure experiments demonstrate that carbonyl sulfide in wet air corrodes copper at 22/sup 0/C at a rate that is approximately linear with total exposure (the product of exposure time and carbonyl sulfide concentration). The corrosion rate is similar to that of hydrogen sulfide, a widely recognized corrodant. The much greater average atmospheric abundance of carbonyl sulfide compared with that of hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide suggests that carbonyl sulfide may be a major agent of atmospheric sulfur corrosion.

  5. Study of the atmospheric chemistry of radon progeny in laboratory and real indoor atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopke, P.K.

    1992-07-01

    This report covers the second year of the 28 month grant current grant to Clarkson University to study the chemical and physical behavior of the polonium 218 atom immediately following its formation by the alpha decay of radon. Because small changes in size for activity result in large changes in the delivered dose per unit exposure, this behavior must be understood if the exposure to radon progeny and it dose to the cells in the respiratory tract are to be fully assessed. Two areas of radon progeny behavior are being pursued; laboratory studies under controlled conditions to better understand the fundamental physical and chemical process that affect the progeny's atmospheric behavior and studies in actual indoor environments to develop a better assessment of the exposure of the occupants of that space to the size and concentration of the indoor radioactive aerosol. This report describes the progress toward achieving these objectives.

  6. INFERENCE OF INHOMOGENEOUS CLOUDS IN AN EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; De Wit, Julien; Lewis, Nikole; Zsom, Andras; Seager, Sara; Fortney, Jonathan; Knutson, Heather; Desert, Jean-Michel; Heng, Kevin; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Gillon, Michael; Barclay, Thomas; Cowan, Nicolas B.

    2013-10-20

    We present new visible and infrared observations of the hot Jupiter Kepler-7b to determine its atmospheric properties. Our analysis allows us to (1) refine Kepler-7b's relatively large geometric albedo of Ag = 0.35 0.02, (2) place upper limits on Kepler-7b thermal emission that remains undetected in both Spitzer bandpasses and (3) report a westward shift in the Kepler optical phase curve. We argue that Kepler-7b's visible flux cannot be due to thermal emission or Rayleigh scattering from H{sub 2} molecules. We therefore conclude that high altitude, optically reflective clouds located west from the substellar point are present in its atmosphere. We find that a silicate-based cloud composition is a possible candidate. Kepler-7b exhibits several properties that may make it particularly amenable to cloud formation in its upper atmosphere. These include a hot deep atmosphere that avoids a cloud cold trap, very low surface gravity to suppress cloud sedimentation, and a planetary equilibrium temperature in a range that allows for silicate clouds to potentially form in the visible atmosphere probed by Kepler. Our analysis does not only present evidence of optically thick clouds on Kepler-7b but also yields the first map of clouds in an exoplanet atmosphere.

  7. DOE/SC-ARM-13-013 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-13-013 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  8. DOE/SC-ARM-14-025 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-14-025 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  9. DOE/SC-ARM-15-037 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-15-037 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  10. DOE/SC-ARM-12-021 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-12-021 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  11. DOE/SC-ARM-14-007 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-14-007 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  12. DOE/SC-ARM-15-018 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-15-018 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  13. DOE/SC-ARM-14-019 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-14-019 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  14. DOE/SC-ARM-15-001 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-15-001 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  15. DOE/SC-ARM-14-001 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-14-001 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  16. DOE/SC-ARM-13-007 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-13-007 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  17. DOE/SC-ARM-12-015 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-12-015 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  18. DOE/SC-ARM-13-001 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-13-001 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  19. DOE/SC-ARM-13-020 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-13-020 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  20. Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate ... Title: Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and ...

  1. Investigation on coal pyrolysis in CO{sub 2} atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunbo Duan; Changsui Zhao; Wu Zhou; Chengrui Qu; Xiaoping Chen [Institute for Thermal Power Engineering of Southeast University, Nanjing (China)

    2009-07-15

    Considerable studies have been reported on the coal pyrolysis process and the formation of SO{sub 2} and NOx processors such as H{sub 2}S, COS, SO{sub 2}, HCN, and NH{sub 3} in inert atmospheres. Similar studies in CO{sub 2} atmosphere also need to be accomplished for better understanding of the combustion characteristics and the SO{sub 2}/NOx formation mechanism of oxy-fuel combustion, which is one of the most important technologies for CO{sub 2} capture. In this study, thermogravimetry coupled with Fourier Transform Infrared (TG-FTIR) analysis was employed to measure the volatile yield and gas evolution features during coal pyrolysis process in CO{sub 2} atmosphere. Results show that replacing N{sub 2} with CO{sub 2} does not influence the starting temperature of volatile release but seems to enhance the volatile releasing rate even at 480{sup o}C. At about 760{sup o}C, CO{sub 2} prevents the calcite from decomposing. In CO{sub 2} atmosphere, the volatile yield increases as the temperature increases and decreases as the heating rate increases. COS is monitored during coal pyrolysis in CO{sub 2} atmosphere while there are only H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} formed in N{sub 2} atmosphere. The COS is most likely formed by the reaction between CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. No NH{sub 3} was monitored in this study. In CO{sub 2} atmosphere, the gasification of char elevates the conversion of char-N to HCN. The HCN yield increases as the temperature increases and decreases as the heating rate increases. 20 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Optically Directed Assembly of Continuous Mesoscale Filaments...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    None USDOE United States 2011-02-01 English Journal Article Journal Name: Physical Review Letters; Journal Volume: 106; Journal Issue: 9 Medium: X OSTI ID: 1099937, Legacy ID:...

  3. Mesoscale Modeling Framework Design: Subcontract Report Chen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tang, M; Heo, T W; Wood, B C 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; 25 ENERGY STORAGE Abstract not provided Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL),...

  4. Mesoscale Modeling Framework Design: Subcontract Report (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS ...

  5. Mesoscale Modeling Framework Design: Subcontract Report (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  6. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sandia Corporation (Albuquerque, NM) NNSASC Patent Number(s): 7,788,818 Application Number: US Patent Application 11866,177 Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Research Org: Sandia ...

  7. Silicon Micromachined Dimensional Calibration Artifact for Mesoscale...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    When was this product first marketed or available for order? 3 Andrew D. Oliver, PhD ICX Photonics 4 Federal St Billerica, MA 01821 Phone: (978)215-0516 Fax: (978)215-0590 ...

  8. Deterministic, Nanoscale Fabrication of Mesoscale Objects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jr., R M; Shirk, M; Gilmer, G; Rubenchik, A

    2004-09-24

    Neither LLNL nor any other organization has the capability to perform deterministic fabrication of mm-sized objects with arbitrary, {micro}m-sized, 3-dimensional features with 20-nm-scale accuracy and smoothness. This is particularly true for materials such as high explosives and low-density aerogels. For deterministic fabrication of high energy-density physics (HEDP) targets, it will be necessary both to fabricate features in a wide variety of materials as well as to understand and simulate the fabrication process. We continue to investigate, both in experiment and in modeling, the ablation/surface-modification processes that occur with the use of laser pulses that are near the ablation threshold fluence. During the first two years, we studied ablation of metals, and we used sub-ps laser pulses, because pulses shorter than the electron-phonon relaxation time offered the most precise control of the energy that can be deposited into a metal surface. The use of sub-ps laser pulses also allowed a decoupling of the energy-deposition process from the ensuing movement/ablation of the atoms from the solid, which simplified the modeling. We investigated the ablation of material from copper, gold, and nickel substrates. We combined the power of the 1-D hydrocode ''HYADES'' with the state-of-the-art, 3-D molecular dynamics simulations ''MDCASK'' in our studies. For FY04, we have stretched ourselves to investigate laser ablation of carbon, including chemically-assisted processes. We undertook this research, because the energy deposition that is required to perform direct sublimation of carbon is much higher than that to stimulate the reaction 2C + O{sub 2} => 2CO. Thus, extremely fragile carbon aerogels might survive the chemically-assisted process more readily than ablation via direct laser sublimation. We had planned to start by studying vitreous carbon and move onto carbon aerogels. We were able to obtain flat, high-quality vitreous carbon, which was easy to work on, experimentally and relatively easy to model. We were provided with bulk samples of carbon aerogel by Dr. Joe Satcher, but the shop that would have prepared mounted samples for us was overwhelmed by programmatic assignments. We are pursuing aligned carbon nanotubes, provided to us by colleagues at NASA Ames Research Center, as an alternative to aerogels. Dr. Gilmer started modeling the laser/thermally accelerated reactions of carbon with H{sub 2}, rather than O{sub 2}, due to limited information on equation of state for CO. We have extended our molecular dynamics models of ablation to include carbon in the form of graphite, vitreous carbon, and aerogels. The computer code has features that allow control of temperature, absorption of shock waves, and for the ejection of material from the computational cell. We form vitreous carbon atomic configurations by melting graphite in a microcanonical cell at a temperature of about 5000K. Quenching the molten carbon at a controlled rate of cooling yields material with a structure close to that of the vitreous carbon produced in the laboratory. To represent the aerogel, we have a computer code that connects ''graphite'' rods to randomly placed points in the 3-D computational cell. Ablation simulations yield results for vitreous carbon similar to our previous results with copper, usually involving the transient melting of the material above the threshold energy density. However, some fracturing in the solid regions occurs in this case, but was never observed in copper. These simulations are continuing, together with studies of the reaction of hydrogen with vitreous graphite at high temperatures. These reactions are qualitatively similar to that of oxygen with the carbon atoms at the surface, and the simulations should provide insight into the applicability of the use of chemical reactions to shape the surfaces of aerogels.

  9. Technical Sessions Parameterization of Convective Clouds, Mesoscale...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Fortune, M. A., W. R. Cotton, and R. A. McAnelly. 1992: Frontal wave-like evolution in ... Collins, Colorado 80523. (a) Personal communication with P. Flatau, Colorado Stale Univer- ...

  10. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact ...

  11. Atmospheric sensing for the H.E.S.S. array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aye, K.-M.; Brown, A.M.; Chadwick, P.M.; Hadjichristidis, C.; Latham, I.J.; Le Gallou, R.; McComb, T.J.L.; Nolan, S.J.; Noutsos, A.; Orford, K.J.; Osborne, J.L.; Rayner, S.M.

    2005-02-21

    Several atmospheric monitoring instruments have been installed at the H.E.S.S. gamma-ray observatory in Namibia. Firstly, Heitronics KT19 infrared radiometers, aligned paraxially with the H.E.S.S. telescopes, measure the infrared radiation of the water molecules. These allow us to detect clouds crossing the telescopes' field of view and to estimate the humidity present in the atmosphere. For a general estimate of the atmosphere's transmittance, i.e. the detection of any light-attenuating aerosols, a ceilometer, which is a LIDAR with built-in atmospheric data reduction code, is being used. It will be complemented soon by an instrument which will measure the transmissivity of the atmosphere at different wavelengths up to 500m above the ground. The overall status of the weather is monitored by a fully automated weatherstation. This paper describes the setup, the data analysis and how this will be used in order to improve the knowledge of the telescopes' effective collection area.

  12. Simulation of atmospheric temperature effects on cosmic ray muon flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tognini, Stefano Castro; Gomes, Ricardo Avelino

    2015-05-15

    The collision between a cosmic ray and an atmosphere nucleus produces a set of secondary particles, which will decay or interact with other atmosphere elements. This set of events produced a primary particle is known as an extensive air shower (EAS) and is composed by a muonic, a hadronic and an electromagnetic component. The muonic flux, produced mainly by pions and kaons decays, has a dependency with the atmosphere’s effective temperature: an increase in the effective temperature results in a lower density profile, which decreases the probability of pions and kaons to interact with the atmosphere and, consequently, resulting in a major number of meson decays. Such correlation between the muon flux and the atmosphere’s effective temperature was measured by a set of experiments, such as AMANDA, Borexino, MACRO and MINOS. This phenomena can be investigated by simulating the final muon flux produced by two different parameterizations of the isothermal atmospheric model in CORSIKA, where each parameterization is described by a depth function which can be related to the muon flux in the same way that the muon flux is related to the temperature. This research checks the agreement among different high energy hadronic interactions models and the physical expected behavior of the atmosphere temperature effect by analyzing a set of variables, such as the height of the primary interaction and the difference in the muon flux.

  13. Earth's mysterious atmosphere. ATLAS 1: Teachers guide with activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    One of our mission's primary goals is to better understand the physics and chemistry of our atmosphere, the thin envelope of air that provides for human life and shields us from the harshness of space. The Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry the ATLAS 1 science instruments 296 km above Earth, so that they can look down into and through the various layers of the atmosphere. Five solar radiometers will precisely measure the amount of energy the Sun injects into Earth's environment. The chemistry at different altitudes will be measured very accurately by five other instruments called spectrometers. Much of our time in the cockpit of Atlantis will be devoted to two very exciting instruments that measure the auroras and the atmosphere's electrical characteristics. Finally, our ultraviolet telescope will probe the secrets of fascinating celestial objects. This Teacher's Guide is designed as a detective story to help you appreciate some of the many questions currently studied by scientists around the world. Many complex factors affect our atmosphere today, possibly even changing the course of global climate. All who live on Earth must recognize that they play an ever-growing role in causing some of these changes. People must solve this great atmospheric mystery if they are to understand all these changes and know what to do about them.

  14. Atmospheric-pressure guided streamers for liposomal membrane disruption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svarnas, P.; Aleiferis, Sp.; Matrali, S. H.; Gazeli, K.; Clement, F.; Antimisiaris, S. G.

    2012-12-24

    The potential to use liposomes (LIPs) as a cellular model in order to study interactions of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma with cells is herein investigated. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma is formed by a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. Large multilamellar vesicle liposomes, consisted of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, are prepared by the thin film hydration technique, to encapsulate a small hydrophilic dye, i.e., calcein. The plasma-induced release of calcein from liposomes is then used as a measure of liposome membrane integrity and, consequently, interaction between the cold atmospheric plasma and lipid bilayers. Physical mechanisms leading to membrane disruption are suggested, based on the plasma characterization including gas temperature calculation.

  15. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; Renholm, J.; Hettich, R. L.; Pollard, W. H.; Omelon, C. R.; Medvigy, David M.; Pffifner, Susan M.; Whyte, L. G.; Onstott, T. C.

    2015-04-14

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH₄)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH₄ emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH₄-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH⁺ uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH₄ sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineral cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH₄ feedback.

  16. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH₄)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH₄ emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH₄-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH⁺ uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH₄ sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineralmore » cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH₄ feedback.« less

  17. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; Renholm, J.; Hettich, R. L.; Pollard, W. H.; Omelon, C. R.; Medvigy, David M.; Pffifner, Susan M.; Whyte, L. G.; Onstott, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH₄)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH₄ emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH₄-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH⁺ uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH₄ sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineral cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH₄ feedback.

  18. Atmospheric benzenoid emissions from plants rival those from fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misztal, P. K.; Hewitt, C. N.; Wildt, J.; Blande, J. D.; Eller, A. S.D.; Fares, S.; Gentner, D. R.; Gilman, J. B.; Graus, M.; Greenberg, J.; Guenther, A. B.; Hansel, A.; Harley, P.; Huang, M.; Jardine, K.; Karl, T.; Kaser, L.; Keutsch, F. N.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kleist, E.; Lerner, B. M.; Li, T.; Mak, J.; Nölscher, A. C.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Sinha, V.; Thornton, B.; Warneke, C.; Wegener, F.; Werner, C.; Williams, J.; Worton, D. R.; Yassaa, N.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-07-13

    Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y-1), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.

  19. Atmospheric benzenoid emissions from plants rival those from fossil fuels

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Misztal, P. K.; Hewitt, C. N.; Wildt, J.; Blande, J. D.; Eller, A. S.D.; Fares, S.; Gentner, D. R.; Gilman, J. B.; Graus, M.; Greenberg, J.; et al

    2015-07-13

    Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functionsmore » of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y-1), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.« less

  20. Atmospheric pressure plasma analysis by modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aranda Gonzalvo, Y.; Whitmore, T.D.; Rees, J.A.; Seymour, D.L.; Stoffels, E.

    2006-05-15

    Fractional number density measurements for a rf plasma 'needle' operating at atmospheric pressure have been obtained using a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) system designed for diagnostics of atmospheric plasmas. The MBMS system comprises three differentially pumped stages and a mass/energy analyzer and includes an automated beam-to-background measurement facility in the form of a software-controlled chopper mechanism. The automation of the beam modulation allows the neutral components in the plasma to be rapidly and accurately measured using the mass spectrometer by threshold ionization techniques. Data are reported for plasma generated by a needle plasma source operated using a helium/air mixture. In particular, data for the conversion of atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen into nitric oxide are discussed with reference to its significance for medical applications such as disinfecting wounds and dental cavities and for microsurgery.

  1. Atmospheric dispersion modeling: Challenges of the Fukushima Daiichi response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugiyama, Gayle; Nasstrom, John; Pobanz, Brenda; Foster, Kevin; Simpson, Matthew; Vogt, Phil; Aluzzi, Fernando; Homann, Steve

    2012-05-01

    In this research, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) provided a wide range of predictions and analyses as part of the response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident including: daily Japanese weather forecasts and atmospheric transport predictions to inform planning for field monitoring operations and to provide U.S. government agencies with ongoing situational awareness of meteorological conditions; estimates of possible dose in Japan based on hypothetical U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission scenarios of potential radionuclide releases to support protective action planning for U.S. citizens; predictions of possible plume arrival times and dose levels at U.S. locations; and source estimation and plume model refinement based on atmospheric dispersion modeling and available monitoring data.

  2. ARESE (ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment) Science Plan [Atmospheric Radiation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valero, F.P.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Cess, R.D.; Ramanathan, V.; Collins, W.D.; Minnis, P.; Ackerman, T.P.; Vitko, J.; Tooman, T.P.

    1995-09-27

    Several recent studies have indicated that cloudy atmospheres may absorb significantly more solar radiation than currently predicted by models. The magnitude of this excess atmospheric absorption, is about 50% more than currently predicted and would have major impact on our understanding of atmospheric heating. Incorporation of this excess heating into existing general circulation models also appears to ameliorate some significant shortcomings of these models, most notably a tendency to overpredict the amount of radiant energy going into the oceans and to underpredict the tropopause temperature. However, some earlier studies do not show this excess absorption and an underlying physical mechanism that would give rise to such absorption has yet to be defined. Given the importance of this issue, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is sponsoring the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) to study the absorption of solar radiation by clear and cloudy atmospheres. The experimental results will be compared with model calculations. Measurements will be conducted using three aircraft platforms (ARM-UAV Egrett, NASA ER-2, and an instrumented Twin Otter), as well as satellites and the ARM central and extended facilities in North Central Oklahoma. The project will occur over a four week period beginning in late September, 1995. Spectral broadband, partial bandpass, and narrow bandpass (10nm) solar radiative fluxes will be measured at different altitudes and at the surface with the objective to determine directly the magnitude and spectral characteristics of the absorption of shortwave radiation by the atmosphere (clear and cloudy). Narrow spectral channels selected to coincide with absorption by liquid water and ice will help in identifying the process of absorption of radiation. Additionally, information such as water vapor profiles, aerosol optical depths, cloud structure and ozone profiles, needed to use as input in radiative

  3. ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF BROWN DWARFS: JETS, VORTICES, AND TIME VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xi; Showman, Adam P.

    2014-06-10

    A variety of observational evidence demonstrates that brown dwarfs exhibit active atmospheric circulations. In this study we use a shallow-water model to investigate the global atmospheric dynamics in the stratified layer overlying the convective zone on these rapidly rotating objects. We show that the existence and properties of the atmospheric circulation crucially depend on key parameters including the energy injection rate and radiative timescale. Under conditions of strong internal heat flux and weak radiative dissipation, a banded flow pattern comprised of east-west jet streams spontaneously emerges from the interaction of atmospheric turbulence with the planetary rotation. In contrast, when the internal heat flux is weak and/or radiative dissipation is strong, turbulence injected into the atmosphere damps before it can self-organize into jets, leading to a flow dominated by transient eddies and isotropic turbulence instead. The simulation results are not very sensitive to the form of the forcing. Based on the location of the transition between jet-dominated and eddy-dominated regimes, we suggest that many brown dwarfs may exhibit atmospheric circulations dominated by eddies and turbulence (rather than jets) due to the strong radiative damping on these worlds, but a jet structure is also possible under some realistic conditions. Our simulated light curves capture important features from observed infrared light curves of brown dwarfs, including amplitude variations of a few percent and shapes that fluctuate between single-peak and multi-peak structures. More broadly, our work shows that the shallow-water system provides a useful tool to illuminate fundamental aspects of the dynamics on these worlds.

  4. ChEAS Data: The Chequamegon Ecosystem Atmosphere Study

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Davis, Kenneth J. [Penn State

    The Chequamegon Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (ChEAS) is a multi-organizational research effort studying biosphere/atmosphere interactions within a northern mixed forest in Northern Wisconsin. A primary goal is to understand the processes controlling forest-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide and the response of these processes to climate change. Another primary goal is to bridge the gap between canopy-scale flux measurements and the global CO2 flask sampling network. The ChEAS flux towers participate in AmeriFlux, and the region is an EOS-validation site. The WLEF tower is a NOAA-CMDL CO2 sampling site. ChEAS sites are primarily located within or near the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest in northern Wisconsin, with one site in the Ottawa National Forest in the upper peninsula of Michigan. Current studies observe forest/atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide at canopy and regional scales, forest floor respiration, photosynthesis and transpiration at the leaf level and use models to scale to canopy and regional levels. EOS-validation studies quantitatively assess the land cover of the area using remote sensing and conduct extensive ground truthing of new remote sensing data (i.e. ASTER and MODIS). Atmospheric remote sensing work is aimed at understanding atmospheric boundary layer dynamics, the role of entrainment in regulating the carbon dioxide mixing ratio profiles through the lower troposphere, and feedback between boundary layer dynamics and vegetation (especially via the hydrologic cycle). Airborne studies have included include balloon, kite and aircraft observations of the CO2 profile in the troposphere.

  5. Impact of atmospheric refraction: how deeply can we probe exo-earth's atmospheres during primary eclipse observations?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Btrmieux, Yan; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2014-08-10

    Most models used to predict or fit exoplanet transmission spectra do not include all the effects of atmospheric refraction. Namely, the angular size of the star with respect to the planet can limit the lowest altitude, or highest density and pressure, probed during primary eclipses as no rays passing below this critical altitude can reach the observer. We discuss this geometrical effect of refraction for all exoplanets and tabulate the critical altitude, density, and pressure for an exoplanet identical to Earth with a 1 bar N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} atmosphere as a function of both the incident stellar flux (Venus, Earth, and Mars-like) at the top of the atmosphere and the spectral type (O5-M9) of the host star. We show that such a habitable exo-Earth can be probed to a surface pressure of 1 bar only around the coolest stars. We present 0.4-5.0 ?m model transmission spectra of Earth's atmosphere viewed as a transiting exoplanet, and show how atmospheric refraction modifies the transmission spectrum depending on the spectral type of the host star. We demonstrate that refraction is another phenomenon that can potentially explain flat transmission spectra over some spectral regions.

  6. Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division Program Report, 1988--1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    In 1990, the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division begins its 17th year as a division. As the Division has grown over the years, its modeling capabilities have expanded to include a broad range of time and space scales ranging from hours to decades and from local to global. Our modeling is now reaching out from its atmospheric focus to treat linkages with the oceans and the land. In this report, we describe the Division's goal and organizational structure. We also provide tables and appendices describing the Division's budget, personnel, models, and publications. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. CLOUD BASE SIGNATURE IN TRANSMISSION SPECTRA OF EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vahidinia, Sanaz; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Marley, Mark; Fortney, Jonathan

    2014-07-01

    We present an analytical model for the transmission spectrum of a transiting exoplanet, showing that a cloud base can produce an observable inflection point in the spectrum. The wavelength and magnitude of the inflection can be used to break the degeneracy between the atmospheric pressure and the abundance of the main cloud material, however, the abundance still depends on cloud particle size. An observed inflection also provides a specific point on the atmospheric P-T profile, giving us a ''thermometer'' to directly validate or rule out postulated cloud species. We apply the model to the transit spectrum of HD 189733b.

  8. 2010 Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science Team Meeting Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dupont, DL

    2011-05-04

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented in poster format at the March 2010 Atmospheric System Research Science Team Meeting held in Bethesda, Maryland. More than 260 posters were presented during the Science Team Meeting. Posters were sorted into the following subject areas: aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions, aerosol properties, atmospheric state and surface, cloud properties, field campaigns, infrastructure and outreach, instruments, modeling, and radiation. To put these posters in context, the status of ASR at the time of the meeting is provided here.

  9. The Atmosphere as a Laboratory: Aerosols, Air Quality, and Climate |

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab 25, 2014, 9:30am to 11:00am Science On Saturday MBG Auditorium The Atmosphere as a Laboratory: Aerosols, Air Quality, and Climate Peter DeCarlo, Assistant Professor of Environmental Engineering and Chemistry Drexel University Abstract: PDF icon PeterDeCarlo.pdf Can't make it to the lab? Watch it LIVE here! The Atmosphere as a Laboratory: Aerosols, Air Quality and Climate Contact Information Coordinator(s): Deedee Ortiz dortiz@pppl.gov Host(s): Ronald Hatcher

  10. Atmospheric System Research Marine Low Clouds Workshop Report, January

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    27-29,2016 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Atmospheric System Research Marine Low Clouds Workshop Report, January 27-29,2016 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric System Research Marine Low Clouds Workshop Report, January 27-29,2016 Marine low clouds are a major determinant of the Earth?s albedo and are a major source of uncertainty in how the climate responds to changing greenhouse gas levels and anthropogenic aerosol. Marine low clouds are particularly difficult to

  11. Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, P; Bonin, TA; Newman, JF; Turner, DD; Chilson, P; Blumberg, WG; Mishra, S; Wainwright, CE; Carney, M; Jacobsen, EP; Wharton, S

    2015-11-01

    The Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) included two measurement campaigns conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma during 2012 and 2013. LABLE was designed as a multi-phase, low-cost collaboration among the University of Oklahoma, the National Severe Storms Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the ARM program. A unique aspect was the role of graduate students in LABLE. They served as principal investigators and took the lead in designing and conducting experiments using different sampling strategies to best resolve boundary-layer phenomena.

  12. ARM - Field Campaign - The MOSAiC Atmosphere

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsThe MOSAiC Atmosphere Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : The MOSAiC Atmosphere 2019.09.01 - 2020.10.31 Lead Scientist : Matthew Shupe Abstract Arctic climate change is amplified relative to global change and is embodied by a dramatic decline in the perennial sea-ice pack. These cryospheric transitions carry significant implications for regional resource development, geopolitics, and global climate patterns.

  13. ARM - Datastreams - allmaps60

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    1994.07.07 Measurement Categories Atmospheric State Originating Instrument Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System (MAPS) Measurements The measurements below provided by this...

  14. ARM - Datastreams - maps60

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    1994.10.15 Measurement Categories Atmospheric State Originating Instrument Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System (MAPS) Measurements The measurements below provided by this...

  15. splitt-98.pdf

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    M. E. Splitt Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma Introduction Many studies within atmospheric radiation measurements ...

  16. Roles of Wind Shear at Different Vertical Levels in Cloud System...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    thunderstorms, called mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), occur frequently across the globe and contribute greatly to the hydrologic cycle and atmospheric energy budget....

  17. Pyrocumulus Collapse. Unpredicted Wildfire Dangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Young-Joon; Linn, Rodman

    2015-12-07

    We validate our proposed mechanisms with the aid of numerical simulations using a mesoscale atmospheric model and LANL's local-scale dispersion model.

  18. Studies of the Atmospheric Chemsitry of Energy-Related Volatile Organic Compounds and of their Atmospheric Reaction Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roger Atkinson; Janet Arey

    2007-04-14

    The focus of this contract was to investigate selected aspects of the atmospheric chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted into the atmosphere from energy-related sources as well as from biogenic sources. The classes of VOCs studied were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs, the biogenic VOCs isoprene, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and cis-3-hexen-1-ol, alkenes (including alkenes emitted from vegetation) and their oxygenated atmospheric reaction products, and a series of oxygenated carbonyl and hydroxycarbonyl compounds formed as atmospheric reaction products of aromatic hydrocarbons and other VOCs. Large volume reaction chambers were used to investigate the kinetics and/or products of photolysis and of the gas-phase reactions of these organic compounds with hydroxyl (OH) radicals, nitrate (NO3) radicals, and ozone (O3), using an array of analytical instrumentation to analyze the reactants and products (including gas chromatography, in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and direct air sampling atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry). The following studies were carried out. The photolysis rates of 1- and 2-nitronaphthalene and of eleven isomeric methylnitronaphthalenes were measured indoors using blacklamp irradiation and outdoors using natural sunlight. Rate constants were measured for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals, Cl atoms and NO3 radicals with naphthalene, 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene, 1- and 2-ethylnaphthalene and the ten dimethylnaphthalene isomers. Rate constants were measured for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with four unsaturated carbonyls and with a series of hydroxyaldehydes formed as atmospheric reaction products of other VOCs, and for the gas-phase reactions of O3 with a series of cycloalkenes. Products of the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals and O3 with a series of biogenically emitted VOCs were identified and quantified. Ambient atmospheric measurements of the concentrations of a

  19. PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES. II. H{sub 2}S AND SO{sub 2} PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN ANOXIC ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Renyu; Seager, Sara; Bains, William

    2013-05-20

    Sulfur gases are common components in the volcanic and biological emission on Earth, and are expected to be important input gases for atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets. We study the atmospheric composition and the spectra of terrestrial exoplanets with sulfur compounds (i.e., H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}) emitted from their surfaces. We use a comprehensive one-dimensional photochemistry model and radiative transfer model to investigate the sulfur chemistry in atmospheres ranging from reducing to oxidizing. The most important finding is that both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} are chemically short-lived in virtually all types of atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets, based on models of H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} atmospheres. This implies that direct detection of surface sulfur emission is unlikely, as their surface emission rates need to be extremely high (>1000 times Earth's volcanic sulfur emission) for these gases to build up to a detectable level. We also find that sulfur compounds emitted from the surface lead to photochemical formation of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid in the atmosphere, which would condense to form aerosols if saturated. For terrestrial exoplanets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars or M stars, Earth-like sulfur emission rates result in optically thick haze composed of elemental sulfur in reducing H{sub 2}-dominated atmospheres for a wide range of particle diameters (0.1-1 {mu}m), which is assumed as a free parameter in our simulations. In oxidized atmospheres composed of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, optically thick haze, composed of elemental sulfur aerosols (S{sub 8}) or sulfuric acid aerosols (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), will form if the surface sulfur emission is two orders of magnitude more than the volcanic sulfur emission of Earth. Although direct detection of H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} by their spectral features is unlikely, their emission might be inferred by observing aerosol-related features in reflected light with future generation space

  20. Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, Gary; D'Silva, Arthur P.; Fassel, Velmer A.

    1986-05-06

    An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

  1. LARGE ABUNDANCES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN TITAN'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Garcia-Comas, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Adriani, A.; D'Aversa, E.; Moriconi, M. L.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2013-06-20

    In this paper, we analyze the strong unidentified emission near 3.28 {mu}m in Titan's upper daytime atmosphere recently discovered by Dinelli et al. We have studied it by using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), after absorbing UV solar radiation, are able to emit strongly near 3.3 {mu}m. By using current models for the redistribution of the absorbed UV energy, we have explained the observed spectral feature and have derived the vertical distribution of PAH abundances in Titan's upper atmosphere. PAHs have been found to be present in large concentrations, about (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} particles cm{sup -3}. The identified PAHs have 9-96 carbons, with a concentration-weighted average of 34 carbons. The mean mass is {approx}430 u; the mean area is about 0.53 nm{sup 2}; they are formed by 10-11 rings on average, and about one-third of them contain nitrogen atoms. Recently, benzene together with light aromatic species as well as small concentrations of heavy positive and negative ions have been detected in Titan's upper atmosphere. We suggest that the large concentrations of PAHs found here are the neutral counterpart of those positive and negative ions, which hence supports the theory that the origin of Titan main haze layer is located in the upper atmosphere.

  2. Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE`s programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols.

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  4. Excitation of electron Langmuir frequency harmonics in the solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fomichev, V. V.; Fainshtein, S. M.; Chernov, G. P.

    2013-05-15

    An alternative mechanism for the excitation of electron Langmuir frequency harmonics as a result of the development of explosive instability in a weakly relativistic beam-plasma system in the solar atmosphere is proposed. The efficiency of the new mechanism as compared to the previously discussed ones is analyzed.

  5. Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, G.; D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

    1985-04-05

    An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency, electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

  6. Satellite data sets for the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, L.; Bernstein, R.L.

    1996-04-01

    This abstract describes the type of data obtained from satellite measurements in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The data sets have been widely used by the ARM team to derive cloud-top altitude, cloud cover, snow and ice cover, surface temperature, water vapor, and wind, vertical profiles of temperature, and continuoous observations of weather needed to track and predict severe weather.

  7. Connectivity to National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC)

    Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-08-11

    To establish requirements for connectivity with the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for all DOE and NNSA sites and facilities with potential for hazardous materials releases at levels that require emergency response. The requirements of this Notice have been incorporated into DOE O 151.1C, Comprehensive Emergency Management System, dated 11-2-05. No cancellations.

  8. Progress in the analysis of complex atmospheric particles

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Wang, Bingbing; China, Swarup

    2016-06-01

    This study presents an overview of recent advances in field and laboratory studies of atmospheric particles formed in processes of environmental air-surface interactions. The overarching goal of these studies is to advance predictive understanding of atmospheric particle composition, particle chemistry during aging, and their environmental impacts. The diversity between chemical constituents and lateral heterogeneity within individual particles adds to the chemical complexity of particles and their surfaces. Once emitted, particles undergo transformation via atmospheric aging processes that further modify their complex composition. We highlight a range of modern analytical approaches that enable multimodal chemical characterization of particles with both molecularmore » and lateral specificity. When combined, these approaches provide a comprehensive arsenal of tools for understanding the nature of particles at air-surface interactions and their reactivity and transformations with atmospheric aging. We discuss applications of these novel approaches in recent studies and highlight additional research areas to explore the environmental effects of air-surface interactions.« less

  9. Program Abstracts: Formation and Growth of Atmospheric Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter H. McMurry; Markku Kulmala

    2006-09-07

    DOE provided $11,000 to sponsor the Workshop on New Particle Formation in the Atmosphere, which was held at The Riverwood Inn and Conference Center near Minneapolis, MN from September 7 to 9, 2006. Recent work has shown that new particle formation is an important atmospheric process that must be better understood due to its impact on cloud cover and the Earth's radiation balance. The conference was an informal gathering of atmospheric and basic scientists with expertise pertinent to this topic. The workshop included discussions of: atmospheric modeling; computational chemistry pertinent to clustering; ions and ion induced nucleation; basic laboratory and theoretical studies of nucleation; studies on neutral molecular clusters; interactions of organic compounds and sulfuric acid; composition of freshly nucleated particles. Fifty six scientists attended the conference. They included 27 senior scientists, 9 younger independent scientists (assistant professor or young associate professor level), 7 postdocs, 13 graduate students, 10 women, 35 North Americans (34 from the U.S.), 1 Asian, and 20 Europeans. This was an excellent informal workshop on an important topic. An effort was made to include individuals from communities that do not regularly interact. A number of participants have provided informal feedback indicating that the workshop led to research ideas and possible future collaborations.

  10. THE LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT AND DIFFUSION MODELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. WILLIAMS

    1999-08-01

    The LANL atmospheric transport and diffusion models are composed of two state-of-the-art computer codes. The first is an atmospheric wind model called HOThlAC, Higher Order Turbulence Model for Atmospheric circulations. HOTMAC generates wind and turbulence fields by solving a set of atmospheric dynamic equations. The second is an atmospheric diffusion model called RAPTAD, Random Particle Transport And Diffusion. RAPTAD uses the wind and turbulence output from HOTMAC to compute particle trajectories and concentration at any location downwind from a source. Both of these models, originally developed as research codes on supercomputers, have been modified to run on microcomputers. Because the capability of microcomputers is advancing so rapidly, the expectation is that they will eventually become as good as today's supercomputers. Now both models are run on desktop or deskside computers, such as an IBM PC/AT with an Opus Pm 350-32 bit coprocessor board and a SUN workstation. Codes have also been modified so that high level graphics, NCAR Graphics, of the output from both models are displayed on the desktop computer monitors and plotted on a laser printer. Two programs, HOTPLT and RAPLOT, produce wind vector plots of the output from HOTMAC and particle trajectory plots of the output from RAPTAD, respectively. A third CONPLT provides concentration contour plots. Section II describes step-by-step operational procedures, specifically for a SUN-4 desk side computer, on how to run main programs HOTMAC and RAPTAD, and graphics programs to display the results. Governing equations, boundary conditions and initial values of HOTMAC and RAPTAD are discussed in Section III. Finite-difference representations of the governing equations, numerical solution procedures, and a grid system are given in Section IV.

  11. Atmospheric electron neutrinos in the MINOS far detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speakman, Benjamin Phillip; /Minnesota U.

    2007-01-01

    Neutrinos produced as a result of cosmic-ray interactions in the earth's atmosphere offer a powerful probe into the nature of this three-membered family of low-mass, weakly-interacting particles. Ten years ago, the Super-Kamiokande Experiment has confirmed earlier indications that neutrinos undergo lepton-flavor oscillations during propagation, proving that they are massive contrary to the previous Standard Model assumptions. The Soudan Underground Laboratory, located in northern Minnesota, was host to the Soudan2 Experiment, which has made important contributions to atmospheric neutrino research. This same lab has more recently been host to the MINOS far detector, a neutrino detector which serves as the downstream element of an accelerator-based long-baseline neutrino-oscillation experiment. This thesis has examined 418.5 live days of atmospheric neutrino data (fiducial exposure of 4.18 kton-years) collected in the MINOS far detector prior to the activation of the NuMI neutrino beam, with a specific emphasis on the investigation of electron-type neutrino interactions. Atmospheric neutrino interaction candidates have been selected and separated into showering or track-like events. The showering sample consists of 89 observed events, while the track-like sample consists of 112 observed events. Based on the Bartol atmospheric neutrino flux model of Barr et al. plus a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of interactions in the MINOS detector, the expected yields of showering and track-like events in the absence of neutrino oscillations are 88.0 {+-} 1.0 and 149.1 {+-} 1.0 respectively (where the uncertainties reflect only the limited MC statistics). Major systematic uncertainties, especially those associated with the flux model, are cancelled by forming a double ratio of these observed and expected yields: R{sup data}{sub trk/shw}/R{sup MC}{sub trk/shw} = 0.74{sup +0.12}{sub -01.0}(stat.) {+-} 0.04 (syst.) This double ratio should be equal to unity in the absence of

  12. Atmospheric Science Program. Summaries of research in FY 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    This report provides descriptions for all projects funded by ESD under annual contracts in FY 1994. Each description contains the project`s title; three-year funding history (in thousands of dollars); the contract period over which the funding applies; the name(s) of the principal investigator(s); the institution(s) conducting the projects; and the project`s objectives, products, approach, and results to date (for most projects older than one year). Project descriptions are categorized within the report according to program areas: atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric dynamics, and support operations. Within these categories, the descriptions are ordered alphabetically by principal investigator. Each program area is preceded by a brief text that defines the program area, states it goals and objectives, lists principal research questions, and identifies program managers. Appendixes provide the addresses and telephone numbers of the principal investigators and define the acronyms used.

  13. Dynamic characteristic of intense short microwave propagation in an atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yee, J.H.; Alvarez, R.A.; Mayhall, D.J.; Madsen, N.K.; Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-07-01

    The dynamic behavior of an intense microwave pulse which propagates through the atmosphere will be presented. Our theoretical results are obtained by solving Maxwell's equations, together with the electron fluid equations. Our calculations show that although large portions of the initial energy are absorbed by the electrons that are created through the avalanche process, a significant amount of energy is still able to reach the earth's surface. The amount of energy that reaches the earth's surface as a function of initial energy and wave shape after having propagated through 100 km in the atmosphere are investigated. Results for the air breakdown threshold intensity as a function of the pressure for different pulse widths and different frequencies will also be presented. In addition, we will present a comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results for the pulse shape of a short microwave pulse after it has traveled through a rectangular wave guide which contains a section of air. 23 references, 9 figures.

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, April 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2000-05-05

    This issue of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM Program) monthly newsletter is about the ARM Program goal to improve scientific understanding of the interactions of sunlight (solar radiation) with the atmosphere, then incorporate this understanding into computer models of climate change. To model climate accurately all around the globe, a variety of data must be collected from many locations on Earth. For its Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites, ARM chose locations in the US Southern Great Plains, the North Slope of Alaska, and the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean to represent different climate types around the world. In this newsletter they consider the North Slope of Alaska site, with locations at Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska.

  15. Cellular membrane collapse by atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Kangil; Sik Yang, Sang E-mail: ssyang@ajou.ac.kr; Jun Ahn, Hak; Lee, Jong-Soo E-mail: ssyang@ajou.ac.kr; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2014-01-06

    Cellular membrane dysfunction caused by air plasma in cancer cells has been studied to exploit atmospheric-pressure plasma jets for cancer therapy. Here, we report that plasma jet treatment of cervical cancer HeLa cells increased electrical conductivity across the cellular lipid membrane and caused simultaneous lipid oxidation and cellular membrane collapse. We made this finding by employing a self-manufactured microelectrode chip. Furthermore, increased roughness of the cellular lipid membrane and sequential collapse of the membrane were observed by atomic force microscopy following plasma jet treatment. These results suggest that the cellular membrane catastrophe occurs via coincident altered electrical conductivity, lipid oxidation, and membrane roughening caused by an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet, possibly resulting in cellular vulnerability to reactive species generated from the plasma as well as cytotoxicity to cancer cells.

  16. Atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced spatial ALD of silver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruele, Fieke J. van den Smets, Mireille; Illiberi, Andrea; Poodt, Paul; Buskens, Pascal; Roozeboom, Fred

    2015-01-15

    The authors have investigated the growth of thin silver films using a unique combination of atmospheric process elements: spatial atomic layer deposition and an atmospheric pressure surface dielectric barrier discharge plasma source. Silver films were grown on top of Si substrates with good purity as revealed by resistivity values as low as 18 μΩ cm and C- and F-levels below detection limits of energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The growth of the silver films starts through the nucleation of islands that subsequently coalesce. The authors show that the surface island morphology is dependent on surface diffusion, which can be controlled by temperature within the deposition temperature range of 100–120 °C.

  17. National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) Capabilities for Homeland Security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugiyama, G; Nasstrom, J; Baskett, R; Simpson, M

    2010-03-08

    The Department of Energy's National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) provides critical information during hazardous airborne releases as part of an integrated national preparedness and response strategy. Located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, NARAC provides 24/7 tools and expert services to map the spread of hazardous material accidentally or intentionally released into the atmosphere. NARAC graphical products show affected areas and populations, potential casualties, and health effect or protective action guideline levels. LLNL experts produce quality-assured analyses based on field data to assist decision makers and responders. NARAC staff and collaborators conduct research and development into new science, tools, capabilities, and technologies in strategically important areas related to airborne transport and fate modeling and emergency response. This paper provides a brief overview of some of NARAC's activities, capabilities, and research and development.

  18. Atmospheric Response to Weddell Sea Open-Ocean Polynya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodos, Travis; Weijer, Wilbert

    2015-07-02

    The atmospheric conditions associated with the rare Weddell Sea open ocean polynya are investigated. The polynya has not been seen since 1976, so data on the event is scarce. The CESM high resolution model is used to investigate multiple atmospheric variables. We analyze three years of polynyas, which are also compared to three years without a polynya. The surface temperature, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, humidity, average wind speed, precipitation, longwave flux, and shortwave flux all increased over the polynya. The sensible heat flux had a higher magnitude than the latent heat flux because conduction and convection were the primary drivers of heat flux. A combination of increased latent heat flux and humidity led to an increase in precipitation. Increased longwave downwelling flux over the polynya indicated the presence of clouds over the polynya. Lastly, the sea level pressure was consistently lower over the polynya because of the presence of a thermal low generated by thermally driven convective updrafts.

  19. The Atmospheric Muon Charge Ratio at the MINOS Near Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Jong, J.K.; /IIT, Chicago /Oxford U.

    2011-11-01

    The magnetized MINOS near detector can accurately determine the charge sign of atmospheric muons, this facilitates a measurement of the atmospheric muon charge ratio. To reduce the systematic error associated with geometric bias and acceptance we have combined equal periods of data obtained with opposite magnetic field polarities. We report a charge ratio of 1.2666 {+-} 0.0015(stat.){sub -0.0088}{sup +0.0096}(syst.) at a mean E{sub {mu},0{sup cos}}({theta}) = 63 GeV. This measurement is consistent with the world average but significantly lower than the earlier observation at the MINOS far detector. This increase is shown to be consistent with the hypothesis that a greater fraction of the observed muons arise from kaon decay within the cosmic ray shower.

  20. Atmospheric sciences division. Annual report, fiscal year 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raynor, G.S.

    1981-12-01

    The research activities of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of the Department of Energy and Environment for FY 1981 are presented. Facilities and major items of equipment are described. Research programs are summarized in three categories, modeling, field and laboratory experiments and data management and analysis. Each program is also described individually with title, principal investigator, sponsor and funding levels for FY 1981 and FY 1982. Future plans are summarized. Publications for FY 1981 are listed with abstracts. A list of personnel is included.

  1. National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center NNSA stays prepared with world-class response units September is National Preparedness Month, but for the Department of Energy (DOE) and NNSA, preparedness is a priority every month of the year. NNSA can respond to an emergency at any DOE facility, and it is also the nation's premier technical resource for response to nuclear or radiological... NNSA & Nuclear Security Enterprise support nation's preparedness Scientists at NNSA

  2. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

    1992-01-01

    A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g. organic and medical waste, drying, calcining and the like.

  3. MONTE CARLO SIMULATION OF METASTABLE OXYGEN PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN COMETARY ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bisikalo, D. V.; Shematovich, V. I. [Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Grard, J.-C.; Hubert, B. [Laboratory for Planetary and Atmospheric Physics (LPAP), University of Lige, Lige (Belgium); Jehin, E.; Decock, A. [Origines Cosmologiques et Astrophysiques (ORCA), University of Lige (Belgium); Hutsemkers, D. [Extragalactic Astrophysics and Space Observations (EASO), University of Lige (Belgium); Manfroid, J., E-mail: B.Hubert@ulg.ac.be [High Energy Astrophysics Group (GAPHE), University of Lige (Belgium)

    2015-01-01

    Cometary atmospheres are produced by the outgassing of material, mainly H{sub 2}O, CO, and CO{sub 2} from the nucleus of the comet under the energy input from the Sun. Subsequent photochemical processes lead to the production of other species generally absent from the nucleus, such as OH. Although all comets are different, they all have a highly rarefied atmosphere, which is an ideal environment for nonthermal photochemical processes to take place and influence the detailed state of the atmosphere. We develop a Monte Carlo model of the coma photochemistry. We compute the energy distribution functions (EDF) of the metastable O({sup 1}D) and O({sup 1}S) species and obtain the red (630nm) and green (557.7nm) spectral line shapes of the full coma, consistent with the computed EDFs and the expansion velocity. We show that both species have a severely non-Maxwellian EDF, that results in broad spectral lines and the suprathermal broadening dominates due to the expansion motion. We apply our model to the atmosphere of comet C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake) and 103P/Hartley 2. The computed width of the green line, expressed in terms of speed, is lower than that of the red line. This result is comparable to previous theoretical analyses, but in disagreement with observations. We explain that the spectral line shape does not only depend on the exothermicity of the photochemical production mechanisms, but also on thermalization, due to elastic collisions, reducing the width of the emission line coming from the O({sup 1}D) level, which has a longer lifetime.

  4. An analysis of selected atmospheric icing events on test cables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Druez, J.; McComber, P.; Laflamme, J.

    1996-12-01

    In cold countries, the design of transmission lines and communication networks requires the knowledge of ice loads on conductors. Atmospheric icing is a stochastic phenomenon and therefore probabilistic design is used more and more for structure icing analysis. For strength and reliability assessments, a data base on atmospheric icing is needed to characterize the distributions of ice load and corresponding meteorological parameters. A test site where icing is frequent is used to obtain field data on atmospheric icing. This test site is located on the Mt. Valin, near Chicoutimi, Quebec, Canada. The experimental installation is mainly composed of various instrumented but non-energized test cables, meteorological instruments, a data acquisition system, and a video recorder. Several types of icing events can produce large ice accretions dangerous for land-based structures. They are rime due to in-cloud icing, glaze caused by freezing rain, wet snow, and mixtures of these types of ice. These icing events have very different characteristics and must be distinguished, before statistical analysis, in a data base on atmospheric icing. This is done by comparison of data from a precipitation gauge, an icing rate meter and a temperature sensor. An analysis of selected icing periods recorded on the cables of two perpendicular test lines during the 1992--1993 winter season is presented. Only significant icing events have been considered. A comparative analysis of the ice load on the four test cables is drawn from the data, and typical accretion and shedding parameters are calculated separately for icing events related to in-cloud icing and precipitation icing.

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1-September 30, 2010 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2010 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1-March 31, 2011 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1-June 30, 2011 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1-September 30, 2011 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2011 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1-March 31, 2012 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment General Description The Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) was a collaborative effort led by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Beginning January 21 and ending February 14, 2006, the experiment was conducted in the region near the ARM Climate Research Facility in Darwin, Northern Australia. This permanent facility is fully equipped

  13. Atmospheric Science Program Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Program Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) General Description 'Cumulus humilis' is the scientific term used to describe the small fair weather clouds that dot the summer skies over Oklahoma. During the month of June, scientists sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program will use aircraft and ground based instruments to obtain information about the physical and chemical properties of these clouds and the small airborne particles - called aerosols -

  14. Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST) Handbook

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST) Handbook C Flynn March 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use

  15. CHARTER Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science and Infrastructure Steering Committee

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    CHARTER Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science and Infrastructure Steering Committee May 14, 2008 1. Committee's Official Designation: ARM Science and Infrastructure Steering Committee (SISC) 2. Objectives and Scope of Activities and Duties: Assist ARM Science and Infrastructure Program Managers to * develop an overall ARM Program science vision and strategy for implementation * develop strategies to produce or decommission value-added products (VAPs) that are based on ARM data *

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Shouxian, China for the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China () | Data Explorer Shouxian, China for the Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Shouxian, China for the Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China In a complex ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) deployment, monitoring data was collected at four locations in China during 2008. The various sites are located in regions with different climate regimes and with high aerosol loadings of different

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Steamboat Springs,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Colorado, for the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX) () | Data Explorer Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX) Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX) In October 2010, the initial deployment of the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) took place at Steamboat Springs,

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Eastern North

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atlantic Site (ENA), Graciosa Island, Azores () | Data Explorer the Eastern North Atlantic Site (ENA), Graciosa Island, Azores Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Eastern North Atlantic Site (ENA), Graciosa Island, Azores From May 2009 through December 2010, the ARM Mobile Facility obtained data from a location near the airport on Graciosa Island to support the Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) field campaign. The campaign was

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Value-Added Data Products

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Including Evaluated Data Sets) () | Data Explorer Value-Added Data Products (Including Evaluated Data Sets) Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Value-Added Data Products (Including Evaluated Data Sets) Many of the scientific needs of the ARM Program are met through the analysis and processing of existing data products into "value-added" products or VAPs. Despite extensive instrumentation deployed at the ARM sites, there will always be quantities of interest that are

  20. Hierardlicsl Diagnosis V. V. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Hierardlicsl Diagnosis V. V. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences Tomsk, Russia Systematic observations of the earth's ozone layer over the last ten years indicate a steady decrease of ozone content in the stratospheric maximum and, on the contrary, a increase of ozone concentrations in the troposphere. This trend is illustrated clearly by the results of 20 years' observations of high-altitude ozone concentration distribution in the troposphere

  1. Unintended consequences of atmospheric injection of sulphate aerosols.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Goldstein, Barry

    2010-10-01

    Most climate scientists believe that climate geoengineering is best considered as a potential complement to the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, rather than as an alternative to it. Strong mitigation could achieve the equivalent of up to -4Wm{sup -2} radiative forcing on the century timescale, relative to a worst case scenario for rising CO{sub 2}. However, to tackle the remaining 3Wm{sup -2}, which are likely even in a best case scenario of strongly mitigated CO{sub 2} releases, a number of geoengineering options show promise. Injecting stratospheric aerosols is one of the least expensive and, potentially, most effective approaches and for that reason an examination of the possible unintended consequences of the implementation of atmospheric injections of sulphate aerosols was made. Chief among these are: reductions in rainfall, slowing of atmospheric ozone rebound, and differential changes in weather patterns. At the same time, there will be an increase in plant productivity. Lastly, because atmospheric sulphate injection would not mitigate ocean acidification, another side effect of fossil fuel burning, it would provide only a partial solution. Future research should aim at ameliorating the possible negative unintended consequences of atmospheric injections of sulphate injection. This might include modeling the optimum rate and particle type and size of aerosol injection, as well as the latitudinal, longitudinal and altitude of injection sites, to balance radiative forcing to decrease negative regional impacts. Similarly, future research might include modeling the optimum rate of decrease and location of injection sites to be closed to reduce or slow rapid warming upon aerosol injection cessation. A fruitful area for future research might be system modeling to enhance the possible positive increases in agricultural productivity. All such modeling must be supported by data collection and laboratory and field testing to enable iterative modeling to increase the

  2. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: ARM Site Atmospheric

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    State Best Estimates for AIRS Forward Model and Retrieval Validation ARM Site Atmospheric State Best Estimates for AIRS Forward Model and Retrieval Validation Tobin, David University of Wisconsin-Madison Revercomb, Henry University Of Wisconsin-Madison Knuteson, Robert University Of Wisconsin Feltz, Wayne University of Wisconsin Moy, Leslie University of Wisconsin-Madison Lesht, Barry Argonne National Laboratory Cress, Ted Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Strow, Larrabee Hannon, Scott

  3. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Atmospheric Modes of

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Drizzling Stratus at the ARM SGP Site Atmospheric Modes of Drizzling Stratus at the ARM SGP Site Kollias, Pavlos RSMAS/University of Miami Albrecht, Bruce University of Miami The representation of boundary layer clouds in GCMs remains a source of uncertainty in climate simulations. The cloud amount in the boundary layer is sensitive to the boundary layer scheme. Furthermore, little is known on the climatology of drizzling or precipitating boundary layer clouds, their seasonal variability and

  4. Atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang Lang; Shu Tao; Wenxin Liu; Yanxu Zhang; Staci Simonich

    2008-07-15

    A potential receptor influence function (PRIF) model, based on air mass forward trajectory calculations, was applied to simulate the atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from China. With a 10 day atmospheric transport time, most neighboring countries and regions, as well as remote regions, were influenced by PAH emissions from China. Of the total annual PAH emission of 114 Gg, 92.7% remained within the boundary of mainland China. The geographic distribution of PRIFs within China was similar to the geographic distribution of the source regions, with high values in the North China Plain, Sichuan Basin, Shanxi, and Guizhou province. The Tarim basin and Sichuan basin had unfavorable meteorological conditions for PAH outflow. Of the PAH outflow from China (8092 tons or 7.1% of the total annual PAH emission), approximately 69.9% (5655 tons) reached no further than the offshore environment of mainland China and the South China Sea. Approximate 227, 71, 746, and 131 tons PAHs reached North Korea, South Korea, Russia-Mongolia region, and Japan, respectively, 2-4 days after the emission. Only 1.4 tons PAHs reached North America after more than 9 days. Interannual variation in the eastward PAH outflow was positively correlated to cold episodes of El Nino/Southern Oscillation. However, trans-Pacific atmospheric transport of PAHs from China was correlated to Pacific North America index (PNA) which is associated with the strength and position of westerly winds. 38 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Retention of elemental mercury in fly ashes in different atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Lopez-Anton; M. Diaz-Somoano; M.R. Martinez-Tarazona

    2007-01-15

    Mercury is an extremely volatile element, which is emitted from coal combustion to the environment mostly in the vapor phase. To avoid the environmental problems that the toxic species of this element may cause, control technologies for the removal of mercury are necessary. Recent research has shown that certain fly ash materials have an affinity for mercury. Moreover, it has been observed that fly ashes may catalyze the oxidation of elemental mercury and facilitate its capture. However, the exact nature of Hg-fly ash interactions is still unknown, and mercury oxidation through fly ash needs to be investigated more thoroughly. In this work, the influence of a gas atmosphere on the retention of elemental mercury on fly ashes of different characteristics was evaluated. The retention capacity was estimated comparatively in inert and two gas atmospheres containing species present in coal gasification and coal combustion. Fly ashes produced in two pulverized coal combustion (PCC) plants, produced from coals of different rank (CTA and CTSR), and a fly ash (CTP) produced in a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) plant were used as raw materials. The mercury retention capacity of these fly ashes was compared to the retention obtained in different activated carbons. Although the capture of mercury is very similar in the gasification atmosphere and N{sub 2}, it is much more efficient in a coal combustion retention, being greater in fly ashes from PCC than those from FBC plants. 22 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Atmosphere contamination following repainting of a human hyperbaric chamber complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lillo, R.S.; Morris, J.W.; Caldwell, J.M.; Balk, D.M.; Flynn, E.T. )

    1990-09-01

    The Naval Medical Research Institute currently conducts hyperbaric research in a Man-Rated Chamber Complex (MRCC) originally installed in 1977. Significant engineering alterations to the MRCC and rusting of some of its interior sections necessitated repainting, which was completed in 1988. Great care was taken in selecting an appropriate paint (polyamide epoxy) and in ensuring correct application and curing procedures. Only very low levels of hydrocarbons were found in the MRCC atmosphere before initial pressurization after painting and curing. After pressurization, however, significant chemical contamination was found. The primary contaminants were aromatic hydrocarbons: xylenes (which were a major component of both the primer and topcoat paint) and ethyl benzene. The role that pressure played in stimulating off-gassing from the paint is not clear; the off-gassing rate was observed to be similar over a large range in chamber pressures from 1.6 to 31.0 atm abs. Scrubbing the chamber atmosphere with the chemical absorbent Purafil was effective in removing the contaminants. Contamination has been observed to slowly decline with chamber use and is expected to continue to improve with time. However, this contamination experience emphasizes the need for a high precision gas analysis program at any diving facility to ensure the safety of the breathing gas and chamber atmosphere.

  7. The Initial Atmospheric Transport (IAT) Code: Description and Validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrow, Charles W.; Bartel, Timothy James

    2015-10-01

    The Initial Atmospheric Transport (IAT) computer code was developed at Sandia National Laboratories as part of their nuclear launch accident consequences analysis suite of computer codes. The purpose of IAT is to predict the initial puff/plume rise resulting from either a solid rocket propellant or liquid rocket fuel fire. The code generates initial conditions for subsequent atmospheric transport calculations. The Initial Atmospheric Transfer (IAT) code has been compared to two data sets which are appropriate to the design space of space launch accident analyses. The primary model uncertainties are the entrainment coefficients for the extended Taylor model. The Titan 34D accident (1986) was used to calibrate these entrainment settings for a prototypic liquid propellant accident while the recent Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL, or simply APL) large propellant block tests (2012) were used to calibrate the entrainment settings for prototypic solid propellant accidents. North American Meteorology (NAM )formatted weather data profiles are used by IAT to determine the local buoyancy force balance. The IAT comparisons for the APL solid propellant tests illustrate the sensitivity of the plume elevation to the weather profiles; that is, the weather profile is a dominant factor in determining the plume elevation. The IAT code performed remarkably well and is considered validated for neutral weather conditions.

  8. Stable microwave coaxial cavity plasma system at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States); Hong, J. M.; Lee, K. H. [Plasma Systems and Materials (PSM) Inc., Sungnam-Si, Gyonggi-Do 190-1 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, J. J. [Department of Radio Science and Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 447-1 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    We present a systematic study of the development of a novel atmospheric microwave plasma system for material processing in the pressure range up to 760 torr and the microwave input power up to 6 kW. Atmospheric microwave plasma was reliably produced and sustained by using a cylindrical resonator with the TM{sub 011} cavity mode. The applicator and the microwave cavity, which is a cylindrical resonator, are carefully designed and optimized with the time dependent finite element Maxwell equation solver. The azimuthal apertures are placed at the maximum magnetic field positions between the cavity and the applicator to maximize the coupling efficiency into the microwave plasma at a resonant frequency of 2.45 GHz. The system consists of a magnetron power supply, a circulator, a directional coupler, a three-stub tuner, a dummy load, a coaxial cavity, and a central cavity. Design and construction of the resonant structures and diagnostics of atmospheric plasma using optical experiments are discussed in various ranges of pressure and microwave input power for different types of gases.

  9. Critical review of studies on atmospheric dispersion in coastal regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shearer, D.L.; Kaleel, R.J.

    1982-09-01

    This study effort was required as a preliminary step prior to initiation of field measurements of atmospheric dispersion in coastal regions. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is in the process of planning an extensive field measurement program to generate data which will serve as improved data bases for licensing decisions, confirmation of regulations, standards, and guides, and for site characterizations. The study being reported here is an effort directed to obtaining as much information as is possible from existing studies that is relevant toward NRC's objectives. For this study, reports covering research and meteorological measurements conducted for industrial purposes, utility needs, military objectives, and academic studies were obtained and critically reviewed in light of NRC's current data needs. This report provides an interpretation of the extent of existing usable information, an indication of the potential for tailoring existing research toward current NRC information needs, and recommendations for several follow-on studies which could provide valuable additional information through reanalysis of the data. Recommendations are also offered regarding new measurement programs. Emphasis is placed on the identification and acquisition of data from atmospheric tracer studies conducted in coastal regions. A total of 225 references were identified which deal with the coastal atmosphere, including meteorological and tracer measurement programs, theoretical descriptions of the relevant processes, and dispersion models.

  10. Atmospheric Sciences Program summaries of research in FY 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document describes the activities and products of the Atmospheric Science Program of the Environmental Sciences Division, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research, in FY 1993. Each description contains the project`s title; three-year funding history; the contract period over which the funding applies; the name(s) of the principal investigator(s); the institution(s) conducting the projects; and the project`s objectives, products, approach, and results to date. Project descriptions are categorized within the report according to program areas: atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric dynamics, and support operations. Within these categories, the descriptions are ordered alphabetically by principal investigator. Each program area is preceded by a brief text that defines the program area, states its goals and objectives, lists principal research questions, and identifies program managers. Appendixes provide the addresses and telephone numbers of the principal investigators and define the acronyms used. This document has been indexed to aid the reader in locating research topics, participants, and research institutions in the text and the project descriptions. Comprehensive subject, principal investigator, and institution indexes are provided at the end of the text for this purpose. The comprehensive subject index includes keywords from the introduction and chapter texts in addition to those from the project descriptions.

  11. VOCALS: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wood, Robert [VOCALS-REx PI, University of Washington; Bretherton, Christopher [GEWEX/GCSS Representative, University of Washington; Huebert, Barry [SOLAS Representative, University of Hawaii; Mechoso, Roberto C. [VOCALS Science Working Group Chair, UCLA; Weller, Robert [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

    VOCALS (VAMOS* Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study) is an international CLIVAR program the major goal of which is to develop and promote scientific activities leading to improved understanding of the Southeast Pacific (SEP) coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system on diurnal to inter-annual timescales. The principal program objectives are: 1) the improved understanding and regional/global model representation of aerosol indirect effects over the SEP; 2) the elimination of systematic errors in the region of coupled atmospheric-ocean general circulation models, and improved model simulations and predictions of the coupled climate in the SEP and global impacts of the system variability. VOCALS is organized into two tightly coordinated components: 1) a Regional Experiment (VOCALSREx), and 2) a Modeling Program (VOCALS-Mod). Extended observations (e.g. IMET buoy, satellites, EPIC/PACS cruises) will provide important additional contextual datasets that help to link the field and the modeling components. The coordination through VOCALS of observational and modeling efforts (Fig. 3) will accelerate the rate at which field data can be used to improve simulations and predictions of the tropical climate variability [Copied from the Vocals Program Summary of June 2007, available as a link from the VOCALS web at http://www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/vocals/]. The CLIVAR sponsored program to under which VOCALS falls is VAMOS, which stands for Variability of the American Monsoon Systems.

  12. The Pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric research

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    de Boer, Gijs; Palo, Scott; Argrow, Brian; LoDolce, Gabriel; Mack, James; Gao, Ru -Shan; Telg, Hagen; Trussel, Cameron; Fromm, Joshua; Long, Charles N.; et al

    2016-04-28

    This study presents details of the University of Colorado (CU) “Pilatus” unmanned research aircraft, assembled to provide measurements of aerosols, radiation and thermodynamics in the lower troposphere. This aircraft has a wingspan of 3.2 m and a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg, and it is powered by an electric motor to reduce engine exhaust and concerns about carburetor icing. It carries instrumentation to make measurements of broadband up- and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, aerosol particle size distribution, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and pressure and to collect video of flights for subsequent analysis of atmospheric conditions during flight. Inmore » order to make the shortwave radiation measurements, care was taken to carefully position a high-quality compact inertial measurement unit (IMU) and characterize the attitude of the aircraft and its orientation to the upward-looking radiation sensor. Using measurements from both of these sensors, a correction is applied to the raw radiometer measurements to correct for aircraft attitude and sensor tilt relative to the sun. The data acquisition system was designed from scratch based on a set of key driving requirements to accommodate the variety of sensors deployed. Initial test flights completed in Colorado provide promising results with measurements from the radiation sensors agreeing with those from a nearby surface site. Additionally, estimates of surface albedo from onboard sensors were consistent with local surface conditions, including melting snow and bright runway surface. Aerosol size distributions collected are internally consistent and have previously been shown to agree well with larger, surface-based instrumentation. Finally the atmospheric state measurements evolve as expected, with the near-surface atmosphere warming over time as the day goes on, and the atmospheric relative humidity decreasing with increased temperature. No directional bias on measured

  13. Atmospheric Research - Manaus Plume: GoAmazon T3 Ground Site...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Atmospheric Research - Manaus Plume: GoAmazon T3 Ground Site Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Research - Manaus Plume: GoAmazon T3 Ground Site ...

  14. Carbon-Hungry Plants Impede Growth Rate of Atmospheric CO2

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon-Hungry Plants Impede Growth Rate of Atmospheric CO2 New findings suggest the rate at which atmospheric CO2 is accumulating has plateaued because Earth's vegetation is grabbing more carbon from the air than in previous decades. That's the conclusion of a new study based on extensive ground and atmospheric observations of CO2, satellite measurements of vegetation, and computer modeling.

  15. The atmospheric circulation of the super Earth GJ 1214b: Dependence on composition and metallicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kataria, T.; Showman, A. P.; Fortney, J. J.; Marley, M. S.; Freedman, R. S.

    2014-04-20

    We present three-dimensional atmospheric circulation models of GJ 1214b, a 2.7 Earth-radius, 6.5 Earth-mass super Earth detected by the MEarth survey. Here we explore the planet's circulation as a function of atmospheric metallicity and atmospheric composition, modeling atmospheres with a low mean molecular weight (MMW; i.e., H{sub 2}-dominated) and a high MMW (i.e., water- and CO{sub 2}-dominated). We find that atmospheres with a low MMW have strong day-night temperature variations at pressures above the infrared photosphere that lead to equatorial superrotation. For these atmospheres, the enhancement of atmospheric opacities with increasing metallicity lead to shallower atmospheric heating, larger day-night temperature variations, and hence stronger superrotation. In comparison, atmospheres with a high MMW have larger day-night and equator-to-pole temperature variations than low MMW atmospheres, but differences in opacity structure and energy budget lead to differences in jet structure. The circulation of a water-dominated atmosphere is dominated by equatorial superrotation, while the circulation of a CO{sub 2}-dominated atmosphere is instead dominated by high-latitude jets. By comparing emergent flux spectra and light curves for 50× solar and water-dominated compositions, we show that observations in emission can break the degeneracy in determining the atmospheric composition of GJ 1214b. The variation in opacity with wavelength for the water-dominated atmosphere leads to large phase variations within water bands and small phase variations outside of water bands. The 50× solar atmosphere, however, yields small variations within water bands and large phase variations at other characteristic wavelengths. These observations would be much less sensitive to clouds, condensates, and hazes than transit observations.

  16. Atmospheric characterization of the hot Jupiter Kepler-13Ab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shporer, Avi; O'Rourke, Joseph G.; Knutson, Heather A.; Szab, Gyula M.; Zhao, Ming; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan; Agol, Eric; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Desert, Jean-Michel; Howard, Andrew W.; Isaacson, Howard; Lewis, Nikole K.; Showman, Adam P.; Todorov, Kamen O.

    2014-06-10

    Kepler-13Ab (= KOI-13.01) is a unique transiting hot Jupiter. It is one of very few known short-period planets orbiting a hot A-type star, making it one of the hottest planets currently known. The availability of Kepler data allows us to measure the planet's occultation (secondary eclipse) and phase curve in the optical, which we combine with occultations observed by warm Spitzer at 4.5 ?m and 3.6 ?m and a ground-based occultation observation in the K{sub s} band (2.1 ?m). We derive a day-side hemisphere temperature of 2750 160 K as the effective temperature of a black body showing the same occultation depths. Comparing the occultation depths with one-dimensional planetary atmosphere models suggests the presence of an atmospheric temperature inversion. Our analysis shows evidence for a relatively high geometric albedo, A {sub g} = 0.33{sub ?0.06}{sup +0.04}. While measured with a simplistic method, a high A {sub g} is supported also by the fact that the one-dimensional atmosphere models underestimate the occultation depth in the optical. We use stellar spectra to determine the dilution, in the four wide bands where occultation was measured, due to the visual stellar binary companion 1.''15 0.''05 away. The revised stellar parameters measured using these spectra are combined with other measurements, leading to revised planetary mass and radius estimates of M{sub p} = 4.94-8.09 M {sub J} and R{sub p} = 1.406 0.038 R {sub J}. Finally, we measure a Kepler midoccultation time that is 34.0 6.9 s earlier than expected based on the midtransit time and the delay due to light-travel time and discuss possible scenarios.

  17. Thermal shallow water models of geostrophic turbulence in Jovian atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warneford, Emma S. Dellar, Paul J.

    2014-01-15

    Conventional shallow water theory successfully reproduces many key features of the Jovian atmosphere: a mixture of coherent vortices and stable, large-scale, zonal jets whose amplitude decreases with distance from the equator. However, both freely decaying and forced-dissipative simulations of the shallow water equations in Jovian parameter regimes invariably yield retrograde equatorial jets, while Jupiter itself has a strong prograde equatorial jet. Simulations by Scott and Polvani [Equatorial superrotation in shallow atmospheres, Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L24202 (2008)] have produced prograde equatorial jets through the addition of a model for radiative relaxation in the shallow water height equation. However, their model does not conserve mass or momentum in the active layer, and produces mid-latitude jets much weaker than the equatorial jet. We present the thermal shallow water equations as an alternative model for Jovian atmospheres. These equations permit horizontal variations in the thermodynamic properties of the fluid within the active layer. We incorporate a radiative relaxation term in the separate temperature equation, leaving the mass and momentum conservation equations untouched. Simulations of this model in the Jovian regime yield a strong prograde equatorial jet, and larger amplitude mid-latitude jets than the Scott and Polvani model. For both models, the slope of the non-zonal energy spectra is consistent with the classic Kolmogorov scaling, and the slope of the zonal energy spectra is consistent with the much steeper spectrum observed for Jupiter. We also perform simulations of the thermal shallow water equations for Neptunian parameter values, with a radiative relaxation time scale calculated for the same 25 mbar pressure level we used for Jupiter. These Neptunian simulations reproduce the broad, retrograde equatorial jet and prograde mid-latitude jets seen in observations. The much longer radiative time scale for the colder planet Neptune

  18. Abiotic ozone and oxygen in atmospheres similar to prebiotic Earth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Segura, Antígona; Claire, Mark W.; Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2014-09-10

    The search for life on planets outside our solar system will use spectroscopic identification of atmospheric biosignatures. The most robust remotely detectable potential biosignature is considered to be the detection of oxygen (O{sub 2}) or ozone (O{sub 3}) simultaneous to methane (CH{sub 4}) at levels indicating fluxes from the planetary surface in excess of those that could be produced abiotically. Here we use an altitude-dependent photochemical model with the enhanced lower boundary conditions necessary to carefully explore abiotic O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} production on lifeless planets with a wide variety of volcanic gas fluxes and stellar energy distributions. On some of these worlds, we predict limited O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} buildup, caused by fast chemical production of these gases. This results in detectable abiotic O{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} features in the UV-visible, but no detectable abiotic O{sub 2} features. Thus, simultaneous detection of O{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} by a UV-visible mission is not a strong biosignature without proper contextual information. Discrimination between biological and abiotic sources of O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} is possible through analysis of the stellar and atmospheric context—particularly redox state and O atom inventory—of the planet in question. Specifically, understanding the spectral characteristics of the star and obtaining a broad wavelength range for planetary spectra should allow more robust identification of false positives for life. This highlights the importance of wide spectral coverage for future exoplanet characterization missions. Specifically, discrimination between true and false positives may require spectral observations that extend into infrared wavelengths and provide contextual information on the planet's atmospheric chemistry.

  19. Mechanisms controlling soil carbon sequestration under atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.L. Sinsabaugh; D.R. Zak; D.L. Moorhead

    2008-02-19

    Increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition can alter the processing and storage of organic carbon in soils. In 2000, we began studying the effects of simulated atmospheric N deposition on soil carbon dynamics in three types of northern temperate forest that occur across a wide geographic range in the Upper Great Lakes region. These ecosystems range from 100% oak in the overstory (black oak-white oak ecosystem; BOWO) to 0% overstory oak (sugar maple-basswood; SMBW) and include the sugar maple-red oak ecosystem (SMRO) that has intermediate oak abundance. The leaf litter biochemistry of these ecosystems range from highly lignified litter (BOWO) to litter of low lignin content (SMBW). We selected three replicate stands of each ecosystem type and established three plots in each stand. Each plot was randomly assigned one of three levels of N deposition (0, 30 & 80 kg N ha-1 y-1) imposed by adding NaNO3 in six equal increments applied over the growing season. Through experiments ranging from the molecular to the ecosystem scales, we produced a conceptual framework that describes the biogeochemistry of soil carbon storage in N-saturated ecosystems as the product of interactions between the composition of plant litter, the composition of the soil microbial community and the expression of extracellular enzyme activities. A key finding is that atmospheric N deposition can increase or decrease the soil C storage by modifying the expression of extracellular enzymes by soil microbial communities. The critical interactions within this conceptual framework have been incorporated into a new class of simulations called guild decomposition models.

  20. Gap-dependent transitions of atmospheric microplasma in open air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Hong-Yu; Huang, Bo-Shiun

    2011-04-15

    We report on the gap dependence of the planar atmospheric microplasma in air. We investigate the transitions of the dielectric barrier discharge in open air, including the random walk filaments (plasma columns), localized filaments, stochastic filaments, and diffuse discharge. A star-shaped filamentary discharge pattern is observed after the formation of the localized filaments. The liquid drops found on the dielectric surface further become a confining pattern for star-shaped discharge. We also demonstrate the applications of the insulating pattern for the use of the plasma display in open air by the handwritten characters with UV adhesive.